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Sample records for parotiditis infecciosa estudio

  1. Efectividad comunitaria de las vacunas frente a la Parotiditis Infecciosa. Estudio de casos

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    Limón Mora Juan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: En nuestro país existen dos tipos de vacunas disponibles frente a la parotiditis infecciosa. En los últimos tiempos se han planteado dudas sobre la eficacia global de estas vacunas y de la eficacia comparada entre ambas (cepa Rubini y cepa Jeryl Lynn. En el distrito sanitario de A.P. "Sevilla Este" se registraron 256 casos durante 1997 (90,1 casos por 100.000 habitantes. Con este estudio se pretende aprovechar la aparición de casos de parotiditis para evaluar poblaciones afectadas e incidencia comparada según tipo de vacuna recibida durante la infancia. MÉTODOS: Análisis descriptivo de los casos (edad, distribución territorial, antecedentes vacunales,... y análisis evolutivo (tasas de incidencia anuales en el distrito sanitario y su entorno. Se evalúa la efectividad global de las vacunas frente a la parotiditis. Igualmente se estiman las tasas de incidencia de casos entre los vacunados con cepa Rubini y Jeryl Lynn. RESULTADOS: Se observan las tasas de incidencias más elevadas en niños entre 1 y 4 años. Se han estimado niveles de efectividad global para estas vacunas. Además se observa una incidencia de casos significativamente más elevada entre los niños vacunados con cepa Rubini que en los que lo hicieron con Jeryl Lynn (riesgo relativo de 6,5 con Intervalo de confianza 95% 3,6-11,8. CONCLUSIONES: La efectividad que se desprende de este estudio no parece ser tan buena como la eficacia teórica preconizada para las vacunas frente a la parotiditis. Se plantea la conveniencia de realizar otros estudios de casos según tipos de vacunas utilizadas. Igualmente son de gran interés los datos a suministrar por estudios seroepidemiológicos.

  2. ESTUDIO ESPACIAL DE LA SÍFILIS INFECCIOSA Y LA INFECCIÓN GONOCÓCICA EN UN SERVICIO DE SALUD PÚBLICA DE ÁREA DE MADRID

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    Irene G.M. Wijers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual son un importante problema de salud pública. Dentro de la Comunidad de Madrid, los distritos con mayor incidencia de sífilis infecciosa e infección gonocócica pertenecen al Servicio de Salud Pública del Área 7 (SSPA 7. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar conglomerados de casos de sífilis infecciosa y de infección gonocócica dentro de este SSPA. Métodos: Se seleccionaron todos los casos confirmados de sífilis infec - ciosa y de infección gonocócica del año 2015 registrados en el SSPA 7 de Madrid. Se determinó el índice I de Morán para las dos enfermedades para identificar la existencia de autocorrelación espacial y se realizó un análisis de conglomerados. Los conglomerados e incidencias acumuladas (IA por zona básica de salud (ZBS fueron visualizados en mapas. Resultados: El distrito con más casos fue Centro (IA: 67,5 y 160,7 por 100.000 habitantes para la sífilis infecciosa y la infección gonocócica, res - pectivamente, con IA más altas (120,0 y 322,6 por 100.000 habitantes en la ZBS de Justicia. El 91,6% de los casos de sífilis infecciosa y el 89,6% de las infecciones gonocócicas correspondieron a hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH. El índice I de Moran fue de 0,54 y 0,55 (p<0,001 para la sífilis infecciosa y la infección gonocócica respectivamente. Para la sífilis infecciosa se identificó un conglomerado que comprende las seis ZBS que forman el distrito Centro, con un riesgo relativo (RR de 6,66 (p=0,001. Para la infección gonocócica, se identificó un conglomerado que englobaba el distrito Centro, tres ZBS de Chamberí y una del distrito Latina (RR 5,05; p=0,001. Conclusión : Centro fue el distrito con más casos de sífilis infecciosa y de infección gonocócica y el colectivo más afectado fue el de HSH. Para las dos enfermedades se identificaron conglomerados con un gran solapamiento. Al identificar las zonas básicas de salud y

  3. Peritonitis infecciosa felina, gastroenteritis y colangiohepatitis parasitaria (platinosomiasis) con colangiocarcinoma hepático: estudio clínico y anatomopatológico de tres casos

    OpenAIRE

    Vale Echeto, Oswaldo E.; Madrigal, Karina; Admadé, María; Vale Oviedo, Oswaldo R.; Moreno, Alejandro; Simoes, David

    2009-01-01

    La Peritonitis Infecciosa Felina (PIF) es una enfermedad viral sistémica producida por un coronavirus (ARN) que ocurre con frecuencia en los felinos domésticos. Este proceso patológico ha sido referido en el felino doméstico y relacionado concurrentemente con otras enfermedades virales tales como la panleucopenia felina, leucemia felina y enteritis por coronavirus. En el presente trabajo se reportan los hallazgos clínicos y anatomopatológicos de tres casos de PIF, asociados a gastroenteritis ...

  4. El suero de convaleciente concentrado en las enfermedades infecciosas, con especial aplicación al tifo exantemático, a la parotiditis, al sarampión y a la varicela

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    A. Macchiavello

    1943-04-01

    Full Text Available Después de los ensayos de prevención del Tifo Exantemático realizadas utilizando suero de convalecientes, el método fué prácticamente abandonado por sus resultados inconstantes y por la escasa potencia de los sueros. Igual cosa puede decirse respecto a las propiedades curativas, aun menores que las preventivas. Evidentemente, el suero de convalecientes tifosos se muestra menos activo que el de convalecientes de otras enfermedades infecciosas, como sarampión, parotíditis, etc. (1 a 4. En 1935, Zinsser y Castañeda logran obtener suero de caballo hiperinmune contra el Tifo, el mismo que pudo ser concentrado aprovechando la fracción globulínica isoluble en agua. Con este suero, los autores citados logran proteger contra el Tifo experimental del cobayo, variedad mejicana, y con el suero concentrado, los mismos investigadores, con Hager, logran, posteriormente, protección contra el virus del Tifo europeo experimental. (5, 6, 7. Varela y Parada, comprueban lo primero y Macchiavello, lo último, en gran número de experiencias de lo que nosotros designamos como sero-proteccíón (suero inyectado por distinta vía y no necesariamente al mismo tiempo que el virus, y, principalmente, sin que haya habido contacto previo entre ambos (7 a 8. Bustamante, Varela y Bosque Pichardo, y luégo, los dos primeros autores con Ríos Negri, comprueban el valor preventivo del suero de Harvard contra el tifo mejicano del hombre y Macchiavello en Valparaíso, 1937, contra el tifo epidémico europeo (9, 10, 11.

  5. Parotid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Schultz, Joyce H; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2003-01-01

    -year recurrence-free survival of the entire study group was 63%, disease-specific survival was 69%, and crude survival was 52%. In univariate analysis, tumor size, histological appearance, T status, stage, the presence of lymph node metastases, distant metastases, pain, and facial nerve dysfunction had...... a significant influence on survival. CONCLUSIONS: A thorough histological revision is pivotal in retrospective parotid carcinoma studies, and tumor size; histological appearance; T, N, and M status; stage; facial nerve dysfunction; and pain from the face and/or neck seem to be significant prognostic indicators...

  6. Endocarditis infecciosa por S. aureus en la Argentina: EIRA-2. Análisis comparativo luego de 10 años de los estudios EIRA 1 y 2

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    Ernesto R. Ferreirós

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar el perfil y la evolución de la endocarditis infecciosa (EI en nuestro país a lo largo de 10 años, a través de los registros EIRA-1 y EIRA-2. Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas y la evolución hospitalaria de la EI por Staphylococcus aureus (EISA en la Argentina. Métodos El estudio EIRA-2 fue un registro prospectivo multicéntrico conducido en 82 hospitales de 16 provincias de la Argentina. En el presente análisis se incluyeron pacientes con EI definidas (clasificación de Duke relevados en un período de 18 meses. Resultados Se registraron 390 episodios de EI definidas (108 EISA y 282 no EISA; edad media 58,5 ± 17,3 años, sexo masculino 70%. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las 108 EISA y las 282 no EISA con respecto a edad, sexo, endocarditis de válvula protésica, enfermedad valvular degenerativa, presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca y frecuencia de tratamiento quirúrgico. La comparación de los registros EIRA-2 y EIRA-1 demostró cambios importantes en el perfil de la enfermedad en la última década, actualmente caracterizada por pacientes de mayor edad (58 versus 51 años, mayor prevalencia de cardiopatía subyacente 67% versus 55% (en particular prótesis valvulares 19,2% versus 8,5%, enfermedades valvulares degenerativas 12,4% versus 4,8% y cardiopatías congénitas 9,5% versus 4,2%, mayor frecuencia de infección causada por S. aureus (30% versus 26% y menor por Streptococcus viridans (30,8% versus 26,8%, con una reducción del tiempo hasta el diagnóstico definitivo (21,5 versus 33 días. No se encontraron modificaciones en la tasa de mortalidad de la enfermedad. Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,01 de las EISA con respecto a las no EISA en la prevalencia de cardiopatía subyacente [58,3% versus 67,4% (OR 0,7 IC 95% 0,4-0,99]; la EISA presentó una prevalencia menor de enfermedad valvular reumática [0,9% versus 7,1% (OR

  7. ¿Qué opinan los médicos penitenciarios sobre el control de la infección por el VIH en las prisiones españolas?: Resultados del Estudio del Grupo de Trabajo en Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Sociedad Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria (GEISESP

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    P. Saiz De la Hoya

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio realizado por el Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Sociedad Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria (GEISESP sobre la opinión de los facultativos penitenciarios en cuanto a la conveniencia o no de realizar el control de la infección por el VIH en el medio carcelario y sobre las dificultades, esfuerzos, necesidades y responsabilidades que esta actividad puede suponer. Este estudio se efectuó en el año 2007 utilizando una encuesta diseñada ad hoc remitida a todos los facultativos de 73 centros penitenciarios españoles. Se recibieron 116 cuestionarios válidos, estimándose que los datos obtenidos podían aplicarse al total de la población con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un margen de error del 8%. La mitad de los médicos refirieron prescribir tratamientos antirretrovirales, aunque sólo el 10% decían prescribir combinaciones de rescate. Es de destacar también que sólo la mitad de los médicos se consideran formados adecuadamente para atender pacientes infectados por el VIH, aunque la mayoría afirma haber hecho formación específica de postgrado en esta materia. En general, los médicos consideran que la calidad de la asistencia recibida por los infectados por el VIH en prisión es buena.

  8. Endocarditis infecciosa activa: 152 casos

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    Lucía R. Kazelian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una enfermedad de baja incidencia que en las últimas décadas mostró modificaciones respecto de su presentación, posibilidad diagnóstica y tratamiento. A pesar de estos avances, la mortalidad hospitalaria sigue siendo muy elevada. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las características de los pacientes con endocarditis infecciosa activa y su relación con la mortalidad hospitalaria a lo largo de 16 años. Se realizó un registro prospectivo entre 1994 y 2010 de pacientes ingresados con endocarditis. Se analizaron características clínicas, evolución y tratamiento y se registraron los eventos intrahospitalarios. Ingresaron 152 pacientes, 64.5% varones, edad 45 ± 16 años, las causas más frecuentes de cardiopatía de base fueron: congénita 32 (21% y reumática 20 (13.2%. Los motivos de internación fueron síndrome febril 116 (76.3% e insuficiencia cardíaca 61 (40.1%. Se identificó el agente infeccioso en 106 (69.7% de los casos, el más frecuente fue Streptococcus viridans. El ecocardiograma mostró vegetaciones en 123 (80.9% de los pacientes y 88 (57.8% presentaron complicaciones durante su internación, siendo la más frecuente la insuficiencia cardíaca. Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico en 96 (63.1% de los casos, fundamentalmente por insuficiencia cardíaca en 66. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 46 (30.2%. El desarrollo de complicaciones en la internación, la indicación de cirugía y la presencia de insuficiencia cardíaca refractaria al tratamiento fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad hospitalaria, mientras que la presencia de vegetaciones resultó un predictor independiente de mejor supervivencia. La identificación temprana de estos predictores descriptos podría ayudar a mejorar los resultados.

  9. Mortalidad prematura por enfermedades infecciosas en España, 1908-1995

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    Mirón Canelo José Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Las enfermedades infecciosas han sido tradicionalmente una de las principales causas de muerte en los países desarrollados. Los objetivos del presente trabajo consistieron en cuantificar la importancia de las enfermedades infecciosas como causa de muerte prematura en España entre 1908 y 1995, y conocer la frecuencia y distribución de las enfermedades infecciosas con mayor impacto sobre la mortalidad prematura. Métodos. El estudio se realizó a partir de los datos de mortalidad por causas infecciosas publicados por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística en el Movimiento Natural de la Población para el período en estudio. Se utilizan como indicadores de mortalidad prematura los años de vida potencial perdidos (AVPP, la tasa bruta de AVPP por 1 000 habitantes y el porcentaje y la media de AVPP. Resultados. Entre 1908 y 1995, el número y la tasa de AVPP por causas infecciosas experimentaron una evolución claramente descendente. El descenso fue más acusado a partir de los años 50 y se observó en todos los grupos de edad. La tuberculosis fue la primera causa de muerte prematura desde principios de siglo hasta los años 70. A partir de esta fecha toman el relevo las neumonías y el sida. Conclusiones. El impacto de las enfermedades infecciosas como determinantes de muerte prematura en España ha descendido a lo largo del siglo XX, sobre todo a partir de los años 70.

  10. Histopathologic correlation of parotid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Valverde, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Malignization percentage of parotid pleomorphic adenoma is defined with fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), prior negative in patients operated by parotid tumor in the Hospital San Juan de Dios between 2008-2012. Patients diagnosed with pleomorphic adenoma by FNAB are described in time, place and person. The histological type of parotid tumors diagnosed are defined. Management offered to patients diagnosed with parotid tumors is understood in the Hospital San Juan de Dios. Complications associated with surgical procedure in patients are specified. A quarter part the of parotid tumors from the series analyzed have been malignant, a similar percentage described in the literature [es

  11. Parotid hybrid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo C, Gustavo; Seymour M, Camila; Fernandez R, Lara; Villanueva I, Maria Elena; Scott C, Carlos; Celedon L, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands represent 33%-10% of head and neck neoplasms. The most common location is the parotid gland, accounting for 50%-85% of the cases, with 20%-30% of them being malignant. The following are known to be indicative of a malignant tumor: fast growing, painless mass, associated facial paralysis and lymphadenopathy. Most parotid neoplasm derive from a single histological type but eventually the development of more than one type on the same gland can occur. This paper presents a case of a parotid neoplasm with two different histological tumors, with uncharacteristic clinical presentation. The patient presented initially with ear pain and otorrhoea, in the clinical examination highlighted an external auditory canal tumor. The complementary study revealed a parotid neoplasm and a total resection of the gland was performed. The biopsy revealed an adenoid-cystic carcinoma with differentiated basaloid areas. Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy was administered, and the imaging control with PET-CT showed no evidence of recurrence or dissemination of the tumor

  12. [Epidemic parotiditis, a reportable disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhoff, J C; Baart, J A

    2013-01-01

    Three consecutive patients with an acute swelling of one of the cheeks, were diagnosed with epidemic parotiditis. The first phase of the diagnostic procedure for an acute cheek swelling is to eliminate the possibility of odontogenic causes. When odontogenic problems have been excluded, non-dentition-related causes may be considered. An acute, progressive swelling in the preauricular area can often be attributed to an inflammation of the parotid gland, but epidemic parotiditis should also be considered. Epidemic parotiditis, or mumps, is caused by the mumps virus. Contamination occurs aerogenically. In the Netherlands, mumps vaccine is an ingredient of the governmental combined mump-measles-rubella inoculation programme. However, in recent years several small-scale parotiditis epidemics have broken out, predominantly among young, inoculated adults. Oropharyngeal mucus and blood samples are needed to diagnose the disease. Each case of the disease should be reported to the community healthcare service.

  13. ¿Qué opinan los médicos penitenciarios sobre el control de la infección por el VIH en las prisiones españolas?: Resultados del Estudio del Grupo de Trabajo en Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Sociedad Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria (GEISESP What do prison doctors think about HIV infection control in Spanish prisons?: Results of the study of the Spanish Society of Prison Health Working Group on Infectious Diseases (GEISESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saiz De la Hoya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio realizado por el Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Sociedad Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria (GEISESP sobre la opinión de los facultativos penitenciarios en cuanto a la conveniencia o no de realizar el control de la infección por el VIH en el medio carcelario y sobre las dificultades, esfuerzos, necesidades y responsabilidades que esta actividad puede suponer. Este estudio se efectuó en el año 2007 utilizando una encuesta diseñada ad hoc remitida a todos los facultativos de 73 centros penitenciarios españoles. Se recibieron 116 cuestionarios válidos, estimándose que los datos obtenidos podían aplicarse al total de la población con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un margen de error del 8%. La mitad de los médicos refirieron prescribir tratamientos antirretrovirales, aunque sólo el 10% decían prescribir combinaciones de rescate. Es de destacar también que sólo la mitad de los médicos se consideran formados adecuadamente para atender pacientes infectados por el VIH, aunque la mayoría afirma haber hecho formación específica de postgrado en esta materia. En general, los médicos consideran que la calidad de la asistencia recibida por los infectados por el VIH en prisión es buena.We present the results of the study carried out by The Spanish Society of Penitentiary Health Working Group on Infectious Diseases (GEISESP on the opinion of prison doctors concerning the suitability of undertaking or not undertaking controls of HIV infection in prisons and about the difficulties, efforts, needs and responsibilities that this activity may involve. This study was carried out in 2007 using an ad hoc survey designed and sent to doctors at 73 prisons in Spain. 116 valid questionnaires were received. It was considered that the data received could be applied to the whole population with a level of trust of 95% and an 8% margin of error. Half the doctors referred to prescribing antiretroviral

  14. Parotid lymphomas - clinical and computed tomogrphic imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To review the clinical presentation and computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics of all parotid lymphomas diagnosed at the study institution over a 7-year period. Design. Retrospective chart review of parotid lymphomas diagnosed between 1997 and 2004. Subjects. A total of 121 patients with parotid ...

  15. Las Enfermedades Infecciosas emergentes y la Salud Pública

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    Fabio Aurelio Rivas Muñoz

    1997-06-01

    dólares el tiempo y los dineros necesarios para controlar la pandemia en la región. La peste, que en el Perú ocasionaba casos esporádicos en los últimos 50 años, fue epidémica desde 1992 y en 1994 se notificaron 1.299 casos con una letalidad cerca la al 5%. Estos dos ejemplos de infecciones emergentes, o reemergentes, en nuestro continente, dado el contexto socioeconómico y ambiental en que surgieron, hacen dudar que realmente seamos países en vía de desarrollo. Pudiera ser más acertado considerar que estamos en vía de franco deterioro.

    Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, de no aplicarse medidas eficaces para desacelerar la transmisión del VIH, hacia el año 2000 el Sida representará el 8% de la carga mundial de morbilidad y no el 3.5% de hoy y aproximadamente el 95% de los infectados estarán en los países no desarrollados.

    El presente trabajo, además de mostrar el panorama de infecciones como la tuberculosis y su asociación con el VIH, hace una revisión de los elementos básicos que explican la emergencia de una enfermedad infecciosa, proceso complejo y dinámico, donde el concepto de microbio como causal de enfermedad es insuficiente y son más bien las actividades humanas los factores verdaderamente poderosos en la ocurrencia del fenómeno.

    Para entender y dar respuesta a este desafío, como sector salud, se requiere de una perspectiva global, tanto conceptual como geográficamente hablando, donde la vigilancia epidemiológica, el estudio de los brotes y el laboratorio de salud pública, resultan herramientas fundamentales hacia el control.

    La OPS/OMS ha propuesto algunas metas, las cuales se exponen junto con sus objetivos específicos, con el ánimo de abrirlas a la discusión en la búsqueda de una estrategia regional para la vigilancia, prevención y control de las enfermedades infecciosas emergentes en las Américas...

  16. Parotid enlargement in children with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soberman, N.; Leonidas, J.C.; Berdon, W.E.; Haller, J.O.; Posner, M.; Bonagura, V.

    1990-01-01

    PURPOSE: Painless parotid enlargement has been recently reported as a sign of AIDS, but little is known of the imaging characteristics of parotid involvement in affected children. The aim of this paper is to use US, CT and MR imaging to determine the anatomic changes of the parotid; study their possible association with pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH); and define the immunologic parameters and clinical course. Eighteen children were evaluated clinically, radiologically, and immunologically. All patients underwent US of the parotids and chest radiography; some children had CT of the chest and MR imaging of the parotids

  17. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed

  18. A STUDY ON PAROTID SWELLINGS

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    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Swellings of the parotid gland are of special interest to a surgeon’s keen eye. These lesions are not only involved in diseases isolated to the parotid, but can also present as a part of a generalised systemic disorder, medical or surgical. For a surgeon, the interests lie in the probable origin of the swelling, its involvement of the facial nerve, the variability in behaviour, regarding the operability criteria and its postoperative complications. 1 A comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of the parotid and the prediction of the swelling behaviour can help not only in the diagnosis, but also in ensuring an apt management of the lesion and the patient. 2 This cohort study was conducted to analyse the following in our institution. The incidence of various parotid swellings to discuss accuracy of FNAC in comparison to the histopathological reports. The various surgical modalities of treatment of parotid swellings applied. MATERIALS AND METHODS The cohort study, which included 45 patients was conducted at Kilpauk Medical College Hospital and Government Royapettah Hospital from September 2010 to October 2012. Data was collected from the patients after obtaining an informed consent. The demographic details of the patients and history of their swelling was taken. The patients were examined and basic investigations performed. Details regarding the FNAC report, surgical and nonsurgical management were noted. Postoperative complications were documented. The final histopathological report was analysed and compared with the FNAC report. RESULTS Parotid lesions are commonest cases in our study. Benign tumours are more common than malignant lesions. This study found to correlate with world statistics. Investigations, clinical findings and treatment correlate well with world statistical records. CONCLUSION The analysis of the data of the study conducted at our institution provided us with the following results- Parotid lesions comprised of the

  19. Endocarditis infecciosa, experiencia de diez años en un centro de referencia nacional

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    Elsa Fleitas Ruisánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudiar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento médico quirúrgico de los pacientes ingresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa, con el propósito de profundizar en su estudio y contribuir a un mejor tratamiento a estos pacientes. Métodos: se estudiaron 24 pacientes procedentes de todo el país, egresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Los datos fueron recogidos de las historias clínicas procedentes del archivo del Hospital "William Soler", y de la base de datos del servicio de cirugía del cardiocentro. Se determinó la frecuencia de las diferentes manifestaciones de la endocarditis infecciosa según: grupos etarios, factores de riesgo, y los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y microbiológicos más frecuentes. Además, se determinó la toma valvular predominante, la etiología y su respuesta a los antibióticos. Resultados: el grupo de edad más afectado fue entre 5 y 18 años; la cardiopatía previa fue el factor de riesgo predominante; los síntomas y signos más frecuentes fueron la fiebre, la anorexia y la pérdida de peso. La insuficiencia cardiaca y el embolismo pulmonar fueron complicaciones frecuentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tuvo una eritrosedimentación acelerada, y la cuarta parte de los casos presentaron hemocultivos negativos. Las válvulas aórtica y mitral resultaron las más afectadas, y el curso clínico que predominó fue el subagudo. En casi la mitad de los pacientes la infección tuvo un origen nosocomial. Los antimicrobianos más utilizados fueron la amikacina, la vancomicina y la ceftriaxona. Conclusiones: la endocarditis infecciosa es poco frecuente en nuestra institución, ocurre más a menudo en relación con las cardiopatías congénitas. Los hechos clínicos más constantes fueron la fiebre y el antecedente de cardiopatía previa.

  20. Endocarditis infecciosa de válvula pulmonar nativa

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Romaní R; Fernando Atencia M; José Cuadra A

    2007-01-01

    La endocarditis infecciosa en válvulas derechas es predominantemente en la válvula tricuspídea, mientras la válvula pulmonar es excepcionalmente afectada (menos de 1,5%), por lo que son pocos los casos reportados en la literatura mundial. Las manifestaciones clínicas de endocarditis en válvula pulmonar no son las clásicas de endocarditis infecciosa, como son los síntomas de embolismo séptico pulmonar. La endocarditis aislada de válvula pulmonar nativa es inusual en personas que no consumen dr...

  1. Parotid salivary duct stenosis following caudal maxillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Faísca, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E

    2014-01-01

    Parotid salivary duct dilation was diagnosed in a 9-year-old male dog. The dog had undergone caudal maxillectomy on the ipsilateral side 2-years prior to presentation. Treatment consisted of parotid salivary duct excision and superficial parotidectomy that lead to the resolution of clinical signs. Transient facial neuropraxia was observed immediately after surgery and resolved spontaneously after 2-weeks. Parotid salivary duct dilation should be considered as a chronic postoperative complication following caudal maxillectomy.

  2. Disminución de enfermedades infecciosas intestinales relacionada al acceso a servicios de agua y desagüe en el Perú, 2002-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Arenas-Significación

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el Perú, las enfermedades infecciosas intestinales ocupan el tercer lugar en causas de morbilidad registradas en consulta externa. Por otro lado, el acceso a agua y desagüe existió en 74,7% y 62,8%, respectivamente. Objetivos: Determinar la correlación del acceso de agua potable y desagüe con las consultas por enfermedades infecciosas intestinales. Diseño: Estudio ecológico de series de tiempo. Institución: Facultad de Medicina de San Fernando, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material: Registros del Ministerio de Salud y del Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Lima, Perú. Métodos: A partir de los registros del Ministerio de Salud (MINSA de las causas de morbilidad en consulta externa y datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (INEI, se realizó un estudio ecológico de serie de tiempo, del periodo 2002 al 2009. Se analizó los resultados con el coeficiente rho de Spearman. Principales medidas de resultados: Coeficientes de correlación. Resultados: Se obtuvo un rho = -0,810 y p = 0,015 para la relación entre acceso a agua potable y enfermedades infecciosas intestinales. Se obtuvo un rho = -0,714 y p = 0,047 para la relación entre el acceso a desagüe y enfermedades infecciosas intestinales. Interpretación: Se encontró correlación entre el porcentaje de acceso de agua potable y desagüe y el porcentaje de consultas externas por enfermedades infecciosas intestinales, en el periodo del 2002 al 2009, en el Perú.

  3. Ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, H E; Greisen, O; Hastrup, N

    1987-06-01

    A case of ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland is described. The medical literature contains only 13 previous reports on this kind of adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumour is characterized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinomas of the breast and prostate. The course of previously described cases suggests that this tumour has a highly aggressive biological behaviour.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of parotid tumors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akihiko; Yamashita, Toshio; Inoue, Toshiya; Kumazawa, Tadami; Kato, Tsutomu; Sawada, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    1987-01-01

    We compared the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with that of X-ray computed tomography in the preoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors. We performed in 13 patients with parotid tumors and 10 of them were operated. The MRI equipment had a magnetic fild of 0.15 Tesla. We used the spine echo acquisition technique and a repetition time of 600, 1000 and 2000 milli-seconds, and echo time of 40 and 80 milli-seconds. We found that the T 1 weighted image well visualized the duct of the parotid gland, the T 2 weighted image provided fine pictures of the parotid tumor. The facial nerve of normal parotid glands could not be visualized by MRI. (author)

  5. Irradiation of metastatic carcinoma parotid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinomas of the parotid should be considered distinct malignancies despite descriptions of low-grade malignant potential and innocuous histologic patterns. Benign-appearing tumors frequently have a clinically malignant course. Blood-borne metastases may oocur early despite gross and microscopic innocence. Indolent growth may be a characteristic of local disease, which may then be approached with less than radical parotidectomy and sacrifice of the facial nerve. These tumors prove to be radiosensitive. More agressive postoperative irradiation and palliative irradiation is recommended. Two cases of successful palliation of spinal metastases are presented as examples of radiosensitivity of this tumor

  6. Endocarditis infecciosa de válvula pulmonar nativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Romaní R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa en válvulas derechas es predominantemente en la válvula tricuspídea, mientras la válvula pulmonar es excepcionalmente afectada (menos de 1,5%, por lo que son pocos los casos reportados en la literatura mundial. Las manifestaciones clínicas de endocarditis en válvula pulmonar no son las clásicas de endocarditis infecciosa, como son los síntomas de embolismo séptico pulmonar. La endocarditis aislada de válvula pulmonar nativa es inusual en personas que no consumen drogas intravenosas. Se presenta el caso de un paciente varón con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y sin otro factor predisponente.

  7. Complicaciones neurológicas de la endocarditis infecciosa: controversias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A. Silva, MD., MSc

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En la endocarditis infecciosa aguda se describen complicaciones neurológicas entre 20% y 40% de los casos, lo cual representa un importante factor que predice morbimortalidad, secuelas y discapacidad. Esta entidad se caracteriza por un amplio espectro clínico debido a su compleja fisiopatología, que involucra entre otros, fenómenos inflamatorios, inmunes, infecciosos y embólicos. A pesar de la notable frecuencia de las complicaciones neurológicas en la endocarditis infecciosa, dadas especialmente por enfermedad cerebrovascular y neuroinfecciones, aun existen controversias acerca de algunos aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos, en parte por la poca evidencia disponible, las cuales se discuten a continuación, a partir de una serie de casos atendidos en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia.

  8. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandali, Danny; Heilingoetter, Ashley; Ghai, Ritu; Jeffe, Jill; Al-Khudari, Samer

    2018-01-01

    Lipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager. A 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence. This is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  9. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Jandali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager.Case presentationA 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence.ConclusionThis is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  10. Determinación de la sensibilidad a amoxicilina y a clindamicina de staphylococcus spp aislado de cavidad oral de pacientes con alto riesgo de endocarditis infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Barrientos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura existen pocos estudios acerca de la distribución de Staphylococcus spp en boca y los que hay sobre estos microorganismos como residentes de la cavidad oral son controversiales.El género Staphylococcus spp conforma un importante grupo de patógenos en el ser humano y origina distintas enfermedades, entre ellas, la Endocarditis Infecciosa; de igual forma, la literatura reporta tasas de resistencia a amoxicilina y clindamicina antibióticos usados comúnmente para la profilaxis en odontología. Objetivo: Conocer la sensibilidad de Staphylococcus spp a amoxicilina y la clindamicina aislados de cavidad oral de pacientes con alto riesgo de Endocarditis Infecciosa.

  11. Branchial cysts within the parotid salivary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Cystic lesions within the parotid gland are uncommon and clinically they are frequently misdiagnosed as tumours. Many theories have been proposed as to their embryological origin. A 20-year retrospective review was undertaken of all pathological codes (SNOMED) of all of patients presenting with any parotid lesions requiring surgery. After analysis seven subjects were found to have histopathologically proven parotid branchial cysts in the absence of HIV infection and those patients are the aim of this review. Four of the most common embryological theories are also discussed with regard to these cases, as are their management. PMID:22607735

  12. Factors influencing the parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with parotid-sparing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenshan; Lee Jongkang; Su Maochang; Lee, S.P.; Chen Ginden; Lee Hongshen; Lee Huei

    2006-01-01

    The background of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing post-irradiation parotid gland function in nasopharyngeal cancer treated with parotid-sparing radiotherapy. This study consisted of 45 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy including 3D conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The mean follow-up time was 37.5 months (range: 15-50 months). Objective parotid gland function was assessed by series sialoscintigraphy pre-irradiation and post-irradiation at 1, 6, 12 and 18 months. Subjective salivary function was recorded by the LENT/SOMA system. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the secretion ratio (SR) of parotid gland before and after treatment. Mann-Whitney rank-sum test was used to determine the factors influencing the post-irradiated SR. Chi-square test was used to compare the correlation between subjective grading of xerostomia and objective grading of parotid glands. There was a significant difference between the pre-irradiation and post-irradiation parotid gland's SR at 1 (0.30 versus 0.01, P 0.05) and 18 months (0.30 versus 0.18, P>0.05). There was significant correlation between subjective and objective salivary function (P=0.024) at 12 months after radiotherapy. The factor that impacted the preservation of parotid function was mean dose to the parotid gland >38.0 Gy (P<0.05). Our results demonstrated that parotid function could recover 1 year after treatment with parotid-sparing radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. The most important factor that influenced parotid function was the mean dose to the parotid gland. (author)

  13. Computed tomographic diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Hitoki; Nishimura, Tadao; Takasu, Akihiko; Yagizawa, Mikio; Suzuki, Akio

    1983-01-01

    Investigation with CT has been performed on 20 cases of parotid gland tumors. The intravenous contrast enhancement method was performed in all cases. Six cases were examined by CT and simultaneous sialography. The results were as follows: 1) If and when the margin of the tumor was indistinct and irregular, malignancy was suspected. However, it was difficult to diagnose malignancy by CT examination only. 2) CT for parotid gland tumor was effective in indentifying invasion of tumor into the parapharyngeal space and intracranial space. 3) CT with simultaneous sialography was very effective in locating the parotid gland tumor. 4) CT of axial sections for parotid gland tumor was more reliable if coronaly sections are taken together. 5) CT of malignant and benign tumors were diffusely enhanced by the intravenous contrast enhancement method. However, this was not an indispensable method. (author)

  14. Parotid lymphomas - clinical and computed tomogrphic imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parotid lymphomas - clinical and computed tomogrphic imaging features. ... South African Journal of Surgery ... Lymphoma has a clinical presentation similar ... CT scanning is a useful adjunctive investigation to determine the site and extent of ...

  15. Benign Fibrous Tumour of the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Sreetharan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 44-year-old man with left parotid enlargement that was initially diagnosed as cementifying fibroma is presented. The lesion was found in the deep lobe of the parotid gland and was successfully removed. Postoperatively, the patient recovered well with intact facial nerve function and remained asymptomatic after 1 year. Subsequent histology revealed the mass to be a benign fibrous tumour. The diagnosis and management of this rare entity are discussed.

  16. Bilateral parotid gland tuberculosis: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Takhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parotid gland tuberculosis is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic like India; however, it should be included as one of the differentials of discrete parotid swelling as it generally presents as a slow-growing mass indistinguishable from a malignancy and even imaging too, can’t differentiate these clearly. The majority of the previously reported cases were mostly unilateral and diagnosed by histopathological examination of post parotidectomy specimens. Here we are describing a case of tuberculosis of both parotid glands in a 25 year-old male who was referred to us with bilateral parotid region swelling of two month duration. Tubercular parotiditis was confirmed by demonstration of epithelioid granuloma and caseous necrosis compatible with TB on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. He was treated with four drug anti-TB regimen (2HERZ + 4HR leading to full recovery and complete disappearance of swelling and symptoms with no recurrence till one year of follow up. Apart from rarity due to bilateral involvement, this case report highlights the clinical presentation, ultrasonography and other imaging findings, and significance of FNAC in diagnosis of this uncommon entity reinforcing the fact that the diagnosis of parotid gland tuberculosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion.

  17. Acute parotiditis after cesarean section; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Moisei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement of the parotid gland develops in inflammatory or stenotic conditions but after Cesarean section the symptomatology is unusual. A 38 year old patient with no obstetrical history referred to our clinic for pregnancy, which followed our national program of prenatal care. The outcome of the pregnancy was favorable for both mother and fetus. During labor the fetus developed bradycardia and the patient delivered by Cesarean section a 3400 g baby-boy with 8 Apgar Score; the anesthesia was spinal. 18 hours after delivery the patient presented mild respiratory distress. The symptomatology was caused by the enlargement of the parotid gland. The treatment was supportive and the remission occurred 10 hours after the onset. The initial discussion that raised this case was caused by the viral, infection and stenotic cause of the parotiditis. All these reasons had no medical argument. It was also debated about the anesthesia but, until now, the medical literature didn’t report any case of association between parotiditis and spinal anesthesia. It is also impossible to correlate the parotiditis with IVF procedure. As a conclusion, this case is unique because it represents the parotiditis without unknown case that appeared after Cesarean section and spinal anesthesia in a healthy woman.

  18. Evolución y letalidad por endocarditis infecciosa en pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la evolución y letalidad de los pacientes portadores de endocarditis infecciosa, así como la presencia de complicaciones y la influencia de estas sobre la mortalidad. Diseño: Estudio longitudinal no concurrente. Lugar: Servicio de cardiología del Hospital 2 de Mayo, hospital universitario. Pacientes: Pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Intervenciones: Se revisó las historias clínicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa atendidos entre junio de 1999 y junio de 2005. Se evaluó los criterios clínicos, de laboratorio y ecocardiográficos (criterios de Duke empleados en el diagnóstico. Para el análisis estadístico, se realizó el análisis descriptivo y comparativo con el empleo de las pruebas de Fisher y t de Student y la comparación de las curvas de Kaplan Meier, para evaluar la supervivencia a través de la prueba de rango logarítmico. Principales medidas de resultados: Evaluación de supervivencia: Complicaciones y mortalidad en pacientes en endocarditis infecciosa. Resultados: Se estudió 75 pacientes, la edad promedio fue 42,1±20,4 años, 66,7% del sexo masculino. El 93,3% tenía cardiopatía de base. La presentación clínica incluyó insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva (73,3%, encefalopatía (17,3% y fenómenos embólicos (50,6%. Se evaluó la evolución de los parámetros de laboratorio, evidenciándose deterioro de la función renal. El ecocardiograma evidenció presencia de vegetaciones en 97,3% y complicaciones, como rotura valvar (8%, abscesos valvares (4%. Durante la evolución, se sometió a cirugía a 14,7%. La letalidad general fue 14,7%, la cual estuvo influenciada por el número de complicaciones, en particular las complicaciones sépticas y renales, que impactaron de igual manera en la probabilidad de supervivencia de estos pacientes. Conclusiones: Se registró una letalidad general de 14,7%. La probabilidad de supervivencia se vio afectada

  19. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, M.A.; Yusuf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  20. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  1. Parotid gland lipoma: two case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islim, F.; Ors, S.; Salik, A.; Selcuk, H.; Sever, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Lipoma is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm in the human body but very rarely in the parotid gland. Objective: The aim of this study was to document retrospectively the imaging findings of lipomas with the use of computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Material and methods: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging were performed to the patients after clinical evaluation and physical examination. Both for two patients after fine needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced. Case 1: 14-wear-old woman was applied to the hospital with swelling of the right jaw. In physical examination a palpable mass was detected on the parotid gland. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion was observed. This tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images. Case 2: 65-wear-old man presented with a 10 month history of a painless, slow growing mass in the left preauricular area. In sonography, heterogeneous, hypoechoic solid lesion with hyperechoic areas was observed. Also this tumor produced strong signals on T1- and T2-weighted MR images and weak signals on fat suppression images with low ADC level. Both for two patients after fine-needle aspiration biopsy, surgical excisions were practiced, superficial parotidectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed parotid lipoma. Conclusion: Lipomas are common soft tissue neoplasms but found very rarely in the parotid gland, and so, are after not considered in the initial differential diagnosis of parotid gland tumor

  2. Dosimetry of parotid glands in IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiancheng; Yu Xinsheng; Jiang Guoliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan on the dosimetry of parotid in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Under the same constraints and objections, the IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid and the IMRT plan added plan tumor volume (PTV) margin for parotid gland was investigated. Results: Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan spared unilateral parotid, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. On PTV 60 , D min in the plan of sparing one parotid gland was more than that in normal IMRT plan (P 95 in the plan of sparing one parotid gland have improved (P 50%VOL and D mean of parotid gland were similar between the two plans. Between conventional IMRT plan and the IMRT plan added 2 or 3 mm margin for parotid gland, their target coverage, homogeneity index and conformal index of PTV 70 is similar. D min , D mean and D 95 of PTV 60 have decreased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. D max of brainstem and spine cord have increased tendency from normal IMRT plan to 2 mm margin plan to 3 mm margin plan. Conclusions: The IMRT plan of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with sparing unilateral parotid may be adopted not to protect both two parotids, while PTV margin for parotid added as parotid move. (authors)

  3. Effects of different tastants on parotid saliva flow and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyraud, E.; Heinzerling, C.I.; Bult, J.H.F.; Mesmin, C.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Saliva from parotid glands plays a role in taste perception. Parotid saliva is also stimulated by tastants. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of different tastants on the parotid salivary response in six subjects. Five tastants were given in different concentrations in solution and

  4. Características de la prescripción de antimicrobianos en pacientes hospitalizados en el Departamento de enfermedades infecciosas en un hospital de Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Rodriguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las características de la prescripción y uso de los antimicrobianos en pacientes hospitalizados en el Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas en un hospital de Lima-Perú. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, que incluyó a todos los pacientes hospitalizados en el departamento de enfermedades infecciosas en enero de 2013. Se evaluó un conjunto de variables las cuales reflejan las características de la prescripción de antimicrobianos (dosis, intervalo, vía, profilaxis médica, tratamiento, mediante el uso del Protocolo Estudio sobre la prescripción, el uso y las reacciones adversas a los antimicrobianos en pacientes hospitalizados del Ministerio de Salud, además de la evaluación de dos especialistas en enfermedades infecciosas y tropicales con dirimente, contrastándose con el libro de Tratamiento de enfermedades infecciosas de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud del año 2011-2012. Resultados: Se incluyeron 51 pacientes, la proporción de prescripción antimicrobiana fue de 90,2 %. En el 99,2 % de las prescripciones, la selección del fármaco, sólo o en asociación, fue adecuada. El 72,7% de las prescripciones fueron con sustento clínico-laboratorial, mientras que el 25% con sustento microbiológico. Conclusiones: La prescripción de antimicrobianos en el Departamento de enfermedades Infecciosas, al igual que la proporción de las prescripciones adecuadas para la selección, dosis, intervalo y vía de administración, no existiendo sustento microbiológico en la mayor parte de las prescripciones para orientar los tratamientos indicados.

  5. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  6. A RARE CASE OF PAROTID CYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 28 years old male presented with a case of painless soft fluctuant swelling of right parotid gland is reported to our hospital. The lesion was found to be a cystic lesion through the pre - operative examinations and investigations. The cyst was completely excised, taking care not to injure the lower division of the facial nerve. Po st recovery was uneventful with no defect of the facial nerve functions. The histologic picture confirmed that the cyst was lymphoepithelial cyst which is so called “branchial cyst”. Through the literature reviews of parotid lymphoepit h elial cyst the discu ssions on prevalence, origin, diagnosis, histological finding, investigation and the modes of treatment are made. The ultra sound was found to be valuable in the pre - operative evaluation of the parotid swelling furthermore it is non - invasive, harmless, pai nless and relatively quick

  7. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Neirai, Carlos; Gonzalez Gomez, Juan Manuel; Arredondo Lopez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  8. MR imaging of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.; Dresel, S.; Lissner, J.; Grevers, G.; Riederer, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this study MR imaging combined with Gd-DTPA as a new effective diagnostic tool is compared with plain MR imaging. Seventy-two patients with lesions of the parotid gland were examined. In the author's patient group, they found 25 malignant tumors, 19 benign lesions, 20 Sjogren syndromes, and eight inflamed parotid glands. Axial and coronal images were acquired with long (TR = 1,600 msec, TE = 25/90 msec) and short (TR = 500 msec, TE = 25 msec) spin-echo sequences before and after Gd-DTPA

  9. Preservation of parotid function with uncomplicated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Annelies; Weltens, Caroline; Flamen, Patrick; Lambin, Philippe; Bogaerts, Ria; Liu, Xuan; Baetens, Jan; Hermans, Robert; Van den Bogaert, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate (1) parotid function, (2) subjective xerostomia and (3) pattern of relapses after conformal parotid-sparing radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. (4) To study dose-response curves of parotid glands. Material and methods: From September 1999 to November 2000, 39 head and neck cancer patients requiring bilateral neck RT were treated with a fairly simple conformal RT technique (three-field set-up+anterior lower neck field; two opposed oblique boost fields). The contralateral parotid was spared. Parotid function was assessed by salivary gland scintigraphies performed before, early (median 4 weeks) and late (median 28 weeks) after RT. Xerostomia was monitored by visual analogue scales (VAS) and LENT SOMA scores. Location of locoregional recurrences was studied in relation to the radiation fields. A dose-response curve of parotids was created using logistic regression. Results: (1) Early after RT, on salivary gland scintigraphy, the mean loss of secretion function in the spared parotid was 67% and total in the non-spared. Late after RT, the mean loss remained 19% in the spared and total in the non-spared parotid. Normal excretion function was regained in 75% of the spared parotids. (2) Late after RT, 78% of patients had no, minimal or acceptable subjective xerostomia. (3) No recurrence was seen near the spared parotid (11/39 locoregional recurrences). (4) The dose-response curve of parotids showed that the mean parotid dose should preferentially be ≤20 Gy, to obtain a good chance (≥70%) for preservation of its function on scintigraphy. Conclusions: An easy conformal parotid-sparing RT technique prevents moderate or severe subjective xerostomia in 78% of patients. In the spared parotids, nearly complete to complete recovery is obtained after 6-12 months

  10. Unilateral Duplication Of Parotid Duct. A Rare Anatomical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paired parotid glands are the largest of the major salivary glands and produces mainly serous secretions. The secretion of this gland reaches the oral cavity through single parotid duct (Stensen’s duct. The parotid duct begins at the anterior border of the gland, crosses the masseter muscle, and then pierces the buccinator muscle to reach the mucosa lining the mouth at the level of the cheek. The purpose of this study is determine the morphologic features of the parotid duct and describe an anatomical variation until now unreported. Methods and Findings: A total of 17 cadavers were used for this study in the Morphology Laboratory at the University of Pamplona. In a cadaver were findings: The main parotid duct originated two conducts: Left superior parotid duct and Left inferior parotid duct, is observed the criss-cross of the ducts, and then perforated the buccinator muscle and entered the oral cavity at a double parotid papilla containing a double opening, separated from each other in 0,98 mm. In the remaining  33 parotid regions (97.06% the parotid duct is conformed to the classical descriptions given in anatomical textbooks. Conclusions: The parotid duct anatomy is important for duct endoscopy, lithotripsy, sialography and trans-ductal facial nerve stimulation in the early stage of facial palsy in some cases. The anatomical variations also has clinical importance for parotid gland surgery and facial cosmetic surgery. To keep in mind the parotid duct variation will reduce iatrogenic injury risks and improve diagnosis of parotid duct injury.

  11. Iodine-131 therapy for parotid oncocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Tamura, K.; Mukai, M.; Kubo, A.; Hashimoto, S.

    1988-06-01

    We present a rare case of a patient with coexisting parotid oncocytoma and chronic thyroiditis who received two therapeutic doses of (/sup 131/I)iodide for a recurrent oncocytoma (oxyphilic granular cell adenoma), resulting in a definite reduction in tumor volume. We suggest that radioiodine therapy for a recurrent oncocytoma is an effective form of tumor therapy.

  12. Caries temprana de infancia: ¿enfermedad infecciosa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sandra Rojas, Dra.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La caries dental es una de las enfermedades más comunes en la infancia y las personas continúan siendo susceptible a través de la vida. Aunque actualmente puede ser detenida y potencialmente revertida en etapas tempranas, no es autolimitada, progresa en forma crónica si no existe un cuidado y control de los factores que la producen, llegando a la destrucción de dientes, dolor, alteraciones funcionales, sistémicas y consecuencias en la calidad de vida de las personas. La caries temprana de infancia, de inicio precoz en niños, es causada en forma frecuente por hábitos alimenticios inapropiados y la adquisición temprana de microorganismos como Streptococcus mutans. Se ha sugerido una transmisión vertical de madre a hijo como la vía principal de adquisición de Streptococcus mutans, y también se ha demostrado en la literatura, que existiría una transmisión horizontal entre niños y sus cuidadores, compañeros de jardín infantil y colegios. Por esta razón durante muchos años se ha definido la enfermedad caries como infecciosa y transmisible. Nuevos avances en técnicas moleculares han dado evidencia acerca de la microflora autóctona y cómo la placa dental o biofilm funciona como un sistema ecológico dinámico y complejo. Existe evidencia que la caries dental no es una enfermedad infecciosa clásica, como se creía hace unos años, por el contrario, esta enfermedad es el resultado de un cambio ecológico en la biopelícula adquirida en la superficie dental. Además la transmisión de Streptococcus mutans de la madre hacia el hijo no implica que la enfermedad se desarrolle, por el contrario, la caries dental hoy se describe como una enfermedad común, compleja y multifactorial, donde interactúan varios factores de riesgo, entre los más destacados conductuales, ambientales y genéticos.

  13. Efeito terapêutico do crosslinking corneal na ceratite infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília de Souza Leão Escarião

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do crosslinking (CXL no tratamento de ceratite infecciosa, resistente ao tratamento clínico, e investigar a relação com o agente etiológico. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 11 pacientes com diagnóstico de ceratite infecciosa de etiologia bacteriana (sete olhos e fúngica (quatro olhos na Fundação Altino Ventura (FAV no período de outubro de 2011 a maio de 2012. Os pacientes incluídos estavam em uso de colírios há pelo menos sete dias e não apresentavam melhora da infecção. Estes foram avaliados antes da realização do CXL e no período pós-operatório até cicatrização da úlcera. Para realização do CXL foram instiladas gotas de riboflavina a 0,1% e dextrano a 20%, a cada cinco minutos em um período de 30 minutos antes do procedimento, e durante a aplicação da luz ultravioleta A (UVA. A córnea foi exposta à UVA com comprimento de onda de 370ηm ± 5ηm e uma irradiância de 3mW/cm². RESULTADOS: Os pacientes com infecção bacteriana obtiveram cura do processo infeccioso após o CXL e nenhum paciente com ceratite fúngica apresentou cicatrização. Observou-se associação significante (p = 0,003 entre o agente etiológico e a cicatrização. CONCLUSÃO: O CXL mostrou-se eficaz no tratamento da ceratite bacteriana resistente ao tratamento clínico, evitando a realização de transplante tectônico. Em relação à ceratite fúngica, este procedimento não influenciou na melhora do processo infeccioso.

  14. Péptidos antimicrobianos en la inmunidad innata de enfermedades infecciosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas-Santiago Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los péptidos antimicrobianos son moléculas efectoras clave en la inmunidad innata. Generalmente contienen de 15 a 45 residuos de aminoácidos y en su gran mayoría poseen carga positiva, además de que tienen la propiedad de ser anfipáticos. Estos péptidos son secretados por células epiteliales y leucocitos, como es el caso de los macrófagos y neutrófilos. En la actualidad, con base en la traducción de secuencias en programas computacionales se han descrito más de 800 tipos de péptidos antimicrobianos distribuidos en los reinos animal y vegetal. Estos péptidos pueden ser clasificados de acuerdo con su conformación estructural y la ubicación de sus puentes disulfuro. Las defensinas constituyen uno de los tipos de péptidos antimicrobianos más estudiados, y se dividen en dos familias de acuerdo con la ubicación de sus puentes disulfuro: alfa-defensinas y beta-defensinas. Algunas de estas defensinas pueden ser inducidas por citocinas proinflamatorias, así como por moléculas propias de patógenos, y se ha observado que están relacionadas con la inmunopatogenia de varias enfermedades. El papel principal de los péptidos antimicrobianos es la lisis directa de microorganismos; sin embargo, a la fecha también se han descrito propiedades quimiotácticas, que le permiten modular el sistema inmune y de esta forma constituir un puente entre la inmunidad innata y la inmunidad adaptativa. Actualmente se han iniciado estudios con la posibilidad de utilizar esta clase de moléculas como nuevos fármacos en diferentes tipos de enfermedades infecciosas.

  15. Brote por virus de la parotiditis G1 en la provincia de Almería en el año 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Barroso García; Ma Ángeles Lucerna Méndez; Amparo Navarro Monzón

    2007-01-01

    Fundamento:A pesar de que en España se registran coberturas elevadas de la vacuna de parotiditis siguen notificándose brotes epidémicos de parotiditis. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un brote notificado en la provincia de Almería en el año 2005 y valorar la afectación en población vacunada. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de los casos notificados. Variables estudiadas: Zona Básica de Salud, municipio, edad, sexo, tipo de población (autóctona y extranjera), fecha in...

  16. Differentiation between Superficial and Deep Lobe Parotid Tumors by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Usefulness of the Parotid Duct Criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, A.; Kuribayashi, A.; Okochi, K.; Yoshino, N.; Kurabayashi, T.; Ishii, J.; Sumi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The location of a parotid tumor affects the choice of surgery, and there is a risk of damaging the facial nerve during surgery. Thus, differentiation between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors is important for appropriate surgical planning. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of using the parotid duct, in addition to the retromandibular vein, for differentiating between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors on MR images. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance images of 42 parotid tumors in 40 patients were reviewed to determine whether the tumor was located in the superficial or deep lobe. In each case, the retromandibular vein and the parotid duct were used to locate the tumor. The parotid duct was only used in cases where the tumor and the duct were visualized on the same image. Results: Using the retromandibular vein criterion, 71% of deep lobe and 86% of superficial lobe tumors were correctly diagnosed, providing an accuracy of 81%. However, the accuracy achieved when using the parotid duct criterion was 100%, although it could be applied to only 28 of the 42 cases. Based on these results, we defined the following diagnostic method: the parotid duct criterion is first applied, and for cases in which it cannot be applied, the retromandibular vein criterion is used. The accuracy of this method was 88%, which was better than that achieved using the retromandibular vein criterion alone. Conclusion: The parotid duct criterion is useful for determining the location of parotid tumors. Combining the parotid duct criterion with the retromandibular vein criterion might improve the diagnostic accuracy of parotid tumor location compared to using the latter criterion alone

  17. Differentiation between Superficial and Deep Lobe Parotid Tumors by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Usefulness of the Parotid Duct Criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, A.; Kuribayashi, A.; Okochi, K.; Yoshino, N.; Kurabayashi, T. (Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Ishii, J. (Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Sumi, Y. (Division of Oral and Dental Surgery, Dept. of Advanced Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi (Japan))

    2009-08-15

    Background: The location of a parotid tumor affects the choice of surgery, and there is a risk of damaging the facial nerve during surgery. Thus, differentiation between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors is important for appropriate surgical planning. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of using the parotid duct, in addition to the retromandibular vein, for differentiating between superficial and deep lobe parotid tumors on MR images. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance images of 42 parotid tumors in 40 patients were reviewed to determine whether the tumor was located in the superficial or deep lobe. In each case, the retromandibular vein and the parotid duct were used to locate the tumor. The parotid duct was only used in cases where the tumor and the duct were visualized on the same image. Results: Using the retromandibular vein criterion, 71% of deep lobe and 86% of superficial lobe tumors were correctly diagnosed, providing an accuracy of 81%. However, the accuracy achieved when using the parotid duct criterion was 100%, although it could be applied to only 28 of the 42 cases. Based on these results, we defined the following diagnostic method: the parotid duct criterion is first applied, and for cases in which it cannot be applied, the retromandibular vein criterion is used. The accuracy of this method was 88%, which was better than that achieved using the retromandibular vein criterion alone. Conclusion: The parotid duct criterion is useful for determining the location of parotid tumors. Combining the parotid duct criterion with the retromandibular vein criterion might improve the diagnostic accuracy of parotid tumor location compared to using the latter criterion alone

  18. Etiología y manejo de la gastroenteritis aguda infecciosa en niños y adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yalda Lucero, DRA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La Gastroenteritis Aguda (GEA infecciosa es una patología frecuente y de alto impacto, especialmente en niños menores de cinco años y adultos mayores. En nuestro medio, la causa más frecuente es viral (rotavirus y norovirus seguido de Salmonella, Shigella, E.coli diarreogénicas y Campylobacter. Habitualmente son cuadros autolimitados que no requieren estudio de laboratorio específico y cuyo manejo debe centrarse en la reposición hidro-electrolítica de acuerdo al grado de deshidratación. Existe evidencia sobre beneficio sintomático del uso de probióticos (Lactobacillus GG y S.boulardii; racecadotrilo en cuanto a la diarrea; y ondasetrón para los vómitos. En caso de sospecha de agente invasor (bacteria o parásito debe realizarse un estudio etiológico e iniciar terapia antimicrobiana de acuerdo al microorganismo identificado. La prevención de contagio mediante medidas de saneamiento y adecuada manipulación de agua y alimentos es fundamental. Actualmente se dispone de vacunas efectivas contra algunos de los agentes involucrados (ej. rotavirus, que deben recomendarse en grupos de riesgo.

