WorldWideScience

Sample records for parotitis current prevalence

  1. Parotitis with secondary syphilis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, S K; Hira, R S

    1984-01-01

    Painless swelling of the parotid salivary gland was observed in a patient presenting with secondary syphilis. This case is of special interest to venereologists and surgeons as parotitis associated with syphilis may be mistaken for common tumours of the parotid glands. A diagnosis of syphilitic parotitis should be considered in patients presenting with swollen parotid salivary glands in countries where syphilis is prevalent. PMID:6704695

  2. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis and Parotitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataño, Juan Carlos; Robledo, Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most common extrapulmonary manifestation of disseminated tuberculosis (TB). It is considered to be the local manifestation of the systemic disease that has disseminated to local lymph nodes, but a high index of suspicion is needed for the diagnosis, because there are several infectious and noninfectious diseases that can mimic the same clinical picture. In recent years, different diagnostic methods have been introduced, including fine-needle aspiration cytology, which has emerged as a simple outpatient diagnostic procedure that replaced the complete excisional node biopsy, and a number of molecular methods which have greatly improved diagnostic accuracy. This chapter covers the most actual knowledge in terms of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and treatment and emphasizes current trends in diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. TB parotid gland involvement is extremely rare, even in countries in which TB is endemic. Because of the clinical similarity, parotid malignancy and other forms of parotid inflammatory disease always take priority over the rarely encountered TB parotitis when it comes to differential diagnosis. As a result, clinicians often fail to make a timely diagnosis of TB parotitis when facing a patient with a slowly growing parotid lump. This chapter highlights the most important features of this uncommon disease.

  3. Recurrent parotitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattarai M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent parotitis is an uncommon condition in children. Its etiological factors have not been proved till date although causes due to genetic inheritance, local autoimmune manifestation, allergy, viral infection and immunodeficiency have been suggested. The exact management of this disorder is not yet standardized, but a conservative approach is preferred and all affected children should be screened for Sjogren′s syndrome and immune deficiency including human immunodeficiency virus. We report a 12 years female child who presented with 12 episodes of non-painful recurrent swellings of the bilateral parotid gland in the past 3 years.

  4. Group B streptococcal neonatal parotitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Costa, Filipa; Ramos Andrade, Daniel; Cunha, Filipa Inês; Fernandes, Agostinho

    2015-06-10

    Acute neonatal parotitis (ANP) is a rare condition, characterised by parotid swelling and other local inflammatory signs. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus, but other organisms can be implicated. We describe the case of a 13-day-old term newborn, previously healthy, with late-onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteraemia with ANP, who presented with irritability, reduced feeding and tender swelling of the right parotid. Laboratory evaluation showed neutrophilia, elevated C reactive protein and procalcitonin, with normal serum amylase concentration. Ultrasound findings were suggestive of acute parotitis. Empiric antibiotic therapy was immediately started and adjusted when culture results became available. The newborn was discharged after 10 days, with clinical improvement within the first 72 h. Although S. aureus is the most common pathogen implicated in ANP, GBS should be included in the differential diagnosis. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Mycobacterium mageritense Parotitis in an Immunocompetent Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Taro; Sasahara, Teppei; Suzuki, Jun; Onishi, Tsubasa; Komura, Masayoshi; Hagiwara, Shigehiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Morisawa, Yuji

    2018-03-01

    Mycobacterium mageritense , a rapidly growing mycobacterium, is a rare clinical pathogen. Furthermore, parotitis due to non-tuberculosis mycobacterium is very rare in adults. Herein, we report the first case of M. mageritense parotitis in an immunocompetent adult. A 40-year-old man presented with swelling in a left parotid lesion. He was diagnosed with parotitis. The culture from the parotid abscess grew M. mageritense . He was unsuccessfully treated with levofloxacin monotherapy. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was added, leading to some clinical response; however, the erythema persisted despite 14 months of antibiotic therapy. Subsequently, the skin lesion was surgically removed. The antibiotic treatment was ceased a week after surgery as the postoperative course was uneventful and the lesion had improved. No recurrence was noted at 7 months after surgery. Although extremely rare, M. mageritense can cause parotitis in immunocompetent adults, and may not be sufficiently treated with antibiotics alone.

  6. Acute suppurative neonatal parotitis: Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, Sardar U

    2012-02-01

    Neonatal suppurative parotitis is very rare. One review of the English-language literature spanning 35 years found only 32 cases. Most cases are managed conservatively with antibiotic therapy; early antibiotic treatment reduces the need for surgery. The predominant organism is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a new case of neonatal suppurative parotitis in a 3-week-old boy. The patient was diagnosed on the basis of parotid swelling, a purulent exudate from a Stensen duct, and the growth of pathogenic bacteria in culture. He responded well to 9 days of intravenous antibiotic therapy. We also discuss the microbiologic and clinical patterns of this disease.

  7. Chronic parotitis: a challenging disease entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, John M; Liess, Benjamin D; Templer, Jerry W; Zitsch, Robert P; Wieberg, Jessica A

    2011-03-01

    Chronic parotitis is a troubling clinical condition characterized by repeated infection and inflammation of the parotid gland caused by decreased salivary flow or obstruction. Unilateral swelling, pain, and other associated symptoms occur during acute exacerbations of the disease. A variety of laboratory and radiographic tools are available to aid in the diagnosis. Multiple treatment options have been proposed, ranging from conservative medical management to surgical interventions. We present 2 patients with bilateral chronic parotitis who attempted prolonged medical management and ultimately required surgical parotidectomy for control of their disease.

  8. [Clozapine-induced parotitis: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzien, C; Valiamé, A; Misdrahi, D

    2014-02-01

    Clozapine is the drug of choice for patients with an unsatisfactory response to routine antipsychotic treatment. Side effects such as sedation, weight gain, hypotension and hypersialorrhea are frequently reported whereas clozapine-induced parotitis is a less known complication. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a refractory schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. The failure to respond to at least two well-conducted antipsychotic trials with flupentixol and risperidone, led clinicians to prescribe clozapine, which was started three years earlier. Since its introduction, clozapine induced sialorrhea, which has been managed until now with anticholinergic medication. Recently, Mrs B. was hospitalized for a new relapse. Once treatment compliance checked (good level of plasmatic dosage), we decided to increase the dose of clozapine from 350 mg/d to 500 mg/d. Twenty days later, Mrs B. exhibited improvement of symptoms but complained of acute bilateral auricular pain and odynophagia. The bilateral and comparative clinical exam displayed a bilateral filling of the retromandibular depression, the painful swelling of the parotid gland, along with ptyalism and a slight inflammatory oedema of the Stenon duct orifice. Mrs B. was apyretic, with physiological constants within the limits of normal values. The biological analyses displayed a discrete inflammatory syndrome (mild hyperleucocytosis and anemia), a negative mumps IgM test and positive mumps IgG test, and a 1050 ng/mL clozapine blood level. Once viral parotitis was ruled out, the involvement of clozapine was evoked. Symptomatic medication was prescribed with per os analgesic (paracetamol) and antiseptic mouthwash (Éludril). Clozapine dosage was lowered to 400 mg/d. A week later, clinical examination confirmed improvement of the medical and psychiatric conditions. We report the case of a patient who developed a parotitis following clozapine dose adjustment. Clozapine induced parotitis was retained once the

  9. Concomitant Suppurative Parotitis and Condylar Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorrasi, John; Zinberg, Geoffrey

    2017-03-01

    Parotitis is a common occurrence in the immunocompromised, dehydrated, and malnourished patient as a result of dysfunctional ductal and parotid cells. Inflammation can be acute or chronic based on clinical history, and it can be suppurative based on the presence of micro or macro abscess formation within the substance of the gland. This report presents a case of concomitant condylar osteomyelitis and chronic suppurative parotitis in the setting of previous methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus foot infection. Ultimately, resection of osteomyelitis, drainage of parotid infection, and intravenous antibiotic therapy led to full resolution of the infection and symptoms. The final pathology of osteomyelitis of the temporomandibular joint and methicillin-resistant S aureus infection is an unusual consequence of chronic parotitis. The patient was restored with a total joint replacement approximately 3 months after resection with no recurrence of infection after 24 months. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sialendoscopy in juvenile recurrent parotitis: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canzi, P; Occhini, A; Pagella, F; Marchal, F; Benazzo, M

    2013-12-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) is the second most frequent salivary gland disease in childhood, defined as a recurrent non-suppurative and non-obstructive parotid inflammation. The recurring attacks actually represent the most dramatic and serious aspect of this pathology, since they significantly influence the quality of life, and there are no recognized therapies to avoid them. In recent years, there are reports of many international experiences related to the management of JRP by sialendoscopy. In this context, several authors have stressed the striking role of sialendoscopy in the prevention of JRP attacks. The objective of the current review is to overview the existing literature with particular regards to diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes after the application of sialendoscopy in patients suffering from JRP.

  11. Sonographic evaluation of recurrent parotitis in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Eun Ju; Lee, Sun Wha

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic features and assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography in recurrent parotitis during childhood which is characterized by intermittent, unilateral or bilateral painful swellings of the parotid glands. Ten children (5 boys and 5 girls, age between 2-14 yrs), who complained for more than two times of painful swellings in the parotid gland without underlying systemic diseases, were studied by a high resolution with 7MHz linear transducer. The parotid glands (n=20) were evaluated in their size, parenchymal echogenecity and vascular signals on the color Doppler study. CT was also performed at 3 children and sialography was used on 1 child. Follow-ups on ultrasonography were performed on 5 children from 3 months to 2 years since the initial sonographic examination. Ultrasonography demonstrated abnormalities in the 13 parotid glands, enlarged diffusion (n=9); decrease in diffusion of parenchymal echoes with multiple small round hypoechoic lesions measuring about 1-4 mm in diameter (n=13); increased color Doppler vascular signals (n=10). There was symptomatic glands (n=12) and an asymptomatic gland (n=1). CT revealed multiple tiny low density lesions scattered about in the inhomogenously enhanced parotid glands. Sialography showed minimal sialectasis of the peripheral ducts. Follow-ups on sonogreaphy demonstrated near complete subsidence of enlargement, increased Doppler vascular signals, and persistence of multiple small hypoechoic lesions of the parotid glands in 6 cases who were clinically free of symptoms. In 1 case, multiple hypoechoic lesions were newly developed in the previously healthy parotid gland. The sonography features of features of recurrent parotitis in childhood were decreased diffusion of the parenchymal echoes with multiple small round hypoechoic areas and increased Doppler flow signals. We consider the sonographic evaluation of the parotid gland with the color Doppler study to be useful in diagnosing and monitoring the

  12. Treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis of childhood: an analysis of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Brianne Barnett; Mattingly, Jameson; Jensen, Emily L; Gao, Dexiang; Chan, Kenny H

    2015-02-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) is characterized by recurrent painful swelling of the parotid gland that occurs in the pediatric population. Sialendoscopy with and without ductal corticosteroid infusion (DCI) has been found to be effective in the treatment of JRP and autoimmune parotitis. To determine the utility of instrumentation vs pharmacotherapy alone for juvenile recurrent parotitis. A retrospective medical record review of pediatric patients undergoing DCI without sialendoscopy at a tertiary pediatric hospital was conducted. The medical records were reviewed to determine the frequency of parotitis events before and after treatment. A multiquestion telephone survey of patients and their parents who underwent the procedure was then conducted to determine patient satisfaction. Ductal corticosteroid infusion with hydrocortisone through catheter inserted in the parotid duct. Frequency of symptoms before and after treatment and parental satisfaction with the treatment. Twelve patients with a mean age of 6.7 years were identified. The mean duration and frequency of symptoms before the procedure were 22 months and every 2 months, respectively. Five patients had a recurrence, on average 4 months after the procedure. Four patients underwent repeated surgical procedures. All had a longer duration between episodes compared with before DCI. Eight parents participated in the survey on satisfaction with the procedure, and 75% reported improvement in their child's life postprocedure. Current literature shows sialendoscopy with corticosteroid application is successful in treating JRP, but it is unclear whether corticosteroid application alone would treat JRP equally. This study shows that DCI alone has similar results as sialendoscopy with corticosteroid application, indicating that it is the corticosteroid application and not the sialendoscopy causing improvement in symptoms. Because JRP must be differentiated from sialolithiasis, we recommend ultrasonography of the

  13. Acute suppurative parotitis in a 33-day-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Belet, Nursen; Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar

    2015-06-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is a rare disease in childhood. Its incidence is higher in premature newborns. Parotid swelling and pus drainage from Stenson's duct is pathognomonic, and Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent in most cases. Here, a 33-day-old patient with acute suppurative parotitis is presented. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Chronic parotitis with multiple calcifications: Clinical and sialendoscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, Emmanuel; Kiringoda, Ruwan; Ryan, William R; Eisele, David W; Chang, Jolie L

    2017-07-01

    To characterize clinical, imaging, and sialendoscopy findings in patients with chronic parotitis and multiple parotid calcifications. Retrospective review. Clinical history, radiographic images and reports, lab tests, and operative reports were reviewed for adult patients with chronic parotitis and multiple parotid calcifications who underwent parotid sialendoscopy. Thirteen of 133 (10%) patients undergoing parotid sialendoscopy for chronic sialadenitis had more than one calcification in the region of the parotid gland. Seven patients (54%) were diagnosed with immune-mediated disease from autoimmune parotitis (positive Sjögren's antibodies or antinuclear antibodies) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. The six patients (46%) who did not have an immune-mediated disorder had most calcifications located anterior or along the masseter muscle. Eight of 13 patients (61%) had at least one calculus found in the parotid duct on sialendoscopy. Four patients (38%) had multiple punctate calcifications within the parotid gland, all of whom had either autoimmune parotitis or HIV. None of the proximal or punctate parotid calcifications posterior to the masseter were visualized on sialendoscopy. Chronic parotitis in conjunction with multiple parotid calcifications is uncommon and was identified in 10% of our cohort. We contrast two classifications of parotid calcifications: 1) intraductal stones that cause recurrent duct obstruction and are often located within the main parotid duct along or anterior to the masseter and 2) punctate intraparenchymal parotid gland calcifications that are not visualized on sialendoscopy and may represent underlying inflammatory disease. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1565-1570, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. [A case of brucellosis presenting with suppurative parotitis involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmaz, Lutfi; Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Karavaş, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection caused by Brucella bacteria. Brucella infections are usually presented with various clinical manifestations, and often accompanied by multiple organ involvements. In this article, we present a case of brucellosis with suppurative parotitis involvement accompanied by parotid abscess and fistula in a 60-year-old male patient. According to the literature review we conducted regarding complications of brucellosis, our case is the first case reported in the literature. Significant improvement in patient's suppurative parotitis and clinical findings was observed at the fifth week of combination antibiotic therapy. Patient's complaints resolved completely after eight weeks of treatment.

  16. Pediatric suppurative parotitis in Cambodia between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor P; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. Burkholderia pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; 1 child developed facial nerve palsy.

  17. Current prevalence of Fasciolosis in small ruminants in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small ruminants are an important source of animal protein and of special importance in those areas where cattle are of lesser importance. The study was conducted determined current prevalence of fasciolosis in sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of northeast Nigeria. About 300 samples each from sheep and goats ...

  18. Acute suppurative parotitis: a dreadful complication in elderly surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Pavlos; Rizos, Spyros; Marinis, Athanasios

    2012-08-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis (ASP) is a severe infection seen particularly in elderly surgical patients. Factors that increase the risk of ASP include post-operative dehydration, debilitating conditions, and immunosuppressed states. Case report and literature review. An 82-year-old female patient was admitted because of paralytic ileus, dehydration, and poor oral hygiene, and was in distress. After two days of hospitalization, the patient developed a progressive painful swelling of her right parotid gland and fever up to 39.0°C. Computed tomography scanning showed an abscess in the parotid gland. Because of her progressive clinical deterioration, the patient underwent operative drainage of the abscess and removal of the necrotic material. Unfortunately, she suffered multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and died. Acute suppurative parotitis requires prompt aggressive treatment that nevertheless may fail.

  19. Sialendoscopic Approach in Management of Juvenile Recurrent Parotitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P P; Goyal, M; Goyal, A

    2017-12-01

    To assess the role of sialendoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality in juvenile recurrent parotitis. Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) is the second most frequent salivary gland disease in childhood and is characterized by recurrent non suppurative and non obstructive parotid inflammation. These attacks influence the quality of life and can even lead to gland destruction, and there are no definitive treatment to avoid them. Sialendoscopic dilatation is emerging as the new treatment modality in this aspect.  retrospective study. Department of Otorhinolaryngology in tertiary care hospital. 17 cases of juvenile recurrent parotitis (i.e. children of age group 3-11 years presenting with complaints of recurrent parotid region swelling and pain, sometimes associated with fever) were included in the study during October 2012-September 2015. All cases underwent sialendoscopy under general anaesthesia. Diagnostic (classifying the ductal lesion) and interventional sialendoscopic procedure (dilatation with instillation of steroid) were carried out in single sitting. Follow up was done for a minimum of 6 months (range 6-36 months). 17 patients with mean age of 5.6 years and gender distribution of 47:53 (boys:girls) underwent sialendoscopy for JRP. 8 patients presented with unilateral parotitis and 9 with bilateral. The mean number of attacks in previous 1 year were 9.2. Average time for procedure was 20 min. All cases had ductal stenosis and ductal mucosa was pale in 15 cases on endoscopy. 1 patient underwent repeat endoscopy after 2 years. 50% had complete resolution of symptoms and 6 patients had one mild (swelling not associated with fever which subsided on its own) attack after treatment. Follow up period ranged from 6 months to 3 years. No complications were observed. Sialendoscopy has emerged as a viable option for assessment and treatment of JRP. Dilatation of the parotid duct and steroid instillation has significantly reduced the morbidity of this

  20. Pediatric Suppurative Parotitis in Cambodia 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin Elisabeth; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor Put; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. B. pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; one child developed a facial nerve palsy. PMID:22531239

  1. Obstructive parotitis secondary to an acute masseteric bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ryan; White, David R; Gillespie, M Boyd

    2012-01-01

    To investigate 3 cases of chronic parotitis secondary to an acute bend in Stensen's duct caused by an enlargement of the masseteric space. Three female patients presented with symptoms consistent with obstructive parotitis including glandular swelling and tenderness during meals. A 10-year-old patient had unilateral facial swelling with enlargement of the masseter muscle and mandible later diagnosed as fibrous dysplasia. Salivary endoscopy showed an acute bend in Stensen's duct secondary to a mass effect. The patient's parotid swelling resolved following debulking of the mandibular mass and sialendoscopy with irrigation. Two adult patients with bilateral parotid involvement presented with bilateral masseteric hypertrophy and dental wear facets consistent with bruxism. Salivary endoscopy revealed bilateral kinking of Stensen's duct with jaw closure. Both patients improved symptomatically following nightly bite guard use and ultrasound-guided Botox injections of the masseter muscle and parotid. Obstructive parotitis is rarely caused by an acute masseteric bend. Diagnosis of a kinking Stensen's duct is aided with salivary endoscopy and imaging to determine the precipitating pathology. In the case of masseteric hypertrophy, symptomatic improvement can be achieved with Botox-induced atrophy of masseteric hypertrophy or with surgical reduction for associated fibrous dysplasia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Acute Parotitis as a Complication of Noninvasive Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaya, S; Mofredj, Ali; Tassaioust, K; Bahloul, H; Mrabet, A

    2016-09-01

    Several conditions, including oropharyngeal dryness, pressure sores, ocular irritation, epistaxis, or gastric distension, have been described during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Although this technique has been widely used in intensive care units and emergency wards, acute swelling of the parotid gland remains a scarcely reported complication. We describe herein the case of an 82-year-old man who developed unilateral parotitis during prolonged NIV for acute heart failure. Intravenous antibiotics, corticosteroids, and adjusting the mask laces' position allowed rapid resolution of clinical symptoms. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Orthodontic parotitis: a rare complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eileen; Cobb, Alistair R M

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of a 14-year-old female undergoing orthodontic fixed appliance treatment who presented with right facial swelling in the parotid region. An initial diagnosis of acute infective parotitis was made by her primary care clinician. However, after clinical examination and ultrasonographic imaging, a diagnosis of salivary stasis secondary to inflammatory occlusion of Stensen's ductal orifice was made. The ductal orifice had been traumatized by the adjacent orthodontic appliance. This has not been described before in the literature. The differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement in children is discussed.

  4. Juvenile recurrent parotitis in children: diagnosis and treatment using sialography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsimha Rao, Vanga V; Putta Buddi, Jai Shankar Homberhali; Kurthukoti, Ameet J

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) is a nonobstructive, nonsuppurative parotid inflammation in young children. Causative factors are many such as allergy, infection, local autoimmune manifestations, and genetic inheritance have been suggested, but none have been proved. Parotid sialography is a hallmark in the diagnosis of JRP but newer modalities such as ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging-sialography are noninvasive investigative techniques. Recurrent attacks are often managed conservatively. Here we report a case of a 5-year-old child with JRP. Sailography can be used as both diagnostic and therapeutic modality.

  5. Beware of parotitis induced by iodine-containing contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohat, A K; Jayantee, K; Phadke, R V; Muthu, R; Singh, V; Misra, U K

    2014-01-01

    Carotid stenting is being increasingly used for revascularization of the moderate to severe carotid stenosis and thus its complications are increasingly being recognized. We report a rare complication of induced by iodine contrast in a patient undergoing carotid stenting. s. A 51 year old man after the second stenting developed multiple small infarcts in spite of the distal device. He also had painful parotid swelling which improved within a week. One should be aware of iodine parotitis s in the patients undergoing iodinated contrast study.

  6. Acute suppurative parotitis with spread to the deep neck spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M A; Docktor, J W

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the case of an elderly, diabetic woman who became dehydrated and developed acute suppurative parotitis, which caused marked swelling of her left face and neck. The parotid infection also extended by continuity into the lateral pharyngeal space and contiguous deep neck spaces, causing airway-threatening, extensive inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis and parapharyngeal soft tissues. The differential diagnosis and diagnostic rationale is discussed. The anatomy of the stylomandibular area is reviewed to explain how infection of the parotid can spread to the pharynx.

  7. Development of acute parotitis after non-invasive ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic exploratory laparotomy for evaluation of suspected mesenteric ischemia. She was promptly extubated postoperatively and transferred to the intensive care unit, where on the first postoperative day she developed hypoxemia necessitating initiation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). After 8 hours of BiPAP, she was noted to have swelling, erythema and tenderness in the right preauricular area. Ultrasound evaluation demonstrated an enlarged right parotid gland. With discontinuation of BiPAP and supportive measures, parotitis resolved within 6 days. The mechanism of NIV-induced acute parotitis likely involves transmission of positive pressure to the oral cavity, causing obstruction to salivary flow within the parotid (Stensen) duct. Conditions that increase salivary viscosity and promote salivary stasis, such as advanced age, dehydration, and absence of salivary gland stimulation due to restriction of oral intake, may render patients more susceptible to this complication. As NIV will continue to be a commonly-used modality for the treatment of acute respiratory failure, clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon. PMID:28840025

  8. Monolateral suppurative parotitis in a neonate and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decembrino, Lidia; Ruffinazzi, Giulia; Russo, Fabio; Manzoni, Paolo; Stronati, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    Neonatal suppurative parotitis is a rare condition characterized by swelling, pain, and erythema over the affected gland. Antimicrobials and adequate hydration are an essential part of treatment. Surgical intervention is reserved for organized abscesses and for infections not responding to medical management. A case report and review of the literature. Only few case reports and case series are reported in literature on neonatal parotitis. Transmission of bacteria seems to occur mainly by ascending spread through Stensen's duct, or by hematogenous spread from a distant focus. Dehydration, low birth weight, immune suppression, ductal obstruction, oral trauma and structural abnormalities of the parotid gland are recognised as risk factors. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Other less frequent agents are other Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli and rarely anaerobic bacteria. Advances in antimicrobial therapy have improved both outcome and prognosis. Thanks to the prompt antibiotic treatment complications are now drastically reduced. Ultrasound examination may help in the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eosinophilia and parotitis occurring early in clozapine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguem, Bochra Nourhène; Bouhlel, Saoussen; Ben Salem, Chaker; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2015-12-01

    Mr. S is a 32-year-old male with schizophrenia. Due to poor responses to various antipsychotic medications, he was started on clozapine with the dose titrated to 300 mg/day during a 4-week period. The weekly checks of the complete blood cell count showed gradual increases in the eosinophil count from normal values to 4320 per mm(3). Mr. S did not have any symptoms except some increased salivation. Clozapine was suspended, and eosinophils gradually began to decline to the normal range. Clozapine was subsequently re-started and there were no changes in eosinophil counts. Mr. S exhibited improvement of symptoms but complained of acute auricular pain and increased salivation, 8 weeks after clozapine rechallenge. He also developed a swelling of his both parotid glands. The diagnosis of clozapine-induced parotitis was suggested. Symptomatic medication was prescribed with a favorable outcome. We report a case of a patient who developed eosinophilia shortly after clozapine use, and then developed parotitis. There is debate in the literature over how to manage these complications of clozapine treatment. Generally they do not warrant clozapine discontinuation.

  10. Idiopathic Chronic Parotitis: Imaging Findings and Sialendoscopic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Thomas E; Kacker, Ashutosh; Kutler, David I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate imaging and sialendoscopic findings to therapeutic response in patients with idiopathic chronic parotitis. We retrospectively reviewed 122 consecutive sialendoscopies performed in an academic medical center by two surgeons between 2008 and 2013. Forty-one (34%) and 54 (44%) patients were excluded on the basis of having parotid or submandibular sialolith, respectively. Nineteen cases were included in the study with idiopathic chronic parotitis. There was a median follow-up of 5 months. Computed tomography (CT) imaging had a sensitivity and specificity of 80.0 and 71.4%, respectively, for predicting abnormal findings on sialendoscopy, while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had 100% accuracy in a small set of cases. In glands with noticeable pathology present on preoperative imaging or sialendoscopy, 11 out of 12 glands (92%) treated experienced symptomatic improvement, while 3 out of 7 glands (43%) without pathology on imaging or endoscopy experienced symptomatic improvement (p = 0.038). Sialendoscopy for the treatment of idiopathic chronic parotid disease can improve pain and swelling with a higher frequency of success in patients with abnormalities noted on endoscopy. CT and MRI have a moderate degree of accuracy in predicting which patients will benefit from therapeutic sialendoscopy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  12. Breastfeeding in Iran: prevalence, duration and current recommendations

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    Strandvik Birgitta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to promote breastfeeding is unquestionable for the health and development of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence, duration and promotion of breastfeeding status in Iran with respect to the Baby Friendly Hospital, government actions and activities by the Breastfeeding Promotion Society including comparison with European countries. Methods This retrospective study is based on data from 63,071 infants less than 24 months of age in all the 30 urban and rural provinces of Iran. The data of breastfeeding rates were collected in 2005–2006 by trained health workers in the Integrated Monitoring Evaluation System in the Family Health Office of the Ministry of Health to evaluate its subordinate offices. A translated version of a questionnaire, used to assess the current breastfeeding situation in Europe, was used. Results At a national level, 90% and 57% of infants were breastfed at one and two-years of age, respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age at national level averaged 56.8% and 27.7%. Exclusive breastfeeding rates at 4 and 6 months of age in rural areas were 58% and 29%, and in urban areas 56% and 27%, respectively. The policy questionnaire showed that out of the 566 hospitals across the country 466 hospitals were accredited as Baby Friendly Hospitals, covering more than 80% of the births in 2006. A national board set standards and certified pre-service education at the Ministry of Health. Iran officially adopted the WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in 1991. The legislation for working mothers met the International Labour Organization standards that cover women with formal employment. The Ministry of Health and Breastfeeding Promotion Society were responsible for producing booklets, pamphlets, breastfeeding journal, CD, workshops and websites. Monitoring of breastfeeding rates was performed every four years and funded by the Ministry of

  13. Botulinum Toxin for the Management of Sjögren Syndrome-Associated Recurrent Parotitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Luke M; Palme, Carsten E; Riffat, Faruque; Mahant, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent parotitis is a rare manifestation of Sjögren syndrome. The management of recurrent parotitis is challenging because conservative methods may be of limited efficacy and invasive approaches carry the risk of complications. Botulinum toxin has been shown to reduce salivary flow, and consequently, the results of its use in the management of recurrent parotitis have been encouraging. A 65-year-old female patient with recurrent parotitis due to Sjögren syndrome was referred to us, complaining of weekly bouts of inflammation. She required a course of antibiotics monthly to control bacterial superinfections. We treated her with onabotulinumtoxinA injections into both parotid glands at regular intervals. After her second injection cycle, she denied further inflammatory bouts, has not required antibiotics in more than 36 months, and denied any side effects. Botulinum toxin may be a safe and effective method of treating Sjögren syndrome-associated recurrent parotitis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of MR sialography and T2W fat-suppressed series in parotitis

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    Phil Pretorius

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Imaging can be helpful when investigating salivary gland pain and swelling. Typically in such cases, an ultrasound (US or conventional sialogram would be requested in seeking obstructed or dilated ducts, a ductal calculus or an abscess within the gland. Occasionally a CT scan is requested. MR is usually reserved for investigating clinically palpable masses in the glands. In acute non-obstructive parotitis, the differential diagnosis includes acute non-suppurative parotitis (as found in mumps, early Sjögren’s syndrome, or suppurative parotitis as seen following duct obstruction. Despite sometimes strong insistence on retrograde contrast sialography, this may exacerbate the pre-existing inflammatory process. The imaging of a young patient expands on these observations.

  15. Acute Neonatal Parotitis with Late-Onset Septic Shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae

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    M. Boulyana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute neonatal parotitis (ANP is a very rare disease. Most cases are managed conservatively; early antibiotics and adequate hydration may reduce the need for surgery. The most common cause of ANP is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a rare case of acute neonatal parotitis with late-onset septic shock due to Streptococcus agalactiae. The diagnosis was confirmed with ultrasound and isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae from blood culture. The patient was treated successfully with 10 days of intravenous antibiotics and supportive measures. Despite being rare, streptococcal ANP should be considered in the etiological diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic might prevent serious complications.

  16. Sialoendoscopy for treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis: The Brescia experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlucchi, Marco; Rampinelli, Vittorio; Ferrari, Marco; Grazioli, Paola; Redaelli De Zinis, Luca O

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the role of sialoendoscopy associated with steroid irrigation for juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP) at a tertiary referral hospital. Clinical records of patients affected by JRP and treated with operative sialoendoscopy between June 2011 and April 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Data on demographics, number of acute episodes per year before and after surgery, characteristics of the surgical procedure, hospitalization time, and rate of complications were collected. The outcome of the procedure was measured by comparing the number of episodes of parotid swelling before and after salivary endoscopic treatment. Twenty-three patients for a total of 34 operative sialoendoscopies were included in the study. Before the surgical endoscopic procedure, the mean number of parotid swelling was 10 episodes per year. At sialoendoscopy, typical endoscopic findings such as mucous plugs, stenosis of the duct, intraductal debris, and pale ductal appearance were evident. All patients were discharged on the first postoperative day. A significant decrease in the number of swelling episodes per year was observed compared to the preoperative rate (p = .0004). Complete resolution of the disorder was obtained in 35% of patients. Operative sialoendoscopy with steroid irrigation can be considered a valid therapeutic treatment for JRP. The technique is conservative, effective, safe, and, potentially repeatable. Short hospitalization time, rapid recovery, absence of peri-operative complications, and a high rate of good outcomes are the main advantages of this treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of chronic recurrent juvenile parotitis using sialendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, Stefanie; Meyer, Moritz Friedo; Beutner, Dirk; Luers, Jan Christoffer

    2014-05-01

    The combination of sialendoscopy and an intraductal application of corticosteroids can be recommended for children with chronic recurrent juvenile parotitis (CRJP) as there is growing evidence for a positive effect in the absence of side effects. CRJP is a disorder with painful, episodic swelling of the parotid gland in children. The majority of cases have a self-limiting character within 5-10 years, but the disease may also continue into adulthood. CRJP can occur on one or both sides and up to now the etiology has been unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the therapeutic effect of a sialendoscopic application of corticosteroids on the clinical course of patients with CRJP. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical course of 9 children with 10 parotid glands affected by CRJP, who all underwent sialendoscopy and intraductal application of corticosteroids. In all cases the procedure was conducted under general anesthesia. The average follow-up period was 15 months. There were no side effects associated with the sialendoscopy. All duct systems showed signs of chronic inflammation with an atrophic or thickened epithelium. At the follow-up visit, CRJP symptoms had completely resolved in eight children. One child still showed slight parotid swellings without the need for antibiotics. None of the parents reported that symptoms had continued at an equal level or worsened after sialendoscopy.

  18. Sialendoscopy-assisted treatment for chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-Feng; Sun, Ning-Ning; Wu, Chuan-Bin; Xue, Lei; Zhou, Qing

    2017-03-01

    Chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome is not uncommon, but it is rarely reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe our experience in the treatment of chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome. Seventeen cases of chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome treated with sialendoscopy from June 2014 to June 2015 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, were retrospectively reviewed. The cohort underwent ultrasonography, salivary gland scintigraphy, and sialography before sialendoscopy. All patients were asked to complete a visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluation before and 6 months after surgery. A paired t test was conducted, and P parotid glands) successfully underwent interventional sialendoscopy under local anesthesia. The mean preoperative VAS score was 6, and the mean VAS score 6 months after sialendoscopy was significantly lower at 4.5 (P < .05). Interventional sialendoscopy plays a significant role in the treatment of chronic obstructive parotitis related to Sjogren syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral parotitis in a patient under continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullayev, Ruslan; Saral, Filiz Cosku; Kucukebe, Omer Burak; Sayiner, Hakan Sezgin; Bayraktar, Cem; Akgun, Sadik

    Many conditions such as bacterial and viral infectious diseases, mechanical obstruction due to air and calculi and drugs can cause parotitis. We present a case of unusual bilateral parotitis in a patient under non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation in intensive care unit. A 36-year-old patient was admitted to intensive care unit with the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Antibiotherapy, bronchodilator therapy and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation were applied as treatment regimen. Painless swellings developed on the 3rd day of admission on the right and a day after this on the left parotid glands. Amylase levels were increased and ultrasonographic evaluation revealed bilateral parotitis. No intervention was made and the therapy was continued. The patient was discharged on the 6th day with clinical improvement and regression of parotid swellings without any complications. Parotitis may have occurred after retrograde air flow in the Stensen duct during CPAP application. After the exclusion of possible viral and bacteriological etiologies and possible drug reactions we can focus on this diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Recurrent parotitis as a first manifestation in a child with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, H; Orbak, Z; Erdogan, T; Karabag, K; Gursan, N

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent parotitis is an acute, severe inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands in young children. We report the case of a seven-year old boy with Primary Sjogrens syndrome (PSS) who presented with 15 episodes of painful recurrent bilateral swellings of the parotid glands over a four-year period.

  1. Idiopathic eosinophilic parotitis in an eight-year-old boy: a case report

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    Gelardi Matteo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A number of medical conditions, some of them recently reported, are associated with an increased production of eosinophils. We report the first case of eosinophilic parotitis in the literature. Case presentation The patient was an eight-year-old Caucasian boy who presented with a two-year history of recurring acute parotitis with no fever. He had had a total of five episodes with no response to antibiotics, but remission had been achieved with oral corticosteroid therapy. We performed allergy tests for inhalant and food allergens and for haptens, but the results were all negative. The results of echography ruled out sialodochitis. Instead, a swab from the parotid duct led to the detection of a high number of eosinophils. Conclusions This report is first in the literature to describe a case of eosinophilic parotitis, and we suggest that a cytological assessment, which is quite simple yet rarely used by physicians, be performed when patients with parotitis of uncertain origin are under evaluation.

  2. Current nuclear employees with psychological difficulties: prevalence, assessment, and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwaj, T.; Chardos, S.; Lavin, P.; Ford, T.; McGee, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Although industry standards and federal regulations require employees of nuclear power plants to demonstrate psychological stability and sound judgment before being initially granted unescorted access to the plant, it is obvious that emotional difficulties can develop subsequently. The development of emotional problems in current plant employees raises concerns about the safety of the public and the plant, the effectiveness of the organizations, the loss of important technical skills and experience, and the human cost to the employee and his/her family. This paper reports the experience of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in cases of reconsideration of psychological clearance of unescorted access, i.e., the review of psychological clearances of nuclear plant employees who have developed psychological difficulties

  3. Acute suppurative parotitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in an HIV-infected man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Vinasco, Luis; Bares, Sara; Sandkovsky, Uriel

    2015-03-02

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with progressive unilateral parotid gland enlargement and subsequently tested positive for HIV. A CT scan of the neck performed with contrast showed a phlegmon in the region of the right parotid tail measuring approximately 2.5×2.4 cm. Cultures of the aspirated fluid grew Streptococcus pneumoniae and the S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test was also positive. The patient underwent surgical debridement and received antimicrobial therapy with complete resolution of the parotitis. Parotitis caused by S. pneumoniae is rare, and HIV infection should be suspected in any case of invasive pneumococcal disease. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Neonatal suppurative parotitis over the last 4 decades: report of three new cases and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Essam A; Seoudi, Tarek M; Al-Amir, Mohamad; Al-Esnawy, Ahmad A

    2013-02-01

    Neonatal suppurative parotitis is a rare disease. Only 32 cases were reported in the English-language literature between 1970 and 2004. We searched Medline for acute, neonatal, bacterial, suppurative, parotitis, facial, preauricular swelling starting from 1970, limiting our search to the English-language literature. We reviewed all the reported cases together with three more managed in our department. We identified nine new cases since 2004. The total number of patients reviewed was 44, including our patients. Most of them were male (77%). The majority developed unilateral inflamed parotid swelling (77%) and exuded pus from the ipsilateral Stensen duct. Fever was seen in fewer than half of them (47%). Premature babies constituted a third of the patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the leading causative agent (61%). Most patients responded well to conservative treatment with antibiotics (77%). The most frequently used combination of antibiotics was an anti-staphylococcal agent with either an aminoglycoside or a third-generation cephalosporin. A minority required surgical drainage. No deaths were reported in the group studied after 1970. Neonatal suppurative parotitis is rare but easy to diagnose and if readily treated with appropriate antibiotics the outcome is excellent. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Prevalence of alcohol-interactive prescription medication use among current drinkers: United States, 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Rosalind A; Dong, Chuanhui; White, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    The majority of Americans consume alcoholic beverages. Alcohol interacts negatively with numerous commonly prescribed medications. Yet, on a population level, little is known about use of alcohol-interactive (AI) prescription medications among drinkers. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of AI prescription medication use among current drinkers in the U.S. population. Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999 to 2010); 26,657 adults aged ≥20 years had data on past year alcohol consumption and past month prescription medication use. Analyses were adjusted for covariates: age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, and smoking. Statistical procedures accounted for survey stratification, clustering, and nonresponse. Analyses were weighted to be nationally representative. The unadjusted total prevalence of AI medication use was 42.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 41.5 to 44.0). Among current drinkers, adjusted prevalence was 41.5% (CI 40.3 to 42.7). Among participants aged ≥65 total prevalence of AI medication use was 78.6% (CI 77.3 to 79.9) and adjusted prevalence among current drinkers was 77.8% (CI 75.7 to 79.7). The AI medications most commonly used by current drinkers were cardiovascular agents, central nervous system agents, and metabolic agents. Our results suggest that there could be substantial simultaneous exposure to alcohol and AI prescription medications in the U.S. population. Given the adverse health risks of combining alcohol with AI prescription medications, future efforts are needed to collect data to determine actual simultaneous prevalence. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Pediatric Rotavirus Gastroenteritis: A 2 year Analysis to Understand Current Prevalence in Mumbai

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    Vidya Nerurkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have established the high prevalence of paediatric Rotavirus gastroenteritis in India. The importance of rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection has also been stressed upon, to initiate prompt rehydration therapy and prevent unnecessary use of antibiotics .We undertook a retrospective analysis of 327 paediatric stool specimens to understand the current prevalence and seasonal distribution of cases in Mumbai and its surrounding areas. Overall Rotavirus positivity rate was 37.9 %, with peak positivity in winter seasons. Infections were more common upto 2 years of age. Incidence of bacterial and parasitic coinfections was low.

  7. Disparities in current cigarette smoking prevalence by type of disability, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S

    2014-05-01

    Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. We used data from the 2009-2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18-49 years. Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, p<0.001). Among adults with disabilities, the prevalence of smoking ranged from 32.4% (self-care difficulty) to 43.8% (cognitive limitation). When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, having a disability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur.

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Current Depressive Symptoms among Staff of a Public University in Malaysia

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    Ayodeji Akinwande Fasoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is an important global public health problem and one of the most common and serious mental disorders. It initiates with the presentation of symptoms before it progresses to a lifetime disorder. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with current depressive symptoms among university staff of a public university in Malaysia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study design was employed using a probability proportionate to size sampling method to select 683 academic and non-academic staff. A structured validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The prevalence of current depressive symptoms was 14.9% (19.0% among males, 12.5% among females. Gender, age, marital status, monthly family income and self-esteem were significantly associated with current depressive symptoms (p<0.05. The logistic regression model showed that male gender (AOR = 2.04; 95%CI 1.29, 3.20 and younger age (AOR = 2.79; 95%CI 1.16, 6.76 were predictors of current depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The prevalence of current depressive symptoms was 14.9% (19.0% among males, 12.5% among females among university staff. A mental health promotion intervention is needed to prevent the threat depression poses on the health of the university staff.

  9. Burden of type 2 diabetes in Mexico: past, current and future prevalence and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960-2012), and birth-cohort (1920-1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010-2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65-68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57-59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960-2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7-22.5% by 2050, affecting 15-25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents in East Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, S; Muula, A S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates for current cigarette smoking. Secondary analysis of the East Timor-Leste Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in 2006. Public and private schools registered with the Ministry of Education. A two-stage cluster sample of 1790 students in Grades 7 to 9. Schools were selected with probability proportional to enrolment size, and classes were randomly selected in each school. All students in selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey. The school and student response rates were 96.0% and 84.5%, respectively. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking. Out of 1790 adolescents, 52.1% were of ages less than 15 years, 51.8% were males, 42.8% reported having some pocket money in a month, and 72.7% had at least a parent who was a smoker. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 40.3%. Current smokers also reported having bought cigarettes from peddlers (32.4%), someone bought for them (16.7%), got from someone older (13.7%), borrowed (13.3%), and stole (3.4%). Males were more likely to be smokers than females (59.0% versus 19.3%). Factors positively associated with current smoking were: parental smoking; closest friend smoking; amount of pocket money; and exposure to anti-tobacco messages. East Timor has one of the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescents. The fact that exposure to anti-tobacco messages was associated with being a smoker may be evidence suggesting that anti-tobacco messages, especially from tobacco-related industry, may have unintended consequences.

  11. [Acute bacterial parotitis in infants under 3 months of age: a retrospective study in a pediatric tertiary care center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, J; Lorrot, M; Teissier, N; Delacroix, G; Doit, C; Bingen, E; Faye, A

    2011-12-01

    Acute bacterial parotitis is a rare infectious disease in infants under 3 months of age. To describe the clinical characteristics and the course of acute bacterial parotitis in infants less than 3 months old. Infants under 3 months of age, hospitalized at Robert Debré university hospital, Paris, France, between January 2005 and December 2009 for acute bacterial parotitis, were included in a retrospective study. Five infants less than 3 months of age were included in this study, for a frequency of 2.5/1000 hospitalizations in this age group. All were born at term, 4 of 5 were male. Three of the 5 patients had specific clinical signs of parotitis on admission. One patient had septic shock on admission. The ultrasound confirmed the parotitis in all cases. No parotid abscess was demonstrated on imaging. All patients had at least one abnormal inflammatory biological test (WBC, CRP, PCT). Bacteria were identified in 4 of 5 cases: Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in the pus culture of the Stenon duct in 2 patients and a group B Streptococcus was isolated from blood culture of 2 other patients. The duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy varied from 4 to 13 days, and the total duration of antibiotic therapy was between 10 and 16 days. No surgical procedures were needed. Acute bacterial parotitis in infants under 3 months of age might be associated with localized infections due to S. aureus, but also with a more severe clinical presentation due to group B streptococcus infection. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy might prevent the progression to serious complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Disparities in Current Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Type of Disability, 2009–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. Methods We used data from the 2009–2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18–49 years. Results Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, pdisability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). Conclusions The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur. PMID:24791023

  13. PML-associated repressor of transcription (PAROT), a novel KRAB-zinc finger repressor, is regulated through association with PML nuclear bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, Sandra; Wiemann, Stefan; Will, Hans; Hofmann, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are implicated in transcriptional regulation. Here we identify a novel transcriptional repressor, PML-associated repressor of transcription (PAROT), which is regulated in its repressor activity through recruitment to PML-NBs. PAROT is a Krueppel-associated box ( KRAB) zinc-finger (ZNF) protein, which comprises an amino terminal KRAB-A and KRAB-B box, a linker domain and 8 tandemly repeated C 2 H 2 -ZNF motifs at its carboxy terminus. Consistent with its domain structure, when tethered to DNA, PAROT represses transcription, and this is partially released by the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. PAROT colocalizes with members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family and with transcriptional intermediary factor-1β/KRAB-associated protein 1 (TIF-1β/KAP1), a transcriptional corepressor for the KRAB-ZNF family. Interestingly, PML isoform IV, in contrast to PML-III, efficiently recruits PAROT and TIF-1β from heterochromatin to PML-NBs. PML-NB recruitment of PAROT partially releases its transcriptional repressor activity, indicating that PAROT can be regulated through subnuclear compartmentalization. Taken together, our data identify a novel transcriptional repressor and provide evidence for its regulation through association with PML-NBs

  14. Prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome in pre-crisis Syria: call for current relief efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, H; Naja, F; Fouad, F M; Antoun, E; Jaffa, M; Chaaban, R; Haidar, M; Sibai, A M

    2016-12-12

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence, components and correlates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults in pre-crisis Aleppo, Syrian Arab Republic. We used a population-based, 2-stage cluster sampling method in a population of 557 men and 611 women, randomly selected from 83 residential neighbourhoods including many rural settlers. Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, comorbidity, anthropometry and biochemical indices were measured. Prevalence of MetS was estimated at 39.6%, with comparable rates in men and women. Hypertension was the most prevalent component (56.6%), followed by central obesity (51.4%). Among women, education (12 years) was inversely associated with risk of MetS, while family history of obesity and diabetes was associated with an increased risk. The high prevalence of MetS and its components emphasizes the burden of cardiovascular diseases among adults in pre-crisis Aleppo. A system of surveillance and management for cardiovascular diseases needs to be incorporated into the current humanitarian response.

  15. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions. PMID:22649464

  16. Adult current smoking: differences in definitions and prevalence estimates--NHIS and NSDUH, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  17. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  18. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, B S; Harreiter, J; Damm, P

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects...... of its diagnosis. Methods: The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide...... an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of mumps meningoencephalitis with bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding acute parotitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Ah Reum; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kang, Young Hye; Cho, Soon Gu; Choi, Seong Hye; Baek, Ji Hyeon [Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Current and Former Smoking among Urban Transit Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B. Cunradi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transit workers constitute a blue-collar occupational group that have elevated smoking rates relative to other sectors of employed adults in the United States. This study analyzed cross-sectional tobacco survey data from 935 workers (60% African American; 37% female employed at an urban public transit agency in California. Prevalence of current and former smoking was 20.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Younger workers were less likely than older workers to be current or former smokers. Having a complete home smoking ban was associated with decreased likelihood of being a smoker [odds ratio (OR = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.01–0.17], as were neutral views about whether it is easy for a smoker to take a smoking break during their shift (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.28–0.88. Current smoking among the sample is > 50% higher than the adult statewide prevalence. Potential points of intervention identified in this study include perceived ease of worksite smoking breaks and establishing home smoking bans. Tailored cessation efforts focusing on older transit workers more likely to smoke are needed to reduce tobacco-related disparities in this workforce. Keywords: blue-collar workers, health disparities, smoking

  1. Chronic Recurrent Non-specific Parotitis: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, Saibaba; Kandula, Srinivas; Shilpa, Patil; Kokila, Ganganna

    2017-01-01

    Chronic recurrent non-specific parotitis is characterized by recurrent episodes of swelling and pain of unknown etiology in the parotid gland. Sialography is a hallmark in the diagnosis of salivary gland disorders; newer imaging modalities like CT-Sialography, sialoendoscopy and MRI can be used. Various treatment modalities have been tried, from conservative approach to surgical excision depending on the recurrence rate and severity of the condition. Although symptomatic treatment with antibiotics and analgesic, injection of intraductal medicament, aggressive treatment like duct ligation or excision of gland are some of the treatment modalities, there is no established algorithm as to which treatment method should be opted in such clinical situation. A 20 years old male patient reported with pain and salty taste in the mouth that had began before a week. Examination revealed an elevated right parotid papilla; ropy, cloudy appearing saliva was oozing out on milking the gland. Unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary flow rate was assessed using drooling method. Sialography was used as a diagnostic and a therapeutic aid. In our case, sialography as a treatment showed a good response with no recurrence after two years of follow-up. We highlighted the role of sialography as a therapeutic aid. Recurrent attacks significantly affect the quality of life and also lead to progressive gland destruction. Preventing or reducing the frequency of recurrence remains the goal of therapeutic procedure. Hence, conventional sialography is useful in the diagnosis and also effective as a therapeutic aid in recurrent parotitis.

  2. Effects of Huangqi and bear bile on recurrent parotitis in children: a new clinical approach*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Wen-hua; Huang, Mei-li; He, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Feng; Tao, Hai-biao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine, bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule, on recurrent parotitis in children. Methods: In this prospective, controlled, and randomized study, a total of 151 young children were divided into three groups: Group A included massaging the children’s parotid region and melting vitamin C in their mouth daily; Group B included swallowing bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule daily; and Group C included massages and vitamin C as prescribed in Group A, and traditional Chinese medicine as prescribed in Group B. Children were treated individually for one month and then a follow-up study was conducted for 1 to 3.5 years. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Ridit analysis were employed for statistical analysis. Results: The recurrence rate decreased in every group, but was significantly more in Groups B and C when compared to Group A. The recurrences significantly decreased (P<0.01) in Group B and their recovery rate was as high as 63%, significantly better than those of the other groups (P<0.01). Conclusions: Huangqi and bear bile could be a novel clinical approach for treating recurrent parotitis in children. PMID:23463769

  3. Function of the parotid gland in juvenile recurrent parotitis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-song; Pu, Yi-ping; Zheng, Ling-yan; Yu, Chuang-qi; Wang, Zhi-jun; Shi, Huan

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to find out how the parotid gland functions in 44 patients with juvenile recurrent parotitis, and to assess the value of measuring the serum amylase activity. Clinical and personal details were recorded, and all patients had their serum amylase activity measured together with sialography during the chronic phase. The function of the gland was classified by sialographic images. The chi square test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analyses. There was a significant association between the degree of glandular function and serum amylase activity (p=0.014). The patients with unilateral and bilateral disease differed significantly in their degree of glandular function (p=0.020), those with bilateral disease having poorer function. There were no significant correlations between other clinical variables and glandular function. Serum amylase activity is an important diagnostic variable in juvenile recurrent parotitis, and poor parotid function reflects the severity of the disease. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Induction of parotitis by fine-needle aspiration in parotid Warthin's tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kensuke; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Toshihiko; Sakaguchi, Mariko; Hoshino, Shoichi; Inaba, Muneo

    2009-08-01

    To estimate parotitis caused by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in parotid Warthin tumor. Case series with chart review. Hospital records were reviewed for 104 parotid tumors (103 patients) including 35 Warthin tumors, which underwent FNA within our department. Three patients with four Warthin tumors among them noticed parotid pain, swelling, and abscess formation as a consequence of acute parotitis after FNA. Examinations of the materials obtained from tumor puncture or drainage before the start of antibiotic therapy showed no bacterial association in any patient. Two of the patients with Warthin tumor underwent parotidectomy, and the surgical specimens indicated histopathological changes with necrosis, abscess, granuloma, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells including Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. It is conceivable that Warthin tumor bears the characteristics of inflammation induced by the FNA procedure without any relation to infection. Therefore, it may be better to avoid routine FNA and give priority to diagnostic imagings over FNA in the diagnosis of tumors strongly suspected as Warthin tumor.

  5. Effects of huangqi and bear bile on recurrent parotitis in children: a new clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Wen-hua; Huang, Mei-li; He, Xiao-lei; Zhang, Feng; Tao, Hai-biao

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine, bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule, on recurrent parotitis in children. In this prospective, controlled, and randomized study, a total of 151 young children were divided into three groups: Group A included massaging the children's parotid region and melting vitamin C in their mouth daily; Group B included swallowing bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule daily; and Group C included massages and vitamin C as prescribed in Group A, and traditional Chinese medicine as prescribed in Group B. Children were treated individually for one month and then a follow-up study was conducted for 1 to 3.5 years. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Ridit analysis were employed for statistical analysis. The recurrence rate decreased in every group, but was significantly more in Groups B and C when compared to Group A. The recurrences significantly decreased (P<0.01) in Group B and their recovery rate was as high as 63%, significantly better than those of the other groups (P<0.01). Huangqi and bear bile could be a novel clinical approach for treating recurrent parotitis in children.

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia due to parotitis in a patient with systemic sclerosis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yii, Irene Yuen Lin; Tan, Jamie Bee Xian; Fong, Warren Weng Seng

    2016-10-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease is an uncommon and notifiable disease in Singapore. It is often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a rare case of invasive pneumococcal bacteraemia due to parotitis in a patient with systemic sclerosis and secondary Sjögren's syndrome. We also present a retrospective review of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia cases in Singapore General Hospital from January 2011 to April 2016. A 59-year-old Malay lady with a history of systemic sclerosis with secondary Sjögren's syndrome presented with fever and left parotid gland swelling. Clinical examination revealed poor salivary pooling and left parotid swelling without fluctuance. Ultrasound of the left parotid gland confirmed acute parotitis without evidence of abscess or sialolithiasis. Blood cultures were positive for S. pneumoniae . She was diagnosed to have invasive pneumococcal bacteraemia secondary to acute parotitis, and treated with intravenous benzylpenicillin with clearance of bacteraemia after 3 days. Upon discharge, her antibiotics were changed to intravenous ceftriaxone to facilitate outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy for another 2 weeks. She responded favourably to antibiotics at follow-up, with no complications from the bacteraemia. A review of the microbiological records of the Singapore General Hospital revealed 116 cases of pneumococcal bacteraemia, most (80.3 %) of which were due to pneumonia. None were due to parotitis. S. pneumoniae parotitis and subsequent bacteraemia is rare. Prompt recognition of the disease and appropriate use of antibiotics are important. This case highlights that close communication between healthcare workers (microbiologist, rheumatologist and infectious disease specialist) is essential in ensuring good clinical outcomes in patients with a potentially fatal disease.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, B S

    2011-12-12

    Background:  Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects of its diagnosis. Methods:  The Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Prevention (DALI) research programme aims to promote pan-European standards in the detection and diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to develop effective preventive interventions. To provide an overview of the context within which the programme will be conducted and its findings interpreted, systematic searching and narrative synthesis have been used to identify and review the best available European evidence relating to the prevalence of gestational diabetes, current screening practices and barriers to screening. Results:  Prevalence is most often reported as 2-6% of pregnancies. Prevalence may be lower towards the Northern Atlantic seaboard of Europe and higher in the Southern Mediterranean seaboard. Screening practice and policy is inconsistent across Europe, hampered by lack of consensus on testing methods, diagnostic glycaemic thresholds and the value of routine screening. Poor clinician awareness of gestational diabetes, its diagnosis and local clinical guidelines further undermine detection of gestational diabetes. Conclusions:  Europe-wide agreement on screening approaches and diagnostic standards for gestational diabetes could lead to better detection and treatment, improved outcomes for women and children and a strengthened evidence base. There is an urgent need for well-designed research that can inform decisions on best practice in gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine© 2011 Diabetes UK.

  8. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI TEN YEARS AGO COMPARED TO THE CURRENT PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING UPPER ENDOSCOPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugis, Sandra; Czeczko, Nicolau Gregori; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Parada, Artur Adolfo; Poletti, Paula Bechara; Secchi, Thiago Festa; Degiovani, Matheus; Rampanazzo-Neto, Alécio; D Agostino, Mariza D

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been extensively studied since 1982 it is estimated that 50% of the world population is affected. The literature lacks studies that show the change of its prevalence in the same population over time. To compare the prevalence of H. pylori in 10 years interval in a population that was submitted to upper endoscopy in the same endoscopy service. Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study comparing the prevalence of H. pylori in two samples with 10 years apart (2004 and 2014) who underwent endoscopy with biopsy and urease. Patients were studied in three consecutive months of 2004, compared to three consecutive months of 2014. The total number of patients was 2536, and 1406 in 2004 and 1130 in 2014. There were positive for H. pylori in 17 % of the sample as a whole. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence from 19.3% in 2004 to 14.1% in 2014 (pmundial esteja afetada. A literatura carece de estudos que mostrem a mudança de sua prevalência em uma mesma população ao longo do tempo. Comparar a prevalência do H.pylori no intervalo de 10 anos em população que realizou endoscopia digestiva alta no mesmo serviço de endoscopia. Estudo observacional, retrospectivo e transversal, comparando a prevalência de H. pylori em duas amostras com intervalo de 10 anos (2004 e 2014) que realizaram endoscopia digestiva alta com biópsias e teste da urease para a pesquisa de H. pylori. Foram estudados pacientes em três meses consecutivos de 2004, comparados aos de três meses consecutivos de 2014. O número total de pacientes avaliados foi 2536, sendo 1406 em 2004 e 1130 em 2014. Constatou-se resultado positivo para H.pylori em 17% da amostra como um todo. Houve queda significativa da prevalência de H.pylori de 19,3% em 2004 para 14,1% em 2014 (p<0.005). Houve redução de 5,2% da prevalência de H. pylori comparando-se dois períodos de três meses consecutivos com intervalo de 10 anos em duas amostras populacionais equivalentes.

  9. Parotitis after epidural anesthesia in plastic surgery: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosique, Marina Junqueira Ferreira; Rosique, Rodrigo Gouvea; Costa, Ilson Rosique; Lara, Brunno Rosique; Figueiredo, Jozé Luiz Ferrari; Ribeiro, Davidson Gomes Barbosa

    2013-08-01

    Acute swelling of the parotid glands after general anesthesia has become known as anesthesia mumps. Its cause is unknown. Only one case of postsurgical parotitis without general anesthesia is reported. This report describes three cases in this setting after plastic surgery. A 37-year-old women underwent breast surgery and abdominoplasty with a dual thoracic/lumbar epidural block (bupivacaine 0.5 %). The operative time totaled almost 6 h. Subsequently, 4 h after surgery, the patient experienced painless bilateral parotid swelling without palpable crepitus. The edema resolved completely within 12 h under clinical observation and parenteral hydration. A 45-year-old patient received subglandular breast implants and body contouring with liposuction, all with the patient under a dual thoracic/lumbar epidural block with 0.5 % marcaine. The total surgical time was 5 h. Subsequently, 3 h after surgery, the patient experienced a similar clinical presentation. The problem resolved completely in 36 h with clinical observation and parenteral hydration. CASE 3: A 30-year-old patient received a subglandular breast implant and underwent liposuction of the outer thighs using a dual thoracic/lumbar epidural block with lidocaine 1 %. The duration of surgery was 1 h. Subsequently, 5 h postoperatively, the patient experienced a similar clinical presentation. Dexamethasone and parenteral hydration were administered. The problem resolved completely in 48 h without sequelae. The occurrence of parotitis in patients undergoing surgery under epidural anesthesia is a novel situation, which increases the range of possible etiologies for this little known condition. Dehydration leading to transient parotid secretion obstruction may play a significant role. Further reports of parotitis occurring in the regional anesthesia setting are expected to help elucidate its pathophysiology. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of

  10. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence: Current susceptibility patterns in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Land Michael

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become one of the most widespread causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recently, reports have emerged that S. aureus strains recovered from community-acquired infections are also methicillin-resistant. This study was undertaken to analyze the prevalence of methicillin resistance among isolates at a regional hospital in Trinidad, and document the current resistance profile of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA to the commonly used anti-staphylococcal agents. Methods Over a 6-year period we analyzed 2430 isolates of S. aureus strains recovered from various clinical sources, from hospital and community practices. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done according to guideline recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results The prevalence of MRSA from surgical/burn wounds, urine and pus/abscess were 60.1%, 15.5% and 6.6%, respectively. The major sources of MSSA were surgical/burn wounds, pus/abscess and upper respiratory tract specimens with rates of 32.9%, 17.1% and 14.3%, respectively. The greatest prevalence of resistance of MRSA was seen for erythromycin (86.7%, and clindamycin (75.3%. Resistance rates among MSSA were highest for ampicillin (70%. Resistance rates for tetracycline were similar among both MRSA (78.7% and MSSA (73.5%. The MRSA recovery rates from nosocomial sources (20.8% was significantly higher than that of previous years (12.5% (p Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA in the hospital increased from 12.5% in 1999 to 20.8% in 2004. Most isolates were associated with infected surgical/burn wounds which may have become infected via the hands of HCPs during dressing exercises. Infection control measures aimed at the proper hand hygiene procedures may interrupt the spread of MRSA. HCPs may also be carriers of MRSA in their anterior nares. Surveillance cultures of both patients and HCPs may help

  12. Chymotrypsin with sialendoscopy-assisted surgery for the treatment of chronic obstructive parotitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H-J; Xiao, J-Q; Qiao, Q-H; Bao, X; Wu, C-B; Zhou, Q

    2017-07-01

    Chronic obstructive parotitis (COP) is a common disease of the parotid gland. A total of 104 patients with COP were identified and randomized into a treatment group (52 cases) and a control group (52 cases). All patients underwent sialography and salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) examinations before surgery. The patients in the treatment group received chymotrypsin combined with gentamicin via interventional sialendoscopy to irrigate the duct, and the control group received gentamicin alone. All patients were asked to record their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) before treatment and at 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The VAS score for pain intensity was decreased at 1 week post-treatment in both groups (Pparotid gland. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Concurrence of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Bilateral Parotitis after Minocycline Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimi Yoon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Minocycline is an antibiotic of tetracycline derivatives that is commonly used in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. It has been reported to cause rare adverse events from mild cutaneous eruption to severe forms including drug-induced lupus, serum sickness-like reaction, and hypersensitivity reactions, etc. The risks of adverse events attributed to minocycline have not been ascertained reliably and there are concerns about the safety of minocycline which could possibly result in life-threatening events such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Here we demonstrate an unusual case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome in conjunction with bilateral parotitis after the intake of minocycline in a Korean boy suggesting discreet use of the drug.

  14. Prevalence, Harm Perceptions, and Reasons for Using Noncombustible Tobacco Products Among Current and Former Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Xiao, Haijun; Stalgaitis, Carolyn; Vallone, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We provided estimates of noncombustible tobacco product (electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]; snus; chewing tobacco, dip, or snuff; and dissolvables) use among current and former smokers and examined harm perceptions of noncombustible tobacco products and reasons for their use. Methods. We assessed awareness of, prevalence of, purchase of, harm perceptions of, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among 1487 current and former smokers from 8 US designated market areas. We used adjusted logistic regression to identify correlates of noncombustible tobacco product use. Results. Of the sample, 96% were aware of at least 1 noncombustible tobacco product, but only 33% had used and 21% had purchased one. Noncombustible tobacco product use was associated with being male, non-Hispanic White, younger, and more nicotine dependent. Respondents used noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit cigarettes, but only snus was associated with a higher likelihood of making a quit attempt. Users of noncombustible tobacco products, particularly ENDS, were most likely to endorse the product as less harmful than cigarettes. Conclusions. Smokers may use noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit smoking. However, noncombustible tobacco product use was not associated with a reduction in cigarettes per day or cessation. PMID:24922154

  15. Sarcopenia: An Undiagnosed Condition in Older Adults. Current Consensus Definition: Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy on November 18, 2009 to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. While cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the two conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1.0 m·s−1. Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s−1 and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg: appendicular mass relative to ht2 that is ≤ 7.23 kg/ m2 in men ≤ 5.67 kg/ m2 in men). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization and death. PMID:21527165

  16. Prevalence and Current Approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; San, Kok Pui; Jiun, Ting Wei; May, Tam Ai; Neng, Yap Chan; Seng, Hee Kah; Soon, Lim Jing; Pazooki, Nazanin

    2015-09-01

    As indicated by the World Health Organization as of year 2014, around 10,000 people have been influenced with Ebola infection. The episode of Ebola in African locale is courged with a high death rate. Notwithstanding, in the United States, people influenced by Ebola have been given brilliant wellbeing offices, as the U.S. is one of the highest nations that have taken sterner wellbeing measures and principles against Ebola. Aside from the U.S., individuals in Asia, where billions live in indigence and general wellbeing frameworks are frequently extremely powerless, are under more serious danger of the Ebola infection. Despite the fact that nations like Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan can take stretched out measures to battle against the infection, nations like Philippines and Indonesia have unfathomable quantities of poor who may be incredibly influenced by a conceivable episode. At this moment, the chances that Asia will take a critical hit from the Ebola infection appear to be genuinely little. Yet, while it is far-fetched that Asia will encounter a real flare-up, genuine concerns stay about the infection coming to urban communities like Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore through their worldwide airplane terminals. Wellbeing priests from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reported key measures not long ago to keep the Ebola plague from coming to the locale and to backing influenced nations. This article accordingly will concentrate on the prevalence and current approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN nations which is the need of the hour.

  17. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment in Aging: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069

  18. The Impact of Survey and Response Modes on Current Smoking Prevalence Estimates Using TUS-CPS: 1992-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Soulakova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identified whether survey administration mode (telephone or in-person and respondent type (self or proxy result in discrepant prevalence of current smoking in the adult U.S. population, while controlling for key sociodemographic characteristics and longitudinal changes of smoking prevalence over the 11-year period from 1992-2003. We used a multiple logistic regression analysis with replicate weights to model the current smoking status logit as a function of a number of covariates. The final model included individual- and family-level sociodemographic characteristics, survey attributes, and multiple two-way interactions of survey mode and respondent type with other covariates. The respondent type is a significant predictor of current smoking prevalence and the magnitude of the difference depends on the age, sex, and education of the person whose smoking status is being reported. Furthermore, the survey mode has significant interactions with survey year, sex, and age. We conclude that using an overall unadjusted estimate of the current smoking prevalence may result in underestimating the current smoking rate when conducting proxy or telephone interviews especially for some sub-populations, such as young adults. We propose that estimates could be improved if more detailed information regarding the respondent type and survey administration mode characteristics were considered in addition to commonly used survey year and sociodemographic characteristics. This information is critical given that future surveillance is moving toward more complex designs. Thus, adjustment of estimates should be contemplated when comparing current smoking prevalence results within a given survey series with major changes in methodology over time and between different surveys using various modes and respondent types.

  19. Prevalence, putative mechanisms, and current management of sleep problems during chemotherapy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palesh O

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxana Palesh,1 Luke Peppone,2 Pasquale F Innominato,3–5 Michelle Janelsins,2 Monica Jeong,1 Lisa Sprod,7 Josee Savard,6 Max Rotatori,1 Shelli Kesler,1 Melinda Telli,1 Karen Mustian21Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 2University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA; 3INSERM, UMRS 776, Biological Rhythms and Cancers, Villejuif, France; 4Faculty of Medicine, Universite Paris Sud, le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France; 5APHP, Chronotherapy Unit, Department of Oncology, Paul Brousse Hospital, Villejuif, France; 6Laval University, Quebec, Canada; 7University of North Carolina, Wilmington, NC, USAAbstract: Sleep problems are highly prevalent in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. This article reviews existing evidence on etiology, associated symptoms, and management of sleep problems associated with chemotherapy treatment during cancer. It also discusses limitations and methodological issues of current research. The existing literature suggests that subjectively and objectively measured sleep problems are the highest during the chemotherapy phase of cancer treatments. A possibly involved mechanism reviewed here includes the rise in the circulating proinflammatory cytokines and the associated disruption in circadian rhythm in the development and maintenance of sleep dysregulation in cancer patients during chemotherapy. Various approaches to the management of sleep problems during chemotherapy are discussed with behavioral intervention showing promise. Exercise, including yoga, also appear to be effective and safe at least for subclinical levels of sleep problems in cancer patients. Numerous challenges are associated with conducting research on sleep in cancer patients during chemotherapy treatments and they are discussed in this review. Dedicated intervention trials, methodologically sound and sufficiently powered, are needed to test current and novel treatments of sleep problems in cancer patients

  20. The prevalence and risk indicators of symptoms of common mental disorders among current and former Dutch elite athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Jonkers, Ruud; Moen, Maarten; Verhagen, Evert; Wylleman, Paul; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and comorbidity of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among current and former Dutch elite athletes, and to explore the inference between potential risk

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Europe: prevalence, current screening practice and barriers to screening. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckley, B.; Harreiter, J.; Damm, P.; Corcoy, R.; Chico, A.; Simmons, D.; Snoek, F.J.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; Vellinga, A.; Dunne, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus is a potentially serious condition that affects many pregnancies and its prevalence is increasing. Evidence suggests early detection and treatment improves outcomes, but this is hampered by continued disagreement and inconsistency regarding many aspects of

  2. Ultrasound elastography in diagnosis and follow-up for patients with chronic recurrent parotitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Pamela; Reichel, Christoph Andreas; Vincek, Teresa; Clevert, Dirk André

    2017-01-01

    Chronic recurrent parotitis (CRP) is a non-obstructive disease with episodes characterized by painful swelling of the parotid gland. It presents in both a juvenile and an adult form, with no clear information on its actual origin. Diagnosis is based on patient medical history and ultrasound examination but is frequently not correctly identified. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) is a novel ultrasound elastography technology that has recently been implemented in the diagnostic work-up of patients with malignancies. This study aimed to answer whether ARFI can reasonably be employed in the initial examination and follow-up during therapy in patients with CRP. Mechanical tissue properties of the salivary glands were analyzed by ARFI in 37 parotid glands of patients with CRP. Having integrated ARFI into our diagnostic protocol for CRP, affected parotid glands were found to exhibit lower tissue elasticity compared to both healthy contralateral glands in the same individuals as well as those of healthy individuals. Most importantly, this method enabled us to quantitatively assess the patient benefit of therapy regarding the recovery of the glands' diseased parenchyma. ARFI provides a quick, easy, and reliable diagnostic tool for the assessment of disease severity and progression in patients with CRP that can be seamlessly implemented into preexisting ultrasound protocols.

  3. Evaluation and management of juvenile recurrent parotitis in children from northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou-Alataki, E; Chatziavramidis, A; Vampertzi, O; Alataki, S; Konstantinidis, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Juvenile Recurrent Parotitis (JRP) is a recurrent parotid inflammation of childhood.  The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory and imaging profile of children with JRP as well as to estimate the impact of siadendoscopy as a therapeutic tool in the clinical outcome of JRP. Methods: Twenty-three children with JRP aged 3.5-16 years, were investigated. Twelve of them underwent sialendoscopy: seven aged 8 years under local anesthesia. Results: The age at onset ranged from 2-15 years while the number of episodes from 2-8 per year. The autoantibody profile was negative in all patients, suggesting no evidence for autoimmune diseases.  Antibody deficiency was found in two children. The imaging studies reveal an overall parotid swelling and intraparotid lymph nodes while microabscesses were present in 31% of the patients. Twelve patients who underwent sialendoscopy had a significant improvement in their clinical outcome; the mean episodes of JRP before sialendoscopy was 3.9/year and reduced to 0.4 at the post-intervention year. Conclusion: Sialendoscopy represents an alternative and promising perspective in the management of JRP. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 356-359. PMID:27688702

  4. Sialendoscopy for the management of juvenile recurrent parotitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Jayant; Strychowsky, Julie; Gupta, Michael; Sommer, Doron D

    2015-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness and safety of sialendoscopy for the treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP). The study was conducted and reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive search strategy in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and Google Scholar was completed and limited to studies published in English. Relevant reference lists were reviewed. Two independent reviewers selected prospective or retrospective studies of pediatric patients treated with interventional sialendoscopy for the management of JRP. Outcome measures included rates of successful treatment (no further episodes of parotid swelling or need for further sialendoscopy) and complications, Two reviewers appraised the level of evidence using the Oxford Clinical Evidence-based Medicine (OCEBM) guidelines, extracted data, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Weighted pooled proportion, 95% confidence interval (CI), and test results for heterogeneity and publication bias are reported. Seven studies were included. Levels of evidence varied from OCEBM level 3 to 4. The weighted pooled proportion of success rates for no further episodes by patient (n = 120) was 73% (95% CI: 64%-82%) and by gland (n = 165) 81% (95% CI: 75%-87%). The weighted pooled proportion of success rates for no further sialendoscopy by patient was 87% (95% CI: 81%-93%). Heterogeneity was low, and publication bias was not detected. There were no major complications reported. Surgical techniques and endoscopic findings are summarized. The results from this analysis suggest that sialendoscopy is effective and safe for the treatment of JRP and may be offered to appropriate patients. NA © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Current status of prenatal diagnosis in Cuba: causes of low prevalence of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, L A; Hechavarría-Estenoz, D; de la Torre, M E; Pimentel-Benitez, H; Hernández-Gil, J; Perez, B; Barrios-Martínez, A; Morales-Rodriguez, E; Soriano-Torres, M; Garcia, M; Suarez-Mayedo, U; Cedeño-Aparicio, N; Blanco, I; Díaz-Véliz, P; Vidal-Hernández, B; Mitjans-Torres, M; Miñoso, S; Alvarez-Espinosa, D; Reyes-Hernández, E; Angulo-Cebada, E; Torres-Palacios, M; Lozano-Lezcano, L; Lima-Rodriguez, U; Mayeta, M; Noblet, M; Benítez, Y; Lardoeyt-Ferrer, R; Yosela-Martin, S; Carbonell, P; Pérez-Ramos, M; de León, N; Perez, M; Carbonell, J

    2014-11-01

    To analyze trends in cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis in Cuba and to analyze possible causes leading to a low Down syndrome prevalence in a country where the triple test is not available. An analysis of the Cuban program in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis from 1984 to 2012 was conducted. Results are described, with particular emphasis on indications, abnormal results, types of invasive procedures, and terminations of pregnancy. Cytogenetic prenatal diagnostic analyses (n = 75,095) were conducted; maternal age was the indication for 77.9% of the amniocenteses and chorionic villus samplings. The detection rate of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies was 2.3% for maternal age and increased to 8-9% for other indications. When a chromosomal abnormality was identified, 88.5% terminated the pregnancy. In 2002, the live birth prevalence of Down syndrome was 8.4 per 10,000 live births, and in 2012, 7 per 10,000. Prenatal diagnosis in Cuba has contributed to a significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations. The impact increased because of the demographic trends of the population, the high index of terminations of pregnancy, and the establishment of a network of cytogenetic laboratories throughout Cuba. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Tobacco consumption among pediatric residents in Argentina. Current prevalence and trend over the past 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Emiliano; Ferrero, Fernando; Castaños, Claudio; Blengini, María Teresa; Durán, Pablo; Moreno, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Pediatricians are in a strategic position to prevent smoking. To estimate the prevalence of smoking among pediatric residents, analyze associated factors, describe preventive actions, and assess the differences observed over the past decade. Cross-sectional study with a self-administered, anonymous survey conducted among pediatric residents from eight Argentine hospitals. Smoking habit, associated factors, and attitude towards patients' or their parents' smoking were evaluated; results were compared to those obtained in 2002. Out of 448 surveyed physicians, 20.1% smoked. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers in terms of gender, having children, number of on-call shifts, and having a supervisor who smokes. Having a parent who smoked was a risk factor for tobacco use only among women (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.09-3.61; p = 0.01). Surveyed residents living with a couple had a lower smoking rate (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34-0.96; p = 0.03). Only 18.1% referred having an active behavior towards smoking patients, no differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers. In addition, there were no differences in smoking prevalence from 2002, but there was a higher rate of residents who advised their patients (32.4% versus 26.1%; p smoking (37.7% versus 18.6%; p parents who smoke was very low. In spite of official policies, tobacco use in this group has not changed over the past decade, but there was an increase in the rate of those who received information during their training and of those who advised their patients of smoking risks.

  7. The prevalence of and factors associated with current smoking among College of Health Sciences students, Mekelle University in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eticha, Tadele; Kidane, Feven

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of preventable morbidity and mortality globally, and is responsible for many causes of untimely deaths. This survey was aimed to determine prevalence and factors associated with current smoking among the students of College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was employed using a structured self-administered questionnaire among College of Health Sciences students in March 2013. A stratified random sampling method was employed to select study participants. Data were entered and analysed using of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Of the 193 students, 57 (29.5%) of the students were current smokers. Most of the current smokers (89.4%) smoked between 1-10 sticks of cigarette per day. The two main reasons cited for smoking cigarettes were peer pressure (43.9%) and to relieve stress (36.8%). Being female (adjusted OR [AOR] = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.95) and Tigre by ethnicity (AOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) were significantly less associated with current smoking. On the other hand, being second year students (AOR = 3.84; 95% CI: 1.41, 10.46), khat chewing (AOR = 8.36; 95% CI: 2.60, 26.85) and taking illicit drugs (AOR = 10.59; 95% CI: 2.77, 40.51) were positively associated with current smoking cigarettes. The current smoking prevalence among students in College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University is high and therefore, effective smoking prevention and cessation intervention programs are required to reduce smoking among university students.

  8. Rural Asthma: Current Understanding of Prevalence, Patterns, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Robin Dawson; Ownby, Dennis R

    2017-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of children and adolescents in the USA. While asthma has been understood to disproportionately affect urban dwellers, recent investigations have revealed rural pediatric asthma prevalence to be very similar to urban and to be more closely correlated with socioeconomic and environmental factors than geographic location or population density. Rural children experience factors unique to location that impact asthma development and outcomes, including housing quality, cigarette smoke exposure, and small/large-scale farming. Additionally, there are challenging barriers to appropriate asthma care that frequently are more severe for those living in rural areas, including insurance status, lack of primary care providers and pulmonary specialists, knowledge deficits (both patient and provider), and a lack of culturally tailored asthma interventions. Interventions designed to address rural pediatric asthma disparities are more likely to be successful when targeted to specific challenges, such as the use of school-based services or telemedicine to mitigate asthma care access issues. Continued research on understanding the complex interaction of specific rural environmental factors with host factors can inform future interventions designed to mitigate asthma disparities.