  19. Unilateral multiple tumorous lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mitsuaki; Fujita, Takenori; Adachi, Tosihide; Enomoto, Kenichi; Ishii, Hidenori; Yoshida, Chikako; Hokunan, Kazuhiko; Bando, Nobuyuki; Shigyo, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    Multifocal tumors within the same parotid gland are very rare. We treated 13 patients with multiple tumorous lesions within the unilateral parotid gland. We evaluated the multiple nodules by CT-sialography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imagings showed clearly two or more distinct nodular-appearing lesions. Recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (6 patients) was predominant, followed by Whartin's tumor (3 patients). The other lesions were two differential parenchymal tumors (polymorphous low grade adenoma/adenoma) within the same gland, a malignant lymphoma, a squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the gland, and a tuberculous lesion. On palpitation, 9 of the patients had an unilateral tumor, one a palpable parotid mass in the gland, and the other four had two or more tumors in the unilateral gland. The patients with intra-parotid lymph node and metastatic lesions had extra-parotid cervical adenopathy. The clinical features and the differential diagnosis of the unilateral multiple tumors lesions of the parotid gland are discussed. (author)

  20. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon [School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  1. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland with calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Haeng Eun; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2002-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman was referred to Chonbuk National University Dental Hospital complaining of facial palsy and palpable mass on the right parotid gland area. Clinical examination showed non-specific findings of the intraoral region, but showed asymmetrical facial appearance. Panoramic view showed a large amorphous calcified mass on the posterior to the mandibular ramus and thin cortical plate of the posterior ramus. Sialogram showed constriction of the main duct and no further filling of striated, intercalated ducts and parenchymal areas. CT scans demonstrated an irregular, infiltrating mass with slight enhancement in the right parotid gland. The mass showed necrotic areas and calcifications. Bone scan showed marked accumulation of 99m Tc-MDP on the right posterior maxilla. Microscopic findings demonstrated the minimal morphologic alterations and rare mitotic figures within tumor cells, and diagnosed as adenocarcinoma (NOS, Grade II). This report could be aid in the diagnosis of calcified lesions of the salivary gland.

  2. [Acute parotiditis after tracheostomy in Intensive Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serviá Goixart, L; Badía, M; Campi, D; Trujillano, J; Alcega, R; Vilanova, J

    2006-01-01

    Post-anesthesic parotiditis is a little known entity related with anesthesic procedures but described in any situation that motivates manipulation of the oropharyngeal cavity. Its physiopathological mechanism is not well-defined, although it could have a multifactorial origin. A case of a male who was admitted for post-operative control of brain tumor exeresis and who had preauricular and submaxillary inflammation after a routinely performed tracheostomy is presented. Coincidence with the performing of a tracheostomy required us to propose the differential diagnosis with the complications associated to said surgical act. Post-anesthesic parotiditis, even though it is a rare complication and has no clinical significance, should be kept in mind when there is facial edema after any manipulation of the oropharyngeal cavity.

  3. Parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    The parotid gland is an uncommon site of metastasis from carcinomas arising outside the head and neck region. Involvement of the parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis or presentation is rare. The present case report is the first, to our knowledge, to describe the management and outcome of an elderly man whose first presentation of an asymptomatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was that of a rapidly growing fungating left parotid mass Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  4. Morphological pattern of parotid gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M.A.; Zafar, A.; Malik, S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the morphological pattern of parotid tumours. During this study, 204 patients with parotid tumours were registered. The patients of all ages and both gender were included in this study. All patients were evaluated by history, clinical examination, F.N.A.C. and ultrasound, C.T/MRI was done in selected cases. All patients were surgically managed and their tumour specimen was sent for histopathology. Classification of individual tumour was based on 1991 World Health Organization Classification. Discrete data was presented in percentage and proportions. Out of 204 cases, 152 (74.5%) were benign and 52 (25.5%) were malignant. Of these, 117 (57.35%) patients were females and 87 (42.65%) males. Benign tumours were more common in females whereas malignant tumours were common in males. The mean age of patients was 34 years and 42 years for benign and malignant tumours respectively. Pleomorphic adenoma was most common benign tumor (83.5%), followed by Warthins tumour. The most common malignant tumour was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (60%), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma. Superficial lobe of parotid gland was the commonest site, 120 benign and all 52 malignant tumours arising from it while 32 benign tumours originated from deep lobe. Parotid swelling for years was main feature of benign tumours, whereas malignant tumours presented with pain, fixation to skin or underlying structure, cervical lymphadenopathy and facial palsy. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was most common malignant tumour. The morphological patterns and distribution followed the known pattern. (author)

  5. Acute parotiditis after cesarean section; case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Moisei; Romina M. Sima; Liana Pleş

    2017-01-01

    The enlargement of the parotid gland develops in inflammatory or stenotic conditions but after Cesarean section the symptomatology is unusual. A 38 year old patient with no obstetrical history referred to our clinic for pregnancy, which followed our national program of prenatal care. The outcome of the pregnancy was favorable for both mother and fetus. During labor the fetus developed bradycardia and the patient delivered by Cesarean section a 3400 g baby-boy with 8 Apgar Score; the anesthesi...

  6. CT evaluation of mass lesions in the parotid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shunichi; Kishikawa, Takashi; Kudo, Sho; Miyaji, Hiroshi; Kuwano, Haruo; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki

    1988-01-01

    CT findings of 35 patients with proven 31 parotid gland mass lesions (23 benign tumors, 5 malignant tumors, 3 inflammatory diseases) and 4 infraauricular lymphadenopathy (2 inflammatory nodes, 2 neoplastic nodes) were reviewed. CT accurately diagnosed the parotid origin in 29 of 31 parotid gland diseases. In all four patients with infraauricular lymphadenopathy, differentiation from parotid tumor was difficult. CT differentiation between superficial and deep lobe tumors agreed with surgical findings in 18 of 21 parotid gland tumors. Twenty out of 23 benign parotid gland tumors appeared as discrete masses with smooth margins. All five malignant parotid gland tumors appeared as poorly defined masses. It is concluded that when a tumor is located in the superficial lobe and appears as a sharply circumscribed mass on plain CT, it should be diagnosed as a benign lesion and contrast CT is not required. Secondly, contrast CT would be beneficial when a tumor is indistinct, or located in the deep portion of the parotid gland on plain CT. Finally, CT-sialography is considered unnecessary in the diagnosis of parotid masses. (author)

  7. Primary parotid gland lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Katsaronis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. The benign lymphoepithelial lesion is also a lymphoproliferative disease that develops in the parotid gland. In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian female smoker was referred to our clinic with a non-tender left facial swelling that had been present for approximately three years. The patient underwent resection of the left parotid gland with preservation of the left facial nerve through a preauricular incision. The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland. Conclusions Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic or bilateral salivary gland lesions. Parotidectomy is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure histological diagnosis for further follow-up planning. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in association with surgery in disseminated forms or after removal.

  8. Percepción del riesgo al cambio climático y sus efectos sobre la salud y enfermedades infecciosas en estudiantes universitarios, 2011 Santa Marta - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Salazar Ceballos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS ha denominado que el cambio climático es una amenaza para la salud pública, por lo tanto es necesario conocer la percepción del riesgo al cambio climático específicamente en los futuros profesionales de la salud. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó una investigación de tipo cuantitativo descriptiva con muestreo aleatorio estratificado. Se realizaron análisis de Chi2 y regresión logística para identificar los factores asociados a la percepción del riesgo al cambio climático y al aumento de enfermedades infecciosas sensibles al cambio climático en estudiantes universitarios de las ciencias de la salud en la Universidad del Magdalena. Resultados: Por Chi2 se encontró que cerca del 69% de los estudiantes perciben el cambio climático como dañino y entre 50 y 59% de ellos perciben que las enfermedades infecciosas aumentarán como consecuencia del cambio climático. Por regresión logística se observó significancia estadística que los estudiantes que pertenecen al sexto semestre de estudios o semestres superiores tienen 60% más probabilidad de reconocer que pueden enfermarse por el cambio climático, 63% más probabilidad de percibir el cambio climático como dañino, relacionaron 2,2 veces más el aumento de la temperatura global con el aumento de enfermos con fiebre amarilla y dengue, también tienen 58% más posibilidad de relacionar el aumento de los casos. Discusión: Los estudiantes de los diferentes programas de salud que pertenecen al sexto semestre de estudios o superiores percibieron el cambio climático como una amenaza sobre la salud pública y lo asociaron con el aumento de enfermedades infecciosas, de esta manera, se puede considerar que los estudiantes de salud conforme avanzan en los semestres académicos perciben un mayor riesgo del cambio climático como una amenaza sobre la salud pública y un aumento de los enfermos por enfermedades infecciosas

  9. Peritonite infecciosa felina: 13 casos Feline infectious peritonitis: 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes de Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Numa pesquisa realizada em tecidos de 638 gatos necropsiados, foram encontrados 13 casos (2,03% de peritonite infecciosa felina. Oito desses casos (61,53% eram da forma efusiva ou úmida, e 5 apresentavam a forma seca ou não-efusiva da doença. A idade dos gatos afetados variou de 2 meses a 3 anos. Doze gatos (92,30% eram de raças puras, cinco deles (38,47% eram oriundos de ambientes onde havia mais de um gato e três eram provenientes de um mesmo gatil. A duração da doença clínica foi de 7 a 45 dias e os sinais clínicos incluíram emagrecimento, anorexia, diarréia, icterícia, vômito, linfadenopatia e distúrbios neurológicos. Os achados de necropsia na forma úmida incluíam excesso de líquido viscoso (50ml a 1 litro, translúcido ou levemente opaco na cavidade peritoneal e, em um caso, na cavidade torácica. Exsudato fibrinoso cobria as superfícies serosas dos órgãos abdominais dando-lhes aspecto granular e brancacento. Na forma seca, havia múltiplos focos granulomatosos sob a superfície serosa e para o interior do parênquima de órgãos abdominais; esses achados eram particularmente proeminentes nos rins. Opacidade de córnea foi observada em um gato. Histologicamente, havia graus variáveis de vasculite e perivasculite piogranulomatosa, particularmente em arteríolas. Meningite ou meningoencefalite piogranulomatosa foram observadas em três gatos com a forma seca de peritonite infecciosa felina.In a survey carried out in tissue specimens from 638 necropsied cats, 13 cases (2.03% of feline infectious peritonitis were found. Eight of those (61.53% were of the effusive or wet form and five had the dry non-effusive form of the disease. Ages of affected cats varied from 2-months to 3 yeas. Twelve affected cats (92.30% were purebreds, five of these cats (38.47% came from households with more than one cat and three of them came from the same comercial cat raising facility. The duration of clinical courses were 7-45 days and

  10. Giant Parotid Pleomorphic Adenoma Involving Parapharyngeal Space

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    Sukri Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pleomorfik adenoma parotis merupakan tumor jinak kelenjar liur yang paling sering ditemukan, namun pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang sangat besar sehingga melibatkan ruang parafaring (RPF sangat jarang. Diagnosis ini sulit ditegakkan karena gejala klinisnya tidak khas. Penatalaksanaanya harus hati-hati mengingat banyak struktur vital yang beresiko mengalami trauma. Tujuan: Bagaimana menegakkan diagnosis dan penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF. Kasus: Seorang pasien perempuan 27 tahun ditegakkan diagnosis pleomorfik adenoma parotis kanan dengan melibatkan RPF. Terdapat pembengkakan pada leher yang bersifat asimtomatis dan gejala pendorongan faring dan laring yang menyebabkan disfonia, disfagia, dan defisit saraf kranial IX,X,XII. Penatalaksanaan: Pasien telah dilakukan operasi parotidektomi pendekatan transervikal–transparotid dengan preservasi arteri karotis eksterna dan saraf fasialis. Kesimpulan: Biopsi Aspirasi Jarum Halus (BAJAH dan radiologi merupakan pemeriksaan yang penting untuk menegakkan diagnosis. Penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF adalah bedah ekstirpasi komplit dengan beberapa pendekatan. .Kata kunci: tumor jinak kelenjar liur, pleomorfik adenoma, ruang parafaringAbstractBackground: Parotid pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor, while giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving the parapharyngeal space (PPS is rare. It was difficult to diagnose because the clinical presentation of this tumor can be subtle. The management must be performed carefully due to anatomy relation to complex vital structure lead to traumatic injury highrisk. Purposes: How to make diagnosis and management parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. Case: A female 27 years old with diagnosis was giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. There was asymptomatic swelling of the neck and presence of pushing the pharynx and larynx medially causes

  11. Parotiditis por Streptococcus Pyogenes: Presentacion de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila del S. López-Díaz

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available La glándula parótida es generalmente afectada por procesos inflamatorios. Su etiología se debe a infecciones primarias de la glándula o como complicación de infecciones sistémicas. Se reporta el Stafilococcus aureus como el agente causal más frecuente de parotiditis aguda supurada, y se señalan además otras bacterias y virus. Se presenta un niño de 9 años de edad con un proceso supurativo agudo de la parótida izquierda de un mes de evolución, con salida de abundante pus por el conducto de Stenon. Se realizó cultivo de la secreción e identificación de Streptococcus B hemolítico grupo A, a pesar de haber recibido antibioticoterapia previa. Se utilizó ampicillina y se tuvo en cuenta la sensibilidad in vitro; no presentó mejoría clínica, por lo que se decidió el empleo de la sialografía como alternativa terapéutica en este caso. Se obtuvo la resolución del proceso supurativo infeccioso y además se evidenció en este estudio la pérdida del estroma parotídeo.

  12. Brote de parotiditis vírica en un colegio de Bizkaia en 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Millán Ortuondo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Recientemente se han registrado brotes de parotiditis en España y en otros países desarrollados. Los motivos barajados son la baja cobertura vacunal de las poblaciones afectadas y/o la baja efectividad de las cepas vacunales empleadas. Este trabajo describe un brote de parotiditis ocurrido en Bizkaia y valora la efectividad de las cepas vacunales y la utilidad de las pruebas diagnósticas actualmente empleadas. Métodos: Se etiquetaron como casos aquéllos con clínica compatible y vínculo epidemiológico en el periodo de estudio (febrero-mayo-2006. Se recogieron muestras de sangre para estudio de IgM e IgG y de saliva para detección de RNA y genotipo. Se averiguó el estado vacunal y la cepa empleada mediante los registros del reparto vacunal. Se realizó un análisis univariante de los datos y se obtuvieron riesgos relativos según las cepas vacunales empleadas. Resultados: Se detectaron 63 casos; 52 eran alumnos del mismo colegio. El 50% tenía entre 9 y 13 años. El 88,5% de los casos del colegio estaba correctamente vacunado. La sensibilidad de la IgM fue del 9% y la de la PCR del 37%. El riesgo relativo de los alumnos vacunados con una primera dosis de cepa Rubini frente a los vacunados con cepa Jeryl-Lynn fue de 3,8 (IC95% 2,27-6,49. Conclusiones: La elevada cobertura vacunal no impide el desarrollo de brotes en lugares con un alto grado de exposición. La IgM se muestra poco sensible para el diagnóstico de parotiditis. Parece necesario replantearse las estrategias vacunales y los métodos diagnósticos actuales.

  13. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the parotid gland associated with polycythemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingerden, J. J.; van Rensburg, P. G.; Coetzee, B. P.

    1986-01-01

    Although malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is thought to be the most common soft tissue tumor of late adult life, it is extremely uncommon in the parotid gland. A case of MFH in the parotid is reported, associated with polycythemia, which remitted following surgical extirpation of the tumor

  14. Ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of parotid abscess

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    André Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US has been used as a tool for parotid abscess diagnosis and treatment. The present article aimed to report a case of 72-year-old woman with parotid abscess treated by US-guided needle aspiration and conventional surgical drainage. Along with the clinical report, indications, advantages, and limitations of the method are discussed.

  15. O PAPEL IMUNOLÓGICO E SOCIAL DO LEITE MATERNO NA PREVENÇÃO DE DOENÇAS INFECCIOSAS E ALÉRGICAS NA INFÂNCIA

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    MÁRCIO FLÁVIO MOURA DE ARAÚJO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio reflexivo que tuvo como objetivo analizar la contribución inmunológica y social de la leche materna en la prevención de enfermidades infecciosas y alérgicas . El proceso de amamantamiento repercute de forma biopsicosocial en el desarrollo del niño, especialmente, en la prevención de enfermedades como las diarreas, las IRAs y las alergias que son asociadas como causa de morbimortalidad pediátrica. Esa inmunidad es conferida por los anticuerpos maternos transmitidos durante la lactancia materna, principalmente, por la IgA( principal anticuerpo de la leche que irán a habitar el trato digestivo del niño, impidiendo así que microorganismos patógenos colonicen el trato enterogástrico infantil, produciendo enfermedades. El enfermero teñie tido realce en lo aconsejamento de gestantes y puerperas para asegurar lo amamantamiento hasta lo período de seis meses. Se señala que el amamantamiento maternal debido a sus características inmunológicas y sociales que previenen varias enfermedades infecciosas y alérgicas se constituye en una acción de promoción de la salud.

  16. Avaliação ética de projetos de pesquisa de enfermagem no contexto das doenças infecciosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Frente al creciente aumento de nuevas nosologías, la necesidad y el aspecto ético de las investigaciones que envuelven a los seres humanos se há ampliado, asi como, también, la inserción del enfermero en el contexto científico. En este trabajo, nuestro objetivo fue presentar la demanda de las investigaciones en enfermería sometidas a un Comité de Ética en la Investigación de una determinada institución pública con referencia en la atención de enfermedades infecciosas de la región Nor-este del Brasil entre el período del 2000 al 2004. Según un estudio retrospectivo para la evaluación de los proyectos éticos desarrollados durante el segundo trimestre del 2004. Los resultados indicaron que los protocolos de enfermería corresponden al 35,4% de todos los proyectos recibidos durante este período y abarcan particularmente los temas del SIDA (54,9% y el trabajo de enfermería en el contexto de las enfermedades infecciosas (17,7%. Se concluye que hubo una demanda expresiva de los protocolos de investigación en enfermería en los temas prioritarios en el Brasil que involucran la evaluación ética.

  17. Postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Keun Yong; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Park, Charn Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Chae Seo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah [Bundang Seoul National University Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy, and determine prognostic factors for locoregional control and survival. Between 1980 and 2002, 130 patients with parotid malignancy were registered in the database of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital. The subjects of this analysis were the 72 of these 130 patients who underwent postoperative irradiation. There were 42 males and 30 females, with a median age of 46.5 years. The most common histological type was a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. There were 6, 23, 23 and 20 patients in Stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. The median dose to the tumor bed was 60 Gy, with a median fraction size of 1.8 Gy. The overall 5 and 10 year survival rates were 85 and 76%, respectively. The five-year locoregional control rate was 85%, which reached a plateau phase after 6 years. Sex and histological type were found to be statistically significant for overall survival from a multivariate analysis. No other factors, including age, facial nerve palsy and stage, were related to overall survival. For locoregional control, nodal involvement and positive resection margin were associated with poor local control. Histological type, tumor size, perineural invasion and type of surgery were not significant for locoregional control. A high survival rate of parotid gland malignancies, with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, was confirmed. Sex and histological type were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Nodal involvement and a positive resection margin were associated with poor locoregional control.

  18. Radiation-induced parotid gland changes in oral cancer patients. Correlation between parotid volume and saliva production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Keiko; Murakami, Ryuji; Tomitaka, Etsuji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether saliva production reflects the parotid volume during the course of radiation therapy (RT) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Twenty patients with advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas, who were treated with preoperative chemo-RT, underwent morphological assessment with CT or MRI and functional assessment with the Saxon test. For the Saxon test, saliva production was measured by weighing a gauze pad before and 2 min after chewing without swallowing; the low-normal value is 2 g. Saliva production and parotid volumes before and 2 weeks after RT were compared with the paired t-test, the Spearman rank correlation test and the Fisher exact test. After 30 Gy irradiation, mean saliva production was decreased from 4.2 to 1.0 g (P 3 (P<0.01); the post-RT: pre-RT parotid volume ratio ranged from 54% to 85% (mean 71%). Although the initial parotid volume was correlated with initial saliva production (r=0.47, P=0.04), no significant correlation was noted after RT (r=0.08, P=0.71), and there were considerable individual variations. The parotid volume ratio was inversely correlated with the saliva-reduction amount (r=-0.79, P<0.01). There was a correlation between decreased parotid gland volume and decreased saliva production in patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing RT. Parotid volume reduction may predict parotid gland function. (author)

  19. Lipomatosisof the parotid gland in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, Abdullatif A.; Arora, Roopa K.; El-Hassan, Abdulla Y.; Al-Metwalli, Roshdi R.

    2003-01-01

    Parotid lipomatosis is extremely rare in children. Only four cases have previously been reported in English language medical literature. Surgical excision is frequetly complicated by recurrence. We report a fifth case, on a five- month- old girl with rapidly progressivelipomatosis. Emphasis is laid on importance of preserving the unusually delicate tumor capsule to prevent tissue spillage and recurrance. The creation of appropriate cleavage between the mass and expanded skin with sparse subcutaneous fat, safeguarding the tumor capsule on one side and the skin blood supply on the other represents a rewarding technical challenge. (author)

  20. Parotitis and Sialendoscopy of the Parotid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Stephen; Busso, Carlos; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2016-04-01

    Nonneoplastic disorders of the salivary glands involve inflammatory processes. These disorders have been managed conservatively with antibiotics, warm compresses, massage, sialogogues, and adequate hydration. Up to 40% of patients may have an inadequate response or persistent symptoms. When conservative techniques fail, the next step is operative intervention. Sialendoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for the diagnosis and management of chronic inflammatory disorders of the salivary glands and offers the option of gland and function preservation. In this article, we review some of the more common nonneoplastic disorders of the parotid gland, indications for diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy, and operative techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aspectos determinantes en la presentación de la enfermedad infecciosa de la bursa

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes-Olaya, Javier Andrés; Álvarez Espejo, Diana Claudia; Correa, Jairo Jaime; Vera Alfonso, Víctor Julio

    2009-01-01

    La enfermedad infecciosa de la bursa, o enfermedad de Gumboro, es una patología inmunosupresiva de las aves de gran importancia en la industria avícola, debido a las grandes pérdidas económicas que produce no sólo por su efecto directo, sino por la predisposición a infecciones secundarias y a la interferencia con las vacunas comerciales, disminuyendo la eficacia de éstas. Es producida por el virus de la enfermedad infecciosa de la bursa (IBDV), el cual es un birnavirus de genoma RNA, con alta...

  2. Prevalencia de anemia infecciosa equina en caballos de tracción en el municipio de Florencia (Caquetá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Elena Patiño-Quiroz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó la prevalecía de anemia infecciosa equina (AIE en los caballos de tracción en el municipio de Florencia, buscando relación por sexo, edad, condición corporal y distribución por comunas. Para ello se recolectaron 128 muestras de sangre de equinos (103 machos y 25 hembras que asistieron a 4 brigadas de salud animal realizadas por el semillero de investigación en equinos “SIEQUUS”, de la Universidad de la Amazonia, durante el periodo comprendido entre mayo de 2014 y diciembre de 2015. Las muestras fueron analizadas en laboratorio con la prueba de inmunodifusión en agar gel. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo y una prueba Chí cuadrado (P10 fue del 14.29 %, y en los animales entre 5 y 10 años fue considerablemente mayor, el 33.33 %. Las condiciones ambientales y socioeconómicas facilitan la transmisión del virus entre los caballos del mismo gremio y con cualquier sistema de manejo y producción equina de la zona, lo que generaría pérdidas económicas y de semovientes de importancia para el sector equino.

  3. ENFERMEDADES INFECCIOSAS EMERGENTES: EL TURNO DEL VIRUS DEL ZIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Álvarez Moreno

    2016-04-01

    ó y continúa siendo una causa frecuente de epidemias. En Suramérica, incluyendo Colombia, el último brote fue introducido en 1991.

    Más cerca, en 1918, la pandemia de la influenza (gripa española produjo solo en Estados Unidos 500.000 muertes y mucho más cerca, la pandemia de influenza por la A(H1N1 causó solo en el 2009 cerca de 500.000 muertes y aún sigue circulando, generando muertes adicionales (1. Si a esto le sumamos los casos de otras enfermedades emergentes como síndrome respiratorio agudo severo causados por coronavirus (SARS en el 2003 o MERS actualmente o el brote de fiebre amarilla (enfermedad reemergente ocurrido en el 2003-2004 en nuestro país, se puede decir que las enfermedades infecciosas, tanto las emergentes como las reemergentes, lejos de estar controladas, cada vez son un problema creciente de salud pública.

    1 Miembro Correspondiente. Academia Nacional de Medicina. Profesor Titular, Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional de
    Colombia. Director General, Clínica Universitaria Colombia, Clínicas COLSANITAS S.A...

  4. Parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Preserved parotid function after IMRT on quantitative salivary scintigraphy, and comparison with historical data after conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, C.-Y.; Ting, H.-M.; Huang, H.-Y.; Lee, C.-H.; Huang, E.-Y.; Hsu, H.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the parotid function after parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: From March 2003 to May 2004, 16 patients with nonmetastatic NPC underwent parotid-sparing IMRT. Eight of these patients had Stage III or IV NPC based on the 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system. The post-IMRT parotid function was evaluated by quantitative salivary scintigraphy and represented by the maximal excretion ratio (MER) of the parotid gland after sialogogue stimulation. The parotid function of 16 NPC patients who were previously treated with conventional radiotherapy was reviewed as the historical control. Results: In the parotid-sparing IMRT group, all 16 patients were alive and without cancer at the end of follow-up period (median, 24.2 months). The mean parotid MER was 53.5% before radiotherapy, 10.7% at 1 month post-IMRT, and 23.3% at 9 months post-IMRT. In the conventional radiotherapy group, the mean parotid MER was 0.6% at 6 to 12 months postradiotherapy. The difference was statistically significant (23.3% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney test). In the IMRT group, the mean parotid doses ranged from 33.2 Gy to 58.8 Gy (average, 43.9 Gy). The correlation between the mean parotid dose and the percentage decrease of parotid MER at 9 months post-IMRT (dMER) was statically significant (p = 0.008, Pearson correlation). Conclusions: Although the mean parotid doses are relatively high, the significant preservation of parotid function is achieved with IMRT for NPC patients. The significant correlation between mean parotid dose and parotid dMER demonstrates the dose-function relationship of the parotid gland

  5. Parotid Duct Repair with Intubation Tube: Technical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Muhammed Beşir; Barutca, Seda Asrufoğlu; Keskin, Elif Seda; Atik, Bekir

    2017-01-01

    The parotid duct can be damaged in traumatic injuries and surgical interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment of a duct injury is of great importance because complications such as sialocele and salivary gland fistula may develop if the duct is not surgically repaired. We think the cuff of an intubation tube is an ideal material in parotid duct repair, because of its technical characteristics, easiness of availability, and low-cost. In this paper, we described the use of the cuff cannula of an intubation tube for the diagnosis and treatment of parotid duct laceration, as a low-cost and easy to access material readily available in every operating room. PMID:28713751

  6. Tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milvio Ramírez López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La cirugía constituye un ataque vigoroso a la incompetencia valvular que ocasiona las graves complicaciones hemodinámicas que se observan en la endocarditis infecciosa. Se presenta una breve revisión de las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas que se emplean para el tratamiento de la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula mitral nativa, utilización de homoinjertos mitrales, tratamiento quirúrgico de la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula aórtica y de la endocarditis infecciosa de prótesis valvular aórtica, homoinjertos criopreservados, prótesis sin soporte valvular y otros tipos de prótesis, así como de otras técnicas que se pueden emplear en caso de no contar con homoinjertos. Se revisan las técnicas que se utilizan en la endocarditis infecciosa de la válvula tricúspide y la conducta quirúrgica en la endocarditis por cables de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables.Surgery is a strong attack to valvular incompetence causing the severe hemodynamic complications seen in infective endocarditis. This is a brief review of the different surgical techniques used in the treatment of infective endocarditis of native mitral valve, utilization of mitral homografts, surgical treatment of the infective endocarditis of the aortic valve and the infective endocarditis of the aortic valvular prosthesis, cryopreservation of the homografts, prosthesis without valvular support and other types of prostheses, as well as of other techniques that could be used if the homografts are not available. Techniques used in the infective endocarditis of tricuspid valve are reviewed and the surgical behavior in the endocarditis provoked by the pacemakers cables or implanted automated defibrillators.

  7. Radiation effects on the parotid gland of mammals. Pt. 2. Modifications of plasma and parotid amylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Tomassi, I; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia; Pelu, G [I.N.R.C.A., Florence (Italy). Inst. of Radiology

    1979-08-01

    The early modifications of the activity of plasma and parotid amylase have been evaluated in rats after whole-body irradiation in different experimental conditions. The modifications observed in the rat are less evident than in humans. The results have shown an initial decrease and a subsequent increase appearing significant 74 hours after irradiation. This could be due to a direct action of ionizing radiation on the parotid glands. However we cannot exclude that the increase of ..cap alpha..-amylase could be determined by the intestinal radiation syndrome. In fact, this syndrome leads to a reduced food uptake, and consequently ..cap alpha..-amylase could accumulate in parotids.

  8. Hepatite infecciosa canina: 62 casos Infectious canine hepatitis: 62 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Inkelmann

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os protocolos de necropsias realizadas em 5.361 cães durante um período de 43 anos (1964-2006 foram revisados em busca de casos de hepatite infecciosa canina (HIC e sessenta e dois (1,2% casos foram encontrados. A maioria dos 62 cães afetados tinha dois anos de idade ou menos (91,9%. Os sinais clínicos foram anotados nos protocolos de necropsia de 45 cães afetados por HIC e incluíam anorexia (55,6%, apatia (35,6%, diarréia (35,6%, freqüentemente com sangue (43,8% dos casos de diarréia, distúrbios neurológicos (33,3%, vômito (26,7%, petéquias e equimoses nas membranas mucosas e/ou pele (24,4%, hipotermia (20,0%, dor abdominal (15,6%, icterícia (13,3%, aumento de volume e congestão das tonsilas (11,1%, febre (11,1% e ascite (6,7%. A duração do curso clínico variou de poucas horas a 15 dias. Os principais achados de necropsia incluíram alterações hepáticas (87,1%, linfonodos edematosos, congestos e hemorrágicos (51,6%, líquido sanguinolento, líquido claro ou sangue na cavidade abdominal (35,5%, víbices, sufusões e petéquias sobre a pleura visceral (27,4% e superfície serosa das vísceras gastrintestinais (24,2%. Em 12,9% dos casos a serosa do intestino tinha aspecto granular. Hemorragias cerebrais nas leptomeninges e na substância do encéfalo foram observadas em 9,7% dos casos. As alterações hepáticas macroscópicas incluíam fígados moderadamente aumentados de volume, mais friáveis, com acentuação do padrão lobular, congestos e com múltiplos focos de necrose pálidos ou hemorrágicos. Películas e filamentos de fibrina cobriam a superfície hepática em 20,4% dos casos e em 27,8% dos casos a parede da vesícula biliar estava espessada por edema. Necrose hepática zonal ou aleatória (93,5% dos casos associada a corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares foi a lesão histológica mais regularmente encontrada. Os corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares ocorreram no fígado em todos os casos e esse foi o crit

  9. Optimization of radiologic technique in parotid sialography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scribano, E.; Vitulo, F.; Raffaele, L.; Blandino, G.

    1988-01-01

    A suitable choice of film-screen combination is certainly the essential condition for achieving diagnostically reliable results together with the benefit of a low dosage for patients. In parotid sialography, the choice of one particular film-screen combination depends on the different thickness of various glandular areas and on the particular anatomical site of the gland which inevitably causes the superimposition of the thinnest canalicular ducts with the adjacent areas. An experimental-clinical study has been performed in order to evaluate the combination which can guarantee the most elevated diagnostic increase. The analysis of the rasults shows useful indication as far as the use of mammographic systems is concerned. These allow more diagnostic information together with a sufficiently low dosage for the patients

  10. [Parotid involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, R; Bertin, H; Delemazure, A S; Clairand, R; Mercier, J; Corre, P

    2014-06-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic vascularitis. This disease causes eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The most frequent manifestations are cortico-dependent asthma, mono- or polyneuropathy, paranasal sinus polyposis, and digestive and renal dysfunction. Salivary glands are very rarely involved. We describe a case of CSS in a patient presenting with bilateral parotid swelling. The morphological study of salivary glands revealed an unusual thickening of the salivary duct walls. Salivary gland involvement in Churg and Strauss syndrome can be difficult to demonstrate histologically; it does not usually present in the clinical foreground of the disease, and can be a source of misdiagnosis. The biopsy should be performed in the symptomatic gland, away from any previous corticoid treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Contemporary Management of Benign and Malignant Parotid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielker, Jovanna; Grosheva, Maria; Ihrler, Stephan; Wittig, Andrea; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2018-01-01

    To report the standard of care, interesting new findings and controversies about the treatment of parotid tumors. Relevant and actual studies were searched in PubMed and reviewed for diagnostics, treatment and outcome of both benign and malignant tumors. Prospective trials are lacking due to rarity of the disease and high variety of tumor subtypes. The establishment of reliable non-invasive diagnostics tools for the differentiation between benign and malignant tumors is desirable. Prospective studies clarifying the association between different surgical techniques for benign parotid tumors and morbidity are needed. The role of adjuvant or definitive radiotherapy in securing loco-regional control and improving survival in malignant disease is established. Prospective clinical trials addressing the role of chemotherapy/molecular targeted therapy for parotid cancer are needed. An international consensus on the classification of parotid surgery techniques would facilitate the comparison of different trials. Such efforts should lead into a clinical guideline.

  12. Modification of parotids in case of conformal ORL irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvel, G.; Lafond, C.; Manens, J.P.; Jouyaux, F.; Williaume, D.; Le Prise, E.; Crevoisier, R. de; Cazoulat, G.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the anatomical modifications of the parotids in case of tumors irradiation of the O.R.L. area. In case of irradiation of the O.R.L. area the parotids reduce about one third of their volume, by moving inwards and backwards. The dose received by these glands at the end of irradiation can be different from this one initially planned. (N.C.)

  13. Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodicoff, M.; Conger, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Most earlier studies showing a radioprotective effect by cAMP show only slight degrees of protection. The present study demonstrates a substantial protective effect (DMF, 1.63) of exogenously administered cAMP on the rat parotid gland and supports the mechanism suggested previously for protection afforded the parotid glands by the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, which is known to elevate endogenous intracellular cAMP

  14. Diabetes insípida post-parotiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Pila Pérez, Rafael; Rivero Sánchez, Miguel; Peralta Ventura, Ricardo; Carbonell Perdomo, Diego; Pila Peláez, Rafael; Guerra Rodríguez, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Se describe un caso de diabetes insípida post parotiditis, entidad sumamente rara en nuestro medio. Se destaca el diagnóstico y la terapéutica de esta entidad, así como la causa etiológico y forma de presentación. A case of diabetes insipidus post-parotiditis is described entity totally rare in our midicu. Diagnostics and therapeutics are stressed a well as the ethiologic antecedent and way of presentation.

  15. Unexpected Detection of Parotid Gland Malignancy during Primary Extracapsular Dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Velegrakis, Stylianos; Iro, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the oncologic and functional outcome in cases in which a false preoperative working hypothesis “benign parotid tumor” led to a primary extracapsular dissection being performed rather than a traditional, more radical surgical modality. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Academic tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods The records of all patients treated for malignant tumors of the parotid gland between 2006 and 2012 were...

  16. Influence of Handheld Mobiles on Parotid: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gracelin E Ranjitha; Ravi David Austin; Sarvathikari Ramasamy; Chinnappa Saravana Bharathi; Deepthi Angeline; Sakthivel Sambasivam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile phones generate heat and radiofrequency radiation. The parotid gland is one potential target, because mobile phones are pressed against the side of the face where the gland is located. Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of mobile phone radiation on parotid gland volume, systolic velocity, salivary flow rate, and protein concentration between the dominant and the nondominant side of mobile phone usage among heavy mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: Ultrasono...

  17. Surgical options in benign parotid tumors: a proposal for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quer, Miquel; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Takes, Robert P; Silver, Carl E; Boedeker, Carsten C; de Bree, Remco; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Sanabria, Alvaro; Shaha, Ashok R; Pujol, Albert; Zbären, Peter; Ferlito, Alfio

    2017-11-01

    Different surgical options are currently available for treating benign tumors of the parotid gland, and the discussion on optimal treatment continues despite several meta-analyses. These options include more limited resections (extracapsular dissection, partial lateral parotidectomy) versus more extensive and traditional options (lateral parotid lobectomy, total parotidectomy). Different schools favor one option or another based on their experience, skills and tradition. This review provides a critical analysis of the literature regarding these options. The main limitation of all the studies is the bias of selection for different surgical approaches. For this reason, we propose a staging system that could facilitate clinical decision making and the comparison of results. We propose four categories based on the size of the tumor and its location within the parotid gland. Category I includes tumors up to 3 cm, which are mobile, close to the outer surface and close to the parotid borders. Category II includes deeper tumors up to 3 cm. Category III comprises tumors greater than 3 cm involving two levels of the parotid gland, and category IV tumors are greater than 3 cm and involve more than 2 levels. For each category and for the various pathologic types, a guideline of surgical extent is proposed. The objective of this classification is to facilitate prospective multicentric studies on surgical techniques in the treatment of benign parotid tumors and to enable the comparison of results of different clinical studies.

  18. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo

    1996-01-01

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  19. [Recurrent chronic parotiditis in childhood: An update of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Hofer, Francisca; Gutiérrez Díaz, Rodrigo; Ortiz Cárdenas, Rodrigo; Osorio Herrera, Gustavo; Landaeta Mendoza, Mirtha

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent childhood chronic parotiditis (RCCP) is a relevant pathology. Its diagnosis is mainly clinical, but it relies on imaging tests. The current treatment approach is diverse. The aim of this article is to update the clinical features, complementary tests, etiopathogenic models and therapeutic protocols of this disease. A bibliographic search was performed in PUBMED using the free terms and MESH terms: RCCP, recurrent parotiditis, chronic parotiditis and parotiditis. The filters used were human patients, up to 18 years old, with abstract. In SCIELO the free terms included were Parotiditis and chronic. Articles published in English, Spanish or Portuguese until 2017 were included. In PUBMED 119 articles were found and 44 were included. The exclusion of the remaining articles was due to language, access to the article or absence of relationship between the article and the proposed revision. In SCIELO 6 articles were found 6 of which 5 were selected. The multidisciplinary asses of patients with RCCP is considered the appropriate treatment. Its diagnosis is clinical but it relies on imaging tests, such as echography and sialography. The current treatment approach is conservative, and the best available evidence supports the use of sialendoscopy with irrigation and administration of antibiotics and/or corticosteroids via the parotid duct. However, there would be proper results with intraglandular lavage with physiological solutions without the need for a sialendoscope.

  20. O conceito de espaço na epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luiz Jacintho da

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Análise teórica da utilização do conceito de espaço na epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas. Faz-se uma breve retrospectiva do uso de diferentes conceituações de espaço e de suas implicações. Ênfase é dada à teoria dos focos naturais de Pavlovsky e às interações entre a epidemiologia e a geografia. O problema atual das infecções emergentes é visto como determinante da necessidade de se intensificarem as discussões sobre este conceito na epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas.

  1. O conceito de espaço na epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jacintho da Silva

    Full Text Available Análise teórica da utilização do conceito de espaço na epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas. Faz-se uma breve retrospectiva do uso de diferentes conceituações de espaço e de suas implicações. Ênfase é dada à teoria dos focos naturais de Pavlovsky e às interações entre a epidemiologia e a geografia. O problema atual das infecções emergentes é visto como determinante da necessidade de se intensificarem as discussões sobre este conceito na epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas.

  2. Tamizaje de enfermedades infecciosas en bancos de sangre, Colombia, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Beltrán

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estimar la prevalencia de las enfermedades transmitidas por la sangre, mediante las pruebas de tamizaje en los donantes de sangre de los bancos del país, pertenecientes a la red nacional, se analizó la información enviada por los bancos de sangre en 1995 a la Coordinación Nacional de Bancos de Sangre en el Instituto Nacional de Salud. Se definieron como variables de estudio las siguientes: unidades de sangre obtenidas, unidades de sangre analizadas y unidades de sangre reactivas para anticuetpos contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipos 1 y 2 (VIH 1/2, el virus de hepatitis C (VHC, el virus linfotrópico humano (HTLV, Treponemapallidum (sífilis y Typanosoma cruzi (enferrnedad de Chagas y reactivas para el antígeno de superficie de hepatitis B (HBsAg; para el análisis, se utilizó el programa Epi-lnfo 5.1. Durante 1995, en Colombia se recolectaron 370.867 unidades de sangre en 172 bancos. En promedio, el porcentaje de sangre analizada por estos bancos fue superior a 99% para marcadores como VIH 112, HBsAg, VHC y Treponema pallidum; para otros marcadores como T: cruziy HTLV 112 fue de 47,9% y 15,1%, respectivamente. Del total de unidades de sangre analizadas por marcador, 0,3% presentó reactividad para VIH-112; para hepatitis B virus, 0,9%; para hepatitis C virus, 1 ,O%; para T cruz;, 1,2%; para 7: pallidum, 1,4% y para HTLV, 1,2%. Estos porcentajes corresponden a los promedios nacionales de unidades de sangre reactiva en los bancos del país. Los bancos de sangre de algunas seccionales informaron valores hasta cuatro veces superiores al promedio nacional para los marcadores anti-T: cruziy HBsAg. La disponibilidad de sangre en el país es de aproximadamente 11 unidades por cada mil habitantes. El tamizaje en las unidades de sangre detectó 6,08% de unidades de sangre reactivas; es decir que previno, por lo menos, la difusión de igual número de infecciones por cada 100 posibles transfusiones. Ei análisis de la

  3. Endocarditis infecciosa: experiencia quirúrgica en el Cardiocentro de Santiago de Cuba Infectious endocarditis: surgical experience at the Cardiology Center of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Josué Perdomo García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico, descriptivo y transversal, de 104 pacientes intervenidos en el Cardiocentro del Hospital Provincial Clinicoquirúrgico Docente "Saturnino Lora" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 1988 hasta diciembre del 2008, por presentar endocarditis infecciosa. Entre los hallazgos sobresalió el predominio del grupo etario de 15-45 años, del sexo masculino, de la cardiopatía reumática como factor predisponerte, de la forma de presentación séptico-infecciosa, de los estafilococos como gérmenes y de los hemocultivos negativos. La disfunción valvular fue la principal indicación quirúrgica, seguida de la insuficiencia cardíaca. La mortalidad representó 16,3 %, atribuible fundamentalmente al fallo multiorgánico por sepsis y al bajo gasto cardiaco. Los resultados de estas operaciones son buenos en la mencionada institución.A descriptive cross-sectional and epidemiological study was carried out in 104 patients operated due to infectious endocarditis at the Cardiology Center of the "Saturnino Lora "Provincial Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba from January 1988 to December 2008. Among the findings was the prevalence of the 15-45 year-old patients, male sex, rheumatic heart disease as predisposing factor, and septic and infectious presentation, staphylococci as pathogens and negative blood cultures. Valve disease was the main surgical indication followed by heart failure. The mortality was 16,3 % attributable mainly to multiorgan failure due to sepsis and to the low cardiac output. The results of these interventions are favorable in that institution.

  4. Autómata Celular Estocástico paralelizado por GPU aplicado a la simulación de enfermedades infecciosas en grandes poblaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ruiz-Castilla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Un gran número de áreas de la ciencia están siendo beneficiadas por la reducción de tiempo de cómputo gracias al uso de las Unidades Gráficas de Proceso (GPU. En el caso de la Epidemiología, tales unidades agilizan la simulación de escenarios con poblaciones grandes, escenarios en los que el tiempo de procesamiento es muy significativo. El presente artículo introduce la simulación de eventos epidemiológicos basado en un modelo de Autó­matas Celulares Estocásticos (AC, el cual ofrece la implementación de las características principales de una enfermedad infecciosa a gran escala: contacto, vecindario, trayectorias y transmisibilidad. Un caso de estudio es simulado en una implementación del algoritmo AC para una enfermedad infecciosa de tipo SEIRS (Susceptible, Expuesto, Infectado, Recu­perado y Susceptible. Una población de 1 000 000 de individuos es paralelizada a través de un algoritmo de balanceo de procesos implementado en el lenguaje de programación C-CUDA. El resultado dado por el software paralelizado por GPU es comparado contra un análisis hecho del modelo paralelizado por multi-hilos CPU. Los resultados demuestran que el tiempo de cómputo puede ser reducido significativamente gracias al uso de C-CUDA.

  5. Interventional sialendoscopy for parotid ductal calculi: our preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P P; Gupta, Neelima; Goyal, Arun; Tomar, Sanjeev

    2012-09-01

    With this article we present our initial experience with interventional sialendoscopy of the parotid duct for the parotid calculi. We carried out a prospective study of patients of parotid calculi in a tertiary referral centre. Diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy was performed in five cases of parotid calculi. The outcome was classified on the basis of clearance of the lumen of the duct and resolution of symptoms. Diagnostic sialendoscopy was able to diagnose the calculus in all cases. Interventional sialendoscopy was done under general anesthesia in all cases and calculus was successfully removed. The average size of sialolith was 8.2 mm. No complications occurred in any of the cases. Check sialendoscopy was done in all cases after a minimum follow up of 6 months, which showed the duct lumen to be free of stone with no stricture of the duct. Sialendoscopy is an optimal technique for removal of intraductal parotid calculi and avoids removal of the gland. In our series there was no associated morbidity and complication.

  6. Preauricular infratemporal fossa approach for advanced malignant parotid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, John P; Benscoter, Brent J; Marzo, Sam J; Borrowdale, Richard W; Pontikis, George C

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to demonstrate the surgical technique involved in the preauricular infratemporal fossa (ITF) approach, outline the clinical indications for use of this technique, and present the results in using this approach in 159 patients with malignant parotid tumors. At the conclusion of this article, the reader should be able to understand the utility of the preauricular infratemporal fossa approach in the management of patients with advanced malignant parotid tumors. This was a retrospective chart review of 159 patients treated at a tertiary care academic medical center following institutional review board approval. A comprehensive medical records review was performed for all patients with malignant parotid tumors who underwent a preauricular ITF approach between July 1988 and July 2010. The most common presenting symptoms were pain and trismus, whereas the presence of a parotid mass and facial paralysis were the most common clinical signs. Mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinoma accounted for 63% of the tumors, and perineural invasion was found in nearly 71% of the patients. Despite negative surgical margins in 92% of the patients, local or regional tumor recurrence was found in 17% of the cases. The mean follow-up time was 12.8 years. The preauricular ITF approach should be used in the surgical extirpation of advanced malignant parotid neoplasms. This technique provides proximal facial nerve identification, internal carotid artery protection, and negative tumor margins at the skull base. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Tuberculosis of the Parotid Gland: Computed Tomographic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.; Xiao, J.; Pui, M.H.; Gong, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) of the parotid gland is rare, even in endemic regions. Approximately 100 cases have been reported in the English literature. The computed tomographic (CT) features, however, have seldom been studied. Purpose: To determine the diagnostic CT features of tuberculosis of the parotid gland. Material and Methods: CT studies of four histologically proven cases of tuberculosis of the parotid gland were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 15 enlarged lymph nodes were found in the superficial lobes of the parotid glands. The nodes were arranged linearly within the gland. Enhancement patterns included homogeneous enhancement (9/15, 60%), homogeneous enhancement with eccentric microcysts (3/15, 20%), and thick-walled rim enhancement with central lucency (3/15, 20%). Thickened adjacent fascial plane and platysma were seen in two patients. Ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was seen in all patients. Conclusion: In patients presenting with unilateral parotid nodules, TB should be considered when linearly arranged enhancing nodules are demonstrated in the superficial lobes of the glands on CT scan

  8. The effects of diabetes on the rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chull Jea; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe microscopic change of salivary gland tissue, which is a cause of xerostomia in diabetic condition; for this target, the author injected streptozotocin 0.1 ml/100 gm b.w. on the rat, Sprague Dawley, to induce diabetes, and then observed microscopic changes in parotid gland tissue using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. Parotid gland tissue of the diabetic rat was atrophied or degenerated in lapse of experimental time, but began to re pair from 14 days alter diabetic induction. 2. In the basal lamina of the vessel of parotid gland tissue in the diabetic rat, lamina lucida was discontinued and la mina densa was increased in thickness, but the number of capillary was gradually increased and dilated. 3. In acinic and intercalated ductal cells of parotid gland in the diabetic rat, changes of mitochondria, RER, secretor y granule, free ribosome were prominent. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that degenerative changes of the parotid gland tissue were due to not completely thickening of the basal lamina of vessels, but many other causal factors, because thickness of the basal lamina of vessels was not related with degenerative changes.

  9. Replanning Criteria and Timing Definition for Parotid Protection-Based Adaptive Radiation Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Rong Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate real-time volumetric and dosimetric changes of the parotid gland so as to determine replanning criteria and timing for parotid protection-based adaptive radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Fifty NPC patients were treated with helical tomotherapy; volumetric and dosimetric (Dmean, V1, and D50 changes of the parotid gland at the 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, 21st, 26th, 31st, and 33rd fractions were evaluated. The clinical parameters affecting these changes were studied by analyses of variance methods for repeated measures. Factors influencing the actual parotid dose were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. The cut-off values predicting parotid overdose were developed from receiver operating characteristic curves and judged by combining them with a diagnostic test consistency check. The median absolute value and percentage of parotid volume reduction were 19.51 cm3 and 35%, respectively. The interweekly parotid volume varied significantly (p<0.05. The parotid Dmean, V1, and D50 increased by 22.13%, 39.42%, and 48.45%, respectively. The actual parotid dose increased by an average of 11.38% at the end of radiation therapy. Initial parotid volume, initial parotid Dmean, and weight loss rate are valuable indicators for parotid protection-based replanning.

  10. MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Jadwat, Saaleeha [Institute of Child Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, 7700, Cape Town (South Africa); McHugh, Kieran; Linward, Jane [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom)

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this article is to report the MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy and highlight the diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI especially with regard to those lesions that may cause respiratory compromise. Retrospective review of MRI scans in six infants with bilateral parotid haemangiomas. The bilateral haemangiomas were symmetrical in all but one patient. On T1-weighted images the masses were isointense to muscle and on T2 they were hyperintense with numerous small vessels giving a septated appearance. There was vivid enhancement with gadolinium in all cases. In three patients, deep bilateral extensions were demonstrated involving the parapharyngeal spaces resulting in respiratory compromise which required tracheostomy. Bilateral parotid haemangiomas are rare, but when present may have deep extensions, which can result in respiratory compromise requiring tracheostomy. (orig.)

  11. MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Jadwat, Saaleeha; McHugh, Kieran; Linward, Jane

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy and highlight the diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI especially with regard to those lesions that may cause respiratory compromise. Retrospective review of MRI scans in six infants with bilateral parotid haemangiomas. The bilateral haemangiomas were symmetrical in all but one patient. On T1-weighted images the masses were isointense to muscle and on T2 they were hyperintense with numerous small vessels giving a septated appearance. There was vivid enhancement with gadolinium in all cases. In three patients, deep bilateral extensions were demonstrated involving the parapharyngeal spaces resulting in respiratory compromise which required tracheostomy. Bilateral parotid haemangiomas are rare, but when present may have deep extensions, which can result in respiratory compromise requiring tracheostomy. (orig.)

  12. CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenifis in parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changfu; Wang Binjie; Zhang Heping; Jin Haiying; Nie Peng; Chang Liang; Wei Haigang; Zou Ling

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland, so as to improve the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis of parotid gland. Methods: Nine cases with tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland confirmed by surgical pathology and acid-fast bacilli after preoperative spiral CT plain scan and two phases dynamic enhancement scan were retrospectively analyzed. Imaging findings of CT were reviewed and compared with surgical pathology. Results: Seven of the 9 cases of tuberculosis of the parotid gland occurred in the left side, and 2 in the right side, and superficial lobe involvement occurred in 8 cases and deep lobe in 1 case. The lesion was classified as tumour type (8 cases) and infiltration type (1 case). In turnout type, the number of lesion was from 1 to 4, and the size was from 2.7 to 5.3 cm in diameter. One case of infiltration type measured 3.4 cm in diameter. On CT plain scan, the lesions showed homogeneous slight high-density with regular edge in 5 cases and irregular low-density in 4 cases, and 2 of them with partly blurred edge. On CT enhanced scan, uniform moderate enhancement was seen in 3 cases, circular enhancement in 4 cases, inhomogeneous enhancement in 1 case, and lace-like enhancement in 1 case. Local infiltration occurred in 6 cases. Lymphadenovarix in the same side of lesion occurred in 2 cases. Conclusion: CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland present diversification, which correlate well with pathological changes. Understanding of characteristic CT findings of tuberculous lymphadenitis in parotid gland is helpful for differential diagnosis, but final diagnosis still depends on pathology and acid-fast bacilli. (authors)

  13. Geometric changes of parotid glands caused by hydration during chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kager, Petronella M.; Weerdenburg, Sanne C. C. van; Kranen, Simon R. van; Beek, Suzanne van; Lamers-Kuijper, Elisabeth A.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Remeijer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plan adaptation during the course of (chemo)radiotherapy of H&N cancer requires repeat CT scanning to capture anatomy changes such as parotid gland shrinkage. Hydration, applied to prevent nephrotoxicity from cisplatin, could temporarily alter the hydrogen balance and hence the captured anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine geometric changes of parotid glands as function of hydration during chemoradiotherapy compared to a control group treated with radiotherapy only. This study included an experimental group (n = 19) receiving chemoradiotherapy, and a control group (n = 19) receiving radiotherapy only. Chemoradiotherapy patients received cisplatin with 9 l of saline solution during hydration in the first, fourth and seventh week. The delineations of the parotid glands on the planning CT scan were automatically propagated to Cone Beam CT scans using deformable image registration. Relative volume and position of the parotid glands were determined at the second chemotherapy cycle (week four) and at fraction 35. When saline solution was administrated, the volume temporarily increased on the first day (7.2 %, p < 0.001), second day (10.8 %, p < 0.001) and third day (7.0 %, p = 0.016). The gland positions shifted lateral, the distance between glands increased on the first day with 1.5 mm (p < 0.001), on the second day 2.2 mm (p < 0.001). At fraction 35, with both groups the mean shrinkage was 24 % ± 11 % (1SD) and the mean medial distance between the parotid glands decreased by 0.47 cm ± 0.27 cm. Hydration significantly modulates parotid gland geometry. Unless, in the context of adaptive RT, a repeat CT scan is timed during a chemotherapy cycle, these effects are of minor clinical relevance

  14. [Sialoendoscopy-assisted sialolithectomy for large parotid stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Deng-gao; Zhang, Zu-yan; Yu, Guang-yan

    2014-02-18

    To explore the clinical application of endoscope-assisted operative retrieval of large parotid stones as a minimally invasive alternative. From January 2010 to April 2013, 6 patients (male: 5, female: 1, age from 30-62 years, and median age: 49.5 years)suffering from recurred swelling of parotid gland due to sialoliths were treated by endoscope-assisted parotid surgery in Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. All of the patients underwent clinical, ultrasonographic and cone-beam CT (CBCT) examinations to get the detailed information of the number, location and size of stones, which was recorded in the medical records. endoscope-assisted parotid surgery was performed under general anesthesia in all the 6 cases after the failure of basket or forcep retrieval firstly. During the operation, sialoendoscope was used to locate the stone exactly and then the calculus was exposed through a pre-auricular approach and released by incising the duct. The postoperative complications were recorded and observed during the follow-up periods. Preoperative radiological examinations showed that all of the sialoliths were near the hilum of parotid gland ducts in the 6 cases, which were 5-9 mm in diameter. All of the stones were removed successfully by endoscope-assisted operative retrieval. The incisions healed smoothly in all the 6 cases. There were no cases of facial nerve weakness, infection or salivary fistula. After a mean follow-up of 19 months (ranging from 6-36 months), 5 patients remained asymptomatic and 1 patient had mild obstructed or infective symptoms. The final results were satisfied. It is suggested that endoscope-assisted operative retrieval is a viable minimally invasive alternative to remove the large or recalcitrant parotid stones with a high successful rate and low complications.

  15. Influence of Handheld Mobiles on Parotid: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracelin E Ranjitha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mobile phones generate heat and radiofrequency radiation. The parotid gland is one potential target, because mobile phones are pressed against the side of the face where the gland is located. Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of mobile phone radiation on parotid gland volume, systolic velocity, salivary flow rate, and protein concentration between the dominant and the nondominant side of mobile phone usage among heavy mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography of the superior lobe of parotid was performed bilaterally to measure gland volume. Systolic velocity of the external carotid artery in gland was calculated bilaterally using color Doppler imaging. Saliva flow rate was measured bilaterally with modified Schrimer strip. Carlson-Crittenden device was used to collect 0.5 ml saliva sample from the duct and biuret assay was done to determine the protein concentration. Settings and Design: A cohort study was conducted with 50 undergraduate students of a dental college based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation test was used to correlate and compare changes in the parameters of parotid gland and analyzed to a significant level of 0.05. Results: The volume, systolic velocity of blood flow of the external carotid artery, the salivary flow rate, and protein concentration of the parotid gland were significantly more by 11.9, 18, 23, and 8%, respectively, on the dominant side than the nondominant side of mobile phone usage. Conclusion: The study emphasized that prolonged mobile phone usage causes biological changes in parotid gland.

  16. [Lupus erythematosus panniculitis presenting as palpebral edema and parotiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pastor, G; Valcuende, F; Tomás, G; Moreno, M

    2007-10-01

    Lupus erythematosus panniculitis or lupus erythematosus profundus is characterized by inflammation of the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue. It can occur in isolation or associated with chronic systemic or discoid lupus erythematosus. It usually consists of nodules and hardened subcutaneous plaques on the forehead, cheeks, proximal extremities, and buttocks. Periorbital and parotid involvement are rare and can lead to misdiagnosis. We present the case of a patient with lupus erythematosus panniculitis who presented with palpebral edema and involvement of the periocular fat and parotid gland.

  17. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST MEASLES, PAROTIDITIS AND VITAMINOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis. 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cellular and antiviral mechanisms.Key words: vaccination, measles, parotiditis, prevention, mineral and vitamin complex, children.

  18. Parotid abscess due to salmonella enteritidis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V; Jensen, JoAnne D

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the parotid gland is rare. An instance in a 50-year-old man of Salmonella enteritidis parotiditis initially recognized by microbial culture of a fine needle aspiration cytology material is described. The identified predisposing factor was chronic alcoholic abuse. For the infection source, a carrier state of salmonella parotitis was postulated, which progressed to focal abscess and was subsequently complicated by bacteremia and hematogenous spread to the liver, spleen and lungs. Salmonella should be included in the differential consideration of head and neck abscesses in immunocompromised individuals and treated aggressively.

  19. Parotid radiosensitivity changes: a temporal relation to glandular circadian rhythms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mofty, S.K.; Hovenga, T.L.; Russell, J.E.; Simmons, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of the rat parotid gland to X-radiation increased considerably towards the end of the daily light span (0800-2000 hours) and to a lesser extent before the onset of that period. The major sensitivity peak occurred at 1600 hours and coincides with a diurnal nadir in the rates of protein and RNA synthesis. The minor peak occurred at 0400 hours and was temporally related to a daily period of maximal secretory activity. It is suggested that suboptimal repair and secretion-linked cellular perturbations might contribute to the pathogenesis of the circadian increases in radiosensitivity of parotid cells. (author)

  20. Carcinoma ex mixed tumor arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma ex mixed tumor is a mixed tumor in which a second neoplasm develops from the epithelial component that fulfills the criteria for malignancy. This tumor occurs frequently in the parotid glands. Individuals in whom carcinoma ex mixed tumor have a past history of benign mixed tumor. These lesions contain both a benign mixed tumor as well as a malignant neoplasm. We report a case of carcinoma ex mixed tumor which occurred in the parotid gland. A 67-year-old woman presented with movable right mass. She complained pain and facial paralysis. The clinical presentation, several diagnostic images, and histopathologic findings are presented.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, E; Pachón, J; Rivero, A; Girón, J A; Gómez-Mateos, J; Merino, M D; Torres-Tortosa, M; González-Serrano, M; Aliaga, L; Collado, A; Hernández-Quero, J; Barrera, A; Nuño, E

    2000-03-01

    Although Haemophilus influenzae is a common etiologic agent of pneumonia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the characteristics of this pneumonia have not been adequately assessed. We have prospectively studied features of H. influenzae pneumonia in 26 consecutive HIV-infected inpatients. Most of these patients were severely immunosuppressed; 73.1% had a CD4+ cell count caused by H. influenzae affects mainly patients with advanced HIV disease, and since its clinical and radiological features may be diverse, this etiology should be considered when pneumonia occurs in patients with advanced HIV infection. The mortality rate associated with H. influenzae pneumonia is not higher than that occurring in the general population.

  2. Endocarditis infecciosa, experiencia de diez años en un centro de referencia nacional Infectious endocarditis, 10 years of experience in a national reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Fleitas Ruisánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudiar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y microbiológicas, así como el tratamiento médico quirúrgico de los pacientes ingresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa, con el propósito de profundizar en su estudio y contribuir a un mejor tratamiento a estos pacientes. Métodos: se estudiaron 24 pacientes procedentes de todo el país, egresados con el diagnóstico de endocarditis infecciosa. Los datos fueron recogidos de las historias clínicas procedentes del archivo del Hospital "William Soler", y de la base de datos del servicio de cirugía del cardiocentro. Se determinó la frecuencia de las diferentes manifestaciones de la endocarditis infecciosa según: grupos etarios, factores de riesgo, y los datos clínicos, de laboratorio y microbiológicos más frecuentes. Además, se determinó la toma valvular predominante, la etiología y su respuesta a los antibióticos. Resultados: el grupo de edad más afectado fue entre 5 y 18 años; la cardiopatía previa fue el factor de riesgo predominante; los síntomas y signos más frecuentes fueron la fiebre, la anorexia y la pérdida de peso. La insuficiencia cardiaca y el embolismo pulmonar fueron complicaciones frecuentes. La mayoría de los pacientes tuvo una eritrosedimentación acelerada, y la cuarta parte de los casos presentaron hemocultivos negativos. Las válvulas aórtica y mitral resultaron las más afectadas, y el curso clínico que predominó fue el subagudo. En casi la mitad de los pacientes la infección tuvo un origen nosocomial. Los antimicrobianos más utilizados fueron la amikacina, la vancomicina y la ceftriaxona. Conclusiones: la endocarditis infecciosa es poco frecuente en nuestra institución, ocurre más a menudo en relación con las cardiopatías congénitas. Los hechos clínicos más constantes fueron la fiebre y el antecedente de cardiopatía previa.Objective: to study the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics as

  3. Intra-parotid dermoid cyst: excision through a face lift incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M; Keh, S M; Chapman, A; Hussain, A

    2014-11-01

    Intra-parotid dermoid cysts are extremely rare. Clinically, they present like any other parotid lump and pre-operative diagnosis is rarely possible. A 62 years old Caucasian man presented with a painless lump in his right parotid region. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan revealed a 3 x 3 cm mass in the parotid tail. Cytological examination was unhelpful. The patient underwent successful excision of the cyst through a small face lift incision. No drain was inserted and the patient was discharged home the same day. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was highly satisfied with the aesthetic outcome. The definite histopathological diagnosis was an intra-parotid dermoid cyst.

  4. A comparison of mean parotid gland dose with measures of parotid gland function after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Implications for future trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesink, Judith M.; Schipper, Maria; Busschers, Wim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the most adequate parameter to measure the consequences of reducing the parotid gland dose. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with radiotherapy for various malignancies of the head and neck were prospectively evaluated using three methods. Parotid gland function was objectively determined by measuring stimulated parotid flow using Lashley cups and scintigraphy. To assess xerostomia-related quality of life, the head-and-neck cancer module European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ (Quality of Life Questionnaire) H and N35 was used. Measurements took place before radiotherapy and 6 weeks and 12 months after the completion of radiotherapy. Complication was defined for each method using cutoff values. The correlation between these complications and the mean parotid gland dose was investigated to find the best measure for parotid gland function. Results: For both flow and scintigraphy data, the best definition for objective parotid gland toxicity seemed to be reduction of stimulated parotid flow to ≤25% of the preradiotherapy flow. Of all the subjective variables, only the single item dry mouth 6 weeks after radiotherapy was found to be significant. The best correlation with the mean parotid gland dose was found for the stimulated flow measurements. The predictive ability was the highest for the time point 1 year after radiotherapy. Subjective findings did not correlate with the mean parotid dose. Conclusions: Stimulated flow measurements using Lashley cups, with a complication defined as flow ≤25% of the preradiotherapy output, correlated best with the mean parotid gland dose. When reduction of the mean dose to the parotid gland is intended, the stimulated flow measurement is the best method for evaluating parotid gland function

  5. Age-dependent difference in the computed tomography numbers of the normal parotid gland of Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1999-01-01

    To determine normal CT number range of parotid gland by analyzing the change by age increase and the difference among individuals and between both sexes in CT number of normal parotid gland. 134 subjects who took the CT scan between the period of Jan. 1996 and Dec. 1997 at Yonsei University, Dental Hospital were selected. Criteria for selection were that the patients must be within the normal range clinically and radiologically, and the entire parotid gland on the axial view must be shown. Among the axial views, the one showing the greatest parotid gland size was selected and its CT number was recorded. Also, CT numbers from both masseter muscle were recorded as its control. There was statistically significant correlation between CT number of right and left of parotid glands and masseter muscles. With the increase of age, there is a significant decrease in the CT number of parotid gland (p 0.05). As age increases, CT number of parotid gland has a tendency to decrease, and there is no significant difference in the CT numbers between left and right parotid gland. Therefore in the CT scan of patients suspected of having an salivary gland disease of the parotid gland, to consider normal range of the age-dependent CT numbers of parotid gland and compare the CT numbers of the right and left parotid gland might be useful in diagnosing the disease.

  6. A influência do laboratório no tratamento da ceratite infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Pelinsari Lana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a resposta terapêutica das ceratites infecciosas e sua correlação com o resultado laboratorial. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 62 casos retrospectivamente de ceratite infecciosa de moderada à grave, atendidos no Hospitaldo Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2006. Foi avaliada a resposta ao tratamento tópico com colírios antibióticos (Cefalotina 50mg/ml e Gentamicina 14mg/ml ou Ciprofloxacino 0,3%, verificando-se a necessidade de modificação da terapêutica inicial de acordo com a evolução clínica e correlação com os testes microbiológicos pré-tratamento. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 21 culturas (33,9% foram positivas e 41 (66,1% foram negativas. Houve crescimento de fungo em uma amostra (1,6%. Em apenas dois casos (3,5% houve correlação do exame bacterioscópico com o da cultura. Em 5 casos (8,1% houve necessidade de modificação da medicação devido à piora clínica e 91,9% dos pacientes cursaram com cura do processo infeccioso com o tratamento inicial instituído. CONCLUSÃO: O uso tópico de antibióticos fortificados ou quinolonas foi eficaz no tratamento das ceratites de provável etiologia infecciosa com culturas positivas e negativas.

  7. Meningite e endocardite infecciosa causada por Rhodotorula mucilaginosa em paciente imunocompetente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henrique Loss

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de um homem imunocompetente admitido com comprometimento agudo do sistema nervoso, crise hipertensiva e insuficiência renal, vindo a receber diagnóstico de meningite e endocardite infecciosa por Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Até onde sabemos, esta é a primeira descrição de infecção simultânea das meninges e do endotélio causada por Rhodotorula em um paciente sem comprometimento imunológico.

  8. Hyperacute unilateral contrast-induced parotiditis during cerebral angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song J. Kim, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon complication of iodinated contrast administration is the development of bilateral sialadenitis. We report a unique case of hyperacute unilateral parotiditis during diagnostic cerebral angiography of the external carotid artery, which mimicked possible iatrogenic vascular event associated with cerebral endovascular procedures. Discussion includes the differential diagnosis, diagnostic studies, and treatments for this unusual condition.

  9. Serie de 8 casos de parotiditis supurada aguda neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    Full Text Available La parotiditis supurada aguda es una infección poco frecuente en la práctica del pediatra y neonatólogo. El objetivo es mostrar nuestra experiencia en la atención de serie de casos con parotiditis supurada aguda en el período neonatal, y describir sus características de presentación. Se presentan los hallazgos clínicos en 8 pacientes con parotiditis supurativa neonatal, quienes estuvieron ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Pediátrico Universitario "Juan Manuel Márquez", durante el período de 22 años (desde el año 1992 hasta el año 2013, y se contrasta con los reportes publicados en la literatura internacional. Las características de presentación de la parotiditis aguda supurada de nuestros casos concuerdan con la literatura revisada en muchos aspectos, y se demuestra que es, además, una infección poco frecuente en el período neonatal. Es la primera publicación sobre esta entidad en neonatos en Cuba, y la mayor serie de casos en el ámbito latinoamericano.

  10. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD 50 (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD 50 . Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  11. Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland 1985-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Bjørndal, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    -up on these topics. METHODS: The Danish Pathology Data Bank was searched for parotid pleomorphic adenoma and Ca-ex-PA in the period 1985 to 2010 and all pathology descriptions were reviewed. Ca-ex-PA specimens were reviewed by a pathologist. RESULTS: A total of 5.497 patients were identified and 2.86% had at least...

  12. Parotid lymphomas – clinical and computed tomographic imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass in the parotid region.3-5 Many centres complement this approach with ancillary investigations ... radiotherapy, alone or in combination.2 Surgical intervention for lymphoma is limited to a purely diagnostic role.9 It is therefore desirable to ...

  13. Radiotherapy of tumours of the parotid: Evaluation and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mouaaouy, A.

    1982-01-01

    The author evaluated the results of radiotherapies of patients with tumours of the parotid who had received primary or post-surgical radiotherapy in the Tuebingen Institute of Medical Radiology between 1968 and 1979. Evaluation was difficult because of the small number of cases, the different histological findings, and the observation periods which were very short in some cases. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma with Metastasis to the Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Tze Ling; Tomlinson, Jeanne; Chin, Ronald; Eslick, Guy D.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy that exhibits both mesenchymal and epithelial components. It is similar to nonmelanoma skin cancers in terms of risk and prognostic factors. However, these malignancies are known to have a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis, even with adequate resection margins. Here we report a case of metastatic cutaneous carcinosarcoma to the parotid gland and review the relevant literature.

  15. Frozen section pathology for decision making in parotid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kerry D; Moore, Eric J; Lewis, Jean E

    2013-12-01

    For parotid lesions, the high accuracy and utility of intraoperative frozen section (FS) pathology, compared with permanent section pathology, facilitates intraoperative decision making about the extent of surgery required. To demonstrate the accuracy and utility of FS pathology of parotid lesions as one factor in intraoperative decision making. Retrospective review of patients undergoing parotidectomy at a tertiary care center. Evaluation of the accuracy of FS pathology for parotid surgery by comparing FS pathology results with those of permanent section. Documented changes from FS to permanent section in 1339 parotidectomy pathology reports conducted from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2009, included 693 benign and 268 primary and metastatic malignant tumors. Changes in diagnosis were found from benign to malignant (n = 11) and malignant to benign (n = 2). Sensitivity and specificity of a malignant diagnosis were 98.5% and 99.0%, respectively. Other changes were for lymphoma vs inflammation or lymphoma typing (n = 89) and for confirmation of or change in tumor type for benign (n = 36) or malignant (n = 69) tumors. No case changed from low- to high-grade malignant tumor. Only 4 cases that changed from FS to permanent section would have affected intraoperative decision making. Three patients underwent additional surgery 2 to 3 weeks later. Overall, only 1 patient was overtreated (lymphoma initially deemed carcinoma). Frozen section pathology for parotid lesions has high accuracy and utility in intraoperative decision making, facilitating timely complete procedures.

  16. Fractal Dimension Of CT Images Of Normal Parotid Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo

    1999-01-01

    This study was to investigate the age and sex differences of the fractal dimension of the normal parotid glands in the digitized CT images. The six groups, which were composed of 42 men and women from 20's, 40's and 60's and over were picked. Each group contained seven people of the same sex. The normal parotid CT images were digitized, and their fractal dimensions were calculated using Scion Image PC program. The mean of fractal dimensions in males was 1.7292 (+/-0.0588) and 1.6329 (+/-0.0425) in females. The mean of fractal dimensions in young males was 1.7617, 1.7328 in middle males, and 1.6933 in old males. The mean of fractal dimensions in young females was 1.6318, 1.6365 in middle females, and 1.6303 in old females. There was no statistical difference in fractal dimension between left and right parotid gland of the same subject (p>0.05). Fractal dimensions in male were decreased in older group (p 0.05). The fractal dimension of parotid glands in the digitized CT images will be useful to evaluate the age and sex differences.

  17. Differential Diagnosis of Parotid Lipoma in a Breast Ca Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Misirlioglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas are common benign tumors usually detected on the torso, neck, upper thighs, and upper arms. However, they are rarely found in the parotid gland region. Because of their rarity at this site, they are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors. This report describes a rare case of a lipoma in the superficial lobe of parotid gland. A 71-year-old female patient admitted to our department complaining about swelling and pain in the posterior area of the left mandibular region since one month. Her medical history included mastectomy after breast CA fifteen years ago. Clinical examination revealed a smooth-surfaced, soft, and painful mass, with well-defined margins in the left mandibular region. Differential diagnosis of metastasis, inflammatory neck swellings, and benign salivary gland tumors were considered for the patient. Advanced imaging methods such as ultrasonography and contrast tomography revealed that the lesion was a lipoma of parotid gland. A surgical intervention under general anesthesia was planned for the removal of the mass; however patient refused the surgical treatment. Patient was placed on six-month periodic recall. This article reviews the radiographic appearance and differential diagnoses of lipoma in this rare location.

  18. Parotid Abscess with Involvement of Facial Nerve Branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Adile; Ors, Ceyda Hayretdag; Kosar, Sule; Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isin

    2015-08-01

    Facial nerve paresis is only rarely seen with benign diseases of the parotid gland. A 22-year male had muscle loss in the preauricular region of the right side of his face that extended towards the mandibular angle for the last 6 months. The neurological examination did not reveal any pathology other than right preauricular region muscle atrophy that was limited by the mandibular angle. The Electroneuronography (EnoG) provided a ratio of 55.38%, compared the affected side to left side. Ultrasonography of the defined region showed two mass lesions 13.5 x 7 mm and 10 x 5 mm in size in the anteromedial section of the right parotid gland that were close to each other, without internal calcific foci, and heterogenous hyperechogenic structure without internal vascularization. Fine needle aspiration obtained many polymorphonuclear leukocytes, cell debris, a few mononuclear inflammatory cells and many crystalloid structures. The lesion was diagnosed as a parotid abscess. Antibiotic treatment was started for the parotid gland abscess.

  19. Diagnosis value of parotid sialography in Sjogren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Guo; Zhang Xue; Liu Rongxin; Wang Yali; Zhong Zhicheng; Wang Haiwen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the diagnosis value of parotid sialography in Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Methods: Two hundred and two cases were chosen in the study, 149 cases were SS, 14 cases were chronic parotitis, 2 were parotid benign hypertrophy, and 37 cases were normal. The international classification criteria (2002) for primary Sjogren's syndrome was used to perform the diagnostic test of parotid sialography. Results: In SS, the incidence rate of pathdogical changes of the twiggy canula is the highest (80.20%, 239/298 side), pathological changes of the main canula showed rough fringe(28.19%, 84/298 side), or canula cavity ectasia but not rough fringe(13.09%, 39/298 side), and also can showed mix form of the two kinds of pathological changes, but not often(2.68%, 8/298 side). The branch canula resembled as the main canula in the pathological changes, but observation effect was affected by extensive degree of the twiggy canula in the pathological changes. 0 stage to V stage was seen in SS, the cases with different stage changes in bilateral side were occupied 25.98% (33/127 side). Chronic parotitis had twiggy canula expansion (7/28 side), branch canula expansion (10/28 side), main canula expandsion (11/28 side), but had not the sign of rough fringe. Others of non-SS had no canula pathological changes. Results of the diagnostic test: diagnosis specificity of the branch canula or the main canula rough fringe was 100%, and sensitivity of the twiggy canula expansion and Youden's index were the highest. Conclusion: To diagnose SS as the pathological changes of parotid canula, the twiggy canula expansion was perfect filtration diagnosis criteria, the branch canula and the main canula rough fringe was certain diagnosis criteria. The value of parotid sialography in SS were affected by the form of canula pathological changes and whether two sides examined at the same time. (authors)

  20. 3 T MR 3D fast imaging employing steady state acquisition demonstrating branches of intraparotid facial nerve, parotid duct, and relation with parotid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Li Chuanting; Zhang Dongsheng; Ai Bin; Zhang Weidong; Wu Lebin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the usefulness of 3 T MRI 3D-FIESTA in the evaluation of the intraparotid components of the facial nerve and parotid duct, and compare them with surgical findings. Methods: Twenty-two cases with parotid benign tumors were scanned with conventional and 3D-FIESTA sequences on 3 T MRI scanner. Postprocessed multiplanar images were obtained with the workstation. Parotid ducts and facial nerves and tumors were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumors to the facial nerves and Parotid ducts was confirmed at surgery. Results: Various types of parotid benign tumors had their characteristics on 3 T MR imaging. Parotid benign tumors mainly showed hypo-intensity on T 1 WI in 21 cases, and hyper-intensity on T 2 WI in 22 cases. But on 3D-FIESTA images, they appeared hypointensity (10 cases) or high intensity (12 cases) due to different types. Facial nerves in parotid appeared as linear structures with hypo-inteusity. The indication of the main trunks were 16 and 18 cases for T 1 WI and T 2 WI images, while on 3D-FIESTA images, the main trunks and cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerves were found in 22, 21,22 cases. Parotid ducts appeared as structures with hypo-intensity on T 1 WI and hyper-intensity on multiplanar images (14, 20, 22 cases). Compared with surgical results, the main trunks of the facial nerve were correctly showed by 3D-FIESTA images in 20 cases. However, in 2 cases they were not located in the operation because of shifting. Conclusion: 3 T MR 3D-FIESTA imaging could depict the extracranial facial nerve and the parotid duct in the parotid gland, which is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumors. (authors)

  1. Aspectos históricos da endocardite infecciosa Historical aspects of infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Grinberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa era fatal até há três gerações. A evolução temporal do conhecimento da doença possibilitou avanços nas técnicas diagnósticas, especialmente na ecocardiografia, a possibilidade de se realizar a cirurgia cardíaca, mesmo com o processo infeccioso em atividade, e novas recomendações de profilaxia por antibióticos antes dos procedimentos de intervenção. Hoje a endocardite infecciosa é curável. Nesta revisão são abordados os aspectos históricos da endocardite, desde as observações de Osler, no século XIX, até a transformação de doença "clinicamente possível" em "clinicamente definida".Infective endocarditis was a fatal disease three generations ago. Temporal evolution of knowledge made possible important advances in diagnostic techniques, especially in echocardiography, the possibility of cardiac surgery during the active infectious process and new guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis before interventional procedures. Nowadays, infective endocarditis is curable. In this review, we describe historical aspects of endocarditis, from Osler´s observations in the 19th century to the change from a "clinically possible" to a "clinically defined" disease.

  2. Endocarditis infecciosa en válvula aórtica por Aggregatibacter aphrophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Broa

    Full Text Available Resumen Hoy día, la endocarditis infecciosa continúa siendo una causa importante de mor-bimortalidad en todo el mundo y es preocupante el aumento del número de infecciones asociadas con agentes virulentos y procedimientos médicos. Presentamos el caso de un indigente con antecedentes médicos desconocidos, ingresado por dolor lumbar, que comenzó a sentirse confuso, hipotenso y taquicárdico. Poco después de su ingreso su estado evolucionó a septicemia grave. Los resultados de las pruebas iniciales también eran indicativos de infarto agudo de miocardio, pero el ecocardiograma transtorácico reveló una vegetación masiva en la válvula aórtica con absceso perivalvular condicionando regurgitación aórtica grave. El paciente murió, con el diagnóstico definitivo de endocarditis infecciosa. Más tarde, en los hemocultivos se identificó Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, un microorganismo del grupo HACEK. Este caso confirma que, a pesar de los resultados favorables en general, hay casos de infecciones graves, sobre todo si el diagnóstico y el tratamiento fueron tardíos.

  3. Las enfermedades infecciosas y su importancia en el sector avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andrés Jaimes Olaya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del contexto de un país cuyas mejores capacidades se encuentran en el sector agropecuario, la industria avícola se ha convertido en uno de los sectores más promisorios y de mayor crecimiento en Colombia. Por esta razón, actualmente se vienen implementando programas para el mejoramiento de la calidad de los productos avícolas, con el objetivo no solo de mantener el crecimiento de la industria,sino de poder expandir las fronteras de exportación. Sin embargo, la avicultura enfrenta un gran reto encuanto a su producción, debido a que las enfermedades infecciosas que afectan a las aves continúan siendo una problemática importante del sector, aun por encima de la alimentación y la genética. En este artículo se presentan elementos de relevancia referentes a la industria avícola, así como en relación con las enfermedades de control oficial y algunas de las enfermedades infecciosas que más la aquejan, enfatizando en la importancia de la intervención en el manejo y control de dichas enfermedades.

  4. La actuación de enfermería ante las enfermedades infecciosas en la urgencias hospitalarias

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Domínguez, Sara

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Una enfermedad infecciosa se define como aquella enfermedad producida por microorganismos patógenos como bacterias, hongos, virus o parásitos, la cual puede contagiarse por contacto con animales, insectos o de una persona a otra. A lo largo de este trabajo estudiaremos las Enfermedades Infecciosas Hospitalarias, concretamente en la enfermedad por virus Ébola y en las diferentes actuaciones de enfermería ante la misma. Para ello, se realizará un repaso en la historia y el desarrollo de...

  5. BATH AND SHOWER EFFECTS IN THE RAT PAROTID GLAND EXPLAIN INCREASED RELATIVE RISK OF PAROTID GLAND DYSFUNCTION AFTER INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIOTHERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, Peter; Faber, Hette; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Meertens, Harm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess in a rat model whether adding a subtolerance dose in a region adjacent to a high-dose irradiated subvolume of the parotid gland influences its response (bath-and-shower effect). Methods and Materials: Irradiation of the whole, cranial 50%, and/or the caudal 50% of the parotid

  6. Avaliação do curso de especialização em enfermagem nas doenças infecciosas, na FIOCRUZ (1997-1999 Evaluación de la especialización en enfermería de las enfermedades infecciosas, en la FIOCRUZ (1997-1999 Evaluation of the nursing specialization course in infectious diseases at the FIOCRUZ (1997-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizete Pereira da Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreve a experiência de implantação e do desenvolvimento do Curso de Especialização em Enfermagem nas Doenças Infecciosas e sua operacionalização no âmbito do Centro de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro de Chagas, da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, no período de 1997 a 1999. Objetiva mostrar, sob perspectiva histórica do Hospital e das doenças infecciosas, a experiência acumulada no processo de formação de recursos humanos. Justifica o porquê da especialização nas doenças infecciosas à medida que, nos países subdesenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento, o perfil das causas de morbimortalidade ainda são significativas. Demonstra processo de adequação do curso avaliado pelos coordenadores, corpo docente e discente, durante o seu desenvolvimento, e aborda a relevância da formação na vida pessoal e profissional de seus egressos que, na sua maioria, se inseriram no mercado de trabalho e desenvolvem ações educativas, intervindo significativamente com novas práticas nos serviços de saúde.El estudio describe la experiencia de implantación y reformulación del desarrollo del Curso de Especialización en Enfermería de las Enfermedades Infecciosas y su ejecución en el ámbito del Centro de Investigación Clínica Hospital Evandro Chagas, de la Fundación Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, em el período de 1997 a 1999. Pretende mostrar sobre una perspectiva histórica del Hospital y de las enfermedades infecciosas, la experiencia acumulada en el proceso de formación de recursos humanos. Justifica el por qué de la especialización en las enfermedades infecciosas, a medida que en los países subdesarrollados y en vías de desarrollo, el perfil de las causas de morbimortalidad son significativas. Demuestra el proceso de adecuación del curso evaluado por los coordinadores, cuerpo docente y discente, durante su desarrollo y aborda la relevancia de la formación en la vida personal y profesional de sus egresados, que

  7. Complicaciones infecciosas de la diálisis peritoneal ambulatoria en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patricia Durán Casal

    Full Text Available Introducción: la diálisis peritoneal es la mejor alternativa terapéutica para los niños con enfermedad renal crónica terminal, y en las modalidades de diálisis peritoneal ambulatoria ha permitido el tratamiento fuera del hospital, lo que proporciona un mejor estilo y calidad de vida. No es un método exento de riesgos. Las complicaciones infecciosas relacionadas a la diálisis peritoneal son la causa más importante de morbilidad y es la peritonitis su principal complicación. Objetivo: determinar retrospectivamente la frecuencia y las características de complicaciones infecciosas relacionadas al proceder dialítico. Métodos: nuestro hospital es referente como unidad de diálisis pediátrica del país, así que recibe la mayoría de los niños con enfermedad renal crónica terminal de Cuba. Se revisaron los expedientes clínicos de niños con enfermedad renal crónica terminal en programa de diálisis peritoneal ambulatoria en el Hospital Pediátrico de Centro Habana durante el período 2008-2011. Resultados: se estudiaron 12 pacientes con un promedio de edad de 11 años, 58 % del sexo femenino. Se documentaron 24 episodios infecciosos. Las complicaciones encontradas fueron infección del sitio de salida del catéter, con 62,5 %, peritonitis 33,3 % e infección del túnel submucoso 4,2 %. Predominaron cultivos positivos a bacterias grampositivas (66,7 %. Las bacterias más comunes fueron: Staphylococcus coagulasa positivo (48 % y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo (22 %. Otros gérmenes identificados fueron E. coli, Enterobacter spp. y Candida spp., con 8,3 % respectivamente. Conclusiones: la infección del sitio de salida del catéter fue la complicación infecciosa más frecuente en nuestra serie. Las bacterias grampositivas son los gérmenes más comunes que causan infección del sitio de salida y peritonitis en pacientes en diálisis peritoneal ambulatoria.

  8. Bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva Champs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar os trabalhos publicados sobre os principais aspectos da bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa, relacionados com sua história, etiologia, epidemiologia, fatores de risco, patogenia, alterações histológicas, manifestações clínicas, exames complementares, critérios diagnósticos, diagnóstico diferencial, tratamento e prognóstico. FONTES DOS DADOS: Realizou-se uma revisão não sistemática nas bases de dados MEDLINE e LILACS, selecionando-se 66 referências mais relevantes. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Na bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa ocorre lesão do epitélio respiratório, e a gravidade clínica está relacionada aos diferentes graus de lesão e ao processo inflamatório. O diagnóstico baseia-se no quadro clínico, na exclusão dos principais diagnósticos diferenciais e no auxílio dos exames complementares. A tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução, principalmente com imagens em inspiração e expiração, possibilta a avaliação das pequenas vias aéreas. As provas de função pulmonar caracterizam-se por padrão obstrutivo fixo com redução acentuada do FEF25-75%. O tratamento não está bem estabelecido, e o uso de corticoides tem sido preconizado em forma de pulsoterapia ou por via inalatória em elevadas doses, no entanto, os dados da literatura a respeito de sua eficácia ainda são escassos. O prognóstico a longo prazo é variável, podendo haver melhora clínica ou evolução para insuficiência respiratória crônica e óbito. CONCLUSÃO: A bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa é uma doença que cursa com elevada morbidade e deve ser abordada por equipe multidisciplinar com acompanhamento em longo prazo.

  9. MR imaging of the parotid gland following sialography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Nishimura, K.; Togashi, K.; Itoh, K.; Fujisawa, I.; Itoh, H.; Abe, M.; Torizuka, K.; Naito, Y.

    1986-01-01

    MR imaging was performed after sialography (using 76% Renografin) in eight patients with parotid tumor. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T and using 16-cm-diameter surface coil and a pulse sequence of 600/25 msec. The ductal system and periductal interstitial space consistently appeared as a linear low-intensity band. MR images of two rabbits that had received parotid gland injections of 76% Renografin confirmed that the low-intensity signal arose from the edema fluid in the periductal interstitial space of the gland. Since the facial nerve follows a course immediately lateral to the major duct, an appreciation of the course of the facial nerve may allow more precise presurgical planning

  10. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Purohit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC is the most common malignant neoplasm of the major salivary glands, accounting for 15.5% of all cases, benign and malignant. The aim of this article is to report a case of MEC in a 73-years-old male patient who presented with a painless firm fluctuant swelling in left preauricular area. The lesion was thoroughly examined preoperatively, and investigations were carried out. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was done for the lesion and report suggested tumor of the parotid gland. Superficial parotidectomy procedure was done, taking care not to injure the lower division of the facial nerve. Post recovery was uneventful with no defect of facial nerve functions. The histologic picture confirmed that the tumor was MEC of parotid gland. Through the literature reviews of MEC the discussions on prevalence, origin, diagnosis, histological finding, investigation and the modes of treatment are made.

  11. Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma of Parotid Gland- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A. Badge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC is most commonly seen in the nasopharynx. Very rarely it is found in the salivary gland, preferably in parotid gland followed by submandibular gland where it accounts for 0.4% of all malignant salivary gland tumours. Most commonly it is seen in fifth decade with female predominance. Significant correlation has been reported between this tumour and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV.It has a racial predilection for Inuits,Chinese and Japanese. Very rarely it is found In Indians. So we present a case of LEC of parotid gland in a 23 year old male Indian patient. As this is a very radiosensitive tumour, surgery followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  12. Adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with mucous retention cyst of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbale, Manjula Advisha; Halli, Rajshekhar C; Kini, Yogesh K; Kharkar, Viraj R; Metgud, Rashmi

    2011-09-01

    Mucous retention cysts of the parotid gland are rare, and a coexistent adenoid cystic carcinoma is even an unusual occurrence. Such coexistent adenoid cystic carcinomas with mucous retention cyst of the parotid gland are difficult to diagnose clinically and, at times, stage difficulty in their management. We report a rare case of adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with mucous retention cyst of the parotid gland with its diagnostic and management dilemma in a 14-year-old adolescent girl.

  13. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  14. Evaluación preoperatoria del riesgo en la endocarditis infecciosa con el modelo EuroScore. Datos iniciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bernabeu

    2007-01-01

    Conclusiones: Aunque la muestra puede ser pequeña, tanto el modelo aditivo como el logístico del EuroScore predicen adecuadamente el riesgoen la endocarditis infecciosa. Se necesita un volumen superior para confirmar estos resultados iniciales.

  15. LE CARCINOME ONCOCYTAIRE DE LA PAROTIDE : A PROPOS D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Après chirurgie, les récidives sont fréquentes. Le rôle de la radio- thérapie et de chimiothérapie est toujours controversé.Le pronostic est mauvais. Mots clés : Carcinome oncocytaire, parotide, chirurgie, radiothérapie. SUMMARY. Introduction : Oncocyticcarcinomais a rare salivary gland tumor. its management is not codified ...

  16. Acute neonatal parotid abscess: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreesh Kolekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute suppurative parotitis is uncommon in children and is very rare in neonates. Most common organism isolated is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a 15-day-old full-term breast-fed female neonate with left-sided acute parotid abscess. The baby presented with a left preauricular swelling, pain and redness. Pus was exuded from left Stensen's duct on compression of the gland externally. Early diagnosis and proper intravenous antibiotics are the keys to the treatment.

  17. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST MEASLES, PAROTIDITIS AND VITAMINOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Kharit; T.V. Chernyaeva; E.P. Nacharova; O.V. Goleva

    2007-01-01

    The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis). 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cel...

  18. Acute neonatal parotid abscess: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Shreesh; Chincholi, Tejas S.; Kshirsagar, Ashok; Porwal, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is uncommon in children and is very rare in neonates. Most common organism isolated is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a 15-day-old full-term breast-fed female neonate with left-sided acute parotid abscess. The baby presented with a left preauricular swelling, pain and redness. Pus was exuded from left Stensen's duct on compression of the gland externally. Early diagnosis and proper intravenous antibiotics are the keys to the treatment. PMID:28051052

  19. TERATOME MATURE DE LA PAROTIDE : A PROPOS D'UNE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le tératome de la parotide est une malformation tumorale vestigiale rare contenant des dérivés plus ou moins différenciés, des trois feuillets embryonnaires. A la lumière d'une nouvelle observation et des données de la littérature, on se propose de mettre l'accent sur les aspects cliniques, histologiques et thérapeutiques de ...

  20. Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma with Metastasis to the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Ling Loh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy that exhibits both mesenchymal and epithelial components. It is similar to nonmelanoma skin cancers in terms of risk and prognostic factors. However, these malignancies are known to have a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis, even with adequate resection margins. Here we report a case of metastatic cutaneous carcinosarcoma to the parotid gland and review the relevant literature.

  1. LE CARCINOME MUCOÉPIDERMOÏDE DE LA PAROTIDE : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16 juin 2006 ... INTRODUCTION. Le carcinome mucoépidermoïde représente 1 à 4% de l'en- semble des tumeurs parotidiennes. Il s'agit de la tumeur maligne la plus fréquente de la glande parotide. Il peut être observé à tout âge avec une égalité entre les 2 sexes. Il s'agit d'une tumeur à croissance lente avec une ...

  2. Estudio EPIFARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Morales A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN Los farmacéuticos comunitarios pueden ser un importante primer punto de contacto con los pacientes con disfunción eréctil (DE, pero hasta la fecha no hay ningún estudio sobre las características de los hombres que acuden a un farmacéutico solicitando consejo o tratamiento para la DE. OBJETIVO Caracterizar los perfiles de los hombres que solicitan tratamiento para la DE en la farmacia, con o sin receta de inhibidores de la fosfodiesterasa tipo 5 (iPDE5. MÉTODOS Entre septiembre y noviembre de 2008 se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal y multicéntrico en farmacias comunitarias de España. De aquellos hombres que solicitaban consejo o tratamiento para la DE, cada investigador reclutó un paciente que tenía receta médica de iPDE5 y otro que acudía sin receta médica. Los farmacéuticos del estudio completaron un cuestionario de datos demográficos, clínicos y conductuales del paciente, incluido el Cuestionario de salud sexual para varones (Sexual Health Inventory for Men. VARIABLES PRINCIPALES Características demográficas y respuestas a los cuestionarios. RESULTADOS 574 farmacéuticos seleccionaron a 1.147 pacientes, de los cuales 1.113 fueron incluidos en el análisis. No se observaron diferencias estadísticas entre los grupos en cuanto al peso, la hipertensión, la diabetes mellitus, la hipercolesterolemia, la dislipidemia, la depresión o el estrés. Tampoco se observaron diferencias estadísticas respecto a la gravedad de la DE (p = 0,7892 ni a la proporción de hombres sin DE en cada grupo (p = 0,5755. En ambos grupos, los pacientes habían presentado síntomas de DE durante una media de veintiséis meses antes de la primera consulta a un profesional sanitario. Para el 60,2% de los pacientes incluidos en el grupo sin receta, la visita a la farmacia fue la primera ocasión en la que habían hablado de su DE con un profesional sanitario, y el 50% de aquellos que habían hablado previamente de la DE lo hab

  3. Whole-brain Irradiation Field Design: A Comparison of Parotid Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Chia; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Jani, Ashish; Saraf, Anurag; Tai, Cheng-Hung; Lapa, Matthew E.; Andrew, Jacquelyn I.S.; Tiwari, Akhil; Saadatmand, Heva J.; Isaacson, Steven R.; Cheng, Simon K.; Wang, Tony J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) plays an important role in patients with diffusely metastatic intracranial disease. Whether the extent of the radiation field design to C1 or C2 affects parotid dose and risk for developing xerostomia is unknown. The goal of this study is to examine the parotid dose based off of the inferior extent of WBRT field to either C1 or C2. Patients treated with WBRT with either 30 Gy or 37.5 Gy from 2011 to 2014 at a single institution were examined. Parotid dose constraints were compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0615 nasopharyngeal carcinoma for a 33-fraction treatment: mean <26 Gy, volume constraint at 20 Gy (V20) < 20 cc, and dose at 50% of the parotid volume (D50) < 30 Gy. Biologically effective dose (BED) conversions with an α/β of 3 for normal parotid were performed to compare with 10-fraction and 15-fraction treatments of WBRT. The constraints are as follows: mean < BED 32.83 Gy, V15.76 (for 10-fraction WBRT) or V17.35 (for 15-fraction WBRT) < 20 cc, and D50 < BED 39.09 Gy. Nineteen patients treated to C1 and 26 patients treated to C2 were analyzed. Comparing WBRT to C1 with WBRT to C2, the mean left, right, and both parotids' doses were lower when treated to C1. Converting mean dose to BED 3 , the parotid doses were lower than BED 3 constraint of 32.83 Gy: left (30.12 Gy), right (30.69 Gy), and both parotids (30.32 Gy). V20 to combined parotids was lower in patients treated to C1. When accounting for fractionation of WBRT received, the mean corrected V20 volume was less than 20 cc when treating to C1. D50 for C1 was lower than C2 for the left parotid, right parotid, and both parotids. BED 3 conversion for the mean D50 of the left, right, and both parotids was less than 39.09 Gy. In conclusion, WBRT to C1 limits parotid dose, and parotid dose constraints are achievable compared with inferior border at C2. A possible mean parotid dose constraint with BED

  4. Whole-brain Irradiation Field Design: A Comparison of Parotid Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Chia; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Jani, Ashish; Saraf, Anurag; Tai, Cheng-Hung; Lapa, Matthew E.; Andrew, Jacquelyn I.S.; Tiwari, Akhil; Saadatmand, Heva J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, BNH B-11, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Isaacson, Steven R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, BNH B-11, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Cheng, Simon K., E-mail: sc3225@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, BNH B-11, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Wang, Tony J.C., E-mail: tjw2117@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, 622 West 168th Street, BNH B-11, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) plays an important role in patients with diffusely metastatic intracranial disease. Whether the extent of the radiation field design to C1 or C2 affects parotid dose and risk for developing xerostomia is unknown. The goal of this study is to examine the parotid dose based off of the inferior extent of WBRT field to either C1 or C2. Patients treated with WBRT with either 30 Gy or 37.5 Gy from 2011 to 2014 at a single institution were examined. Parotid dose constraints were compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0615 nasopharyngeal carcinoma for a 33-fraction treatment: mean <26 Gy, volume constraint at 20 Gy (V20) < 20 cc, and dose at 50% of the parotid volume (D50) < 30 Gy. Biologically effective dose (BED) conversions with an α/β of 3 for normal parotid were performed to compare with 10-fraction and 15-fraction treatments of WBRT. The constraints are as follows: mean < BED 32.83 Gy, V15.76 (for 10-fraction WBRT) or V17.35 (for 15-fraction WBRT) < 20 cc, and D50 < BED 39.09 Gy. Nineteen patients treated to C1 and 26 patients treated to C2 were analyzed. Comparing WBRT to C1 with WBRT to C2, the mean left, right, and both parotids' doses were lower when treated to C1. Converting mean dose to BED{sub 3}, the parotid doses were lower than BED{sub 3} constraint of 32.83 Gy: left (30.12 Gy), right (30.69 Gy), and both parotids (30.32 Gy). V20 to combined parotids was lower in patients treated to C1. When accounting for fractionation of WBRT received, the mean corrected V20 volume was less than 20 cc when treating to C1. D50 for C1 was lower than C2 for the left parotid, right parotid, and both parotids. BED{sub 3} conversion for the mean D50 of the left, right, and both parotids was less than 39.09 Gy. In conclusion, WBRT to C1 limits parotid dose, and parotid dose constraints are achievable compared with inferior border at C2. A possible mean parotid dose

  5. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Ying-Che

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  6. Parotidectomy for benign parotid tumors: An aesthetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.; Mostafa, A.; Rifaat, M.; Shallan, M.; Rabie, A.; Elzohairy, M.; Nabawi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) partial thickness muscle flap is among the various methods described to correct parotidectomy defects, but its indications and limitations are not clearly demonstrated in several reports. This study was done to test the aesthetic outcome of this method, its indications and limitations. The technique was combined with a face lift incision to further improve the outcome. Patients and methods: At the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt, 23 patients presenting with benign tumors underwent parotidectomy, 19 had superficial parotidectomy and four had total parotidectomy done. The superiorly based (SCM) muscle flap was used to correct the contour deformity. The aesthetic result was evaluated by assessing arid scoring the overall appearance of the scar, the degree of symmetry of the reconstructed parotid region and the site of the donor muscle to their contralateral normal sides. The overall aesthetic appearance was then calculated by the summation of the scores of the latter three parameters. Patients' satisfaction was assessed by patients' questionnaire. Result: The overall aesthetic appearance was good in 17 patients, and moderate in six patients. 16/23 patients had an overall deep satisfaction with the result. The residual hollowness of the parotid following reconstruction of the total parotidectomy defect and the poor quality of scars were the main reasons affecting the aesthetic outcome. Conclusion: Superficial parotidectomy through facelift incision with immediate reconstruction with superiorly based partial thickness SCM flap allows adequate resection of most benign parotid tumors with a satisfactory aesthetic outcome and minimal donor site morbidity

  7. CT findings of parotid gland tumors: benign versus malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon Ok; Han, Chun Hwan; Kim, Mie Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Kyung Joo; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jeung Sook

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of parotid gland tumors to help in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The CT findings of 22 patients with surgically proven parotid gland tumors were reviewed. Analysis was focused on the density and margin characteristics of the tumors, and the relationship between the tumor and surrounding structures. Those tumors were pleomorphic adenoma (n = 8), Warthin's tumor (n = 5), basal cell adenoma (n = 1), lipoma (n = 1), dermoid cyst (n = 1), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 2), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n 1), epidermoid carcinoma (n = 1), and carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma (n 1). Most of benign and malignant tumors were heterogeneous in density on contrast enhanced CT scans. In 5 of 6 malignant cases, the tumors had irregular or ill-defined margin and a tendancy to involve or cross the superficial layer of deep cervical fascia with obliteration of subcutaneous fat. Two malignant tumors invaded surrounding structures. Although the heterogeneous density of tumor is not a specific finding for malignancy at CT, following findings, such as, irregular or blurred margin of the lesion, the involvement of fascial plane, and the infiltration of surrounding structures may suggest the possibility of malignant parotid tumor

  8. Warthin's Tumor of the Parotid Gland: CT and MR Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Hee; Yu, In Kyu; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Min Sun; Han, Moon Hee; Song, Chang Joon

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the imaging features of Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland with the use of CT and MR imaging. CT (n = 30) and MR (n = 7) images of 26 patients (M:F=23:3; age range, 38-76 years; mean age, 58 years) with surgically-proven Warthin's tumor (n = 37) were reviewed with a focus on bilaterality, multiplicity, location, size, demarcation, margin, enhancement pattern and MR signal intensity. Lesions were bilateral in seven patients (27%), multiple in nine patients (35%) and unilateral multiple in four patients (15%). Tumors were located in the superficial lobe (65%), deep lobe (24%) and both lobes (11%) of the parotid gland. Most tumors had a clear (95%) and smooth margin (95%) with a round or oval shape. Tumors mainly showed a solid and cystic composition (n = 24, 65%) and all solid stroma showed poor or weak enhancement on both CT and MR images. Papillary projections from the peripheral wall were clearly seen (n = 6, 86%). Warthin's tumor is frequently seen in the parotid superficial lobe of older males with a higher bilateral and multiple tendency. Warthin's tumor shows cystic portions with papillary projections at the wall on CT images and focal high signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted images with dense nodular enhancement on MR images

  9. Parotid gland function following accelerated and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, M.D.; Dische, S.

    1991-01-01

    The function of parotid glands in patients treated by 3 different schedules of radiotherapy was studied 9 months or more after its conclusion. All had received radiotherapy for a malignancy confined to 1 side of the head and neck region and only the gland on the side of the lesion was in the treatment volume; the contralateral gland acted as an internal control. Saliva was selectively collected from the parotid glands and the stimulated flow rate and pH of the saliva determined. Flow rates were expressed in each case as a percentage of that of the contralateral ('untreated') gland. Twelve glands that had received conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 60-66 Gy showed a mean percentage flow of 20 percent and a significant fall in the pH of the saliva produced. Six glands that had received CHART (Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated RadioTherapy) and 8 conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a dose of 35-40 Gy showed mean percentage flows of 57 and 65 percent respectively, with only slight and non-significant falls in saliva pH. The results show that in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck the use of CHART can lead to considerable less late change in the function of the parotid gland. (author). 26 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Structural differences between alcoholic and diabetic parotid sialosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Carmen; Carranza, Miriam; Arriaga, Adriana; Díaz, Anselmo; Peydró, Amando; Gomez de Ferraris, Maria Elsa

    2005-01-01

    Between the sialosis' etiologic agents, we can find the chronic alcoholism and diabetes. Both nosologic entities are described using a similar histopathologic pattern. The purpose of this work has been analyzing and comparing the histopathological differences between the diabetic and alcoholic sialosis. We studied 7 parotid glands samples of diabetic patients and 4 samples of normal glands obtained from surgical material were used as a control. For the comparative study, we used 12 parotid glands from chronic alcoholic patients with clinical diagnosis of cirrhosis and 6 autopsies on individuals who had died from alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis. This material was fixed in formaline, processed for embedding in paraffin, standard coloration techniques and immunotechnique for cytokeratin EA/1 y EA/3. In the cases of diabetics, the parotid gland was characterised by the presence of small acini, a bigger number of lipid intracytoplasmic droplets in the acinar and ductal cells, as well as an abundant adipose infiltration in the stroma when compared to the alcoholics. We observed that the cytokeratins' expression was heterogeneous at the acinar level, and very positive in the hyperplasic ducts, compared to the alcoholic and control groups. These qualitative valorations indicate the differences between the histopathologic pattern of sialosis with different origins.

  11. Evaluation of ultrasound in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parotid gland

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate accuracy and usefulness of sonography and choose it as preliminary investigation method in pathologic processes of parotid gland, 50 patients were studied in duration of 16 months. The lesions were evaluated with ultrasound and sonographic images were obtained before surgery and then were compared with pathologic results after surgery. All lesions were detected with sonography. This method could differentiate intraglandular from extraglandular lesions with accuracy of 100%. Except one case of lipomatosis which was hyperechoic, all other lesions of parotid gland were hypoechoic. All lesions with sharp and well-defined borders were benign whereas malignant processes had ill-defined borders. The results obtained show that sonography is a reliable diagnostic method to differentiate benign from malignant lesions and it has a high diagnostic value to detect warthin's tumor, plemorphic adenoma, Sjogren's syndrome and lipomatosis. Presence of calcification in a parotid mass of young patient with high probabye is related to cavernous hemangioma.

  12. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tadao K.; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuri, Takashi; Takasu, Kosho; Tsubura, Airo; Shikata, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH) is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected. PMID:25580104

  13. Multifocal Adenomatous Oncocytic Hyperplasia of the Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kinoshita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia (MAOH is a non-neoplastic lesion that is classified as oncocytosis. MAOH is a rare entity of the parotid gland and accounts for approximately 0.1% of salivary gland lesions. Here, we report a case of MAOH of the parotid gland. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who presented with discomfort at the left side of her neck. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the parotid gland revealed a loose sheet-like cluster of round to polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm against a hemorrhagic background. The cells had round to oval, centrally located nuclei with granular chromatin and without distinct nucleoli. Histologically, the lesion was formed of many variable-sized nodules, comprising oncocyte-like cells with small round nuclei and eosinophilic granular cytoplasm that was positive for mitochondrial antibodies. The diagnosis of MAOH is difficult to make by cytology alone, because the findings overlap with those of other oncocytic lesions. In particular, the cytological findings of MAOH have not been sufficiently reported to date. A correlation of cytology and histology was expected.

  14. Linfoma tipo MALT de la glándula parótida Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frómeta Neira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los linfomas tipo MALT (tejido linfoideo asociado a mucosa, constituyen la variedad más recientemente descubierta de los linfomas no Hodgkin, tienen lugar fundamentalmente en la mucosa gástrica asociados a infección por Helycobacter pylori, y en la glándula tiroides en relación con la tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Sin embargo, internacionalmente se han descrito casos en glándulas salivales asociados a linfoadenitis. La naturaleza de la lesión a menudo no puede ser determinada solo por el estudio citológico; se hace necesario el análisis histopatológico para el diagnóstico definitivo en la mayoría de los casos. El presente estudio muestra un paciente masculino con aumento de volumen bilateral de ambas glándulas parótidas y diagnóstico citohistopatológico de un proceso linfoepitelial benigno, el cual desarrolló un linfoma tipo MALT en relación con la glándula parótida derecha.The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland.

  15. Complicaciones neurológicas de la endocarditis infecciosa: controversias Neurological complications of infective endocarditis: controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En la endocarditis infecciosa aguda se describen complicaciones neurológicas entre 20% y 40% de los casos, lo cual representa un importante factor que predice morbimortalidad, secuelas y discapacidad. Esta entidad se caracteriza por un amplio espectro clínico debido a su compleja fisiopatología, que involucra entre otros, fenómenos inflamatorios, inmunes, infecciosos y embólicos. A pesar de la notable frecuencia de las complicaciones neurológicas en la endocarditis infecciosa, dadas especialmente por enfermedad cerebrovascular y neuroinfecciones, aun existen controversias acerca de algunos aspectos diagnósticos y terapéuticos, en parte por la poca evidencia disponible, las cuales se discuten a continuación, a partir de una serie de casos atendidos en la Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia.Neurological complications of acute infective endocarditis are described in 20%-40% of cases, representing an important predictive factor of morbidity, mortality, sequels and disability. Acute endocarditis is characterized by a wide clinical spectrum due to its complex physiopathology that involves inflammatory, immune, infectious and embolic phenomena. Despite the remarkable frequency of neurological complications in the infective endocarditis especially by cerebrovascular disease and neuroinfections, there are still some controversies about some diagnostic and therapeutic aspects, partly because of the little evidence available. This paper describes a number of cases seen in the Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia and discusses some aspects related with the diagnosis and treatment of the neurological complications of acute endocarditis.

  16. PREVALENCIA DE BACTERIAS ASOCIADAS A LA INFERTILIDAD INFECCIOSA EN BOVINOS DE MONTERÍA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer la prevalencia de algunos gérmenes asociados con infertilidad infecciosa de bovinos del municipio de Montería. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 384 muestras sanguíneas e igual número de hisopados cervicales de hembras que cumplieron con alguno de los siguientes criterios de inclusión: más de tres servicios sin concepción, vaginitis, cervicitis, metritis, endometritis, útero con contenido, momificación fetal, natimortos, reabsorciones embrionarias, antecedentes de abortos y/o hembras positivas a brucelosis. Las muestras cervicales se sembraron en agar Mc conkey, agar sangre, agar brucella y agar campylobacter. A las colonias sospechosas se le realizaron pruebas bioquímicas y la confirmación se llevó a cabo con pruebas serológicas. Para el serodiagnóstico de Brucella, los sueros fueron analizados por Rosa de Bengala y los positivos fueron confirmados con ELISA indirecta. Resultados. De las 384 muestras procesadas, hubo crecimiento en 281 (73,2%, las bacterias prevalentes fueron Escherichia coli, Bacilos Gram Negativos Oxidantes, Klepsiella spp y Pseudomonas spp, que correspondieron a 194 (69.1% aislamientos y cinco muestras equivalentes al 1.8% resultaron positivas para Campylobacter spp. Las pruebas serológicas para Brucella arrojaron como resultado 22 muestras positivas por ELISA (6.3%. Conclusiones. Los resultados de este trabajo describen de forma preliminar la posible asociación bacteriana en la infertilidad infecciosa en hembras vacunas, demostrando la presencia de una gran variedad de microorganismos.