  9. PREVALENCE OF MULTIPLE ADDICTIONS AND CURRENT TREATMENT BY DRUG TREATMENT CENTRES IN DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keen, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Substance-use disorders (SUD cause severe problems both globally and locally. Research suggests that multiple addictions create a more complex illness. This study investigated whether in-patients admitted for SUD at three drug treatment centres in Durban, South Africa had other, undiagnosed addictions. It utilised a three-phase concurrent mixed-methods design and initially screened for gambling and sex addiction. Results showed that, of the sample of 123 participants, 54% had either sex or gambling and 24% had both addictions which current treatment programmes neither assessed for nor treated. Recommendations include suggestions to update current assessment and treatment approaches and the need to train professional staff at drug treatment centres.

  10. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshayeb, Ayman A; Ahmed, Abdelazim A; El Siddig, Marmar A; El Hussien, Adil A

    2017-11-14

    Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax - b). Minimum bactericidal concentration's predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n e x ) and the predictive coefficient R 2  > 0 current antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of community-acquired agents causing outbreaks.

  11. Carcinoma adenoide quístico parotídeo: soluciones estéticas y funcionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Villar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma adenoide quístico supone el 10-30% de las neoplasias malignas parotídeas, su tratamiento se basa en una parotidectomía que incluya el tumor con un adecuado margen de seguridad y la radioterapia postoperatoria dado que permite mejorar el control locorregional de la enfermedad. Revisamos un caso que permite exponer el manejo de las secuelas funcionales y estéticas derivadas de su tratamiento. Consideramos adecuada la reconstrucción inmediata del nervio facial cuando se encuentra clínicamente afecto o englobado por el tumor; así como suplir el defecto de volumen posparotidectomía con un colgajo local. Proponemos la anastomosis nerviosa con injerto de nervio sural de las ramas del nervio facial afectas y el relleno del defecto volumen posparotidectomía con un colgajo de fascia temporo-parietal.

  12. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Elshayeb

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. Objectives The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Methods Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. Results A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax − b. Minimum bactericidal concentration’s predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n ex and the predictive coefficient R2 > 0 < 1 are approximately alike. It was assumed that resistant bacteria occurred with a constant rate of antibiotic doses during the whole experimental period. Thus, the number of sensitive bacteria decreases at the same rate as resistant occur following term to the modified predictive model which solved computationally. Conclusion This study assesses the prediction of multi-drug resistance among S. Typhi isolates by applying low cost materials and simple statistical methods suitable for the most frequently used antibiotics as typhoid empirical therapy. Therefore, bacterial surveillance systems should be implemented to present data on the aetiology and current

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections: Current prevalence and risk factors among schoolchildren in capital area of the Republic of Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Mei; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Lee, Fei-Peng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Briand, Kennar; Tu, Chia-Ying; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p<0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p=0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Slaughter of pregnant cattle in German abattoirs--current situation and prevalence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Patric; Lücker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2016-06-07

    The slaughter of pregnant cattle and the fate of the foetuses are relatively new subjects in the field of animal welfare. The Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health (SCVPH), however, does not believe this topic to be a critical issue because of the hitherto supposed rare occurrence of this practice. Some previous studies though, contradict this assessment, emphasising its relevance to animal welfare. With regard to the heterogeneous study design of previous investigations, the objective of this study is to evaluate the current situation concerning the slaughter of pregnant cattle in different German abattoirs. Additionally, the prevalence was assessed semi-quantitatively on the basis of a cross-sectional, voluntary and anonymous survey that was conducted amongst senior veterinary students of the University of Leipzig from 2010 until 2013. Of 255 evaluable questionnaires, 157 (63.6%) mention the slaughter of pregnant cattle, corresponding to 76.9% of all visited abattoirs. Slaughter of pregnant cattle is reported often (>10% of females) in 6 (3.8%), frequently (1-10% of females) in 56 (35.7%), and rarely (current situation is indispensable to ensure the high standards in animal welfare in Germany and Europe.

  15. Exonic Splicing Mutations Are More Prevalent than Currently Estimated and Can Be Predicted by Using In Silico Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukarieh, Omar; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Hamieh, Mohamad; Drouet, Aurélie; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Frébourg, Thierry; Tosi, Mario; Martins, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a causal mutation is essential for molecular diagnosis and clinical management of many genetic disorders. However, even if next-generation exome sequencing has greatly improved the detection of nucleotide changes, the biological interpretation of most exonic variants remains challenging. Moreover, particular attention is typically given to protein-coding changes often neglecting the potential impact of exonic variants on RNA splicing. Here, we used the exon 10 of MLH1, a gene implicated in hereditary cancer, as a model system to assess the prevalence of RNA splicing mutations among all single-nucleotide variants identified in a given exon. We performed comprehensive minigene assays and analyzed patient’s RNA when available. Our study revealed a staggering number of splicing mutations in MLH1 exon 10 (77% of the 22 analyzed variants), including mutations directly affecting splice sites and, particularly, mutations altering potential splicing regulatory elements (ESRs). We then used this thoroughly characterized dataset, together with experimental data derived from previous studies on BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and NF1, to evaluate the predictive power of 3 in silico approaches recently described as promising tools for pinpointing ESR-mutations. Our results indicate that ΔtESRseq and ΔHZEI-based approaches not only discriminate which variants affect splicing, but also predict the direction and severity of the induced splicing defects. In contrast, the ΔΨ-based approach did not show a compelling predictive power. Our data indicates that exonic splicing mutations are more prevalent than currently appreciated and that they can now be predicted by using bioinformatics methods. These findings have implications for all genetically-caused diseases. PMID:26761715

  16. Exonic Splicing Mutations Are More Prevalent than Currently Estimated and Can Be Predicted by Using In Silico Tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Soukarieh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of a causal mutation is essential for molecular diagnosis and clinical management of many genetic disorders. However, even if next-generation exome sequencing has greatly improved the detection of nucleotide changes, the biological interpretation of most exonic variants remains challenging. Moreover, particular attention is typically given to protein-coding changes often neglecting the potential impact of exonic variants on RNA splicing. Here, we used the exon 10 of MLH1, a gene implicated in hereditary cancer, as a model system to assess the prevalence of RNA splicing mutations among all single-nucleotide variants identified in a given exon. We performed comprehensive minigene assays and analyzed patient's RNA when available. Our study revealed a staggering number of splicing mutations in MLH1 exon 10 (77% of the 22 analyzed variants, including mutations directly affecting splice sites and, particularly, mutations altering potential splicing regulatory elements (ESRs. We then used this thoroughly characterized dataset, together with experimental data derived from previous studies on BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and NF1, to evaluate the predictive power of 3 in silico approaches recently described as promising tools for pinpointing ESR-mutations. Our results indicate that ΔtESRseq and ΔHZEI-based approaches not only discriminate which variants affect splicing, but also predict the direction and severity of the induced splicing defects. In contrast, the ΔΨ-based approach did not show a compelling predictive power. Our data indicates that exonic splicing mutations are more prevalent than currently appreciated and that they can now be predicted by using bioinformatics methods. These findings have implications for all genetically-caused diseases.

  17. Estimating infertility prevalence in low-to-middle-income countries: an application of a current duration approach to Demographic and Health Survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Polis, Chelsea B.; Cox, Carie M.; Tun?alp, ?zge; McLain, Alexander C.; Thoma, Marie E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION Can infertility prevalence be estimated using a current duration (CD) approach when applied to nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected routinely in low- or middle-income countries? SUMMARY ANSWER Our analysis suggests that a CD approach applied to DHS data from Nigeria provides infertility prevalence estimates comparable to other smaller studies in the same region. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Despite associations with serious negative hea...

  18. Donor testing and risk: current prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of transfusion-transmissible agents in US allogeneic donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shimian; Stramer, Susan L; Dodd, Roger Y

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a major increase in the safety of the blood supply, as demonstrated by declining rates of posttransfusion infection and reductions in estimated residual risk for such infections. Reliable estimates of residual risk have been possible within the American Red Cross system because of the availability of a large amount of reliable and consistent data on donations and infectious disease testing results. Among allogeneic blood donations, the prevalence rates of infection markers for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus have decreased over time, although rates for markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus did not. The incidence (/100 000 person-years) of HIV and HCV among repeat donors showed apparent increases from 1.55 and 1.89 in 2000 through 2001 to 2.16 and 2.98 in 2007 through 2008. These observed fluctuations confirm the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation. The residual risk of HIV, HCV, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus among all allogeneic donations is currently below 1 per 1 million donations, and that of hepatitis B surface antigen is close to 1 per 300 000 donations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Potassium Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Injection for the treatment of child epidemic parotitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-rui; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Zhang, Bing

    2015-11-01

    To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Potassium Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Injection (PDSI) in the treatment of child epidemic parotitis (EP). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding PDSI in the treatment of child EP were searched in China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, PubMed, and Cochrane Library from inception to July 30, 2013. Two reviewers independently retrieved RCTs and extracted information. The Cochrane risk of bias method was used to assess the quality of included studies, and a meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 11 studies with 818 participants were included. The quality of the studies was generally low, among which only one study mentioned the random method. The meta-analysis indicated that PDSI was more effective than the conventional therapy with Western medicine for EP in the outcomes of the total effective rate [relative risk (RR)=1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.14, 1.33], Preview, 2 of which were mainly represented rash and diarrhea in the experiment group, while another 4 ADRs occurred in the control group. Based on the systematic review, PDSI was effectiveness and relatively safety in the treatment of child EP. But further rigorously designed trials are warranted to determine its effectiveness.

  20. Current cat ownership may be associated with the lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis in schoolchildren in Himeji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaka, Fumitake; Nakatani, Yuji; Terada, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Akira; Ikeuchi, Haruki; Hayakawa, Akira; Konohana, Atsuo; Oota, Kenji; Nishio, Hisahide

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between current pet ownership, passive smoking, and allergic diseases among the Japanese children. From 1995 to 2001, we distributed the Japanese edition of the questionnaire of the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD) to survey allergic diseases among 35,552 6-yr-old children at primary school in the city of Himeji, Japan. We analyzed the data by multiple logistic regression and calculated adjusted odds ratios for environmental factors, including passive smoking and pet (dog and/or cat) ownership. There were no significant relationships between the prevalence of asthma and current pet ownership and passive smoking. However, current cat ownership was related to a significantly lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.93], allergic rhinitis (aOR: 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.75). Strikingly, passive smoking was also related to a significantly lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.89) and Japanese cedar pollinosis (aOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.88). Current cat ownership was associated with a lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and Japanese cedar pollinosis. In addition, passive smoking was also associated with a lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis and Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  1. The current prevalence and regional disparities in general and central obesity among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2017-01-15

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades, both in developing and developed countries. The present study examined the prevalence and regional disparities in general and central obesity among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 30,459 students (15,249 boys and 15,210 girls) aged 7-18years participated in the study. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) of all subjects were measured, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. The BMI cutoff points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were used to define general obesity. Central obesity was defined as WHtR≥0.5. Both BMI and WHtR were used to define three types of obesity as follows: general obesity only, central obesity only and combined obesity. The overall prevalences of general obesity only, central obesity only and combined obesity were 10.99, 8.47 and 8.70% for boys and 9.47, 5.12 and 3.19% for girls, respectively. The sum of the prevalence of the three types of obesity was 28.16% for boys and 17.78% for girls, boys had higher prevalence of obesity than girls (Pobesity, children and adolescents from urban, coastal and high socioeconomic status (SES) districts showed a higher prevalence of obesity than their counterparts from rural, inland and low SES districts (Pobesity in children and adolescents has become an important public health concern. Results from this study also suggested that the additional measurement of WC (WHtR) is better than BMI alone to identify obese individuals, distinguishing the types of obesity and examining the prevalence of various types of obesity is useful in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence, correlates, and trends in tobacco use and cessation among current, former, and never adult marijuana users with a history of tobacco use, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; King, Brian A; McAfee, Timothy A

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 70% of current (past 30-day) adult marijuana users are current tobacco users, which may complicate tobacco cessation. We assessed prevalence and trends in tobacco cessation among adult ever tobacco users, by marijuana use status. Data came from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a cross-sectional, nationally representative, household survey of U.S. civilians. Analyses included current, former, and never marijuana users aged≥18 reporting ever tobacco use (cigarette, cigar, chew/snuff). We computed weighted estimates (2013-2014) of current tobacco use, recent tobacco cessation (quit 30days to 12months), and sustained tobacco cessation (quit>12months) and adjusted trends in tobacco use and cessation (2005-2014) by marijuana use status. We also assessed the association between marijuana and tobacco use status. In 2013-2014, among current adult marijuana users reporting ever tobacco use, 69.1% were current tobacco users (vs. 38.5% of former marijuana users, pusers, pusers, pusers, pusers, pusers, pusers who ever used tobacco had double the prevalence (vs. never-marijuana users) of current tobacco use, and significantly lower sustained abstinence. Interventions addressing tobacco cessation in the context of use of marijuana and other substances may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational hand injuries: a current review of the prevalence and proposed prevention strategies for physical therapists and similar healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyer, Giles; Michael, Jimmy; Inklebarger, James

    2018-03-01

    Hand injury is the second most common work-related musculoskeletal injury among physical therapists (PTs) and other manual therapy professionals such as osteopaths, physiotherapists, chiropractors, acupuncturists and massage therapists. However, the nature and extent of this problem have not been fully explored yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to review the existing literature published on the prevalence, risk factors, consequences, and prevention of hand injuries among PTs and similar healthcare professionals. The lifetime prevalence of hand injuries was about 15%-46%, and the annual prevalence was reported as 5%-30%. Thumb injuries were found to be the most prevalent of all injuries, accounting more than 50% of all hand-related problems. The most significant risk factors for job-related hand injuries were performing manual therapy techniques, repetitive workloads, treating many patients per day, continued work while injured or hurt, weakness of the thumb muscles, thumb hypermobility, and instability at the thumb joints. PTs reported modifying treatment technique, taking time off on sick leave, seeking intervention, shifting the specialty area, and decreasing patient contact hours as the major consequences of these injuries. The authors recommend that PTs should develop specific preventive strategies and put more emphasis on the use of aids and equipment to reduce the risk of an unnecessary injury. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum infections in dogs in Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionică, A.M.; Matei, I.A.; Mircean, V.; Dumitrache, M.O.; D’Amico, G.; Győrke, A.; Pantchev, N.; Annoscia, G.; Albrechtová, K.; Otranto, D.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 3 (2015), s. 975-982 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dogs * Dirofilaria * Acanthocheilonema * Romania * prevalence * distribution * diagnosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2015

  5. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  6. Current levels of gonorrhoea screening in MSM in Belgium may have little effect on prevalence: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyze, J; Vanden Berghe, W; Hens, N; Kenyon, C

    2018-02-01

    There is considerable uncertainty as to the effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) screening in men who have sex with men. It is important to ensure that screening has benefits that outweigh the risks of increased antibiotics resistance. We develop a mathematical model to estimate the effectiveness of screening on prevalence. Separable Temporal Exponential family Random Graph Models are used to model the sexual relationships network, both with main and casual partners. Next, the transmission of Gonorrhoea is simulated on this network. The models are implemented using the R package 'statnet', which we adapted among other things to incorporate infection status at the pharynx, urethra and rectum separately and to distinguish between anal sex, oral sex and rimming. The different screening programmes compared are no screening, 3.5% of the population screened, 32% screened and 50% screened. The model simulates day-by-day evolution for 10 years of a population of 10 000. If half of the population would be screened, the prevalence in the pharynx decreases from 11.9% to 10.2%. We conclude that the limited impact of screening on NG prevalence may not outweigh the increased risk of antibiotic resistance.

  7. Current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their impact on hematological and nutritional status among Karen hill tribe children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Nachaiwieng, Woottichai; Duangmano, Suwit; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Somboon, Pradya; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2018-04-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6-14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  8. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder, self-reported diagnosed depression and current depressive symptoms among adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Buttery, Amanda K; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Hapke, Ulfert; Busch, Markus A

    2016-01-15

    While standardized diagnostic interviews using established criteria are the gold standard for assessing depression, less time consuming measures of depression and depressive symptoms are commonly used in large population health surveys. We examine the prevalence and health-related correlates of three depression measures among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany. Using cross-sectional data from the national German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (n=7987) and its mental health module (DEGS1-MH) (n=4483), we analysed prevalence and socio-demographic and health-related correlates of (a) major depressive disorder (MDD) established by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) using DSM-IV-TR criteria (CIDI-MDD) in the last 12 months, (b) self-reported physician or psychotherapist diagnosed depression in the last 12 months, and (c) current depressive symptoms in the last two weeks (PHQ-9, score ≥10). Prevalence of 12-month CIDI-MDD was 4.2% in men and 9.9% in women. Prevalence of 12-month self-reported health professional-diagnosed depression was 3.8% and 8.1% and of current depressive symptoms 6.1% and 10.2% in men and women, respectively. Case-overlap between measures was only moderate (32-45%). In adjusted multivariable analyses, depression according to all three measures was associated with lower self-rated health, lower physical and social functioning, higher somatic comorbidity (except for women with 12-month CIDI-MDD), more sick leave and higher health service utilization. Persons with severe depression may be underrepresented. Associations between CIDI-MDD and correlates and overlap with other measures may be underestimated due to time lag between DEGS1 and DEGS1-MH. Prevalence and identified cases varied between these three depression measures, but all measures were consistently associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J.; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Results Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario’s HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and

  10. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and

  11. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals.We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes.Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses.Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long

  12. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy......The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...... prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised...

  13. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum infections in dogs in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Győrke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Annoscia, Giada; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Otranto, Domenico; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, Dirofilaria spp. infection in European dogs has rapidly spread from historically endemic areas towards eastern and northeastern countries, but little or no information is available from these geographical regions. The present study provides a picture of filarial infections in dogs from Romania and compares two tests for the diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis. From July 2010 to March 2011, blood samples were collected from 390 dogs from nine counties of Romania and serological SNAP tests were performed for the detection of D. immitis antigen. The remaining blood clots were subsequently used for DNA extraction followed by multiplex PCR for assessing filarioid species diversity (i.e. D. immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum). Based on molecular detection, an overall prevalence of 6.92 % (n = 27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.70-10.03 %) for D. repens, 6.15 % (n = 24; 95 % CI 4.07-9.14 %) for D. immitis and 2.05 % (n = 8; 95 % CI 0.96-4.16 %) for A. reconditum was recorded, with significant variations according to sampling areas. Coinfections of D. immitis and D. repens were recorded in 23.91 % (n = 11) positive dogs. A slightly higher prevalence for D. immitis was detected at the SNAP test (n = 28, 7.17 %; 95 % CI 4.91-10.33 %), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.66). However, only 53.57 % (n = 15) of antigen-positive dogs were confirmed by PCR, while other dogs (n = 9) PCR positive for D. immitis were negative at the serology. The present study shows that Dirofilaria species are endemic in the southern and southeastern areas of Romania, This article also provides, for the first time, an epidemiological picture of the distribution of A. reconditum in Romania.

  14. Prevalence of psychological trauma and association with current health and functioning in a sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Tanzanian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W Pence

    Full Text Available In high income nations, traumatic life experiences such as childhood sexual abuse are much more common in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA than the general population, and trauma is associated with worse current health and functioning. Virtually no data exist on the prevalence or consequences of trauma for PLWHA in low income nations.We recruited four cohorts of Tanzanian patients in established medical care for HIV infection (n = 228, individuals newly testing positive for HIV (n = 267, individuals testing negative for HIV at the same sites (n = 182, and a random sample of community-dwelling adults (n = 249. We assessed lifetime prevalence of traumatic experiences, recent stressful life events, and current mental health and health-related physical functioning. Those with established HIV infection reported a greater number of childhood and lifetime traumatic experiences (2.1 and 3.0 respectively than the community cohort (1.8 and 2.3. Those with established HIV infection reported greater post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptomatology and worse current health-related physical functioning. Each additional lifetime traumatic experience was associated with increased PTSD symptomatology and worse functioning.This study is the first to our knowledge in an HIV population from a low income nation to report the prevalence of a range of potentially traumatic life experiences compared to a matched community sample and to show that trauma history is associated with poorer health-related physical functioning. Our findings underscore the importance of considering psychosocial characteristics when planning to meet the health needs of PLWHA in low income countries.

  15. Prevalence of psychological trauma and association with current health and functioning in a sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Tanzanian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Brian W; Shirey, Kristen; Whetten, Kathryn; Agala, Bernard; Itemba, Dafrosa; Adams, Julie; Whetten, Rachel; Yao, Jia; Shao, John

    2012-01-01

    In high income nations, traumatic life experiences such as childhood sexual abuse are much more common in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) than the general population, and trauma is associated with worse current health and functioning. Virtually no data exist on the prevalence or consequences of trauma for PLWHA in low income nations. We recruited four cohorts of Tanzanian patients in established medical care for HIV infection (n = 228), individuals newly testing positive for HIV (n = 267), individuals testing negative for HIV at the same sites (n = 182), and a random sample of community-dwelling adults (n = 249). We assessed lifetime prevalence of traumatic experiences, recent stressful life events, and current mental health and health-related physical functioning. Those with established HIV infection reported a greater number of childhood and lifetime traumatic experiences (2.1 and 3.0 respectively) than the community cohort (1.8 and 2.3). Those with established HIV infection reported greater post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and worse current health-related physical functioning. Each additional lifetime traumatic experience was associated with increased PTSD symptomatology and worse functioning. This study is the first to our knowledge in an HIV population from a low income nation to report the prevalence of a range of potentially traumatic life experiences compared to a matched community sample and to show that trauma history is associated with poorer health-related physical functioning. Our findings underscore the importance of considering psychosocial characteristics when planning to meet the health needs of PLWHA in low income countries.

  16. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: the clinical phenomenon and the current pathobiology of an increasingly prevalent and devastating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common disorder involving chronic progressive compression of the cervical spinal cord due to degenerative disc disease, spondylosis, or other degenerative pathology. CSM is the most common form of spinal cord impairment and causes functional decline leading to reduced independence and quality of life. Despite a sound understanding of the disease process, clinical presentation and management, a universal definition of CSM and a standardized index of severity are not currently used universally. Work is required to develop a definition and establish clinical predictors of progression to improve management of CSM. Despite advances in decompressive and reconstructive surgery, patients are often left with residual disability. Gaps in knowledge of the pathobiology of CSM have limited therapeutic advances to complement surgery. Although the histopathologic and pathophysiologic similarities between CSM and traumatic spinal cord injury have long been acknowledged, the unique pathomechanisms of CSM remain unexplored. Increased efforts to elucidate CSM pathobiology could lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for human CSM and other spinal cord diseases. Here, the natural history of CSM, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and current methods of clinical management are reported, along with the current state of basic scientific research in the field.

  17. The current spectrum and prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Campania (region of southern Italy) and their relationship with migration from endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Alberta; Coppola, Maria Grazia; Petrullo, Luciana; Lettieri, Gennaro; Palumbo, Cristiana; Dell'Isola, Chiara; Smeraglia, Riccardo; Triassi, Maria; Spada, Enea; Amoroso, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    In Italy, the current clinical-epidemiological features of intestinal parasitosis and the impact of recent massive migration flows from endemic areas on their distribution are not very well known. An analysis was carried out involving 1766 patients (720 natives and 1046 immigrants) observed during the period 2009-2010 (the 'current group') and 771 native patients observed during the period 1996-1997 (the 'historical group'), a time at which immigration in the area was minimal. Patients were analyzed for intestinal parasitosis at four healthcare centres in Campania. A wide variety of intestinal parasites was detected in the study subjects. Immigrants had a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis and multiple simultaneous infections than natives in both groups. In both study groups of natives, the detection of at least one parasite was significantly associated with a history of travel to endemic areas. Among immigrants, we found an inverse correlation between the frequency of parasite detection and the amount of time spent in Italy. No circulation of parasites was found among contacts of parasitized patients. Intestinal parasites are still a cause of intestinal infection in Campania. Although immigrants have a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis than natives, this does not increase the risk of infection for that population. This is likely due to the lack of suitable biological conditions in our area. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Current face of acute otitis media: microbiology and prevalence resulting from widespread use of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Many causes can be proposed for a change in the microbiologic makeup of a specific disease state. However, when viewed through the scope of recent events, only one is likely to be the true cause of a change in the microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM): the release and widespread use of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7). The aim of this report was to review the microbiology and prevalence of AOM before and after the release and widespread use of PCV-7. For this brief review, we used a MEDLINE search to identify English-language literature related to the microbiology of AOM before and after the release of PCV-7 in 2000 in the United States (key terms: acute otitis media, AOM, Haemophilus influenzae, H influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and S pneumoniae; years: 1980-2005). Studies using tympanocentesis to identify the pathogen in recurrent or persistent AOM were examined; US studies reporting AOM microbiology before and after the release of PCV-7 in the same population were considered for the post-PCV-7 analysis. Following the release of PCV-7, a decrease in the overall rates of AOM was noted. This decrease brings into question the resultant effect on the microbiology of AOM. Our literature search revealed 2 studies that examined the microbiology of AOM before and after the release of PCV-7 in the United States. These 2 studies, conducted in dispersed geographic regions (rural Kentucky and Rochester, New York), illustrated a change in the predominant causative pathogen in AOM, from S pneumoniae to H influenzae in the population of children 7 to 24 months of age with recurrent AOM. Given the time period of the change, these shifts could be related to the release and widespread use of PCV-7. Since the 1990s, the predominant causative pathogen in recurrent AOM changed from S pneumoniae to H influenzae, possibly as a result of the release and widespread use of PCV 7. Although PCV-7 use was slowed from August 2001 to May 2003 and again from February

  19. High prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Mycoplasma genitalium in nongonococcal urethritis: the need for routine testing and the inadequacy of current treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Witney, Adam A; Lopeman, Rose C; Butcher, Philip D; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2014-03-01

     Empirical antibiotic therapy for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and cervicitis is aimed at Chlamydia trachomatis, but Mycoplasma genitalium, which also commonly causes undiagnosed NGU, necessitates treatment with macrolides or fluoroquinolones rather than doxycycline, the preferred chlamydia treatment. Prevalence of M. genitalium and associated genotypic markers of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance among men symptomatic of urethritis were investigated. Genetic diversity of M. genitalium populations was determined to infer whether findings were applicable beyond our setting.  Mycoplasma genitalium and other NGU pathogens were detected using nucleic acid amplification methods, and DNA sequencing was used to detect genotypic resistance markers of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in 23S ribosomal RNA, gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes. MG191 single-nucleotide polymorphism typing and MG309 variable number tandem analysis were combined to assign a dual locus sequence type (DLST) to each positive sample.  Among 217 men, M. genitalium prevalence was 16.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5%-24.0%) and C. trachomatis prevalence was 14.7% (95% CI, 7.8%-21.6%) in NGU cases. Nine of 22 (41%; 95% CI, 20%-62%) patients with M. genitalium were infected with DLSTs possessing genotypic macrolide resistance and 1 patient was infected with a DLST having genotypic fluoroquinolone resistance. Typing assigned M. genitalium DLSTs to 2 major clusters, broadly distributed among previously typed international strains. Genotypic macrolide resistance was spread within these 2 clusters.  Mycoplasma genitalium is a frequent undiagnosed cause of NGU in this population with rates of macrolide resistance higher than those previously documented. Current guidelines for routine testing and empirical treatment of NGU should be modified to reduce treatment failure of NGU and the development of further resistance.

  20. Estimating infertility prevalence in low-to-middle-income countries: an application of a current duration approach to Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Cox, Carie M; Tunçalp, Özge; McLain, Alexander C; Thoma, Marie E

    2017-05-01

    Can infertility prevalence be estimated using a current duration (CD) approach when applied to nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected routinely in low- or middle-income countries? Our analysis suggests that a CD approach applied to DHS data from Nigeria provides infertility prevalence estimates comparable to other smaller studies in the same region. Despite associations with serious negative health, social and economic outcomes, infertility in developing countries is a marginalized issue in sexual and reproductive health. Obtaining reliable, nationally representative prevalence estimates is critical to address the issue, but methodological and resource challenges have impeded this goal. This cross-sectional study was based on standard information available in the DHS core questionnaire and data sets, which are collected routinely among participating low-to-middle-income countries. Our research question was examined among women participating in the 2013 Nigeria DHS (n = 38 948). Among women eligible for the study, 98% were interviewed. We applied a CD approach (i.e. current length of time-at-risk of pregnancy) to estimate time-to-pregnancy (TTP) and 12-month infertility prevalence among women 'at risk' of pregnancy at the time of interview (n = 7063). Women who were 18-44 years old, married or cohabitating, sexually active within the past 4 weeks and not currently using contraception (and had not been sterilized) were included in the analysis. Estimates were based on parametric survival methods using bootstrap methods (500 bootstrap replicates) to obtain 95% CIs. The estimated median TTP among couples at risk of pregnancy was 5.1 months (95% CI: 4.2-6.3). The estimated percentage of infertile couples was 31.1% (95% CI: 27.9-34.7%)-consistent with other smaller studies from Nigeria. Primary infertility (17.4%, 95% CI: 12.9-23.8%) was substantially lower than secondary infertility (34.1%, 95% CI: 30.3-39.3%) in this population

  1. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (Pmanagement practices between Irish farms with dairy herds exposed or not exposed to liver fluke and stressed the need of fine-scale mapping of the disease patterns even at farm level to increase the accuracy of risk models. Also, comprehensive advice and professional support services to farmers on appropriate farm management practices are very important for an effective anthelmintic control strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of patients' nutritional status on the prevalence, course and treatment outcomes of lower limb ischemia: an overview of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychalska-Zwolińska, Marta; Zwoliński, Tomasz; Anaszewicz, Marzena; Budzyński, Jacek

    2018-04-01

    The association of lower limb ischemia (LLI) with disturbances in nutritional status, in respect to over- or undernutrition, is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to present the current state of knowledge on this issue. Systematic review of papers published between 2006 and 2018. The literature shows inconclusive evidence regarding the impact of nutritional status on the risk, course, prognosis and outcomes of conservative and invasive treatment of LLI. The majority of publications available demonstrate greater LLI prevalence in overweight and obese patients, a worse prognosis both in malnourished and severely obese patients, poorer outcomes of invasive treatment in underweight patients, and better results for endovascular and surgical treatment in patients with overweight and class I obesity, although without such a relationship for conservative therapy. Possible explanations linking nutritional status and LLI seem to be: the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine activity of adipose tissue, a decrease in physical activity, and the effect of diet-dependent comorbidities, e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. There is a growing body of evidence concerning an association between LLI and patients' nutritional status. A so-called "obesity paradox" or "BMI paradox" seems to exist among patients with LLI and mainly concerns outcomes of endovascular and surgical treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance of body composition, the distribution and endocrine activity of adipose tissue, and the effect of weight reduction and/or nutritional support in the LLI patient group.

  3. [Current status on prevalence, treatment and management of hypertension among Chinese adults in the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, R R; Zhang, J; Li, J L; Li, J J; Ma, S; Bian, F; Deng, G J; Su, X W; Shen, Z Z; Wang, Y P; Jiang, Y

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To investigate the current status of prevalence, treatment, and management on hypertension among Chinese adults from the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. Methods: We selected a total of 4 000 residents aged ≥18 years for this questionnaire-based survey by multi-stage clustering sampling in 10 National Demonstration Areas between November and December, 2016. Results: There were 3 891 effective questionnaires. The self-reported prevalence of hypertension among aged ≥35 years was 31.47% (1 011/3 213). For the past two weeks, the self-reported treatment of hypertension was 86.75%(877/1 011), with the rates of guidance as 56.87% (575/1 011) on physical activity, 40.95% (414/1 011) on diet, 38.33% (385/1 011) on weight management, and 22.75% (228/1 011) on smoking cessation. For the past 12 months, 74.68% (755/1 011) of the residents aged ≥35 years were under the proper management and 62.12% (628/1 011) of them were under the standardized management programs. The follow-up program lasted for 4 ( P(25) - P(75) : 4-12) times per year, with 15 ( P(25) - P(75) : 10-20) minutes per each visit. Hypertensive patients would mainly visit the outpatient clinics (53.51%), followed by home visits (22.91%) and telephone calls (13.64%). Rate of satisfaction on management services was 94.83% (716/755) from the hypertensive patients. Multivariate analysis showed that the rate of self-reported treatment ( OR =1.986, 95% CI : 1.222-3.228) and self-reported standardized management ( OR =2.204, 95% CI : 1.519-3.199) on hypertension were higher in the Demonstration Areas with higher implementation scores of self-reported non-communicable diseases management. Conclusions: Prevention and management on hypertension in the Demonstration Areas had met the requirement set for the Demonstration Areas during the "12th Five-Year Plan" . Projects on setting up the National Non-communicable Diseases Demonstration Areas

  4. Smoking in Ghana: a study of the history of tobacco industry activity, current prevalence and risk factors for smoking, and implementation of tobacco control policy

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud There has been relatively little research on the prevalence and use of tobacco products in developing countries, where the majority of morbidity and mortality from tobacco use in this century is expected to occur. This is particularly true of countries in Africa. I conducted this study in the Ashanti region of Ghana, primarily to measure prevalence and risk factors for smoking, and secondarily to develop a template for national surveys in similar settings in developing count...

  5. Current and projected prevalence of arterial hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa by sex, age and habitat: an estimate from population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twagirumukiza, Marc; De Bacquer, Dirk; Kips, Jan G; de Backer, Guy; Stichele, Robert Vander; Van Bortel, Luc M

    2011-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), data on hypertension prevalence in terms of urban or rural and sex difference are lacking, heterogeneous or contradictory. In addition, there are no accurate estimates of hypertension burden. To estimate the age-specific and sex-specific prevalence of arterial hypertension in SSA in urban and rural adult populations. We searched for population studies, conducted from 1998 through 2008 in SSA. We extracted data from selected studies on available prevalences and used a logistic regression model to estimate all age/sex/habitat (urban/rural)/country-specific prevalences for SSA up to 2008 and 2025. On the basis of the United Nations Population Fund data for 2008 and predictions for 2025, we estimated the number of hypertensives in both years. Seventeen studies pertaining to 11 countries were analysed. The overall prevalence rate of hypertension in SSA for 2008 was estimated at 16.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.1-20.3], ranging from 10.6% in Ethiopia to 26.9% in Ghana. The estimated prevalence was 13.7% in rural areas, 20.7% in urban areas, 16.8% in males, and 15.7% in women. The total number of hypertensives in SSA was estimated at 75 million (95% CI 65-93 million) in 2008 and at 125.5 million (95% CI 111.0-162.9 million) by 2025. The estimated number of hypertensives in 2008 is nearly four times higher than the last (2005) estimate of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa. Prevalences were significantly higher in urban than in rural populations. Population data are lacking in many countries underlining the need for national surveys.

  6. The current spectrum and prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Campania (region of southern Italy and their relationship with migration from endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Belli

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Intestinal parasites are still a cause of intestinal infection in Campania. Although immigrants have a significantly higher prevalence of parasitosis than natives, this does not increase the risk of infection for that population. This is likely due to the lack of suitable biological conditions in our area.

  7. Risk behaviors, prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infection and population size of current injection drug users in a China-Myanmar border city: results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Duo, Lin; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use has been the major cause of HIV/AIDS in China in the past two decades. We measured the prevalences of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and their associated risk factors among current injection drug users (IDUs) in Ruili city, a border region connecting China with Myanmar that has been undergoing serious drug use and HIV spread problems. An estimate of the number of current IDUs is also presented. In 2012, Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique. Participants underwent interviews and serological testing for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Logistic regression indentified factors associated with HIV and HCV infections. Multiplier method was used to obtain an estimate of the size of the current IDU population via combining available service data and findings from our survey. Among 370 IDUs recruited, the prevalence of HIV and HCV was 18.3% and 41.5%, respectively. 27.1% of participants had shared a needle/syringe in their lifetime. Consistent condom use rates were low among both regular (6.8%) and non-regular (30.4%) partners. Factors independently associated with being HIV positive included HCV infection, having a longer history of injection drug use and experience of needle/syringe sharing. Participants with HCV infection were more likely to be HIV positive, have injected more types of drugs, have shared other injection equipments and have unprotected sex with regular sex partners. The estimated number of current IDUs in Ruili city was 2,714 (95% CI: 1,617-5,846). IDUs may continue to be a critical subpopulation for transmission of HIV and other infections in this region because of the increasing population and persistent high risk of injection and sexual behaviours. Developing innovative strategies that can improve accessibility of current harm reduction services and incorporate more comprehensive contents is urgently needed.

  8. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS-CPS 1998-1999 and 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, Vickie L; Fagan, Pebbles; Alexander, Linda A Jouridine; Clayton, Richard; Doucet, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2006-09-01

    Recognition of the health consequences of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has led government agencies and many employers to establish policies that restrict cigarette smoking in public and workplaces. This cross sectional study examines the association of workplace smoking policies and home smoking restrictions with current smoking among women. Participants were employed US women ages 18-64 who were self respondents to the 1998-1999 or 2000-2001 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey supplements. Cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses examine the association of selected demographic characteristics, occupation, income, workplace and home smoking policies/restrictions with current smoking, consumption patterns, and quit attempts among women by poverty level for five race/ethnic groups. The prevalence of either having an official workplace or home smoking policy that completely banned smoking increased with increased distance from the poverty level threshold. A complete ban on home smoking was more frequently reported by African American and Hispanic women although Hispanic women less frequently reported an official workplace smoking policy. In general, policies that permitted smoking in the work area or at home were associated with a higher prevalence of current smoking but this varied by poverty level and race/ethnicity. Home smoking policies that permitted smoking were associated with lower adjusted odds of having a least one quit attempt for nearly all poverty level categories but there was no association between having one quit attempt and workplace policies. Home smoking policies were more consistently associated with a lower prevalence of current smoking irrespective of poverty status or race/ethnicity than workplace policies. These findings underscore the importance of examining tobacco control policies in multiple domains (work and home) as well as by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position.

  9. [Indigenous peoples, HIV and public policy in Latin America: an exploration of the current situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and timely treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Patricia; Muñoz, Rubén; Stival, Matías

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials - including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes - were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV) as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally. The few studies done in the region on epidemiological prevalence, morbidity and mortality that are disaggregated by ethnicity reveal alarming data highlighting the need for further information on the epidemic in this population so as to address its repercussions in terms of prevention, care and timely follow-up.

  10. Indigenous peoples, HIV and public policy in Latin America: an exploration of the current situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and timely treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ponce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials – including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes – were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally. The few studies done in the region on epidemiological prevalence, morbidity and mortality that are disaggregated by ethnicity reveal alarming data highlighting the need for further information on the epidemic in this population so as to address its repercussions in terms of prevention, care and timely follow-up.