  17. World Health Day 1997: emerging infectious diseases Día Mundial de la Salud 1997: enfermedades infecciosas emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Para el Día Mundial de la Salud de 1997, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS ha elegido el tema "Enfermedades infecciosas emergentes; alerta mundial, respuesta mundial" con el fin de llamar la atención hacia la amenaza que representan algunas enfermedades infecciosas recientemente reconocidas en seres humanos y otras que han vuelto a aparecer. En la emergencia y reemergencia de enfermedades infecciosas intervienen factores como el deterioro de la infraestructura de salud pública, la creciente resistencia microbiana a los antibióticos y los cambios sociales y ecológicos asociados con el crecimiento de la población humana. La OMS ha hecho hincapié en la necesidad de que se compromentan a entrar juntos en acción tanto países como organizaciones internacionales, organizaciones no gubernamentales e individuos, con objeto de mejorar la vigilancia de las enfermedades y la capacidad de controlarlas para prevenir y refrenar las epidemias. Por su parte, la OMS está reforzando su sistema de vigilancia mundial tripartito, que consta de los centros de colaboración de la OMS en el área de enfermedades infecciosas, las redes de monitoreo de resistencia antimicrobiana y el Reglamento Sanitario Internacional. Para hacer frente adecuadamente al problema de las enfermedades infecciosas durante el siglo próximo, se necesitarán programas de vigilancia y control; redes mundiales de monitoreo y notificación; rápido intercambio de información por vía electrónica (incluida la World Wide Web; y un estado de preparación efectivo con la capacidad para responder rápidamente a las epidemias y contenerlas.

  18. Morbilidad y mortalidad en el servicio de hospitalización del Departamento de enfermedades infecciosas, tropicales y dermatológicas del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia entre 1990 - 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamudio Fuertes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la demografía, e identificar la morbilidad más frecuente y las tasas de mortalidad de la unidad de enfermedades infecciosas en un hospital de referencia, público y docente, localizado en el norte de Lima-Perú. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo donde se incluyeron todas las hospitalizaciones del Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Tropicales y Dermatológicas del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, entre enero de 1990 y diciembre del 2000. Se registraron los datos demográficos, las fechas de ingreso y de alta, todos los diagnósticos, y la condición al alta. Los diagnósticos fueron codificados según la Novena Revisión de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-9. Resultados: De 7192 hospitalizaciones registradas, 4603 (64% fueron de pacientes varones, la edad media fue 39.2 ±19 años. Las hospitalizaciones prácticamente se duplicaron (de 440 a 817 durante el periodo en estudio. La edad media aumentó de 36.6 ±16.1 años a 41 ± 19.9 años, las hospitalizaciones de pacientes geriátricos aumentó de 11.8% a 21.3%, y la relación VIH/ no VIH aumentó de 0.07 a 0.25. El índice de rotación de cama aumentó de 12.2 a 22.7. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron: VIH 1209 (10.2%, tuberculosis 1201 (10.1%, celulitis 653 (5.5% y neumonía 651 (5.5%. La mortalidad hospitalaria durante el estudio fue de 8.1%, manteniéndose en promedio constante. Conclusiones: Se observó un aumento en el número de hospitalizaciones, especialmente debido a pacientes geriátricos, sin encontrarse cambios en las tasas de mortalidad. Tuberculosis y VIH fueron los diagnósticos más frecuentes en este estudio. (Rev Med Hered 2004; 15:181-187.

  19. The radioimmunoassay of biologically active compounds in parotid fluid and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.F.; Read, G.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.

    1978-01-01

    Parotid fluid collection is a simple stress-free procedure. The potential value of parotid fluid estimations of clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, d-norgestrel, a synthetic contraceptive steroid and cortisol have been evaluated for assessment of clinical status and patient compliance. These compounds circulate bound largely to plasma proteins. Their concentration in parotid fluid, which reflects the non-protein bound fraction, is low but assay sensitivity (10, 1 and 30 pg/tube respectively) is adequate. Excellent agreement (r>0.9) was observed when parotid fluid samples were assayed with and without chromatographic purification. Clomipramine levels following oral dosage (150 mg) rose steadily to a maximum in plasma but showed wide fluctuations in parotid fluid. Clomipramine therapy can only be assessed by plasma assays, but patient compliance may be checked by parotid fluid concentrations. Following an oral dose of d-norgestrel (0.3 mg), parotid fluid levels rose steadily to a maximum but plasma response was biphasic making correlation impossible. The sensitivity and high throughput of the d-norgestrel methodology suggests its use in evaluating patient compliance in large-scale fertility control programmes. Changes in circulating cortisol concentrations were rapidly and accurately reflected in parotid fluid in normal volunteers. Parotid fluid cortisol showed a marked diurnal rhythm, suppression to low levels after dexamethasone, and elevation following Synacthen. Low levels after Synacthen stimulation in a patient with secondary adrenal atrophy and constant high levels in Cushingoid patients indicate that parotid fluid cortisol levels could be used for accurate adrenocortical evaluation. The value in rapid screening procedures is stressed since the assay can be performed directly on only 10 μl of parotid fluid. (author)

  20. Horner’s syndrome associated with parotid duct obstruction in a sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Loste, Araceli; Ramos, Juan J.; Ferrer, Luis M.; Climent, Salvador; Latre, María V.

    2006-01-01

    A 9-year old, Rasa Aragonesa ewe was presented with a left-sided, facial, soft fluctuant swelling. The postmortem examination showed grass awns filling the entire length of the parotid gland duct. The presence of parotid duct obstruction with Horner’s syndrome, previously unreported in sheep, is discussed.

  1. Texture analysis for the assessment of structural changes in parotid glands induced by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalco, Elisa; Fiorino, Claudio; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: During radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer, parotid glands undergo significant anatomic, functional and structural changes which could characterize pre-clinical signs of an increased risk of xerostomia. Texture analysis is proposed to assess structural changes of parotids induced by RT, and to investigate whether early variations of textural parameters (such as mean intensity and fractal dimension) can predict parotid shrinkage at the end of treatment. Material and methods: Textural parameters and volumes of 42 parotids from 21 patients treated with intensity-modulated RT for nasopharyngeal cancer were extracted from CT images. To individuate which parameters changed during RT, a Wilcoxon signed-rank test between textural indices (first and second RT week; first and last RT week) was performed. Discriminant analysis was applied to variations of these parameters in the first two weeks of RT to assess their power in predicting parotid shrinkage at the end of RT. Results: A significant decrease in mean intensity (1.7 HU and 3.8 HU after the second and last weeks, respectively) and fractal dimension (0.016 and 0.021) was found. Discriminant analysis, based on volume and fractal dimension, was able to predict the final parotid shrinkage (accuracy of 71.4%). Conclusion: Textural features could be used in combination with volume to characterize structural modifications on parotid glands and to predict parotid shrinkage at the end of RT

  2. An intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors using Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bing; Wen, Zhining; Li, Yi; Li, Longjiang; Xue, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of parotid gland tumors is difficult, but is important for their surgical management. In order to explore an intraoperative diagnostic method, Raman spectroscopy is applied to detect the normal parotid gland and tumors, including pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin’s tumor and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In the 600–1800 cm −1 region of the Raman shift, there are numerous spectral differences between the parotid gland and tumors. Compared with Raman spectra of the normal parotid gland, the Raman spectra of parotid tumors show an increase of the peaks assigned to nucleic acids and proteins, but a decrease of the peaks related to lipids. Spectral differences also exist between the spectra of parotid tumors. Based on these differences, a remarkable classification and diagnosis of the parotid gland and tumors are carried out by support vector machine (SVM), with high accuracy (96.7∼100%), sensitivity (93.3∼100%) and specificity (96.7∼100%). Raman spectroscopy combined with SVM has a great potential to aid the intraoperative diagnosis of parotid tumors and could provide an accurate and rapid diagnostic approach. (paper)

  3. Geometric factors influencing dosimetric sparing of the parotid glands using IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Jackson, Andrew; Narayana, Ashwatha; Lee, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the relationship between the parotid volume, parotid-planning target volume (PTV) overlap, and dosimetric sparing of the parotid with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Parotid data were collected retrospectively for 51 patients treated with simultaneous boost IMRT. Unresectable patients received 54 or 59.4 Gy to subclinical disease, 70 Gy to gross disease. Patients treated postoperatively received 54, 60, and 66 Gy to low-risk, high-risk, and tumor bed regions. Volume and mean dose of each gland and gland segments outside of and overlapping the PTV were collected. Proximity of each gland to each PTV was recorded. Results: Dosimetric sparing (mean dose ≤26.5 Gy) was achieved in 66 of 71 glands with ≤21% parotid-PTV overlap and 8 of 23 glands with >21% overlap (p = 21%. Median mean dose was 25.9 Gy to glands overlapping PTV 54 or PTV 59 alone and 30.0 Gy to those abutting PTV 7 (p 7 was associated with higher parotid dose, satisfactory sparing was achieved in 24 of 43 ipsilateral glands. Conclusions: Dosimetric sparing of the parotid is feasible when the parotid-PTV overlap is less than approximately 20%. With more overlap, sparing may result in low doses within the overlap region, possibly leading to inadequate PTV coverage. Gland proximity to the high-dose PTV is associated with higher mean dose but does not always preclude dosimetric sparing

  4. The radioimmunoassay of biologically active compounds in parotid fluid and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.F.; Read, G.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential value of parotid fluid estimations of clomipramine, d-norgestrel, and cortisol have been evaluated for assessment of clinical status and patient compliance. Excellent agreement (r > 0.9) was observed when parotid fluid samples were assayed with and without chromatographic purification. Clomipramine levels following oral dosage (150mg) rose steadily to a maximum in plasma but showed wide fluctuations in parotid fluid. Following an oral dose of d-norgestrel(0.3mg), parotid fluid levels rose steadily to a maximum but plasma response was biphasic making correlation impossible. The sensitivity and high throughput of the d-norgestrel methodology suggests its use in evaluating patient compliance in large scale fertility control programmes. Changes in circulating cortisol concentrations were rapidly and accurately reflected in parotid fluid in normal volunteers. Parotid fluid cortisol showed a market diurnal rythm, suppression to low levels after dexamethasone, and elevation following Synacthen. Low levels after Synacthen stimulation in a patient with secondary adrenal atrophy and constant high levels in Cushingoid patients indicate that parotid fluid cortisol levels could be used for accurate adrenocortical evaluation. The value in rapid screening procedures is stressed since the assay can be performed directly on only 10μl of parotid fluid. (orig./AJ) [de

  5. Unilateral parotid concentration of radiogallium: Comparison with bilateral uptake and with pertechnetate imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, H.A.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-12-01

    Unilateral parotid accumulation of radioactivity was noted in 4 elderly (80-95 years) patients after intravenous administration of /sup 67/Ga citrate. In 2 of these individuals, it was possible to carry out pertechnetate salivary gland imaging. The involved glands were functional in terms of pertechnetate accumulation, although no drainage was noted after lemon stimulation. A retrospective analysis of 72 radiogallium studies failed to show unilateral parotid uptake in any of them. However, ten cases (14%) had bilateral parotid accumulation of radiogallium. Probable causes of the bilateral parotid concentration of /sup 67/Ga were discussed. These were compared with poor oral hygiene and dehydration as possible contributing factors to unilateral parotid radiogallium concentration in the elderly.

  6. Unilateral parotid concentration of radiogallium: Comparison with bilateral uptake and with pertechnetate imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, H.A.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Unilateral parotid accumulation of radioactivity was noted in 4 elderly (80-95 years) patients after intravenous administration of 67 Ga citrate. In 2 of these individuals, it was possible to carry out pertechnetate salivary gland imaging. The involved glands were functional in terms of pertechnetate accumulation, although no drainage was noted after lemon stimulation. A retrospective analysis of 72 radiogallium studies failed to show unilateral parotid uptake in any of them. However, ten cases (14%) had bilateral parotid accumulation of radiogallium. Probable causes of the bilateral parotid concentration of 67 Ga were discussed. These were compared with poor oral hygiene and dehydration as possible contributing factors to unilateral parotid radiogallium concentration in the elderly. (orig.) [de

  7. CT-diagnosis for mass lesions in the parotid gland and cervical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Fumihiko; Taniguchi, Satomi; Horii, Masaru; Suzuki, Shigemi; Shiba, Yuko

    1982-01-01

    Thirty patients suffering from mass lesion in the parotid gland or cervical region were examined by computed tomography (CT). The photographed images were compared with the findings and pathological diagnoses obtained by surgical procedures. The conclusions were as follows: 1) Plain CT demonstrated the location of the parotid tumor. Contrast enhancement seemed to delineate the margin of the tumor more clearly. 2) By contrast enhancement, the branchiogenic cyst was differentiated from the parotid tumor, as a low density mass with an enhanced cyst wall. 3) Parotid tumors enhanced by contrast material did not always appear as solid tumors. 4) In some cases, CT numbers indicated the contents of the tumor. 5) The extension of the tumor to the parapharyngeal space was clearly depicted on CT. 6) It seemed to be difficult to evaluate the relationship of the parotid tumor to the facial nerve on plain CT. (author)

  8. Two cases of cystic lesions in the parotid region diagnosed by CT sialogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Masahiko; Ukai, Kotaro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yasuro; Itoh, Yukiko; Kohdera, Urara; Taki, Norio; Furukawa, Yuichi.

    1985-01-01

    This is a case report of two patients with cystic lesions in the parotid region. The diagnostic value of CT sialogram is discussed. A 62-year-old male had a swelling in the left parotid region which felt cystic on manual palpation. A CT sialogram clearly demonstrated a cystic mass superficial to the parotid gland. Histologically, the mass was an epidermoid cyst. A 9-year-old male had pain and swelling in the right parotid region which was not reduced by antibiotic therapy. An extraparotid abscess was diagnosed by CT sialogram 14 days after the onset. CT sialogram is effective in differentiating intrinsic from extrinsic parotid lesions and also shows the relationship of the tumor mass to the facial nerve and helps to differentiate between benign and malignant neoplasms. (author)

  9. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the parotid gland associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, P; Ben Slama, L; Goudot, P; Schouman, T

    2017-02-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign inflammatory lesion involving most frequently the minor salivary gland of the hard palate. Involvement of the parotid gland is rare, involvement of the parotid gland associated with facial palsy is exceptional. A 56-year-old male patient with Marfan syndrome presented with swelling and inflammation of the left parotid gland associated with progressively complete facial nerve paralysis. CT scan and MRI showed a parotid collection with hyper signal of the nearest tissues associated with erosion of the styloid process. A malignant tumor was suspected. The histological examination of a biopsy showed a lobulocentric process with necrosis, squamous metaplasia, and inflammation. The immunohistochemical examination supported a final diagnosis of necrotizing sialometaplasia. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the parotid gland associated with facial nerve paralysis presents like a malignant neoplasm, both clinically and histologically. Only advanced immunohistochemical examination can really confirm the diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. CT-diagnosis for mass lesions in the parotid gland and cervical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, F.; Taniguchi, S.; Horii, M.; Suzuki, S.; Shiba, Y. (Kobe Central Municipal Hospital (Japan))

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients suffering from mass lesion in the parotid gland or cervical region were examined by computed tomography (CT). The photographed images were compared with the findings and pathological diagnoses obtained by surgical procedures. The conclusions were as follows: 1) Plain CT demonstrated the location of the parotid tumor. Contrast enhancement seemed to delineate the margin of the tumor more clearly. 2) By contrast enhancement, the branchiogenic cyst was differentiated from the parotid tumor, as a low density mass with an enhanced cyst wall. 3) Parotid tumors enhanced by contrast material did not always appear as solid tumors. 4) In some cases, CT numbers indicated the contents of the tumor. 5) The extension of the tumor to the parapharyngeal space was clearly depicted on CT. 6) It seemed to be difficult to evaluate the relationship of the parotid tumor to the facial nerve on plain CT.

  11. Facial Nerve Morbidity Following Surgery for Benign Parotid Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M. A.; Suhail, Z.; Zafar, A.; Malik, S.; Mirza, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and severity of facial nerve dysfunction following surgery for benign parotid gland tumours. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, Karachi Medical and Dental College and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Ziauddin University Hospital, from 1990 to 2010. Methodology: Data was collected of all patients who were surgically managed for benign parotid tumours from 1990 to 2010. Data was reviewed for presentation of tumour, age and gender of the patient, site of tumour, nature and morphology of the tumour, primary or recurrent, surgical procedure adopted and the complications of the surgery especially the facial nerve dysfunction, its severity, complete or partial paresis and transient or permanent and time of recovery. Results were described as frequency percentages. Results: Out of 235 patients, 159 (67.65%) were female and 76 (32.35%) were male. Age ranged from 18 to 70 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common tumour (n=194, 82.6%), followed by Warthin's tumour. Superficial parotidectomy was done in 188 cases and extended parotidectomy in 47 cases. In the immediate postoperative period facial nerve function was normal in 169 (72%) patients and nerve dysfunction was observed in 66 (28%) patients. Complete paresis involving all the branches of facial nerve was seen in 25 (10.6%) patients and 41 (17.4%) patients were having incomplete dysfunction. Of these, 62 (26.3%) recovered and 04 (1.7%) had permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was involved in 57 (86.3%) cases. Conclusion: The frequency of temporary and permanent facial nerve dysfunction was 26.3% and 1.7% respectively in 235 consecutive parotidectomies for benign parotid gland tumours. Higher frequency of facial nerve dysfunction was found in recurrent and deep lobe tumours. (author)

  12. Ecologia e Doenças Infecciosas: Um Perfil Nacional dos Grupos de Pesquisa do CNPQ

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    Rafaela Rodrigues Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Procurando entender se incorporação da abordagem ecológica em pesquisas sobre meio ambiente-animal-doença-saúde vem ocorrendo na construção do conhecimento no campo da saúde ambiental, voltado para a investigação sobre doenças resultantes das relações e inter-relações entre seres humanos, animais, ecossistemas e ações antrópicas, o presente artigo traz uma discussão acerca da ecologia das doenças infecciosas, apresentando, em seguida, um quadro nacional da pesquisa voltada para esta temática, construído a partir de um levantamento realizado no Diretório de Grupos de Pesquisa do CNPQ. Por meio deste procuramos descrever e analisar o perfil  dos grupos de pesquisa que trabalham com doenças resultantes das relações e inter-relações entre seres humanos, animais, ecossistemas e ações antrópicas, de modo a visualizar como tem se dado a participação da ciência ecológica nesta área. Pouco sabemos sobre a cultura epistêmica de construção do conhecimento no campo da saúde ambiental, voltado para a investigação sobre doenças resultantes das relações e inter-relações entre seres humanos, animais, ecossistemas e ações antrópicas. Dado o nível de complexidade desta realidade, entendemos que tal cultura de produção do conhecimento deva ser permeada por uma mentalidade de cooperação acadêmico–científico, tomando a ciência ecológica como parceira categórica. Como podemos observar na analise dos dados, ainda é baixa a participação da ciência ecológica em pesquisas empreendidas no campo da saúde ambiental, voltadas para doenças infecciosas, ao mesmo tempo em que se verifica uma concentração espacial desta produção, não se observando uma relação direta desta e as necessidades socioambientais territorialmente estabelecidas no país.

  13. Incidental benign parotid lesions on FDG-PET: prevalence and clinico-pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Il Han; Lee, Won Woo; Chung, Jin Haeng; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Incidental parotid lesions on F-18 FDG-PET can mimic distant metastasis of underlying malignancy. The prevalence and the clinico-pathologic findings of PET positive parotid lesions have not been known. We investigated how often incidental parotid lesions are found on clinical FDG-PET studies and what the clinico-pathologic characteristics of those parotid lesions are in the present study. We retrospectively reviewed 3,344 cases of FDG-PET which had been obtained in our hospital from May 2003 to Dec 2006. The indications of FDG-PET were: evaluation of known/suspected cancer (n = 3,212) or screening of cancer in healthy subjects (n = 132). Incidental parotid lesion on FDG-PET was defined as an un-expected FDG uptake in one of parotid glands which was not primary target lesion of current FDG/PET. FDG uptake was represented by maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV). Final diagnosis was made by pathologic analysis or clinical follow-up assessment. Fifteen (0.45% = 15/3,344) incidental parotid lesions were found and they were all benign lesions. The maxSUV ranged from 1.7 to 8.6 (mean ± s.d. = 3.7 ± 1.9). Final diagnoses of the incidental parotid lesions were; Warthin's tumor (n = 2), pleomorphic adenoma (n = 1), other un-specified benign lesion (n 1), and benign lesions under bases of imaging studies (n = 3) and of clinical follow-up (n = 8). All of incidentally found parotid lesions in clinical FDG-PET studies were confirmed as benign lesions with prevalence of 0.45%. Close follow up using PET or CT might be a reasonable approach for determining the nature of incidentally found parotid lesions

  14. Péptidos antimicrobianos en la inmunidad innata de enfermedades infecciosas Antimicrobial peptides in the innate immunity of infectious diseases

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    Bruno Rivas-Santiago

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Los péptidos antimicrobianos son moléculas efectoras clave en la inmunidad innata. Generalmente contienen de 15 a 45 residuos de aminoácidos y en su gran mayoría poseen carga positiva, además de que tienen la propiedad de ser anfipáticos. Estos péptidos son secretados por células epiteliales y leucocitos, como es el caso de los macrófagos y neutrófilos. En la actualidad, con base en la traducción de secuencias en programas computacionales se han descrito más de 800 tipos de péptidos antimicrobianos distribuidos en los reinos animal y vegetal. Estos péptidos pueden ser clasificados de acuerdo con su conformación estructural y la ubicación de sus puentes disulfuro. Las defensinas constituyen uno de los tipos de péptidos antimicrobianos más estudiados, y se dividen en dos familias de acuerdo con la ubicación de sus puentes disulfuro: alfa-defensinas y beta-defensinas. Algunas de estas defensinas pueden ser inducidas por citocinas proinflamatorias, así como por moléculas propias de patógenos, y se ha observado que están relacionadas con la inmunopatogenia de varias enfermedades. El papel principal de los péptidos antimicrobianos es la lisis directa de microorganismos; sin embargo, a la fecha también se han descrito propiedades quimiotácticas, que le permiten modular el sistema inmune y de esta forma constituir un puente entre la inmunidad innata y la inmunidad adaptativa. Actualmente se han iniciado estudios con la posibilidad de utilizar esta clase de moléculas como nuevos fármacos en diferentes tipos de enfermedades infecciosas.Antimicrobial peptides are key effector molecules of the innate immune response. Generally, they are formed by 14-45 aminoacid residues; most of them have a positive charge and amphipathic properties. These peptides are secreted mainly by epithelial cells, neutrophils and macrophages. Based on sequence translation using computer programs, more than 800 types of antimicrobial peptides have been

  15. Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra diarrea viral bovina, virus sincitial bovino, rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina, leucosis bovina, Neospora caninum, parainfluenza bovina (PI3 y paratuberculosis, en ganadería bovina de fincas ubicadas en Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Gálvis García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el área de la ganadería los problemas caracterizados por infertilidad, abortos, muerte embrionaria, crías con malformaciones neurológicas y físicas son de gran importancia, ya que hay múltiples etiologías y se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos a nivel mundial. Lo anterior ocasiona serias pérdidas económicas y afectando la exportación de carne de los bovinos debido a la restricción de normas de sanidad, donde se encuentran las enfermedades como diarrea viral bovina, rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina, leucosis bovina y Neospora caninum. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra diarrea viral bovina (DVB, virus sincitial respiratorio bovino (BRSV, virus de la rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina (IBR, leucosis enzoótica bovina (BLV, N. caninum, Parainfluenza bovina (PI3 y paratuberculosis (ParaTBC, en bovinos de Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar. Materiales y métodos: Tipo de estudio: Descriptivo de corte transversal, se realizó en 27 fincas ubicadas en zona rural de los municipios de Aguachica y Rio de Oro, Cesar. El Tamaño de la muestra se estimó en 905 bovinos. De cada animal se tomó sangre por punción venosa de la vena coccígea en tubos sin anticoagulante mediante el uso de sistema de vacío Vacutainer®. Cada muestra fue etiquetada adecuadamente con los códigos de identificación asignada, las muestras se centrifugaron a 1500 rpm y se transportó al laboratorio en recipientes con hielo. Se realizó alícuotas en viales de 1,5 ml y se almacenaron a -20 ° C para su posterior procesamiento. Determinación de anticuerpos específicos: Las pruebas para detectar anticuerpos específicos fue mediante ensayo de inmunoabsorción enzimática (ELISA, de las casas comerciales INGEZIM (BRSV, DBV, BLV, N. caninum, IBR, PARACHEK 2 (ParaTBC y BIO-X DIAGNOSTIC (PI3. La validación de las pruebas se realizó mediante los respectivos controles positivos y negativos los cuales se procesaron por duplicado. Resultados

  16. Complicações infecciosas da ventrículo-auriculostomia

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    Gilberto M. Almeida

    1966-09-01

    Full Text Available De 184 pacientes submetidos à ventrículo-auriculostomia com a válvula de Holter, 39 apresentaram complicações infecciosas. Em 18 casos ficou demonstrada a existência de ependimite e/ou meningite e em 21 instalou-se o quadro da bacteremia. Apesar das complicações, a ventrículo-auriculostomia continua a ser a técnica cirúrgica mais usada no tratamento da hidrocefalia. Com melhor seleção dos casos, excluindo-se doentes com meningite recente ou com fistula liquórica, os resultados poderão ser melhores. Ainda não se conseguiu método seguro para abolir a contaminação operatória. Nos casos em que existe ependimite deve-se iniciar tratamento antibiótico intensivo, seguido de retirada do sistema de drenagem. Nos doentes com bacteremia apenas, a remoção da válvula e cateteres dependerá da gravidade do caso e da resposta ao tratamento com antibióticos e corticosteróides, podendo ser adiada por algum tempo. Quando a infecção é causada por germe reconhecidamente patogênico há maior gravidade, devendo-se retirar precocemente o sistema de drenagem.

  17. Saúde nas metrópoles - Doenças infecciosas

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    Aluisio Cotrim Segurado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A urbanização é um processo irreversível em escala mundial e estima-se que o número de pessoas que vivem em cidades deverá atingir 67% da população do planeta até 2050. Os países de baixa ou média renda, por sua vez, possuem 30% a 40% da população urbana vivendo atualmente em favelas, em situação de risco para diversos agravos de saúde. No Brasil, embora 84,3% da população residissem em áreas urbanas já em 2010, não se verificam no momento ações consistentes voltadas ao enfrentamento das questões de saúde urbana. Neste artigo discute-se a situação epidemiológica de agravos infecciosos de interesse para a saúde pública (dengue, infecção por HIV/aids, leptospirose, hanseníase e tuberculose a partir do ano 2000 nas 17 metrópoles do país, de modo a esclarecer o papel atual das doenças infecciosas no contexto da saúde urbana brasileira.

  18. CAMBIOS CLIMÁTICOS Y ENFERMEDADES INFECCIOSAS: NUEVOS RETOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS

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    Liliana Sánchez L, M.Sc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El Niño / Oscilación Sur (ENSO es el fenómeno mejor conocido que influye en la variabilidad del clima mundial en escalas de tiempo inter anuales. El término El Niño se refiere al fenómeno climático vinculado a un calentamiento periódico de las temperaturas superficiales del mar en la zona central y oriental del Pacífico ecuatorial central (aproximadamente entre la línea internacional y 120 grados de longitud oeste, y se refiere a veces como un episodio cálido del Pacífico. Lo contrario de lo que es La Niña, la fase fría del fenómeno ENSO. Debido al gran tamaño del Océano Pacífico, los cambios en los patrones de temperatura superficial del mar tienen gran influencia en la circulación atmosférica con efectos pronunciados en la precipitación tropical mundial y los patrones de temperatura. Se ha relacionado el ENSO con las anomalías climáticas y el incremento de las enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente las transmitidas por insectos, por lo que su conocimiento puede permitir ofrecer mejores predicciones a largo plazo de epidemias o epizootia.

  19. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA RINOTRAQUEITIS INFECCIOSA BOVINA EN EL MUNICIPIO DE MONTERÍA, COLOMBIA

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    César Betancur H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la sero prevalencia de IBR en ganado bovino con antecedentes de infertilidad.Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 150 muestras de sangre de hembras con antecedentes deinfertilidad y sin historia de vacunación contra IBR, pertenecientes a 32 fincas distribuidas en elmunicipio de Montería. Adicionalmente, se obtuvieron muestras al azar de 20 toros pertenecientesa las mismas fincas. Se analizaron anticuerpos contra IBR mediante la prueba de ELISA. Resultados.Los resultados mostraron una seroprevalencia de 74.7% para rinotraqueitis infecciosa bovina. Seencontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a prevalencía para las variables sexo y edad de losanimales (p0.05. Conclusión. La alta prevalencia de lainfección por IBR en vacas podrían correlacionarse con la infección en toros, lo cual tiene unsignificado relevante, ya que la infección es de transmisión venérea. Estos resultados deben alertara las autoridades sanitarias para que implementen estrategias de prevención y control.

  20. Moraxella bovoculi em casos de ceratoconjuntivite infecciosa bovina no Rio Grande do Sul

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    Felipe Libardoni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A ceratoconjuntivite infecciosa (CI, embora raramente fatal, resulta em perdas econômicas significativas para os rebanhos bovinos e ovinos. Os principais agentes causadores dessa enfermidade são Moraxella bovis e Moraxella ovis. Em 2007 foi descrita uma nova espécie também responsável pela CI e denominada Moraxella bovoculi, que até o presente momento, não havia sido relatada no Brasil. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho caracterizar e distinguir 54 isolados de Moraxella spp. de amostras clínicas oriundas de 34 bovinos e 17 ovinos, encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Bacteriologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria no período de 1990 a 2011, visando a identificação de M. bovoculi. A distinção dos isolados foi fundamentada nas características genotípicas, pela amplificação parcial da região intergênica 16S-23S e clivagem dos produtos da amplificação com enzima RsaI. Como resultados, 25 (46% isolados foram caracterizados como M. bovis, 17 (32% como M. ovis e 12 (22% como M. bovoculi. Logo, conclui-se que M. bovoculi encontra-se presente no rebanho bovino do Rio Grande do Sul e, portanto, no Brasil.

  1. Comportamiento de variables epidemiológicas en la neuropatía óptica inflamatoria infecciosa. Centro Oftalmológico de Holguín. 2009

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    Enma Estrella de la Torre-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordó un estudio descriptivo del comportamiento de algunas variables epidemiológicas en un universo de 18 pacientes con neuropatía óptica inflamatoria en el Centro Oftalmológico de Holguín de enero a diciembre de 2009. La muestra estuvo representada por 12 pacientes con etiología infecciosa. El mayor número de pacientes se incluyó en el grupo de edad de 15 a 29 años. Las ocupaciones de riesgo más frecuentes fueron los estudiantes, las amas de casa y criadores de palomas. Los perros, gatos y cerdos fueron los animales más frecuentes en contacto con los casos. La etiología parasitaria representó el grupo más frecuente como causa de la neuropatía y el agente que predominó fue Bartonella henselae. Se recomendó realizar estudios que incluyan confirmación serológica y/o del agente causal en este grupo de enfermedades.

  2. Ultrastructural morphometry of parotid acinar cells following fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grehn, A.-L.; Gustafsson, H.; Franzen, L.; Thornell, L.-E.; Henriksson, R.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects on the ultrastructure of parotid glands after fractionated irradiation. The method implemented involved 5 x 6 Gy and 5 x 8 Gy, Monday to Friday 6 MV photons. By unilateral irradiation, the contralateral parotid gland served as a control. Although irradiation diminished the acinar cell density in light microscopic sections from 75 to 32% after 5 x 8 Gy of irradiation, ultrastructural morphometry could not detect any statistically significant differences in acinar cell size, nuclear size, nuclear density, granule area, mean granule size, or granule density. In general, greater differences were seen between rats receiving 30 or 40 Gy, on both the irradiated and the control side, than between the irradiated side and the control side. This was interpreted as due to differences in the nutritional state of the animals. This analysis concluded that individual acinar cells that survive irradiation seem not to be damaged in the long term when evaluated at the ultrastructural level. The study further stresses the importance of adequate sampling sizes and the use of adequate controls. (author)

  3. Parotid duct laceration repair in two horses : case report

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    A. Olivier

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Repair of parotid duct lacerations in 2 horses is described using intraluminal silastic tubing as a stent. The duct was lacerated traumatically at the facial vessel notch (incisura vasorum facialium in the 1st horse, and iatrogenically after removal of an intraluminal sialolith after development of infection within the duct in the 2nd horse. In both cases, a silastic tube was passed retrograde into the duct via the salivary papilla, past the wound until the end lay rostroventral to the parotid salivary gland. The severed salivary ducts and the wounds were sutured. The external portion of the silastic tube was sutured to the skin and the tube left in place. Recovery in the 1st case was uneventful. In the 2nd case a salivary duct/cutaneous fistula formed at a wound distant from the sutured wound, which healed spontaneously. This technique differs from a similar described technique in that the stent tube exits the oral cavity and is attached to the outer skin surface.

  4. Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Parotid in a Teenager

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    Divya Khosla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA is a rare salivary gland neoplasm with an indolent course. It occurs primarily in the minor salivary glands but can rarely occur in the major salivary glands. It usually occurs in the fifth to seventh decades of life with female preponderance.   Case Report: A 16-year-old male presented with recurrent painless swelling in the right preauricular region and with a history of surgical intervention at the same site in the past. His histopathology report was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma. The swelling recurred after one year of excision and a superficial parotidectomy was performed. The detailed histopathological examination was suggestive of Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. In view of close margins, the patient was given adjuvant radiotherapy. Thirty-three months post-surgery, he is alive and disease-free. We describe a rare case of PLGA of the parotid gland in a teenager with its clinical characteristics, histopathological features, and treatment.   Conclusion: The occurrence of PLGA in the parotid gland is rare with only a few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of PLGA is challenging due to morphological diversity.

  5. Effect of ionizing radiation on rat parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boraks, George; Tampelini, Flavio Silva; Pereira, Kleber Fernando; Chopard, Renato Paulo [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. of Biomedical Sciences. Dept. of Anatomy]. E-mail: rchopard@usp.br

    2008-01-15

    A common side effect of radiotherapy used in the treatment of oral cancer is the occurrence of structural and physiological alterations of the salivary glands due to exposure to ionizing radiation, as demonstrated by conditions such as decreased salivary flow. The present study evaluated ultrastructural alterations in the parotid glands of rats receiving a fractionated dose (1,500-cGy) of radiation emitted by a Cesium-137 source and rats that were not subjected to ionizing radiation. After sacrifice, the parotid glands were removed and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Damage such as cytoplasmic vacuolisation, dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum and destruction of mitochondria, as well as damage to the cellular membrane of acinar cells, were observed. These findings lead to the conclusion that ionizing radiation promotes alterations in the glandular parenchyma, and that these alterations are directly related to the dose level of absorbed radiation. Certain phenomena that appear in the cytoplasm and nuclear material indicate that ionizing radiation causes acinar cell death (apoptosis). (author)

  6. Multiple Myopericytoma of the Face and Parotid Gland

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    Yun-Ik Jung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Myopericytoma is a benign tumor that is composed of myoid-appearing oval to spindle-shaped cells with a concentric perivascular pattern of growth. The tumor is morphologically heterogeneous and can exhibit a broad histologic spectrum. We describe a case of multiple myopericytoma occurring in the head and neck skin region with involvement of the parotid gland where it is known to occur very rarely. A 40-year-old woman noticed multiple enlarging, painless, round-shaped masses on her left cheek. The patient had experienced a similar lesion of the same area 8 years earlier which was completely excised and the pathological diagnosis was spindle cell type myoepithelioma. On a computed tomographic image, one mass involved the superficial parotid gland and was well encapsulated. Excision of the facial masses and superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation were performed. A diagnosis of myopericytoma was established in light of the immunohistochemical pattern with the histopathological findings. Over the 4-year follow-up period, there was no evidence of recurrence. As many perivascular myoid neoplasms share common morphologic features with myopericytoma, we should consider the differential diagnosis, and confirm the histological findings with appropriate immunohistochemical staining. After identifying myopericytoma, it should be treated with wide surgical excision to prevent local recurrence.

  7. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma parotid sparing with euivalent uiform dose optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Weiyou; Dai Jianrong; Gao Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an euivalent uiform dose (EUD) based optimization algorithm in sparing the parotids of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) when they are treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: 12 patients were randomly selected from the NPC patients who received IMRT treatments. For these patients, the treatment plans were designed with physical optimization constraints (dose/dose-volume constraints). Based on these plans, new plans were designed through replacing the physical constraints with maximum EUD for parotids, while keeping the physical objectives for targets and other organs at risk(OARs) unchanged. Comparison was then made between the new plan, which had EUD constraints to parotids, and the former for each individual patient. Results: While maintaining the dose to the targets and the other OARs un- changed, optimization with EUD constraints to parotids decreased the mean dose and V 30 of parotids significantly, simultaneously, the dose of target volume and other organs at risk keep stable, the values of probability were less than 0.05 by T-test. Conclusions: The doses to parotids can be reduced through optimization with EUD constraints. This finding is quite helpful to reduce the occurrence rate of parotid complications, and to provide spaces for escalating target dose. (authors)

  8. New models of experimental parotitis and parotid gland distension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A significant reduction of the escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the lateral facial skin was observed bilaterally at days 2 and 3 after unilateral complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) administration into parotid gland. A slight reduction of mechanical escape threshold was also observed in rats with saline administration. The parotid gland inflammation was verified and quantified by measuring the tissue Evans' blue dye extravasation. The Evans' blue concentration in the parotid gland tissues was significantly greater in the CFA-injected rats than that of the saline-injected rats at 72 h after treatment. On day 10 after CFA administration into the parotid gland, the Evans' blue concentration was recovered to the control level. The administration of capsaicin into the parotid gland did not alter neuronal activities in the transition zone between the trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis (Vi/Vc). In contrast, capsaicin administration induced significant increases in the receptive field size and mechanical and cold responses of neurons located in superficial laminae of the C1/C2. The subgroup of C1/C2 neurons responded to mechanical distension of the parotid gland, whereas no Vi/Vc neurons responded to parotid distension.

  9. Cell phone use and parotid salivary gland alterations: no molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabrício T A; Correia-Silva, Jeane F; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Siqueira, Elisa C; Duarte, Alessandra P; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2014-07-01

    The association between cell phone use and the development of parotid tumors is controversial. Because there is unequivocal evidence that the microenvironment is important for tumor formation, we investigated in the parotid glands whether cell phone use alters the expression of gene products related to cellular stress. We used the saliva produced by the parotid glands of 62 individuals to assess molecular alterations compatible with cellular stress, comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to the saliva from the opposite, unexposed parotid gland (contralateral) of each individual. We compared salivary flow, total protein concentration, p53, p21, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salivary levels of glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins 27 and 70, and IgA between the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids. No difference was found for any of these parameters, even when grouping individuals by period of cell phone use in years or by monthly average calls in minutes. We provide molecular evidence that the exposure of parotid glands to cell phone use does not alter parotid salivary flow, protein concentration, or levels of proteins of genes that are directly or indirectly affected by heat-induced cellular stress. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Isolated Light Chain Amyloidosis Involving the Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareb, Barzi; Perry, Michael; Tadrous, Paul Joseph

    2018-03-08

    Amyloidosis in the parotid gland is rare and is usually associated with systemic amyloidosis. Localized amyloidosis in the parotid gland is extremely rare. We present a case of localized light chain amyloidosis of the parotid gland without systemic involvement. A 70-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic swelling of the right parotid region. The findings of a physical examination, hematologic and biochemical investigations, imaging, and cytology were inconclusive. The patient underwent an extracapsular dissection of the right parotid gland. Histologic analysis showed that the tissue of the right parotid gland mostly consisted of amyloid deposition. The amyloid stained with antibodies to lambda light chains. Additional investigations showed no systemic involvement. The patient is asymptomatic 5 months after surgery. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of localized amyloid light chain amyloidosis in the parotid gland, especially if magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography imaging, and ultrasound findings are inconclusive, and they should recognize, evaluate, and treat it accordingly. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  11. Position modification and actual radiation dose in parotids for head and neck cancers treated with TomoTherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Huayong; Zhang Yongqian; Wang Yadi; Xu Weidong; Gao Junmao; Zhang Fuli; Yao Bo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the impact of parotid's position and volume changing on radiation dose for head and neck cancer treated with TomoTherapy. Methods: Totally 12 patients with head and neck cancer were treated with TomoTherapy. Before the treatment, the dose distribution was recalculated with MVCT images, which would obtain the parameters of position, volume and actual radiation dose for parotids. Results: The volume of parotids in Plan2 was significantly lower than in Plan1, and the percentage reduction was 29.06% and 31.78% for left and right parotid, respectively (Z = 6.77, 3.06, P < 0.05). Distance between the COM(center of mass) of parotids and the midline of body was significantly smaller in Plan2 than in Plan1, and the percentage reduction was 6.72% and 6.19% (t = 5.14, 5.80, P < 0.05) at left and right side, respectively. Average dose and V_2_6 for both parotids were higher than those in Plan1, increasing by an average of 37.74%, 25.08% (Z = -6.03, -5.31, P < 0.05) for left parotid and 30.45%, 19.33% (Z = -5.43, -3.26, P < 0.05) for right parotid, respectively. Conclusions: The actual radiation dose to parotids was significantly increased during the radiation therapy for patients with head and neck cancer. There was a linear correlation between the decrease of distance between the COM of parotids and the midline of body and the percentage increase of parotids' radiation dose. No correlation between the reduction of parotids' volume and dose to parotids. In order to reduce the parotids' radiation dose, modification of treatment plan at the appropriate time is essential. (authors)

  12. 3D-FIESTA MRI at 3 T demonstrating branches of the intraparotid facial nerve, parotid ducts and relation with benign parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanting; Li Yan; Zhang Dongsheng; Yang Zhenzhen; Wu Lebin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) fast imaging employing steady state precession (FIESTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T in evaluating the intraparotid components of the facial nerve and parotid ducts, and to compare the MRI images with surgical findings. Materials and methods: Thirty-one cases of benign parotid tumours were studied with conventional and 3D FIESTA MRI sequences at 3T using a head coil. The most clinically useful 3D FIESTA images were acquired at parameters of 4.9 ms repetition time (TR); 1.5 effective echo time (TEeff); a flip of 55°, a field of view of 18 to 20 cm, a matrix of 512 × 320, an axial plane, no gaps, and a section thickness of 1 mm. Post-processed multiplanar images were obtained with an Advantage Windows (AW sdc 4.3) workstation. Parotid ducts, facial nerves, and tumours were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumours to the facial nerves and parotid ducts was confirmed at surgery. Results: The facial nerves appeared as linear structures of low intensity. The main trunk of the facial nerve was identified bilaterally in 93.5% of the 3D-FIESTA sequence images. Parotid ducts appeared as structures of high intensity on multiplanar 3D-FIESTA images (100%). The relationships of the tumours with the cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerve were correctly diagnosed in 26 of 31 cases (83.9%) using 3D-FIESTA sequence images. Conclusion: 3D-FIESTA MRI at 3 T depicted the main trunk, cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerve, and the main parotid duct. It is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumours.

  13. Evaluación farmacoterapéutica y evolutiva de uveítis crónicas y recurrentes no infecciosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireya Benítez Cartaya

    Full Text Available Objetivos: evaluar el tratamiento farmacológico e identificar los factores pronósticos en una evolución clínica desfavorable con uveítis crónicas y recurrentes no infecciosas, en el Instituto Cubano Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" durante el período 2012-2013. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de utilización de medicamentos. Se efectuó un diseño de cohorte retrospectivo evaluativo y un estudio transversal analítico de factores pronósticos. Fueron evaluados 116 pacientes. Las variables utilizadas correspondieron a la evaluación farmacoterapéutica: selección del medicamento, pauta de administración y causas de incumplimiento terapéutico. Para la evolución clínica desfavorable se analizaron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas. Se calcularon frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Se realizó un análisis univariado. Las variables significativas a la evolución se incluyeron en el modelo de regresión logística múltiple. Resultados: no existieron errores en la prescripción en el 100 % de los evaluados. El 15,5 % de los pacientes no cumplieron con el tratamiento prescrito; 83,3 % se relacionó con la presencia de reacciones adversas y 33,3 % con la falta de disponibilidad. El 57 % presentó efectos adversos por corticoesteroides y el 39 % por inmunosupresores. El curso clínico crónico y la localización resultaron factores influyentes en una evolución desfavorable. Conclusiones: la evaluación farmacoterapéutica en el caso de las uveítis crónicas es adecuada. No existen errores en la prescripción. Las causas más frecuentes de incumplimiento terapéutico son la suspensión del tratamiento por efectos adversos, la falta de disponibilidad de inmunosupresores y la alternativa biológica. El curso clínico crónico y la localización de las uveítis pueden considerarse como un factor pronóstico en la evolución desfavorable de esta enfermedad.

  14. Paraganglioma with unusual presentation in parotid gland: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagh A Vora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas (PGLs are uncommon tumors. Although PGLs are known to occur in the head and neck region, especially the carotid body, middle ear, and larynx, involvement of the parotid glands has not been reported. In this article, we report the fine needle aspiration features of tumor in an unusual location, presenting as a parotid gland mass, submitted to pathology for initial diagnosis. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, and the immunohistochemical features for the diagnosis are described. To our knowledge, this is the first case of paraganglioma of the parotid gland reported in the literature.

  15. SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN HUMAN PAROTID FLUID FLOW RATE IN A SUBTROPICAL CLIMATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parotid fluid was collected under conditions of very minimal stimulation from 3,868 systemically healthy young adult males over a period of two...calendar years. The study was carried out in a subtropical climate in which the only thermal discomfort resulted from the summer heat. Parotid flow rate...fall. During the summer months the mean rate of parotid flow was 0.031 ml./minute; during the winter the flow rate mean increased by 35% to 0.042 ml

  16. Malignant tumor of the parotid gland with metastasis into the cervical vertebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Keiichi; Utsumi, Takehiko; Furuki, Shin; Asano, Hisashi.

    1979-01-01

    A patient with malignant tumor of the parotid gland with metastasis into the cervical vertebra was found. Because spinal symptoms were observed at first and the symptoms and the course of the disease were not typical, it was so difficult to diagnose it. For this patient, a parotid gland scintigram with sup(99m)Tc was very useful to diagnose the lesion. The patient was treated with chemotherapy, 60 Co beam therapy and immuno-chemo-therapy and survived about one year and two months more. Cyclo-C (cyclocytidine) was very effective to control the primary lesion in the parotid gland. (Nishio, M.)

  17. Endocardite infecciosa: 12 anos de tratamento cirúrgico Infective endocarditis: 12 years of surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoninho Sanfins ARNONI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A endocardite é uma doença de tratamento difícil e que freqüentemente necessita da participação cirúrgica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 1987 e janeiro de 1999, 159 pacientes foram operados em nosso Serviço, sendo 64,7% do sexo masculino. Este grupo apresentou idade média de 39,2 anos (2 a 78 anos, com peso médio de 57,1 kg. O acometimento valvar aórtico foi o mais freqüente (66 pacientes, sendo na valva nativa em 47 casos e em próteses em 19 (8 metálicas e 11 biológicas: a lesão mitral verificou-se em 53 pacientes, sendo mais comum em portadores de prótese (28 biológicas e 2 metálicas. O comprometimento das duas valvas esteve presente em 28 casos. Os demais pacientes eram portadores de defeitos congênitos ou de marcapasso definitivo. A operação foi indicada por refratariedade ao tratamento clínico, insuficiência cardíaca, quadro infeccioso levando a disfunção valvar ou de prótese, vazamento periprotético, ou ainda por arritmia. RESULTADOS: O estudo microbiológico evidenciou maior prevalência de infecção por Streptococcus viridans e Staphilococcus aureus. A operação realizada nos portadores de endocardite infecciosa em valva nativa propiciou a conservação da valva em 3 pacientes do grupo mitral e em 1 do grupo aórtico; nos demais pacientes empregaram-se próteses (a maioria metálica em aórticos e biológica em mitrais. As reoperações foram freqüentes, tendo pacientes com até quarta operação. A lesão congênita responsável pela maioria dos casos foi a comunicação interventricular (3 casos e 4 pacientes apresentavam a endocardite em eletrodo de marcapasso. A mortalidade global foi de 16,3%, com maior incidência em portadores de prótese mitral e aórtica submetidos a reoperação. A presença de abscesso como complicação da endocardite infecciosa verificou-se em 18,2% dos pacientes, utilizando-se pericárdio bovino na reconstrução da maioria, com mortalidade de 17

  18. Complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en pacientes operados por endocarditis infecciosa Postoperative complications and mortality observed in patients operated on from infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Gómez Armando Gonga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las causas de morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatorias en los pacientes afectos de endocarditis infecciosa activa y significar cómo pueden ser disminuidas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las complicaciones posoperatorias y mortalidad en 139 pacientes operados por presentar endocarditis infecciosa en un período de 16 años. Se efectuaron 147 operaciones a los 139 pacientes de las cuales 83 (57,1 % fueron electivas y 64 (42,9 % fueron de urgencia. El 24 % de los pacientes fueron remitidos de otros centros en los que habían sido sometidos a tratamiento médico no exitoso por más de 4 semanas. Resultados: las operaciones efectuadas fueron: Sustituciones valvulares aórticas,mitrales y tricuspídeas 75 (41,1 %, extracción de electrodos de marcapasos o desfibriladores automáticos implantables del ventrículo derecho 57 (41 % , otras operaciones en número de 7 (4,9 %y 8 reintervenciones. La complicación más frecuente fue la sepsis generalizada (10,07 % pObjective: To describe the causes of perioperative morbidity and mortality of patients suffering active infectious endocarditis and to explain how both aspects can be reduced. Methods: A retrospective study of postoperative complications and mortality observed in 139 patients operated on from infectious endocarditis in 16 years. One hundred forty seven surgeries were performed, of which 83 (57.1 % were elective and 64 (42.9 % were emergency surgeries. In this group, 24 % had been referred from other medical centers where they had been unsuccessfully treated for 4 weeks. Results: The performed surgeries comprised 15 aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve replacements, 57 (41 % removals of pacemaker electrodes or of implanted automatic defibrillators in the right ventricle, seven other types of surgeries and 8 reoperations. The most frequent complication was generalized sepsis ((10.07 % p< 0.01, followed by the low heart output and postoperative bleeding. The

  19. Acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A.O.; Lam, A.H. [Saint Vincent`s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW (Australia); Martin, H.C.O. [Royal Alexandria Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Depts of Radiology and Surgery

    1997-02-01

    The imaging findings of two children with acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland are presented. Ultrasonic and computed tomography features are emphasized. One of these children, a 6 year old boy, suffers from the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, a rare congenital, inherited condition manifested by defects of the nervous system (mental retardation, hypotonia), eyes (cataracts, glaucoma) and kidneys. To date, no known association exists between these two rare entities. The other child, a 10 year old girl, was otherwise well. The ultrasound findings of both cases demonstrate features more classic for a benign intraparotid mass than for a potentially malignant lesion. The possibility of acinic cell carcinoma should be considered if a well-defined, relatively homogeneously hypo-echoic intraparotid mass is encountered in a child, especially if cystic spaces are present. It was estimated that computed tomography findings reflected features already demonstrated by ultrasound and added little to characterization of the primary mass in this case. 12 refs.,5 figs.

  20. Treatment planning aspects for tumours in the region of parotid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, S.S.; Saju, Sherly; Deshpande, D.D.; Agarwal, J.P.; Dinshaw, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of carcinoma of parotid/external ear needs careful planning in respect of dose to the normal organs surrounding the tumour such as eye(s), pituitary and normal brain. In many centres, generally, manual contours are generated for a two dimensional planning, wherein Anterior-Posterior (A-P) oblique fields (patient in Lateral Position) are planned. However, such a field orientation is not always useful in terms of minimum possible dose to the said normal organs, especially for eye. In this centre, a different field arrangement has been attempted, which helps in dose reduction to the normal structures to a large extent in comparison with the conventional 2D planning method

  1. Rat parotid gland pathophysiology following 137Cs irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, J.C.; Izutsu, K.T.; Truelove, E.L.; Menard, T.W.; Anderson, M.C.; Morton, T.H.; Siegel, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in rat parotid gland function were measured between 3 and 30 days following exposure to 1800 R of 137 Cs irradiation to the head. Glandular fluid secretion capability as indicated by volume of secretion, maximum rate of secretion, and duration of secretion following pilocarpine stimulation decreased concomitantly with gland weight following irradiation. Thus gland weight is probably indicative of residual glandular-potential for fluid secretion following irradiation. The relation between salivary sodium concentration and flow rate was assumed to be indicative of glandular electrolyte transport capability. Salivary sodium concentrations were not elevated over control values at any flow rate. Therefore, there is no evidence for an irradiation-induced defect in the ductal sodium resorption mechanism. Rather, the observed salivary sodium changes are consistent with a decrease in the relative glandular proportion of acini to ducts

  2. Nodular hidradenocarcinoma over the parotid gland: a pathologic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verret, D J; Kabbani, Wareef; DeFatta, Robert J

    2007-02-01

    Nodular hidradenocarcinoma (NHAC), an eccrine carcinoma, has been reported in the dermatology and pathology literature, but few references have been made in the otolaryngology literature even though the head and neck is a common site of occurrence. A case report of a 37-year-old Hispanic man with a right-sided neck mass diagnosed preoperatively as a parotid mass by imaging and fine-needle aspiration is presented. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision of the mass was undertaken. Final pathology revealed a NHAC, which is presented in our report. NHAC is an aggressive malignant tumor that is often misdiagnosed preoperatively and that must be treated with aggressive multimodality therapy for increased survival.

  3. Radiotherapy for a cystadenolymphoma of the parotid gland (Warthin's tumor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, C.; Vacha, P.; Vesely, H.; Richter, E.; Feyerabend, T.

    2001-01-01

    Background: With 17.6% of all primary parotid neoformations the benign Warthin's tumor (cystadenolymphoma) is the second common parotid gland tumor. Males > 50 years are affected predominantly. After surgery the recurrence rate is less than 5%. Histomorphologically the tumor is characterized by cystoid ducts lined by epithelial cells as well as lymphoid stroma. The lymphoid component has been described as radioresponsive whereas the epithelial parts are less radiosensitive. Since 1960 only one patient treated by primary radiotherapy has been published. Case report: A 77-year-old woman suffered from cystadenolymphoma (maximal diameter 7 cm). Because of its extension and the reduced performance status of the patient surgery was no option. Radiotherapy was performed with a total dose of 50 Gy. Clinically, the tumor regressed completely after 30 Gy, which was confirmed by CT at 6 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. After 6 and 12 months the patient stayed free of tumor. Epicrisis: In our case the cystadenolymphoma was unusually large (7 cm). Radiotherapy with 50 Gy induced complete tumor regression. The good clinical response after 30 Gy suggests that the necessary dose may be lower for less extended cystadenolymphomas. Conclusion: We present a case of cystadenolymphoma treated by radiotherapy with 50 Gy resulting in a complete remission. Due to missing published experiences no common recommendation for the total dose can be given. In the following situations radiotherapy should be considered: 1. high surgical risk of damage to the facial nerve, 2. unfavorable cosmetic outcome after surgery, 3. inoperability for internal risks, 4. refusal of operation. (orig.) [de

  4. Parotiditis crónicas recidivantes: Nuestra experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Estrada Sarmiento

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación observacional, prospectiva y descriptiva de 27 pacientes con el diagnóstico clínico e histopatológico de parotiditis crónica, con el objetivo de conocer su comportamiento en nuestro medio durante el período 1994-1995. De los 27 pacientes, 19 eran femeninos (70,4 % y 8 masculinos. En el 3,7 % se observó una edad inferior a los 10 años; la parótida izquierda fue la más afectada. La técnica quirúrgica de Blair se empleó en 19 pacientes (70,4 % y la mortalidad operativa fue nula. Cuatro pacientes (14,8 % presentaron complicaciones. Esta entidad es frecuente en niños, su cuadro clínico oscila entre meses y años, por lo cual no es poco frecuente después de las primeras décadas de la vida.An observational prospective and descriptive study of 27 patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic parotitis was performed with the objective of finding out the behaviour of such disease in our context from 1994- to 1995. 19 were females (70.4 % and 8 were males. 3.7 % were under 10 years and the laft parotid gland was the most affected. Blair’s surgical technique was successfully used in 19 patients (70.4 % and none of them died. Complications occured in 4 patients (14.8 %. This disease is common in children, its clinical pattern ranges from months to years, so, it is not an uncommon disease after the first decades of life.

  5. Allometric and radioautographic study on developing parotid gland of the golden hamster at early postnatat period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, I M.S. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1989-02-01

    The post-natal development of golden hamster parotid gland and the rate of proliferation of the cells are studied in the first month of the life. A comparative evaluation with other rodents is presented. (M.A.C.).