  11. Diagnosing acute and prevalent HIV-1 infection in young African adults seeking care for fever: a systematic review and audit of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Henrieke A B; Mugo, Peter; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander; Smith, Adrian; Sanders, Eduard J; Graham, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    Fever is a common complaint in HIV-1 infected adults and may be a presenting sign of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). We investigated the extent to which HIV-1 infection was considered in the diagnostic evaluation of febrile adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through a systematic review of published literature and guidelines in the period 2003-2014. We also performed a detailed audit of current practice for the evaluation of febrile young adults in coastal Kenya. Our review identified 43 studies investigating the aetiology of fever in adult outpatients in SSA. While the guidelines identified recommend testing for HIV-1 infection, none mentioned AHI. In our audit of current practice at nine health facilities, only 189 out of 1173 (16.1%) patients, aged 18-29 years, were tested for HIV-1. In a detailed record review, only 2 out of 39 (5.1%) young adults seeking care for fever were tested for HIV-1, and the possibility of AHI was not mentioned. Available literature on adult outpatients presenting with fever is heavily focused on diagnosing malaria and guidelines are poorly defined in terms of evaluating aetiologies other than malaria. Current practice in coastal Kenya shows poor uptake of provider-initiated HIV-1 testing and AHI is not currently considered in the differential diagnosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. The psychology of fear of flying (part I): a critical evaluation of current perspectives on the nature, prevalence and etiology of fear of flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Margaret; Bor, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Fear of flying, its nature, prevalence, etiology and treatment, has been the subject of a substantial quantity of research over the past 30 years. With the exception of a dated review of treatment methods however, there has been no evaluation of this expanding body of evidence, its contribution to theory and influence on clinical practice. Published research has also generally failed to apply developments in the understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders generally to fear of flying. This review provides a critical evaluation of the existing literature and what it reveals about theory and practice. It does this from the perspective of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The evidence reviewed demonstrates that fear of flying is a heterogeneous phenomenon which is acquired under the influence of complex psychological, social and physiological factors unique to each affected individual. Effective psychological interventions must therefore be founded on a comprehensive functional assessment of each individual, a finding which is considered in detail in the second part of this review. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are current case-finding methods under-diagnosing tuberculosis among women in Myanmar? An analysis of operational data from Yangon and the nationwide prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M S; Khine, T M; Hutchison, C; Coker, R J; Hane, K M; Innes, A L; Aung, S

    2016-03-03

    Although there is a large increase in investment for tuberculosis control in Myanmar, there are few operational analyses to inform policies. Only 34% of nationally reported cases are from women. In this study, we investigate sex differences in tuberculosis diagnoses in Myanmar in order to identify potential health systems barriers that may be driving lower tuberculosis case finding among women. From October 2014 to March 2015, we systematically collected data on all new adult smear positive tuberculosis cases in ten township health centres across Yangon, the largest city in Myanmar, to produce an electronic tuberculosis database. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of sex differences in tuberculosis diagnoses at the township health centres. We also analysed national prevalence survey data to calculate additional case finding in men and women by using sputum culture when smear microscopy was negative, and estimated the sex-specific impact of using a more sensitive diagnostic tool at township health centres. Overall, only 514 (30%) out of 1371 new smear positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at the township health centres were female. The proportion of female patients varied by township (from 21% to 37%, p = 0.0172), month of diagnosis (37% in February 2015 and 23% in March 2015 p = 0.0004) and age group (26% in 25-64 years and 49% in 18-25 years, p Myanmar, found that substantially fewer women than men were diagnosed in all study townships. The sex ratio of newly diagnosed cases varied by age group, month of diagnosis and township of diagnosis. Low sensitivity of tuberculosis diagnosis may lead to a potential under-diagnosis of tuberculosis among women.

  14. Current State of and Needs for Hepatitis B Screening: Results of a Large Screening Study in a Low-Prevalent, Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Julie; Boyd, Anders; Lemoine, Maud; Carrat, Fabrice; Gozlan, Joel; Collignon, Anne; Boo, Nicolas; Dhotte, Philippe; Varsat, Brigitte; Muller, Gerard; Cha, Olivier; Valin, Nadia; Nau, Jean; Campa, Pauline; Silbermann, Benjamin; Bary, Marc; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Lacombe, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background In low hepatitis B virus (HBV)-prevalent countries, most HBV-infected persons are unaware of their status. We aimed to evaluate whether (i) previous HBV-testing, (ii) physicians decision to screen, and (iii) CDC's recommendations identified infected individuals and which risk-factor groups needing testing. Methods During a mass, multi-center HBV-screening study from September 2010-August 2011, 3929 participants were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs and anti-Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBcAb). Questions on HBV risk-factors and testing practices were asked to participants, while participants' eligibility for HBV-testing was asked to study medical professionals. Results 85 (2.2%) participants were HBsAg-positive, while 659 (16.8%) had either resolved HBV infection or isolated anti-HBcAb. When comparing practices, HBV-testing was more likely to occur in HBV-infected participants if Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations were used (Sensitivity = 100%, 95%CI: 95.8–100) than physicians' discretion (Sensitivity = 87.1%, 95%CI: 78.0–93.4) or previous HBV-test (Sensitivity = 36.5%, 95%CI: 26.3–47.6) (p<0.0001). Nevertheless, many non-infected individuals would still have been screened using CDC-recommendations (Specificity = 31.1%, 95%CI: 29.6–32.6). Using multivariable logistic regression, HBsAg-positive status was significantly associated with the following: males, originating from high HBV-endemic region, contact with HBV-infected individual, without national healthcare, and intravenous-drug user (IDU). Of these risk-factors, physician's discretion for testing HBV was not significantly associated with participants' geographical origin or IDU. Conclusions Missed opportunities of HBV-screening are largely due to underestimating country of origin as a risk-factor. Applying CDC-recommendations could improve HBV-screening, but with the disadvantage of many tests. Further development of

  15. Second-hand smoke exposure in homes and in cars among Canadian youth: current prevalence, beliefs about exposure, and changes between 2004 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the beliefs youth have about being exposed to SHS in their home and in cars and explores changes in exposure and beliefs over time. Nationally representative data from the 2006 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine youth exposure to smoking and beliefs about smoking in the home and car among 71,003 Canadian youth in grades 5-12. Gender-specific logistic regression models were conducted to examine if being exposed to smoking at home or in the car were associated with the beliefs youth have about either smoking around kids at home or smoking around kids in cars. In 2006, 22.1% of youth in grades 5-12 were exposed to smoking in their home on a daily or almost daily basis and 28.1% were exposed to smoking while riding in a car at least once in the previous week. The majority of youth reported that they do not think smoking should be allowed around kids at home (88.3%) or in cars (88.4%). Youth exposed to smoking in the home or in cars reported missing substantially more days of school in the previous month because of their health. Among both male and female youth, being an ever smoker, living in a house where someone smokes inside daily, and having ridden in a car with someone who was smoking cigarettes in the past seven days were all associated with being more likely to report that smoking should not be allowed around kids at home or in cars. Compared to their male counterparts, female youth with at least one parent who smokes were more likely to report that smoking should not be allowed around kids at home or in cars. As rates of SHS exposure in the home and car decreased between 2004 and 2006, the prevalence of youth who reported that they do not think smoking should be allowed around kids at home or in cars also decreased over the same period of time. These results highlight that Canadian youth are frequently exposed to SHS in their homes and in cars despite the fact that the vast majority of

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of Current Smoking and Intention to Smoke among Secondary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Han and Tujia Nationalities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-30

    Objectives: This study examined the patterns and determinants of current smoking and intention to smoke among secondary school students of Han and Tujia nationalities in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three regions, namely, Chongqing, Liaocheng, and Tianjin, of China in 2015. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the total subjects ( n = 1805), 78.9% were ethnic Han and 21.1% were ethnic Tujia. Overall 9.4% (Han: 7.7%; Tujia: 15.5%) secondary school students were smokers and 37.28% smoked more than once per day. Of the non-smoker students ( n = 1636), 17.4% have an intention to smoke. A total of 81.1% of students reportedly had never been taught throughout school about smoking or tobacco prevention. When compared to the students who were taught in the school about smoking or tobacco prevention (18.90%) students who were never taught were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.14-5.01). As compared to Han nationality students who were from Tujia nationality were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.88-4.04) and were more likely to have a higher frequency of smoking (95% CI (0.88, 0.88), p = 0.010). Non-smokers who were high school students (OR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.12-8.66), whose academic performance were situated in the last 25% (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.48-3.34) and lower than 50% (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02-2.20) were more likely to have an intention of smoking. Conclusions: About one in ten secondary school students was a smoker, one in three smokers smoked more than one time per day, and a quarter of non-smokers had an intention of smoking in China. Smoking rate was higher among students from Tujia than the Han nationality. This study provided some important information for future tobacco control programs among secondary school students in the ethnic minority autonomous region and minority settlements in a multi-ethnic country.

  17. Aplicación del propóleos en el tratamiento de la parotiditis crónica del niño Use of propolis in pediatric chronic parotitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadonim Vila Morales

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar los resultados obtenidos al aplicar el propóleos como tratamiento de la parotiditis bacteriana crónica recurrente. Métodos: Se aplicó propóleos como agente terapéutico y profiláctico de la parotiditis crónica recurrente, en 12 pacientes pediátricos, a razón de 10 gotas del propóleos hidroalcohólico al 10 %, con el que realizó una buchada de 2 minutos y después lo deglutió, una vez al día, durante un mes y se repitió el ciclo a los 2 meses. Se realizó seguimiento por 6 meses. Resultados: La muestra estuvo dividida en 2 grupos de edades: de 18 meses a 5 años (58,3 % y mayores de 5 y hasta 12 años (41,7 %. Los varones constituyeron el 41,7 % de la muestra. La gravedad de la enfermedad: grave (33,3 %, moderada (58,3 % y leve (8,4 %. El 75 % de los pacientes fueron curados y mejorados el 25 %. Conclusiones: El uso del propóleos fue eficaz en el tratamiento de la parotiditis crónica recurrente del niño, disminuyendo el uso de antibióticos convencionales.Objective: To analyze the results obtained applying the propolis in treatment of recurrent chronic bacterial parotitis. Methods: Propolis was administered as a therapeutical and prophylactic agent in 12 pediatric patients (10 drops of 10 % hydroalcoholic propolis with a 2 min mouthful and then swallowed, daily over a month and cycle was repeated at two months. We made a 6 month follow up. Results: Sample was divided into 2 age groups: from 18 months to 5 years (58.3 % and over 5 and up to 12 years (41.7 %. Male sex accounted for the 41.7 % of sample. Disease severity: Severe (33.3 %, moderate (58.3 % and light (8.4 %. The 75 % of patients were cured and the 25 % improved, since they had some signs without need of antibiotic-therapy. Conclusions: The propolis use was efficacious in pediatric recurrent chronic parotitis treatment, decreasing the conventional antibiotic use.

  18. Current possibilities of cervical precancerous lesions screening in Slovakia: prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in patients with cytological diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolnikova, G; Ondrusova, M; Repiska, V; Drobna, R; Marinova, P; Meciarova, I; Rampalova, J; Ondrias, F

    2014-01-01

    It has been confirmed, that there is a causal relationship between persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and the development of cervical cancer. In population of women older than 30 years HPV infection becomes a significant etiological factor of precancerous lesion of the cervix, but HPV infection may spontaneously regress in the majority of the cases. The analysed study group consisted of 397 samples with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS). All cases underwent HPV DNA testing using the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay. We analysed prevalence of HR-HPV and a viral load expressed as relative light units/cut off ratio (RLU/CO) in different age groups with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS. The prevalence of HR-HPV with cytological diagnoses of ASCUS was detected in 44 %. The prevalence of HR-HPV between patients aged 17-29 and between patients aged 30-40 was 55 % and 48 % respectively and we detected significant reduction of prevalence (28 %) in patients older than 41 years. Based on the results of presented study we assumed that age the 40 and over is crucial for the development of serious precancerous lesions in Slovakia, thus this age group is the most suitable for HPV triage of ASCUS. As a refinement of that type of ASCUS triage we recommend to add to the algorithm quantitative measurement of viral load in the specimens in the form of RLU/CO ratio (Fig. 3, Ref. 27).

  19. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with unmet need for family planning among the currently married reproductive age women in Shire-Enda- Slassie, Northern West of Tigray, Ethiopia 2015: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre, Gelawdiwos; Birhan, Nigussie; Gebreslasie, Kahsay

    2016-01-01

    Unmet family planning is one of the common causes for low contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries including Ethiopia. Thus, this study designed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of unmet need in Shire Endaslassie town, Northern west of Tigray, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study design was employed. Multistage sampling technique was employed and data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire by interviewer administered technique. Questionnaires were reviewed and checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency. Reviewed data were entered to Epi info 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 statistical software. Variables with P-value of less than 0.2 in bivariate analyses were entered for multivariate analysis and AOR at 95% CI with p-value of less than 0.05 were considered as significant variables. The overall unmet need for family planning in the study area was 109(21.4%). 74(14.5%) for spacing and 35(6.9%) for limiting. Age group of 35-39 and >=40 (AOR= 2.7,95%CI:1.1,6.5), (AOR = 2.65, 95%CI:1.10, 6.40) respectively, decided numbers of desired children more than five (AOR = O.48, 95%CI: 0.28, 0.80), discussions of client with heath care providers (AOR = 6.32, 95%CI: 2.56, 15.58), previous use of modern family planning (AOR = 2.29, 95%CI, 1.20, 4.34) were significantly associated with unmet need for family planning. Unmet need for family planning in the study area was high, so continuous discussion on modern family planning with community health workers and encouraging of women to decide desired numbers of children of less than five in general are better to be strengthened.

  1. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  3. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    OpenAIRE

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mai...

  4. HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria: a 5-year ... trends in HIV prevalence to ascertain the current course of the HIV epidemic in ... Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and its ...

  5. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  6. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  7. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  8. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  9. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  10. Andropause: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andropause or late-onset hypogonadism is a common disorder which increases in prevalence with advancing age. Diagnosis of late-onset of hypogonadism is based on presence of symptoms suggestive of testosterone deficiency - prominent among them are sexual symptoms like loss of libido, morning penile erection and erectile dysfunction; and demonstration of low testosterone levels. Adequate therapeutic modalities are currently available, but disparate results of clinical trial suggest further evaluation of complex interaction between androgen deficiency and ageing. Before initiating therapy benefits and risk should be discussed with patients and in case of poor response , alternative cause should be investigated.

  11. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  12. Prevalence of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfert, A R; Rosenfield, D B

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering in a university population was 2.1%; 3.4% were former stutterers. More men than women stuttered. Right handed female stutterers were less likely to have "lost" their stutter than were right handed males. Stutterers, past stutterers, and questionable stutterers all had a family history of stuttering. The significant prevalence of stuttering, the increased prevalence among males, the lack of a decline of this disorder over the past few decades despite the increased number of speech clinicians and data concerning handedness, emphasise the need to investigate organic causes of stuttering. PMID:731247

  13. Smoldering multiple myeloma: prevalence and current evidence guiding treatment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blum A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agnieszka Blum, Despina Bazou, Peter O’Gorman Department of Hematology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, UK Abstract: Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM is an asymptomatic plasma cell proliferative disorder associated with risk of progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM or amyloidosis. In comparison to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, SMM has a much higher risk of progression to MM. Thanks to advances in our understanding of the risk factors, the subset of patients with ultra-high risk of progression to MM (80%–90% at 2 years has been identified. The revision of the diagnostic criteria resulted in changes in the management of this cohort of patients. In contrast to the management guidelines for MGUS patients, SMM patients need to be studied more intensively in order to identify biomarkers necessary for accurate risk stratification. In this review, we focus on the risk of progression from SMM to MM, as well as the influence of early treatment on overall survival, time to progression and quality of life. Keywords: smoldering multiple myeloma, risk factor, biomarker, genomic aberrations, glycan analysis

  14. The prevalence of stroke and associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, P G; Thomson, R G; Dobson, R; Rodgers, H; James, O F

    1999-06-01

    There are limited data available on the prevalence of stroke in the United Kingdom. Such data are important for the assessment of the health needs of the population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stroke and the prevalence of associated dependence in a district of northern England. This was a two-stage point prevalence study. A valid screening questionnaire was used to identify stroke survivors from an age- and sex-stratified sample of the population aged 45 years and over in a family health services authority district. This was followed by assessment of stroke patients with scales of disability and handicap. The overall prevalence of stroke was found to be 17.5/1000 (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 17.0, 18.0). The prevalence of stroke-associated dependence was 11.7/1000 (95 per cent CI 11.3, 12.1). Self-reported comorbidity was most commonly due to circulatory and musculoskeletal disorders. The prevalence of stroke in this district is considerably higher than current guidelines and previous results suggest. Nevertheless, the result from this study combined with that from a previous study in another district in the United Kingdom should allow those interested in epidemiologically based health needs assessment to make reasonable estimates of the burden of stroke in their area.

  15. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  16. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  17. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  18. Current algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1967-01-01

    The first three chapters of these lecture notes are devoted to generalities concerning current algebra. The weak currents are defined, and their main properties given (V-A hypothesis, conserved vector current, selection rules, partially conserved axial current,...). The SU (3) x SU (3) algebra of Gell-Mann is introduced, and the general properties of the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian are discussed. Chapters 4 to 9 are devoted to some important applications of the algebra. First one proves the Adler- Weisberger formula, in two different ways, by either the infinite momentum frame, or the near-by singularities method. In the others chapters, the latter method is the only one used. The following topics are successively dealt with: semi leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons, Kroll- Ruderman theorem, non leptonic decays of K mesons and hyperons ( ΔI = 1/2 rule), low energy theorems concerning processes with emission (or absorption) of a pion or a photon, super-convergence sum rules, and finally, neutrino reactions. (author) [fr

  19. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  20. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  1. Marijuana: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald eGreydanus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (cannabis remains a controversial drug in the 21st century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the 21st century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  2. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  3. Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... among hypertensive patients attending a cardiology clinic in China: a ... leading cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) ... Hypertension in present study was defined as ... patients who were currently smoking at least one .... prevalence of RHT by Ma et al [19] than us might.

  4. Prevalence of Parasitic Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yazan

    2016-01-01

    One of the main ways in transmitting parasites to humans is through consuming contaminated raw vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitological contamination (helminthes eggs, Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica cysts) of salad vegetables sold at supermarkets and street vendors in Amman and Baqa’a – Jordan. A total of 133 samples of salad vegetables were collected and examined for the prevalence of parasites. It was found that 29% of the samples were contaminated with different parasites. Of the 30 lettuce, 33 tomato, 42 parsley and 28 cucumber samples examined the prevalence of Ascaris spp. eggs was 43%, 15%, 21% and 4%; Toxocara spp. eggs was 30%, 0%, 0% and 4%; Giardia spp. cysts was 23%, 6%, 0% and 0%; Taenia/Echinococcus eggs was 20%, 0%, 5% and 0%; Fasciola hepatica eggs was 13%, 3%, 2% and 0%; and E. histolytica cysts was 10%, 6%, 0% and 0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of parasite in salad vegetables either between supermarkets and street vendors, or between Amman and Baqa’a, Ascaris spp. was found to be the highest prevalent parasite in salad vegetables from supermarkets and street vendors and from Amman and Baqa’a. Our results pointed out that, the parasitic contamination of salad vegetables found in our study might be caused by irrigating crops with faecal contaminated water. We concluded that salad vegetables sold in Amman and Baqa’a may cause a health risk to consumers.

  5. The prevalence of childhood asthma in China: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzong Yangzong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the prevalence of asthma has been reported to increase in many places around the world during the last decades. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and review studies of asthma prevalence among children in China and address time trends and regional variation in asthma. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases. Selected articles had to describe an original study that showed the prevalence of asthma among children aged 0−14 years. Results A total of 74 articles met the inclusion criteria. The lifetime prevalence of asthma varied between 1.1% in Lhasa (Tibet and 11.0% in Hong Kong in studies following the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC protocol. The prevalence was 3% or lower in most articles following Chinese diagnostic criteria. One article reported the results from two national surveys and showed that the current average prevalence of asthma for the total study population had increased from 1990 to 2000 (0.9% to 1.5%. The lowest current prevalence was found in Lhasa (0.1% in 1990, 0.5% in 2000. Conclusions The prevalence of childhood asthma was generally low, both in studies following the ISAAC and Chinese diagnostic criteria. Assessment of time trends and regional variations in asthma prevalence was difficult due to insufficient data, variation in diagnostic criteria, difference in data collection methods, and uncertainty in prevalence measures. However, the findings from one large study of children from 27 different cities support an increase in current prevalence of childhood asthma from 1990 to 2000. The lowest current prevalence of childhood asthma was found in Tibet.

  6. Current awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagno, C; Brambilla, L; Capitanio, D; Boschi, F; Ranzi, B M; Porro, D

    2001-05-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (4 weeks journals - search completed 7th Mar. 2001)

  7. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  8. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  9. prevalence and risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.

  10. The EuroPrevall surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children and adults: background and study methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Mills, E. N. C.; Clausen, M.; Dubakiene, R.; Pérez, C. Farnãndez; Fernández-Rivas, M.; Knulst, A. C.; Kowalski, M. L.; Lidholm, J.; Le, T.-M.; Metzler, C.; Mustakov, T.; Popov, T.; Potts, J.; van Ree, R.; Sakellariou, A.; Töndury, B.; Tzannis, K.; Burney, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological surveys in children and adults of the EU-funded multidisciplinary Integrated Project EuroPrevall, launched in June 2005, were designed to estimate the currently unknown prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy across

  11. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity among college students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hana T. AlMajed

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... The relation between overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia has been approved. Objective: .... was considered if the participant is currently under medication .... Childhood obesity in Kuwait: prevalence and trends. Fam Med.

  12. Regional variation in asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Baeza-Bacab, Manuel; Aguirre-Camposano, Viviana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates the distribution pattern of asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children aged 13-14 years. A randomized, cross-sectional and multicentric study on the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms (lifetime asthma, current wheezing, and frequent sleep disturbance by wheezing) was conducted in 165,917 schoolchildren from 56 centers in 17 Latin American countries, as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), Phase Three. The prevalence of lifetime asthma prevalence ranged from 1.2% to 33.1%, whereas current wheezing went from 3.9% to 30.8% and frequent sleep disturbance from 0.6% to 6.1%. An important proportion of centers (55%) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms over 15%. There was no significant correlation between asthma symptom prevalence and latitude, altitude, or tropical setting. At country level, the prevalence of asthma was not associated with gross national income (GNI), proportion of population under the poverty line, or ancestry. This study suggests that ecological interactions, probably typical for each locality, may be the main determinants for the large variability of asthma prevalence in Latin America. The high prevalence of asthma symptoms found in children living in areas with low socioeconomic development would challenge the protective role against asthma of factors related to low hygiene and poverty; contrarily, in this region they would act as risk factors.

  13. Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretemad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18 in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS. They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and Minor Depressive Disorder (mDD were 3.1% and 0.3% respectively. Also, the estimated lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Mood disorder (BMD type I and type II were 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. The current prevalence of MDD, mDD, BMD-I, and BMD-II were 1.8%, 0.2%, 0.04%, and 0.3% respectively. Mood disorders were associated with female gender, lower education, being married, being middle-aged, living in cities, and not being a homemaker. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood disorders was lower among Iranian adults than reported in Western studies, and a number of demographic associations differed from those reported in Western studies. Important cultural differences in the nature or manifestation of depression are implied by these results.

  14. Swine brucellosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen SC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SC Olsen, FM Tatum Infectious Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA, USA Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonotic species that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human-to-human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe, swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole-herd depopulation is the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis. Keywords: livestock, transmission, pathogenicity, vaccine, host, infection

  15. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  16. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  17. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening

  18. Prevalence of congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia (commonly known as tone deafness) is a lifelong musical disorder that affects 4% of the population according to a single estimate based on a single test from 1980. Here we present the first large-based measure of prevalence with a sample of 20 000 participants, which does not rely on self-referral. On the basis of three objective tests and a questionnaire, we show that (a) the prevalence of congenital amusia is only 1.5%, with slightly more females than males, unlike other developmental disorders where males often predominate; (b) self-disclosure is a reliable index of congenital amusia, which suggests that congenital amusia is hereditary, with 46% first-degree relatives similarly affected; (c) the deficit is not attenuated by musical training and (d) it emerges in relative isolation from other cognitive disorder, except for spatial orientation problems. Hence, we suggest that congenital amusia is likely to result from genetic variations that affect musical abilities specifically.

  19. [Evolution of Asthma Prevalence and Sociodemographic and Health Factors Associated in Madrid Region (1996-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Pereira, Patricia; Gandarillas Grande, Ana María; Díez Gañán, Lucía; Ordobás Gavín, María

    2017-05-25

    Asthma is an important public health issue. The goal of this study is to analyse the trends in self-reported asthma prevalence in the Madrid Region and its association with socio-demographic and health factors. Data from the "Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance System" in adult population (SIVFRENT-A) 1996-2013 were used. Prevalences and 95% CI were estimated for: current asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack in the last 12 months, in five periods. Changes in inter-period prevalence were estimated by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% CI by Poisson regression. The association between asthma prevalence socio-demographic and health variables was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma increased per study period an average of 14%. Asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months increased an average of 19%. It was associated (statistically significant) to an increase of current prevalence of asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months: being a woman, ORa: 1.55; ORa: 1.35 and ORa: 1.46 respectively; have poor self-perceived health, ORa: 3.09; ORa: 2.63 and ORa: 2.89; and intense physical activity, ORa: 1.48; ORa: 1.32 and ORa: 1.49. In the case of current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma also be studying, ORa: 1.34 and ORa: 1.46 respectively. Self-reported asthma prevalence increased in the last decades. The prevalence was higher in woman, persons with poor self-perceived health and adults with intense physical activity.

  20. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.

  1. Osteomyelitis: a current challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Souza Jorge

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis has almost been totally elucidated, and many factors responsible for the persistence of this infection have been identified. Numerous antimicrobial agents with distinct spectrums of action, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics have been used in its treatment. Surgical techniques, including muscle grafts, the Ilizarov technique, and antibiotic bone cements, have been applied. However, bone infections are still a challenge. Despite the importance of isolation and identification of microorganisms to determine the antimicrobial treatment of bone infections, there are few systematic national studies about the etiological profile of these diseases. This article describes the current knowledge of osteomyelitis and summarizes published national data based on the experience of different Orthopedic and Traumatology Services. In general, S. aureus was described as an important etiological agent; however, the difference in design of national studies makes a comparison between the prevalence of bone infection, the associated risk factors, and the different therapeutic approaches difficult. In conclusion, effort is necessary in order to stimulate systematic national studies in different Orthopedics and Traumatology Services to obtain a better consensus on preventive measures and therapies of bone infections.

  2. Ocular tuberculosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakarchi FI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Faiz I Shakarchi1,21Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital, 2Department of Opthalmology, Medical College, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: The World Health Organization currently estimates that nearly two billion people, or one-third of the world’s population, are infected by tuberculosis, and that roughly 10% of the infected people are symptomatic. Tuberculosis affects the lungs in 80% of patients, while in the remaining 20% the disease may affect other organs, including the eye. Uveitis can be seen concurrently with tuberculosis, but a direct association is difficult to prove. Ocular tuberculosis is usually not associated with clinical evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, as up to 60% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients may not have pulmonary disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous uveitis is often problematic and in nearly all reported cases, the diagnosis was only presumptive. Tuberculous uveitis is a great mimicker of various uveitis entities and it can be considered in the differential diagnosis of any type of intraocular inflammation. It is still unknown if ocular manifestations result from a direct mycobacterium infection or hypersensitivity reaction and this is reflected on the management of tuberculous uveitis. Prevalence of tuberculosis as an etiology of uveitis may reach up to 10% in endemic areas. Tuberculous uveitis is a vision-threatening disease that inevitably leads to blindness if not properly diagnosed and treated. The aim of this review is to illustrate the various clinical features and management of presumed tuberculous uveitis. The current review focuses on the diagnostic criteria, significance of tuberculin skin test, and use of systemic corticosteroids in the management of tuberculous uveitis as recommended in recent publications.Keywords: tuberculosis, uveitis, choroiditis, tuberculin skin test

  3. Evaluating the prevalence and effectiveness of breed-specific legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Trembath, Felicia E

    2016-01-01

    Dog bites pose a persistent public health problem, which some jurisdictions pass breed-specific legislation (BSL) to address. However, very little non-anecdotal evidence regarding the efficacy of BSL has been presented. Currently, BSL research is hampered by the absence of standard terminology, an established prevalence, or a scientific consensus on its effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to propose standardized terminology for BSL, establish the prevalence of each type of BSL in the ...

  4. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  5. Prevalence and Incidence of Anal and Cervical High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types covered by Current HPV Vaccines among HIV-Infected Women in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (The SUN Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Conley, Lois; Bush, Tim; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Unger, Elizabeth R; Henry, Keith; Hammer, John; Escota, Gerome; Darragh, Teresa M; Palefsky, Joel M; Brooks, John T; Patel, Pragna

    2018-02-14

    Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68. Baseline characteristics of 126 women included: median age 38 years; 57% non-Hispanic black; 67% HIV RNA HPV prevalence at anus and cervix was 90% and 83%; for 9v HR-HPV types, 67% and 51%; non-9v HR-HPV, 54% and 29%, respectively. 9v and non-9v HR-HPV incidence rates/100 person-years were similar (10.4 vs 9.5: 8.5 vs 8.3, respectively); 9v clearance rates were 42% and 61%; non-9v 46% and 59%, in anus and cervix, respectively. Anal HR-HPV prevalence was higher than cervical with lower clearance; incidence was similar. Although prevalence of non-9v HR-HPV was substantial, 9v HR-HPV types were generally more prevalent. These findings support use of nonavalent vaccine in HIV-infected women. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  7. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, R.T.; Jacobs, D.R.; Singh, R.; Zuk, A.; Rosenbaum, M.; Papapanou, P.N.; Desvarieux, M.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  8. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  9. Prevalence of schizophrenia: recent developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long held view that schizophrenia affects about 1% of the population has been shown to be an overestimate and in fact derived from incorrect data.1 Also, for many years, it was believed that the prevalence of schizophrenia varied little between sites.2,3 It is in fact the case that the estimates of the prevalence of ...

  10. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence......1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...

  11. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  12. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...

  13. Prevalence of occupational disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhouse, M.L.

    1976-12-01

    When discussing the prevalence of occupational disease, both the prescribed diseases and the diseases where occupation has an important etiological component should be considered. Available statistics indicate that there has been a substantial improvement in the control of important prescribed diseases such as lead poisoning and pneumoconiosis. In the United Kingdom in 1900 there were 1000 cases of lead poisoning with 38 fatalities. This number decreased to 49 cases in 1956 when the number again increased due to a change from clinical diagnosis to diagnosis on biochemical evidence. The number of cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis has declined since the 1950s but the number of coal miners has also been reduced by more than /sup 1///sub 3/. Industrial dermatitis is still a considerable problem. Vibration induced white fingers was mentioned as a disease with a very large occupational component but which for a variety of reasons is not prescribed for industrial injury benefit. Illnesses due to injuries to the back, to sciatica, disc disease or lumbago cause a very large amount of sickness and are often associated with heavy manual labor particularly if an awkward posture has to be adopted for the job. The average absence after a back injury in the London Docks was 61 days. Chronic bronchitis is the biggest single cause of sickness absence. Many studies have shown that the etiology is multifactorial but that hard physical work and a dusty environment in the work place are important adverse factors. Improved control of the working environment and methods of work may influence the development of chronic disease in the older worker.

  14. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available David Tod1 Christian Edwards2 Ieuan Cranswick1 1School of Sport and Exercise Science, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, Merseyside, 2Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Worcester, Worcester, Worcestershire, UK Abstract: Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people’s beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples, which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term “muscle dysmorphia” entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base

  15. Muscle dysmorphia: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; Cranswick, Ieuan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities. Only recently have investigators started to explore questions beyond these limited tautological findings that may give rise to substantial knowledge advances, such as the examination of masculine and feminine norms. There is limited understanding of additional topics such as etiology, prevalence, nosology, prognosis, and treatment. Further, the evidence is largely based on a small number of unstandardized case reports and descriptive studies (involving small samples), which are largely confined to Western (North American, British, and Australian) males. Although much research has been undertaken since the term "muscle dysmorphia" entered the psychiatric lexicon in 1997, there remains tremendous scope for knowledge advancement. A primary task in the short term is for investigators to examine the extent to which the condition exists among well-defined populations to help determine the justification for research funding relative to other public health issues. A greater variety of research questions and designs may contribute to a broader and more robust knowledge base than currently exists. Future work will help clinicians assist a group of people whose quality of life and health are placed at risk by their muscular preoccupation.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Central Venous Stenosis among Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients, a Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Osama O; El-Magzoub, Abdul-Rahman A; Elamin, Sarra

    2014-01-01

    Central vein stenosis (CVS) is a common complication of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. In this study we evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CVS among hemodialysis (HD) patients in a single center in Sudan, using Doppler ultrasound as a screening tool. The study included 106 prevalent HD patients. For every patient, we performed Duplex Doppler for the right and left jugular, subclavian and femoral veins. A patient was considered to have hemodynamically significant stenosis if the pre-stenosis to the post-stenosis velocities ratio was ≥ 2.5 or they had complete vein occlusion. Overall, 28.3% of patients had Doppler detected CVS, including 25.5% with hemodynamically significant stenosis and 2.8% with compromised flow. The prevalence of CVS was 68.4% among symptomatic patients compared to 19.5% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of CVS among patients with history of 0-1, 2-3 and ≥ 4 central venous catheters was 3.4%, 29.4% and 53.8% respectively (p=0.00). CVS was not more common in patients with history of previous/current jugular or femoral vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in these veins (28.3% vs 28.6% and 35% vs 26.7% respectively; p >0.1). However, CVS was significantly more common in patients with previous/ current subclavian vein catheterization compared to no catheter placement in this vein (47.8% vs 22.9%, p = 0.02). CVS is highly prevalent among studied HD patients, particularly in the presence of suggestive clinical signs. The number of HD catheter placements and subclavian vein utilization for dialysis access impose a significantly higher risk of CVS.

  17. Prevalence of Ovine Haemonchosis in Wukro, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Gebresilassie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus is a predominant, highly pathogenic, and economically important disease of sheep and goats. Objective. Assessing the prevalence of Haemonchus parasite and its associated risk factors in sheep slaughtered at different restaurants of Wukro. Methods. Cross-sectional study using random sampling from November 2013 to April 2014 in a total of 384 sheep was conducted and SPSS version 20 software using descriptive statistics was used for data analysis and P0.05. Conclusion. The current finding revealed that significant numbers of sheep were affected by the parasites. Hence strategic deworming with good husbandry practice should be implemented.

  18. Prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use has been implicated as a risk factor in the development of psoriasis, particularly in men. Despite this, little is known of the incidence or prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of psoriasis in patients with alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: In total, 100 patients with proven alcoholic liver disease were surveyed for a history of psoriasis and a full skin examination was performed if relevant. RESULTS: Of the 100 patients, 15 reported a history of psoriasis and another 8 had evidence of current activity, suggesting a prevalence (past or present) of 15% in this group of patients. CONCLUSION: It would appear that the prevalence of psoriasis in patients who misuse alcohol is much higher than the 1-3% variously quoted in the general population.

  19. The Decreasing Prevalence of Nonrefractive Visual Impairment in Older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Le Goff, Mélanie; von Hanno, Therese

    2018-01-01

    TOPIC: To estimate the prevalence of nonrefractive visual impairment and blindness in European persons 55 years of age and older. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Few visual impairment and blindness prevalence estimates are available for the European population. In addition, many of the data collected...... in European population-based studies currently are unpublished and have not been included in previous estimates. METHODS: Fourteen European population-based studies participating in the European Eye Epidemiology Consortium (n = 70 723) were included. Each study provided nonrefractive visual impairment...... and blindness prevalence estimates stratified by age (10-year strata) and gender. Nonrefractive visual impairment and blindness were defined as best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/60 and 20/400 in the better eye, respectively. Using random effects meta-analysis, prevalence rates were estimated according...

  20. Current mapping of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Pérez Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced ...

  1. Prevalence of depression among mothers of young children in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Lawson; Somoza, Eugene; Heck, Jeffery; Bauer, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Maternal depression is a substantial problem that has negative consequences on the health of both mother and child. Little research has been done on the prevalence of maternal depression in the developing world. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of current depression among mothers in Honduras and identify demographic predictors of depression in this sample. A modified Spanish version of the PHQ-9 and a demographic questionnaire were administered by trained interviewers to 415 rural and urban women aged 15-66 who had children between 1 and 10 years old. Prevalence of current major depressive syndrome was 17.6%. Mild depressive symptoms were detected in 52% of the sample. The estimated prevalence of current major depressive syndrome in the urban sample (19%) was not significantly greater than in the rural sample (16%, p = 0.49). None of the demographic variables measured, including age, number of children, or marital status predicted major depression in this sample. Maternal depression occurred at a high rate in this sample of Honduran women. The estimated prevalence rates in this study are similar to rates of maternal depression in studies of mothers in other Latin American countries, as well as in samples of mothers on Medicaid in the United States. Further study is needed to confirm and extend these findings, and to identify predictors of maternal depression in this population.

  2. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms in Malay women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Meriam Omar; Noor, Noraini M

    2009-12-01

    Due to a dearth of research on depressive symptoms in Malaysia, particularly in Malay women, a community study was conducted to examine the prevalence and factors associated with current depressive symptoms in rural and urban Malay women with low socioeconomic status. Four hundred eighty-seven women (N rural = 242, N urban = 245) were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic variables, potential risk factors (family history of mental health problems, lifetime major depressive symptoms, and current life stressors), and current depressive symptoms (measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) was collected. The prevalence of current depressive symptoms (CES-D scores > or = 16) reported was 34.5%, while the prevalence of lifetime major depressive symptoms was 27.5%. A significantly higher rate of current depressive symptoms was observed in urban women compared to rural women, chi(2) (1, N = 487) = 3.99, p depressive symptoms. The results of the multiple hierarchical regression analysis indicated that three potential factors (family history of mental health problems, lifetime major depressive symptoms, and current life stressors) were positively associated with current depressive symptoms, accounting for 17.8% of the variance, over and above the socio-demographic variables. The prevalence of depressive symptoms reported in the study was comparable to past studies. Among the factors associated with current depressive symptoms, the single most important was lifetime major depressive symptoms, followed by current life stressors, and family history of mental health problems. Among the socio-demographic variables used, perceived health status was the most important. The factors associated with depressive symptoms found in this study are consistent with past findings in the West, implying the universality of the phenomenon and common factors related to depressive symptoms in women.

  4. Chronic disease prevalence among elderly Saudi men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Nazmus; Saquib, Juliann; Alhadlag, Abdulrahman; Albakour, Mohamad Anas; Aljumah, Bader; Sughayyir, Mohammed; Alhomidan, Ziad; Alminderej, Omar; Aljaser, Mohamed; Al-Mazrou, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Saudi demographic composition has changed because of increased life expectancy and decreased fertility rates. Little data are available about health conditions among older adults in Saudi Arabia, who are expected to represent 20% of the population by 2050. The study aim was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for chronic conditions among older Saudi men. The sample pertained to 400 men (age ≥55 years) from Buraidah, Al-Qassim. Research assistants recruited participants in all the mosques from the randomly selected neighborhoods (16 of 95). They administered a structured questionnaire that assessed self-reported disease history (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, gastric/peptic ulcer, and cancer), and medication use; participants' height, weight, blood pressure, and random blood glucose (glucometer) were measured. Multinomial logistic regressions were employed to assess correlates of number of chronic diseases. The mean and standard deviation for age and body mass index (BMI) were 63.0 ± 7.5 years and 28.9 ± 4.8 (kg/m 2 ), respectively. 78% (77.8%) were overweight or obese, 35.0% were employed, 54.5% walked daily, 9.3% were current smokers, and 85.0% belonged to the middle class. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma, ulcer, and cancer were: 71.3% 27.3%, 16.4%, 9.7%, 8.9%, and 2.0%, respectively. Of the participants, 31.0% had one, 34.5% had two or more, and 34.5% did not have any chronic diseases. The likelihood of chronic diseases increased with increased age, higher BMI, and current smoking. The chronic disease prevalence among the Saudi elderly men is substantial.

  5. Prevalence of Anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Brito, Alex; López de Romaña, Daniel; Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Coris, Héctor; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, anemia has been a public health problem that affects mainly women of childbearing age and children under 6 years of age. However, the current prevalence of anemia in this region is unknown. To examine the latest available prevalence data on anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean. A systematic review was conducted in 2011 and updated in 2014. Studies determining the prevalence of anemia conducted in apparently healthy populations with national or regional representativeness were included in the review. The lowest prevalence rates of anemia among children under 6 years of age were found in Chile (4.0%), Costa Rica (4.0%), Argentina (7.6%), and Mexico (19.9%). In Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador, El Panama, and Honduras, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging Salvador, Cuba, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru, from 20.1% to 37.3%. Anemia was a severe public health problem in Guatemala, Haiti, and Bolivia. The prevalence of anemia among women of childbearing age was lowest in Chile (5.1%). In Colombia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Honduras, and Argentina, anemia was a mild public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 7.6% to 18.7%. In Guatemala, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Bolivia, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 21.4% to 38.3%. Panama and Haiti had the highest reported prevalence rates (40.0% and 45.5%, respectively), and anemia was considered a severe public health problem in those countries. Anemia remains a public health problem in children under 6 years of age and women of childbearing age in most Latin America and Caribbean countries for which data are available.

  6. Holographic heat current as Noether current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Shan; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2017-09-01

    We employ the Noether procedure to derive a general formula for the radially conserved heat current in AdS planar black holes with certain transverse and traceless perturbations, for a general class of gravity theories. For Einstein gravity, the general higher-order Lovelock gravities and also a class of Horndeski gravities, we derive the boundary stress tensor and show that the resulting boundary heat current matches precisely the bulk Noether current.

  7. Currents in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, A.; Eidietis, N. W.

    2012-10-01

    Loss of vertical control of an elongated tokamak plasma results in a vertical displacement event (VDE) which can induce large currents on open field lines and exert high JxB forces on in-vessel components. An array of first-wall tile current monitors on DIII-D provides direct measurement of the poloidal halo currents. These measurements are analyzed to create a database of halo current magnitude and asymmetry, which are found to lie within the ranges seen by numerous other tokamaks in the ITPA Disruption Database. In addition, an analysis of halo asymmetry rotation is presented, as rotation at the resonance frequencies of in-vessel components could lead to significant amplification of the halo forces. Halo current rotation is found to be far more prevalent in old (1997-2002) DIII-D halo current data than recent data (2009), perhaps due to a change in divertor geometry over that time.

  8. Bilateral parotitis as the initial presentation of childhood sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gretchen C; Kirse, Daniel J; Anthony, Evelyn; Bergman, Simon; Shetty, Avinash K

    2013-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid gland enlargement in children includes infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders. We present the case of a 13-year-old male who presented with a 5-week history of bilateral parotid swelling. On exam, both parotid glands were nontender, smooth, and diffusely enlarged. He had slightly elevated inflammatory markers, but other lab results were normal. A neck CT revealed symmetric enlargement of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. A chest CT revealed scattered peripheral pulmonary nodules and bilateral hilar adenopathy. A parotid gland biopsy showed multiple noncaseating granulomas with multinucleated giant cells surrounded by lymphocytes, consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Special stains for acid-fast and fungal organisms were negative. Using this illustrative case, we discuss the differential diagnosis of bilateral salivary gland enlargement in children and review the etiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of pediatric sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sialendoscopic treatment of recurrent juvenile parotitis: A South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is an inflammatory disorder of the parotid salivary glands in young children, and is .... None. 29. None. R = right; L = left; LN = lymph node; NSAIDs = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ... patient required antibiotic treatment, for a secondary ...

  10. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently one of the most common sexual dysfunctions worldwide but it is usually underestimated because it is not a life threatening condition. The associated stigma makes men who have it to suffer in silence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of erectile ...

  11. The prevalence of eating disorders not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Paulo P. P.; Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia; Hoek, Hans W.

    Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2,028 female students,

  12. Prevalence of female genital mutilation and parents' attitude among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, it examines the current prevalence of the practice and its perception among urban working parents. The study participants consisted of 1583 female parents selected by accidental sampling technique from government offices in three urban cities of Osun State, Nigeria. The “Practice of Female Circumcision” ...

  13. Prevalence of Mastitis and Effectiveness of Mastitis Control in Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. Data regarding occurrence of mastitis, farmers' current practices in mastitis control, and administering a questionnaire to 76 smallholder farmers collected their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter ...

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen sero-positivity and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... health burden. ... Five hundred and thirty consecutively recruited voluntary blood ... The prevalence of hepatitis infection among the blood donors was 51 (9.6%). ... of countries endemic for HBV infection with a current ... undermining the blood safety in Sub-Sahara Africa .... found in the work of Bhatti et al.

  15. Anxiety, psychosis and substance use: prevalence, correlates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The current study examined anxiety in people with substance use disorder (SUD) and a psychotic disorder. It is hypothesised that: anxiety disorders (AD) would be highly prevalent (greater than 20%) in people identified as having SUD and psychotic disorders; those with comorbid AD would fair worse than those ...

  16. Prevalence, incidence and molecular identification of root-knot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is a widely grown vegetable in Pakistan. However, its production is severely constrained by root knot nematodes (RKNs). Accurate identification of RKNs is essential for an appropriate control program. The current study evaluated the prevalence, incidence and diversity of RKNs of tomato crops grown in the Khyber ...

  17. Trends in alcohol prevalence, age of initiation and association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To understand alcohol use trends and alcohol-related harm among youth in South Africa (SA) between 1998 and 2008, and discuss implications for the current alcohol policy process. Methods. A review was conducted of 4 national prevalence and 2 sentinel surveillance studies. Data were extracted to Epi Info ...

  18. Current lead thermal analysis code 'CURRENT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahito; Tada, Eisuke; Shimamoto, Susumu; Hata, Kenichiro.

    1985-08-01

    Large gas-cooled current lead with the capacity more than 30 kA and 22 kV is required for superconducting toroidal and poloidal coils for fusion application. The current lead is used to carry electrical current from the power supply system at room temperature to the superconducting coil at 4 K. Accordingly, the thermal performance of the current lead is significantly important to determine the heat load requirements of the coil system at 4 K. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has being developed the large gas-cooled current leads with the optimum condition in which the heat load is around 1 W per 1 kA at 4 K. In order to design the current lead with the optimum thermal performances, JAERI developed thermal analysis code named as ''CURRENT'' which can theoretically calculate the optimum geometric shape and cooling conditions of the current lead. The basic equations and the instruction manual of the analysis code are described in this report. (author)

  19. Current management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rufus; Renganathan, Arasee; Cardozo, Linda

    2008-10-01

    The concept of overactive bladder has helped us address the problem of urgency and urge incontinence from a symptomatic perspective. In this review, we provide a critical summary of clinically relevant recent publications, focusing in particular on advances in our understanding of assessment methods and therapeutic interventions for overactive bladder in women. According to current definitions, the prevalence of overactive bladder in western nations is now estimated as 13.0%. Although the prevalence increases with age, the symptoms of overactive bladder may follow a relapsing and remitting course. There has been a proliferation of validated symptom and quality of life measures and increasing sophistication in the analysis of bladder diaries. The role of urodynamics in the evaluation of urgency remains uncertain, with many trials showing limited benefit as a preoperative investigation. Fluid restriction and bladder retraining remain important first-line interventions. Many new anticholinergic medications have been licensed, with limited benefits compared with existing preparations. Intravesical botulinum toxin has become a popular alternative for patients who fail oral therapies. Although there have been few important therapeutic innovations, recent publications have led to greater sophistication in assessment methods and a clearer understanding of the role of existing interventions.

  20. CMOS current controlled fully balanced current conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunhua; Zhang Qiujing; Liu Haiguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a current controlled fully balanced second-generation current conveyor circuit (CF-BCCII). The proposed circuit has the traits of fully balanced architecture, and its X-Y terminals are current controllable. Based on the CFBCCII, two biquadratic universal filters are also proposed as its applications. The CFBCCII circuits and the two filters were fabricated with chartered 0.35-μm CMOS technology; with ±1.65 V power supply voltage, the total power consumption of the CFBCCII circuit is 3.6 mW. Comparisons between measured and HSpice simulation results are also given.

  1. English language proficiency and smoking prevalence among California's Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S

    2005-12-15

    The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the interpretation of the results have always been a challenge. Data from the 2001 The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed to provide smoking prevalence estimates for all Asian Americans and Asian-American subgroups, including Korean, Filipino, Japanese, South Asian, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Current smoking prevalence was analyzed by gender and by English proficiency level. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Asian males in general was almost three times of that among Asian females. Korean and Vietnamese males had higher cigarette smoking prevalence rates than males in other subgroups. Although Asian females in general had low smoking prevalence rates, significant differences were found among Asian subgroups, from 1.1% (Vietnamese) to 12.7% (Japanese). Asian men who had high English proficiency were less likely to be smokers than men with lower English proficiency. Asian women with high English proficiency were more likely to be smokers than women with lower English proficiency. Smoking prevalence rates among Asian Americans in California differed significantly on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and English proficiency. English proficiency seemed to have the effect of reducing smoking prevalence rates among Asian males but had just the opposite effect among Asian females. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

  2. Reconciling disparate prevalence rates of PTSD in large samples of US male Vietnam veterans and their controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottesman Irving I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two large independent studies funded by the US government have assessed the impact of the Vietnam War on the prevalence of PTSD in US veterans. The National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS estimated the current PTSD prevalence to be 15.2% while the Vietnam Experience Study (VES estimated the prevalence to be 2.2%. We compared alternative criteria for estimating the prevalence of PTSD using the NVVRS and VES public use data sets collected more than 10 years after the United States withdrew troops from Vietnam. Methods We applied uniform diagnostic procedures to the male veterans from the NVVRS and VES to estimate PTSD prevalences based on varying criteria including one-month and lifetime prevalence estimates, combat and non-combat prevalence estimates, and prevalence estimates using both single and multiple indicator models. Results Using a narrow and specific set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 2.5% and 2.9% for the VES and the NVVRS, respectively. Using a more broad and sensitive set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 12.2% and 15.8% for the VES and NVVRS, respectively. Conclusion When comparable methods were applied to available data we reconciled disparate results and estimated similar current prevalences for both narrow and broad definitions of combat-related diagnoses of PTSD.

  3. The Prevalence of Fetal Neural Abnormalities Detected By Ultrasonography in Southeast Part of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Özkur

    2010-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed that the overall prevalence of fetal neural abnormalities in the Department of Radiology in Gaziantep University is relevant to current medical literature. However, the prevalence of schizencephaly is remarkably higher than previously reported, which is thought to be due to high sensitivity of high resolution sonography devices used in this study.

  4. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and

  5. Prevalence, Diagnosis, Treatment and Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neik, Tina Ting Xiang; Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min; Chia, Noel Kok Hwee; Chua, Arnold Chee Keong

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of autism is increasing globally. While most of the published works are done in the Western and European countries, the trend in autism research is shifting towards the Asian continent recently. In this review, we aimed to highlight the current prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in…

  6. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM and associated risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM and associated risk factors among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Vhembe district of South Africa. ... shown a high prevalence of T. gondii (IgG) among patients attending different HIV clinics in the Vhembe district with no current infections among pregnant women.

  7. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  8. Prevalence of Gender Nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-07-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person's gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based research on the broad spectrum of gender nonconformity is scarce and more information on the variance outside the gender binary is needed. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of gender incongruence (identifying stronger with the other sex than with the sex assigned at birth) and gender ambivalence (identifying equally with the other sex as with the sex assigned at birth) based on two population-based surveys, one of 1,832 Flemish persons and one of 2,472 sexual minority individuals in Flanders. In the general population, gender ambivalence was present in 2.2 % of male and 1.9 % of female participants, whereas gender incongruence was found in 0.7 % of men and 0.6 % of women. In sexual minority individuals, the prevalence of gender ambivalence and gender incongruence was 1.8 and 0.9 % in men and 4.1 and 2.1 % in women, respectively. With a current Flemish population of about 6 million, our results indicate a total of between 17,150 and 17,665 gender incongruent men and between 14,473 and 15,221 gender incongruent women in Flanders.

  9. [Osteoporosis: Current state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbovoy, A F; Pashentseva, A V; Sharonova, L A

    As of now, osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most important sociomedical problems because of its high prevalence and resultant disability, as well as significant mortality attributable to complications. The current strategy for providing care for patients of OP is its early diagnosis, by determining the high risk of fractures, and early pathogenetic treatment. The article gives an update on the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of OP.

  10. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  11. Current irritability robustly related to current and prior anxiety in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Laura D; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Holtzman, Jessica N; Goffin, Kathryn C; Shah, Saloni; Ketter, Terence A

    2016-08-01

    Although current irritability and current/prior anxiety have been associated in unipolar depression, these relationships are less well understood in bipolar disorder (BD). We investigated relationships between current irritability and current/prior anxiety as well as other current emotions and BD illness characteristics. Outpatients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorders Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation. Prevalence and clinical correlates of current irritability and current/prior anxiety and other illness characteristics were examined. Among 497 BD outpatients (239 Type I, 258 Type II; 58.1% female; mean ± SD age 35.6 ± 13.1 years), 301 (60.6%) had baseline current irritability. Patients with versus without current irritability had significantly higher rates of current anxiety (77.1% versus 42.9%, p anxiety disorder (73.1% versus 52.6%, p anxiety than to current anhedonia, sadness, or euphoria (all p anxiety associations persisted across current predominant mood states. Current irritability was more robustly related to past anxiety than to all other assessed illness characteristics, including 1° family history of mood disorder, history of alcohol/substance use disorder, bipolar subtype, and current syndromal/subsyndromal depression (all p anxiety. Further studies are warranted to assess longitudinal clinical implications of relationships between irritability and anxiety in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    .01). CONCLUSIONS: EUROCAT could detect increases in the prevalence of microcephaly from the Zika virus of a similar magnitude to those observed in Brazil. Because of the rarity of microcephaly and discrepant diagnostic criteria, however, the smaller increases expected in Europe would probably not be detected...

  13. [Rotator cuff tear athropathy prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Valero-González, F S

    2017-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis secondary to massive rotator cuff tear presents with a superior displacement and femoralization of the humeral head with coracoacromial arch acetabularization. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of rotator cuff tear artropathy (CTA) at our institution. Four hundred electronic records were reviewed from which we identified 136 patients with rotator cuff tears. A second group was composed with patients with massive cuff tears that were analized and staged by the Seebauer cuff tear arthropathy classification. Thirty four patients with massive rotator cuff tears were identified, 8 male and 26 female (age 60.1 ± 10.26 years). Massive rotator cuff tear prevalence was 25%. CTA prevalence found in the rotator cuff group was 19 and 76% in the massive cuff tears group. Patients were staged according to the classification with 32% in stage 1a, 11% 1b, 32% 2a and 0% 2b. CTA prevalence in patients with rotator cuff tears and massive cuff tears is higher than the one reported in American population. We consider that a revision of the Seebauer classification to be appropriate to determine its reliability.

  14. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  15. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Agueda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  16. Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in treated effluents and receiving water bodies and their potential health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Teklehaimanot, GZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available in developing countries for multiple purposes, which include drinking, recreation and agriculture. The current study investigated the prevalence and potential health risks of enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio...

  17. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  18. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  19. Assessment of health impacts of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is among the leading risk factors for chronic disease and early death in developed countries, including Denmark, where smoking causes 14% of the disease burden. In Denmark, many public health interventions, including smoking prevention, are undertaken by the municipalities......, but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......, and cessation and re-initiation rates among adults, which reduced the smoking prevalence to 4% by 2025, would have large beneficial effects on incidence and prevalence of smoking-related diseases and mortality. Health benefits could also be obtained through interventions targeting only cessation or re...

  20. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among women born in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jytte Lindskov; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Greenlanders and to evaluate the quality of the current screening procedure for gestational diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Observational retrospective study of consecutive birth-log data and medical records on pregnant....... However, only 54% of those women were screened. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was calculated to be 4.3% among high-risk Greenlandic pregnant women (2/46) (95% CI 0-10.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a suboptimal screening rate, the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders seems to be relatively low...... women who had given birth in Nuuk during 2008. METHODS: Information about maternal weight, weight gain in pregnancy, height, blood pressure, result of oral glucose tolerance test, family history of diabetes, smoking and alcohol habits, ethnicity, delivery and birth weight and length was collected...

  1. Superconformal current multiplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailagic, A.

    1982-12-01

    We consider a derivation of a superconformal current multiplet based directly on superconformal algebra. This gives usual multiplet of currents without anomalies, directly in terms of ''improved'' quantities and without reference to a particular Lagrangian model. (author)

  2. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  3. Current thinking on genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2014-02-01

    Genital herpes has a high global prevalence and burden of disease. This manuscript highlights recent advances in our understanding of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Studies demonstrate a changing epidemiological landscape with an increasing proportion of genital herpes cases associated with HSV type 1. There is also growing evidence that the majority of infected individuals exhibit frequent, brief shedding episodes that are most often asymptomatic, which likely contribute to high HSV transmission rates. Given this finding as well as readily available serological assays, some have proposed that routine HSV screening be performed; however, this remains controversial and is not currently recommended. Host immune responses, particularly local CD4 and CD8 T cell activity, are crucial for HSV control and clearance following initial infection, during latency and after reactivation. Prior HSV immunity may also afford partial protection against HSV reinfection and disease. Although HSV vaccine trials have been disappointing to date and existing antiviral medications are limited, novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities are currently in development. Although much remains unknown about genital herpes, improved knowledge of HSV epidemiology, pathogenesis and host immunity may help guide new strategies for disease prevention and control.

  4. Currents on Grassmann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, R.; Ragoucy, E.

    1993-09-01

    Currents are defined on a Grassmann algebra Gr(N) with N generators as distributions on its exterior algebra (using the symmetric wedge product). The currents are interpreted in terms of Z 2 -graded Hochschild cohomology and closed currents in terms of cyclic cocycles (they are particular multilinear forms on Gr(N)). An explicit construction of the vector space of closed currents of degree p on Gr(N) is given by using Berezin integration. (authors). 10 refs

  5. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI or waist (abdominal obesity. Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall participation rate was 41%. Results In men, the prevalences of overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 45.5% and 16.9%, respectively, higher than in women (28.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (waist ≥102 in men and ≥88 cm in women was higher in women than in men (30.6% vs. 23.9%. Obesity and abdominal obesity increased with age and decreased with higher educational level in both genders. In women, the prevalence of obesity was lower among former and current smokers, whereas in men the prevalence of obesity was higher in former smokers but did not differ between current and never smokers. Multivariate analysis showed age to be positively related, and education and physical activity to be negatively related with obesity and abdominal obesity in both genders, whereas differential effects of smoking were found between genders. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher than BMI-derived obesity in the Swiss population. Women presented with more abdominal obesity than men. The association between smoking and obesity levels appears to differ between genders.

  6. Eddy current seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emson, C.R.I.

    1988-11-01

    The paper presents the fifth symposium in the series of Eddy Current Seminars, held in Abingdon, 1988. The meeting included a discussion on three-dimensional eddy current formulations, as well as thirteen contributed papers on computational electromagnetics. Of the thirteen papers, two papers on eddy currents in tokamaks were selected for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  7. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M

    2017-01-01

    admitted the same day. The single most common painful procedure named by the children was needle procedures, such as blood draw and intravenous cannulation. CONCLUSION: This study reveals high pain prevalence in children across all age groups admitted to four Danish university hospitals. The majority......BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...

  8. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  9. Prevalent knee pain and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of knee pain in active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. MEASUREMENTS: 339 athletes gave information about occupation, sports activity and different features of knee pain, based...... on a self-filled questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of knee pain within the preceding 12 months, constant or recurrent knee pain, absence from sport and absence from work due to knee pain, was 54%, 34%, 19% and 4%, respectively. Knee pain was positively associated with years of jogging...... and with weekly hours of participation in competitive gymnastics but negatively with weekly hours of tennis. Constant or recurrent knee pain was positively associated with years of swimming. Absence from sport due to knee pain was positively associated with weekly hours of soccer participation. CONCLUSIONS: Knee...

  10. Insomnia: prevalence and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Cátia; Lopes, Daniela; Ferreira, Sofia; Correia, Teresa; Pinto, Isabel C.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays sleep disorders are very common and affect most of the population, the most common may be insomnia. Insomnia is defined as the difficulty of initiating or maintaining sleep it, may also be reflected in an early wake up and by the presence of a non-restful sleep and it is associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning of the individual. Knowing the prevalence and the associated factors of insomnia. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The pop...

  11. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  12. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Current and Current Fluctuations in Quantum Shuttles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Flindt, Christian; Novotny, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    theoretical tools needed for the analysis, e.g., generalized master equations and Wigner functions, and we outline the methods how the resulting large numerical problems can be handled. Illustrative results are given for current, noise, and full counting statistics for a number of model systems. Throughout...... the review we focus on the physics behind the various approximations, and some simple examples are given to illustrate the theoretical concepts. We also comment on the experimental situation. ©2005 American Institute of Physics...

  14. Prevalence of cognitive impairment in major depression and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Katie M; Gallagher, Peter; Robinson, Lucy J; Carter, Janet D; McIntosh, Virginia Vw; Frampton, Christopher Ma; Watson, Stuart; Young, Allan H; Ferrier, I Nicol; Porter, Richard J

    2018-05-01

    The current study examines prevalence of cognitive impairment in four mood disorder samples, using four definitions of impairment. The impact of premorbid IQ on prevalence was examined, and the influence of treatment response. Samples were: (i) 58 inpatients in a current severe depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar), (ii) 69 unmedicated outpatients in a mild to moderate depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar), (iii) 56 outpatients with bipolar disorder, in a depressive episode, and (iv) 63 outpatients with bipolar disorder, currently euthymic. Cognitive assessment was conducted after treatment in Studies 1 (6 weeks of antidepressant treatment commenced on admission) and 2 (16-week course of cognitive behaviour therapy or schema therapy), allowing the impact of treatment response to be assessed. All mood disorder samples were compared with healthy control groups. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was highest for the inpatient depression sample (Study 1), and lowest for the outpatient depression sample (Study 2). Substantial variability in rates was observed depending on the definition of impairment used. Correcting cognitive performance for premorbid IQ had a significant impact on the prevalence of cognitive impairment in the inpatient depression sample. There was minimal evidence that treatment response impacted on prevalence of cognitive impairment, except in the domain of psychomotor speed in inpatients. As interventions aiming to improve cognitive outcomes in mood disorders receive increasing research focus, the issue of setting a cut-off level of cognitive impairment for screening purposes becomes a priority. This analysis demonstrates important differences in samples likely to be recruited depending on the definition of cognitive impairment and begins to examine the importance of premorbid IQ in determining who is impaired. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  16. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  17. Mapping Historic Hookworm Disease Prevalence in the Southern Us, Comparing Percent Prevalence with Percent Soil Drainage Type Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice L. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of Historic US Hookworm prevalence data from the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission (early 1900s using current GIS (Geographic Information System software (county shape files illustrates the extremely high prevalence of hookworm disease (Uncariasis in the Southeastern US at the time. Some counties in 7 states recorded 50% to 100% of the population with positive screens for hookworm in a monumental surveillance and treatment campaign. Narrative descriptions mentioned higher prevalence in “sand districts” vs. “clay districts”. In order to validate this description for historic data, further GIS databases (STATSGO were used to classify and quantify the % acreage in Eastern North Carolina falling into moderately- to well-drained soil types. These were then mapped and compared with the historic prevalence data. Most severely infested counties had at least 50% moderately to well-drained soil. Further analysis on soil data for other states with “coastal plains” could provide more background information on Environmental conditions for hookworm prevalence and distribution in US history. “Since history has no properly scientific value, its only purpose is educative. And if historians neglect to educate the public, if they fail to interest it intelligently in the past, then all their historical learning is valueless except in so far as it educates themselves”. Trevelyan, (1922.

  18. Prevalence and demographic factors of smoking in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejjari, Chakib; Benjelloun, Mohamed Chakib; Berraho, Mohamed; El Rhazi, Karima; Tachfouti, Nabil; Elfakir, Samira; Serhier, Zineb; Slama, Karen

    2009-01-01

    To study the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking in Morocco. A sample of 9,195 individuals aged 15-90 years, were randomly selected, using a stratified cluster sampling technique. A cross-sectional, household, community-based survey was conducted using a tested questionnaire. The interview covered personal, social and educational characteristics of the respondents and their smoking status. The association between current smoking and sociodemographic variables was estimated. The overall prevalence of current smoking was 31.5% for males and 3.1% for females. In men, smoking was associated with lower educational level. In women, it was associated with higher educational level and social class. Cigarette smoking remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A comprehensive strategy for tobacco control is needed.

  19. Current limiter circuit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  20. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  1. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period 1987 - 1989. Prevalence rates were low to moderate with an overaJl prevalence of 42%. These ranged from approximately 10% in the low-prevalence ... PH. DC. C. C. Appieton. PI-lD. Department of Zoology, University of Tr

  2. Purely leptonic currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdin, M.

    1976-01-01

    In most gauge theories weak neutral currents appear as a natural consequence of the models, but the specific properties are not predicted in a general way. In purely leptonic interactions the structure of these currents can be tested without making assumptions about the weak couplings of the hadrons. The influence of neutral currents appearing in the process e + e - → μ + μ - can be measured using the polarization of the outgoing myons. (BJ) [de

  3. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  4. Superconducting current generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, P.

    1970-01-01

    After a brief summary of the principle of energy storage and liberation with superconducting coils,two current generators are described that create currents in the range 600 to 1400 A, used for two storage experiments of 25 kJ and 50 kJ respectively. The two current generators are: a) a flux pump and b) a superconducting transformer. Both could be developed into more powerful units. The study shows the advantage of the transformer over the flux pump in order to create large currents. The efficiencies of the two generators are 95 per cent and 40 to 60 per cent respectively. (author) [fr

  5. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  6. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  7. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  8. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A; Laird, J S; Bardos, R A; Legge, G J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T; Sekiguchi, H [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1994-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  12. HIV in Indian prisons: Risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background & Objectives: HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Methods: Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered...

  13. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, Johnny L

    2009-01-01

    Johnny L GaytonEyesight Associates, Warner Robins, GA, USAPurpose: This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women.Method: A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms “dry eye” and “women” were searched in combination with one or more of the follo...

  14. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages and associated factors among Israeli Bedouins

    OpenAIRE

    Na’amnih, Wasef; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Kabaha, Ahmed; Rubin, Liza Pollack; Bilenko, Natalya; Jaber, Lutfi; Honovich, Mira; Shohat, Tamy

    2014-01-01

    The Bedouin population in Israel is a semi-nomadic traditional patriarchal society. Consanguineous marriages are very common, contributing to high rates of congenital malformations and genetic diseases, resulting in high infant mortality. Data on consanguineous marriages among Bedouins in Israel are limited. This study examined the current prevalence of consanguineous marriages and their determinants among Israeli Bedouins. One thousand two hundred ninety Bedouin women who delivered in the ma...

  15. The prevalence of eating disorders not otherwise specified

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paulo P. P.; Machado, Bárbara César; Gonçalves, Sónia; Hoek, Hans W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2028 female students, aged 12 to 23, attending public schools in the 9th to 12th grades in Portugal. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire in Stage 1 of the study. In Stage 2, we selected a...

  16. Diabetes incidence and projections from prevalence surveys in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Lin, Sophia; Tukana, Isimeli; Linhart, Christine; Taylor, Richard; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul

    2016-11-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness. Prevalence estimates were then used to calculate T2DM incidence based on birth cohorts from the age-period (Lexis) matrix following the Styblo technique, first used to estimate annual risk of tuberculosis infection (incidence) from sequential Mantoux population surveys. Poisson regression of year, age, sex, and ethnicity strata (n = 160) was used to develop projections of T2DM prevalence and incidence to 2020 based on various scenarios of population weight measured by body mass index (BMI) change. T2DM prevalence and annual incidence increased in Fiji over 1980-2011. Prevalence was higher in Indians and men than i-Taukei and women. Incidence was higher in Indians and women. From regression analyses, absolute reductions of 2.6 to 5.1% in T2DM prevalence (13-26% lower), and 0.5-0.9 per 1000 person-years in incidence (8-14% lower), could be expected in 2020 in adults if mean population weight could be reduced by 1-4 kg, compared to the current period trend in weight gain. This is the first application of the Styblo technique to calculate T2DM incidence from population-based prevalence surveys over time. Reductions in population BMI are predicted to reduce T2DM incidence and prevalence in Fiji among adults aged 25-64 years.

  17. High current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  18. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  19. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Moll

    Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  20. Turbidity Current Bedforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Postma, G.

    2017-01-01

    Turbidity currents in the submarine seascape are what river flows are in terrestrial landscapes. While rivers transport sediment from the mountains through valleys towards the sea, turbidity currents transport sediment from the shallow marine realms through canyons towards the deeper abyssal plains.

  1. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  2. Prevalence of renal uric acid stones in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted. Out of them, 79 papers were selected after the reading of the titles and of the abstracts. For ten countries, papers relating to both the renal stone prevalence in the general population and the frequency of uric stones were available. Additional search produced 13 papers that completed information on 11 more countries in 5 continents. Estimated prevalence rate of uric acid stones was >0.75% in Thailand, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, South Africa (white population), United States and Australia; ranged 0.50-0.75% in Turkey, Israel, Italy, India (Southern), Spain, Taiwan, Germany, Brazil; and uric acid stone formation. A hot and dry climate increases fluid losses reducing urinary volume and urinary pH. A diet rich in meat protein causes low urinary pH and increased uric acid excretion. On the other hand, uric acid stone formation is frequently associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2 that are linked to dietary energy excess mainly from carbohydrate and saturated fat and also present with low urine pH values. An epidemic of uric acid stone formation could be if current nutritional trends will be maintained both in developed countries and in developing countries and the areas of greater climatic risk for the formation of uric acid stones will enlarge as result of the "global warming".

  3. Prevalence of cam hip shape morphology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, E; Wall, P D H; Robinson, B; Fernandez, M; Parsons, H; Buchbinder, R; Griffin, D R

    2016-06-01

    Cam hip shape morphology is a recognised cause of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and is associated with hip osteoarthritis. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological evidence assessing the prevalence of cam hip shape morphology in the general population and any studied subgroups including subjects with and without hip pain. All studies that reported the prevalence of cam morphology, measured by alpha angles, in subjects aged 18 and over, irrespective of study population or presence of hip symptoms were considered for inclusion. We searched AMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and CENTRAL in October 2015. Two authors independently identified eligible studies and assessed risk of bias. We planned to pool data of studies considered clinically homogenous. Thirty studies met inclusion criteria. None of the included studies were truly population-based: three included non-representative subgroups of the general population, 19 included differing clinical populations, while eight included professional athletes. All studies were judged to be at high risk of bias. Due to substantial clinical heterogeneity meta analysis was not possible. Across all studies, the prevalence estimates of cam morphology ranged from 5 to 75% of participants affected. We were unable to demonstrate a higher prevalence in selected subgroups such as athletes or those with hip pain. There is currently insufficient high quality data to determine the true prevalence of cam morphology in the general population or selected subgroups. Well-designed population-based epidemiological studies that use homogenous case definitions are required to determine the prevalence of cam morphology and its relationship to hip pain. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  5. Target-present guessing as a function of target prevalence and accumulated information in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Chad; Becker, Mark W

    2017-05-01

    Target prevalence influences visual search behavior. At low target prevalence, miss rates are high and false alarms are low, while the opposite is true at high prevalence. Several models of search aim to describe search behavior, one of which has been specifically intended to model search at varying prevalence levels. The multiple decision model (Wolfe & Van Wert, Current Biology, 20(2), 121--124, 2010) posits that all searches that end before the observer detects a target result in a target-absent response. However, researchers have found very high false alarms in high-prevalence searches, suggesting that prevalence rates may be used as a source of information to make "educated guesses" after search termination. Here, we further examine the ability for prevalence level and knowledge gained during visual search to influence guessing rates. We manipulate target prevalence and the amount of information that an observer accumulates about a search display prior to making a response to test if these sources of evidence are used to inform target present guess rates. We find that observers use both information about target prevalence rates and information about the proportion of the array inspected prior to making a response allowing them to make an informed and statistically driven guess about the target's presence.

  6. Prevalência do aleitamento materno Prevalence of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Pinto da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os indicadores de aleitamento materno em consultórios particulares e centros de saúde no município de Lins, SP, e comparar a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo dessa região com a encontrada em outras pesquisas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com amostra aleatória de 255 crianças de quatro a doze meses de idade, estratificada por sexo, condição socioeconômica e escolaridade dos pais. Foram avaliados os indicadores de aleitamento materno em dois grupos de crianças: as acompanhadas em consultórios particulares e as acompanhadas em centros de saúde. Foram utilizados questionários respondidos pelos responsáveis. Os dados desta pesquisa foram comparados aos de outros estudos. RESULTADOS: Apesar de haver diferenças significativas nas condições de renda, estrato social e escolaridade dos pais, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de aleitamento materno entre os dois grupos. No grupo total, a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo aos quatro meses foi de 61,1% e a mediana de aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 120 dias. Os resultados foram superiores aos dos demais estudos consultados. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram diferenças relacionadas às condições socioeconômicas, porém, os índices de aleitamento materno foram semelhantes entre os dois grupos. Os resultados de aleitamento materno exclusivo foram superiores aos das demais pesquisas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the breastfeeding indicators registered for two groups of infants in the city of Lins, São Paulo, Brazil. To compare the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in this area with data found in other studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a random sample of 255 infants between 4 and 12 months of age, found in two groups: the infants attended at private medical offices, and those attended at the county health care centers of the city of Lins. The subjects were stratified by sex, parental socioeconomic class and

  7. Cryogenic high current discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meierovich, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Z-pinches formed from frozen deuterium fibers by a rapidly rising current have enhanced stability and high neutron yield. The efforts to understand the enhanced stability and neutron yield on the basis of classical picture of Bennett equilibrium of the current channel has not given satisfactory results. The traditional approach does not take into account the essential difference between the frozen deuterium fiber Z-pinches and the usual Z-pinches such as exploding wires or classical gas-puffed Z-pinches. The very low temperature of the fiber atoms (10 K), together with the rapidly rising current, result in the coexistence of a high current channel with unionized fiber atoms for a substantial period of time. This phenomena lasts during the risetime. This approach takes into account the difference of the breakdown in a dielectric deuterium fiber and the breakdown in a metallic wire. This difference is essential to the understanding of specific features of cryogenic high current discharges. Z-pinches in frozen deuterium fibers should be considered as a qualitatively new phenomenon on the boundary of cryogenic and high current physics. It is a start of a new branch in plasma physics: the physics of cryogenic high current discharges

  8. Current density tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that nonsymmetric second-rank current density tensors, related to the current densities induced by magnetic fields and nuclear magnetic dipole moments, are fundamental properties of a molecule. Together with magnetizability, nuclear magnetic shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, they completely characterize its response to magnetic perturbations. Gauge invariance, resolution into isotropic, deviatoric, and antisymmetric parts, and contributions of current density tensors to magnetic properties are discussed. The components of the second-rank tensor properties are rationalized via relationships explicitly connecting them to the direction of the induced current density vectors and to the components of the current density tensors. The contribution of the deviatoric part to the average value of magnetizability, nuclear shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, uniquely determined by the antisymmetric part of current density tensors, vanishes identically. The physical meaning of isotropic and anisotropic invariants of current density tensors has been investigated, and the connection between anisotropy magnitude and electron delocalization has been discussed.

  9. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  10. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  11. Opinions on Current Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents eight reviews of current books, covering issues of particular interest to black educators and historians. Topics considered include slavery, college admissions and affirmative action, the marginalization of black scientists, black politics, bigotry, and higher education. (SLD)

  12. CURRENT TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, D.A.

    1956-07-01

    A current transfer system is described for transferring current between a rotating member and a co-axial stationary member. The particular area of application for the invention is in connection with homopolar generators where a low voltage and high current are generated. The current tramsfer system of the invention comprises a rotor member and a co-axial stator member wherein one of the members is shaped to provide a circumferential surface concave in section and the other member is shaped to have a peripheral portion in close proximity to the surface, whereby a liquid metal can be stably supported between the two members when they are moving relative to one another to establish an electrical conducting path between the members.

  13. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  14. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  15. Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Characteristics and Perceptions of the Medicare Population Data from the 2010 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey is a series of source books based on the...

  16. [Prevalence and user profile of electronic cigarettes in Spain (2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Ballbè, Montse; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Esteve

    To describe the prevalence and user profile of electronic cigarettes among Spanish adults and evaluate the potential dual use of these devices with combustible or conventional tobacco in 2014 in Spain. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish adult (16-75 years old) population (n=1,016). A computer-assisted telephone survey was conducted in 2014. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the use of electronic cigarettes stratified by gender, age, tobacco consumption and social status were calculated. The sample was weighted and a logistic regression model adjusted to obtain the crude odds ratios (OR) adjusted by gender, age and social status. 10.3% (95% CI: 8.6-12.4) of the Spanish adult population stated being ever users of electronic cigarettes (2% current users, 3.2% past users and 5.1% experimental users). Among current electronic cigarette users, 57.2% also smoked combustible or conventional tobacco, 28% had never smoked and 14.8% were former smokers. The prevalence of electronic cigarette use was higher in the younger population (adjusted OR=23.8; 95% CI: 2.5-227.7) and smokers of combustible tobacco (adjusted OR=10.1; 95% CI: 5.8-17.5). The use of electronic cigarettes in Spain is scarce and is most prevalent among young people and tobacco smokers. Nevertheless, one out of four current electronic cigarette users have never smoked. Hence, the regulation of these devices should be reinforced to avoid a possible gateway to nicotine products among never smokers. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  18. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  19. Eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan; Shin, Young Kil

    2004-02-01

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants

  20. Current Issues in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Shi; Martinez, Larry R.; Hubert, Van Hoof; Tews, Michael; Torres, Leonardo; Farfán, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Ram (2015 Ram, Y. (2015). Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar] . Hostility or hospitality? A review on violence, bullying and sexual harassment in the tourism and hospitality industry. Current Issues in Tourism. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1064364) posits that violence and harassment are areas of concern...