  6. Submandibular gland function and parotid gland function in Bell's palsy, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kato, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1986-01-01

    With the use of sup(99m)Tc, we attempted to measure simultaneously submandibular gland function and parotid gland function, which is thought not to be controlled by the facial nerve, in patients with unilateral Bell's palsy. For comparison, the lachrymal gland function of some patients was measured by the thread method. We found that facial palsy sometimes affects parotid gland function as well as submandibular gland function. In 60 % of the patients the function of the two glands tended to be affected in the same way. Lachrymal gland function tended to be affected in a similar way to parotid gland function. We conclude that the chorda tympani and the greater petrosal nerve may influence parotid gland function. (author)

  7. A type II first branchial cleft cyst masquerading as an infected parotid Warthin's tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Feng; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chen, Yao-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ping

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of a parotid mass usually depends on thorough history taking and physical examination. Diagnostic modalities, including ultrasonographic examinations, computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, may also provide substantial information but their accuracy for diagnosis is sometimes questionable, especially in differentiating some rare neoplasms. First branchial cleft cysts (FBCCs) are rare causes of parotid swelling and comprise less than 1% of all branchial anomalies. They are frequently misdiagnosed due to their rarity and unfamiliar clinical signs and symptoms. We present a case of type II FBCC masquerading as an infected parotid Warthin's tumor. We also review the clinical signs and symptoms of FBCCs in order to remind clinicians that this rare branchial anomaly can mimic an infected Warthin's tumor and may be seated in the deep lobe of the parotid gland. By making an accurate pre-operative diagnosis of type II FBCC, we can minimize surgical morbidity and avoid incomplete resection and possible recurrence.

  8. Caso clínico: Un tratamiento alternativo a la parotiditis crónica

    OpenAIRE

    Arregui V,Rodrigo; Tamblay N,Natalia; Esquivel C,Patricia

    2008-01-01

    La parotiditis crónica conocida también como parotiditis juvenil recurrente, se define como la inflamación recurrente de la glándula parótida, asociada a la aparición de sialectasias o dilataciones no obstructivas de los conductos glandulares. Como tratamiento se emplea habitualmente la sialografía que tiene una tasa de éxito que va de 62% a 94%. Se presenta aquí un caso de un niño de 4 años de edad con parotiditis crónica, que persiste con episodios de parotiditis, pese a la realización de d...

  9. [Acute neonatal suppurative parotiditis: about three clinical cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfaoun, Zineb; Radouani, Mohammed Amine; Azzaoui, Sihame; Knouni, Houria; Aguenaou, Hassan; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The following case study reports three cases of neonatal bacterial parotiditis observed over a period of seven months. Diagnosis is often based on patient's clinical features: they typically include hyperthermia, swelling, erythema, warmth as well as local tenderness and purulent discharge at Stensen duct during the massage of the parotid. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasound and by culture of parotid purulent secretion. They are mainly of nosocomial origin and are generally caused by prematurity and dehydration. Early treatment improves patient outcome. Risk factors such as age should lead clinicians to start empiric antibiotic therapy first and then antibiotic therapy based on direct examination of pus extracted from Stensen duct. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Viridans and anaerobic germs are most commonly isolated. Acute parotiditis are extremely rare in the neonatal period: less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. We here report three rather peculiar cases. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of signs of local inflammation.

  10. Contemporary management of benign parotid tumours - the increasing evidence for extracapsular dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P A; Ammar, M; Matharu, J

    2017-01-01

    Benign parotid tumours have historically often been managed surgically by superficial parotidectomy. While this approach usually gives a generous cuff of surrounding normal parotid tissue to increase tumour margins, it requires a much larger incision than the increasingly used extracapsular dissection (ECD) technique. Furthermore, superficial parotidectomy can result in marked facial hollowing, Frey syndrome and an increased risk of both temporary and permanent facial nerve weakness. ECD has been popularised as a safe alternative to parotidectomy primarily for the removal of mobile, benign parotid tumours with safe outcomes and reduced risk to the facial nerve. In this article, we review the growing body of evidence for ECD and include our own experience confirming the move away from superficial parotidectomy in contemporary practice for the treatment of benign parotid tumours. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Primary hydatid disease of the infratemporal fossa and the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Andreou, I.; Levett, J.; Vlahos, I.; Papavasiliou, C.; Ioannovits, I.

    1985-01-01

    Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions causing swelling of the parotid area or exophthalmos in patients originating from countries where the incidence of the disease is high. An unusual case of hydatid disease located in the infratemporal fossa and the anterior parotid region is presented. Computed Tomography is a valuable tool for establishment of the diagnosis, before any surgical approach to the lesion is initiated and for postoperative follow-up and evaluation. (orig.) [de

  12. Primary hydatid disease of the infratemporal fossa and the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Gouliamos, A.; Andreou, I.; Levett, J.; Vlahos, I.; Papavasiliou, C.; Ioannovits, I.

    1985-05-01

    Hydatid disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions causing swelling of the parotid area or exophthalmos in patients originating from countries where the incidence of the disease is high. An unusual case of hydatid disease located in the infratemporal fossa and the anterior parotid region is presented. Computed Tomography is a valuable tool for establishment of the diagnosis, before any surgical approach to the lesion is initiated and for postoperative follow-up and evaluation.

  13. Posible papel de Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxigénico en la etiología de la vaginitis infecciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Polanco, Nina; Manzi, Lorna; Carmona, Oswaldo

    2012-01-01

    La vaginitis es un trastorno ginecológico frecuente producido por distintas causas, algunas de las cuales permanecen desconocidas. Bacteroides fragilis es el anaerobio más importante en bacteriología clínica. Algunas cepas son enterotoxigénicas y se asocian con síndromes intestinales y extraintestinales. Recientemente han sido aisladas de pacientes con vaginitis. En este trabajo se planteó investigar la posible asociación de B. fragilis enterotoxigénico con la vaginitis infecciosa. Fueron pro...

  14. Influence of intensity-modulated radiation therapy on parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Tiantian; Wu Shaoxiong; Han Fei; Lu Lixia; Huang Shaomin; Deng Xiaowu; Lu Taixiang; Zhao Chong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Eighty-three NPC patients received prima- ry IMRT between 2001 and 2003. Xerostomia before radiotherapy, at the end of radiotherapy, at 6-month, 1-, 2-,3-,4- and 5-year after radiotherapy were investigated, respectively. The relation between xerostomia and parotid dose distribution was analyzed. Results: Of all the patients, 4, 31, 31 and 17 had stage I, II, III and IV A disease, respectively. Sixteen patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The median followed-up time was 65 months. The 5-year local control and regional control rate were 96% and 95%, respectively. The 5- year overall survival rate was 80%. The mild xerostomia rate at the seven time points was 42%, 51%, 71%, 77%, 58%, 38% and 26%. The corresponding moderate xerostomia rate was 52%, 53%, 21%, 8%, 3%, 2% and 2%, respectively. No serious xerostomia was observed. The mean dose of the bilateral parotid glands was 34.34 Gy. Xerostomia at 6-month after radiotherapy was positively correlated with the mean dose of the parotid glands, and D 50 was the independent factor in predicting the xerostomia. Parotid function was well protected when the mean dose and D 50 were no more than 33 Gy and 29 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: IMRT can improve the local-regional control of NPC and protect the parotid glands from radiation-induced injury. (authors)

  15. Parasympathetic denervation increases responses to VIP in isolated rat parotid acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter found in the salivary glands of many species, including the rat parotid gland. Parasympathetic denervation has been reported to deplete VIP in the rat parotid gland and to lead to supersensitivity to this peptide in vivo. We have compared the effects of VIP on acini isolated from parasympathetically denervated and unoperated parotid glands to examine possible supersensitivity to the peptide in vitro. VIP normally produced responses similar to those obtained with a low concentration of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO), but strikingly different from the effects obtained with the muscarinic agonist carbachol (CARB). In parotid membrane preparations, VIP stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Dissociated acini treated with VIP showed increases in cAMP accumulation and amylase release which were potentiated by forskolin and also by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. After parasympathetic denervation, maximal effects of VIP on adenylate cyclase, cAMP accumulation and amylase release in intact cells were increased two- to five-fold over contralateral control (or unoperated) parotid responses. The increase in adenylate cyclase-mediated responses after denervation was specific to VIP; there was no increased response nor increased sensitivity of any of these responses to ISO. Specific [125I]VIP binding to parotid acini increased two-fold per gland and three-fold per mg of protein after denervation; this probably explains the observed increases in the response to VIP

  16. Self-induced parapharyngeal and parotid emphysema: A case of pneumoparotitis

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    Javier González Lagunas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Swelling of the parotid suggests pathological change. Enlargement of the parotid gland may result from infections, duct obstruction, benign or malignant tumors, allergies, autoimmune or systemic disease syndromes or lymphoproliferative diseases. Acute swelling is typically associated with viral infection or recurrent chronic parotitis. A rare cause of acute swelling is insufflation of air from the mouth via Stensen’s duct into the parotid region. We report a case of recurrent self-induced chronic pneumoparotitis with parapharyngeal extension in a teenager. Pneumoparotitis is rare and is often misdiagnosed and mistreated. Patients typically present with unilateral or bilateral painless swelling and tenderness in the parotid region. Imaging, including computer tomography scans, shows air within the parotid system that extends into the neighboring areas in cases of rupture of the parotid fascia. Salivary gland enlargement resolves spontaneously over 1–3 days. Some authors recommend anti-inflammatory drugs and prophylactic antibiotics to avoid superinfection. Several surgical treatments have been suggested for chronic and recurrent pneumoparotid. However, the primary challenge is to educate the patient to prevent an increase in intraoral pressure. Keywords: Pneumoparotitis, Pneumoparotiditis, Teenager, Head-and-neck emphysema

  17. Individual radiation response of parotid glands investigated by dynamic 11C-methionine PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buus, Simon; Grau, Cai; Munk, Ole Lajord; Rodell, Anders; Jensen, Kenneth; Mouridsen, Kim; Keiding, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Previously, we showed that the net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine of the parotid gland, K, calculated from dynamic 11 C-methionine PET, can be used as a measure of parotid gland function. The aim of this study was to investigate by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET the individual radiation dose response relationship of parotid glands in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and methods: Twelve head and neck cancer patients were examined by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET after radiotherapy. Parametric images of K were generated, co-registered and compared voxel-by-voxel with the 3D radiation dose plan within the parotid gland to assess the individual radiation dose-function relationship. Results: In each patient, voxel-values of K decreased with increasing radiation dose. Population based analysis showed a sigmoid dose response relationship of parotid gland, from which we estimated a threshold radiation dose of 16 Gy and a mean TD 5 of 30 Gy. TD 5 ranged from 7 to 50 Gy in the group of patients. Conclusions: Individual radiation dose response of parotid glands can be measured by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET. The dose response analysis revealed a sigmoid relationship, a threshold radiation dose of 16 Gy, and a mean TD 5 of 30 Gy

  18. Estudios estructurales de la proteína mayoritaria de la cápsida de lentivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Yélamos López, María Belén

    1998-01-01

    Los Lentivirus son un grupo de virus, subfamilia de los Retrovirus. Incluyen virus de gran importancia tanto veterinaria, como el virus de la anemia infecciosa equina (EIAV) o el virus de la inmunodeficiencia felina (FIV), como clínica como el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV). Nuestro sistema de estudio es la proteína mayoritaria de la cápsida de lentivirus. Las proteínas de las cápsidas lentivirales tienen una gran homología de secuencia. Este alto grado de similitud, junto con la ...

  19. Postoperative treatment of malignant tumors of the parotid gland: radiotherapy, concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy; Tumeurs malignes de la parotide: prise en charge multidisciplinaire, role de la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyon, A.; Durdux, C.; Housset, M. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service d' Oncoradiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Hans, S. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service d' ORL et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-12-15

    The low incidence, the wide histological spectrum and the natural, sometimes slow, evolution of malignant parotid gland tumours do not allow to easily establish the impact of their treatments. At present, clinical data come from retrospective cohort analysis, whereas randomized phase II-III trials are confidential. Moreover conclusions from these studies are controversial. We present here the therapeutic highlights of parotid cancers: surgery, with the particular concern of facial nerve preservation; and adjuvant treatment essentially based on radiotherapy. This review focused on adjuvant care explores the indications and the technical aspects of radiation, as well as the role of concurrent chemotherapy. (authors)

  20. ASOCIACIÓN SEROLÓGICA DE LA RINONEUMONITIS VIRAL EQUINA Y LA ANEMIA INFECCIOSA EQUINA

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    Albeiro López-Herrera

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de asociación serológica entre los herpesvirus equinos tipos 1 y 4 (HVE-1 y HVE-4 causantes de la rinoneumonitis equina y el virus de la anemia infecciosa equina (VAIE en caballos de trabajo provenientes de 5 municipios del Meta. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta serológica transversal en 68 equinos provenientes de los municipios de San Martín, Guamal, Restrepo, Cumaral y Paratebueno. Para la evaluación de los anticuerpos contra los HVE-1 y HVE-4, se utilizó un ELISA indirecto para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos dirigidos contra la glicoproteína G del HVE-1 y HVE-4 (Svanovir ™ EHV1/EHV4-Ab ELISA; para el diagnóstico de anticuerpos contra el VAIE se utilizó la prueba de inmunodifusión en agar de gel de Coggins. Resultados. No se encontraron reactores al HVE-1; sin embargo, el porcentaje de seropositividad fue de 94.12% (64/68 y 13.2%(9/68 para HVE-4 y VAIE respectivamente. El porcentaje de animales coinfectados HVE-4 y AIE fue 13.23% (9/68. Cuando se discriminaron los resultados por Municipio se encontró un 27.9% (19/68 de reactividad en el municipio de Restrepo, 26.5% (18/68 en Cumaral, 14.7% (10/68 en Paratebueno, 14.7% (10/68 en Guamal, y 10.3% (7/68 en San Martin. El porcentaje de reactores por municipio al VAIE fue Cumaral 5.88% (4/68, Restrepo 4.4% (3/68, Guamal 1.47%(1/68 y San Martín 1.47% (1/68. Conclusión. El alto porcentaje de coinfección entre HVE-4 y VAIE sugiere un efecto importante en la interacción, pues el efecto inmunosupresor del VAIE podría facilitar la reactivación del estado latente del HVE-4.

  1. Congenital agenesis of unilateral parotid gland with ipsilateral type I first branchial cleft anomaly: A rare presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Tripti Maithani; Apoorva Pandey; Seema Acharya

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To report a rare case of unilateral parotid agenesis with ipsilateral type I first branchial cleft anomaly. Material and methods: A case study with special emphasis on the embryology, outlining the complex developmental process of parotid and branchial arches and highlighting the probable reason for development of such anomalies. Results: The literature states that unilateral parotid agenesis is a rare entity with few reported cases occurring solely or in conjunction with other hea...

  2. Parotid metastasis--an independent prognostic factor for head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, S; Maitra, A; Lea, R; Brasch, H; Tan, S T

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic parotid cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common parotid gland malignancy in New Zealand and Australia. The current AJCC TNM staging system does not account for the extent of nodal metastasis. A staging system that separates parotid (P stage) from neck disease (N stage) has been proposed recently. To review the outcome of patients with metastatic head and neck cutaneous SCC treated at our multidisciplinary Head and Neck Service using the proposed staging system. Consecutive patients were culled from our Head and Neck/Skull Base Database, 1990-2004. These patients were restaged according to the proposed staging system: P stage: P0 = no disease in the parotid (i.e., neck disease only); P1 = metastatic node P2=metastatic node > 3 cm and 6 cm, or disease involving the facial nerve or skull base. N stage: N0=no disease in the neck (i.e., parotid disease only); N1 = single ipsilateral metastatic node 3 cm, or contralateral neck involvement. Loco-regional recurrence and disease-specific survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and comparison of graphs made with the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model was carried out to assess the impact of various parameters. Sixty-seven patients with metastatic head and neck cutaneous SCC were identified. Thirty-seven patients had parotid metastasis (of whom 13 also had neck disease) while 21 had neck metastasis alone. Nine patients had dermal or soft tissue metastasis. These nine patients were excluded from this series, and data analysis was carried out on the remaining 58 (46 men, 12 women, mean age 71 years) patients. Sixty-seven percent of the patients underwent post-operative adjuvant radiotherapy. The five-year disease-specific survival rate was 54%. Among 56 patients followed up to disease recurrence or for a minimum period of 18 months, the loco-regional recurrence rate was 52%. The presence of parotid disease was an independent prognostic factor on

  3. Parotid gland shrinkage during IMRT predicts the time to Xerostomia resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Ricchetti, Francesco; Wu, Binbin; McNutt, Todd; Fiorino, Claudio

    2015-01-17

    To assess the impact of mid-treatment parotid gland shrinkage on long term xerostomia during IMRT for oropharyngeal SCC. All patients treated with IMRT at a single Institution from November 2007 to June 2010 and undergoing weekly CT scans were selected. Parotid glands were contoured retrospectively on the mid treatment CT scan. For each parotid gland, the percent change relative to the planning volume was calculated and combined as weighted average. Patients were considered to be xerostomic if developed GR2+ dry mouth according to CTCAE v3.0. Predictors of the time to xerostomia resolution or downgrade to 1 were investigated at both uni- and multivariate analysis. 85 patients were selected. With a median follow up of 35.8 months (range: 2.4-62.6 months), the actuarial rate of xerostomia is 26.2% (SD: 5.3%) and 15.9% (SD: 5.3%) at 2 and 3 yrs, respectively. At multivariate analysis, mid-treatment shrink along with weighted average mean parotid dose at planning and body mass index are independent predictors of the time to xerostomia resolution. Patients were pooled in 4 groups based on median values of both mid-treatment shrink (cut-off: 19.6%) and mean WA parotid pl-D (cut-off: 35.7 Gy). Patients with a higher than median parotid dose at planning and who showed poor shrinkage at mid treatment are the ones with the outcome significantly worse (3-yr rate of xerostomia ≈ 50%) than the other three subgroups (3-yr rate of xerostomia ≈ 10%). For a given planned dose, patients whose parotids significantly shrink during IMRT are less likely to be long-term supplemental fluids dependent.

  4. Parotid-Absorbed Doses: A Comparison Between Spiral Tomography and Panoramic

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    Ehsan Hekmatian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Jaws spiral tomography and panoramic radiography have wide applications in dentistry, and the parotid gland is one of the most sensitive organs of the head and neck. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the parotid-absorbed dose in spiral tomography and panoramic radiographs using a thermoluminescent dosimeter. Materials and Methods A radiation analog dosimetry phantom was placed in a Cranex Tome radiograph device, and a parotid absorbed dose was measured in both techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed bilaterally in the parotid region (on the tube side and the opposite side. Spiral tomography dosimetry was done for the upper and lower jaws in the anterior and posterior regions. Each region contained four slices of 2 mm and four slices of 4 mm in thickness. The results were analyzed by a Wilcoxon test. Results For the tube side parotid, the average absorbed doses in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.70/1.40 and 1.65/1.60 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.65/1.70 and 1.75/1.57 mGy, respectively. For the opposite parotid, the average absorbed dose in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.40/1.30 and 1.40/1.67 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.50/1.66 and 1.40/1.50 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed dose of the panoramic radiograph was 1.40 mGy. Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference in the parotid absorbed dose between spiral tomography and a panoramic radiograph (P value = 0.18. The overall results of this study were similar to other studies.

  5. Radiological study on the change of duct-ligated parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    The change of the parotid gland with time following ligation of the main duct was investigated. The duct-ligated parotid gland in rabbit was examined by salivary gland scintigraphy with 99m Tc-pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 - ), sialography and microscopic observation. The third day after ligation of the main duct, the outward form of the parotid gland on the static scintigram was not well-defined. On the seventh day, 99m TcO 4 - accumulation was decreased slightly. On the 14th day, atrophy of the parotid gland occurred. The degree of atrophy produced by ligation increases as the duration of the ligation increases. On the 42nd day, the presence of the parotid gland was not recorded practically. The main duct was dilated on the third day. On the seventh day, the intraglandular ducts were bent and strictured. Disappearance of the peripheral duct and atrophy of the parotid gland parenchyma was observed. On microscopic observation, the intraglandular tributaries and the lumen were dilated on the third day. And the reticular fiber was observed that was irregularly formed in parts. The acinar cells were pressed by large and small dilated lumen on the seventh day. On the 14th day, the collagenous fiber around the acini and the duct was increased still more. In addition, fibrosis of the lobule interspace was observed. The degree of atrophy of the acini and lobule was increased maximally on the 42nd day. These results of the salivary gland scintigraphy closely connected with sialograms and microscopic findings. The parotid gland tissue decreases and changings of the duct system were indicated by these imaging methods in detail. (author)

  6. [Predictors of malignancy in the management of parotid tumors: about 76 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumor pathology is complex and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. A good analysis of predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors seems currently necessary for better therapeutic planning. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors through a retrospective study of 76 cases of parotid tumor treated in a service of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico Facial Surgery of Avicenne military hospital of Marrakech between January 2000 and December 2012. The study involved 40 women and 36 men. The average age was 44 years for benign tumours whereas it was 50 years for malignant tumours. The median of consultation time was 24 months for benign tumors and 16 month for malignant tumours. Swelling in the area of the parotid was always a patient detecting sign. Malignancy is clinically suspected based on pain, facial paralysis, surface structure and deeper structure fixity and on the presence of adenopathy. MRI has become the methodology of choice for evaluating parotid tumors due to its good diagnostic value in the assessment of benignity and malignancy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has no value unless it is positive. Explorative parotidectomy with extemporaneous anatomopathological examination remains the key to positive diagnosis. Parotid benign tumors represent the most frequent entity (80%) and pleomorphic adenoma remains the predominant histologic type (61%). With regard to malignant tumors, they are rare, mainly dominated by mucoepidermoid carcinomas (6,5%). Surgical treatment is the first choice and it is often associated with lymph node dissection and radiation therapy for malignant tumors. Facial paralysis is the most common complication of parotid surgery.

  7. CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS DE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES DE NIÑOS DE COMUNIDAD RURAL PERUANA Y SU ASOCIACIÓN CON LA DIARREA AGUDA INFECCIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Veramendi-Espinoza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:  Asociar los Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas (CAP sobre la lactancia materna de las madres con la frecuencia de DAI en los últimos seis  meses del niño menor de dos  años. Metodología: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Lugar: Centro poblado Huaylas, Ancash-Perú, durante febrero de 2011. Participantes:  34 madres de niños menores de 2 años. Intervenciones: Encuesta CAP mediante entrevista a domicilio y revisión de las historias clínicas para confirmar DAI. Principales medidas de resultados: Puntaje obtenido en la encuesta para las distintas variables CAP. Resultados: Se halló conocimiento de medio a bajo en 76,5% de las madres encuestadas, actitudes neutras en 58,8% y favorables en 20,6 y prácticas neutras en 64,7% e inadecuadas en 23,5%. No se encontró correlación entre estos. Conclusión: No se logró establecer ningún tipo de asociación estadísticamente significativa entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de lactancia materna con diarreas agudas infecciosas.

  8. CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS DE LACTANCIA MATERNA EN MADRES DE NIÑOS DE COMUNIDAD RURAL PERUANA Y SU ASOCIACIÓN CON LA DIARREA AGUDA INFECCIOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Veramendi-Espinoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Asociar los Conocimientos, Actitudes y Prácticas (CAP sobre la lactancia materna de las madres con la frecuencia de DAI en los últimos seis me- ses del niño menor de dos años. Metodología: Estudio analítico de corte transversal. Lugar: Centro poblado Huaylas, Ancash-Perú, durante febrero de 2011. Participantes: 34 madres de niños menores de 2 años. Intervenciones: Encuesta CAP mediante entrevista a domicilio y revisión de las historias clínicas para confirmar DAI. Principales medidas de resultados: Puntaje obtenido en la encuesta para las distintas variables CAP. Resultados: Se halló conocimiento de medio a bajo en 76,5% de las madres encuestadas, actitudes neutras en 58,8% y favorables en 20,6 y prácticas neutras en 64,7% e inadecuadas en 23,5%. No se encontró correlación entre estos. Conclusión: No se logró establecer ningún tipo de asociación estadísticamente significativa entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de lactancia materna con diarreas agudas infecciosas.

  9. Magnetic Resonance of Parotid and Submandibular Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina HERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Salivary glands are divided in major and minor, including tissue distributed by the upper airway. There are numerous entities which can affect these structures conditioning various types of pathology. Given the greater importance of the submandibular and parotid gland, this article focuses on their study. Method: A retrospective review of patients underwent MRI studies with known or suspected pathology of salivary glands was made, over five years (2011-2015, assuming a total of 123 patients. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI identified pathology in most patients, including inflammatory and infectious disorders, benign and malignant neoplasms and even autoimmune disease. Conclusions: Through these studies performed in our Hospital it was possible to get a complete vision of the glandular anatomy and pathology in most cases, including long-term monitoring of patients with known disease, optimizing scans by using fat saturation sequences and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, with the added advantage of the absence of ionizing radiation. However, in some cases it was not possible to reach an accurate diagnostic imaging and biopsy was necessary.

  10. The computed tomographic evaluation of diseases involving parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyo In; Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Jung Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    During 1983.3.-1986.8., CT findings of 35 cases of parotid lesions were retrospectively reviewed together with their surgical and histologic findings to determine its value in 3 points. 1) Anatomical localization of the lesion 2) Differentiation between benign and malignant tumors 3) The relationship with the facial nerve And also CT Sialography was done in 4 cases. The results were as follows. 1) The age distribution was 1 month-66 years of age. Male to female ratio was 4:3. 2) The most common benign tumor was pleomorphic adenoma (15%) and the most common malignant tumor was carcinoma (15%). 3) Anatomical localization was possible in all cases by noticing the direction toward the fat plane was displaced. 4) Invasion to facial nerve was determined by obliteration of the normal 'bull's 'eye'. 5) Malignancy was rather suggested when the lesion shows ill-defined border, necrotic central low density, lymphadenopathy, and ductal obstruction without a stone. Most of the diagnosis difficulties were in cases of inflammatory mass lesions and sialography was more useful than CT in such cases.

  11. Effects of isoflurane anesthesia and pilocarpine on rat parotid saliva flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jacob Dronninglund; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Josipovic, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses of isoflur......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isoflurane on unstimulated and pilocarpine-stimulated parotid saliva secretion. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into two groups, and the saliva flow rate and lag phase were measured at two doses...... of isoflurane in a crossover study design. Increasing the isoflurane concentration from 1% to 2% was associated with a 19% decrease in saliva secretion rate, and the lag to saliva secretion was increased by 155%. To clarify whether the effect of isoflurane (1.5%) on the parotid flow varied with stimulus...... intensity, we measured the parotid flow induced by seven different doses of pilocarpine on sham-irradiated rats and rats irradiated with single doses of 15 Gy. A maximal pilocarpine response was obtained with 1.5 mg/kg in both irradiated and sham-irradiated rats; however, the parotid flow of the irradiated...

  12. Quantitative gammagraphie and sialometry of the parotid in patients irradiated in the cervico-facial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaztelu, R.; Rodriguez, R.; Fernandez Garcia, M.C.; Cobo Plana, J.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in parotid function in patients presenting with tumors of the cervico-facial area, in whom the whole of the parotid gland was within the irradiation field were assesse by means of saliva secretion determinations and quantitative gammagrams of the parotid. The following aims were pursued: a) To evaluate and to compare the sensitivity of both methods. b) To compare the radiotracer agent uptake in normal parotid glands, as well as the variations that occur in relation to the number of received, and with the time duration of irradiation. The conclusions were as follows: -Both methods are sensitive, but the gammagraphic method has the advantages of being non-invasive, easily performed and not causing discomfort to the patient. -The quantification of the parotied uptake in a control group of patients, as compared with the variations occuring in relation to the number of rads racived, show that at the end of the treatment with 5.000 rads, uptake reaches 15% of that of the control group. One year later, function is very little restored, not reaching 20% of that of the control group. -Decrease of both parotid secretion and uptake is directly proportional to the dose received. (Author)

  13. Role of the Accessory Parotid Gland in the Etiology of Parotitis: Statistical Analysis of Sialographic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wangyong; Hu, Fengchun; Liu, Xingguang; Guo, Songcan; Tao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify if the existence of the accessory parotid gland correlated with the etiology of parotitis. This may aid the development of better treatment strategies in the future. Sialographic features of cases with parotitis and healthy subjects were reviewed. The chi-square test was used to compare the incidence of accessory parotid gland between the groups. The Student's t test was used to compare the length of Stensen's duct, the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct, and the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct between the groups. The incidence of accessory parotid gland in patients with parotitis was 71.8% (28/39), which was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (P = 0.005). Patients with parotitis had a longer Stensen's duct than healthy subjects (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the length from the orifice to the confluence of the accessory duct or the angle between the accessory duct and Stensen's duct (P = 0.136 and 0.511, respectively) between the groups. The accessory parotid gland might play a role in the pathogenesis of parotitis. The existence of an accessory parotid gland is likely to interfere with salivary flow. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of salivary flow in the ductal system would be useful in future etiologic studies on parotitis.

  14. The study of parotid function with radionuclide imaging after radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huanbin; Zhang Qi; Wang Ling; Wu Shixiu; Xie Congying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the uptake and excretion function of parotid by radionuclide imaging after simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) in nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods: Forty-eight nasopharyngeal cancer cases, 38 of them were treated by SMART with 2.5 Gy/fraction at tumor and enlarged lymph node to a total dose of 70 Gy, and 2.0 Gy/fraction at subclinical foci and prophy laxtic area volume to a total dose of 56 Gy in 38 d. The other 10 cases were treated by traditional radiation therapy (RT). After treatment, all patients performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. Clinical manifestation such as grade of mouth dryness was also analyzed. Results: Average UI and EI in SMART group decreased 21.9% and 37.3% respectively, with 12 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness, whereas in traditional RT group, mean UI and El decreased 56.1% and 96.1% respectively, with 9 cases moderate and severe mouth dryness. There was significant difference between them (P<0.05). Conclusion: Parotid imaging is sensitive for monitoring parotid function, and it is also reliable to evaluate the safety of SMART to parotid.. (authors)

  15. Actual Dose Variation of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Chunhui; Chen Yijen; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: For intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer, accurate dose delivery is crucial to the success of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of daily image-guided patient setup corrections and to quantify the parotid gland volume and dose variations for nasopharyngeal cancer patients using helical tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Five nasopharyngeal cancer patients who underwent helical tomotherapy were selected retrospectively. Each patient had received 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Daily megavoltage CT scans were registered with the planning CT images to correct the patient setup errors. Contours of the spinal cord and parotid glands were drawn on the megavoltage CT images at fixed treatment intervals. The actual doses delivered to the critical structures were calculated using the helical tomotherapy Planned Adaptive application. Results: The maximal dose to the spinal cord showed a significant increase and greater variation without daily setup corrections. The significant decrease in the parotid gland volume led to a greater median dose in the later phase of treatment. The average parotid gland volume had decreased from 20.5 to 13.2 cm 3 by the end of treatment. On average, the median dose to the parotid glands was 83 cGy and 145 cGy for the first and the last treatment fractions, respectively. Conclusions: Daily image-guided setup corrections can eliminate significant dose variations to critical structures. Constant monitoring of patient anatomic changes and selective replanning should be used during radiotherapy to avoid critical structure complications

  16. Ten-year study on varieties of parotid tumors in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdecia Cannizares, Caridad; Cubero Melendez, Osiris; Alonso Pirez, Magda; Portugues Diaz, Andres Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Parotid tumors are uncommon because they account for 0.5 % of all types of cancer in pediatrics. They generally occur as increased local asymptomatic volume, occasionally accompanied by pain and inflammatory signs. A retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out to determine the frequency and forms of presentation of parotid tumors diagnosed in 0-18 years-old patients, who had been admitted to the oncological surgery service of 'William Soler' pediatric hospital from February 2001 to December 2010. The variables taken into account were sex, forms of presentation, response to treatment as well as the histological variants presented, with the objective of giving information about these variants of parotid tumors in pediatrics, which, despite their rareness, represent a high risk group when occur. Seven patients were diagnosed, of whom 3 were pleomorphic adenomas, one adenocarcinoma, one mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the gland, one parotid Hodgkin lymphoma and one mixed tumor with atypical cells of the gland. The onset of all the tumors was the presence of a parotid mass in 6 asymptomatic cases and in one case suffering local pain. They were all performed gland ultrasound and aspiration fine needle biopsy. Males prevailed over the females (ratio of 5:2) and the average age of presentation was 12.3 years. Surgery is the main therapeutic weapon in most of cases. It was recommended to closely follow the patients because of their high rate of local recurrence

  17. Adrenal status assessed by direct radioimmunoassay of cortisol in whole saliva or parotid saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.F.; Riad-Fahmy, D.; Read, G.F.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a direct radioimmunoassay for cortisol in 10-μl volumes of parotid saliva or whole saliva. Binding proteins are absent from these fluids, as demonstrated by the excellent correlation between results for samples assayed directly and by a comparison procedure involving extraction with 1,2-dichloroethane. The direct assay is specific, precise, and had a lower limit of sensitivity of 4 pg per assay tube. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in plasma, parotid saliva, and whole saliva in persons undergoing investigations for assessing adrenal function, including stimulation with cosyntropin (Synachthen) and suppression with dexamethasone, indicated that changes in plasma cortisol concentration were accurately and immediately reflected in saliva from either the parotid-gland or whole saliva. A marked circadian rhythm has also been demonstrated for cortisol in parotid-gland saliva and whole saliva. We had to modify the 1,2-dichloroethane extraction procedure for accurate determination of cortisol in parotid saliva and whole saliva of patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone

  18. Morbi-mortalidad de pacientes con tuberculosis hospitalizados en el Departamento de enfermedades infecciosas, tropicales y dermatológicas del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima - Perú entre los años 1990 y 2000

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    Raul Chuquiyauri Haro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas y la mortalidad de pacientes hospitalizados con tuberculosis (TBC en el Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Tropicales y Dermatológicas del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (DEITD-HNCH de Lima, Perú. Material y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo y observacional que incluyó a pacientes hospitalizados desde enero de 1990 hasta diciembre de 2000 con diagnóstico de TBC definitiva o probable. Resultados: Se registraron 1340 altas con diagnóstico de TBC (18.7 %. La edad promedio de los pacientes hospitalizados con TBC fue 33.5 ± 15.1 años, 69.2% fueron varones y 28.1 % tuvieron infección por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH. La mortalidad por TBC fue 17.2 % y permaneció constante durante el período. El número de muertes por TBC (230 pacientes representó el 37.5 % de las muertes por todas las causas (613 pacientes. De los fallecidos por TBC, 151 (65.6 % tuvieron TBC multisistémica, 60 (26.1 % TBC pulmonar y 19 (8.3 % TBC extrapulmonar exclusiva. Hubo sospecha clínica de TBC multidrogorresistente (TBC-MDR en 51 (22.2 % pacientes fallecidos. Edad mayor de 30 años (OR=1.6, 1.2infecciosas de un hospital público referencial no ha disminuido en los últimos 11 años. Infección por VIH y ser mayor de 30 años están asociados a mortalidad. (Rev Med Hered 2004; 15:203-210.

  19. Parotiditis crónica recidivante con trastornos inmunológicos asociados Chronic recurrent parotiditis with associated immunological disorders

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    Annia Esther Vives Iglesias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el departamento de ultrasonido diagnóstico fue atendida una paciente, de tres años de edad, que presentaba inflamación de ambas glándulas parótidas y que había presentado varios episodios de dolor, tumefacción unilateral o bilateral y fiebre. Había sido valorada en varias ocasiones por pediatría y había recibido múltiples tratamientos con antibióticos. Se le indicó ultrasonido de partes blandas y se valoró por inmunología. Se encontró un retardo en la fagocitosis y una disminución de la inmunidad celular. Se puso tratamiento con inmunomoduladores y antihistamínicos.A 3-year-old female patient with swelling of both parotid glands that had presented various episodes of pain, unilateral or bilateral tumefaction and fever was seen at the diagnostic ultrasound department. She had been evaluated on several occasions by the pediatric department and had received multiple treatments with antibiotics. An ultrasound of soft tissues was indicated and she was assessed at the immunology service. A phagocytosis retardation and a reduction of cellular immunity were found. A treatment with immunomodulators and antihistamines was applied.

  20. Doenças infecciosas e parasitárias no Brasil: uma década de transição

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    Neir Antunes Paes

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Em pleno período de transição epidemiológica e demográfica, também marcado pela melhoria na qualidade dos registros de óbitos no Brasil, é crucial entender o comportamento recente da mortalidade por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias neste país. Este trabalho apresenta as mudanças nos padrões de mortalidade por causas infecciosas e parasitárias para o Brasil e seus estados durante a década de 1980. Foram utilizados para tanto os dados de mortalidade provenientes do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde, classificados de acordo com a Classificação Internacional de Doenças (nona revisão. O resultado desta análise revela mudanças nos padrões de mortalidade com acentuadas quedas nas taxas de mortalidade por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias para o Brasil (variação de 41% para homens e 44% para mulheres, em particular para os estados das regiões Norte e Nordeste. No entanto, estes estados ainda são detentores das mais elevadas taxas de mortalidade do país. Em termos de distribuição etária, as variações atingiram com maior intensidade os extremos de idade, especialmente o grupo de menores de 1 ano. Dentre as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, o estudo observou ainda o comportamento da mortalidade por doenças infecciosas intestinais (na sua maioria classificadas como mal definidas, tuberculose e septicemia. As taxas de mortalidade por doenças infecciosas intestinais e tuberculose apresentaram uma expressiva queda; o risco de morte por septicemia, por sua vez, apresentou um aumento real durante a década. Apesar do decréscimo global das taxas de mortalidade e da diminuição da mortalidade proporcional por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, a mortalidade por esta causa ainda permanece elevada no Brasil, e exige atenção prioritária por parte dos setores competentes.

  1. Prospective evaluation of fever of unknown origin in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, F; Torre-Cisneros, J; Bascuñana, A; Polo, J; Viciana, P; García-Ordóñez, M A; Hernández-Quero, J; Márquez, M; Vergara, A; Díez, F; Pujol, E; Torres-Tortosa, M; Pasquau, J; Hernández-Burruezo, J J; Suárez, I

    1996-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and aetiology of fever of unknown origin (FUO) in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to assess the value of the tests used in its diagnosis, and to evaluate possible models of diagnosis for the causes found most frequently. One hundred twenty-eight (3.5%) of 3603 hospitalised HIV-positive patients evaluated from October 1992 to December 1993 had FUO, defined by established criteria. Eighty-six percent of patients with FUO had previously progressed to AIDS. The median CD4+ cell count was 46/mm3. A definite diagnosis was made in 96 (75%) of the 128 patients and a possible diagnosis in 24 (18.7%). whilst no diagnosis was made in eight cases (6.2%). Tuberculosis (48.3%), visceral leishmaniasis (16%), and infection by Mycobacterium avium complex (6.9%) were the diseases found most frequently. The most useful diagnostic tests were liver biopsy (68.9%) and bone marrow aspirate/biopsy (39.7%). It is not possible to predict clinically the cases of FUO due to tuberculosis, whilst thrombocytopaenia < 100,000 cells/mm3 alone is useful for differentiating the cases of visceral leishmaniasis, with a negative predictive value of 95.2%.

  2. Comparative study of bacteremias caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without high-level resistance to gentamicin. The Grupo Andaluz para el estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Granado, F J; Cisneros, J M; Luque, R; Torres-Tortosa, M; Gamboa, F; Díez, F; Villanueva, J L; Pérez-Cano, R; Pasquau, J; Merino, D; Menchero, A; Mora, D; López-Ruz, M A; Vergara, A

    1998-02-01

    A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections.

  3. Metastatic Parotid Myoepithelial Carcinoma in a 7-Year-Old Boy

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    Issam Saliba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare malignancy of the parotid gland that is usually seen in adults. We report the first case in children of myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland with massive invasion of the facial nerve and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes. Due to its rarity, the treatment and the clinical course of this tumor are not well defined yet. We performed a total parotidectomy, a modified neck dissection, and a postoperative radiotherapy in 7-year-old boy. Sparing of the facial nerve was impossible; it was sacrificed and grafted with a sural nerve. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a parotid gland carcinoma and immunohistochemical markers showed that the tumor cells express cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin 7, smooth muscle actin, P63, CEA, and S100. This pattern of immunostaining is consistent with the diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma. On the postoperative tenth month he presented with a pulmonary and lumbar vertebra metastasis.

  4. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  5. A forgotten facial nerve tumour: granular cell tumour of the parotid and its implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerut, B; Vosbeck, J; Linder, T E

    2011-04-01

    We present a rare case of a facial nerve granular cell tumour in the right parotid gland, in a 10-year-old boy. A parotid or neurogenic tumour was suspected, based on magnetic resonance imaging. Intra-operatively, strong adhesions to surrounding structures were found, and a midfacial nerve branch had to be sacrificed for complete tumour removal. Recent reports verify that granular cell tumours arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerve branches. The rarity of this tumour within the parotid gland, its origin from peripheral nerves, its sometimes misleading imaging characteristics, and its rare presentation with facial weakness and pain all have considerable implications on the surgical strategy and pre-operative counselling. Fine needle aspiration cytology may confirm the neurogenic origin of this lesion. When resecting the tumour, the surgeon must anticipate strong adherence to the facial nerve and be prepared to graft, or sacrifice, certain branches of this nerve.

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis can evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict late xerostomia degree in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Guo, Tingting; Zheng, Huanhuan; Pan, Xia; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-19

    We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased ( P histogram parameters increased (all P histogram parameters. Early mean change rates for bilateral parotid SD and ADC max could predict late xerostomia degrees at seven months after radiotherapy (three months after time point 3) with AUC of 0.781 and 0.818 ( P = 0.014, 0.005, respectively). ADC histogram parameters were reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.830 - 0.999). ADC histogram analysis could be used to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage noninvasively, and predict late xerostomia degrees of NPC patients treated with radiotherapy.

  7. USO DE PRODUTOS NATURAIS PARA O TRATAMENTO DE DOENÇAS INFECCIOSAS: PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA

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    Keylla Conceição Machado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de produtos naturais demonstram uma grande dimensão e conscientização através da aplicação empírica da fitoterapia entre a população. Esses produtos estão frequentemente em testes para comprovar sua eficácia em diversas patologias, dentre elas, as doenças infecciosas que representam graves problemas de saúde pública. O presente estudo objetivou realizar uma busca de anterioridade e apresentar uma visão geral do estado atual do desenvolvimento tecnológico relacionado ao uso de produtos naturais para o tratamento de doenças infecciosas. A prospecção foi realizada tendo como base os pedidos de patente depositados em 4 bancos de dados analisados, sendo eles, Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial (INPI do Brasil, no European Patent Office (EPO, United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO e World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO. Após a pesquisa foi constatado apenas 20 patentes, demostrando que em 2008 foi observado o maior número de depósito e que os Estados Unidos se apresentam como o maior depositário, e demostrando a classificação internacional mais abundante foi A61K, que trata de preparações para finalidades médicas, odontológicas e/ou higiênicas. Contudo, foi observado que ainda existe um pequeno número de patentes, sendo necessário um interesse maior no uso de produtos naturais nessas doenças, que vem se manifestando cada vez mais.

  8. Esclerite infecciosa espontânea por Nocardia asteroides: relato de caso Spontaneus nocardial scleritis: case report

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    Andréia Peltier Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relato de caso raro de esclerite infecciosa por Nocardia asteroides, em paciente sem fatores de risco para esclerite. MÉTODOS: Paciente feminina, de 38 anos, apresentando olho vermelho e dor durante 1 mês, com esclerite nodular no olho direito. Sem história prévia de trauma ou cirurgia ocular. Exames laboratoriais normais, sem doenças sistêmicas ou imunodepressão. Foi submetida à biópsia diagnóstica, com ressecção conjuntival da área acometida, cuja cultura evidenciou Nocardia asteroides. Fez tratamento sistêmico com sulfametoxazol-trimetropima e tópico com colírio de amicacina. Após dois meses de tratamento apresentou remissão total do processo infeccioso e acuidade visual final corrigida 20/20. CONCLUSÃO: O diagnóstico e tratamento precoces na esclerite infecciosa por Nocardia asteroides podem permitir prognóstico visual satisfatório.PURPOSE: To report a case of Nocardia asteroides scleritis in a patient without risk factors for infeccious scleritis. METHODS: A 38-year old woman was initially examined for pain, discharge, photophobia of 1 month duration in her right eye. Her medical and ophthalmological history were unremarkable. The results of laboratory tests were normal. Surgical debridement of necrotic tissue was performed and material was sent for biopsy and culture confirmed as Nocardia asteroides. Treatment consisted of amikacin eyedrops, and systemic trimethropim-sulfamethoxazole. The infection resolved leaving scleral thinning and a subconjunctival fibrovascular scar. Best corrected visual acuity two months after referral had improved to LE, 20/20. CONCLUSION: Prompt evaluation and treatment is essential for successful management of Nocardia asteroides infectious scleritis.

  9. Xerostomia after radiotherapy. What matters - mean total dose or dose to each parotid gland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribius, S.; Sommer, J.; Prosch, C.; Bajrovic, A.; Kruell, A.; Petersen, C.; Muenscher, A.; Blessmann, M.; Todorovic, M.; Tennstedt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a debilitating side effect of radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. We undertook a prospective study of the effect on xerostomia and outcomes of sparing one or both parotid glands during radiotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and materials: Patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received definitive (70 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) or adjuvant (60-66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) curative-intent radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy if appropriate. Group A received < 26 Gy to the left and right parotids and group B received < 26 Gy to either parotid. Results: The study included 126 patients; 114 (55 in group A and 59 in group B) had follow-up data. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in disease stage. Xerostomia was significantly reduced in group A vs. group B (p = 0.0381). Patients in group A also had significantly less dysphagia. Relapse-free and overall survival were not compromised in group A: 2-year relapse-free survival was 86% vs. 72% in group B (p = 0.361); 2-year overall survival was 88% and 76%, respectively (p = 0.251). Conclusion: This analysis suggests that reducing radiotherapy doses to both parotid glands to < 26 Gy can reduce xerostomia and dysphagia significantly without compromising survival. Sparing both parotids while maintaining target volume coverage and clinical outcome should be the treatment goal and reporting radiotherapy doses delivered to the individual parotids should be standard practice. (orig.)

  10. Features of Parotid Gland Diseases and Surgical Results in Southern Taiwan

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    Wen-Hsiang Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Various parotid gland diseases are seen clinically, including inflammation, sialolithiasis, and benign and malignant tumors. It is important to differentiate between these to make a correct diagnosis and for proper management. Here, we investigated the relationship between tumor characteristics and pathology, and considered whether the former could be used to differentiate malignant from benign parotid gland diseases. We retrospectively reviewed the charts and data of 316 patients who underwent surgery in Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2008. Two hundred and eighty-one patients (88.9% had benign disease, and 35 (11.1% had malignant disease. The most common benign disease was pleomorphic adenoma (115 cases, 36.4%, but the most common disease in male patients was Warthin's tumor, a finding which, as far as we aware, has not been previously been reported in the literature. The incidence of Warthin's tumor seems to be increasing. In malignant disease, the most common was acinic cell carcinoma (8 cases, 22.9%. Compared with benign disease, malignant parotid gland disease more often presents as a hard, painful, fixed and large mass (> 3 cm, and more often involves the deep lobe of the parotid gland. Partial parotidectomy was adequate for most tumors, including pleomorphic adenoma. The most common postoperative complication was temporary facial palsy, followed by permanent facial palsy. However, there was no difference in transient facial palsy rate between benign and malignant parotid gland disease, although parotid gland cancer had a higher incidence of permanent facial palsy postoperatively.

  11. Sonographic Assessment of Parotid and Submandibular Glands in Patients Undergoing 3D Conformal Radiotherapy

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    Johari M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate sonographic changes in parotid and submandibular salivary glands in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. In addition, salivary changes subsequent to radiotherapy were evaluated objectively and subjectively. Twenty patients(13males and 7females with head and neck malignancies, who had been referred to the Radiotherapy/Oncology Department of the Shahid Madani Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, were included in the study. Length, width, echotexture, echogenicity and margins of parotid and submandibular glands were evaluated before and after radiotherapy using sonography. Peak-systolic velocity(PSV,end-diastolic velocity(EDV and resistive index(RI were also assessed by Doppler sonography. Xerostomia subsequent to radiotherapy was evaluated with the use of two techniques: patients’ self-reported scoring and objective measurement of resting saliva. There was a significant decrease in the width of the parotid gland after radiotherapy compared to baseline(P=0.005.Although the length of the parotid gland and the dimensions of submandibular gland decrease, the differences were not significant. In addition, the echogenicity, echotexture and the margin of the glands change to hypoechoic, heterogenic and irregular, respectively, subsequent to radiotherapy. The Doppler technique showed decrease in PSV and RI and an increase in EDV; however, only the decrease in RI in the submandibular gland was statistically significant(P=0.002.The results showed a significant decrease in salivary flow after radiotherapy(P<0.001.In addition, based on the patients reports, the severity of xerostomia increased significantly after radiotherapy(P<0.001. Songraphic changes of parotid and submandibular glands after radiotherapy should be considered in ultrasound examinations. The damages to the parotid and submandibular glands had significant influence in patient post 3D-CRT.

  12. Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho; de Souza, Fabrício Tinôco Alvim; Ferreira, Efigênia; Souza, Renan Pedra; Macedo, Samuel Costa; Friedman, Eitan; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2016-10-01

    There is controversy on the effects of the non-ionizing radiation emitted by cell phones on cellular processes and the impact of such radiation exposure on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cell phone use alters cytokine expression in the saliva produced by the parotid glands. Cytokine expression profile was determined by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in the saliva produced by the parotid glands in healthy volunteers, and correlated with self-reported cell phone use and laterality. The following parameters were determined, in 83 Brazilian individuals in saliva produced by the parotid glands comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to that from the contralateral parotid: salivary flow, total protein concentration, interleukin 1 β (IL-1 β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interferon γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) salivary levels by ELISA. After multiple testing correction, decreased IL-10 and increased IL-1β salivary levels in the ipsilateral side compared with the contralateral side (P cell phones for more than 10 years presented higher differences between IL-10 levels in ipsilateral versus contralateral parotids (P = 0.0012). No difference was observed in any of the tested parameters in correlation with cell phone monthly usage in minutes. The exposure of parotid glands to cell phones can alter salivary IL-10 and IL-1β levels, consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment that may be related to heat production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Paediatric parotid neoplasms: a 10 year retrospective imaging and pathology review of these rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamlouk, M.D.; Rosbe, K.W.; Glastonbury, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relative incidence of benign and malignant paediatric parotid gland tumours and whether particular presenting symptoms or imaging characteristics were more likely to predict malignancy. Materials and methods: Hospital records were reviewed for all patients <18 years with histopathology-proven parotid neoplasms over the 10 year period from 2003–2013. Infantile haemangiomas and patients with neurofibromatosis type I were excluded. The presenting clinical symptoms for each patient were recorded. All available CT and MRI examinations for these patients were evaluated for tumour imaging characteristics. Results: Seventeen patients (nine boys, eight girls; age range 2–17 years) were identified with neoplastic parotid masses; 11 tumours were malignant (65%) and six were benign (35%). The malignant tumours consisted of three acinic cell carcinomas, two mucoepidermoid carcinomas, one alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, one poorly differentiated carcinoma, one low-grade adenocarcinoma, and three metastases (two melanoma, one orbital medulloepithelioma). The benign tumours consisted of five pleomorphic adenomas and one schwannoma. Presenting clinical symptoms were similar between benign and malignant tumours. Twelve MRI and six CT examinations were available for review with five patients undergoing both techniques. MRI features commonly identified with malignant tumours included: hypointense T2 signal, restricted diffusion, ill-defined borders, and focal necrosis. Only four of the six tumours imaged at CT were visualized, and of those, the margins were indeterminate in three patients. Conclusion: Paediatric parotid masses are more likely to be malignant than benign. Presenting clinical symptoms and CT are not helpful for distinguishing benign and malignant disease. MRI features such as T2 hypointensity, restricted diffusion, ill-defined borders, and focal necrosis, although not specific, should raise concern for malignancy. - Highlights: • Pediatric parotid

  14. Xerostomia after radiotherapy. What matters - mean total dose or dose to each parotid gland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribius, S.; Sommer, J.; Prosch, C.; Bajrovic, A.; Kruell, A.; Petersen, C. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Muenscher, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery; Blessmann, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Todorovic, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics; Tennstedt, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a debilitating side effect of radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. We undertook a prospective study of the effect on xerostomia and outcomes of sparing one or both parotid glands during radiotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and materials: Patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received definitive (70 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) or adjuvant (60-66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) curative-intent radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy if appropriate. Group A received < 26 Gy to the left and right parotids and group B received < 26 Gy to either parotid. Results: The study included 126 patients; 114 (55 in group A and 59 in group B) had follow-up data. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in disease stage. Xerostomia was significantly reduced in group A vs. group B (p = 0.0381). Patients in group A also had significantly less dysphagia. Relapse-free and overall survival were not compromised in group A: 2-year relapse-free survival was 86% vs. 72% in group B (p = 0.361); 2-year overall survival was 88% and 76%, respectively (p = 0.251). Conclusion: This analysis suggests that reducing radiotherapy doses to both parotid glands to < 26 Gy can reduce xerostomia and dysphagia significantly without compromising survival. Sparing both parotids while maintaining target volume coverage and clinical outcome should be the treatment goal and reporting radiotherapy doses delivered to the individual parotids should be standard practice. (orig.)

  15. K+ transport and membrane potentials in isolated rat parotid acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauntofte, B.; Dissing, S.