  1. Simple WZW currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1990-08-01

    A complete classification of simple currents of WZW theory is obtained. The proof is based on an analysis of the quantum dimensions of the primary fields. Simple currents are precisely the primaries with unit quantum dimension; for WZW theories explicit formulae for the quantum dimensions can be derived so that an identification of the fields with unit quantum dimension is possible. (author). 19 refs.; 2 tabs

  2. Current level detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a dc signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference ac signal is applied. The unknown dc signal acts on the reference ac signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown dc current. The device may be used to provide overcurrent protection for proportional wire chambers

  3. Induced current heating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  4. Superconducting current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Ozelis, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    The construction and performance of an electric current meter that operates in liquid He and mechanically splits apart to permit replacement of the current carrying conductor is described. It permits the measurement of currents induced in a loop of superconducting cable and expeditious exchange of such loops. It is a key component for a short sample cable testing facility that requires no high current power supplies nor high current leads. Its superconducting pickup circuit involves a non-magnetic core toroidal split-coil that surrounds the conductor and a solenoid whose field is sensed by a Hall probe. This toroidal split-coil is potted inside another compensating toroidal split-coil. The C shaped half toroids can be separated and brought precisely together from outside the cryostat. The Hall probe is energized and sensed by a lock-in amplifier whose output drives a bipolar power supply which feeds the compensating coil. The output is the voltage across a resistor in this feedback circuit. Currents of up to 10 kA can be measured with a precision of 150 mA. 3 refs., 4 figs

  5. [Prevalence of barriers for physical activity in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mariana Silva; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Rodriguez-Añez, Ciro Romélio

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and association of barriers to physical activity among adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated a representative sample of public high school students in Curitiba-PR, Brazil. A total of 1,609 school adolescents (59.7% male) between 14 and 18 years of age answered a questionnaire on physical activity status and barriers to physical activity. Logistic regressions were conducted for each barrier investigated to verify the association between the prevalence of barriers and physical activity, adjusting for confounding variables (age and socioeconomic status). Analyses were done separately for boys and girls. Only 22% of boys and 9% of girls achieved the current physical activity recommendation. Among the 12 barriers investigated, only "there is nobody to take" did not differ between boys and girls. The perception of barriers was higher for girls than boys (p barriers. "Lack of friends company" and "feel lazy" were the barriers most often reported by boys (30.4%) and girls (51.8%) respectively; however, the barrier most strongly associated with prevalence of physical inactivity was "prefer to do other things" for both boys (OR = 5.02 (2.69 - 9.37); p barriers for the practice of physical activity were more prevalent in girls and differed as to the extent of importance between genders.

  6. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and Polysomnographic Correlates of Insomnia Comorbid with Medical Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhiraja, Rohit; Roth, Thomas; Hudgel, David W.; Budhiraja, Pooja; Drake, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia in subjects with self-reported medical disorders. Design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants: Community-based sample of 3282 men and women aged 18 to 65 years old, with a subset who underwent polysomnography. Measurements: Self-reported measures of sleep habits and current health, and polysomnographic sleep variables. Results: The prevalence of insomnia was 21.4%. The adjusted odds of insomnia were 2.2 times as high in persons with any medical disorders as in those without medical disorders. Specifically, odds of insomnia were higher in people with heart disease (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2-23], P = 0.004), hypertension (1.5 [12-18], P insomnia increased with increasing number of medical disorders. However, polysomnographic sleep was not significantly different in persons with or without medical disorders for most disorders assessed. Conclusion: This large population-based study suggests that insomnia is highly prevalent in diverse chronic medical disorders. However, polysomnographic evidence of disturbed sleep is present in only a subset of comorbid insomnia populations. Citation: Budhiraja R; Roth T; Hudgel DW; Budhiraja P; Drake CL. Prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia comorbid with medical disorders. SLEEP 2011;34(7):859-867. PMID:21731135

  8. Questionnaire survey of disease prevalence and veterinary treatments in organic layer husbandry in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Disease prevalence and veterinary treatments in organic animal production differ from those in conventional systems. In order to gather information about current current practices in organic layer husbandry, 33 organic egg producers of 16 small, 12 medium-sized and 5 large farms were asked to

  9. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedl L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lina Riedl,1 Ian R Mackenzie,2 Hans Förstl,1 Alexander Kurz,1 Janine Diehl-Schmid1 1Center for Cognitive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Abstract: The term frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD refers to a group of progressive brain diseases, which preferentially involve the frontal and temporal lobes. Depending on the primary site of atrophy, the clinical manifestation is dominated by behavior alterations or impairment of language. The onset of symptoms usually occurs before the age of 60 years, and the mean survival from diagnosis varies between 3 and 10 years. The prevalence is estimated at 15 per 100,000 in the population aged between 45 and 65 years, which is similar to the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in this age group. There are two major clinical subtypes, behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia. The neuropathology underlying the clinical syndromes is also heterogeneous. A common feature is the accumulation of certain neuronal proteins. Of these, the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT, the transactive response DNA-binding protein, and the fused in sarcoma protein are most important. Approximately 10% to 30% of FTLD shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, with mutations in the genes for MAPT, progranulin (GRN, and in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72 accounting for more than 80% of familial cases. Although significant advances have been made in recent years regarding diagnostic criteria, clinical assessment instruments, neuropsychological tests, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and brain imaging techniques, the clinical diagnosis remains a challenge. To date, there is no specific pharmacological treatment for FTLD. Some evidence has been provided for serotonin reuptake

  10. Regional Wave Climates along Eastern Boundary Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Two types of wind-generated gravity waves coexist at the ocean surface: wind sea and swell. Wind sea waves are waves under growing process. These young growing waves receive energy from the overlaying wind and are strongly coupled to the local wind field. Waves that propagate away from their generation area and no longer receive energy input from the local wind are called swell. Swell waves can travel long distances across entire ocean basins. A qualitative study of the ocean waves from a locally vs. remotely generation perspective is important, since the air sea interaction processes is strongly modulated by waves and vary accordingly to the prevalence of wind sea or swell waves in the area. A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves along eastern boundary currents (EBC; California Current, Canary Current, in the Northern Hemisphere, and Humboldt Current, Benguela Current, and Western Australia Current, in the Southern Hemisphere), based on the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis will be presented. The wind regime along EBC varies significantly from winter to summer. The high summer wind speeds along EBC generate higher locally generated wind sea waves, whereas lower winter wind speeds in these areas, along with stronger winter extratropical storms far away, lead to a predominance of swell waves there. In summer, the coast parallel winds also interact with coastal headlands, increasing the wind speed through a process called "expansion fan", which leads to an increase in the height of locally generated waves downwind of capes and points. Hence the spatial patterns of the wind sea or swell regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean along EBC, due to coastal geometry and fetch dimensions. Swell waves will be shown to be considerably more prevalent and to carry more energy in winter along EBC, while in summer locally generated wind sea waves are either more comparable to swell waves or

  11. Mental and psychosocial health among current and former professional footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, V; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2015-04-01

    In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental health problems and psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers, and to explore the association between psychosocial stressors and the health conditions studied. Based on validated scales, a paper and electronic questionnaire was developed for current and former professional footballers and distributed by the World Footballers' Union (FIFPro) and players' unions in six countries. Prevalence was calculated and cross-sectional analyses were conducted. The response rate was 29% with 253 responses available for analysis. The prevalence of mental health complaints ranged from 5% (burnout) to 26% (anxiety/depression) in 149 current players and from 16% (burnout) to 39% (anxiety/depression) in 104 former footballers. The prevalence of psychosocial problems ranged from 3% (low self-esteem) to 26% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in current players and from 5% (low self-esteem) to 42% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in former footballers. In both current and former players, mental health problems were significantly associated with low social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1) and recent life events (OR = 1.4-1.6). In former players, previous surgery was significantly associated with smoking (OR = 1.9). The prevalence of mental health problems and/or psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers was found to be high. The presence of mental health problems was associated with low social support and recent life events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  13. Prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity in Danish schoolchildren: no change over 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zilmer, Monica; Steen, Nick Phaff; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    Aim:  To describe the point prevalence of current physician-diagnosed asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in 2001 among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years, compared with the prevalence from a similar study from 1990 to 1991. Methods:  Cross-sectional study using parental ques......-diagnosed asthma and BHR among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years was unchanged over 10 years between 1990-1991 and 2001.......Aim:  To describe the point prevalence of current physician-diagnosed asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in 2001 among unselected Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years, compared with the prevalence from a similar study from 1990 to 1991. Methods:  Cross-sectional study using parental...

  14. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  15. Prevalence of sarcoidosis in Switzerland is associated with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubelbeiss, U; Gemperli, A; Schindler, C; Baty, F; Brutsche, M H

    2010-05-01

    The current study aimed to investigate incidence, prevalence and regional distribution of sarcoidosis in Switzerland with respect to environmental exposures. All sarcoidosis patients hospitalised between 2002 and 2005 were identified from the Swiss hospital statistics from the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics (Neuchâtel, Switzerland). Regional exposure characteristics included the regional distribution of different industrial sectors, agriculture and air quality. Co-inertia analysis, as well as a generalised linear model, was applied. The prevalence of "ever-in-life" diagnosed sarcoidosis, currently active sarcoidosis and sarcoidosis requiring hospitalisation was 121 (95% CI 93-149), 44 (95% CI 34-54) and 16 (95% CI 10-22) per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The mean annual incidence of sarcoidosis was 7 (95% CI 5-11) per 100,000 inhabitants. The regional workforce in the metal industry, water supply, air transport factories and the area of potato production, artificial meadows (grassland) and bread grains were positively associated with the frequency of sarcoidosis. The prevalence of sarcoidosis was higher than assumed based on former international estimates. Higher frequency was found in regions with metal industry and intense agriculture, especially production of potatoes, bread grains and artificial meadows.

  16. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan BR

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either “typical” or “atypical”. In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  17. Prevalence of disability in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Banurekha; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Mehendale, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Information on disability is essential for the government to formulate policies, allocate adequate resources and implement appropriate programmes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of disability and describe the types of disability by gender, age and geographical regions in Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the 2011 Census cross-sectional survey data of Tamil Nadu. Age-adjusted disability rates and disability rates per 100 000 population were calculated. There were 1 179 963 disabled individuals in Tamil Nadu in 2011, a disability rate of 1635 per 100 000 population. Disability in movement, hearing and sight individually accounted for 24%, 19% and 11% of the total disability, respectively. Sixteen districts had disability rates above the state average. As age advanced, disability rates increased; the highest disability rate of 2533 per 100 000 was among people aged 60 years and above. The disability rates were higher in males compared to females (1819 v. 1451 per 100 000). Rural areas had higher disability areas compared to urban (1670 v. 1599 per 100 000). Currently married, working populations and literate populations had lower disability rates. Disability rate in the Scheduled Castes was higher at 1763 per 100 000 compared to the Scheduled Tribes and other social groups. Multiple disability was high in the age groups 0-19 years and 60 years and above. Physical or mental disability was observed in 1.6% of the population of Tamil Nadu. Research is warranted to identify underlying causes and interventions to reduce the burden of disability in the state.

  18. Youth with Disabilities in the Corrections System: Prevalence Rates and Identification Issues. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Cindy Wheeler; Griller-Clark, Heather M.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, reviews current data on disabilities requiring special education and related supports. Statistics on the prevalence of juvenile crime are followed by statistics on the prevalence of special education disabilities in the system, specifically specific…

  19. Currents along the Tsitsikamma coast, South Africa, and potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential net monthly displacements calculated for three depths (5m, 23m and 31m) indicate that passive, neutrally buoyant biological material (e.g. squid ... Wind-driven coastal upwelling, prevalent during the summer, causes the surface layer of the coastal counter-current to flow offshore for several days, resulting in ...

  20. Electric current - frequency converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumahara, Tadashi; Kinbana, Setsuro.

    1967-01-01

    Herein disclosed is an improved simple electric current-frequency converter, the input current and output frequency linearity of which is widened to a range of four to five figures while compensating, for temperature. The converter may be used for computor processing and for telemetering the output signals from a nuclear reactor. The converter is an astable multivibrator which includes charging circuits comprising emitter-voltage compensated NPN transistors, a charged voltage detecting circuit of temperature compensated field effect transistors, and a transistor switching circuit for generating switching pulses independent of temperature. The converter exhibited a 0.7% frequency change within a range of 5 - 45 0 C and less than a 0.1% frequency drift after six hours of operation when the input current was maintained constant. (Yamaguchi, T.)

  1. Decomposing the Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tim

    The field of molecular electronics have been shown to span a huge range of properties. In an effort to extract the parameters of the system that governs these properties, a number of methods that decomposes the current have been developed. These methods function not just as tools for data...... extraction, but also serves as the foundation upon which to gain insights into the physics that governs the molecular properties. As such, the understanding of the applicability and the development of new methods to decompose the current may be a goal in it self. In this thesis we will explore some...... of these methods, and use the insights from this study to develop new methods. First, we will compare two methods that decompose the current into the transmission from a single conducting level of the molecular device, by extracting level position and broadening. In general we see that the method that relies on I...

  2. Current algebra for parafields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, Ch.D.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of the Lagrangean QFT a generalization of canonical commutation and anticommutation relations in terms of three-linear commutation relations, corresponding to the parastatistics, s discussed. A detailed derivation of these three-linear relations for a set of parafermi fields is presented. Then for a Lagrangean, depending of a family of parabose fields and a family of paraferm fields, is shown that the fundamental hypothesis of current algebra is valid. In other words, the currents corresponding to the linear gauge transformations are found to meet the commutation relation: [Jsub(f)sup(0)(x), Jsub(g)sup(0)]sub(x 0 =y 0 ) = -idelta(x vector - y vector)Jsub([f,g])sup(0) (x), where Jsub(f)sup(0) is a time component of the current, corresponding to transformation f. (S.P.)

  3. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Iranian School Children in Different Ethnicities

    OpenAIRE

    Bibiseyedeh Rezaeian; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Rahmatollah Hafezi; Seyed-Jalil Mirmohammadi; Hamed Akbari

    2011-01-01

    Objective Malnutrition, overweight and obesity are major health concerns in modern societies and especially among children. Overweight and obesity affect children's current and future health. It is known that the prevalence of overweight differs by race, sex, and geographic location. Methods In a cross-sectional study 30092 Iranian children aged 7-18 years in six ethnic groups were selected by a cluster sampling. Prevalence of obesity and overweight and distribution of body mass index (BMI) b...

  4. Prevalence and associated risk factors of chronic bronchitis in First Nations people

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, Punam; Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Lawson, Joshua A.; Ramsden, Vivian R.; McMullin, Kathleen; Gardipy, P. Jenny; MacDonald, Judy; Abonyi, Sylvia; Episkenew, Jo-Ann; Dosman, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Inadequate housing, low family income, household smoking, personal smoking status, and poor schooling are some of the conditions that have been significantly associated with the prevalence and incidence of chronic bronchitis. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB) and associated risk factors among First Nations people. Methods An interviewer-administered survey was conducted as part of the First Nations Lung Health Project in 2012 an...

  5. Pain is prevalent among adolescents and equally related to stress across genders

    OpenAIRE

    Østerås, Berit; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background Young people seem increasingly disabled due to pain and stress. Pain and stress are health risks with adverse long-term health effects. Traditionally, these health risks have been most prevalent and strongest associated in females, also regarding children and adolescents. Main objectives in this study were to investigate current gender differences in musculoskeletal pain and perceived stress in adolescents aged 15 and 16 years with respect to prevalence and group differences fo...

  6. Fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  7. The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Mackie, A.R.; Burney, P.

    2007-01-01

    . The cohorts will also facilitate validation of novel in vitro diagnostics through the development of the EuroPrevall Serum Bank. Complementary studies in Ghana, western Siberia, India and China will allow LIS to gain insights into how different dietary patterns and exposure to microorganisms affect food......The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vitro...... diagnostics make food challenges the only reliable means of diagnosis in many instances. The EuroPrevall project brings together a multidisciplinary partnership to address these issues. Cohorts spanning the main climatic regions of Europe are being developed in infants through a birth cohort, community...

  8. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584

  9. A Systematic Review on the Prevalence of Low Back Pain in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Bello

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context Low back pain (LBP is a common musculoskeletal disorder affecting the general population. The prevalence of LBP varies across the studied populations, geographic areas, and age groups. Evidence Acquisition Prevalence of LBP in Nigeria is largely occupational based. The prevalence differs based on the type of occupation, population, or age group. Therefore, it is necessary to collect data that can help to identify a point or annual prevalence that guides practice and policy making. The databases of PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO were searched from the inception to May, 2016. A strategy was developed to search the databases. Articles were included if they reported the prevalence of LBP in Nigeria. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. Results A total of 103 studies were yielded among which 12 studies were relevant. The 12-month prevalence of LBP was commonly reported, and it was estimated from 32.5% to 73.53%. All of the reviewed studies were occupational based and did not depict a true general population prevalence of LBP. Conclusions The findings of the current review demonstrated a high prevalence of LBP among workers. Future studies with appropriate methodological design on a general population helps to identify the impact of LBP in Nigeria.

  10. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  11. Issues in neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)

  12. [Current overview of cartilage regeneration procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, H; Wild, M; Rath, B; Tingart, M; Driessen, A; Quack, V; Betsch, M

    2017-11-01

    Cartilage is an avascular, alymphatic and non-innervated tissue with limited intrinsic repair potential. The high prevalence of cartilage defects and their tremendous clinical importance are a challenge for all treating physicians. This article provides the reader with an overview about current cartilage treatment options and their clinical outcome. Microfracture is still considered the gold standard in the treatment of small cartilage lesions. Small osteochondral defects can be effectively treated with the autologous osteochondral transplantation system. Larger cartilage defects are successfully treated by autologous membrane-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) or by membrane-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI). Despite limitations of current cartilage repair strategies, such procedures can result in short- and mid-term clinical improvement of the patients. Further developments and clinical studies are necessary to improve the long-term outcome following cartilage repair.

  13. High current induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge

  14. Prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in Chinese gastroenterological outpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Jing Li; Yan-Ling He; Hong Ma; Zhe-Ning Liu; Fu-Jun Jia; Ling Zhang; Lan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the prevalence and physicians'detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China.METHODS:A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13general hospitals.A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results.SubJects with HADS scores ≥ 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses.RESULTS:There were 1059 patients with HADS score ≥ 8 and 674 (63.64%) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists.Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition),the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders,anxiety disorders,and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39%,9.42% and 4.66%,respectively.Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ≥ 1] was 5.84% in women and 1.64% in men.The GI physicians' detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14%.CONCLUSION:While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients,the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low.

  15. Gambling among European professional athletes. Prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Caillon, Julie; Humeau, Elise; Perrot, Bastien; Remaud, Manon; Guilleux, Alice; Rocher, Bruno; Sauvaget, Anne; Bouju, Gaelle

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, the prevalence of gambling disorders in the general population ranges from 0.15 to 6.6%. Professional athletes are known for having risk factors for addictive behaviors, such as young age or sensation seeking, though no study has yet tried to evaluate the prevalence of gambling and gambling disorders among this specific population. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of gambling, problematic or not, among European professional athletes and to explore the factors that are associated with gambling practice and gambling problems in professional athletes. A self-completion questionnaire was specifically designed for this study. The questionnaires were distributed by European Union athletes to professional ice hockey, rugby, handball, basketball, football, indoor football, volleyball, and cricket teams in Spain, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Socio-demographic variables (age, sex, education, marital and parental status, sport, country of birth, and country of practice), variables linked to gambling (gambling habits, screening of gambling problems with the Lie/Bet questionnaire, and gambling related cognitions), and impulsive behavior data (urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking [UPPS]-Short Form questionnaire) were gathered. There were 1,236 questionnaires filled out. The percentage of professional athletes that had gambled at least once during the previous year was 56.6%. The prevalence of problem gambling, current or past, was 8.2%. A certain number of variables were associated with the gambling status. In particular, betting on one's own team (OR = 4.1, CI 95% [1.5-11.5]), betting online (OR = 2.9, CI 95% [1.6-5.4]), gambling regularly (OR = 4.0, CI 95% [2.1-7.6]), and having a high positive urgency score (OR = 1.5, CI 95% [1.3-1.7]) were associated with gambling problems, current or past, among professional athletes. Professional athletes are particularly exposed to both gambling

  16. SOCIAL PHOBIA PREVALENCE IN YOUNGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD REZA ZAMANI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most common psychiatric disorder of new communities are the anxiety disorders. In this survey Isfahans' high school students' social phobia were assessed as an important part of anxiety disorders. Methods & Materials: In this cross sectional study, 500 high school students (250 male, 250 female whom selected by multi-stage cluster and simple random sampling, were enrolled into study. Data collection performed by multiple choice question are and analysis were done by SPSS software with 0.05 significance level. Results: 11 percents of selected students with mean age about 16 Yrs, have had Social Phobia (male=56.4%, female=43.6 % . Parents' education of affected group were higher than non-affected, and birth rank had significant relation with Social Phobia (P = 0.043. Conclusions: Unfortunately in spite of high prevalence of social phobia, It's remain unknown and affected students would have numerous educational and communicational problems because of this disorder, therefore for complications' prevention and on time treatment, its need to inform people and physicians about this disorder and its' diagnose.

  17. Prevalence of Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarki, Ahmed M.; Nduka, Chidozie U.; Stranges, Saverio; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Uthman, Olalekan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of hypertension prevalence, and to examine the pattern of this disease condition across different socio-demographic characteristics in low-and middle-income countries. We searched electronic databases from inception to August 2015. We included population-based studies that reported hypertension prevalence using the current definition of blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. We used random-effects meta-analyses to pool prevalence estimates of hypertension, overall, by World Bank region and country income group. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. A total of 242 studies, comprising data on 1,494,609 adults from 45 countries, met our inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 32.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.4–35.3), with the Latin America and Caribbean region reporting the highest estimates (39.1%, 95% CI 33.1–45.2). Pooled prevalence estimate was also highest across upper middle income countries (37.8%, 95% CI 35.0–40.6) and lowest across low-income countries (23.1%, 95% CI 20.1–26.2). Prevalence estimates were significantly higher in the elderly (≥65 years) compared with younger adults (hypertension prevalence (31.9% vs 30.8%, P = 0.6). Persons without formal education (49.0% vs 24.9%, P hypertensive, compared with those who were educated, normal weight, and rural settlers respectively. This study provides contemporary and up-to-date estimates that reflect the significant burden of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries, as well as evidence that hypertension remains a major public health issue across the various socio-demographic subgroups. On average, about 1 in 3 adults in the developing world is hypertensive. The findings of this study will be useful for the design of hypertension screening and treatment programmes in low- and middle

  18. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  19. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  20. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  1. Increasing autism prevalence in metropolitan New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-02-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder, between 2002 and 2006. The cohorts included 30,570 children, born in 1998 and 28,936 children, born in 1994, residing in Hudson, Union, and Ocean counties, New Jersey. Point prevalence estimates by sex, ethnicity, autism spectrum disorder subtype, and previous autism spectrum disorder diagnosis were determined. For 2006, a total of 533 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, consistent with prevalence of 17.4 per 1000 (95% confidence interval = 15.9-18.9), indicating a significant increase in the autism spectrum disorder prevalence (p autism spectrum disorder was broad, affecting major demographic groups and subtypes. Boys with autism spectrum disorder outnumbered girls by nearly 5:1. Autism spectrum disorder prevalence was higher among White children than children of other ethnicities. Additional studies are needed to specify the influence of better awareness of autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates and to identify possible autism spectrum disorder risk factors. More resources are necessary to address the needs of individuals affected by autism spectrum disorder.

  2. The prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, S.; Kunst, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Over eight years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provisions there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in The Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the lifetime and annual prevalence of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. Questionnaires

  3. Prevalence of gestrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy | Audu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of gestrointestinal symptoms in pregnancy. BM Audu, SK Mustapha. Abstract. Objectives: This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms among healthy pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Methods: Questionnaires were ...

  4. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  5. Prevalence, Progression and Associated Risk Factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) ranges between 4.5% and 57% and is independently associated with cardiovascular disease burden irrespective of symptoms. Two thirds of cases are thought to be asymptomatic and may go unrecognised. Local prevalence and natural progression of ...

  6. Tuberculosis prevalence surveys: rationale and cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaziou, P.; van der Werf, M. J.; Onozaki, I.; Dye, C.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Cobelens, F.; Enarson, D. A.; Gopi, P. G.; Holtz, T. H.; Kim, S. J.; van Leth, F.; Lew, W.-J.; Lonnroth, K.; van Maaren, P.; Narayanan, P. R.; Williams, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first of the educational series 'Assessing tuberculosis (TB) prevalence through population-based surveys'. The series will give overall guidance in conducting cross-sectional surveys of pulmonary TB (PTB) disease. TB prevalence surveys are most valuable in areas where

  7. Measures of Disease Frequency: Prevalence and Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2010-01-01

    To describe how often a disease or another health event occurs in a population, different measures of disease frequency can be used. The prevalence reflects the number of existing cases of a disease. In contrast to the prevalence, the incidence reflects the number of new cases of disease and can be

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Volume 20, Number 1, January 2018. 1. SHORT COMMUNICATION ... This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV infected populations. ... The prevalence of P. falciparum was high among HIV seropositive individuals in the Lake Victoria Zone, which calls for additional ...

  9. The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of Intraventricular Haemorrhage and Associated Risk Factors in Preterm Neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the University Teaching ... any-IVH generated at the time of analysis was used in determining the prevalence of IVH and also as the dependent variable in multivariate logistic regression.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension in Maharashtra, India: A multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadev D Bhise

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the prevalence of hypertension has been drastically increased in India. The present study estimates the current prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in the state of Maharashtra. The variation in the prevalence of hypertension associated with individual-level characteristics is explained at the community and district level.Data is used from the recent round of District Level Household & Facility Survey (DLHS-4, 2012-13. The DLHS-4 has used the nationally representative sample, collected through multistage stratified sampling procedure. A similar sampling frame, used in NSSO-2007-08, has been followed. The chi-square test is used to show the significance level of the association between the estimated prevalence of hypertension and its correlates. Multilevel regression analysis is carried out to investigate the effects of individual and community level factors on the prevalence of hypertension.The overall prevalence of hypertension is 25% in Maharashtra, and a huge variation in the prevalence of hypertension is found across the districts. Dhule, Gadchiroli (with a low HDI rank, Mumbai and Satara (with higher HDI rank are the districts with the higher (above 30% prevalence of high blood pressure. The prevalence also significantly varies according to different correlates. The prevalence of high blood pressure is higher among elderly population (40%, among males (28%, in the urban areas (27% and in the richest wealth quintile (28%. The prevalence is also higher among cigarette smokers (31%, alcohol consumers (30% and people with obesity (38% as compared to their counterparts. The results of the multilevel analysis show that the older and obese persons are at four-time higher risk of hypertension. Again, age, sex, marital status, place of residence, wealth status, unhealthy habits (i.e. smoking and alcohol consumption and BMI are significantly associated with hypertension. The results of VPC statistics show that 14% of

  11. Prevalence and Morbidity of Late Preterm Infants: Current Status in a Medical Center of Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Luen Tsai

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Late-preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal morbidities associated with organ immaturity. The results of this study emphasize the importance of judicious obstetrical decision-making when considering late preterm delivery, and the need to set up anticipatory clinical guidelines for the care of late preterm infants.

  12. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Jensen, P; Carlsen, B C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chromium allergy has traditionally been caused by occupational skin contact with cement. In 1983, Danish legislation made the addition of ferrous sulphate compulsory in cement to reduce the water-soluble chromium content to not more than 2 ppm. An effect from this intervention has pre...... leather exposure increased significantly from 24.1% during 1989-1994 to 45.5% during 1995-2007 (P leather exposure....

  13. BRFSS Prevalence And Trends Data: Tobacco Use - Adults Who Are Current Smokers for 1995-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Percentages are weighted to population characteristics. Data are not available if it did not meet BRFSS stability requirements.For more information on these...

  14. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    ) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable...... of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and routine management of depression, particularly for individuals at high risk. © 2016...

  15. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  16. Current standardisation for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, Delphine; Mark, David; Moehlmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Standardisation and standards provide an important mechanism to support both innovation and the application of regulations. There is currently no specific regulation for any nanomaterials. Health, safety and environmental protection aspects associated with nanomaterials are however in principle covered to different levels by current EU regulatory framework. There are a number of national, European and international organisations developing standards associated with the development, description and use of nanomaterials as well as the protection of human health and the environment from the production and use of chemicals and consumer products, including nanomaterials. These organisations have also established specific committees on nanotechnology. This paper outlines the different relevant regulations and standards. This paper will mainly be focused on a European health and safety perspective.

  17. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  18. Current driven wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournes, C.; Aucouturier, J.; Arnaud, B.; Brasile, J. P.; Convert, G.; Simon, M.

    1992-07-01

    A current-driven wiggler is the cornerstone of an innovative, compact, high-efficiency, transportable tunable free-electron laser (FEL), the feasibility of which is currently being evaluated by Thomson-CSF. The salient advantages are: compactness of the FEL, along with the possibility to accelerate the beam through several successive passes through the accelerating section (the number of passes being defined by the final wavelength of the radiation; i.e. visible, MWIR, LWIR); the wiggler can be turned off and be transparent to the beam until the last pass. Wiggler periodicities as small as 5 mm can be achieved, hence contributing to FEL compactness. To achieve overall efficiencies in the range of 10% at visible wavelengths, not only the wiggler periodicity must be variable, but the strength of the magnetic field of each period can be adjusted separately and fine-tuned versus time during the macropulse, so as to take into account the growing contribution of the wave energy in the cavity to the total ponderomotive force. The salient theoretical point of this design is the optimization of the parameters defining each period of the wiggler for each micropacket of the macropulse. The salient technology point is the mechanical and thermal design of the wiggler which allows the required high currents to achieve magnetic fields up to 2T.

  19. Current issues in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, E F; Amsden, G W

    1998-02-01

    To review the epidemiology, mycology, clinical features and diagnosis, current pharmacotherapy, and pharmacoeconomics of onychomycosis. We conducted a MEDLINE search from 1966 to May 1997. References from these articles, manufacturers of the discussed antimycotics, and relevant abstracts from recent dermatology conferences were used to collect pertinent data. Data were obtained from published controlled studies and case reports. In the pharmacotherapy section, the most weight was placed on fully reported, randomized, controlled comparative trials, but abstracts and case series were included when well-controlled studies were unavailable. Onychomycosis is a common nail disorder that has a substantial impact on patients' quality of life. It is most commonly caused by dermatophytes, but yeasts and molds can also be involved. Diagnosis is made through clinical presentation, potassium hydroxide preparations, and culture of tissue/nail samples. Griseofulvin was the drug of choice for many years, but its low cure rates and the development of newer, more effective drugs made it fall out of favor. Current therapeutic alternatives include fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine. Data on the use of fluconazole are limited to case series and reports. Continuous dosing of itraconazole and terbinafine are well-proven therapies. New data are becoming available on the use of pulse itraconazole dosing, which has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for fingernail infections. These drugs are well tolerated, but attention to drug interactions is necessary with the azoles. Currently, continuous terbinafine appears to be the most cost-effective drug for dermatophyte onychomycosis.

  20. Clopidogrel Resistance: Current Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet agents are mainly used in the prevention and management of atherothrombotic complications. Dual antiplatelet therapy, combining aspirin and clopidogrel, is the standard care for patients having acute coronary syndromes or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention according to the current ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines. But in spite of administration of dual antiplatelet therapy, some patients develop recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events especially stent thrombosis which is a serious clinical problem. Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel varies widely among patients based on ex vivo platelet function measurements. Clopidogrel is an effective inhibitor of platelet activation and aggregation due to its selective and irreversible blockade of the P2Y12 receptor. Patients who display little attenuation of platelet reactivity with clopidogrel therapy are labeled as low or nonresponders or clopidogrel resistant. The mechanism of clopidogrel resistance remains incompletely defined but there are certain clinical, cellular and genetic factors including polymorphisms responsible for therapeutic failure. Currently there is no standardized or widely accepted definition of clopidogrel resistance. The future may soon be realised in the routine measurement of platelet activity in the same way that blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar are followed to help guide the therapy, thus improving the care for millions of people. This review focuses on the methods used to identify patients with clopidogrel resistance, the underlying mechanisms, metabolism, clinical significance and current therapeutic strategies to overcome clopidogrel resistance. J Enam Med Col 2016; 6(1: 38-46

  1. Dysmobility syndrome: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill KD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keith D Hill,1 Kaela Farrier,1 Melissa Russell,2 Elissa Burton1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia Background: A new term, dysmobility syndrome, has recently been described as a new approach to identify older people at risk of poor health outcomes. The aim was to undertake a systematic review of the existing research literature on dysmobility syndrome.Method: All articles reporting dysmobility syndrome were identified in a systematic review of Medline (Proquest, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Scopus databases. Key characteristics of identified studies were extracted and summarized.Results: The systematic review identified five papers (three cross-sectional, one case control, and one longitudinal study. No intervention studies were identified. Prevalence of dysmobility syndrome varied between studies (22%–34% in three of the studies. Dysmobility syndrome was shown to be associated with reduced function, increased falls and fractures, and a longitudinal study showed its significant association with mortality.Conclusion: Early research on dysmobility syndrome indicates that it may be a useful classification approach to identify older people at risk of adverse health outcomes and to target for early interventions. Future research needs to standardize the optimal mix of measures and cut points, and investigate whether balance performance may be a more useful factor than history of falls for dysmobility syndrome. Keywords: mobility, elderly, functional decline

  2. Ureaplasma: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kokkayil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma species are the most prevalent genital Mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract of both men and women. Ureaplasma has 14 known serotypes and is divided into two biovars- Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The organism has several genes coding for surface proteins, the most important being the gene encoding the Multiple Banded Antigen (MBA. The C-terminal domain of MBA is antigenic and elicits a host antibody response. Other virulence factors include phospholipases A and C, IgA protease and urease. Besides genital tract infections and infertility, Ureaplasma is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and diseases in the newborn (chronic lung disease and retinopathy of prematurity. Infection produces cytokines in the amniotic fluid which initiates preterm labour. They have also been reported from renal stone and suppurative arthritis. Genital infections have also been reported with an increasing frequency in HIV-infected patients. Ureaplasma may be a candidate ′co factor′ in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR are the mainstay of diagnosis. Commercial assays are available with improved turnaround time. Micro broth dilution is routinely used to test antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates. The organisms are tested against azithromycin, josamycin, ofloxacin and doxycycline. Resistance to macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones have been reported. The susceptibility pattern also varies among the biovars with biovar 2 maintaining higher sensitivity rates. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential to prevent long term complications of Ureaplasma infections. After surveying PubMed literature using the terms ′Ureaplasma′, ′Ureaplasma urealyticum′ and ′Ureaplasma parvum′, relevant literature were selected to provide a concise review on the recent developments.

  3. Ureaplasma: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkayil, P; Dhawan, B

    2015-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the most prevalent genital Mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract of both men and women. Ureaplasma has 14 known serotypes and is divided into two biovars- Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The organism has several genes coding for surface proteins, the most important being the gene encoding the Multiple Banded Antigen (MBA). The C-terminal domain of MBA is antigenic and elicits a host antibody response. Other virulence factors include phospholipases A and C, IgA protease and urease. Besides genital tract infections and infertility, Ureaplasma is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and diseases in the newborn (chronic lung disease and retinopathy of prematurity). Infection produces cytokines in the amniotic fluid which initiates preterm labour. They have also been reported from renal stone and suppurative arthritis. Genital infections have also been reported with an increasing frequency in HIV-infected patients. Ureaplasma may be a candidate 'co factor' in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the mainstay of diagnosis. Commercial assays are available with improved turnaround time. Micro broth dilution is routinely used to test antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates. The organisms are tested against azithromycin, josamycin, ofloxacin and doxycycline. Resistance to macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones have been reported. The susceptibility pattern also varies among the biovars with biovar 2 maintaining higher sensitivity rates. Prompt diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy is essential to prevent long term complications of Ureaplasma infections. After surveying PubMed literature using the terms 'Ureaplasma', 'Ureaplasma urealyticum' and 'Ureaplasma parvum', relevant literature were selected to provide a concise review on the recent developments.

  4. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  5. Constipation prevalence in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Álvaro de Freitas Lins Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of constipation in diabetic patients treated at the endocrinology outpatient clinic at Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes and PAM Salgadinho, from April to August 2013. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional study, carried out through a questionnaire using the Rome III criteria in 372 patients treated at the outpatient endocrinology clinic. Results: of 372 patients evaluated, the frequency of constipation found was 31.2% among diabetic patients. Females predominated in the sample (72.8% as well as for the frequency of constipation (80.2%. The incidence of type II diabetes was 97.3% and it was observed that 80.2% of the sample was older than 50 years. One hundred and twelve patients with inadequate glycemic control (HgA1c ≥ 7 had an association with constipation. Conclusion: there was an increased frequency of constipation in patients with diabetes mellitus according to the Rome III criteria, in relation to the general population. The inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus increases the frequency of constipation and it is necessary to perform studies that allow the confirmation of this association to demonstrate this hypothesis. Resumo: Objetivo: analisar a prevalência da constipação intestinal em pacientes diabéticos atendidos no ambulatório de endocrinologia do Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes e no PAM Salgadinho (HUPAA, de abril de 2013 a agosto 2013. Método: estudo descritivo e transversal, realizado através da aplicação de um questionário com os critérios de Roma III no ambulatório de endocrinologia do HUPAA. Resultado: em 372 pacientes, 271 feminino, 101 masculino, 162 de etnia branca, 55 negros e 155 pardos, 297 pacientes estavam acima de 50 anos, houve uma frequência de constipação de 31,2% nos pacientes diabéticos. O gênero feminino prevaleceu na amostra (73% assim como no índice de frequ

  6. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  7. Hyperhidrosis: an update on prevalence and severity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, James; Walker, Patricia; Mills, Thomas; Thurston, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Current published estimates of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the United States are outdated and underestimate the true prevalence of the condition. The objectives of this study are to provide an updated estimate of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the US population and to further assess the severity and impact of sweating on those affected by the condition. For the purposes of obtaining prevalence, a nationally representative sample of 8160 individuals were selected using an online panel, and information as to whether or not they experience hyperhidrosis was obtained. The 393 individuals (210 female, 244 non-Hispanic white, 27 black, mean age 40.3, SE 0.64) who indicated that they have hyperhidrosis were asked further questions, including body areas impacted, severity of symptoms, age of onset, and socioemotional impact of the condition. Current results estimate the prevalence of hyperhidrosis at 4.8 %, which represents approximately 15.3 million people in the United States. Of these, 70 % report severe excessive sweating in at least one body area. In spite of this, only 51 % have discussed their excessive sweating with a healthcare professional. The main reasons are a belief that hyperhidrosis is not a medical condition and that no treatment options exist. The current study's findings with regard to age of onset and prevalence by body area generally align with the previous research. However, current findings suggest that the severity and prevalence are both higher than previously thought, indicating a need for greater awareness of the condition and its associated treatment options among medical professionals.