    1988-01-01

    42K+ transport properties of isolated rat parotid acini were characterized concomitant with measurements of membrane potentials (Em) by means of the fluorescent dye diSC3-(5). In unstimulated acini suspended in a 5 mM K+ buffer, Em was governed by the K+ and Cl- gradients and amounted to about -59 mV, a value that remained unaffected on cholinergic stimulation. In unstimulated acini, 42K+ influx was largely mediated by the Na+-K+ pump, and the residual influxes were mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component (cotransport system) and by K+ channels. Efflux of 42K+ was largely mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component and by K+ channels. In the unstimulated state, the cotransport system was mediating K+-K+ exchange without contributing to the net uptake of K+. Within 10 s after stimulation, a approximately 10-fold increase in the acinar K+ conductance (gK) occurred, resulting in a rapid net efflux of K+ that amounted to approximately 3.8 mmol.l cells-1.s-1. Measurements of 42K+ fluxes as a function of the external K+ concentration revealed that in the stimulated state gK increases when external K+ is raised from 0.7 to 10 mM, consistent with an activation of acinar gK by the binding of external K+ to the channel. 42K+ flux ratios as well as the effect of the K+ channel inhibitor from scorpion venom (LQV) suggest that approximately 90% of K+ transport in the stimulated state is mediated by ''maxi'' K+ channels

  16. Parotid tumor statistics for the past five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Soichi; Sueno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Asano, Yukimi; Shiba, Kazutaka; Sekiguchi, Nao; Masuda, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed the case of 40 patients with parotid tumor who underwent an operation in the past five years. The patients included 23 (57.5%) males and 17 (42.5%) females. The average age was 53.4 years old with a range of 19 to 71 years. Thirty eight (95.0%) had benign tumor, and 2 (5.0%) had malignant tumor. Tc scintigraphy was performed in 37 out of the 40 patients, and 9 patients showed positive results. Six patients had warthin's tumor, and 3 had pleomorphic adenoma. In other words, 66.7% were positive for warthin's tumor. Ga scintigraphy was performed in 31 out of the 40 patients. Nine were positive out of the 10 benign tumor that showed a positive result. None of the cases had permanent facial palsy as a postoperative complication. Transient facial palsy was exhibited by 13 patients (32.5%), but they all improved 2 weeks to 6 months. In addition, we experienced 1 case of salivary fistula. Pleomorphic adenoma was noted in 63.2%, and warthin's tumor in 23.7%. There was no gender difference for pleomorphic adenoma, but 8 out of the 9 patients with warthin's tumor were men. The average age was 47.0 for pleomorphic adenoma and 58.7 for warthin's tumor which was in accordance with conventional reports. The Tc scintigraphy positive rate of warthin's tumor was low, 66.7%, in comparison with that in conventional reports. In addition, 90% of the tumors that showed positive results in Ga scintigraphy were preoperatively positive tumors, indicating the diagnostic usefulness of this. Transient facial palsy was a complication in 32.5% of the patients, which was similar to the rate in the conventional report. We experienced 1 case salivary fistula, which did not improve with conservative treatment. We opened the wounded area, and drained it by pressing. (author)

  17. Morbilidad y mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas intestinales (001-009: Cuba, 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl L. Riverón Corteguera

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 20 años la mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas intestinales en menores de 5 años en el mundo se ha reducido de manera significativa; sin embargo, en 1998 se registraron en el nivel mundial 2,2 millones de defunciones en los menores de 5 años. En la actualidad todavía la mortalidad seconsidera un problema de salud muy serio, sobre todo en los países subdesarrollados. En Cuba, la mortalidad por estas enfermedades en los menores de 5 años se ha reducido de manera notable, aunque la morbilidad constituye un problema importante de salud en ciertos meses del año por las alzas estacionales de la enfermedad. Este artículo muestra los resultados del trabajo desplegado a partir de 1980 en el cual se puso en ejecución el Programa Mundial de Control de las Enfermedades Diarreicas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que en Cuba es una continuación del Programa Nacional de Lucha contra la Gastroenteritis que se inició en 1962. Los datos de morbilidad se ofrecen desde 1985 según diferentes grupos de edades. Las reducciones en la morbilidad han sido discretas; en los menores de 1 año fue del 30,8 %; en el grupo de 1 a 4 años, 8,0 %; en los menores de 5 años del 20,1 %; en los de 5 a 14 años del 3,5 % y en los menores de 15 años del 15,8 %. Las tasas de mortalidad disminuyeron en el período de 1980 a 1999 en el 91,0 % en los menores de un año; el 50,0 % en los niños de 1 a 4 años; 85,7 % en menores de 5 años; en 66,7 % en el grupo de 5 a 14 años, y en 81,1 % en los menores de 15 años. Los elementos fundamentales que han contribuido a esta disminución en la mortalidad por enfermedades diarreas han sido, en primer lugar el uso de las sales de rehidratación oral, en la prevención y tratamiento de la deshidratación, el uso racional de antimicrobianos, el incremento de la lactancia materna exclusiva, la capacitación de los recursos humanos, el tratamiento intensivo por parte de nuestros profesionales de la salud

  18. Pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland with cystic degeneration: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Dhir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma, also called benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. Usually they are found as solitary, unilateral, firm and mobile, painless, slow growing masses. Only 10% of them occur in the minor salivary glands and 90% of them occur in the parotid gland. The incidence of parotid tumor is about 2.4 in 100000/year of all neoplasia of head and neck region, the right side being commonly involved and seen more often in males. Management involves surgical resection by superficial or total parotidectomy. This case report illustrates clinical features, imaging characteristics and histopathological features in a case of pleomorphic adenoma.

  19. Parotid Gland Sparing With Helical Tomotherapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voordeckers, Mia; Farrag, Ashraf; Everaert, Hendrik; Tournel, Koen; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the ability of helical tomotherapy to spare the function of the parotid glands in patients with head-and-neck cancer by analyzing dose–volume histograms, salivary gland scintigraphy, and quality of life assessment. Methods and Materials: Data from 76 consecutive patients treated with helical tomotherapy (Hi-Art Tomotherapy) at University Hospital Brussel were analyzed. During planning, priority was given to planning target volume (PTV) coverage: ≥95% of the dose must be delivered to ≥95% of the PTV. Elective nodal regions received 54 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). A dose of 70.5 Gy (2.35 Gy/fraction) was prescribed to the primary tumor and pathologic lymph nodes (simultaneous integrated boost scheme). Objective scoring of salivary excretion was performed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Subjective scoring of salivary gland function was evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaires Quality of Life Questionnaire—C30 (QLQ-C30) and Quality of Life Questionnaire—Head and Neck 35 (H and N35). Results: Analysis of dose–volume histograms (DVHs) showed excellent coverage of the PTV. The volume of PTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (V95%) was 99.4 (range, 96.3–99.9). DVH analysis of parotid gland showed a median value of the mean parotid dose of 32.1 Gy (range, 17.5–70.3 Gy). The median parotid volume receiving a dose <26 Gy was 51.2%. Quality of life evaluation demonstrated an initial deterioration of almost all scales and items in QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35. Most items improved in time, and some reached baseline values 18 months after treatment. Conclusion: DVH analysis, scintigraphic evaluation of parotid function, and quality of life assessment of our patient group showed that helical tomotherapy makes it possible to preserve parotid gland function without compromising disease control. We recommend mean parotid doses of <34 Gy and doses <26 Gy to a maximum 47% of the

  20. Peptide-evoked release of amylase from isolated acini of the rat parotid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goll, R; Poulsen, J H; Schmidt, P

    1994-01-01

    on isolated acini of the rat parotid gland. Furthermore, the occurrence and location of the peptides in the gland was studied. Finally, binding of 125I-BH-SP to isolated acini were studied in order to characterize their tachykinin receptor(s) and their binding kinetics. Only SP, NKA, NPK and VIP stimulated...... of NK1-receptors. Thus, the results of the present study support previous suggestions that the tachykinins and VIP are likely to be involved in amylase secretion in the rat parotid gland....

  1. Benign lymphoepithelial cysts of the parotid glands in HIV-positive patients. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piqueras, R.M.; Marco, S.F.; Lazaro, S.; Gonzlez, M.

    1997-01-01

    Benign parotid lymphoepithelial cysts (BPLEC) with cervical lymph node involvement are a recently reported radiological sign of HIV infection in head and neck in patients ar risk for developing AIDS. These cysts lesions present in the parotid glands of HIV-positive individuals and are associated with cervical lymph node involvement. We present a case of BPLEC in a HIV-positive patients that was studied by ultrasound and computerized tomography. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy. We describe the radiological signs of this lesion as detected by the imaging techniques employed and we establish the differential diagnosis. (Author) 14 refs

  2. Tumors in the parotid are not relatively more often malignant in children than in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, E; Andreasen, S; Bjørndal, K

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tumors of the parotid gland in children are rare and very little data has been published regarding the incidence of these tumors. We present a nationwide survey on this topic. METHODS: Data regarding benign and malignant tumors in the parotid gland in children from January 1st, 1990......) followed by the mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=3) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (n=2). The overall female-to-male ratio was 1.18, with a ratio of 1.08 and 2.0 in the benign and malignant groups, respectively. At the end of follow-up (August 1st, 2014) two patients had died, one with adenoid cystic carcinoma...

  3. Radiation effects on the parotid gland of mammals. Pt. 3. Behaviour of enzyme activity after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomassi, I; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia; Pelu, G [I.N.R.C.A., Florence (Italy). Inst. of Radiology

    1979-08-01

    Modifications of some enzyme activities in parotid tissue homogenates have been studied in animals which were also examined for morphological changes and for plasma and parotid amylase activity. Results from irradiated animals show a certain increase in maltase activity. Alkaline phosphatase and LAP show no significant variations; a similar behaviour is shown by lysosomal enzymes and protein content. A different pattern was seen by comparing the curves of these enzymes with those of the same activity in the small intestine. This result appears to be due to the different radiosensitivity of these tissues.

  4. la tumeur de warthin de la parotide : a propos de 11 cas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 mai 2013 ... Nodule de densité tissulaire à contours nets du pôle infé- rieur de la glande parotide gauche avec prise de contraste hétérogène. L'iRM réalisée pour 3 autres patients a posé le diagnos- tic de tumeur bénigne de la parotide dans tous les cas en montrant des tumeurs aux contours réguliers et biens définis.

  5. Functional imaging of parotid glands: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Gossrau, P.; Adam, G. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Graessner, J. [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Medical Solutions; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Oto-, Rhino-, Laryngology; Fiehler, J. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Neuroradiology; Schoder, V. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for measuring different functional conditions of the parotid gland and to compare different measurement approaches. Materials and Methods: Parotid glands of 27 healthy volunteers were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field-of-view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm) before and after oral stimulation with commercially available lemon juice. The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed circular region of interest (ROI) containing 100-200 pixel. Additional ROIs including the entire parotid gland were placed on either side. The results of both measurements were compared, using the Student's t test based on the median ADC values for each person. A two-tailed p-value of less than.05 was determined to indicate statistical significance. To compare both measurement approaches, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Results: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging successfully visualized the parotid gland of all volunteers. In a first step, the median ADC value per person was computed. Using ROIs of 100-200 pixels, the mean was calculated to be 1.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands prior to simulation. After stimulation, the mean ADC was measured at 1.15 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands. Evaluating the entire parotid gland, the ADC was 1.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec prior to simulation, whereas the ADC increased to 1.18 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec after simulation with lemon juice. For both types of measurements, the increase in ADC after

  6. Incidental focal FDG uptake in the parotid glands on PET/CT in patients with head and neck malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Lan; Yoon, Dae Young; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Yun, Eun Joo; Cho, Young Kwon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Sora [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Woo Jin; Chung, Eun Jae; Kwon, Kee Hwan [Hallym University College of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ilsong Memorial Institute of Head and Neck Cancer, Kangdong Seong-Sim Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of focal parotid lesions identified by {sup 18} F- FDG PET/CT in patients with nonparotid head and neck malignancies. From 3,638 PET/CT examinations using {sup 18} F-FDG conducted on 1,342 patients with nonparotid head and neck malignancies, we retrospectively identified patients showing incidental focal FDG uptake in the parotid glands. The diagnosis of parotid lesions was confirmed histopathologically or on imaging follow-up. Patient demographics, clinical features, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) on PET images, size and attenuation on corresponding contrast-enhanced CT images were assessed and correlated with the final diagnosis. The prevalence of incidental focal parotid FDG uptake on PET/CT was 2.1 % (95 % CI 1.4 - 3.0 %). Among 21 patients with focal parotid lesions confirmed histologically or on imaging follow-up, 7 (33.3 %) had malignant lesions (all metastases) and 14 (66.7 %) had benign lesions (four pleomorphic adenomas, two Warthin's tumours, one benign lymph node, one granulomatous lesion, six lesions without histopathological confirmation). There were no significant differences in age, sex, SUV{sub max} or CT findings between patients with benign and those with malignant lesions. Focal parotid FDG uptake on PET/CT in patients with head and neck malignancy warrants further investigations to ensure adequate therapy for incidental parotid lesions. (orig.)

  7. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Novaes, Pedro Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received α-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  8. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to β-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland β-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland β-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by [ 3 H]-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with [ 3 H]-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed

  9. Continuous analysis of parotid saliva during resting and short-duration simulated chewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyraud, E.; Bult, J.H.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parotid saliva flow is increased by mastication and its composition is also modified. The aim of this work was to clarify the relationships between flow rate, pH and protein concentration, during resting and short-duration simulated chewing, using continuous and fractional saliva

  10. carcinome adénoïde kystique de la parotide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    veuses. Les auteurs rapportent trois cas de CAK de la glande parotide diagnostiqués et traités entre l'année 2000 et 2007. ... any cervical lymph nodes in the clinical exam. All the ... une tuméfaction parotidienne droite de 1,5 cm de dia- mètre ...

  11. Histomorphologic study of the parotide glands of young rats exposed of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslindo, E.B.; Utrilla, L.S.; Roslindo, N.C.; Onofre, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed on rats to verify the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of the parotid glands of young rats. Thirty twenty five-day old rats (Holtzman) were equally distributed into two experimental groups: Group 1 - irradiated; Group II - control. Using a conventional X-ray apparatus, the region of the parotid glands was irradiated with a dose of 300 R, this procedure was repeated every 48 hours up to an exposition of 1200 R. After periods of 3, 8, 13, 18, and 28 days, the animals belonging to both groups were sacrificed and the parotid glands removed and fixed in 10% formalin and Bouin liquid for 24 hours. The sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Mallory's Thricromic, allowing analysis through the usual optical microscope. The following conclusions may be drawn through the methodology used: the Group 1 - rats gained body weight uniformly after the 13 sup(th) day, although this was not equivalent to the control group; the critical phase of glandular disorganization determined by irradiation corresponded to the experimental period of 8 days, decreasing in the subsequent days; the serous acini and the striated ducts showed to be more radium sensitive even under the use of low fractionated doses; the parotid glands showed indications of gradual morphological recovery after the last exposition to X-rays. (author)

  12. Whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases: The technique of irradiation influences the dose to parotid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, G.; Paulon, R.; Verrelle, P.; Lapeyre, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of brain metastases, whole brain radiotherapy can be carried out according two distinct methods: one using multi-leaf collimator for field shaping and protection of organs at risk, and a second one is to make a rotation of the field to avoid the eyes. The aim of the study was to compare for 10 patients the dose distributions at organs at risk for each method. Patients received 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Except for parotid glands, the dose received by organs at risk and the planning target volume was the same with each method. For whole brain radiotherapy, excluding the cisterna cerebellomedullaris, the mean parotid dose was 9.63 Gy using the multi-leaf collimator versus 12.32 Gy using the field rotation (P = 0.04). For whole brain radiotherapy including the cisterna cerebellomedullaris, the mean parotid dose was 11.12 Gy using the multi-leaf collimator versus 20.06 Gy using field rotation (P < 0.001). Using the multi-leaf collimator seems recommended for whole brain radiotherapy, to reduce the dose to the parotids. (authors)

  13. The feasibility of sugammadex for general anesthesia and facial nerve monitoring in patients undergoing parotid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I-Cheng; Chang, Pi-Ying; Su, Miao-Pei; Chen, Po-Nien; Chen, Hsiu-Ya; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Wu, Che-Wei

    2017-08-01

    The use of neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) during anesthesia may interfere with facial nerve monitoring (FNM) during parotid surgery. Sugammadex has been reported to be an effective and safe reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) during surgery. This study investigated the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of sugammadex for NMB reversal during FNM in Parotid surgery. Fifty patients undergoing parotid surgery were randomized allocated into conventional anesthesia group (Group C, n = 25) and sugammadex group (Group S, n = 25). Group C did not receive any NMBA. Group S received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg at anesthesia induction and sugammadex 2 mg/kg at skin incision. The intubating condition and influence on FNM evoked EMG results were compared between groups. The intubation condition showed significantly better in group S patients than C group patients (excellent in 96% v.s. 24%). In group S, rapid reverse of NMB was found and the twitch (%) recovered from 0 to >90% within 10 min. Positive and high EMG signals were obtained in all patients at the time point of initial facial nerve stimulation in both groups. There was no significant difference as comparing the EMG amplitudes detected at the time point of initial and final facial nerve stimulation in both groups. Implementation of sugammadex in anesthesia protocol is feasible and reliable for successful FNM during parotid surgery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. Treatment of primary parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: an analysis of 29 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wendong; Feng Yan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of primary parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods: From March 1988 to February 2001, twenty-nine patients with primary parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The data were analyzed according to the following factors: sex, age, stage, pathologic classification, chemotherapy given or not, cycles of chemotherapy, radiotherapy given or not, and the dose at the parotid. Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank method were used in the statistic analysis. Results: The overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 73.3% and 51.0%. Stage and pathologic classification were prognostic factors in our statistic analysis. The 5-year survival rates were 81.6% and 25.0% for early stage (I E + II E) and advanced stage (III E + IV E) patients, with the difference significant (P<0.01). The 5-year survival rate for patients with the pathologic classification of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) was 100% as compared to 42.2% for patients with diffused large B cell lymphoma, with the difference also significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: The prognosis of primary parotid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is satisfactory. Surgery should only be used as a diagnostic method. Radiotherapy should be the first choice for patients with MALT lymphoma and stage I E and II E follicular lymphoma, but comprehensive treatment including chemotherapy is necessary to the diffuse large B cell lymphoma

  15. Effects of methotrexate on rat parotid and submandibular glands and their secretions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with methotrexate for 3 days. Parotid and submandibular main ducts were cannulated and saliva flow was evoked by either intravenous infusion of acetylcholine or an intravenous injection of benthanechol. Methotrexate was found to reduce significantly mean food consumption, body weight, and parotid gland wet weights. Experimental animal salivary total gland DNA levels were not different, but total parotid gland RNA, protein, amylase and water content, and submandibular gland RNA were significantly lower compared to control. Acetylcholine, but not bethanechol, evoked parotid protein and amylase outputs and submandibular protein output from experimental animals were significantly higher than the control groups'. The increased outputs were apparently linked to ..beta..-adrenergic receptor activation, since hexamethonium or propranolol eliminated the significant increases while phenoxybenzamine did not. Plasma catecholamine levels were significantly higher in the methotrexate treated animals and probably played a role in the salivary gland ..beta..-adrenergic activation. Methotrexate treatment significantly increased the submandibular gland ..beta..-adrenergic receptor concentration as determined by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol receptor binding assays. Muscarinic receptor concentrations determined with (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidninyl benzilate were not changed.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma originating in the parotid gland: MRI features with histopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Kashiwagi, N.; Chikugo, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Tomita, Y.; Murakami, T.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and corresponding histopathological features of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the parotid gland. Materials and methods: The MRI images of seven patients with histopathologically proven SCC originating in the parotid gland were reviewed retrospectively, with an emphasis on tumour size, shape, contour definition, extraparotid infiltration, signal characteristics, and the presence of central necrosis. These were correlated with the microscopic findings of the surgical specimens. Results: The tumours ranged in size from 3.9–7 cm (mean 4.7 cm). All tumours had an ill-defined margin with extraparotid infiltration, which seemed to reflect the invasive growth of the tumour cells on histopathological examination. The solid portions of the tumours showed predominantly low to intermediate signal intensities on T2-weighted images, which seemed to reflect the high cellularity, intercellular bridges, and/or keratin pearl formation observed at histopathological examination. Five of the seven tumours had central necrosis. Conclusion: A relatively large tumour with central necrosis is a useful imaging feature of SCCs originating in the parotid gland, in addition to the well-recognized indicators of parotid malignancy, such as an ill-defined margin, extraparotid infiltration, and low to intermediate signal intensity on T2-weighted images

  17. Introducing the Jacobian-volume-histogram of deforming organs: application to parotid shrinkage evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Maggiulli, Eleonora; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Calandrino, Riccardo; Liberini, Simone; Faggiano, Elena; Rizzo, Giovanna; Dell'Oca, Italo; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The Jacobian of the deformation field of elastic registration between images taken during radiotherapy is a measure of inter-fraction local deformation. The histogram of the Jacobian values (Jac) within an organ was introduced (JVH-Jacobian-volume-histogram) and first applied in quantifying parotid shrinkage. MVCTs of 32 patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy for head-neck cancers were collected. Parotid deformation was evaluated through elastic registration between MVCTs taken at the first and last fractions. Jac was calculated for each voxel of all parotids, and integral JVHs were calculated for each parotid; the correlation between the JVH and the planning dose-volume histogram (DVH) was investigated. On average, 82% (±17%) of the voxels shrinks (Jac 50% (Jac < 0.5). The best correlation between the DVH and the JVH was found between V10 and V15, and Jac < 0.4-0.6 (p < 0.01). The best constraint predicting a higher number of largely compressing voxels (Jac0.5<7.5%, median value) was V15 ≥ 75% (OR: 7.6, p = 0.002). Jac and the JVH are promising tools for scoring/modelling toxicity and for evaluating organ/contour variations with potential applications in adaptive radiotherapy.

  18. A functional and chemical study of radiation effects on rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissink, A.; S-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor composition and rate of secretion of rat parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva following local single doses of X-rays ranging from 5 to 20 Gy. Pilocarpine-stimulated samples of parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva were simultaneously collected with miniaturized Lashley cups before and 1-30 days after irradiation. The lag phase (period between injection of pilocarpine and start of the secretion) and flow rate were recorded and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, and amylase were measured. With increasing dose and time, the salivary flow rate as well as sodium concentration decreased, while potassium concentrations increased throughout the follow-up period. The lag phase and the concentration of amylase reached their maximum at 3 and 10 days after irradiation, respectively. The changes in lag phase and flow rate were most obvious after doses of 15 or 20 Gy and showed a great similarity for parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. No dose-response relationship was observed for the changes in concentrations of calcium and phosphate. It is concluded that for radiation doses of 10 Gy and above, irreversible changes (lag phase, flow rate, potassium, sodium) were observed. A saturation of the irradiation effects (lag phase, flow rate) seems to exist at doses larger than 15 Gy. No significant differences were observed between the radiation-induced functional changes in parotid and submandibular/sublingual salivary gland tissue

  19. A comparative study of the ultrastructure of submandibular, parotid and exocrine pancreas in diabetes and fasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, G.; Ilgaz, C.; Erdogan, D.; Ozogul, C.; Elmas, C.

    2007-01-01

    To comparatively analyze the ultrastructural changes in the submandibular and parotid glands and in the exocrine pancreas following diabetes induced by Streptozotocin exposure and the effects of fasting and insulin treatment on these alterations. For experimental procedure, we included 48 Sprague-Dawley type rats in July 2001-March 2002 at Gazi University, Turkey. We divided the rats into 8 groups following the infusion of Streptozotocin. While the degeneration manifested itself as accumulation of secretions within the mucous cells in the submandibular gland, lipid droplets were absent, being replaced by vacuolar structures. The parotid gland and exocrine pancreas, having similar properties, were affected similarly. Diabetes-induced loss of granules was observed in the serous cells in both glands. There was diffuse lipid accumulation within these cells. Regarding granule content, we observed the most prominent degenerative changes in the parotid gland. While cellular loss was observed in neither the submandibular, nor the parotid gland, we noted presence of apoptotic cells was noted in the pancreas. State of fasting was found to cause alterations within the glands indicating increased activity. While insulin treatment was seen to restore the structure to normal in general was in both of the 3 glands. This study demonstrated that both of the 3 glands are affected by diabetes and concomitant fasting, and this effect manifests itself via the granule content. (author)

  20. Longitudinal assessment of parotid function in patients receiving tomotherapy for head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voordeckers, M.; Tournel, K.; Verellen, D.; Esch, G. van; Storme, G.; Everaert, H.; Vanhove, C.; Baron, I.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: conventional radiotherapy is associated with high doses to the salivary glands which causes xerostomia and adverse effects on quality of life. The study aims to investigate the potential of helical tomotherapy (Hi-Art Tomotherapy registered ) to preserve parotid function in head-and-neck cancer patients. Patients and methods: seven consecutive patients treated with helical tomotherapy at the UZ Brussel, Belgium, were included. During planning, priority was attributed to planning target volume (PTV) coverage: ≥ 95% of the dose must be delivered to ≥ 95% of the PTV. Elective nodal regions received 54 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). A dose of 70.5 Gy (2.35 Gy/fraction) was prescribed to the primary tumor and pathologic lymph nodes = simultaneous integrated boost scheme. If possible, the mean parotid dose was kept below 26 Gy. Salivary gland function was assessed by technetium scintigraphy. Results: there was a significant dose-response relationship between mean parotid dose and functional recuperation. If the mean dose was kept 26 %). In order to preserve 75% of SE, 46% of the parotid volume should receive a dose 26 Gy can be reduced. (orig.)

  1. Parotid duct injury secondary to shark bite injury: Repair with a Crawford stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory Highstein

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Clinicians should have a high level of suspicion for parotid duct injury in a patient presenting with injury to the face, particularly with laceration type injuries. Our patient had a unique injury that required a novel Crawford stent repair over traditional silicone catheters.

  2. Radioprotective effect of vitamin E in parotid glands: a morphometric analysis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Carolina Cintra; Boscolo, Frab Norberto; Almeida, Solange Maria de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Ramos-Perez, Flavia Maria de Moraes; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz, E-mail: flavia.ramosperez@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Novaes, Pedro Duarte [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of vitamin E on rat parotid glands by morphometric analysis. Sixty male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6): control, in which animals received olive oil solution; olive oil/irradiated, in which animals received olive oil and were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy of gamma radiation; irradiated, in which animals were irradiated with a dose of 15 Gy gamma radiation; vitamin E, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution; vitamin E/irradiated, which received {alpha}-tocopherol acetate solution before irradiation with a dose of 15 Gy gamma rays. Half of the animals were euthanized at 8 h, and the remaining at 30 days after irradiation. Both parotid glands were surgically removed and morphometric analysis of acinar cells was performed. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ({alpha}=0.05). Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of parotid acinar cells at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups. In groups evaluated over time a significant reduction was shown at 30 days in olive oil/irradiated and irradiated groups, indicating that ionizing radiation caused tissue damage. The vitamin E/irradiated group presented more acinar cells than the irradiated group, but no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05). In conclusion, vitamin E seems to have failed as a radioprotective agent on acinar cells in rat parotid glands. (author)

  3. Infratemporal fossa extension of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma: a rare entity with diagnosis dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaf, J.H.; Gendeh, B.S.; Yunus, M.R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of parotid gland is rare but it is an aggressive neoplasm that can have extension into the infratemporal fossa. We report a 60-year-old female presenting with toothache over left lower molar causing a diagnostic dilemma. (author)

  4. Radioprotective effect of amifostine on parotid gland functioning is region dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Faber, H; Vissink, A; Coppes, RP

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigation the protective ability of amifostine during partial irradiation of the rat parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Single-dose X-ray irradiation was performed by use of collimators with conformal radiation portals for either the 100% volume (15 Gy) or the 50% cranial/caudal

  5. Visualizing form and function in organotypic slices of the adult mouse parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jennifer D; Peters, Christian G; Saunders, Rudel; Won, Jong Hak; Betzenhauser, Matthew J; Gunning, William T; Yule, David I; Giovannucci, David R

    2008-09-01

    An organotypic slice preparation of the adult mouse parotid salivary gland amenable to a variety of optical assessments of fluid and protein secretion dynamics is described. The semi-intact preparation rendered without the use of enzymatic treatment permitted live-cell imaging and multiphoton analysis of cellular and supracellular signals. Toward this end we demonstrated that the parotid slice is a significant addition to the repertoire of tools available to investigators to probe exocrine structure and function since there is currently no cell culture system that fully recapitulates parotid acinar cell biology. Importantly, we show that a subpopulation of the acinar cells of parotid slices can be maintained in short-term culture and retain their morphology and function for up to 2 days. This in vitro model system is a significant step forward compared with enzymatically dispersed acini that rapidly lose their morphological and functional characteristics over several hours, and it was shown to be long enough for the expression and trafficking of exogenous protein following adenoviral infection. This system is compatible with a variety of genetic and physiological approaches used to study secretory function.

  6. Can sparing of the superficial contralateral parotid lobe reduce xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevens, Daan; Nuyts, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to see whether sparing the superficial contralateral parotid lobe can help limiting xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. 88 patients that were included in two prospective randomized studies were analysed in the current study. Using the dosimetry of both the parotid glands, we divided our patients in four groups. Group 1 includes patients where we were able to reduce the radiation dose below the threshold in order to spare both the ipsilateral and contralateral parotid glands, Group 2 consists of patients where only the contralateral parotid gland could be spared. Group 3 consists of patients where only the contralateral superficial parotid lobe could be spared, while in Group 4 not even the contralateral superficial lobe could be spared. When we compared Group 1 and Group 2, we did not observe a significant difference between both groups in terms of xerostomia scores at 6 or 12 months. When we compared these groups with Group 3, we observed significant differences with more xerostomia in Group 3 where only the contralateral superficial lobe was spared. A significant difference was also observed between Group 3 and Group 4 with more xerostomia in Group 4. Sparing of just one superficial parotid lobe results in less xerostomia when compared to not sparing any lobe of both parotid glands. Advances in knowledge: When sparing of the whole contralateral parotid gland is not possible, delineating both the superficial parotid glands and trying to spare at least one of them can mean a way forward in limiting xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy.

  7. Outcome, general, and symptom-specific quality of life after various types of parotid resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuman, Raphael Richard; Oels, Wolfgang; Jaussi, Rolf; Dost, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    To document the outcome and impact on general and symptom-specific quality of life (QOL) after various types of parotid resection. General and symptom-specific QOL assessment at least 1 year after performed surgery. Retrospective data and outcome analysis of patients. Between 2004 and 2010, 353 parotid resections in 337 patients were conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Teaching Hospital, St. Mary's Hospital Gelsenkirchen, Gelsenkirchen, Germany. A total of 196 patients fit the inclusion criteria and were available for postoperative evaluation. The general QOL assessment was based on both the global health status and global QOL scales of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life Questionnaire in 34 patients. Symptom-specific QOL was assessed with the Parotidectomy Outcome Inventory-8 (POI-8). In addition, aesthetic outcome was evaluated with an ordinal scale. Outcome of parotidectomies in benign disease has little impact on general QOL and global health status. However, hypoesthesia or dysesthesia, Frey's syndrome, and cosmetic discontent are quite common and may affect symptom-specific and general QOL. Correlation with extent of surgery and statistically significant differences of patient evaluation for aesthetic outcome, sensory impairment, and Frey's syndrome between various types of limited parotid surgery (enucleation, extracapsular dissection, partial superficial parotidectomy) and superficial parotidectomy could be shown. An adequate parotid resection technique must be chosen to achieve the least disturbing outcome. In addition, in our patient collective, there was no increased recurrence rate found after limited parotid resection for pleomorphic adenoma or cystadenolymphoma. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Induction of salivary polypeptides associated with parotid hypertrophy by gallotannins administered topically into the mouse mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gho, Francesca; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio O

    2007-02-01

    Isoproterenol-induced salivary polypeptides (IISP), a group of proline-rich proteins synthesized by mouse parotids, have been considered as markers for isoproterenol-induced parotid hypertrophy. Rodents fed diets containing high-tannin cereals (sorghum), also develop parotid hypertrophy. To test whether tannins are directly involved in provoking sialotrophic growth, we studied the effect of intraperitoneal and topical oral administrations of tannic acid (TA) on the induction of IISP polypeptides in endogamic mice (A/Snell). TA was characterized by HPLC chromatography and spectral analysis and shown to be composed solely of gallotannins, a complex family of glucose and gallic acid esters. IISP polypeptides were monitored in saliva by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis during 36 h after ending TA stimulation. Single daily intraperitoneal administrations of TA for 3 consecutive days (0.033 mg/g bw/day), at variance of parallel administrations of isoproterenol (0.042 mg/g bw/day) failed to induce IISP polypeptides. However, repeated topical applications of TA into the mouse mouths (1.21 mg/g bw divided into three equal doses given at 4-h intervals within a single day) resulted in unequivocal induction of IISP polypeptides. That response was clearly intensified by increasing the stimulation frequency to eight equivalent doses given at 1.5-h intervals within a single day (corresponding to 3.23 mg/g bw) and even further by repeating this protocol for 3 days. Under these productive schemes of stimulations by TA, electrophoretic fractionation of parotid homogenates showed new polypeptide bands migrating in parallel to salivary IISP. These results suggest that topically administered gallotannins are effective inducers of trophic growth in mouse parotids.

  9. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. The incidence of high grade (≥G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D₅₀) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100mg/m(2) was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ≥G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p=0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p=0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p=0.15). D₅₀ for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7-28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8-30.3) for c-IMRT. Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oncocytic carcinoma of parotid gland: a case report with clinical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Giovanna

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncocytic carcinoma is an extremely rare neoplasm of the salivary glands. We report a case of oncocytic carcinoma arising in a parotid gland in a 66-year-old female. Method An excisional biopsy of the parotid tumor was performed. The specimen was submitted for histology and after fixation in formalin solution and inclusion in paraffin, 3–5 μm sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for conventional evaluation and Periodic acid Schiff stain. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies against mitochondrial antigen, keratin, S-100, alpha-actin, vimentin, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin as well as an ultrastructural analysis was performed. Results Frozen sections revealed an infiltrative growth pattern and the diagnosis of a malignant epithelial lesion was made. Permanent sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin revealed a neoplasm that had replaced a wide area of the parotid gland and had invaded subcutaneous adipose tissue. Perineural invasion was evident, but vascular invasion was not found. Neoplastic elements were large, round or polyhedral cells and were arranged in solid sheets, islands and cords. The cytoplasm was abundant, eosinophilic and finely granular. The nuclei were large and located centrally or peripherally. The nucleoli were distinct and large. Periodic acid Schiff stain demonstrated a granular cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated mithochondrial antigen, keratin, and chymotrypsin immunoreactivity in the neoplastic cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed numerous mitochondria packed into the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. Thus, the final diagnosis was that of oncocytic carcinoma of parotid gland. Conclusion This neoplasm shows clinical, microscopical, histological and ultrastructural features of oncocytic carcinoma and this must be considered in the differential diagnosis of other proliferations in the parotid gland with abundant granular cytoplasm and metastatic oncocytic

  11. The effect of concomitant chemotherapy on parotid gland function following head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether concomitant chemotherapy increases the incidence of high grade xerostomia following parotid-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer. Materials and methods: The incidence of high grade (⩾G2) acute (CTCAEv3.0) and late (LENTSOMA and RTOG) xerostomia was compared between patients treated with either IMRT or concomitant chemo-IMRT (c-IMRT) in 2 prospective studies. Parotid gland mean tolerance doses (D 50 ) were reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Thirty-six patients received IMRT alone and 60 patients received c-IMRT. Patients received 65 Gy in 30 daily fractions to the primary site and involved nodal groups and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to elective nodal groups, mean doses to the parotid glands were comparable. Concomitant cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 was administered on days 1 and 29 of IMRT. The incidence of ⩾G2 subjective xerostomia was similar in both groups; acute-64.7% (IMRT) versus 60.3% (c-IMRT), p = 0.83; late-43% (IMRT) versus 34% (c-IMRT), p = 0.51. Recovery of parotid salivary flow at 1 year was higher with IMRT (64% vs 50%), but not statistically significant (p = 0.15). D 50 for absence of parotid saliva flow at 1 year was 23.2 Gy (95% CI: 17.7–28.7) for IMRT and 21.1 Gy (11.8–30.3) for c-IMRT. Conclusion: Concomitant c-IMRT does not increase the incidence of acute or late xerostomia relative to IMRT alone

  12. assessment Of the effect Of low Level Laser Therapy on Parotid glands of gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction has a major deleterious effect on oral health. Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the possible effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on radiation induced oxidative stress in rats’ salivary glands. Material and Methods: Sixty four male Albino rats were divided into two groups. One group where the left parotid gland was exposed to 3 sessions of LLL, then rats were subjected to 3 sessions of whole body gamma-radiation. In the other group, rats were subjected to 3 sessions of gamma-radiation; each was followed by a session of LLL to the left parotid gland. The right gland of both groups was used as irradiated control. Parotid glands were collected 1 day, 3 days, 1 week and 2 weeks after the end of treatment and were subjected to histological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The parotid gland of both laser groups showed less intra cytoplasmic vacuolisation, slight alteration of acinar architecture and almost even size nuclei as compared to the irradiated gland. LLL either before or parallel to gamma-irradiation was effective in increasing cell proliferation on the third and seventh day, respectively as compared to the gamma irradiated group (P<0.05). Statistically, results revealed significant decrease in optical density of caspase 3 activity in the lased groups on the first week as compared to the control. Conclusion: LLLT attenuates the harmful effect of gamma irradiation on the parotid glands of the rats. Also, it improves gland regeneration through modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis inflammation

  13. Polymer coated liposomes for dental drug delivery--interactions with parotid saliva and dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S; Hiorth, M; Rykke, M; Smistad, G

    2013-09-27

    The interactions between pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva and dental enamel were studied to investigate their potential to mimic the protective biofilm formed naturally on tooth surfaces. Different pectin coated liposomes with respect to pectin type (LM-, HM- and AM-pectin) and concentration (0.05% and 0.2%) were prepared. Interactions between the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were studied by turbidimetry and imaging by atomic force microscopy. The liposomes were adsorbed to hydroxyapatite (HA) and human dental enamel using phosphate buffer and parotid saliva as adsorption media. A continuous flow was imposed on the enamel surfaces for various time intervals to examine their retention on the dental enamel. The results were compared to uncoated, charged liposomes. No aggregation tendencies for the pectin coated liposomes and parotid saliva were revealed. This makes them promising as drug delivery systems to be used in the oral cavity. In phosphate buffer the adsorption to HA of pectin coated liposomes was significantly lower than the negative liposomes. The difference diminished in parotid saliva. Positive liposomes adsorbed better to the dental enamel than the pectin coated liposomes. However, when subjected to flow for 1h, no significant differences in the retention levels on the enamel were found between the formulations. For all formulations, more than 40% of the liposomes still remained on the enamel surfaces. At time point 20 min the retention of HM-pectin coated and positive liposomes were significantly higher. It was concluded that pectin coated liposomes can adsorb to HA as well as to the dental enamel. Their ability to retain on the enamel surfaces promotes the concept of using them as protective structures for the teeth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Corneal specular microscopy in infectious and noninfectious uveitis Microscopia especular de córnea em pacientes com uveítes infecciosas e não-infecciosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Involvement of the cornea endothelium during uveitis has not been extensively studied even though it might participate in or constitute a target of ocular inflammation. Formation of keratic precipitates (KP is a characteristic finding in several forms of uveitis. The aim of this prospective study was to examine the vicinity of keratic precipitates in infectious and noninfectious uveitis by specular microscopy. METHODS: Patients with infectious and noninfectious uveitis in any activity level and presence of keratic precipitates were enrolled. The mean age was 40.5 years (± 14.2 years. A Topcon SP-2000P noncontact specular microscope was used to capture endothelial images in the vicinity of keratic precipitates. Automated morphometric analysis was done for cell size, cell density and cells coefficient of variation. Statistical comparisons were made between the infectious and noninfectious groups. RESULTS: From the 25 patients enrolled in this study, 16 (44% eyes presented infectious uveitis, 19 (53% noninfectious uveitis and 1 (3% eye was excluded due to the impossibility to obtain a specular image. The mean cell density estimated was 2,628 ± 204 cells/mm² in infectious group and 2,622 ± 357 cells/mm² in noninfectious group. The mean cellular area in infectious and noninfectious group was respectively 385 ± 31 µm² and 390 ± 60 µm². The coefficient of variation (% of the cellular area in the vicinity of keratic precipitates was 26.36 ±3.44 in infectious and 27.69 ± 4.61 in noninfectious group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (POBJETIVO: Avaliar o endotélio corneano na presença de precipitados ceráticos em pacientes portadores de uveítes infecciosas e não-infecciosas com emprego da microscopia especular de não-contato. MÉTODOS: Prospectivamente foram incluídos 25 pacientes com média de idade de 40,5 (±14,2 anos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a etiologia

  15. de estudios observacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik von Elm

    2008-01-01

    un documento de explicación y elaboración al que puede accederse libremente en los sitios web de PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine y Epidemiology. Esperamos que la declaración STROBE contribuya a mejorar la calidad de la publicación de los estudios observacionales.

  16. [Methods for evaluating diagnostic tests in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J M; Hernández, I

    1998-04-01

    In the field of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology, the evaluation of diagnostic tests (DT) is an important research area. The specific difficulties of this type of research has motivated that have not caught the severity methodological of others areas of clinical research. This article try to asses and characterize the methodology of articles about DT published in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (EIMC) journal. Forty-five articles was selected in the EIMC journal during the 1990-1996 period, because of determinate the sensitivity and specificity of different DT. Methodological standards, extensively accepted was used. In all of articles, except one (98%) the gold standard was specified yours use, however in 4 studies (9%) include the DT in the gold standard (incorporation bias). The correct description of DT was reported in 75% of cases, but only in 11% cases the reproducibility of test was evaluated. The description of source of reference population, standard of inclusion and spectrum of composition was described in 58, 33 and 40% of articles, respectively. In 33% of studies presented workup bias, only 6% commented blind-analysis of results, and 11% presented indeterminate test results. Half of the studies reported test indexes for clinical subgroups, only one article (2%) provided numerical precision for test indexes, and only 7% reported receiver operating characteristics curves. The methodological quality of DT research in the EIMC journal may improve in different aspects of design and presentation of results.

  17. Freqüência de anemia infecciosa em eqüinos no Acre, 1986 a 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos R.M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as fichas de 9.963 eqüídeos do Acre, submetidos ao teste de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA para anemia infecciosa eqüina (AIE, no período de 1986 a 1996. As regiões sócio-ecológicas da Bacia do Alto Juruá, Alto Acre e Alta Bacia do Purus apresentaram os maiores índices da doença, o que caracteriza a associação entre região e positividade. Essas áreas são fronteiriças com o Peru, Bolívia e o Estado do Amazonas, são distantes de Rio Branco, capital do Estado, onde muitas vezes é difícil o acesso pelas estradas, revelando serem áreas de risco. As regiões Oriental e Rio Branco apresentaram baixos índices de positividade. Não se observou diferença estatística entre animais positivos e negativos quanto à espécie, sexo, raça e idade.

  18. Clinical Analysis of Parotid Tumors in Patients Over 60-year-old: A Retrospective Study of 78 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Warthin tumor was the most common benign tumor, and salivary duct carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumor in this study. Surgical treatment is the mainstay treatment for benign and malignant parotid tumors.

  19. Importance of the initial volume of parotid glands in xerostomia for patients with head and neck cancers treated with IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nakamatsu, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Toru; Kanamori, Shuichi; Koike, Ryuta; Okumura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate predictors of xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Thirty-three patients with pharyngeal cancer were evaluated for xerostomia after having been treated with IMRT. All patients were treated with whole-neck irradiation of 46-50 Gy by IMRT, followed by boost IMRT to the high-risk clinical target volume to a total dose of 56-70 Gy in 28-35 fractions (median, 68 Gy). For boost IMRT, a second computed tomography (CT-2) scan was done in the third to fourth week of IMRT. Xerostomia was scored 3-4 months after the start of IMRT. The mean doses to the contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands were 24.0±6.2 and 30.3±6.6 Gy, respectively. Among the 33 patients, xerostomia of grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 was noted in one, 18, 12 and two patients, respectively. Although the mean dose to the parotid glands was not correlated with the grade of xerostomia, the initial volume of the parotid glands was correlated with the grade of xerostomia (P=0.04). Of 17 patients with small parotid glands (≤38.8 ml) on initial CT (CT-1), 11 (65%) showed grade 2 or grade 3 xerostomia, whereas only three (19%) of 16 patients with larger parotid glands showed grade 2 xerostomia (P<0.05). The mean volume of the parotid glands on CT-1 was 43.1±15.2 ml, but decreased significantly to 32.0±11.4 ml (74%) on CT-2 (P<0.0001). Initial volumes of the parotid glands are significantly correlated with the grade of xerostomia in patients treated with IMRT. The volume of the parotid glands decreased significantly during the course of IMRT. (author)

  20. Bilateral painful parotid lumps and a lump in the groin: An uncommon presentation of common Kikuchi's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Prakash Mirgh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD is an under-recognized disease most commonly presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and cytopenias in young females. Bilateral parotid enlargement is usually caused by infections (e.g., mumps and autoimmune conditions (e.g., Sjogren syndrome. Parotid enlargement, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and pyrexia of unknown origin are uncommon presenting features of KFD and should be suspected in the appropriate setting.

  1. Density variation of parotid glands during IMRT for head–neck cancer: Correlation with treatment and anatomical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Rizzo, Giovanna; Scalco, Elisa; Broggi, Sara; Belli, Maria Luisa; Dell’Oca, Italo; Dinapoli, Nicola; Ricchetti, Francesco; Rodriguez, Aldo Mejia; Di Muzio, Nadia; Calandrino, Riccardo; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring parotid density changes in patients treated with IMRT for head–neck cancer (HNC) and assessing correlation with treatment-related parameters. Patients and materials: Data of 84 patients treated with IMRT for different HNC were pooled from three institutions. Parotid deformation and average Hounsfield number changes (ΔHU) were evaluated through MVCT (with Helical Tomotherapy) or diagnostic kVCT images taken at the treatment start/end. Parotids were delineated in the first image and propagated to the last using a previously validated algorithm based on elastic registration. The correlation between ΔHU and several treatment-related parameters was tested; then, logistic uni- and multi-variate analyses taking “large” ΔHU as end-point were carried out. Due to the better image quality, analyses were repeated considering only kVCT data. Results: ΔHU was negative in 116/168 parotids (69%; for kVCT patients: 72/92, 78%). The average ΔHU was significantly different from zero (−7.3, 0.20–0.25 HU/fraction, p m ean), and with neck thickness variation; these correlations were much stronger for kVCT data. Logistic analyses considering ΔHU m ean < 0.68) and initial neck thickness to be the most predictive variables (p < 0.0005, AUC = 0.683; AUC = 0.776 for kVCT); the odd ratio of large vs moderate/small parotid deformation was 3.8 and 8.0 for the whole and the kVCT population respectively. Conclusions: Parotid density reduced in most patients during IMRT and this phenomenon was highly correlated with parotid deformation. The individual assessment of density changes was highly reliable just with diagnostic KvCT. Density changes should be considered as an additional objective measurement of early parotid radiation-induced modifications; further research is warranted.

  2. Parotid gland mean dose as a xerostomia predictor in low-dose domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabryś, Hubert Szymon; Buettner, Florian; Sterzing, Florian; Hauswald, Henrik; Bangert, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Xerostomia is a common side effect of radiotherapy resulting from excessive irradiation of salivary glands. Typically, xerostomia is modeled by the mean dose-response characteristic of parotid glands and prevented by mean dose constraints to either contralateral or both parotid glands. The aim of this study was to investigate whether normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on the mean radiation dose to parotid glands are suitable for the prediction of xerostomia in a highly conformal low-dose regime of modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. We present a retrospective analysis of 153 head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. The Lyman Kutcher Burman (LKB) model was used to evaluate predictive power of the parotid gland mean dose with respect to xerostomia at 6 and 12 months after the treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and precision-recall (PR) curves. Average mean doses to ipsilateral and contralateral parotid glands were 25.4 Gy and 18.7 Gy, respectively. QUANTEC constraints were met in 74% of patients. Mild to severe (G1+) xerostomia prevalence at both 6 and 12 months was 67%. Moderate to severe (G2+) xerostomia prevalence at 6 and 12 months was 20% and 15%, respectively. G1 + xerostomia was predicted reasonably well with area under the ROC curve ranging from 0.69 to 0.76. The LKB model failed to provide reliable G2 + xerostomia predictions at both time points. Reduction of the mean dose to parotid glands below QUANTEC guidelines resulted in low G2 + xerostomia rates. In this dose domain, the mean dose models predicted G1 + xerostomia fairly well, however, failed to recognize patients at risk of G2 + xerostomia. There is a need for the development of more flexible models able to capture complexity of dose response in this dose regime.

  3. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy technique using 3-D conformal radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Gwi Eon; Keum, Ki Chang; Suh, Chang Ok; Lee, Sang Wook; Park, Hee Chul; Cho, Jae Ho; Chang, Sei Kyung; Loh, Juhn Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Although using the high energy photon beam with conventional parallel-opposed beams radio-therapy for nasopgaryngeal carcinoma, radiation-induced xerostomia is a troublesome problem for patients. We conducted this study to explore a new parotid gland sparing technique in 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3-DCRT) in an effort to prevent the radiation-induced xerostomia. We performed three different planning for four clinically node-negative nasopharyngeal cancer patients with different location of tumor(intracranial extension, nasal cavity extension, oropharyngeal extension, parapharyngeal extension), and intercompared the plans. Total prescription dose was 70.2 Gy to the isocenter. For plan-A, 2-D parallel opposing fields, a conventional radiotherapy technique, were employed. For plan-B, 2-D parallel opposing fields were used up until 54 Gy and afterwards 3-D non-coplanar beams were used. For plan-C, the new technique, 54Gy was delivered by 3-D conformal 3-port beams (AP and both lateral ports with wedge compensator, shielding both superficial lobes of parotid glands at the AP beam using BEV) from the beginning of the treatment and early spinal cord block (at 36 Gy) was performed. And bilateral posterior necks were treated with electron after 36 Gy. After 54 Gy, non-coplanar beams were used for cone-down plan. We intercompared dose statistics (Dmax, Dmin, Dmean, D95, D05, V95, V05, Volume receiving 46 Gy) and dose volume histograms (DVH) of tumor and normal tissues and NTCP values of parotid glands for the above three plans. For all patients, the new technique (plan-C) was comparable or superior to the other plans in target volume isodose distribution and dose statistics and it has more homogenous target volume coverage. The new technique was most superior to the other plans in parotid glands sparing (volume receiving 46 Gy: 100, 98, 69% for each plan-A, B and C). And it showed the lowest NTCP value of parotid glands in all patients (range of NTCP; 96-100%, 79-99%, 51

  4. Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on histological characteristics of parotid gland of albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, N.Q.; Tahir, M.; Sami, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on the histological structure of parotid salivary gland of the rat. Methods: Twenty male albino rats, weighing between 130-150 grams, were used which were divided into two groups; control group (A) and an experimental group (B), each containing 10 animals. Group B was rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI) as 0.02% solution in drinking water daily for 3 weeks. On day 22 parotid and thyroid glands were removed, weighed and processed for light microscopy. Salivary gland was fixed in Bouin's solution, H and E and Toluidine blue stains were used for histological examination. Serum T /sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: In group A, serum concentration of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH was 12.58+-3.05 mu g/ml, 4.72 +- 1.20 macro g/dl, and 0.25 +- 0.24 macro IU/ml respectively, where as in group B it was 2.14+-1.83 mu g/ml, 1.04 +- 0.44 macro g/dl and 1.44+-0.20 mu U/ml respectively. When differences between T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH of the groups were compared, the p-value was <0.000, <0.000, and <0.000 respectively. Mean thyroid weight significantly increased in group B (44.1 0+-1.66 mg) when compared to that in group A (33.70+-1.56 mg). These findings established the occurrence of hypothyroid state in the experimental group. There was a statistically significant reduction in the parotid gland weight in the animals of the experimental group (38.30 +- 1.15 mg) when compared to the control group (39.60 +- 0.84 mg), (p<0.01). With light microscopy, group A showed a normal structure of parotid salivary gland, whereas multiple histological changes were observed in parotrid gland of the experimental group. Number of mast cells in parotid gland was also significantly higher (p<0.017) in group B (3.70 +- 1.11/mm/sup 2/) than in group A (2.25 +- 1.34/mm/sup 2/). Conclusion: The level of T/sub 3/ T/sub 4/ decreased and that of TSH increased

  5. Congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Gu, Yongchun; Zhang, Li; Hua, Zequan

    2014-03-01

    We report a rare case of congenital tri-cavernous hemangiomas of the right buccal region, right accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle region in an adult. The patient, a 25-year-old woman, complained of 3 masses in her right midcheek. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings showed an irregular-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the masseter muscle region, an ellipse-shaped mass (multiple calcifications) with a well-defined margin in the right buccal region, and a comma-shaped mass (no calcifications) with a well-defined margin separate from the parotid gland in the right accessory parotid gland region. These iconographic findings suggested that the masses were all hemangiomas separately originating from the parotid gland, accessory parotid gland, and masseter muscle. The masses were completely removed through a standard parotid incision without postoperative facial palsy, skin deformity, and difficulty in secreting saliva. Findings from histologic examination of the tumor revealed multiple, thin-walled, and dilated blood vessels, confirming the diagnosis of cavernous hemangiomas. Ultrasonographic and computed tomographic findings were extremely useful in diagnosing the mass/masses as hemangioma before surgery, clarifying relationships between the mass and adjacent structures, and determining the surgical approach to the mass/masses.

  6. The accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology for diagnosis of parotid gland masses: a clinicopathological study of 114 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Kristjan GUDMUNDSSON

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a valuable method for preoperative assessment of head and neck tumors. However, its accuracy in detection of salivary gland masses is controversial compared with other methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of parotid gland masses. Material and Methods Over a 10-year period, 126 parotid gland masses were resected. Retrospective chart reviews of 114 patients were performed. The results of FNAC and final histological diagnosis were compared and the accuracy of FNAC was determined. Results Final histological evaluation revealed 11 malignant tumors and 103 benign lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm (63%, followed by Warthin’s tumor (17.5%. The sensitivity of FNAC in detecting malignant tumors was 73% and the specificity was 97%. Positive predictive value (PPV was 73% and negative predictive value (NPV was 97%. The overall accuracy of FNAC in detecting parotid masses was 95%. False-negative diagnosis was found in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma whereas there was false-positive diagnosis in cases of pleomorphic adenoma and normal parotid gland tissue. Conclusion FNAC is a reliable minimally invasive diagnostic method with a high sensitivity in diagnosis of lesions in parotid glands. The sensitivity of detection of malignant tumors in parotid glands was low due to the biopsy technique used, and depended on tumor location. Postoperative complications decreased after superficial parotidectomy.

  7. Perfusion characteristics of late radiation injury of parotid glands: quantitative evaluation with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Chun-Jung; Chen, Cheng-Yu.; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Huang, Guo-Shu; Jen, Yee-Min; Liu, Hua-Shan; Wang, Chao-Ying; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chai, Yao-Te

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to quantitatively investigate the alteration of parotid perfusion after irradiation using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) based on a two-compartment tracer kinetic model. This study enrolled 19 patients (53.2±14.9 years) treated by head and neck radiotherapy and 19 age-relevant and sex-matched subjects as a control group. Perfusion parameters (K el , k 21 and A) of parotid glands were analyzed based on the Brix model from T1-weighted DCE-MRI. Suitability of the Brix model was evaluated via Monte Carlo simulation for the goodness-of-fit. Analysis of nonlinear goodness-of-fit showed that the Brix model is appropriate in evaluating the parotid perfusion (R 2 = 0.938±0.050). The irradiated parotid glands showed significantly lower K el (P 21 (P < 0.05) and consequently significantly higher value of peak enhancement (P<0.0005) and time-to-peak (P<0.0005) compared with non-irradiated ones, suggestive of gradual and prolonged accumulation and delayed wash-out of contrast agent due to increased extracellular extravascular space and decreased vascular permeability in the irradiated glands. Linear regression analysis showed dose-dependent perfusion changes of the irradiated parotid glands. We conclude that quantitative DCE-MRI is a potential tool in investigating parotid gland perfusion changes after radiotherapy. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of geometric changes of parotid glands during head and neck cancer radiotherapy using daily MVCT and automatic deformable registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonik; Langen, Katja M.; Lu, Weiguo; Haimerl, Jason; Schnarr, Eric; Ruchala, Kenneth J.; Olivera, Gustavo H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Shellenberger, Thomas D.; Manon, Rafael R.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess and evaluate geometrical changes in parotid glands using deformable image registration and megavoltage CT (MVCT) images. Methods: A deformable registration algorithm was applied to 330 daily MVCT images (10 patients) to create deformed parotid contours. The accuracy and robustness of the algorithm was evaluated through visual review, comparison with manual contours, and precision analysis. Temporal changes in the parotid gland geometry were observed. Results: The deformed parotid contours were qualitatively judged to be acceptable. Compared with manual contours, the uncertainties of automatically deformed contours were similar with regard to geometry and dosimetric endpoint. The day-to-day variations (1 standard deviation of errors) in the center-of-mass distance and volume were 1.61 mm and 4.36%, respectively. The volumes tended to decrease with a median total loss of 21.3% (6.7-31.5%) and a median change rate of 0.7%/day (0.4-1.3%/day). Parotids migrated toward the patient center with a median total distance change of -5.26 mm (0.00 to -16.35 mm) and a median change rate of -0.22 mm/day (0.02 to -0.56 mm/day). Conclusion: The deformable image registration and daily MVCT images provide an efficient and reliable assessment of parotid changes over the course of a radiation therapy

  9. Estudio de validez predictiva

    OpenAIRE

    Barquero-Segura, José Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Proyecto de investigación Este documento es un informe ejecutivo de la información obtenida de los estudios sobre la validez predictiva de los parámetros de selección de estudiantes y su relación con el rendimiento académico. En él se presenta una síntesis de información más relevante obtenida en los últimos 17 años.