  8. Bremsstrahlung and neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the bremsstrahlung process in detecting parity violations from V-A weak neutral current interference is analysed in two ways. Firstly, bremsstrahlung from polarized lepton-nucleus scattering has an asymmetry with respect to the polarization of the incident leptons, and secondly, bremsstrahlung from unpolarized lepton nucleus scattering has a small circular polarization. The magnitude of each effect is calculated. The ratio of the parity violating contribution and the parity conserving contribution to the cross section is shown to be a misleading measure of the utility of these experiments. A parameter, the figure of merit, is introduced and used to discuss the feasibility of possible experiments

  9. Teleradiology - current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltadjiev, D.; Charakchiev

    2000-01-01

    Tele-radiology is a term becoming increasingly popular in the medical literature. Nevertheless, terminological definitions in this particular field are still rather vague. The scope of applications extend from simple image presenting via analogue telephone lines to transmission of 3-D medical images through a satellite. It is a matter of standards highly differing in terms of data transmission rates, safety, technical demands on the systems and the like. In this article new information technologies, technical aspects, as well as some major applications of tele-radiology are discussed. The current status of tele-medicine/tele-radiology in this country is likewise briefly outlined

  10. Current awareness on yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, this current awareness service is provided by John Wiley & Sons and contains newly-published material on yeasts. Each bibliography is divided into 10 sections. 1 Books, Reviews & Symposia; 2 General; 3 Biochemistry; 4 Biotechnology; 5 Cell Biology; 6 Gene Expression; 7 Genetics; 8 Physiology; 9 Medical Mycology; 10 Recombinant DNA Technology. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. (3 weeks journals - search completed 5th. Dec. 2001)

  11. Low Current Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Because Goddard Space Flight Center needed a way to cool sensors aboard the AXAF, a low current superconducting magnet was developed under contract by Cryomagnetics, Inc. The magnet, now commercially available, reduced the rate of helium consumption, extending the lifetime of the AXAF's x-ray spectrometer. On Earth, it offers a way to reduce operating costs through smaller, less expensive power supplies and reduced use of coolant. The magnet has particular advantages for MRI systems, as it is safer and has lower maintenance requirements.

  12. Intrinsic superspin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jacob; Amundsen, Morten; Risinggârd, Vetle

    2017-09-01

    We discover an intrinsic superspin Hall current: an injected charge supercurrent in a Josephson junction containing heavy normal metals and a ferromagnet generates a transverse spin supercurrent. There is no accompanying dissipation of energy, in contrast to the conventional spin Hall effect. The physical origin of the effect is an antisymmetric spin density induced among transverse modes ky near the interface of the superconductor arising due to the coexistence of p -wave and conventional s -wave superconducting correlations with a belonging phase mismatch. Our predictions can be tested in hybrid structures including thin heavy metal layers combined with strong ferromagnets and ordinary s -wave superconductors.

  13. Gambling disorder in adolescents: prevalence, new developments, and treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios D

    2018-01-01

    Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent's well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment.

  14. Gambling disorder in adolescents: prevalence, new developments, and treatment challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios D

    2018-01-01

    Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent’s well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment. PMID:29535564

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression and Anxiety among Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun

    2018-01-01

    Despite the significant growth of the Asian population in the United States, current knowledge on their mental health and service utilization behaviors is very limited. The study examined the prevalence and predictors of depression and anxiety among Korean Americans in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. A total of 602 Koreans completed a self-administered survey on physical and mental well-being, and the study found that 18.2% and 16.9% of the participants had severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Acculturative stress and perceived social support were common predictors for depression and anxiety, and the effects of demographic factors were minimal.

  16. Pediatric glaucoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchini G

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Marchini, Marco Toscani, Francesca Chemello Eye Clinic, Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy Abstract: “Childhood glaucoma” is a heterogeneous group of severe pediatric conditions often associated with significant visual loss and characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP and optic-disk cupping. Successful IOP control is crucial but challenging and most often achieved surgically, with medical therapy playing a supportive role. There are many classifications of childhood glaucoma, but they can simply be divided into primary, in which a developmental abnormality of the anterior chamber angle only exists, and secondary, in which aqueous outflow is reduced due to independent mechanisms that secondarily impair the function of the filtration angle. The worldwide prevalence of childhood blindness ranges from 0.03% in high-income countries to 0.12% in undeveloped countries. The majority of cases do not have an identified genetic mutation and, where the mutation is known, the genes often account for only a small proportion of cases. Several pathogenetic mechanisms are known to contribute to the development of childhood glaucoma. Whatever the cause, it results in a reduced aqueous outflow at the level of the trabecular meshwork. Age of onset and magnitude of the elevated IOP largely determine the clinical manifestation the high variability of clinical manifestations. Glaucoma from any cause in a neonate and infant is characterized by the classic triad of epiphora, photophobia, and blepharospasm, and could be associated with eye enlargement (buphthalmos and Haab striae. The eye examination, usually performed under general anesthesia, includes: tonometry, anterior-segment examination, gonioscopy, corneal diameter and axial length measurement, dilated fundoscopy with optic-nerve-head evaluation. Medical therapy, considering the high frequency of side effects, is generally used as

  17. PREVALENCE OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER IN AFRICANS AND AFRICANS IN THE DIASPORA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, E D

    2016-01-01

    There have been several publications on population or community prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer from various countries and races but few reports are from Africa on Africans. A review on the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in Africans and other races. The current literature on prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PC), and benign prostatic hyperplasia co-existing with prostate cancer in Africans and other races is reviewed. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) prevalence in Ghana is responsible for 60% acute retention of urine and 28.6% of haematuria. Worldwide prevalence of BPH varies from 20 - 62% in men over 50 years and this includes USA, UK, Japan and Ghana. Reports from South Africa indicate prevalence of over 50% in adult males of 60 years. BPH co-existing with PC - Reports from USA, UK and Japan and Ghana reveal moderate association of BPH and PC. The co-existence of PC in patients being treated for BPH is 3 - 20% Prostate Cancer prevalence - There is high prevalence in USA, Scandinavian Countries, African Americans (AA) and Caribbean blacks. Ghana, Trinidad & Tobago have reported high prevalence of 6 -10% in men aged 50 years and above but others reported low prevalence in Africans from Africa. The low reporting from Africa of 10 - 40:100,000 is attributable to under reporting, absence of PSA screening/testing, lack of reliable cancer registries and poor medical facilities. Economic Costs of BPH and PC: BPH in the USA national direct costs are estimated at U$4Billion and individual costs of US$1536 annually. In Ghana, individual costs for BPH medications range from US$300 - 550 per year and cost for simple prostatectomy/TURP is estimated at US$1100. For prostate cancer, individual direct costs from Europe range from 6,575 - 12,000 euros, £2818.00 UK and over U$12,000 - 20,000 in USA per annum. In Ghana, individual direct costs ranges, for radical prostatectomy and

  18. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  19. Dispersion and current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1986-04-01

    A model for the simulation of particle movements in water should incorporate the mutual distance dependent correlation. As long as reliable data are given accessible a model can be created of the dispersion in a given area from a statistical description of turbulence. Current measurements have been performed in an area north of the Swedish nuclear power plant Barsebaeck, and statistical time series analysis have made it possible to estimate multivariate autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) models for these data using the Box-Jenkins method. The correlation structure for the area has been investigated in detail. Transport and dispersion models for the marine environment are used in estimating doses to the population from the aquatic food chain. Some of these models are described with special emphasis on the time and length scales they cover. Furthermore, to illustrate the background of the simulation model, short introductuions are given to health physics, time series analysis, and turbulence theory. Analysis of the simulation model shows the relative importance of the different parameters. The model can be expanded to conditional simulation, where the current measurements are used directly to simulate the movement of one of the particles. Results from the model are also compared to results from a sampling of bioindicators (Fucus vesiculosus) along the Danish coast. The reliability of bioindicators in this kind of experiment is discussed. (author)

  20. HIV in Indian prisons: risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered prison management and population statistics, general conditions in prisons, provision of general medical care and the HIV situation in prison. No data on drug injection in prison were identified. Sex between men was reported to be common in some Indian prisons. A national study found that 1.7 per cent of inmates were HIV positive. Some prisons provided HIV education. Condom provision was considered illegal. A few prisoners received drug treatment for drug use, HIV infection or co-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV prevalence in prisons in India was higher than that in the general community. Regular monitoring of information on HIV risk behaviours and prevalence in Indian prisons is strongly recommended. Evidence based treatment for drug injectors and nation-wide provision of HIV prevention strategies are urgently required. Voluntary counselling, testing and treatment for HIV and STIs should be provided.

  1. Associated factors and prevalence of erectile dysfunction in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rodrigues Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The proposal of this study was to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of erectile dysfunction (ED among hemodialysis (HD patients. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data collected from HD male patients. Clinical, demographic and laboratory data of all patients were collected in three HD clinics from December 2010 to June 2011. Patients answered questions of erectile function domain from International Index of Erectile Function. Data were evaluated by descriptive analysis and by univariate (ULRA and multivariate logistic regression analysis (MLRA. Results: Three hundred and five patients participated of the study. The prevalence of ED was 68.19%. ED was associated with diabetes (DM, benign prostatic hyperplasia, glomerulonephritis as cause of chronic renal failure (CRF, smoking habits, lower creatinine levels (ULRA, use of calcium channel blocker (MLRA, aging, lower education level, alcohol consumption, DM (as cause of CRF and coronary insufficiency (ULRA and MLRA. Conclusions: ED was highly prevalent in the HD men. It was independently associated with aging, current use of alcohol, long alcohol use (even for those who do not drink more, lower education level, diabetes as cause of CRF, coronary insufficiency and use of channel blockers calcium.

  2. Prevalence and Perceptions Toward Anabolicandrogenic Steroid Use Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargarfard M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs are highly sought-after in order to achieve muscle growth and better physical attributes. The study was conducted to measure the prevalence and attitudes towards the use of AASs among university students. 1008 male students from Isfahan University, Iran, between the ages of 18 and 25 years (23.3 ± 1.2 years completed a questionnaire that investigated participation in bodybuilding, level of sport competition, participation in sports and recreational activities, AASs use, prevalence, knowledge among users, attitudes, as well as intent to continue using AASs in the future. 8% of respondents had used AASs and 6% currently use AASs. 71% of users believed using only a small amount of AASs or using AASs with anti-toxic drugs would not result in any harm, 10% indicated that AASs were harmless and 19% admitted to taking AASs despite knowing the adverse effects. 33% of respondents believed that they needed to use AASs to ensure athletic success and 26% believed that athletes should be allowed to use AASs without consequence. The prevalent use of AASs is a public health concern which implies that educational programmes at university level are needed to educate students about the adverse effects of AASs use

  3. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Ashley H; Rickards, Hugh; Fasano, Alfonso; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2011-03-01

    Punding (the display of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors) is a relatively recently discovered feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Little is known about the prevalence and clinical characteristics of punding in PD. In this review, four large scientific databases were comprehensively searched for literature in relation to punding prevalence and clinical correlates in the context of PD. Prevalence was found to vary greatly (between 0.34 to 14%), although there were large disparities in study populations, assessment methods, and criteria. We observed an association between punding, dopaminergic medications, and impulse control disorder. Other characteristics, which may be more common among punders, include a higher severity of dyskinesia, younger age of disease onset, longer disease duration, and male gender. More research in large clinical datasets is required in many areas before conclusions are drawn. The pathophysiology behind the punding phenomenon is also poorly understood at present, rendering it difficult to develop targeted therapy. The current mainstay of treatment is the reduction in the dose of dopaminergic medications, the evidence for other suggested therapies being purely empirical.

  4. Prevalence of depression in a general hospital in Izhevsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakriev, Sergei; Kovalev, Juri; Mozhaev, Mikhail

    2009-11-01

    There are a lot of studies on depressive disorders in a general hospital done across the world, but no data from Russia on this subject was found in international psychiatric journals or MEDLINE. to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in medical inpatients in Izhevsk, the capital of the Udmurt Republic, a region in Russia, and to identify associated factors. A sample of 323 adult medical inpatients was composed. The Russian version of the MINI 5.0.0 was used. The prevalence of lifetime and current depressive disorders was 30% and 20.7%, respectively. Depression was more common in women, widowed or divorced, retired or disabled, with low income and bad family relationships, and among respondents with a chronic somatic illness. Depression had a high comorbidity with organic mental and anxiety disorders. Only 40.3% of the individuals with depression had referred for psychiatric consultations, most of them being treated with fluvoxamine. Prevalence of depression was substantial but consistent with other studies. Taking into consideration associated factors, physicians can improve recognition and treatment of depression in medical inpatients.

  5. Prevalence of fatigue in a group of airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cátia; Mestre, Catarina; Canhão, Helena

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is a common phenomenon in airline pilots that can impair alertness and ability of crewmembers to safely operate an aircraft and perform safety related tasks. Fatigue can increase the risk of an incident or even an accident. This study provides the first prevalence values for clinically significant fatigue in Portuguese airline pilots. The hypothesis that medium/short-haul pilots may currently present different levels of fatigue than long-haul pilots was also tested. A survey was conducted by requesting Portuguese airline pilots to complete questionnaires placed in the pilots' personal lockers from 1 April until 15 May 2012. The questionnaire included the self-response Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) to measure subjective fatigue and some additional questions concerning perception of fatigue by pilots. The prevalence values for total and mental fatigue achieved in the Portuguese airline pilots were: 89.3% (FSS > or = 4) and 94.1% (FSS > or = 4) when splitting the sample in two subsamples, long- and medium/short-haul pilots. Levels of total and mental fatigue were higher for medium/short-haul pilots. The analysis of fatigue levels in each type of aviator showed that medium/short-haul pilots presented the highest levels of total and mental fatigue. This study produced the first prevalence values of total and mental fatigue among Portuguese airline pilots, which represents a great step to understanding and addressing this critical phenomenon.

  6. Prevalence and course of pseudothrombocytopenia in outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froom, Paul; Barak, Mira

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and course of pseudothrombocytopenia in outpatients is uncertain. In a cohort study of 687,955 members of a health maintenance organization, we extracted 36,780 consecutive automated complete blood count test results and determined the point prevalence of pseudothrombocytopenia during a one-month period. We also calculated a retrospective cumulative prevalence over the past 5 years. There were 1105 (2.7%) patients with platelet counts of 100-149×10(9)/L and 304 (0.8%) with counts values, or the reference limit value should be lowered to 100×10(9)/L.

  7. Influence of Current Transformer Saturation on Operation of Current Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of instrument current transformer errors on operation of current protection of power supply diagram elements has been carried out in the paper. The paper shows the influence of an aperiodic component of transient current and secondary load on current  transformer errors.Peculiar operational features of measuring elements of electromechanical and microprocessor current protection with their joint operation with electromagnetic current transformers have been analyzed in the paper.

  8. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.

  9. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi. Cross-sectional data were obtained from school-going adolescents in Blantyre in 2001 using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data collection instrument. Data were analysed to determine prevalence of current and ever cigarette smoking, and predictors of smoking. The prevalence of current smoking and ever smoking were 3.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Predictors of current tobacco smoking included male gender, having friends or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot of advertisements in newspapers and magazines. School programmes that included being taught about smoking in class and a class discussion on the dangers of tobacco were not associated with reduced current smoking. Intervention programmes aiming to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence and pay special attention toward male gender. School-based programmes to prevent smoking should be evaluated as some may have little impact in influencing current smoking status.

  11. On Hall current fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, M.C.; Ebel, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper some new results concerning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the Hall current (HC) term in the Ohm's law are presented. For the cylindrical pinch of a compressible HC fluid, it is found that for large time and long wave length the solution to the governing equations exhibits the behavior of solitons as in the case of an ideal MHD model. In some special cases, the HC model appears to be better posed. An open question is whether a simple toroidal equilibrium of an HC fluid with resistivity and viscosity exists. The answer to this question is affirmative if the prescribed velocity on the boundary has a small norm. Furthermore, the equilibrium is also linearly and nonlinearly stable

  12. Pulsed current generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.D.; Furman, Eh.G.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a current pulse generator with an auxiliary network consisting of a choke and diode in series designed to enlarge the range of pulse frequency control. One output of the network is connected to an adjustable valve cathode and via antoher auxiliary condenser to the point where the cathode of the main key unit is joined to the start of the magnetizing coil. A second output is connected to the anode of another adjustable valve and via another auxiliary condenser to the point where the anode of the other main key unit is joined to the end of the magnetizing coil. The generator can be used to excite the electromagnets of charged particle accelerators or in devices designed to produce magnetic fields. (author)

  13. Brain abscess: Current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alvis-Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain abscess (BA is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA.

  14. Fluctuation Relations for Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Akimov, Alexei; Chernyak, Vladimir; Chertkov, Michael

    2011-03-01

    We consider a non-equilibrium statistical system on a graph or a network. Identical particles are injected, interact with each other, traverse, and leave the graph in a stochastic manner described in terms of Poisson rates, possibly strongly dependent on time and instantaneous occupation numbers at the nodes of the graph. We show that the system demonstrates a profound statistical symmetry, leading to new Fluctuation Relations that originate from the supersymmetry and the principle of the geometric universality of currents rather than from the relations between probabilities of forward and reverse trajectories. NSF/ECCS-0925618, NSF/CHE-0808910 and DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  15. Necrotizing enterocolitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajamanyam PK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phani Kiran Yajamanyam,1 Shree Vishna Rasiah,1 Andrew K Ewer1,2 1Neonatal Unit, Birmingham Women's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Necrotizing enterocolitis is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates, particularly in those born very preterm. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in extremely low birth weight infants. Despite extensive research, the pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis remains unclear and therapeutic options are limited. Multiple risk factors have been reported, but most are associated with prematurity and its complications. This makes management very challenging in vulnerable preterm infants. In this review, we focus on the risk factors and some of the current research in this area, particularly studies aimed at early detection and potential preventive measures for this potentially lethal condition. Keywords: necrotizing enterocolitis, preterm infants, prematurity, probiotics

  16. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research. PMID:28164070

  17. Uterine sarcoma - current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Charlotte; Miah, Aisha B

    2017-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas comprise a group of rare tumors with differing tumor biology, natural history and response to treatment. Diagnosis is often made following surgery for presumed benign disease. Currently, preoperative imaging does not reliably distinguish between benign leiomyomas and other malignant pathology. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma, but other subtypes include endometrial stromal sarcoma (low grade and high grade), undifferentiated uterine sarcoma and adenosarcoma. Clinical trials have shown no definite survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy and have been hampered by the rarity and heterogeneity of these disease types. There is a role of adjuvant treatment in carefully selected cases following multidisciplinary discussion at sarcoma reference centers. In patients with metastatic disease, systemic chemotherapy can then be considered. There is activity of a number of agents, including doxorubicin, trabectedin, gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, eribulin and pazopanib. Patients should be considered for clinical trial entry where possible. Close international collaboration is important to allow progress in this group of diseases.

  18. Intracranial atherosclerosis: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F

    2011-01-01

    The most relevant ideas discussed in this article are described here. Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) represents the most common cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Its importance in whites may have been underestimated. New technical developments, such as high-resolution MRI, allow direct assessment of the intracranial atherosclerotic plaque, which may have a profound impact on ICAD diagnosis and therapy in the near future. Early detection of ICAD may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The Barcelonès Nord and Maresme Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study is presented here. The main prognostic factors that characterize the patients who are at a higher risk for ICAD recurrence are classified and discussed. The best treatment for ICAD remains to be established. The Stenting Versus Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Study is currently ongoing to address this crucial issue. These and other topics will be discussed at the Fifth International Intracranial Atherosclerosis Conference (Valladolid, Spain, autumn 2011).

  19. Football injuries: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  20. Current issues in asteroseismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazot, Michael; Monteiro, Mario J P F G; Straka, Christian W [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-10-15

    In this contribution we briefly review some of the current issues and promises for the future by asteroseismology. We are entering a new phase in this field driven by the wealth of data that has been collected and data that will soon be available for asteroseismology across the HR Diagram. Major difficulties in the descriptions of stellar interiors that arose in the second half of the 20th century may now be in part addressed and solved (this is the expectation{exclamation_point}) by asteroseismology with unprecedented precision. In this contribution we list some of the key open questions in stellar physics, the seismic data we expect to collect in the near future, and some techniques that will provide the tools to connect data and models.

  1. Current Extensions on PULSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dragos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a learning management system (LMS is a common practise nowadays. Such instruments are used in educational institutions to enhance and support the teaching act as well as in industry for training purposes. In a computer science department of an university such instrument tends to be a basic requirement. That is because not only it allows a better management of courses and a better communication between students and professors, but can also serve as a perfect instrument for presenting teaching related materials for computer science subjects. During the years I have created and used several such instruments: a System with Interactive ackNowledgement and Evaluation of students work during laboratory sessions (SINE, a Php Utility used in Laboratories for Student Evaluation (PULSE, and PULSE Extended. The aim of this paper is to present the current enhancements of PULSE.

  2. COHERENT Experiment: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, D; Belov, V; Bolozdynya, A; Burenkov, A; Albert, J B; Del Valle Coello, M; D’Onofrio, M; Awe, C; Barbeau, P S; Cervantes, M; Becker, B; Cabrera-Palmer, B; Collar, J I; Cooper, R J; Cooper, R L; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J; Eberhardt, A; Dean, D; Dolgolenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    The COHERENT Collaboration is realizing a long term neutrino physics research program. The main goals of the program are to detect and study elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). This process is predicted by Standard Model but it has never been observed experimentally because of the very low energy of the recoil nucleus. COHERENT is using different detector technologies: CsI[Na] and NaI scintillator crystals, a single-phase liquid Ar and a Ge detectors. The placement of all the detector setups is in the basement of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The current status of the COHERENT experimental program is presented. (paper)

  3. Engineered barriers: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  4. Transgender youth: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Rosenthal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries throughout the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage II with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones, and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This review addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic determinants of gender identity, current clinical practice guidelines for transgender youth, challenges to optimal care, and priorities for research.

  5. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besser MW

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin W Besser,1 Stephen G MacDonald2 1Department of Haematology, 2Department of Specialist Haemostasis, The Pathology Partnership, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. Keywords: Clauss fibrinogen assay, fibrinogen antigen, viscoelastic testing, ­gravimetric fibrinogen assay, PT-derived fibrinogen, functional fibrinogen, direct oral anticoagulant, dysfibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia

  6. Misophonia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavanna AE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrea E Cavanna,1–3 Stefano Seri3,4 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, 3School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Brain Centre, Wellcome Trust Laboratory for MEG Studies, Aston University, 4Children’s Epilepsy Surgery Programme, The Birmingham Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Misophonia is characterized by a negative reaction to a sound with a specific pattern and meaning to a given individual. In this paper, we review the clinical features of this relatively common yet underinvestigated condition, with focus on co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders. Currently available data on the putative pathophysiology of the condition can inform our understanding and guide the diagnostic process and treatment approach. Tinnitus retraining therapy and cognitive behavior therapy have been proposed as the most effective treatment strategies for reducing symptoms; however, current treatment algorithms should be validated in large population studies. At the present stage, competing paradigms see misophonia as a physiological state potentially inducible in any subject, an idiopathic condition (which can present with comorbid psychiatric disorders, or a symptomatic manifestation of an underlying psychiatric disorder. Agreement on the use of standardized diagnostic criteria would be an important step forward in terms of both clinical practice and scientific inquiry. Areas for future research include phenomenology, epidemiology, modulating factors, neurophysiological underpinnings, and treatment trials. Keywords: misophonia, selective sound sensitivity syndrome, hyperacusis, neurodevelopmental disorders, Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive spectrum

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Self-Reported Violence of Osaka and Seattle Male Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P.; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non- Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

  8. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the current prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark from 1995 to 2000—2002. Methods: Cross-sectional national dietary surveys were conducted in 1995 and 2000—2002. The analysis was based on two random population samples from the Danish...... civil registration system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight for 1,026 and 1,152 children and adolescents (4—18 years), who participated in 1995 and 2000—2002, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined according to the international age...... and gender-specific child BMI cut-off points. In the statistical analysis, overweight and obesity were included in the prevalence of overweight. Results: Mean BMI increased significantly between 1995 and 2000—2002 for all combinations of age groups (4—6, 7—10, 11—14 and 15—18 years) and genders. Prevalence...

  9. PREVALENCE OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE IN GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chincharadze, S; Vadachkoria, Z; Mchedlishvili, I

    2017-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate take significant place in congenital malformations. We aimed to study epidemiological peculiarities of these pathologies in Georgia for 2006-2015. We compared magnitude of its distribution with the data from 1981-1990. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Georgia in 2006-2015 was 0.95±0.04 per 1000 live births, while in 1981-1990- it was 1.05, i.e. in contrast to 1980's frequency of these pathological conditions decreased to some extent. Distribution of cleft lip and palate varies across the country regions. The most intensive spread has been observed in Mtskheta-Mtianeti region, where prevalence composed 2.28/1000. In the rest of the regions frequency of these pathologies is significantly lower. For instance, in Kakheti the rate is equal to 1,87/1000, in Kvemo Kartli - 1.56/1000, in Shida Kartli - 1.55/1000. In the rest of the regions prevalence rate is lower than the country average. It should be noted that in Tbilisi the rate is as low as 0.80/1000. The lowest level has been reported in Guria - 0.56/1000. Currently cleft lip with palate is the most frequently occurring anomaly in Georgia accounting for 39.8% of all congenital malformations. Cleft lip alone ranks the second - 36.1%, followed by cleft palate (24.1%). These pathologies are more frequent in boys than in girls. 60.3% of the cases are reported in males, in contrast to girls - 39.7% (pcleft palate is the most common among girls, but in our case, it had higher prevalence among boys, 53.6% vs. 46,4%. Thus cleft lip and palate distribution in Georgia is characterized by epidemiological peculiarities, which should be considered in implementation of preventive measures.

  10. Prevalence of depression in residents of gerontology centre in Sarajevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Mahmutović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depressive disorder, as a major problem of public health, takes high fourth place in its prevalence in general population, and is considered to be the second most frequent health problem of femalepopulation. Depression is the most frequent mental problem of persons in their third age of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence of depression and establish the ratio between the current number ofdiagnosed and of unrecognised depression among the residents of Gerontology Centre in Sarajevo.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study undertaken throughout May and June 2011 on the sample of 150 residents of “The Gerontology Centre“ in Sarajevo that were above 65 years of age. The following instruments were used for the research: the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, modified questionnaire consisting of two parts (general data and data related to health state, and the medical records of the residents. For statistic analysis of data was used the SPSS program for Windows.Results: According to GDS, prevalence of depression was 65.3%, out of which mild depression occurred in 46.7% cases and severe depression in 18.7%. The prevalence of verified (diagnosed depression was 11.3per cents.Conclusions: According to the GD scale, unrecognised depressions seem to be almost six times more frequent (65.3:11% than is the case with depressions diagnosed in medical records of the protégées of theGerontology Centre in Sarajevo. Timely recognition of depression and its treating in institutions for protection of health of persons in third age of life can substantially improve the quality of life of these patients.

  11. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eishin Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  12. Prevalence and factors contributing to musculoskeletal disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 9, No 5S (2017) > ... Method used in this study is standard Nordic questionnaire (SNQ) Malay version for 150 garage workers ... Keywords: vehicle maintenance; musculoskeletal disorder; ache, pain, discomfort; prevalence ...

  13. Prevalence of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.W. Ojewola

    2017-04-29

    Apr 29, 2017 ... Subjects and methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted ... and BPH among countries, possibly arising from cultural or lin- ..... reported prevalence 21.0% in Jeju Island, South Korea [5] and of.

  14. Prevalence of Physical, Verbal and Nonverbal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of various forms of sexual harassment were higher and strongly associated with ..... Social Science and Law students, respectively, adjusted for ... depression, anxiety, and ill-health accompanying harassments.

  15. Prevalence of somatisation and psychologisation among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-16

    Jun 16, 2010 ... Conclusion: The prevalence of somatised mental disorder was little higher than the psychologised mental ... hypothesised to be an expression of personal and social .... psychiatric illness; generalised anxiety disorder, depres-.

  16. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori infection is significantly high in rural and suburban population of Ernakulam district, Kerala. Early detection and prompt treatment are essential for prevention of serious complications. Keywords: Gastrointestinal complications, Helicobacter pylori infection, Histopathological ...

  17. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is ...

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among Residents of a ... mental healthcare resources, availability of data on mental health needs of children ... gender-matched school going adolescents were evaluated for the presence of ...

  19. PREVALENCE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DURING PREGNANCY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    *Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Delta State University,. Abraka, Delta State ... cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, .... and emotionally attached to cultural- associated .... Chinese community.

  20. Prevalence of psychoactive substance use among commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence, health and social ... use, impact on health status, motor cycle riding experience and work performance. ... Keeping awake, suppression of fatigue, and peer group effect were the ...

  1. Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility patterns of aeromonas and plesiomonas species isolated from children with diarrhoea in Amuwo-Odofin and Surulere Local Government areas of Lagos, Nigeria.

  2. Prevalence of hyponatremia in palliative care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoba Nair

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Prevalence of hyponatremia is significant in palliative care patients. A prospective study looking at the causes and clinical outcomes associated with hyponatremia in palliative care patients is needed.

  3. Prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naguib M. Massoud

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... has been associated with cases of travelers. The parasite is commonly ... designed to address the prevalence and risk factors for infec- ..... infection in young children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Melbourne ...

  4. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ...

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ... Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Prevalence, risk factors, Infertility, STD, Kano.

  6. Prevalence of placenta Plasmodium parasitemia and pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-05

    Jul 5, 2014 ... Sixty-seven (31.9%) women had anemia and malaria parasitemia was ... high prevalence of poverty, poor nutrition, illiteracy, and poor health ..... atypical presentation: A case report from low transmission area in India. Malar.

  7. 2. PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. ... Results: In our study specimens, the prevalence of MRSA was 42.7% and .... Our result also revealed excellent performance by vancomycin as all.

  8. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  9. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Macur, Mirna; Kir?ly, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygy?rgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ...

  10. Domestic violence in a UK abortion clinic: anonymous cross-sectional prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Silvia; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Bewley, Susan

    2015-04-01

    To measure the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) experienced by women seeking termination of pregnancy (TOP) in a UK abortion clinic. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire survey of all women aged over 16 years accessing a TOP clinic in inner London between 20 May 2012 and 2 July 2012. The main outcome measures were: distribution of questionnaires, response rate, lifetime prevalence of abuse, past-year prevalence of physical and sexual abuse, prevalence of physical abuse during current pregnancy, relationship of lifetime abuse to number of terminations, and receptivity to DV services. Questionnaires were distributed to 46% (383/828) of women accessing the clinic. Response rate was 50% (190/383). Lifetime prevalence of abuse was 16%. Past-year prevalence of physical abuse was 11% and sexual abuse was 4%. Prevalence of physical abuse during the current pregnancy was 4%. Prevalence of lifetime abuse was lower in women having a first termination (12%) versus one (20%) or two or more previous terminations (24%), although this was not statistically significant (p=0.192). The majority (75%) of participants expressing an opinion on the possibility of having a support service for DV in the abortion clinic setting were positive, unrelated to their personal experience, but some concerns were raised about implementation. In order to provide effective support for women, services require a needs assessment of their local population. Asking women presenting for abortion about DV, even anonymously, is challenging but feasible. Future work should be directed to women's unmet safety needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Childhood Obesity: Current Situation and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-07-01

    The early origins of overweight and obesity and the opportunities for early prevention are explored. Overweight and obesity prevalence globally has increased at an alarming rate. No single intervention can halt the rise of the obesity epidemic. Particular attention is given to exploring causative factors and preventive measures in early life, when biological determinants of risk trajectories, feeding behaviour and dietary preferences are shaped. Some lifestyle and nutrition modifications in pregnancy and infancy can reduce subsequent obesity risk. Also postnatal infant gut colonisation may modify later obesity risk, but currently available evidence does not allow firm conclusions. Surprisingly, about 3.2 times more systematic reviews (SR) than randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were published on "probiotics" and health, and even 7.9 times more SR than RCTs on "probiotics" and obesity, which is not helpful. Multiple research opportunities exist for exploring the early origins of obesity to contribute towards halting the rise in obesity prevalence. Exploring the early development of the microbiome in its complexity, its dependence on dietary and other exogenous factors, and its metabolic and regulatory functions is promising. Meaningful progress for obesity prevention can most likely be achieved by combining several strategies.

  12. [Prevalence and diagnosis of depression in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belló, Mariana; Puentes-Rosas, Esteban; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Lozano, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    To present the prevalence of depressive episodes, as well as the percentage of the population with medical diagnosis. The definition of depression was based on a schedule with DSM IV diagnostic criteria. Using data from the 2002-2003 National Assessment Performance Survey, the prevalence of depression was estimated at the national level, by sex, age, education, size of residence community, and state. The percentage of individuals with medically diagnosed depression and the percentage of those under treatment were also estimated. The national prevalence of depression was 4.5%: 5.8% in women and 2.5% in men. The prevalence of depression increased with age and decreased with higher education. Among males, the prevalence was higher in rural than urban communities. A large percentage of affected individuals have no medical diagnosis. Depression is a frequent disease in adults.A higher prevalence is associated with social vulnerability. The low percentage of diagnosis represents a challenge for mental health service planning and provision.

  13. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  14. Longitudinal changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms among Canadian grain elevator workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Punam; McDuffie, Helen H; Dosman, James A

    2006-06-01

    To determine longitudinal changes in the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms among Canadian grain workers. Data on respiratory symptoms, smoking status, and pulmonary function were obtained approximately every 3 years (termed cycle) over 15 years beginning in 1978 from five regions of Canada. The number of grain workers participating in each cycle were as follows: cycle 1 (n = 5,702); cycle 2 (n = 5,491); cycle 3 (n = 3,713); cycle 4 (n = 2,847); and cycle 5 (n = 3,079). A procedure based on generalized estimating equations (PROC GENMOD; SAS Institute; Cary, NC) was used to fit marginal models to determine risk factors influencing the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms (wheeze, dyspnea, sputum, and cough). The prevalence (predicted probability based on the final model) of chronic respiratory symptoms had an increasing trend with increasing number of years in the grain industry from cycle 1 to cycle 3 (before dust control) for all three smoking categories (current smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers). For cycle 4 and cycle 5 (after dust control), there was a reduction in the prevalence of these respiratory symptoms. For example, in cycle 1, the prevalence of chronic wheeze among current smoking grain workers increased from 12% (for those in the industry for 35 years); in cycle 5, the prevalence of chronic wheeze among current smoking grain workers increased from 9% (for those in the industry for 35 years). Similar trends were observed for ex-smokers and nonsmokers and for other chronic respiratory symptoms. Our results indicate that grain dust control was effective in reducing the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms among grain workers in all smoking and exposure categories.

  15. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballane, G; Cauley, J A; Luckey, M M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and incidence of vertebral fractures worldwide. We used a systematic Medline search current to 2015 and updated as per authors' libraries. A total of 62 articles of fair to good quality and comparable methods for vertebral fracture identification were considered. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in European women is highest in Scandinavia (26%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (18%). Prevalence rates in North America (NA) for White women ≥50 are 20-24%, with a White/Black ratio of 1.6. Rates in women ≥50 years in Latin America are overall lower than Europe and NA (11-19%). In Asia, rates in women above ≥65 are highest in Japan (24%), lowest in Indonesia (9%), and in the Middle East, Lebanon, rates are 20%. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Incidence data is less abundant and more heterogeneous. Age-standardized rates in studies combining hospitalized and ambulatory vertebral fractures are highest in South Korea, USA, and Hong Kong and lowest in the UK. Neither a North-South gradient nor a relation to urbanization is evident. Conversely, the incidence of hospitalized vertebral fractures in European patients ≥50 shows a North-South gradient with 3-3.7-fold variability. In the USA, rates in Whites are approximately 4-fold higher than in Blacks. Vertebral fractures variation worldwide is lower than observed with hip fractures, and some of highest rates are unexpectedly from Asia. Better quality representative studies are needed. We investigate the occurrence of vertebral fractures, worldwide, using published data current until the present. Worldwide, the variation in vertebral fractures is lower than observed for hip fractures. Some of the highest rates are from North America and unexpectedly Asia. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Better quality representative data is needed.

  16. Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults.

  17. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Circulating current battery heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  19. TAFRO syndrome: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Kentaro; Murata, Kengo; Takamori, Mikio

    2018-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), a distinct subtype of Castleman's disease, is a rare, nonneoplastic, lymphoproliferative disorder. Patients with MCD present with systemic symptoms and multiple lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy is necessary for the diagnosis of various histological MCD patterns including hyaline vascular, plasma cell, and mixed types. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) infection was identified as an important etiology of MCD among immunocompromised patients such as those positive for human immunodeficiency virus. Although HHV8-negative MCD was reported in immunocompetent patients, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Several experts speculate that MCD in immunocompetent patients might be due to proinflammatory hypercytokinemia because of infection by a virus other than HHV8, inflammation, or neoplastic disease. In 2010, a distinct variant of HHV8-negative MCD reported in Japan was characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly (TAFRO). Recent case reports and a systematic review suggest that TAFRO syndrome might have a unique pathogenesis among HHV8-negative MCD variants. This review introduces TAFRO syndrome as a subtype of HHV8-negative MCD and offers an overview of the current perspectives on this syndrome.

  20. Superconductive AC current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhaled, M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an AC current limiter for a power transport line including a power supply circuit and feeding a load circuit via an overload circuit-breaker member. The limiter comprises a transformer having a primary winding connected in series between the power supply circuit and the load circuit and at least one secondary winding of superconductor material contained in a cryogenic enclosure and short-circuited on itself. The leakage reactance of the transformer as seen from the primary winding is low, and the resistance of the at least one secondary winding when in the non-superconducting state and as seen from the primary is much greater than the nominal impedance of the transformer. The improvement whereby the at least one secondary winding of the transformer comprises an active winding in association with a set of auxiliary windings. The set of auxiliary windings is constituted by an even number of series-connected auxiliary windings wound in opposite directions, with the total number of turns in one direction being equal to the total number of turns in the opposite direction, and with the thermal capacity of the secondary winding as a whole being sufficiently high to limit the expansion thereof to a value which remains small during the time it takes the circuit-breaking member to operate

  1. [Current management of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers.

  2. Sustainable winegrowing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Angela Mariani,1 Antonella Vastola2 1Department of Economic and Legal Studies, University Parthenope, Naples, 2School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy Abstract: The winegrowing sector worldwide is strongly committed to improving environmental and social sustainability. The aim of this work, based on a literature review, is to highlight current sustainability perspectives and the related main issues. There is a broad consensus that the challenge to achieve a greater spread of sustainable practices is to enhance environmental and social sustainability while maintaining economic viability. From the producers' point of view, the priority is to bridge the still substantial knowledge gaps in terms of perceived environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs. Thus, an increased research effort focusing on the costs and benefits of different winegrowing practices and technical assistance with implementation might support their diffusion. Moreover, targeted marketing strategies are needed to: enhance consumers' involvement and their attitude toward sustainable wine; improve understanding and use of sustainable labels and claims; and raise awareness of some environmental credentials of wine packaging, mainly with reference to lightweight glass bottles. Keywords: winegrower, sustainability, wine, consumer, marketing strategies

  3. Current-ripple effect on superconductive dc critical current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, L.F.; Bray, S.L.; Clark, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of sample-current power-supply ripple on dc critical current measurement in multifilamentary NbTi superconductors was evaluated. In general the ripple in a current supply became more significant above 500 A because effective filtering was hard to achieve. Ripple also caused noise at the input of the voltmeter used for the measurements. The quantitative effect of current ripple was studied using a battery current supply modified to allow the creation of ripple current with variable frequency and amplitude. Problems common to all large-conductor critical current measurements are discussed

  4. Prevalence and Perceptions of Electronic Cigarette Use during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicholas J; Camerota, Marie; Propper, Cathi

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The current study is the first to assess pregnant women's perceptions of e-cigarettes and the prevalence of e-cigarette use during pregnancy, using a national sample of pregnant women (N = 445) recruited online. Methods An online survey was used to assess the prevalence and perceptions of e-cigarette use among pregnant women, including perceptions of e-cigarette safety. Results In our sample, 5.62% (n = 25) of women solely used tobacco cigarettes, 6.52% (n = 29) solely used e-cigarettes, 8.54% (n = 38) used both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and 79.33% (n = 353) used neither tobacco cigarettes nor e-cigarettes during their current pregnancy. Overall, 64.27% (n = 286) of participants viewed e-cigarettes as being safer than tobacco cigarettes. Having seen advertisements for e-cigarettes increased likelihood of viewing them as safer than tobacco cigarettes (OR [Odds Ratio] = 2.5, p many women use e-cigarettes during pregnancy as tobacco cigarettes, that pregnant women view e-cigarettes as being safer than tobacco cigarettes, and that these views may be influenced by exposure to e-cigarette advertisements.