  10. Análise da qualidade de vida de portadores de uveítes de causas infecciosas e não infecciosas pelo questionário NEI-VFQ-25 Analysis of the life quality of infectious and non-infectious patients with uveitis using the NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Resende Aquino de Assis Pereira Mello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes portadores de uveítes infecciosas e não infecciosas avaliados no setor de uveíte do serviço de oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho - UFRJ, por meio da aplicação do questionário NEI-VFQ-25, de modo a esclarecer melhor a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento das uveítes, assim como suas conseqüências na função visual e social dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo composto de 30 pacientes com uveítes que foram divididos em dois grupos conforme a etiologia, infecciosa e não infecciosa, tendo sido aplicado duas vezes em cada paciente o questionário NEI-VFQ-25 que avalia a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde geral e visual. RESULTADOS: A toxoplasmose foi a principal causa de uveíte infecciosa, enquanto a não infecciosa foi a síndrome de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada. Quanto à qualidade de vida, a saúde geral é melhor no grupo de causa infecciosa, sendo que a saúde ocular é regular nos dois grupos. Apesar do déficit visual não provocar grandes distúrbios e restrições sociais, ambos os grupos apresentam comprometimento emocional importante, sendo que no grupo de causa não infecciosa, esse comprometimento gera grau maior de dependência para a realização de tarefas do cotidiano. CONCLUSÃO: A maior dependência social e na realização de atividades do dia-a-dia no grupo de uveítes de causa não infecciosas, se explica pelo modo crônico e recidivante dessas afecções, o que leva à qualidade de vida inferior se comparada ao outro grupo.PURPOSE: To evaluate the life quality of patients with infectious and non-infectious uveitis evaluated at the uveitis service of the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho-UFRJ, using the NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaire in order to clarify the importance of uveitis diagnosis and treatment as well as its consequences to visual and social functions of the patients. METHODS: Prospective study of 30 patients

  11. Bilateral Parotid Sialadenosis Associated with Long-Standing Bulimia: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garcia, Blas; Dean Ferrer, Alicia; Diaz Jimenez, Nelida; Alamillos Granados, Francisco Jesus

    2018-06-01

    Bulimia is a common cause of sialadenosis. This paper presents a case of bilateral parotid sialadenosis associated with long-standing bulimia, and reviews the relevant literature and current treatment options. A 32-year-old woman had severe bilateral parotid sialomegaly for the last 6 years, which had occurred secondary to bulimia nervosa, which she had since 14 years. Treatment with pilocarpine was unsuccessful, so she underwent bilateral conservative parotidectomy. This procedure not only improved the aesthetic appearance of the patient but also improved her social and work life and overall quality of life. Sialomegaly secondary to bulimia results in a major alteration of the aesthetics of a patient's face. Conservative measures are not enough in many cases, and parotidectomy may be the only viable option, as it can also significantly improve adherence to psychiatric treatment for bulimia, in addition to correcting the facial aesthetics.

  12. A Type I first branchial cleft cyst masquerading as a parotid tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshanker, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are caused by incomplete regression of the cervical sinus of “His” during the 6th and 7th weeks of embryologic development. Although congenital in origin, first branchial cleft cysts (FBCCs) can present later in life. FBCCs are rare causes of parotid swellings, accounting for branchial cleft abnormalities. The diagnosis of FBCCs is a clinical challenge; the condition is often overlooked and mismanaged. We report a case of Type 1 FBCC in a 22-year-old female with an asymptomatic 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm sized cystic mass. It was removed completely under the impression of a cystic tumor of the parotid. On histopathology, the cyst had a squamous epithelium-lined wall with lymphoid aggregation which was characteristic of a branchial cleft cyst. A good understanding of the regional anatomy and embryology can lead to an early diagnosis and thereby effective management of FBCC. PMID:25298726

  13. A Type I first branchial cleft cyst masquerading as a parotid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshanker, Vijayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are caused by incomplete regression of the cervical sinus of "His" during the 6(th) and 7(th) weeks of embryologic development. Although congenital in origin, first branchial cleft cysts (FBCCs) can present later in life. FBCCs are rare causes of parotid swellings, accounting for branchial cleft abnormalities. The diagnosis of FBCCs is a clinical challenge; the condition is often overlooked and mismanaged. We report a case of Type 1 FBCC in a 22-year-old female with an asymptomatic 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm sized cystic mass. It was removed completely under the impression of a cystic tumor of the parotid. On histopathology, the cyst had a squamous epithelium-lined wall with lymphoid aggregation which was characteristic of a branchial cleft cyst. A good understanding of the regional anatomy and embryology can lead to an early diagnosis and thereby effective management of FBCC.

  14. Pre-operative irradiation of eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Satoshi; Toda, Yukio; Nakajima, Hisami; Takeyama, Isamu; Sodemoto, Yukio; Endo, Masaru

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is thought to originate in the reticuloendothelial system and cannot clearly be distinguished from the surrounding tissue during operation. An eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area was removed after 25 days of irradiation at a dosage of 10.0 Gy per 3 days. A thin capsule of connective tissue was observed after the tumor was cut in half. Then, histopathological studies were performed on this connective tissue to determine the effect of the irradiation. Histopathologically, at the periphery of the tissue, atrophy of lymphocytes and destruction of the lymphoid tissue, which were thought to result in an increase in the connective tissue, were observed. It was concluded that a small dose of pre-operative radiation on eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area made the tumor small and produced a capsule around the tumor. (author)

  15. Stationary facial nerve paresis after surgery for recurrent parotid pleomorphic adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Anders; Andreasen, Simon; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to assess degree of permanent facial nerve dysfunction after surgery for recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (RPA) of the parotid gland, including variables that might influence re-operation outcomes. Nationwide retrospective longitudinal cohort study including a questionnaire survey...... of patients undergoing surgery for RPA. Of 219 living patients, 198 (92 %) responded and 127 (63 %) reported no facial dysfunction. Statistically significant associations were found between number of surgeries and permanent facial nerve dysfunction of all degrees (OR 1.43, 95 % CI 1.16-1.78, p = 0.......001). A not significant tendency for females to be associated with worse outcome was found (p = 0.073). Risks of different degrees of paresis after the second-fourth surgeries were found (OR 1.86-2.19, p RPA of the parotid...

  16. X radiation in parotid gland of young rats. Histopathological comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslindo, E.B.; Utrilla, L.S.; Lia, R.C.C.; Roslindo, N.C.; Cerri, P.S.; Azoubel, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of X radiation on the structure of the parotid glands of young rats are studied by means of morphologic technique. Seventy male rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus Holtzman) were distributed in two experimental groups: Group 1- irradiated and Group 2- control. The region of the parroted glands was irradiated with a dose of 300 rads from 48 to 48 hours up to an exposition of 1.200 rads. After predetermined periods the animals belonging to both groups were sacrificed and the parotid glands were removed for histopathologic evaluation. The serous acini showed to be radium sensitive and in the periods closer to the radiation, the glandular structure des organization and degeneration was noted. (M.A.C.)

  17. Primary unclassified sarcoma of the parotid gland: a case of diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravakos, Panagiotis; Hartwein, Joerg; Fayyazi, Afshin

    2017-05-01

    Malignant salivary gland sarcomas represent a clinically and histologically diagnostic challenge. Primary unclassified sarcomas of the parotid gland consist a rare salivary gland tumor. We report an unusual case of such a tumor, which occurred in the right parotid gland of a 54-year-old male and presented as an asymptomatic painless mass. The pathologoanatomical examination revealed a rhabdoid large-cell unclassified sarcoma. The patient was treated with superficial parotidectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was noted in a 10-year follow-up period. Due to the rare occurrence of primary unclassified sarcomas, there is no evidence-based treatment of choice. An optimal approach is best planned in a multidisciplinary setting, taking into consideration the resectability of the tumor, individual patient characteristics, presence of local or distant metastatic activity, local infiltrative behavior and tumor stage. A close follow-up of the patient is strongly recommended.

  18. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rij, CM; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, WD; Ackerstaff, AH; Lamers, EA; Balm, AJM; Rasch, CRN

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT. PMID:19068126

  19. Occurrence of lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Molls, Christoph; Luers, Jan C; Beutner, Dirk; Klussmann, Jens P; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors in therapy and prognosis for patients with parotid gland cancer. Nevertheless, the extent of the primary tumor resection and the necessity of a neck dissection still is a common issue. Since little is known about lymph node metastasis in early-stage parotid gland cancer, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of lymph node metastases in T1 and T2 carcinomas and its impact on local control and survival. We retrospectively analyzed 70 patients with early-stage (T1 and T2) primary parotid gland cancer. All patients were treated with parotidectomy and an ipsilateral neck dissection from 1987 to 2009. Clinicopathological and survival parameters were calculated. The median follow-up time was 51.7 months. A positive pathological lymph node stage (pN+) was found in 21.4% of patients with a significant correlation to the clinical lymph node stage (cN) (p = 0.061). There were no differences in the clinical and histopathological data between pN- and pN+ patients. In 73.3% of pN+ patients, the metastases were located intraparotideal. The incidence of occult metastases (pN+/cN-) was 17.2%. Of all patients with occult metastases, 30.0% had extraparotideal lymphatic spread. A positive lymph node stage significantly indicated a poorer 5-year overall as well as 5-year disease-free survival rate compared to pN- patients (p = 0.048; p = 0.011). We propose total parotidectomy in combination with at least a level II-III selective neck dissection in any case of early-stage parotid gland cancer.

  20. An experimental study of the irradiation effects on rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Chan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the irradiation effects on the rat parotid gland, applied to the head and neck region. For this experiment, twenty-four rat, feeded under the even condition, were used as experimental animals. Twenty rat were used for experimental group and the rest were assigned to the control group. The experimental group was singly irradiated with 10 Gray through Cobalt-60 radiotherapy device, Pickre model 4M 60 (Field size; 12x5 cm, SSD; 50 cm, Depth; 1 cm). The experimental animals of both group were sacrificed each four animals in 2 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks and 4 weeks after irradiation. The specimens were examined through the light microscope using the H-E stain and H stain by routine procedure. The other specimens were observed under the fluorescence microscope using the B-O dichroic mirror and Y 45 5 barrier filter after PA-ACH stain. The results of this study were obtained as follows: 1. The parotid acini were severely degenerated and intraacinar space were widened. Within the acini, retained secretory granules and increased fibrosis were observed. Also the shape and the size of the acini showed very irregular atrophic degeneration. 2. The nuclei showed severe pyknosis, displacement and irregular aggregated appearance. 3. The tissue changes of the parotid acini were initiated after 2 days of irradiation and most severely appeared at the second week of irradiation, but almost returned to normal. 4. The salivary ducts of the parotid gland were severely atrophied, discontinued but initiated to regenerated after 3 weeks of irradiation.

  1. Parotid salivary parameters in bulimic patients – a controlled clinical trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Paszyńska; Agnieszka Słopień; Monika Węglarz; Roger W.A. Linden

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with purging-type bulimia and/or non-bulimic patients, treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitor SI-5-HT (fluoxetine), have dental erosion and changes in selected buffer components of parotid saliva (bicarbonates, phosphates, urea), compared with the healthy population. Methods A controlled clinical trial was designed for three, age-matched, female groups of 94 patients: 1) bulimic patients treated with fluoxetin...

  2. Low dose radiation in the treatment of HIV related benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchelebi, Anca E.; Ming Teng; Moscatello, Augustine; Moorthy, Chitti R.; Kaufmann, Thomas; Ahmed, Tauseef

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the effectiveness of Radiation Therapy (RT) in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related benign lymphoepithelial (BLL) of the parotid gland. Materials and Methods: The records of 16 patients treated between 1991 to 1995 with BLL were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had bilateral disease, thus 19 parotid glands were radiated. Only (2(16)) had AIDS. Virtually all patients were on antiretroviral therapy. There were 11 males and 5 females. The median age was 38 years (range 31 to 58 years). The median duration of parotid enlargement was 1.5 years (range 1 month to 6 years). All patients had biopsy prior to treatment. Histopathology revealed two patterns: solid or cystic. Patient were treated using electron beam RT. The beam energy was determined by computed transaxial tomography. The median dose delivered was 1000 cGy in 5 fractions over 5 days (range 600 cGy to 2160 cGy in daily fractions ranging from 180 cGy to 200 cGy). Results: Six parotid glands achieved a complete response (CR), 5 a partial response (PR), while 8 were non-responders (NR). Our overall response rate was therefore 58% Of the NR's, 3 patients were re-treated. Two achieved a PR, one was an NR. Toxicity was minimal and limited to mild xerostomia. Conclusion: RT in patients with HIV related BLL is well tolerated. Our preliminary results show that while this modality of treatment has marked activity in the solid pattern. Higher doses may be required for large lesions or cystic in nature

  3. Changes in human parotid salivary protein and sialic acid levels during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, S; Curbelo, H M; Tumilasci, O R; Tessler, J A; Houssay, A B

    1989-01-01

    Saliva was collected with a Carlson-Crittenden device, under citric acid stimulation, in 107 pregnant women, 9 puerperal and 7 non-pregnant controls. No significant changes were found in salivary flow rate, pH and amylase levels. The total protein levels were decreased during pregnancy and the puerperium. The sialic acid levels decreased gradually but markedly during pregnancy, returning to normal levels in the puerperium. These changes in parotid saliva may be related to the hormonal changes of pregnancy.

  4. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balm AJM

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192. Overall response was 85% (n = 163; 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75 and 77% in the control group (n = 88 the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT.

  5. Prospective assessment of the salivary function by parotid scintigraphy after radiotherapy of 27 nasopharyngeal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnejja, W.; Ghorbal, L.; Daoud, J.; Kallel, F.; Guermazi, F.; Frikha, M.

    2011-01-01

    As xerostomia is the main complication after radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and affects life quality, this study aims at objectively assess the salivary function after radiotherapy of a nasopharyngeal cancer by parotid scintigraphy. 27 seven patients have been treated by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Results are analyzed in terms of salivary toxicity, change of secretion function. No correlation was found between the xerostomia severity and scintigraphy results. Short communication

  6. Parotid lipoblastoma in a child: Rare presentation as huge infratemporal mass with cervical extension

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    Anantharajan Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoblastomas arising within the parotid gland and extending into the infratemporal fossa are very rare. They are common in children < 3 years of age. Access to the tumour requires careful planning and interpretation of imaging studies. Lipoblastomas tend to recur. Meticulous dissection of the tumour is needed to prevent recurrence. By adopting the appropriate approach, complete removal is possible with minimal morbidity.

  7. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rij, CM van; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, WD; Ackerstaff, AH; Lamers, EA; Balm, AJM; Rasch, CRN

    2008-01-01

    To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the 'spared' parotid below 26 Gy. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT

  8. Doença hepática aguda e edema palpebral persistente associados à mononucleose infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Ayres de A. Scattolin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar e discutir o caso clínico de um paciente portador de mononucleose infecciosa, tendo como manifestação inicial edema palpebral seguido de hepatopatia aguda e icterícia. Descrição - J.F.G.F., masculino, cinco anos, com histórico de sete dias de edema bipalpebral, conjuntivas hiperemiadas, cansaço, anorexia, febre moderada, vômitos e dor abdominal em hipocôndrio direito. Há um dia passou a apresentar icterícia, urina escura, exantema urticariforme, febre de 39,5ºC e diarréia, tendo sido internado para rehidratação e investigação diagnóstica. Ao exame físico de entrada, apresentava-se abatido, estado geral comprometido, FC: 96, FR: 30, febril, PA: 110x 60 mmHg, descorado +/4+, desidratado de 2º grau, eupnéico e ictérico ++, infartamento ganglionar assimétrico generalizado, mais acentuado em região cervical posterior. Sem alterações ao exame cardíaco e pulmonar. Abdômen distendido, doloroso à palpação, fígado a 4 cm e baço a 2,5 cm. A avaliação laboratorial revelou Hb: 10,1 g/dL, leucocitose moderada com acentuada linfocitose e atipia linfocitária evidente, ALT: 179 U/L, AST: 232 U/L, LDH: 2.103 U/L e bilirrubinas: total 6,7 mg/Dl (direta 4,9 mg/dL, urina tipo I com bilirrubinas ++ e ultra-som de abdômen com hepatoesplenomegalia inespecífica. As sorologias para toxoplasmose citomegalovírus, hepatite foram negativas e para o vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV reagente: IgG: 108 UA/mL, e IgM 28 UA/mL. Após hidratação parenteral e antitérmico, o paciente evoluiu com a melhora dos parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais. Discussão - Estima-se, atualmente, que 50% das crianças menores de cinco anos já apresentaram infecção pelo EBV. Vários agentes causam lesão hepática aguda. Entre os vírus ressalta-se os das hepatites, entretanto, pode ocorrer hepatopatia aguda por outras causas virais, entre elas, mononucleose e citomegalia. Sabe-se que a hepatomegalia ocorre em 10% a 20

  9. [Gender analysis among articles published in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (2001-2005)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; Castellano-Gómez, Miguel; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos

    2007-12-01

    There is growing concern for promoting equality between sexes and full integration of women in research activities. The purpose of this study is to identify the bibliometric characteristics of articles published during the 2001-2005 period in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (EIMC) from the perspective of gender. EIMC records for 2001-2005 were obtained from the Science Citation Index database and differences according to sex were calculated for the following indicators: year of publication, type of document, number and order of author signatures, number of collaborators, and the signature/article index at the institutional and geographical level. A total of 2,163 authors were identified, 1,220 (56.4%) men and 943 (43.6%) women. The greatest of contribution from women was in original articles (42.32% of signatures). Excluding the Centro Nacional de Microbiología (Spanish National Center for Microbiology), the participation of women was lower than men in the most productive institutions. There were significant differences regarding the number of papers published and the number of collaborators; with greater productivity for men and a higher rate of collaboration for women. Studies on scientific activity according to gender provide essential information to establish the basis for a policy of equality in this regard. A yearly increase of almost 1% was seen in the number of female authors contributing articles to the EIMC, which, if the trend continues, will result in parity in coming years. Nevertheless, the presence of women in positions of high productivity remains low. The causes of this difference should be identified and corrected.

  10. Enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas: un permanente reto para la salud pública y la equidad en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cabezas-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas (EID afectan a más de mil millones de personas en el mundo, y están asociadas con la pobreza, el aislamiento geográfico de las poblaciones, la estigmatización social, la escasez de datos sobre estimaciones de la carga de enfermedad local y mundial (subregistro de la enfermedad, insuficientes recursos políticos y financieros para su control, falta de grupos de presión de parte de la población más vulnerable, escasos fármacos y métodos de diagnóstico. En este artículo se describe la relación entre las EID la pobreza e inequidad, se propone un nuevo concepto de enfermedad en el trópico, la ampliación de la lista de enfermedades en el contexto del Perú que comparten las características de las EID, la escasa disponibilidad de medicamentos y pruebas de diagnóstico para enfrentar adecuadamente estas enfermedades, los aportes que viene haciendo el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Ministerio de Salud del Perú en este contexto, y como consideraciones finales se menciona que la solución para la prevención y control de las EID debe ser integral, con un abordaje desde las determinantes sociales de la salud y en el contexto de la lucha contra la pobreza y la inequidad

  11. Quantitative dose-volume response analysis of changes in parotid gland function after radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesink, Judith M.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Battermann, Jan J.; Hordijk, Gerrit Jan; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the radiation tolerance of the parotid glands as a function of dose and volume irradiated. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various malignancies in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured before radiotherapy and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after radiotherapy. Parotid gland dose-volume histograms were derived from CT-based treatment planning. The normal tissue complication probability model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. A complication was defined as stimulated parotid flow rate 50 (the dose to the whole organ leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 31, 35, and 39 Gy at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year postradiotherapy, respectively. The volume dependency parameter n was around 1, which means that the mean parotid dose correlates best with the observed complications. There was no steep dose-response curve (m=0.45 at 1 year postradiotherapy). Conclusions: This study on dose/volume/parotid gland function relationships revealed a linear correlation between postradiotherapy flow ratio and parotid gland dose and a strong volume dependency. No threshold dose was found. Recovery of parotid gland function was shown at 6 months and 1 year after radiotherapy. In radiation planning, attempts should be made to achieve a mean parotid gland dose at least below 39 Gy (leading to a complication probability of 50%)

  12. Chemoradioprotection of the rat parotid gland by the beta-sympathomimetic agonist, terbutaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinesi, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of the beta-adrenergic stimulator known as terbutaline in providing increased radioresistance to the normal, (i.e. nonmalignant) rat parotid salivary gland. Radiation damage was assessed by gland weight and microscopic examination of saline-treated and terbutaline-treated groups during days 1 to 10 and at 60 days post-irradiation. Terbutaline-treated groups exhibited both a sparing of gland weight loss as well as better preservation of glandular microstructure at all periods examined post-irradiation. Radioprotection of human parotid glands would provide relief from the xerostomia and its severe sequelae which often follow radiotherapy to the head and neck region in cancer patients. Terbutaline, with its preferential affinity for the beta-2 adrenergic receptor may provide a therapeutic advantage without the cardiac effects which normally accompany less specific (beta-1 + beta-2) adrenergic stimulation. In addition to providing a model for clinical protection of the salivary glands, this demonstration of protection of the rat parotid may also serve as a model for investigation of the mechanisms of action of terbutaline and other radioprotective compounds

  13. Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation induced parotid stimulation on salivary flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasulu Pattipati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the duration of stimulation over the parotid salivary flow following the use of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS in different age groups. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three different age groups. Under group A individuals from 21 to 35 years of age, group B 36-50 years and group C above 51 years were considered. In each group 30 subjects were taken of whom 15 were males and 15 were females. The placement of pads was approximated bilaterally over the parotid glands. The working parameters of TENS unit were fixed at 50 Hz and the unit was in normal mode. Results: Subjects belonging to group B were showing statistically significant increases in the duration of stimulated parotid salivary flow following the use of TENS. Conclusion: TENS can be considered as a non-pharmacological alternative to improve salivation for longer period in xerostomia patients.

  14. Geometric Image Biomarker Changes of the Parotid Gland Are Associated With Late Xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Lisanne V; Brouwer, Charlotte L; van der Laan, Hans Paul; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Langendijk, Johannes A; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Sijtsema, Nanna M

    2017-12-01

    To identify a surrogate marker for late xerostomia 12 months after radiation therapy (Xer 12m ), according to information obtained shortly after treatment. Differences in parotid gland (PG) were quantified in image biomarkers (ΔIBMs) before and 6 weeks after radiation therapy in 107 patients. By performing stepwise forward selection, ΔIBMs that were associated with Xer 12m were selected. Subsequently other variables, such as PG dose and acute xerostomia scores, were added to improve the prediction performance. All models were internally validated. Prediction of Xer 12m based on PG surface reduction (ΔPG-surface) was good (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82). Parotid gland dose was related to ΔPG-surface (Pxerostomia scores to the ΔPG-surface improved the prediction of Xer 12m significantly, and vice versa. The final model including ΔPG-surface and acute xerostomia had outstanding performance in predicting Xer 12m early after radiation therapy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.90). Parotid gland surface reduction was associated with late xerostomia. The early posttreatment model with ΔPG-surface and acute xerostomia scores can be considered as a surrogate marker for late xerostomia. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recurrent parotid swelling secondary to masseter muscle hypertrophy: a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Gaffuri, Michele; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Assandri, Fausto; Pereira, Pollyanna; Farronato, Giampietro

    2016-11-01

    To present a patient with an atypical recurrent parotid swelling due to masseter muscle hypertrophy and the diagnostic/therapeutic assessment to treat this condition. A patient referring recurrent right facial swelling underwent a complete multidisciplinary assessment of the parotid region that revealed masseter muscle hypertrophy, confirmed by means of clinical (otolaryngological and gnathological evaluation), radiological (utrasonography, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging, and cone beam computed tomography), instrumental (electromyography to evaluate the right masseter muscle function and kinesiography to evaluate maximum right deflection - MaxRDefl and maximum opening - MaxMO) and sialendoscopy assessment where T0 indicates the pre-treatment values. All electromyographic and kinesiographic parameters were evaluated six months after the orthodontic application of a neuromuscular orthosis at T1. At T1, the effectiveness of the orthodontic therapy was demonstrated by the complete resolution of symptoms, and instrumental results documented more efficient muscle activity at rest and during clenching and a better mandibular position. At EMG T1, the resting and post-TENS values were, respectively, 1.2 and 1.8 microV. At kinesiography, MaxRDefl increased from 10.2 (T0) to 10.5 mm (T1); maxMO increased from 41.2 (T0) to 48 mm (T1). The proposed multidisciplinary assessment based on otolaryngological, gnathological, and radiological evaluation may be useful in the case of recurrent parotid swelling secondary to masseter muscle hypertrophy to plan an appropriate management with a removable neuromuscular orthosis.

  16. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the secretory process of the rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandborg, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted

  17. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on the secretory process of the rat parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandborg, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental animals were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil for three days. The total volume, amylase and protein content of cannulated parotid saliva were determined following stimulation with either 5 mg/kg pilocarpine or 5 mg/kg isoproterenol in experimental, pair-fed , and control animals. Saliva from experimental animals was significantly lower in volume, amylase and protein content than both control groups. 5-fluorouracil treatment reduced the total glandular amylase per unit DNA in both unstimulated and isoproterenol-stimulated parotid glands. Decreased protein synthesis may be the mechanism underlying depleted secretory protein stores since the contents of isolated secretory granules from experimental parotid glands contained less radiolabelled protein than either control group and whole gland homogenates showed marked reductions in the activities of three lysosomal enzymes and total RNA content. Experimental animals contained less labelled protein in their secretory granules than controls, but secreted a greater proportion of their total glandular radiolabelled secretory protein into saliva relative to amylase suggesting that newly synthesized secretory proteins are preferentially secreted.

  18. Electron microscopic study of the spilt irradiation effects on the rat parotid ductal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Rae

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of split irradiation on the salivary ductal cells, especially on the intercalated cells of the rat parotid glands. For this study, 24 Sprague-Dawley strain rats were irradiated on the head and neck region with two equal split doses of 9 Gy for a 4 hours interval by Co-60 teletherapy unit, Picker's mode l 4M 60. The conditions of irradiation were that field size, dose rate, SSD and depth were 12 X 5 cm, 222 cGy/min, 50 cm and 1 cm, respectively. The experimental animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, hours and 1, 3, 7, days after the irradiation and the changes of the irradiated intercalated cells of the parotid glands were examined under light and electron microscope. The results were as follows: 1. By the split irradiation, the degenerative changes of intercalated cells of the parotid glands appeared at 3 hours after irradiation and the most severe cellular degeneration observed at 6 hours after irradiation. The repair processes began from 12 hours after irradiation and have matured progressively. 2. Under electron microscope, loss of nuclear membrane, microvilli and secretory granules, derangement of chromosomes, degeneration of cytoplasm, atrophy or reduction of intracytoplasmic organelles were observed in the intercalated ductal cells after split irradiation. 3. Under light microscope, derangement of ductal cells, widening of cytoplasms and nuclei, hyperchromatism and proliferation of ductal cells were observed in intercalated ducts after split irradiation.

  19. Induction of parotitis by fine-needle aspiration in parotid Warthin's tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kensuke; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Toshihiko; Sakaguchi, Mariko; Hoshino, Shoichi; Inaba, Muneo

    2009-08-01

    To estimate parotitis caused by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in parotid Warthin tumor. Case series with chart review. Hospital records were reviewed for 104 parotid tumors (103 patients) including 35 Warthin tumors, which underwent FNA within our department. Three patients with four Warthin tumors among them noticed parotid pain, swelling, and abscess formation as a consequence of acute parotitis after FNA. Examinations of the materials obtained from tumor puncture or drainage before the start of antibiotic therapy showed no bacterial association in any patient. Two of the patients with Warthin tumor underwent parotidectomy, and the surgical specimens indicated histopathological changes with necrosis, abscess, granuloma, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells including Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. It is conceivable that Warthin tumor bears the characteristics of inflammation induced by the FNA procedure without any relation to infection. Therefore, it may be better to avoid routine FNA and give priority to diagnostic imagings over FNA in the diagnosis of tumors strongly suspected as Warthin tumor.

  20. Perfusion characteristics of parotid gland tumors evaluated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, Laura V., E-mail: Laura.Klotz@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gürkov, Robert [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Eichhorn, Martin E. [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Siedek, Vanessa; Krause, Eike [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Clevert, Dirk-Andre [Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) is a promising imaging modality for non-invasive analysis of parotid gland lesions because their vascularisation differs from normal gland tissue. This clinical study should further investigate CE-US as a diagnostic tool for parotid gland tumors. Materials and methods: 39 patients underwent CE-US measurements after intravenous application of a contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco, Italy) before surgical tumor resection. Time–intensity curves gradients were calculated and parameters of intratumoral microcirculation were analysed. The vascularisation parameters were compared among the different tumor entities as defined per definitive histological diagnosis. Results: Histological analyses revealed 17 pleomorphic adenoma, 15 cystadenolymphoma and 7 malignoma. A significant difference of area below intensity time curve (AUC) and mean transit time (MTT) was measured in the malignant lesions compared to benign tumors (p < 0.05). A significant difference of AUC and maximum of signal increase (ΔSI{sub max}) for pleomorphic adenoma versus cystadenolymphoma was found (p < 0.05). Conclusion: CE-US seems to be a quantitative and independent method for the assessment of malign and benign parotid gland tumors. Further studies and clinical experience will have to validate this method as a reliable diagnostic tool that facilitates preoperative planning.

  1. Histomorphological study of parotid gland from young rats (Holtzman) submitted to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslindo, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed on rats to verify v the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of the parotid glands of young rats. Thirty twenty five-day old rats - Rattus norvegicus, albinus, Holtzman - with a medium body weight of 54,20 g were equally distributed in two experimental groups: group I - irradiated; group II - control. After intraperitoneal anesthetics with sodium Pentobarbital in 3% gad been applied, the group I - rats were immobilized in a dorsal position on special surgery tables. The region of the parotid glands were irradiated with a dose of 300 R, this procedure was repeated every 48 hours up to an exposition of 1200 R. The Group II - animals received a simulated treatment as control. The following conclusions may be drawn through the methodology used: the group I - rats gained body weight uniformly after the 13th day, this was not equivalent to the control group; the critical phase of glandular disorganization determined by irradiation corresponded to the experimental period of 8 days, decreasing in the subsequent days; the serous acini and the streated ducts showed to be more radium sensitive even under the use of low fractionated doses; the parotid gland showed indications of gradual morphological recovery after the last exposition to X-rays. (author)

  2. Leiomyosarcoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Coulter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is only one previously reported incident in the English literature of sarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid and there are only 8 cases of primary parotid leiomyosarcoma. In our case, a 79-year-old female patient presented to our care with left preauricular pain, swelling, and facial weakness. After CT imaging, she underwent left total parotidectomy. A spindle cell lesion was identified intraoperatively and the facial nerve was sacrificed. Subsequent analysis of the lesion yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. After 30 fractions of radiation therapy, scans were negative for tumor. However, 18 months after first experiencing symptoms, she was found to have metastases to the brainstem and lung. When diagnosing sarcoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland, it is important to perform thorough immunohistochemical staining and exclude a previous history of sarcoma or other sources of metastases. Complete resection is critical due to the tumor’s local aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Although these tumors are not very responsive to chemotherapy or radiation, adjuvant treatment is commonly used when margins are unclear.

  3. Comparison of semi-quantitative parotid scintigraphy with biopsy of labial gland in the patiens with Sjogren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jingxiong; He Xiaojiang; Yu Hao; Wu Hua; Chen Guibing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Labial gland biopsy is one of major diagnostic methods for Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Meanwhile, 99 Tc m O 4 - parotid scintigraphy has been proven useful for the clinical evaluation of SS. This study was performed to investigate the correlation between the two examinations and evaluate the semi-quantitative parotid scintigraphy in the early diagnosis and staging for SS patients.Methods: There were 135 SS patients and 30 normal subjects as control group in this study. They all underwent 99 Tc m O 4 - parotid scintigraphy. Semi-quantitative analyses of parotid scintigraphy were conducted with parameters including maximum accumulation ratio (MAR), maximum secretion ratio (MSR), time interval from stimulation to minimum count (t parotid ), prestimulatory oral activity index (PRI) and poststimulatory oral activity index (POI). For comparison, the biopsy of labial gland was performed in each patient and the pathological se-verity was classified into grade 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 (also defined as subgroups). One-way ANOVA and q-teat were applied for the correlation analyses between the two examinations. Results: There was significant difference between pathological subgroup 3 or subgroup 4 and the control in all the semi-quantitative parameters (q=6.79-38.64, P parotid (r=0.364, P 99 Tc m aO 4 - parotid scintigraphy may be well correlated with the pathological severity of labial gland biopsy in SS patients. Further, the semi-quantitative indices especially PRI and POI may be helpful for the early diagnosis and staging of SS patients. (authors)

  4. Capsule of parotid gland tumor: evaluation by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging using surface coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Mana; Fujii, Shinya; Nishihara, Keisuke; Matsusue, Eiji; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of parotid gland tumors has been widely reported, although few reports have evaluated the capsule of parotid gland tumors in detail. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils for detection of the parotid gland tumor capsule, and to clarify the characteristics of the capsules. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight patients with parotid gland tumors (63 benign and 15 malignant) were evaluated. Axial and coronal T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained using a 3.0 T MR scanner with 70 mm surface coils. It was retrospectively assessed whether each parotid gland tumor was completely surrounded by a capsule. The capsule was classified as regular or irregular in terms of capsular thickness, and as none, mildly, or strongly enhancing in terms of contrast enhancement. Visual interpretations were compared with histopathological findings to evaluate the diagnostic ability of MR imaging to detect parotid gland tumor capsules. Statistical evaluation was conducted concerning the presence of capsules, capsular irregularity, and the difference in contrast enhancement between benign and malignant tumors, and that between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin's tumors. Results: Capsules completely surrounding the tumor on MR imaging yielded a sensitivity of 87.7% (50/57), specificity of 90.5% (19/21), and accuracy of 88.5% (69/78). Benign tumors had a capsule completely surrounding the tumor significantly more often than malignant tumors (P = 0.009). Concerning capsular irregularity, malignant tumors tended to have more irregular capsules than benign tumors, although there were no significant differences. The capsules of malignant tumors enhanced significantly more strongly than those of benign tumors (P = 0.018). Conclusion: 3.0 T MR imaging using surface coils could correctly depict parotid gland tumor capsules in most cases. Most benign and some malignant tumors had capsules

  5. Influence of Parotid from Various Dose Rate in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Wan; Jeong, Yun Ju; Won, Hui Su; Chang, Nam Jun; Choi, Ji Hun; Seok, Jin Yong

    2010-01-01

    There are various beam parameter in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The aim of this study is to investigate how various dose rate affect the parotid in treatment plan of IMRT. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 10 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients who have undergone IMRT. CT images were scanned 3 mm of thickness in the same condition and the treatment plan was performed by Eclipse (Ver.7.1, Varian, Palo Alto, USA). The parameters for planning used 6 MV energy and 8 beams under the same dose volume constraint. The variation of dose rates were used 300, 400, 500 MU/min. The mean dose of both parotid was accessed from the calculated planning among the 10 patients. The mean dose of parotid was verificated by 2D diode array (Mapcheck from Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, Florida). Also, Total monitor unit (MU) and beam-on time was analysed. Results: According to the dose rate, the mean dose of parotid was increased by 0.8%, 2.0% each, when dose rate was changed from 300 MU/min to 400, 500 MU/min, moreover Total MU was increased by 5.4% and 10.6% each. There was also a dose upward trend in the dose measurement of parotid by 2D diode array. However, beam - on time difference of 1-2 minutes was no significant in the dose rate increases. From this study, when the dose rates increase, there was a significant increase of Total MU and the parotid dose accordingly, however the shortened treatment time was not significant. Hence, it is considered that there is a significant decrease of late side effect in parotid radiation therapy, if the precise dose rate in IMRT is used.

  6. Assessment of absorbed dose to thyroid, parotid and ovaries in patients undergoing Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasanzadeh, H; Sharafi, A; Verdi, M Allah; Nikoofar, A

    2006-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery was originally introduced by Lars Leksell in 1951. This treatment refers to the noninvasive destruction of an intracranial target localized stereotactically. The purpose of this study was to identify the dose delivered to the parotid, ovaries, testis and thyroid glands during the Gamma Knife radiosurgery procedure. A three-dimensional, anthropomorphic phantom was developed using natural human bone, paraffin and sodium chloride as the equivalent tissue. The phantom consisted of a thorax, head and neck and hip. In the natural places of the thyroid, parotid (bilateral sides) and ovaries (midline), some cavities were made to place TLDs. Three TLDs were inserted in a batch with 1 cm space between the TLDs and each batch was inserted into a single cavity. The final depth of TLDs was 3 cm from the surface for parotid and thyroid and was 15 cm for the ovaries. Similar batches were placed superficially on the phantom. The phantom was gamma irradiated using a Leksell model C Gamma Knife unit. Subsequently, the same batches were placed superficially over the thyroid, parotid, testis and ovaries in 30 patients (15 men and 15 women) who were undergoing radiosurgery treatment for brain tumours. The mean dosage for treating these patients was 14.48 ± 3.06 Gy (10.5-24 Gy) to a mean tumour volume of 12.30 ± 9.66 cc (0.27-42.4 cc) in the 50% isodose curve. There was no significant difference between the superficial and deep batches in the phantom studies (P-value < 0.05). The mean delivered doses to the parotid, thyroid, ovaries and testis in human subjects were 21.6 ± 15.1 cGy, 9.15 ± 3.89 cGy, 0.47 ± 0.3 cGy and 0.53 ± 0.31 cGy, respectively. The data can be used in making decisions for special clinical situations such as treating pregnant patients or young patients with benign lesions who need radiosurgery for eradication of brain tumours

  7. Irradiation Effect on Secreting Function, Amylase Activity and Nucleic Acid Contents of Rat Parotid Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Jin; Park, Tae Won

    1990-01-01

    This experiment was performed to clarify the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation on secretory function, amylase activity and contents of nucleic acids of parotid gland in rat. Experimental animals were divided into 6th hours, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days after irradiation and control. The experimental animals are singly irradiated with 20 Gy (2,000 rad) through protective lead block. Secretory function of parotid gland was evaluated by uptake and clearance of 99m TcO 4 . 99m TcO 4 , 0.2μ ci/gm, was injected into peritonium in uptake groups. Rats were sacrificed with cervical dislocation after 30 minutes and gland was excised. In the clearance group, pilocarpine nitrate (8 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 30 minutes after 99m TcO 4 injection and rats were sacrificed 30 minutes after pilocarpine infection. Radioactivity of excised parotid gland was measured by using of gamma counter and stimulation-secretion coefficient, uptake radioactivity divided by clearance radioactivity, was calculated. Amylase activity and contents of DNA and RNA were determined by spectrophotometry. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In the uptake test, the radioactivity of 99m TcO 4 per unit weight increase in experimental group except 6th hours group, compared with control groups and showed a peak at 3rd days after irradiation. 2. In the clearance test, the radioactivity of 99m TcO 4 per unit weight rose to a peak at 3rd days after irradiation and gradually recovered thereafter. 3. Stimulation-secretion coefficient of parotid gland decreased at 6th hours, 3rd and 7th days after irradiation, and gradually increased. 4. Amylase activity of parotid gland decreased in 3rd and 7th days group, and especially lowest in 3rd days after irradiation. 5. The contents of DNA showed no definite difference in all the experimental groups, but RNA was seemed to decrease with time after irradiation.

  8. Vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica del sarampión, rubéola, parotiditis, poliomielitis y tos ferina en la provincia Las Tunas, 2010-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La inmunoepidemiología se ha convertido en imprescindible en el sistema de vigilancia moderno de salud, en la evaluación de los programas de vacunación, en la definición de la inmunidad poblacional y en su papel en la prevención de enfermedades. Este estudio describe el comportamiento en la provincia de Las Tunas de la vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica de cinco enfermedades prevenibles: sarampión, rubéola, parotiditis, poliomielitis y tos ferina. La investigación cubrió el periodo desde el año 2010 hasta el 2013. Los resultados muestran la eficacia de las vacunas empleadas, sin ningún caso positivo registrado y avalan a la vigilancia inmunoepidemiológica establecida desde la atención primaria de salud hasta la red de higiene y epidemiología del municipio, la provincia y la nación. Este sistema es necesario para evaluar con antelación posibles riesgos de enfermedades y la decisión oportuna de medidas de intervención

  9. Complicações pulmonares não infecciosas após transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas

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    Eliane Viana Mancuzo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As complicações pulmonares constituem importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade após o transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas (TCTH ocorrendo em cerca de 30 a 60% dos receptores. O avanço na profilaxia e tratamento de complicações infecciosas tem aumentado de forma significativa a parcela de complicações pulmonares não infecciosas. O diagnóstico e o tratamento precoce destas complicações podem mudar o prognóstico dos receptores de transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas. O objectivo deste estudo é rever as principais complicações não infecciosas associadas ao TCTH desde a realização do primeiro transplante de medula óssea em 1957.Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura utilizando-se a estratégia PICO para a construção das perguntas. Os descritores transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas, complicações pulmonares não infecciosas, revisão sistemática, em português e seus correspondentes em inglês, foram utilizados para acesso às seguintes bases de dados: MEDLINE, EBM, EMBASE, COCRANE LIBRARY, LILACS e SciELO. Nesta revisão foram identificados 263 trabalhos. Destes, 30 foram seleccionados para serem analisados na íntegra. As complicações pulmonares não infecciosas mais frequentemente descritas foram: bronquiolite obliterante, bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização, edema pulmonar, síndroma da pneumonia idiopática, síndroma da toxicidade pulmonar por droga, hemorragia alveolar difusa, síndroma do enxerto e trombo citolítico pulmonar.Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (5: 815-828 Abstract: Pulmonary complications are important cause of mortality and morbidity after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, in 30% to 60% of the patients. Improvements in prophylaxis and treatment of infectious complications have been increasing the rate of non-infectious complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of those complications can significantly change the

  10. Impact of patient positioning on radiotherapy dose distribution: An assessment in parotid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We intended to study the impact of patient positioning on the dose distribution within target volume and organs at risk in patients with parotid malignancies treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT with photon wedge pair (WP or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT.Methods: Three patients with a non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the right parotid gland were consecutively immobilized using thermoplastic cast in 2 positions: supine with head in neutral position (HN and with head turned 90° to the left side (HT. Images for treatment planning purpose were acquired in both positions. For both positions, photon WP plans and 5 field IMRT plans were generated, after contouring clinical target volume (CTV, planning target volume (PTV= CTV + 5 mm margin and organs at risk (OAR. All plans were evaluated for target coverage and dose to OARs.Results: Both CTV and PTV were apparently larger in HN compared with HT (31.76±8.89 cc, 30.31±7.83 cc and 62.49±19.01 cc, 58.89±15.33 cc respectively. The CI value for PTV was slightly better for HT compared to HN position in both the WP and IMRT plans. The homogeneity was comparable in both the head positions in case of WP plan. The mean HI of PTV was increased in case of IMRT plan at HT versus HN position (1.108 vs. 1.097. A change in head position from HN to HT with wedge pair plan resulted in a reduction of brainstem Dmax and Dmean. Lesser dose was observed in HN position for contralateral parotid. A difference of 0.9 Gy in the average Dmax to spinal cord was seen. The values of Dmean to mandible, oral cavity, ipsilateral and contralateral cochlea were higher in the HT position. A change in head position from HN to HT with IMRT plan resulted in a dose reduction in average Dmax to brainstem. The spinal cord Dmax increased at the HT position by 1.2 Gy. The dose to contralateral parotid and cochlea was comparable in both the positions. However, the Dmean to oral cavity was reduced at HT position. Whereas

  11. High-resolution magnetic resonance of the extracranial facial nerve and parotid duct: demonstration of the branches of the intraparotid facial nerve and its relation to parotid tumours by MRI with a surface coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Okamoto, K.; Ohkubo, M.; Kawana, M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of high-resolution MR imaging in the evaluation of the extracranial facial nerve, compared with surgical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with benign parotid tumours were studied on a 1.5-T MR system with a 3 in circular surface coil. High-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast spin-echo, and three-dimensional gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in the axial planes. Oblique reformatted images were generated. Tumours, parotid ducts and facial nerves were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumours to the facial nerves was confirmed at surgery. RESULTS: Facial nerves appeared as linear structures of low intensity on all pulse sequences. The main trunks and cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerves were identified in 100%, 84.1% and 53.8% of GRASS images, respectively. Parotid ducts appeared as structures of low intensity on T1-weighted (66.6%) and GRASS images (81.8%), and as structures of very high intensity on T2-weighted images (91.7%). The relationships of the tumours to the facial nerves were correctly diagnosed in 11 (91.7%) of 12 cases. CONCLUSION: High-resolution MR imaging depicts the extracranial facial nerve and the parotid duct, and is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumours

  12. High-resolution magnetic resonance of the extracranial facial nerve and parotid duct: demonstration of the branches of the intraparotid facial nerve and its relation to parotid tumours by MRI with a surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan) and Department of Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, Niigata (Japan)]. E-mail: nandtr@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp; Okamoto, K. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Ohkubo, M. [Department of Radiotechnology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan); Kawana, M. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine, Niigata (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of high-resolution MR imaging in the evaluation of the extracranial facial nerve, compared with surgical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with benign parotid tumours were studied on a 1.5-T MR system with a 3 in circular surface coil. High-resolution T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast spin-echo, and three-dimensional gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in the axial planes. Oblique reformatted images were generated. Tumours, parotid ducts and facial nerves were identified on these images. The relationship of the tumours to the facial nerves was confirmed at surgery. RESULTS: Facial nerves appeared as linear structures of low intensity on all pulse sequences. The main trunks and cervicofacial and temporofacial divisions of the facial nerves were identified in 100%, 84.1% and 53.8% of GRASS images, respectively. Parotid ducts appeared as structures of low intensity on T1-weighted (66.6%) and GRASS images (81.8%), and as structures of very high intensity on T2-weighted images (91.7%). The relationships of the tumours to the facial nerves were correctly diagnosed in 11 (91.7%) of 12 cases. CONCLUSION: High-resolution MR imaging depicts the extracranial facial nerve and the parotid duct, and is useful for preoperative evaluation of parotid gland tumours.

  13. un estudio comparativo

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    Federico Varona

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación efectiva es uno de los mayores retos que tienen hoy las organizaciones y empresas tanto a nivel nacional como internacional (global. Este artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación realizada por un equipo internacional de investigadores interesados en descubrir y comparar las conductas comunicativas o estilos de comunicación de los empleados finlandeses y mexicanos cuando interactúan con sus superiores. Para ello presentamos: primero, un breve marco teórico del estudio; segundo, la metodología; tercero, los resultados del análisis estadístico comparativo entre los empleados de Finlandia y México; cuarto, las conclusiones generales y su explicación cultural; y quinto, las implicaciones teóricas y prácticas de este estudio con respecto a las competencias comunicativas necesarias para la comunicación efectiva entre empleados y superiores tanto en organizaciones nacionales como internacionales (globales.

  14. Early evaluation of radiation-induced parotid damage in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma by T2 mapping and mDIXON Quant imaging: initial findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2018-02-08

    Radiation-induced parotid damage is a common complication in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with radiotherapy to head and neck region, which severely reduce the life quality of those patients. The aim of this study was to early evaluate the changes of irradiated parotid glands with T2 mapping and mDIXON Quant imaging. Forty-one patients with NPC underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging for nasopharynx and neck, and T2 mapping and mDIXON Quant imaging for bilateral parotid glands within 2 weeks before radiotherapy (pre-RT), 5 weeks after the beginning of radiotherapy (mid-RT), and 4 weeks after radiotherapy (post-RT). Parotid volume, T2 values, fat fraction (FF) values, and mean radiation dose were recorded and analyzed. From pre-RT to mid-RT, parotid volume decreased (atrophy rate, 27.0 ± 11.5%), while parotid T2 and FF values increased (change rate, 6.0 ± 6.2% for T2 value and 9.1 ± 9.9% for FF value) significantly. From mid-RT to post-RT, parotid T2 value continuously increased (change rate, 4.6 ± 7.7%), but parotid FF value decreased (change rate, - 9.9 ± 18.2%) significantly. Change rate of parotid T2 value significantly correlated with parotid atrophy rate from pre-RT to post-RT (r = 0.313, P = 0.027). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that parotid T2 value (standardized coefficient [SC] = - 0.259, P = 0.001) and FF value (SC = - 0.320, P = 0.014) negatively correlated with parotid volume, while parotid T2 value positively correlated with MR scan time point (SC = 0.476, P = 0.001) significantly. Parotid T2 and FF values showed excellent reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.935-0.992). T2 mapping and mDIXON Quant imaging is useful for noninvasive evaluation of radiation-induced parotid damage.

  15. Auto-administración de tratamiento antibiótico domiciliario endovenoso (A-TADE) en la endocarditis infecciosa : un modelo asistencial seguro y eficiente

    OpenAIRE

    Pajarón Guerrero, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    La endocarditis infecciosa (EI) es un proceso infeccioso de elevada gravedad, que habitualmente se maneja en el hospital. Las unidades de hospitalización a domicilio (HaD) ofrecen en su cartera de servicios el tratamiento antibiótico domiciliario endovenoso (TADE) para procesos infecciosos de diversa complejidad, siendo la EI uno de los que más reticencias ha suscitado hasta el momento. Dentro del modelo TADE, disponemos de una variante denominada auto-administración de tratamiento antimicrob...

  16. Parotid gland sparing effect by computed tomography-based modified lower field margin in whole brain radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Oyeon; Chun, Mi Son; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Mi Hwa; Park, Hae Jin; Nam, Sang Soo; Heo, Jae Sung; Noh, O Kyu; Park, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Parotid gland can be considered as a risk organ in whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the parotid gland sparing effect of computed tomography (CT)-based WBRT compared to 2-dimensional plan with conventional field margin. From January 2008 to April 2011, 53 patients underwent WBRT using CT-based simulation. Bilateral two-field arrangement was used and the prescribed dose was 30 Gy in 10 fractions. We compared the parotid dose between 2 radiotherapy plans using different lower field margins: conventional field to the lower level of the atlas (CF) and modified field fitted to the brain tissue (MF). Averages of mean parotid dose of the 2 protocols with CF and MF were 17.4 Gy and 8.7 Gy, respectively (p 98% of prescribed dose were 99.7% for CF and 99.5% for MF. Compared to WBRT with CF, CT-based lower field margin modification is a simple and effective technique for sparing the parotid gland, while providing similar dose coverage of the whole brain.

  17. Modified Functional Superficial Parotidectomy With Ligation of the Major Branch of the Parotid Duct Extending to the Superficial Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung Woo; Leem, Soo Seong; Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Jang Hyun

    2017-05-01

    A functional superficial parotidectomy can maintain salivary function by preserving the Stensen duct. However, this technique still brings the possibility of salivary leakage, because major branches of the parotid duct from the resected site do not get ligated. To reduce this complication, this study introduces a modified technique with major branch ligation. From December 2008 to February 2015, 14 patients who underwent superficial parotidectomy were divided into 2 groups. Group A was treated with the modified functional superficial parotidectomy involving the major branch between the superficial lobe and parotid duct. Group B was treated with the conventional superficial parotidectomy without involving the major branch of the parotid duct. The clinical complications, period of Hemovac usage, and surgical duration were noted in each group. Two of 8 patients in group A had a major branch from Stensen duct that was ligated, and there was no evidence of salivary leakage or sialocele in any of the patients of group A, whereas group B contained 2 cases of salivary leakage, one of which became sialocele. Group A had a significantly longer Hemovac maintenance period than group B (P < 0.05), and the duration of surgery was also significantly different between the 2 groups (P < 0.05). Because a solitary major branch of the main parotid duct occasionally extends toward the superficial lobe, our modified technique-functional superficial parotidectomy with ligation of the major branch toward the superficial lobe-is a useful option for treatment of a benign parotid mass in such cases.

  18. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  19. Recurrence in Region of Spared Parotid Gland After Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Donald M.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the implications of three examples of periparotid recurrence after definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We present 3 patients with HNC who underwent definitive IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy and later had treatment failure in or near a spared parotid gland. Two patients had bilateral multilevel nodal disease, and all had Level II nodal disease ipsilateral to the site of recurrence. The patients were treated using dose-painting IMRT with a dose of 70 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 59.4 Gy or 54 Gy to the high-risk or low-risk clinical tumor volume, respectively. The parotid glands were spared bilaterally. The patients had not undergone any surgical treatment for HNC before radiotherapy. Results: All patients had treatment failure in the region of a spared parotid gland. Failure in the 2 patients with bilateral multilevel nodal involvement occurred in the periparotid lymph nodes. The third patient developed a dermal metastasis near the tail of a spared parotid gland. On pretreatment imaging, the 2 patients with nodal failure had small nonspecific periparotid nodules that showed no hypermetabolic activity on positron emission tomography. Conclusion: For HNC patients receiving definitive IMRT, nonspecific positron emission tomography-negative periparotid nodules on pretreatment imaging should raise the index of suspicion for subclinical disease in the presence of multilevel or Level II nodal metastases. Additional evaluation of such nodules might be indicated before sparing the ipsilateral parotid gland

  20. Dos estudios de casos

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    Hernán Guillermo Salazar Morales

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN A continuación se presenta dos casos de estudio en donde se puede apreciar a la forma  como se establecen  las relaciones en una organización y lo que una DECISION  puede llegar a incidir en el desarrollo de las operaciones de una empresa. Decisiones basadas en la intuición, o en corazonadas, frecuentemente conducen en dirección equivocada, ocasionando pérdidas en tiempo, personal y dinero. El proceso de toma de decisiones deben ser TAREAS ESTRUCTURADAS que se sustenten con hechos. Su ejecución debe hacerse secuencialmente y cumplir con cada uno de sus pasos. El diseño de los  casos está orientado para que  sirvan como material de aplicación en la asignatura de  taller de planeación.

  1. DE AGUA. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR

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    Esther E. Pellizzari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar la resistencia al arsénico en cultivos puros de Pseudomonas aeruginosa , aislada de aguas subterráneas de Presidencia Roque Sáenz Peña, provincia de Chaco y evaluar la posibilidad de su uso para la remoción de este contaminante presente en las aguas subterráneas. Las cepas fueron inmovilizadas en piedra natural y se cu ltivaron en caldo de sales y 1 mgAs/L . Se observó la resistencia al arsénico y la formación de biofilm , logrando la interacción entre la s células, roca y arsénico . L a remoción de arsénico se evaluó durante 3 meses y el porcentaje de eliminación de arsénico al final del experimento fue 60%.

  2. Automated Segmentation of the Parotid Gland Based on Atlas Registration and Machine Learning: A Longitudinal MRI Study in Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofeng [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wu, Ning; Cheng, Guanghui [Radiation Oncology, Jilin University, Chuangchun, Jilin (China); Zhou, Zhengyang [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing (China); Yu, David S.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Curran, Walter J. [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.edu [Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parotid segmentation method to monitor radiation-induced parotid gland changes in patients after head and neck radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The proposed method combines the atlas registration method, which captures the global variation of anatomy, with a machine learning technology, which captures the local statistical features, to automatically segment the parotid glands from the MRIs. The segmentation method consists of 3 major steps. First, an atlas (pre-RT MRI and manually contoured parotid gland mask) is built for each patient. A hybrid deformable image registration is used to map the pre-RT MRI to the post-RT MRI, and the transformation is applied to the pre-RT parotid volume. Second, the kernel support vector machine (SVM) is trained with the subject-specific atlas pair consisting of multiple features (intensity, gradient, and others) from the aligned pre-RT MRI and the transformed parotid volume. Third, the well-trained kernel SVM is used to differentiate the parotid from surrounding tissues in the post-RT MRIs by statistically matching multiple texture features. A longitudinal study of 15 patients undergoing head and neck RT was conducted: baseline MRI was acquired prior to RT, and the post-RT MRIs were acquired at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The resulting segmentations were compared with the physicians' manual contours. Results: Successful parotid segmentation was achieved for all 15 patients (42 post-RT MRIs). The average percentage of volume differences between the automated segmentations and those of the physicians' manual contours were 7.98% for the left parotid and 8.12% for the right parotid. The average volume overlap was 91.1% ± 1.6% for the left parotid and 90.5% ± 2.4% for the right parotid. The parotid gland volume reduction at follow-up was 25% at 3 months, 27% at 6 months, and 16% at 12 months. Conclusions: We have validated

  3. [Scientific productivity, collaboration and research areas in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (2003-2007)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos; Ramos-Rincón, José Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Collaboration is essential for biomedical research. The Carlos III Health Institute (the Spanish national public organization responsible for promoting biomedical research) has encouraged scientific collaboration by promoting Thematic Networks and Cooperative Research Centres. Scientific collaboration in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica journal is investigated. Papers published in Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica in the period 2002-2007 have been identified. Bibliometrics and Social Network Analysis methods have been carried out in order to quantify and characterise scientific collaboration and research areas. A total of 805 papers generated by 2,289 authors and 326 institutions have been analysed. There were 36 research groups involving 138 authors identified. The Collaboration Index for articles was 5.5. Institutional collaboration was determined in 75% of articles. The collaboration between departments or units of the same institution prevails (43%), followed by intra-regional domestic collaboration (41%) and inter-regional domestic collaboration (14%). Hospital centres were the main institutional sector responsible of research (88% of papers), with 68% of articles cited. Sida/VIH (AIDS/HIV) is the main research area (n=114), followed by Staphylococcal Infections (n=33). Notable collaboration and citation rates have been observed. Research is focused on diseases with the highest mortality rates caused by infectious diseases in Spain. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial após endocardite infecciosa de valva mitral Infected aneurysm of brachial artery after mitral valve infective endocarditis

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    Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial em paciente com endocardite infecciosa por Streptococcus bovis. Homem de 49 anos de idade se apresentou com febre, dispnéia e sopro regurgitativo em foco mitral com irradiação para axila. O ecocardiograma demonstrou vegetação em valva mitral nativa. Após troca valvar mitral com implante de prótese biológica, observou-se massa pulsátil de cinco centímetros de diâmetro em fossa antecubital direita. Foi feito o diagnóstico de aneurisma infectado de artéria braquial, e o tratamento cirúrgico foi realizado com sucesso. O objetivo desse relato de caso é apresentar uma complicação pouco comum após endocardite infecciosa.We present a case of brachial artery infected aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus bovis. A 49-year-old man presented with fever dyspnea and a pansystolic murmur with irradiation to axilla. The echocardiogram revealed vegetation in native mitral valve. After mitral valve replacement with bioprosthesis, it was observed pulsatile mass of five centimeters in diameter at antecubital fossa of right upper limb. It was made the diagnosis of infected aneurysm of the brachial artery, and the surgery was performed successfully. The aim of this case report is to show a rare complication after infective endocarditis.