  5. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  6. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Matthewson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized.

  7. The Prevalence of Substance Use among Bandar Abas Azad Islamic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mardani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Substance abuse is one of the most important problem and disease in current century that produced wide worry in the entire world. The solving of addiction among young and educated population is more important issue. The current research was aimed the study of the prevalence rate of the substance use (included: opium, alcohol, cigarette, Hubble bubble among Bandar Abas azad Islamic university students. Method: In this cross sectional study 310 university students were selected by stratified random sampling. For gathering data the prevalence substance use questionnaire was used. Results: The findings showed the start age was 22-25 years old. Also, prevalence rate of cigarette, Hubble bubble, opium, and alcohol were higher in boy students in comparison of girl students. The rate of difference was significant by run of chi square analysis. Conclusion: Sex, the history of substance use in family member, and friends were risk factors of substance use.

  8. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse among pregnant women in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional......OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care......, physical and sexual abuse. Severe current suffering defined as a Visual Analogue Scale score of ≥6. RESULTS: An overall lifetime prevalence of any abuse was reported by 34.8% of the pregnant women. The ranges across the six countries of lifetime prevalence were 9.7-30.8% for physical abuse, 16...

  9. Learned helplessness and learned prevalence: exploring the causal relations among perceived controllability, reward prevalence, and exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Kinneret; Erev, Ido

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to uncontrollable outcomes has been found to trigger learned helplessness, a state in which the agent, because of lack of exploration, fails to take advantage of regained control. Although the implications of this phenomenon have been widely studied, its underlying cause remains undetermined. One can learn not to explore because the environment is uncontrollable, because the average reinforcement for exploring is low, or because rewards for exploring are rare. In the current research, we tested a simple experimental paradigm that contrasts the predictions of these three contributors and offers a unified psychological mechanism that underlies the observed phenomena. Our results demonstrate that learned helplessness is not correlated with either the perceived controllability of one's environment or the average reward, which suggests that reward prevalence is a better predictor of exploratory behavior than the other two factors. A simple computational model in which exploration decisions were based on small samples of past experiences captured the empirical phenomena while also providing a cognitive basis for feelings of uncontrollability. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Electric current sensors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The review makes a brief overview of traditional methods of measurement of electric current and shows in more detail relatively new types of current sensors. These include Hall sensors with field concentrators, AMR current sensors, magneto-optical and superconducting current sensors. The influence of the magnetic core properties on the error of the current transformer shows why nanocrystalline materials are so advantageous for this application. Built-in CMOS current sensors are important tools for monitoring the health of integrated circuits. Of special industrial value are current clamps which can be installed without breaking the measured conductor. Parameters of current sensors are also discussed, including geometrical selectivity. This parameter specific for current sensors means the ability to suppress the influence of currents external to the sensor (including the position of the return conductor) and also suppress the influence on the position of the measured conductor with respect to the current. (topical review)

  11. Plasma current profile during current reversal in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianguo; Yang Xuanzong; Zheng Shaobai; Feng Chunhua; Zhang Houxian; Wang Long

    1999-01-01

    Alternating current operation with one full cycle and a current level of 2.5 kA have been achieved in the CT-6B tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field in the plasma is measured with two internal magnetic probes in repeated discharges. The current distribution is reconstructed with an inversion algorithm. The inverse current first appears on the weak field side. The existence of magnetic surfaces and rotational transform provide particle confinement in the current reversal phase

  12. Current Treatments of Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaita, Marc; Högl, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of sleep bruxism, mostly when sleep comorbidities are present. Counselling with regard to sleep hygiene, sleep habit modification, and relaxation techniques has been suggested as the first step in the therapeutic intervention, and is generally considered not harmful, despite low evidence of any efficacy. Occlusal splints are successful in the prevention of dental damage and grinding sounds associated with sleep bruxism, but their effects on reducing bruxism electromyographic (EMG) events are transient. In patients with psychiatric and sleep comorbidities, the acute use of clonazepam at night has been reported to improve sleep bruxism, but in the absence of double-blind randomized trials, its use in general clinical practice cannot be recommended. Severe secondary bruxism interfering with speaking, chewing, or swallowing has been reported in patients with neurological disorders such as in cranial dystonia; in these patients, injections of botulinum toxin in the masticatory muscles may decrease bruxism for up to 1-5 months and improve pain and mandibular functions. Long-term studies in larger and better specified samples of patients with bruxism, comparing the effects of different therapeutic modalities on bruxism EMG activity, progression of dental wear, and orofacial pain are current gaps of knowledge and preclude the development of severity-based treatment guidelines.

  13. Prevalence, severity and determinations of asthma in Danish five-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Christian; De Fine Olivarius, Niels; Høst, Arne

    2006-01-01

    regarding respiratory symptoms and our own questions on sociodemography and tobacco exposure. RESULTS: "Wheeze ever" was reported in 38.3%, "doctor-diagnosed asthma ever" in 10.5%, "childhood bronchitis ever" in 30.0%, "current wheeze" (3 episodes) in 3.......9% of the children. Current wheeze was associated with male gender (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35-1.96), low parental post-primary education (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.63 for or =3 y) and current maternal smoking (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.04). "Severe current wheeze" was recognized as asthma in six and childhood......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of asthma and wheeze is increasing. AIM: To study the annual and cumulative prevalence of asthma and wheeze in 5-y-old Danish children. METHODS: We obtained data on 3052 (82.0% of eligible) Danish children by a postal parental questionnaire including ISAAC questions...

  14. Prevalence and treatment of aerobic vaginitis among non-pregnant women: evaluation of the evidence for an underestimated clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, G S; Kostaras, E K; Athanasiou, S; Falagas, M E

    2013-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the evidence on the prevalence of aerobic vaginitis (AV) among symptomatic non-pregnant women, as well as the treatment administered for this clinical entity. The PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, 11 of which reported on the prevalence of possible AV, two on the prevalence of diagnosed AV, and three on the treatment and outcomes of women with diagnosed AV. The prevalence of diagnosed AV varied from 5 to 10.5 %. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most commonly identified Gram-positive pathogens among women with possible AV, with prevalences of up to 58.7, 41.7, and 37.4 %, respectively, while Escherichia coli was the most common Gram-negative pathogen identified, with a prevalence of up to 23 % among symptomatic women. Regarding antibiotic treatment for AV, the antibiotic schemes administered, which mainly consisted of suppositories of aminoglycosides, showed good effectiveness without serious adverse events provided by any of the included studies. The currently available data suggest that the prevalence of AV is not negligible, while the prevalence of possible AV is considerable. Well-designed studies comparing the prevalence of aerobic pathogens between symptomatic and asymptomatic women are warranted.

  15. COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION PREVALENCE IN ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Starokha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current paper describes an experience of cochlear implantation in elderly. Cochlear implantation has become a widely accepted intervention in the treatment of individuals with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Cochlear implants are now accepted as a standard of care to optimize hearing and subsequent speech development in children and adults with deafness. But cochlear implantation affects not only hearing abilities, speech perception and speech production; it also has an outstanding impact on the social life, activities and self-esteem of each patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cochlear implantation efficacy in elderly with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. There were 5 patients under our observation. Surgery was performed according to traditional posterior tympanotomy and cochleostomy for cochlear implant electrode insertion for all observed patients. The study was conducted in two stages: before speech processor’s activation and 3 months later. Pure tone free field audiometry was performed to each patient to assess the efficiency of cochlear implantation in dynamics. The aim of the study was also to evaluate quality of life in elderly with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss after unilateral cochlear implantation. Each patient underwent questioning with 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. SF-36 is a set of generic, coherent, and easily administered quality-of-life measures. The SF-36 consists of eight scaled scores, which are the weighted sums of the questions in their section. Each scale is directly transformed into a 0-100 scale on the assumption that each question carries equal weight. The eight sections are: physical functioning; physical role functioning; emotional role functioning; vitality; emotional well-being; social role functioning; bodily pain; general health perceptions. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in elderly consistently improved quality of life

  16. Seasonal variation in the prevalence of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Janani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the three factors of maternal mortality. Etiology of the disease is unknown, but the many factors contributing to the identification and control of it can be taken a step to prevent and reduce the symptoms of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of preeclampsia (high-blood pressure in different seasons of the year. Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on more than 8,000 pregnant women visiting Assali specialized hospital from 2011 to 2013. Required data was collected through questionnaire checklist. The Chi-square test with multiple comparisons was used to compare the frequencies of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH according to the month of year, and adjustment of multiplicity was conducted using Bonferroni's method. Student's t-test was used to compare the means of PIH prevalence rates. In all analyses, P < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Results: In these 8000 woman admitted to labor, overall prevalence of PIH was 3.8 ± 0.6%. The prevalence rate of PIH was highest in the summer (4.5% and lowest frequent in the winter (2.7%, respectively. In July, the prevalence rate was significantly higher than those for any other month (4.7%, and in March, it was lower prevalence than for any month (2.2%, respectively. Using the Chi-square test, a significant difference between the incidence of disease was observed in summer and winter (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of PIH was higher for delivery in summer and early spring and lowest for winter delivery among Khorramabad women based on these results; it seems that changes in temperature and humidity in different seasons can affect preeclampsia, and preeclampsia increases with increasing frequency temperature.

  17. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Santosh; Doni, Bharati; Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan

    2013-10-01

    Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records were examined for any unusual finding such as congenitally missing teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, supernumerary teeth, odontoma, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente, germination and fusion, among others. 1519 (36.7%) patients had at least one dental anomaly. The congenitally missing teeth 673 (16.3%) had the highest prevalence, followed by impacted teeth 641 (15.5%), supernumerary teeth 51 (1.2%) and microdontia 41 (1.0%). Other anomalies were found at lower prevalence ranging from transposition 7 (0.1%) to ectopic eruption 30 (0.7%). The most prevalent anomaly in the Indian population was congenitally missing teeth (16.3%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (15.5%), whereas, macrodontia, odontoma and transposition were the least frequent anomalies, with a prevalence of 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. While the overall prevalence of these anomalies may be low, the early diagnosis is imperative for the patient management and treatment planning. Key words:Dental anomaly, prevalence, panoramic radiography.

  19. The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules (TNs have annual increasing trends worldwide, and large-scale investigations on the prevalence of TNs in Beijing communities have not been conducted since the introduction of salt iodization in 1995. We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of TNs, their epidemiological characteristics, and their correlation with lifestyle factors. A total of 6324 permanent residents aged 18 years or older (mean age, 52.15 ± 11.58 years from seven representative communities in Beijing were included in the analyses. Once informed consent was obtained, the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires, a physical examination, and thyroid ultrasound. A total of 3100 cases had TNs. The overall prevalence rate was 49.0%, and the age-standardized prevalence was 40.1%, which increased significantly as age increased (p < 0.001. The prevalence was significantly higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001, and it was significantly higher among female current smokers and former smokers compared to non-smokers (p = 0.007. There was no correlation between alcohol consumption and TNs, and there were no significant differences in the prevalence among different groups of taste preference. The prevalence decreased with an increased frequency of seafood intake (p = 0.015 and with higher literacy levels (p < 0.001. The Cochran–Armitage trend test showed that the prevalence significantly increased with decreased physical labor and exercise intensity (p < 0.001, p = 0.009. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds ratio (OR = 1.039 (1.034–1.044, p < 0.001, the female sex (OR = 1.789 (1.527–2.097, Body mass index (BMI (OR = 1.019 (1.005–1.034, and current smoking habits (OR = 1.246 (1.046–1.483 were independent risk factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that there is a high prevalence of TNs in Beijing, with a higher prevalence in females than in males. Moreover, the prevalence increases as age increases. Smoking and

  20. Theme: Staying Current--Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shry, Carroll L., Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This theme issue on staying current in horticulture includes articles on sex equity in horticulture, Future Farmers of America, career opportunities in horticulture, staying current with your school district's needs, staying current in horticulture instruction, staying current with landscape trade associations, emphasizing the basics in vocational…

  1. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  2. Cervical high-intensity intramedullary lesions in achondroplasia : Aetiology, prevalence and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Patrick A.; Lubout, Charlotte M.; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L.

    2012-01-01

    In achondroplastic patients with slight complaints of medullary compression the cervical spinal cord regularly exhibits an intramedullary (CHII) lesion just below the craniocervical junction with no signs of focal compression on the cord. Currently, the prevalence of the lesion in the general

  3. Double trouble: Prevalence and factors associated with tuberculosis and diabetes comorbidity in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarker, M.; Barua, M.; Guerra, F.; Saha, A.; Aftab, A.; Latif, A.H.M.; Islam, S.; Islam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes among tuberculosis patients increases the risk of tuberculosis treatment failure, death, and development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Yet, there is no data is available in Bangladesh on the prevalence of diabetes among tuberculosis patients. The objective of the current

  4. High or Low Target Prevalence Increases the Dual-Target Cost in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menneer, Tamaryn; Donnelly, Nick; Godwin, Hayward J.; Cave, Kyle R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a dual-target cost in visual search. In the current study, the relationship between search for one and search for two targets was investigated to examine the effects of target prevalence and practice. Color-shape conjunction stimuli were used with response time, accuracy and signal detection measures. Performance…

  5. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  6. Anemia Prevalence among Pregnant Women and Birth Weight in Five Areas in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.Y.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the current prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in different areas of China and the association with birth weight and educational level. Methods: A total of 6,413 women aged 24-37 in the third trimester of pregnancy from five areas were randomly selected from all

  7. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  8. Sarcoidosis in Ireland: regional differences in prevalence and mortality from 1996-2005.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, T T

    2010-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a common multisystem disease of unknown cause and Ireland is among the countries with the highest reported prevalence of disease worldwide. Despite this, reports on the geographical distribution of disease and differences in mortality due to sarcoidosis within Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) are currently lacking.

  9. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  10. Prevalence of sleep disturbance in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, S; Karaman, T; Dogru, S; Onder, Y; Citil, R; Bulut, Y E; Tapar, H; Sahin, A; Arici, S; Kaya, Z; Suren, M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is a vital function for human beings, which can be affected by several factors. Chronic pain is one of these factors where it is the most frequent cause for seeking medical care in combination with insomnia. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and relationship between sleep disturbance and chronic pain. After approval, a total of 85 Family Medicine Units from over 170 in Tokat were randomly selected using a 50% sampling. A sample of 2635 subjects, over the age of 19 years, who were registered with the selected Family Medicine Units, were assessed due to gender, age group, and the urban/rural population size of Tokat using the stratified sampling method. The sample size distribution was calculated as 1515 urban subjects, 1120 rural subjects; 1345 female subjects, 1290 male subjects; 1123 subjects between 20-39 years of age, 1103 subjects between the ages of 40-64, and 409 subjects over 64 years of age. After sampling, subjects were invited to participate in the study via an invitation letter, and agreeing individuals were taken to the Family Medicine Unit for face-to-face meetings. Written, informed consent was obtained, along with demographic data. The presence of chronic pain was recorded. According to the presence of chronic pain, all subjects were separated into two groups as Group Chronic Pain and Group Non-Chronic Pain. The visual analog scale for pain intensity, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for sleep quality, were performed with all subjects. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the predictors of sleep quality. Analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), version 20.0. The statistical significance for all analyses was set at p 5. A moderate positive correlation was found between the global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Visual Analog Scale scores (r = 0.310, p < 0.01). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, gender, income, Visual

  11. Current Issues in Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)

    2007-02-07

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference

  12. Current Issues in Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, J B

    2007-01-01

    These colloquium proceedings will be valuable, the blurb says, for graduate students and researchers in cosmology and theoretical astrophysics. Specifically, the book 'looks at both the strengths and weaknesses of the current big bang model in explaining certain puzzling data' and gives a 'comprehensive coverage of the expanding field of cosmology'. The reality is rather different. Conference proceedings rarely compare in value with a solid monograph or good review articles, and Current Issues in Cosmology is no exception. The colloquium was convened by the two editors, who have both long harboured doubts about the big bang, and was held in Paris in June 2004. The proceedings contain 19 presented papers and relatively brief summary comments by four panel speakers. The questions and answers at the end of each talk and a general discussion at the end were recorded and transcribed but contain little of interest. The nature of the colloquium is indicated by panellist Francesco Bertola's comment: 'While in the 1950s it was possible to speak of rival theories in cosmology, now the big-bang picture has no strong rivals. This is confirmed by the fact that out of 1500 members of the IAU Division VIII (Galaxies and the Universe) only a dozen, although bright people, devote their time to the heterodox views.' This was largely a platform for them to give their views. At least half of the dozen, all the 'usual suspects', were present: Geoffery and Margaret Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar, Halton Arp, Chandra Wickramasinghe and, in spirit only but playing a role somewhat like the ghost of Hamlet's father, the late Fred Hoyle. Doubters presented 12 of the 19 papers. Orthodoxy should certainly be challenged and the sociology of science questioned, but I found two main problems with this book. The papers putting the orthodox view are too short, even perfunctory. The most that a serious graduate student would get out of them is a reference to a far better review article or book on modern

  13. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:29666656

  14. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kilonzo, Semvua B.; Gunda, Daniel W.; Mpondo, Bonaventura C. T.; Bakshi, Fatma A.; Jaka, Hyasinta

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatm...

  15. Prevalence of Mathematic Disability in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Talepasand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the issues that have consistently been the concern for the health affair specialists and cure and massive social governors in health fields is the rate of disorders prevalence, diseases and the related subjects to epidemiology. Purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mathematic disability amongst primary schools of Karaj. Methods: Totally 432 students were selected with multi-stage sampling method. Participants completed Raven test, Frostig Visual-Perception test and Wepman Auditory discrimination test, Rutter behavioral questionnaire and Iran Key-math test. In order to diagnosis mathematic disability, inter criterion was normal quotient intelligence and out criteria were to have one of visual perception, auditory and behavioral problems. The participants whose total standard scores in Iran Key-math test were one standard deviation below the mean were selected as a mathematical disability (MD. Results: The mathematic disability prevalence in primary students was estimated 0.46%. In addition, proportion of mathematic disability prevalence was not function of gender or grade. Discussion: The findings demonstrated that the prevalence of mathematic disability is much less than the previous researches. A possible explanation was that inappropriate screening co morbid disorders with the mathematic disability. The theoretical implications of findings are discussed in detail.

  16. Prevalence of urticaria in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Miranda-Machado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Colombia, there have been studies on the prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Prevalence studies of urticaria in Colombia are scarce. Objective: Our objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of urticaria in Cartagena (Colombia in order to contribute to national epidemiological estimates of disease. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study in the city of Cartagena was conducted and 547 patients aged 1-58 years treated at the Allergy specialist consultation in care centers selected for this study between April and July 2015 were included, through non-probabilistic sampling. Results: The prevalence of urticaria in the care centers selected of city of Cartagena (Colombia was 7.1 % (4 % children and adults 3.1 %. 3.4 % prevalence of acute urticaria and 3.6 % of chronic urticaria was estimated. Conclusion: 46.1 % reported having a poor quality of life associated with urticaria.

  17. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic widespread pain prevalence in the general population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Steultjens, M; Riskowski, J

    2018-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a significant burden in communities. Understanding the impact of population-dependent (e.g., age, gender) and contextual-dependent (e.g. survey method, region, inequality level) factors have on CWP prevalence may provide a foundation for population-based strategies to address CWP. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the global prevalence of CWP and evaluate the population and contextual factors associated with CWP. A systematic review of CWP prevalence studies (1990-2017) in the general population was undertaken. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine CWP prevalence, and study population data and contextual factors were evaluated using a meta-regression. Thirty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Study CWP prevalence ranged from 1.4% to 24.0%, with CWP prevalence in men ranging from 0.8% to 15.3% and 1.7% to 22.1% in women. Estimated overall CWP prevalence was 9.6% (8.0-11.2%). Meta-regression analyses showed gender, United Nations country development status, and human development index (HDI) influenced CWP prevalence, while survey method, region, methodological and reporting quality, and inequality showed no significant effect on the CWP estimate. Globally CWP affects one in ten individuals within the general population, with women more likely to experience CWP than men. HDI was noted to be the socioeconomic factor related to CWP prevalence, with those in more developed countries having a lower CWP prevalence than those in less developed countries. Most CWP estimates were from developed countries, and CWP estimates from countries with a lower socioeconomic position is needed to further refine the global estimate of CWP. This systematic review and meta-analysis updates the current global CWP prevalence by examining the population-level (e.g. age, gender) and contextual (e.g. country development status; survey style; reporting and methodologic quality) factors associated with CWP prevalence. This analyses

  19. Prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Sheng Yang

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15-34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found.This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China. The relevant studies up to August 2014 were systematically searched via electronic databases (PubMed-Medline, Embase, Chinese Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP database. We only selected original articles that either reported the prevalence of suicide attempts or sufficient data for calculating the prevalence.A total of 29 eligible studies, with 88,225 college students, were finally included. The maximum and minimum reported prevalences of suicide attempts among college students in China were 0.4% and 10.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3%-3.3%. Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled estimate of prevalence of life time suicide attempts was 2.7% (95%CI: 2.1%-3.3%, and 12-month suicide attempts was 2.9% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.8%. The prevalence for males was 2.4% (95%CI: 1.8%-3.0%, and for females was 2.7% (95%CI: 1.9%-3.7%. The prevalences among college students in grade 1 through 4 were 2.8% (95%CI: 1.7%-3.8%, 1.8% (95%CI: 1.2%-2.3%, 2.0% (95%CI: 0.8%-3.1%, and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.1%-6.7%, respectively. The prevalences among college students from rural and urban areas were 5.1% (95%CI: 2.8%-7.5% and 3.7% (95%CI: 1.4%-5.9%, respectively.2.8% prevalence of suicide attempts and more than 600,000 suicide attempters among college students indicate that suicide attempt among college students is an important public health problem in China. More attention should be paid to the current situation.

  20. The prevalence of occupational dermatitis in the UK printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, E J; Rushton, L; English, J S; Williams, H C

    2002-07-01

    To quantify occupational ill health resulting from dermatitis in the UK printing industry and to explore links with particular processes and activities. Approximately 2600 members of the Graphical, Paper and Media Union living in Nottinghamshire were sent a self completion questionnaire. A sample of respondents, both those who reported current skin problems and those who did not, were invited for a short dermatological examination. The overall response rate was 62%. A total of 1189 respondents were directly involved in the printing industry and categorised according to work in pre-press (25%), printing (46%), or finishing (42%) processes. A total of 490 respondents (41%) self reported having a skin complaint at some time. Prevalence was highest in males (43%) and those working in printing (49%), in particular those who cleaned rollers and cylinders or who came into contact with substances containing isocyanates on a daily basis. The most commonly affected areas reported were the fingers and webs between the fingers. Twenty six per cent of the 490 reported a current problem on the hand. Reported symptoms included itching (61%), rash (58%), and dry skin (56%). Although certain printing industry substances were thought by respondents to aggravate their condition, constant washing and friction was most often cited. Reported use of protective equipment and cleansing products was generally high, particularly by printers. Clinical examination confirmed the high self reported prevalence and also identified a substantial proportion of mild cases which were not reported. The overall prevalence of occupationally related skin complaints is estimated to be 40%. A much higher prevalence of dermatitis has been identified than from routine surveillance schemes. The use of good quality records from unions with high membership facilitated access to workers across a range of company sites and printing processes. Validation of self reported symptoms through clinical examination was

  1. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain in Radiotherapy Oncology Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manas, Ana; Monroy, Jose Luis; Ramos, Avelino Alia; Cano, Carmen; Lopez-Gomez, Vanessa; Masramon, Xavier; Perez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Neuropathic pain (NP) in cancer patients severely impacts quality of life. Radiotherapy (RT) may cause NP, and at the same time, cancer patients visit RT units for pain relief. NP prevalence at these sites and current analgesic treatment should be assessed to improve management. Methods and Materials: This epidemiological, prospective, multicenter study was undertaken to assess NP prevalence, according to Douleur Neuropathique 4 questions questtionaire (DN4) test results, and analgesic management in cancer pain patients visiting RT oncologic units. Secondary analyses assessed NP etiology and pain intensity (using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form) and impact (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study [MOS] for Sleep, and the Health Survey Short Form-12). Results: A total of 1,098 patients with any kind of pain were registered. NP prevalence was 31.1% (95% confidence interval, 28.4%--33.9%); 291 NP patients (mean age, 62.2 ±12.5 years and 57.7% men) were eligible for study; 49% of patients were overweight. The most frequent tumors were those of breast and lung, and stage IIIB was the most common cancer stage. The tumors caused 75% of NP cases. Anxiety, sleepiness, and depression were common. At 8 weeks, pain intensity and interference with daily activities decreased significantly for 50.8% of responders. Depression and anxiety (p < 0.0001) scores on the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary measures (p < 0.0001) and all MOS-Sleep subscales, except for snoring, improved significantly. The percentage of satisfied patients increased from 13.8% to 87.4% (p < 0.0001) with the current analgesic treatment, which meant a 1.2- and 6-fold increase (p < 0.0001) in narcotic analgesics and anticonvulsants, respectively, compared to previous treatment. Conclusions: NP is highly prevalent at RT oncology units, with sleepiness, anxiety, and depression as frequent comorbidities. There is a need to improve management

  2. Current-current interaction picture for proton-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, D.J.; Lo, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The authors propose that color current - color current interaction is reponsible for small angle elastic proton proton scattering at asymptotic energy. Excellent fits are obtained for all data above 12 GeV/c which covers twelve orders of magnitude

  3. Combined RF current drive and bootstrap current in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, S. D.; Bers, A.; Ram, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    By calculating radio frequency current drive (RFCD) and the bootstrap current in a consistent kinetic manner, we find synergistic effects in the total noninductive current density in tokamaks [1]. We include quasilinear diffusion in the Drift Kinetic Equation (DKE) in order to generalize neoclassical theory to highly non-Maxwellian electron distributions due to RFCD. The parallel plasma current is evaluated numerically with the help of the FASTEP Fokker-Planck code [2]. Current drive efficiency is found to be significantly affected by neoclassical effects, even in cases where only circulating electrons interact with the waves. Predictions of the current drive efficiency are made for lower hybrid and electron cyclotron wave current drive scenarios in the presence of bootstrap current

  4. Prevalence and profile of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet dancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Toby O; Davies, Leigh; de Medici, Akbar; Hakim, Allan; Haddad, Fares; Macgregor, Alex

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and anatomical regions which are most frequently injured in ballet dancers. Published (AMED, CiNAHL, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, psycINFO, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library) and grey literature databases (OpenGrey, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials and the UK National Research Register Archive) were searched from their inception to 25th May 2015 for papers presenting data on injury prevalence in ballet dancers. Two reviewers independently identified all eligible papers, data extracted and critically appraised studies. Study appraisal was conducted using the CASP appraisal tool. Pooled prevalence data with 95% confidence intervals were estimated to determine period prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and anatomical regions affected. Nineteen studies were eligible, reporting 7332 injuries in 2617 ballet dancers. The evidence was moderate in quality. Period prevalence of musculoskeletal injury was 280% (95% CI: 217-343%). The most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders included: hamstring strain (51%), ankle tendinopathy (19%) and generalized low back pain (14%). No papers explored musculoskeletal disorders in retired ballet dancers. Whilst we have identified which regions and what musculoskeletal disorders are commonly seen ballet dancers. The long-term injury impact of musculoskeletal disorders in retired ballet dancers remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Primary HPV in Djibouti: Feasibility of Screening for Early Diagnosis of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, Alessio; Di Napoli, Anteo; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra; Luccini, Daniele; Di Marco, Ilaria; Traoré, Amadou Laico; Gillio Tos, Anna; Trevisan, Morena; Mirisola, Concetta; Costanzo, Gianfranco

    2016-10-01

    In many African Sub-Saharan countries, human papilloma virus (HPV) prevalence data are not available. The current study estimated the prevalence of HPV virus in the female population of Djibouti. Approximately 1000 asymptomatic women 16 to 64 years old were enrolled from 3 of the main health structures of Djibouti in 2014 and 2015; 998 cervical samples were tested for HPV-DNA of high risk types, 499 during the first year, and 499 during the second. Positive samples were typed with an HPV genotyping kit. The women were an average age of 38.8 years (SD, 10.2); 54 women tested positive for HPV (prevalence rate, 5.4% [95% confidence interval, 4.0-6.8]). The highest prevalence was observed among the women younger than 35 years. HPV66 was the most prevalent (15.4% of the infections), followed by HPV31 and HPV52 (10.8% both) and HPV16 (9.2%). All 54 women who tested HPV-positive underwent a Pap test, which was positive in 8 cases (14.8%): 2 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 6 low-grade (LSIL). The HPV prevalence shows a curve by age similar to that of other African countries. The proportion of HPV16 is among the lowest ever seen in similar studies. The findings suggest to Djibouti the choice of a strategy of screening that includes forms of cytological triage, thus limiting recourse to colposcopy.

  6. Prevalence of stuttering in primary school children in Cairo-Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Ella, Mahmoud; Saleh, Marwa; Habil, Ihab; El Sawy, Mohammed; El Assal, Lamia

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo. A cross-sectional design was employed. Using a multi-stage random sample from 10 schools in Cairo, a total of 8765 primary school students were enrolled in the study. The teacher referring method was initially used to detect stuttering students, which was then confirmed by a Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Personal data were collected for all students and separate questionnaires were administered to the parents of each stuttering child, inquiring about consanguinity, family history, presence of other disorders and family attitudes towards the child. Prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo was 1.03%. The prevalence of stuttering showed a declining trend in the older age group. Stuttering was 7-fold more prevalent among left-handed students. Males had a higher prevalence of stuttering, but didn't reach statistical significance. Anxiety was expressed in 25% of the families of affected children. Positive family history was found in 28% of cases, mainly among first-degree relatives. The current study showed a prevalence of stuttering comparable to other areas of the world with some evidence of hereditary background, although lower than that reported by other studies.

  7. Female infertility in India: Causes, treatment and impairment of fertility in selected districts with high prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraboni Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the ‘universal access to sexual and reproductive health care’ has received priority in the SDG‐3, the rural women experiencing infertility problem in India are unable to access and afford quality reproductive health care. The study investigates the present infertility situation, with a focus on risk factors, treatment seeking for infertility, and impact of infertility on fertility in India and its districts with high infertility prevalence. The DLHS‐3 data is used. Top fifteen districts with high infertility prevalence are selected for analysis. Simple bivariate and multivariate techniques are applied. In India, the prevalence of ever‐experienced primary, secondary, and current infertility is 6.6%, 2.1% and 4.6% respectively, whereas, in the selected districts, the estimates for the same indicators are 15%, 3.1%, and 5% respectively. A higher prevalence of reported symptoms of RTIs/STIs and menstrual problems is observed among women who ever had infertility. Treatment seeking for infertility is low in Korba and Koryia. The MCEB is less among women who ever had experienced infertility. The prevalence of ever‐experienced infertility and current infertility is considerably higher among women from socio‐economically disadvantaged sections. Awareness of RTIs, STIs, and menstrual problems, and preventive care can reduce infertility among rural women.

  8. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihangir Erem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem affecting an important proportion of the Turkish population. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased among adult Turkish population over the past 20 years. In 1990, 18.8% of the adult population was obese (28.5% among women and 9% among men, and the prevalence increased to 36% in 2010 (44% among women and 27% among men. From the data, we found that the prevalence of obesity in Turkey has increased steadily from 1990 to 2010 in both genders. Adult obesity-associated risk factors are age, gender, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking cessation, alcohol consumption, high household income, low education level and physical activity, occupation, marital status and a family of selected medical conditions (e.g. obesity, diabetes and hypertension. To control obesity, necessary precautions should urgently be taken. The precautions include serious public health education encouraging a well-balanced diet and increasing physical activity.

  9. Measurement technology of RF interference current in high current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhihua; Li, Jianxuan; Zhang, Xiangming; Zhang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Current probe is a detection method commonly used in electromagnetic compatibility. With the development of power electronics technology, the power level of power conversion devices is constantly increasing, and the power current of the electric energy conversion device in the electromagnetic launch system can reach 10kA. Current probe conventionally used in EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) detection cannot meet the test requirements on high current system due to the magnetic saturation problem. The conventional high current sensor is also not suitable for the RF (Radio Frequency) interference current measurement in high current power device due to the high noise level in the output of active amplifier. In this paper, a passive flexible current probe based on Rogowski coil and matching resistance is proposed that can withstand high current and has low noise level, to solve the measurement problems of interference current in high current power converter. And both differential mode and common mode current detection can be easily carried out with the proposed probe because of the probe's flexible structure.

  10. Prevalence and clinical implications of the inter-arm blood pressure difference: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E; Campbell, J L; Evans, P H; Millward, A

    2006-12-01

    A blood pressure (BP) difference between arms was first reported over 100 years ago. Knowledge of its prevalence and relevance to the accurate measurement of BP remains poor. Current hypertension guidelines do not emphasise it. The objectives of this study were to establish the best estimate of prevalence of the inter-arm difference (IAD) in the population, to consider its implications for accurate BP measurement and treatment, and to discuss its aetiology and potential as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Systematic literature review was carried out. The data sources were Medline EMBASE and CINAHL databases, and Index of Theses. Studies reporting prevalence rates of IAD were retrieved and considered for inclusion against explicit methodological criteria. Point prevalence rates were extracted and weighted mean prevalence rates calculated. The main outcome measures were weighted mean prevalences of systolic IAD > or =10 and > or =20 mm Hg and of diastolic IAD > or =10 mm Hg. Thirty-one studies were identified. Most had methodological weaknesses; only four met the inclusion criteria. Pooled prevalences of the IAD from these four studies were 19.6% systolic > or =10 mm Hg (95% CI 18.0-21.3%), 4.2% systolic > or =20 mm Hg (95% CI 3.4-5.1%) and 8.1% diastolic > or =10 mm Hg (95%CI 6.9-9.2%). In conclusion, an IAD is present in a substantial number of patients and should be looked for whenever diagnosis and treatment depend on accurate measurements of BP. The importance of an IAD should be better emphasised in current hypertension management guidelines. There is evidence associating an IAD with peripheral vascular disease, raising the possibility that its presence may predict cardiovascular events.

  11. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Mulcahy, Michael J. [Central Washington University, Department of Sociology, Ellensburg, WA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  12. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie; Mulcahy, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  13. Current leads for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Current leads for superconducting magnets have been studied since 1960's. The technology of current leads may seem to have been established both in theory and experiment before the middle of 1970's. Nevertheless, a wide variety of superconducting magnets have been introduced in the last 15 years, and the demands for special current leads have increased in accordance to the variety. A steady advance has been made in the design theory and fabrication of current leads. This paper describes the recent current lead technology regarding the design theory, safety in accidents, and high current capability. (author)

  14. Model-Based Geostatistical Mapping of the Prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J O'Hanlon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial endemicity (pre-control prevalence of onchocerciasis has been shown to be an important determinant of the feasibility of elimination by mass ivermectin distribution. We present the first geostatistical map of microfilarial prevalence in the former Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP before commencement of antivectorial and antiparasitic interventions.Pre-control microfilarial prevalence data from 737 villages across the 11 constituent countries in the OCP epidemiological database were used as ground-truth data. These 737 data points, plus a set of statistically selected environmental covariates, were used in a Bayesian model-based geostatistical (B-MBG approach to generate a continuous surface (at pixel resolution of 5 km x 5km of microfilarial prevalence in West Africa prior to the commencement of the OCP. Uncertainty in model predictions was measured using a suite of validation statistics, performed on bootstrap samples of held-out validation data. The mean Pearson's correlation between observed and estimated prevalence at validation locations was 0.693; the mean prediction error (average difference between observed and estimated values was 0.77%, and the mean absolute prediction error (average magnitude of difference between observed and estimated values was 12.2%. Within OCP boundaries, 17.8 million people were deemed to have been at risk, 7.55 million to have been infected, and mean microfilarial prevalence to have been 45% (range: 2-90% in 1975.This is the first map of initial onchocerciasis prevalence in West Africa using B-MBG. Important environmental predictors of infection prevalence were identified and used in a model out-performing those without spatial random effects or environmental covariates. Results may be compared with recent epidemiological mapping efforts to find areas of persisting transmission. These methods may be extended to areas where data are sparse, and may be used to help inform the

  15. Fifty years of fat: news coverage of trends that predate obesity prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brennan; Wansink, Brian

    2015-07-10

    Obesity prevalence has risen in fifty years. While people generally expect media mentions of health risks like obesity prevalence to follow health risk trends, food consumption trends may precede obesity prevalence trends. Therefore, this research investigates whether media mentions of food predate obesity prevalence. Fifty years of non-advertising articles in the New York Times (and 17 years for the London Times) are coded for the mention of less healthy (5 salty and 5 sweet snacks) and healthy (5 fruits and 5 vegetables) food items by year and then associated with annual obesity prevalence in subsequent years. Time-series generalized linear models test whether food-related mentions predate or postdate obesity prevalence in each country. United States obesity prevalence is positively associated with New York Times mentions of sweet snacks (b = 55.2, CI = 42.4 to 68.1, p = .000) and negatively associated with mentions of fruits (b = -71.28, CI -91.5 to -51.1, p = .000) and vegetables (b = -13.6, CI = -17.5 to -9.6, p = .000). Similar results are found for the United Kingdom and The London Times. Importantly, the "obesity followed mentions" models are stronger than the "obesity preceded mentions" models. It may be possible to estimate a nation's future obesity prevalence (e.g., three years from now) based on how frequently national media mention sweet snacks (positively related) and vegetables or fruits (negatively related) today. This may provide public health officials and epidemiologists with new tools to more quickly assess the effectiveness of current obesity interventions based on what is mentioned in the media today.

  16. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  17. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  18. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  19. Zika virus: Current concerns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Bhardwaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV presence in India, screening of a large number of febrile illness samples yielded only four positive cases. In this review, we address the current concern with context to India. The possible reasons for low level of Zika prevalence in India have been discussed, by extracting some probable explanations from previous experience of chikungunya virus-vector model/studies. In the current context, it is hypothesized that Indian mosquito strains have lower susceptibility gradient/threshold for ZIKV. The very low positivity in the humans also indicates low levels of mosquito-human-mosquito transmission cycle. There is also a need to look for the existence of any such animal cycle/sylvatic involvement in India. The recently detected four cases in India show local transmission of ZIKV suggesting that ZIKV might have been present in India since long time. The earlier vector-virus relationship studies with chikungunya suggested that in due course of time, ZIKV might become a major public health concern in the future.

  20. Norwegian sandwiches: On the prevalence and consequences of family and work role squeezes over the life course

    OpenAIRE

    Daatland, Svein Olav; Veenstra, Marijke; Lima, Ivar A.

    2010-01-01

    Population ageing changes profoundly the current balance between generations. Governments are responding with policies to promote later retirement and family care, but these ideals may come in conflict in mid-life when family obligations can be hard to reconcile with employment. Yet we know little about the prevalence of being “sandwiched”, and even less about the consequences. This article maps out the prevalence of different forms of family and work sandwiching for the Norwegian population,...