  5. O conceito de espaço na epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas The concept of space in infectious disease epidemiology

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    Luiz Jacintho da Silva

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Análise teórica da utilização do conceito de espaço na epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas. Faz-se uma breve retrospectiva do uso de diferentes conceituações de espaço e de suas implicações. Ênfase é dada à teoria dos focos naturais de Pavlovsky e às interações entre a epidemiologia e a geografia. O problema atual das infecções emergentes é visto como determinante da necessidade de se intensificarem as discussões sobre este conceito na epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas.This article analyzes how space is employed in infectious disease epidemiology, with a brief retrospective of the various definitions of space and its implications. Emphasis is given to the theory of natural foci of infectious diseases formulated by Pavlovsky and the interactions of epidemiology and geography.The current problem posed by emerging infections is seen as a determinant of the need for further discussion on the concept of space in infectious disease epidemiology.

  6. The effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on rat parotid glands: an immunohistochemical study

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    Tatiana Maria Folador Mattioli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of antidepressants and pilocarpine on the quantity of myoepithelial cells and on the proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands. INTRODUCTION: Hyposalivation, xerostomia, and alterations in saliva composition are important clinical side effects related to the use of antidepressants. METHODS: Ninety male Wistar rats were allocated to nine groups. The control groups received saline for 30 (group C30 or 60 days (group C60 or pilocarpine for 60 days (group Pilo. The experimental groups were administered fluoxetine (group F30 or venlafaxine for 30 days (group V30; fluoxetine (group FS60 or venlafaxine (group VS60 with saline for 60 days; or fluoxetine (group FP60 or venlafaxine (group VP60 with pilocarpine for 60 days. Parotid gland specimens were processed, and the immunohistochemical expression of calponin and proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen on the myoepithelial and parenchymal cells, respectively, was evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey HSD and Games-Howell tests were applied to detect differences among groups (p<0.05. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, chronic exposure to antidepressants was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for calponin. In addition, venlafaxine administration for 30 days was associated with an increase in the number of positively stained cells for proliferating cell nuclear anti-antigen. Fluoxetine and pilocarpine (group FP60 induced a significant decrease in the number of positively stained cells for calponin compared with all other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The number of positively stained cells for calponin increased after chronic administration of antidepressants. The proliferation index of the epithelial cells of rat parotid glands was not altered by the use of antidepressants for 60 days.

  7. The influence of parotid gland sparing on radiation damages of dental hard tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Jeremias; Seidel, Johannes; Schweyen, Ramona; Paelecke-Habermann, Yvonne; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether radiation damage on dental hard tissue depends on the mean irradiation dose the spared parotid gland is subjected to or on stimulated whole salivary flow rate. Between June 2002 and October 2008, 70 patients with neck and cancer curatively irradiated were included in this study. All patients underwent dental treatment referring to the guidelines and recommendations of the German Society of Dental, Oral and Craniomandibular Sciences prior, during, and after radiotherapy (RT). During the follow-up period of 24 months, damages on dental hard tissues were classified according to the RTOG/EORTC guidelines. The mean doses (D(mean)) during spared parotid gland RT were determined. Stimulated whole saliva secretion flow rates (SFR) were measured before RT and 1, 6, 12, 24 months after RT. Thirty patients showed no carious lesions (group A), 18 patients developed sporadic carious lesions (group B), and 22 patients developed general carious lesions (group C). Group A patients received a D mean of 21.2 ± 11.04 Gy. Group B patients received a D(mean) of 26.5 ± 11.59 Gy and group C patients received a D(mean) of 33.9 ± 9.93 Gy, respectively. The D(mean) of group A was significantly lower than the D(mean) of group C (p dental hard tissue correlates with increased mean irradiation doses as well as decreased salivary flow rates. Parotid gland sparing resulting in a dose below 20 Gy reduces radiation damage on dental hard tissues, and therefore, the dose may act as a predictor for the damage to be expected.

  8. Outcomes of Direct Facial-to-Hypoglossal Neurorrhaphy with Parotid Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Joel; Rihani, Jordan; Lin, Karen; Miller, Phillip J; Roland, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Lesions of the temporal bone and cerebellopontine angle and their management can result in facial nerve paralysis. When the nerve deficit is not amenable to primary end-to-end repair or interpositional grafting, nerve transposition can be used to accomplish the goals of restoring facial tone, symmetry, and voluntary movement. The most widely used nerve transposition is the hypoglossal-facial nerve anastamosis, of which there are several technical variations. Previously we described a technique of single end-to-side anastamosis using intratemporal facial nerve mobilization and parotid release. This study further characterizes the results of this technique with a larger patient cohort and longer-term follow-up. The design of this study is a retrospective chart review and the setting is an academic tertiary care referral center. Twenty-one patients with facial nerve paralysis from proximal nerve injury at the cerebellopontine angle underwent facial-hypoglossal neurorraphy with parotid release. Outcomes were assessed using the Repaired Facial Nerve Recovery Scale, questionnaires, and patient photographs. Of the 21 patients, 18 were successfully reinnervated to a score of a B or C on the recovery scale, which equates to good oral and ocular sphincter closure with minimal mass movement. The mean duration of paralysis between injury and repair was 12.1 months (range 0 to 36 months) with a mean follow-up of 55 months. There were no cases of hemiglossal atrophy, paralysis, or subjective dysfunction. Direct facial-hypoglossal neurorrhaphy with parotid release achieved a functional reinnervation and good clinical outcome in the majority of patients, with minimal lingual morbidity. This technique is a viable option for facial reanimation and should be strongly considered as a surgical option for the paralyzed face.

  9. Comparison of doses received in the mandibular condyle, cochlea, and parotid gland in neuroaxial treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernanda L.; Lima, Fabiana F. de; Vilela, Eudice, E-mail: fluoliveira@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fo, Joao Antonio, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common side effect in patients who undergo radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer tumors in the head and neck. In fractioned doses of radiotherapy, in the majority of intracranial tumors, the cochlea is the most affected organ. In addition to the cochlea, the mandible and the parotid glands are also exposed to radiation, which commonly leads to Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible and Xerostomia. In the head and neck regions, this can be complicated by the semi-independence of the positioning in this region, as regards the rigid cranium, connected to the semi-rigid mandible, and successive levels of the upper cervical spine and thoracic spine, which can lead to uncertainty in rotation as well as in head-neck movements, both up and down and side to side. The present study performed an intercomparison of the doses applied through four radiotherapy planning techniques for the neuro axial regions of the cochlea, mandible, and parotid glands, considering the changes carried out in each planning technique, including the protective shield, the angulations gantry and the field size. The results obtained by applying the half beam and angled field techniques varied in the cochlea by an average of 113.8% from the prescribed dose, whereas when applying the angled field technique with and without the mobile gap, the results varied in 104.5%. In the mandible, the half beam and angled field techniques showed that the dose varied an average of 16.5%, while in the techniques with and without the mobile gap, the variation showed an average of 116.4%. These values were also received by the parotid glands, which overlap the mandible. It can therefore be concluded that the protection shields of the first two techniques were less efficient in protecting the mandible due to its modeling. (author)

  10. Indications of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy for parotid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tomohisa; Yonezawa, Kouichiro; Morimoto, Koichi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Otsuki, Naoki; Nishimura, Hideki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Regional lymph node metastases significantly influence the prognosis of patients with parotid cancer. To assess our indications of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy for parotid cancer, a retrospective chart review was performed. Between 2001 and 2009, 35 patients with parotid cancer were initially treated at our department. The median follow-up was 30 months (range, 10-90 months). Out of all patients, 31 (89%) patients were preoperatively diagnosed as malignant, while 4 (11%) patients were initially diagnosed as benign. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common histological type (10 patients). Twenty-two tumors (63%) were pathologically diagnosed as high-grade. The numbers of patients with Stages I, II, III, and IVA were 3, 10, 7, and 15, respectively. Ipsilateral neck dissection (Level II-V) was performed in seven patients with clinically positive neck metastasis (cN+), and in ten patients without lymph node metastasis who had T4 disease, high-grade malignancy, or positive neck (Level II) metastasis during intraoperative evaluation. Postoperative radiotherapy was performed in 24 patients with pathological T4, high-grade malignancy, positive surgical margin, multiple neck metastasis and/or extranodal extension (ENI). Seven of 28 (25%) patients with clinically N0 had pathologically positive neck metastasis (pN+). Regional recurrence developed in one patient with high-grade malignancy and ENI (T4N2b). Disease-specific survival rates for Stages I, II, III, and IVA at 3 years were 100%, 73%, 100%, and 37%, respectively. Loco-regional control rates for pN0 (21 patients) and pN+ (14 patients) at 3 years were 90% and 95%, respectively. Our present favorable loco-regional control supported our current indications of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy. We also recommend intraoperative biopsy of level IIB nodes to study the need for elective neck dissection. (author)

  11. Parotid gland tumours: MR tractography to assess contact with the facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attyé, Arnaud; Karkas, Alexandre; Troprès, Irène; Roustit, Matthieu; Kastler, Adrian; Bettega, Georges; Lamalle, Laurent; Renard, Félix; Righini, Christian; Krainik, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of intraparotid facial nerve (VIIn) tractographic reconstructions in estimating the presence of a contact between the VIIn and the tumour, in patients requiring surgical resection of parotid tumours. Patients underwent MR scans with VIIn tractography calculated with the constrained spherical deconvolution model. The parameters of the diffusion sequence were: b-value of 1000 s/mm(2); 32 directions; voxel size: 2 mm isotropic; scan time: 9'31'. The potential contacts between VIIn branches and tumours were estimated with different initial fractional anisotropy (iFA) cut-offs compared to surgical data. Surgeons were blinded to the tractography reconstructions and identified both nerves and contact with tumours using nerve stimulation and reference photographs. Twenty-six patients were included in this study and the mean patient age was 55.2 years. Surgical direct assessment of VIIn allowed identifying 0.1 as the iFA threshold with the best sensitivity to detect tumour contact. In all patients with successful VIIn identification by tractography, surgeons confirmed nerve courses as well as lesion location in parotid glands. Mean VIIn branch FA values were significantly lower in cases with tumour contact (t-test; p ≤ 0.01). This study showed the feasibility of intraparotid VIIn tractography to identify nerve contact with parotid tumours. • Diffusion imaging is an efficient method for highlighting the intraparotid VIIn. • Visualization of the VIIn may help to better manage patients before surgery. • We bring new insights to future trials for patients with VIIn dysfunction. • We aimed to provide radio-anatomical references for further studies.

  12. Utilization of intensity modulated beam radiotherapy (IMBXRT) to diminish dose to the parotid gland in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, W. Woo; Grant, Walter H.; Butler, E. Brian

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine if intensity conformal modulated radiotherapy could diminish the radiation dose to the parotid gland in the treatment of primary head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: The NOMOS Peacock treatment system was utilized in the planning and delivery of conformal radiotherapy for the following diseases: 1) an oropharyngeal cancer that extends from the soft palate to the tonsillar fossa without nodal disease, 2) laryngeal hypopharyngeal cancer without nodal disease, 3) and adenocystic carcinoma, that originated in the hard palate. Patients were treated to areas suspicious for microscopic disease (nodal disease in 1 and 2, perineural spread in 3) at 2 Gy per fraction for a tc of 50 Gy in five weeks. The primary disease was treated at 2.4 Gy per fraction for a total of 60 Gy over five weeks. The percent of the volume of each parotid gland receiving < 20 Gy, <25 Gy and <30 Gy retrospectively was determined for each of the above mentioned optimized plans. The patients were observed for the clinical development of xerostomia. Results: No patient developed clinically apparent xerostomia within one month of completion of radiotherapy. Conclusion: IMBXRT could reduce the volume to parotid glands receiving high radiation doses. Sparing of the parotid glands appear to be most easily accomplished when irradiating head and neck tumors that do not require regional nodal treatment. For head and neck cancer that requires nodal treatment it is possible to spare a significant portion of the parotid glands if the disease originates below the hyoid bone where the primary site is not in close proximity to the parotid glands. Objective salivary flow data are being obtained pre ar post treatment, to confirm the subjective impression of lack of clinical xerostomia. IMBXRT is potentially beneficial in decreasing the morbidity of xerostomia related to head and neck irradiation

  13. High-risk factors of parotid lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-zhi; Cao, Cai-neng; Luo, Jing-wei; Yi, Jun-lin; Huang, Xiao-dong; Zhang, Shi-ping; Wang, Kai; Qu, Yuan; Xiao, Jian-ping; Li, Su-yan; Gao, Li; Xu, Guo-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Although parotid-sparing IMRT decreased the dose distribution of parotid, parotid region recurrence has been reported. Prophylactic irradiation in parotid area would be necessary in patients with high risk of parotid lymph node metastasis (PLNM). This study was to detect the high-risk factors of PLNM in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This was a 1:2 case-control study. All patients in this study were newly diagnosed NPC with N2-3 classification from January 2005 to December 2012. Cases were 22 sides with ipsilateral PLNM. Controls were 44 patients who were randomly selected from N2-3 disease in database. 20/1096 (1.82 %) NPC patients were found PLNM. Sum of the longest diameter for multiple lymph nodes (SLD) in level II was larger in case group than that in control group (6.0 cm vs. 3.6 cm, p = 0.003). Level II lymph node necrosis, level Va/b involvement, and rare neck areas involvement were more common in case group (p = 0.016, p = 0.034, and p < 0.001, respectively). RPN, level III, and level IV metastases showed no significant difference between the two groups. Multivariate analysis in logistic regression showed that only SLD ≥5 cm in II area (OR = 4.11, p = 0.030) and rare neck areas involvement (OR = 3.95, p = 0.045) were associated with PLNM in NPC patients. PLNM was an uncommon event in NPC patients. SLD ≥5 cm in level II and involvement in rare-neck areas may be potentially high-risk factors for PLNM. Sparing parotid in IMRT was not recommended for NPC patients with high risks of PLNM

  14. Function protection of the parotid gland after intensity modulated radiotherapy for thirty-six patients of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zemin; Liao Yuping; Jiang Wuzhong; Wu Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the parotid gland function protection of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) Methods: Thirty-six NPC patients were divided into IMRT group (therapy group) and conventional fraction (CF) group (control group) by random balanced design. Each group had 18 patients. The planning gross tumor volume (pGTV) of nasopharyngeal was treated with a total dose of 72.0 in therapy group, with a total dose of 70.0 Gy in control group (with daily 2.0 Gy/fraction and 5 times/week). Before treatment and at 3, 6, and 9 months, 1 and 2 years after therapy, all patients performed parotid imaging and both uptake index (UI) and excretion index (EI) after acid stimulation were calculated. The dose-volume histogram (DVH) was used to analyse the dose of parotid. Results: The values of UI were 77.6% and 96.2% at the end of therapy and after tow years in therapy group and 56.8% and 7.0% in contrast group. The values of EI were 64.1% and 95.3% at the end of therapy and after tow years in therapy group and 19.4% and 0 in control group. The mean doses of normal side and the trouble side of parotid gland were 20.0 Gy and 31.0 Gy in therapy group and 61.0 Gy and 68.2 Gy in control group. Conclusions: IMRT can reduce radiation dose of parotid glands compared with CF distinctly and thus protect parotid function effectively. (authors)

  15. Parotid Gland Dose in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: Is What You Plan What You Get?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Daniel, Jennifer C.; Garden, Adam S.; Schwartz, David L.; Wang He; Ang, Kian K.; Ahamad, Anesa; Rosenthal, David I.; Morrison, William H.; Asper, Joshua A.; Zhang Lifei; Tung Shihming; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the differences between planned and delivered parotid gland and target doses, and to assess the benefits of daily bone alignment for head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Eleven head and neck cancer patients received two CT scans per week with an in-room CT scanner over the course of their radiotherapy. The clinical IMRT plans, designed with 3-mm to 4-mm planning margins, were recalculated on the repeat CT images. The plans were aligned using the actual treatment isocenter marked with radiopaque markers (BB) and bone alignment to the cervical vertebrae to simulate image-guided setup. In-house deformable image registration software was used to map daily dose distributions to the original treatment plan and to calculate a cumulative delivered dose distribution for each patient. Results: Using conventional BB alignment led to increases in the parotid gland mean dose above the planned dose by 5 to 7 Gy in 45% of the patients (median, 3.0 Gy ipsilateral, p = 0.026; median, 1.0 Gy contralateral, p = 0.016). Use of bone alignment led to reductions relative to BB alignment in 91% of patients (median, 2 Gy; range, 0.3-8.3 Gy; 15 of 22 parotids improved). However, the parotid dose from bone alignment was still greater than planned (median, 1.0 Gy, p = 0.007). Neither approach affected tumor dose coverage. Conclusions: With conventional BB alignment, the parotid gland mean dose was significantly increased above the planned mean dose. Using daily bone alignment reduced the parotid dose compared with BB alignment in almost all patients. A 3- to 4-mm planning margin was adequate for tumor dose coverage

  16. Regional radiation dose susceptibility within the parotid gland: Effects on salivary loss and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Haley, E-mail: hdclark@phas.ubc.ca; Reinsberg, Stefan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hovan, Allan [Oral Oncology/Dentistry, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Thomas, Steven [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Wu, Jonn [Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia is one of the most likely late toxic effects of radiotherapy treatment in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Modern treatment techniques can incorporate knowledge of complication risk into treatment plans. To this end, the authors attempt to quantify the regional radiotherapy dose-dependence of salivary output loss and recovery in a prospective study. Methods: Salivary output was collected from patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency between February 2008 and May 2013. Regional dose-dependence (i.e., dose susceptibility) of loss and recovery is quantified using nonparametric (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, local linear regression) and parametric (least-sum of squares, least-median of squares) techniques. Results: Salivary flow recovery was seen in 79 of 102 patients considered (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon sign rank test). Output loss was strongly correlated with left- and right parotid combined dose φ = min (D{sub L},  45 Gy) + min (D{sub R},  45 Gy), and can be accurately predicted. Median early loss (three months) was 72% of baseline, while median overall loss (1 yr) was 56% of baseline. Fitting an exponential model to whole parotid yields dose sensitivities A{sub 3m} = 0.0604 Gy{sup −1} and A{sub 1y} = 0.0379 Gy{sup −1}. Recovery was not significantly associated with dose. Hints of lateral organ sub-segment dose–response dimorphism were observed. Conclusions: Sub-segmentation appears to predict neither loss nor recovery with any greater precision than whole parotid mean dose, though it is not any worse. Sparing the parotid to a combined dose φ of <50 Gy is recommended for a patient to keep ≈40% of baseline function and thus avoid severe xerostomia at 12 months post-treatment. It seems unlikely that a population’s mean recovery will exceed 20%–30% of baseline output at 1 yr after radiotherapy treatment using current (whole-organ based) clinical guidelines.

  17. Rules of parotid gland dose variations and shift during intensity modulated radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Haihua; Mi, Yucheng; Hu, Wei; Ding, Weijun; Xie, Youyou; Cai, Yujie; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    To determine the position and dose delivery changes rules of parotid gland (PG) during the course of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients (NPC). One hundred and forty one competed tomography (CT) images from 47 NPC patients (three images for each patient were acquired before treatment, at the 15th and 25th fraction during the treatment) who underwent radical IMRT were selected for this study. A total of 70-76Gy at 2.12–2.3 Gy/fraction/d was given to the GTVnx in 33 fractions. The distances between the lateral/medial aspects of PG and midline (DLM and DMM) at the level of odontoid process were measured. The dose differences between plan and actual delivery were calculated. The volume reductions of PGs between fractions 15 and 25 were larger than those in the first 15 fractions (4.68 ± 3.23 cc vs. 2.46 ± 4.55 cc for the right PG and 5.96 ± 2.99 cc vs. 2.06 ± 2.99 cc for the left PG). However, the percentage of gland volume receiving ≥30 Gy (V30) of bilateral PGs decreased more significantly in the first 15 fractions than that between fractions 15 and 25 (5.61 ± 16.04% vs. 1.14 ± 21.54% for the right PG and 6.87 ± 15.58% vs. 0.81 ± 15.94% for the left PG). The gross tumor volume of the nasopharynx (GTVnx) decreased more significantly in the first 15 fractions than that between the 15th and 25th fraction (8.23 ± 13.61 cc vs. 3.30 ± 8.09 cc). The DMM of ipsilateral PGs reduced in the first 15 fractions (0.80 ± 2.96 mm) but increased between fraction 15 and 25 (−2.19 ± 3.96 mm). While ipsilateral PG shifted into target volume but shifted out target volume between fraction 15 and 25. Parotid glands V30 was correlated with GTVnx, GTVnx reduction and DMM reduction (p < 0.01). Our results indicate that the reduction of GTVnx leads to the positional change of the parotid gland, which results in more significant dose change of the parotid gland in the first 15 fractions than that between fraction 15 and 25

  18. Parotid gland pathophysiology after mixed gamma and neutron irradiation of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.W.; Izutsu, K.T.; Rice, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Electrolyte and protein concentrations were measured in parotid saliva samples obtained from patients receiving localized, fractionated, neutron and gamma irradiation for the treatment of cancer. Salivary sodium chloride concentration increased transiently but then usually decreased to preirradiation values after 2 weeks of therapy. There were concurrent decreases in salivary flow rate, pH, and bicarbonate concentration. The decreases in sodium chloride concentration and flow rate are inconsistent with a previously suggested, irradiation-induced ductal sodium resorption defect. The findings contribute toward understanding how salivary gland physiology is altered in irradiation injury

  19. Caracterización de eventos adversos asociados a vacunas que inmunizan contra enfermedades infecciosas.Años 2006-2007 Characterization of adverse events associated with vaccines immunizing against infectious diseases. 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Díaz Mato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo para caracterizar los eventos adversos temporalmente asociados con las vacunas que se emplean en la prevención y el control de las enfermedades infecciosas, y que fueron notificados a la Unidad Coordinadora Nacional de Farmacovigilancia entre los años 2006-2007. Se determinó su comportamiento de acuerdo con la edad, sexo, procedencia de la notificación, personal que reporta, localización y severidad. Se identificaron además los principales eventos reportados y las vacunas implicadas en su aparición. La fiebre constituyó el 60 % del total de eventos notificados. Estos últimos se distribuyeron de igual forma entre uno y otro sexos, en tanto los lactantes resultaron ser los más afectados (46,8 %. Se destacó en el reporte la Atención Primaria de Salud con 812 notificaciones. Los médicos fueron los profesionales que más reportaron (36 %. El comportamiento en cuanto a severidad no se diferenció de lo reportado en la literatura, pues afortunadamente predominaron los eventos leves (66,4 %. Sin embargo, contrario a lo que se esperaba, los eventos sistémicos fueron los de mayor cuantía (80,2 %. La vacuna pentavalente estuvo implicada en el 29,6 % de los eventos adversos temporalmente asociados a vacunación.A descriptive, transversal and retrospective study was conducted to characterize the adverse events temporarily associated with vaccines used in prevention and control of infectious diseases and that were notified to National Coordinator Unit of Pharmacosurveillance between the 2006-2007 years. Its behavior was determined according to the age, sex, notification origin, reporting staff, location and severity. Also, it was possible to identify the leading events reported and the vaccines involved in its appearance. Fever accounted for the 60 % of total of reported events. These latter were distributed equally between both sexes where the infants were the most affected (46

  20. Early evaluation of irradiated parotid glands with intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging: correlation with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Nan; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Guo, Tingting; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced parotid damage is one of the most common complications in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been reported for evaluating irradiated parotid damage. However, the changes of IVIM perfusion-related parameters in irradiated parotid glands have not been confirmed by conventional perfusion measurements obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging. The purposes of this study were to monitor radiation-induced parotid damage using IVIM and DCE MR imaging and to investigate the correlations between changes of these MR parameters. Eighteen NPC patients underwent bilateral parotid T1-weighted, IVIM and DCE MR imaging pre-RT (2 weeks before RT) and post-RT (4 weeks after RT). Parotid volume; IVIM MR parameters, including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f); and DCE MR parameters, including maximum relative enhancement (MRE), time to peak (TTP), Wash in Rate, and the degree of xerostomia were recorded. Correlations of parotid MR parameters with mean radiation dose, atrophy rate and xerostomia degree, as well as the relationships between IVIM and DCE MR parameters, were investigated. From pre-RT to post-RT, all of the IVIM and DCE MR parameters increased significantly (p < 0.001 for ADC, D, f, MRE, Wash in Rate; p = 0.024 for D*; p = 0.037 for TTP). Change rates of ADC, f and MRE were negatively correlated with atrophy rate significantly (all p < 0.05). Significant correlations were observed between the change rates of D* and MRE (r = 0.371, p = 0.026) and between the change rates of D* and TTP (r = 0.396, p = 0.017). The intra- and interobserver reproducibility of IVIM and DCE MR parameters was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.633–0.983). Early radiation-induced changes of parotid glands could be evaluated by IVIM and

  1. Radiation effects on the parotid gland of mammals. Pt. 4. Biochemical and morphological changes after local irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Tomassi, I; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia; Pelu, G

    1980-01-01

    A morphological and biochemical study was done on rat parotids to evaluate the modifications after 2400 rad in the parotid area only. As previously observed, whole-body irradiation with lower doses produced only slight effects on the gland. The enzymes peculiar to glandular function decreased significantly 3 days after irradiation, later they fluctuated on control values. Increase in alkaline phosphatase, LAP, and decrease in protein content was a constant result, ..beta..-glucuronidase only among lysosomal enzymes increased significantly at some intervals. Morphological alterations in the glandular sections of the sacrificed animals appeared modest and mostly consisted of progressive fibrosis.

  2. Prognostic relevance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and proliferation in surgically treated primary parotid gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Alina; Bauer, Larissa; Wardelmann, Eva; Rudack, Claudia; Grünewald, Inga; Stenner, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Cancer of the major salivary glands comprises a morphologically diverse group of rare tumours of largely unknown cause. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play a significant prognostic role in various human cancers. The aim was to assess the expression of EMT markers in different histological subtypes of parotid gland cancer (PGC) and analyse their prognostic value. We examined 94 PGC samples (13 histological subtypes) for the expression of MIB-1, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), β-catenin, vimentin and cytokeratin 8/18 (CK8/18) by means of immunohistochemistry. The experimental findings were correlated with clinicopathological and survival parameters. We detected all analysed EMT and proliferation markers in specifically different constellations within the examined histological subtypes of PGC. We found high epithelial marker expressions (CK8/18, E-cadherin, membranous β-catenin) only in a distinct variety of carcinomas. A high proliferation rate (high MIB-1 expression) as well as a combination of high CK8/18 and low vimentin expression was associated with a significantly worse survival. Our findings indicate that activation of the EMT pathway is a relevant explanation for tumour progression in individual histological subtypes of malignant parotid gland lesions, but by far not in all. Evidence of EMT activation in PGC cannot be seen as an isolated prognostic factor. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Dose-response analysis of parotid gland function: what is the best measure of xerostomia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Aisha B; Gulliford, Sarah L; Clark, Catharine H; Bhide, Shreerang A; Zaidi, Shane H; Newbold, Kate L; Harrington, Kevin J; Nutting, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    To describe the dose-response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC). Dosimetric analysis of data from the PARSPORT trial, a Phase III study of conventional RT (RT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for LA-HNSCC was undertaken to determine the relationship between parotid gland mean dose and toxicity endpoints: high-grade subjective and objective xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life scores. LKB-NTCP parameters (TD50, m and n) were generated and tolerance doses (D50) reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Data were available on 63 patients from the PARSPORT trial. Parotid saliva flow rate provided the strongest association between mean dose and recovery, D50=23.4 Gy (20.6-26.2) and k=3.2 (1.9-4.5), R(2)=0.85. Corresponding LKB parameters were TD50=26.3 Gy (95% CI: 24.0-30.1), m=0.25 (0.18-1.0 and n=1). LENTSOMA subjective xerostomia also demonstrated a strong association D50=33.3 Gy (26.7-39.8), k=2.8 (91.4-4.4), R(2)=0.77). We recommend using the LENT SOMA subjective xerostomia score to predict recovery of salivation due to its strong association with dosimetry and ease of recording. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VALIDITY OF CORE NEEDLE BIOPSY IN THE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION OF PAROTID GLAND LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oroz Aleksandar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: An adequate diagnosis of a parotid gland enlargement is crucial for an appropriate treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness and minimal invasiveness of diagnostic procedures of core-needle biopsy. Materials and Methods: This study involved 67 patients, aged 40 to 90 years, with a tumor mass in the submandibular and parotid region. Method used for taking samples of pathological masses was BD Disposable guillotine spring-loaded needle for biopsies on soft tissues. Final diagnoses were established on the basis of surgical-pathological results in 67 cases, and on the basis of histopathological analysis of core-biopsy samples. Results: Compared with results of surgical biopsy, core-needle biopsy had sensitivity of 100% in differentiating benign from malignant lesions and in setting up an adequate diagnosis. Its positive predictive values were 100% in diagnosing malignancy. There were found 28 non-malignant and 39 malignant lesions with fewer disadvantages for patients.

  5. Late radiation side-effects in three patients undergoing parotid irradiation for benign disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, A; Ghanna, P; O'Rielly, B; Habeshaw, T; Symonds, P

    2000-01-01

    We report three patients in whom standard radiation therapy was given and serious late radiation damage was seen. The first patient suffered recurrent parotiditis and a parotid fistula. He was treated initially with 20 Gy in ten fractions via a 300 kV field. Further irradiation was required 1 year later and 40 Gy was given in 2 Gy fractions by an oblique anterior and posterior wedged photon pair. Ten years later he developed localized temporal bone necrosis. The second patient, with pleomorphic salivary adenoma, developed localized temporal bone necrosis 6 years after 60 Gy had been given using standard fractionation and technique. The third patient received 55 Gy in 25 fractions for a pleomorphic salivary adenoma and after 3 years developed temporal bone necrosis. Sixteen years later the same patient developed cerebellar and brainstem necrosis. All patients developed chronic persistent infection during or shortly after the radiation therapy, which increased local tissue sensitivity to late radiation damage. As a result, severe bone, cerebellar and brainstem necrosis was observed at doses that are normally considered safe. We therefore strongly recommend that any infection in a proposed irradiated area should be treated aggressively, with surgical debridement if necessary, before radiotherapy is administered, or that infection developing during or after irradiation is treated promptly.

  6. The feasibility of sugammadex for general anesthesia and facial nerve monitoring in patients undergoing parotid surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Cheng Lu

    2017-08-01

    Fifty patients undergoing parotid surgery were randomized allocated into conventional anesthesia group (Group C, n = 25 and sugammadex group (Group S, n = 25. Group C did not receive any NMBA. Group S received rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg at anesthesia induction and sugammadex 2 mg/kg at skin incision. The intubating condition and influence on FNM evoked EMG results were compared between groups. The intubation condition showed significantly better in group S patients than C group patients (excellent in 96% v.s. 24%. In group S, rapid reverse of NMB was found and the twitch (% recovered from 0 to >90% within 10 min. Positive and high EMG signals were obtained in all patients at the time point of initial facial nerve stimulation in both groups. There was no significant difference as comparing the EMG amplitudes detected at the time point of initial and final facial nerve stimulation in both groups. Implementation of sugammadex in anesthesia protocol is feasible and reliable for successful FNM during parotid surgery.

  7. Function of the parotid gland in juvenile recurrent parotitis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-song; Pu, Yi-ping; Zheng, Ling-yan; Yu, Chuang-qi; Wang, Zhi-jun; Shi, Huan

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to find out how the parotid gland functions in 44 patients with juvenile recurrent parotitis, and to assess the value of measuring the serum amylase activity. Clinical and personal details were recorded, and all patients had their serum amylase activity measured together with sialography during the chronic phase. The function of the gland was classified by sialographic images. The chi square test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analyses. There was a significant association between the degree of glandular function and serum amylase activity (p=0.014). The patients with unilateral and bilateral disease differed significantly in their degree of glandular function (p=0.020), those with bilateral disease having poorer function. There were no significant correlations between other clinical variables and glandular function. Serum amylase activity is an important diagnostic variable in juvenile recurrent parotitis, and poor parotid function reflects the severity of the disease. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parotid saliva composition during and after irradiation of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funegaard, U.; Franzen, L.; Ericson, Th.; Henriksson, R.

    1994-01-01

    Parotid saliva composition was studied before, during and up to 18 months after the irradiation period in 16 cancer patients treated for malignancies in the head and neck region. Stimulated parotid saliva was collected prior to radiotherapy and, when possible, weekly during treatment. New samples were taken 2, 4, 6, 12 and 18 months after the end of radiotherapy. Nine of the 16 patients were treated with bilateral irradiation fields and 7 patients with unilateral irradiation fields, with a total dose not exceeding 52 Gy. During the entire irradiation period the fraction of glands producing measurable volumes of saliva decreased to 40%. In the post irradiation period the number of active glands gradually increased and saliva secretion rate returned to an average of 72% of the initial value 18 months after the end of irradiation. The concentrations of the measured variables increased already during the first week of radiotherapy and at the end of the treatment period the concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase, hexosamine and salivary IgA were significantly increased. The concentrations for total protein, salivary peroxidase and salivary IgA were still increased 6 months after the end of irradiation. At the 18-months observation all concentrations had returned to normal. (author)

  9. Transmasseteric anterior parotid approach for condylar fractures: experience of 129 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vinod; Ramadorai, Ashok; Ravi, Poornima; Nirvikalpa, Natarajan

    2012-07-01

    We have evaluated the transmasseteric anterior parotid (TMAP) approach in the treatment of 163 condylar fractures in 129 patients. Ninety-five patients presented with unilateral, and 34 with bilateral, fractures. The inclusion criteria were patient's choice for open reduction and internal fixation, displaced unilateral condylar fractures with occlusal derangement, and displaced bilateral condylar fractures with anterior open bite. Mean (SD) maximum interincisal opening after 3 months was 44(5)mm. There were no differences in lateral movements during the reviews 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. Protrusive movement at the end of 3 months was 7(2)mm. All patients achieved functional occlusion identical to the pretraumatic occlusion and good reduction of the condyles. No patient developed temporary or permanent facial palsy, sialocele, salivary fistula, or Frey syndrome. The mean (SD) operating time was 46(11)min. The TMAP approach avoids the complications of incision of the parotid gland, minimises the risk of facial nerve palsy, and offers excellent access to the fractured condyle. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment and prognosis of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma: study of 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Jinling; Gao Li; Yi Junlin; Huang Xiaodong; Luo Jingwei; Xu Guozhen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma through 16 patients. Methods: Sixteen such patients treated in our hospital from 1984 to 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. There were T1 2 patients, T2 and T3 5 patients each and T4 4. Ten patients had NO, and 6 N + lesions. Six patients were treated by monotherapy, ie-mono group (surgery alone or radiotherapy alone), the other 10 patients by surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy. Results: The overall neck metastastic lymph nodes was observed in 12 patients (75%). The 3- and 5-year local control, overall survival and disease-free survival for the whole group was 45% and 30%, 58% and 58%; 36% and 27%, respectively. The 5-year survival for T1-T2 and T3-T4 patients was 100% and 29% (χ 2 =4.50, P=0.034), respectively. The 3-year overall survival of NO and N + patients was 80%, and 20% (χ 2 =8.70, P=0.003), with a disease-free survival of 54% and 0 (χ 2 =9.83, P=0.002), respectively. Conclusions: The choice of suitable treatment for locally advanced primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma is surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy. Prophylactic ipsilateral neck irradiation is necessary e- ven for N0 patients for the sake of high risk of neck node metastasis. (authors)

  11. SEROPREVALENCIA FRENTE A SARAMPIÓN, RUBEOLA Y PAROTIDITIS EN PERSONAL FACULTATIVO DEL SERVICIO DE PEDIATRÍA DEL HOSPITAL UNIVERSITARIO Y POLITÉCNICO LA FE DE VALENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Andani Cervera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: El personal sanitario está expuesto a enfermedades prevenibles por vacunación y por tanto, asegurar una adhesión a programas de vacunación es un elemento clave en la prevención de las infecciones adquiridas en el trabajo y evitar causar daño a los pacientes. Los objetivos fueron estimar la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a sarampión, rubeola y parotiditis entre los facultativos del Área Clínica de Enfermedades del Niño del Hospital Universitario y Politécnico la Fe de Valencia y estudiar su relación con antecedentes de la enfermedad, vacunación y categoría y experiencia profesional. Métodos: Estudio observacional transversal analítico. A todos los participantes se les realizó un análisis serológico para la detección de anticuerpos específicos frente a sarampión, rubeola y parotiditis y se les ofreció la posibilidad de cumplimentar un cuestionario sobre antecedentes de enfermedad y/o vacunación. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y de relación para cada una de las enfermedades. Resultados: Participaron 97 facultativos, de ellos presentaban serología positiva para sarampión 75 (77,3%, para rubeola 85 (87,6% y 68 (70,1% frente a parotiditis. El modelo de regresión logística mostró diferencias significativas en la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a sarampión en función de la edad (OR 1,22 y frente a rubeola en función del sexo (OR 5,16. Conclusiones: Considerando la alta prevalencia de facultativos jóvenes seronegativos y teniendo en cuenta la actividad profesional que desarrollan, la vacunación en este colectivo estaría recomendada por lo que sería conveniente diseñar estrategias para conseguir la adhesión de los profesionales al programa de vacunación.

  12. MEXCODE* CASO DE ESTUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Arturo García Gómez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El caso plantea la reactivación de un proyecto que se presentó en el año 1995 como alternativa para el desarrollo del centro del Valle y mejora de la eficiencia en el manejo del comercio exterior de la Cuenca Pacífica. El proyecto se revivió a raíz de la necesidad de la compañía patrocinadora de mejorar sus flujos de caja proyectados y la reciente autorización para su funcionamiento. El proyecto es el popularmente denominado “Puerto Seco” de la ciudad de Guadalajara de Buga, internamente nombrado Mexcode. Los estudios iniciales estaban encaminados a que el proyecto fuera manejado por el municipio de Buga, sin embargo, posteriormente se vio la necesidad de buscar que pasara a manos de la empresa privada. El municipio, después de analizar las propuestas de varios inversionistas de la región en las cuales se evaluaba la ubicación dentro de la zona de los predios de sus empresas, su área, proximidad a la línea férrea y a la doble calzada Buga-Tuluá (sitio de paso del 80% de la carga de importación y exportación por Buenaventura y evaluar aspectos relativos a su trayectoria empresarial y compromiso con el desarrollo de la región, decidió otorgarle el proyecto al Grupo Empresarial Agri-Supplies S.A.

  13. Estudio del CH interestelar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  14. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordermark Dirk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT by sparing one single parotid gland. Methods Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (Dmean were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Results Patients were grouped according to the Dmean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - Dmean mean 26-40 Gy (n = 45, and group III - Dmean > 40 Gy (n = 36. 15/117 (13% patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the Dmean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (Dmean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p Conclusions If a Dmean mean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of parotid gland.

  15. Prospective longitudinal assessment of parotid gland function using dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy and estimation of dose–response relationship of parotid-sparing radiotherapy in head-neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Hotwani, Chandni; Kannan, Sadhana; Master, Zubin; Rangarajan, Venkatesh; Murthy, Vedang; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Agarwal, Jai Prakash

    2015-01-01

    To estimate dose–response relationship using dynamic quantitative 99m Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy in head-neck cancer patients treated with parotid-sparing conformal radiotherapy. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate salivary scintigraphy was performed pre-treatment and subsequently periodically after definitive radiotherapy. Reduction in salivary function following radiotherapy was quantified by salivary excretion fraction (SEF) ratios. Dose–response curves were modeled using standardized methodology to calculate tolerance dose 50 (TD50) for parotid glands. Salivary gland function was significantly affected by radiotherapy with maximal decrease in SEF ratios at 3-months, with moderate functional recovery over time. There was significant inverse correlation between SEF ratios and mean parotid doses at 3-months (r = −0.589, p < 0.001); 12-months (r = −0.554, p < 0.001); 24-months (r = −0.371, p = 0.002); and 36-months (r = −0.350, p = 0.005) respectively. Using a post-treatment SEF ratio <45% as the scintigraphic criteria to define severe salivary toxicity, the estimated TD50 value with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the parotid gland was 35.1Gy (23.6-42.6Gy), 41.3Gy (34.6-48.8Gy), 55.9Gy (47.4-70.0Gy) and 64.3Gy (55.8-70.0Gy) at 3, 12, 24, and 36-months respectively. There is consistent decline in parotid function even after conformal radiotherapy with moderate recovery over time. Dynamic quantitative pertechnate scintigraphy is a simple, reproducible, and minimally invasive test of major salivary gland function. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0371-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  16. Selective fine needle aspiration of parotid masses. FNA should be performed in all patients older than 60 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, S M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The exact role of fine needle aspiration in the pre-operative assessment of patients presenting with parotid masses is controversial. Some surgeons propose that fine needle aspiration be performed only selectively in those patients with likely malignant disease, whilst others recommend it for all patients presenting with such a mass. Intuitively, one would expect older patients to be more likely to suffer from primary malignant parotid tumours and secondary deposits of malignant skin tumours. Therefore, we hypothesised that older patients with a parotid mass should undergo fine needle aspiration regardless of their medical history. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed 197 consecutive parotidectomies to test this hypothesis. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-one patients (61.4 per cent) were diagnosed with benign disease, whilst 76 (38.6 per cent) were diagnosed with malignant disease. Eighty-three per cent of patients aged 60 years or younger had benign disease, as opposed to 35.6 per cent of patients aged more than 60 years. Malignant disease occurred more commonly in patients older than 60 years (odds ratio 8.962, 95 per cent confidence interval 4.607-17.434). CONCLUSION: In patients with a parotid mass, fine needle aspiration should be performed on all those aged 60 years or older.

  17. Monoclonal antibody localization of Na+-K+-ATPase in the exocrine pancreas and parotid of the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Z.D.J.; Caplan, M.J.; Forbush, B. III; Jamieson, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody specific to the β-subunit of the canine 125 I-labeled-Na + -K + -ATPase has been characterized and used to directly localize the enzyme in thin frozen sections of dog pancreas and parotid. The antibody, 7-2M, recognizes only the β-subunit of the sodium pump as determined by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot and is not directed against an oligosaccharide determinant. 7-2M immunolocalizes to the same cellular and subcellular domains of renal tubular cells as do other, previously characterized, antibodies directed to the α-subunit of the sodium pump. In the pancreas the preponderance of the Na + -K + -ATPase is found on the basolateral membranes of centroacinar and intralobular duct cells. Interlobular duct cells also express a large component of basolaterally located enzyme, although comparatively little pump is seen on acinar cells. In the parotid a large amount of Na + -K + -ATPase is seen on the striated cut cells, with high levels also noted on cells of the intercalated ducts and serous demilunes. Again the acinar cells show comparatively low levels of Na + -K + -ATPase. In no instance is Na + -K + -ATPase found on the apical membranes of pancreas or parotid cells. These data suggest that Na + -K + -ATPase, located on the basolateral plasmalemma of duct-derived cells, may be involved in water and electrolyte secretion from the pancreas and parotid

  18. Diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and the pathologic basis of parotid Warthin's tumor in 46 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jianpeng; Huang Suiqiao; Xie Bangkun; Zhong Jinglian; Li Yong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To summarize MR manifestations of parotid Warthin's tumor and to investigate their pathological fundament. MR findings of parotid Warthin's tumor including shape, margin, signal intensity on T 1 WI and T 2 WI, homogeneity of the signal, enhancement were analyzed retrospectively in this study. Methods: In total 46 cases (54 lesions) of parotid Warthin's tumor proved by surgery were enrolled. MRI manifestations were comparatively studied with pathological findings. T 1 WI and T 2 WI sequence were used in non-contrast scan, while both non-contrast and enhanced scan were performed in 50 lesions out of 54. Results: The shapes of Warthin's tumor were regular (51/54); the edges were clear (54/54); more than half of the lesions (33/54) presented with low or equal signal intensity on T 2 WI; 50 Warthin's tumors enhanced slightly. The MR features of Warthin's tumors were different from pleomorphic adenoma and other parotid benign tumors. Conclusion: There are certain characteristics of Warthin's tumors on MR images, and these are helpful in determining the histological nature of the tumor

  19. Three-dimensional verification of 125I seed stability after permanent implantation in the parotid gland and periparotid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yi; Huang, Ming-Wei; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate seed stability after permanent implantation in the parotid gland and periparotid region via a three-dimensional reconstruction of CT data. Fifteen patients treated from June 2008 to June 2012 at Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology for parotid gland tumors with postoperative adjunctive 125 I interstitial brachytherapy were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Serial CT data were obtained during follow-up. Mimics and Geomagic Studio software were used for seed reconstruction and stability analysis, respectively. Seed loss and/or migration outside of the treated area were absent in all patients during follow-up (23–71 months). Total seed cluster volume was maximized on day 1 post-implantation due to edema and decreased significantly by an average of 13.5 % (SD = 9.80 %; 95 % CI, 6.82–17.68 %) during the first two months and an average of 4.5 % (SD = 3.60 %; 95 % CI, 2.29–6.29 %) during the next four months. Volume stabilized over the subsequent six months. 125 I seed number and location were stable with a general volumetric shrinkage tendency in the parotid gland and periparotid region. Three-dimensional seed reconstruction of CT images is feasible for visualization and verification of implanted seeds in parotid brachytherapy

  20. [The value of high resolution diffusion weighted imaging in differentiating benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, B H; Cheng, J L; Zhang, H X; Zhang, Z X; Wang, F F; Xue, K K

    2018-05-08

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of RESOLVE DWI in the evaluation of benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland. Methods: A total of 106 patients in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University with epithelial tumors of parotid gland confirmed by pathology from July 2015 to October 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent preoperative routine MRI and RESOLVE DWI, the ADC average values were calculated, t test were used to compare the ADC values of benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland. Diagnostic performance of ADC value was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curves. Results: All lesions were solitary, including 69 benign epithelial tumors and 37 malignant epithelial tumors. The mean ADC values of pleomorphic adenoma and basal cell adenoma, adenolymphoma and malignant epithelial tumors were (1.47±0.16)×10(-3) mm(2)/s, (0.83±0.19)×10(-3) mm(2)/s and(1.14±0.14)×10(-3) mm(2)/s, the mean ADC value of adenolymphoma lower than the rest of the two groups, there were statistically significant differences among them ( P benign and malignant epithelial tumors of parotid gland.

  1. Early radiation effects on muscarinic receptor-induced secretory responsiveness of the parotid gland in the freely moving rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Roffel, AF; Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    Although the salivary glands have a low rate of cell turnover, they are relatively radiosensitive. To study the possible mechanism behind this inherent radiosensitivity, a rat model was developed in which saliva can be collected after local irradiation of the parotid gland without the use of

  2. Unique cellular structures in the parotid gland of an Old world fruit bat, Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanlua, Passara; Sricharoenvej, Sirinush; Niyomchan, Apichaya; Chico, Diane E

    2007-01-01

    Pteropus lylei (Lyle's flying fox), an Old World fruit bat, consumes only ripe fruit, which contains low protein and sodium. The carpophagous diet of P. lylei presents an adaptive challenge for salivary glands to conserve sufficient nutrition for living. Therefore, the parotid glands in both sexes were investigated by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. No structural difference was observed in the parotid glands between sexes. The acinar cell contained dense serous secretory granules, prominent luminal microvilli and intercellular canaliculi. The intercalated duct exhibited simple cuboidal epithelium with no secretory granule. Striated duct consisted of simple columnar epithelium with basal striation, numerous elongated mitochondria, and apical vesicles. In the interlobular duct, simple tall columnar epithelium and apocrine secretion were found. The interlobar and excretory ducts surprisingly contained continuous capillaries that intervened in stratified cuboidal epithelium. In addition, there were several blood vessels around the interlobular, interlobar and excretory ducts. The morphological adaptation of the parotid gland observed in P. lylei enables this species to obtain sufficient nutrients from the preferred consumption of ripe fruit. Serous secretory granule was suitable for digestion of ripe fruit. A well-developed striated duct, continuous capillaries among the epithelial cells of interlobar and excretory ducts, and numerous blood vessels around these ducts enhanced the reabsorption of amino acids and ions. Structural variations in the parotid gland can indicate not only a correlation to diet and survival but also a close relationship of the Old World fruit bat to other kinds of bats.

  3. Endocardite infecciosa valvar submetida a tratamento cirúrgico: análise de 64 casos Infective valve endocarditis treated by surgery: analysis of 64 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demóstenes G. Lima Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar aspectos clínico-laboratoriais da endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, no Hospital de Messejana, Fortaleza, CE, no período de 1988 a 2003. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo, da fase hospitalar, de 64 pacientes portadores de endocardite infecciosa, submetidos à substituição valvar aórtica e/ou mitral, vegectomia e plastia da tricúspide e excisão da valva pulmonar, como parte do tratamento. Analisados o sexo, a idade, o tempo decorrido entre a internação e a cirurgia e entre a internação e a alta hospitalar, a valva acometida, o resultado da hemocultura, o procedimento cirúrgico efetuado e a mortalidade. RESULTADOS: A endocardite infecciosa valvar, tratada com cirurgia, preponderou na terceira década, 81,2% dos pacientes eram masculinos. O tempo decorrido entre a internamento e a cirurgia foi menor nos pacientes que faleceram. A valva aórtica, de modo isolado ou associado, foi acometida em 65% dos casos. Hemoculturas foram positivas em 42%; em 52,4% delas, isolou-se Estafilolococo aureus. Necessitaram de substituição valvar 93,7% dos pacientes. Houve mortalidade de 14,1%, não influenciada pela idade nem pelo resultado da hemocultura. CONCLUSÃO: Endocardite infecciosa valvar, submetida ao tratamento cirúrgico, foi mais freqüente em homens e na terceira década. Acometeu preferencialmente a valva aórtica. Estafilolococo aureus foi o patógeno mais comum. Na quase totalidade dos casos, procedeu-se substituição valvar e a mortalidade hospitalar foi de 14,1%.OBJECTIVE: To identify some aspects of the infective valve endocarditis treated by heart surgery, as well as antibiotic therapy, in a public hospital, in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil, from1988 to 2003. METHOD: A retrospective and observational study of 64 patients with Infective Valve Endocarditis who required aortic and/or mitral valve replacement, tricuspid vegectomy and repair or pulmonary valve valvulectomy

  4. Acreditação e credenciamento de laboratórios de ensaio para diagnósticos de anemia infecciosa equina

    OpenAIRE

    Bordin, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta uma contribuição ao processo de acreditação e credenciamento aos laboratórios de ensaio no escopo da Anemia Infecciosa Equina (AIE). Consiste em uma proposta de priorização de requisitos para a acreditação, credenciamento e biossegurança de laboratórios de ensaio, desenvolvida por sete etapas metodológicas: 1) descrição dos elementos que caracterizam um laboratório de AIE e utilização da experiência do laboratório de estudo como facilitador do processo de acreditação; ...

  5. Apuntes sobre la fisiopatología, etiología, diagnóstico, tratamiento y profilaxis de la endocarditis infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Tápanes Daumy

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa es una afección de difícil diagnóstico en Cardiología, con características clínicas muy variadas y una epidemiología cambiante en los últimos años. En la presente revisión se tratan aspectos novedosos sobre su clasificación, etiología y fisiopatología; además, se presentan las herramientas fundamentales para su diagnóstico, punto de partida para su tratamiento médico basado primordialmente en la terapia antimicrobiana, así como los criterios quirúrgicos y la conducta actual en la profilaxis antimicrobiana de esta compleja entidad.

  6. Surgical treatment for infective endocarditis and hospital mortality in a Brazilian single-center Tratamento cirúrgico para endocardite infecciosa e mortalidade hospitalar em centro único brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Nassau Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patients underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis in an attempt to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality. METHODS: We evaluated 837 consecutive patients underwent cardiac valve surgery from January 2003 to May 2010 in a tertiary hospital in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo (SP, Brazil. The study group comprised patients who underwent intervention in the presence of infective endocarditis and was compared to the control group (without infective endocarditis, evaluating perioperative clinical outcomes and 30-day all cause mortality. RESULTS: In our series, 64 patients (8% underwent cardiac valve surgery in the presence of infective endocarditis, and 37.5% of them had surgical intervention in multiple valves. The study group had prolonged ICU length of stay (16%, greater need for dialysis (9% and higher 30-day mortality (17% compared to the control group (7%, P=0.020; 2%, P=0.002 and 9%, P=0.038; respectively. In a Cox regression analysis, age (P = 0.007, acute kidney injury (P = 0.004, dialysis (P = 0.026, redo surgery (P = 0.026, re-exploration for bleeding (P = 0.013, tracheal reintubation (P OBJETIVO: Avaliamos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa na tentativa de identificar preditores independentes de mortalidade intrahospitalar em 30 dias. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 837 pacientes consecutivamente submetidos à cirurgia valvar, no período de janeiro de 2003 a maio de 2010, em um hospital terciário de São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brasil. O Grupo de Estudo compreendeu indivíduos submetidos à intervenção em vigência de endocardite infecciosa e foi comparado ao Grupo Controle, considerando complicações clínicas perioperatórias e óbito por todas as causas em 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Em nossa casuística, 64 (8% pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia valvar em vigência de endocardite infecciosa, sendo 37,5% deles com indica

  7. Estenosis traqueal: Estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pinilla González

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo con la utilización de los expedientes clínicos de 5 pacientes con estenosis traqueal, mayoritariamente como consecuencia de intubación prolongada, y en el que se tuvo en cuenta aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y las complicaciones. Existió un predominio del sexo femenino y edad media de 44,6 años. La intubación prolongada de origen diverso fue la causa de la estenosis en 4 de los 5 pacientes y en 1 fue posterior a la reparación de lesión traqueal yatrógena. La instalación de la estenosis tuvo lugar entre 8 días y 3 meses. La tomografía lineal en 3 pacientes y en 2 la radiografía simple de tráquea anteroposterior y lateral verificaron el diagnóstico. La endoscopia traqueobronquial preoperatoria fue de utilidad en la caracterización de la estenosis. En todos los pacientes se realizó tratamiento quirúrgico al resecar el área estenótica con posterior anastomosis terminoterminal y fijación del cuello en flexión durante 8 días como promedio. Dos pacientes mostraron granulomas en el nivel de la línea de sutura, los cuales fueron tratados por vacuolización con láser. No se reportó mortalidad en la muestra estudiadaA retrospective and descriptive study was conducted by using the medical histories of 5 patients with tracheal stenosis, mostly as a result of prolongued intubation. Aspects connected with the diagnosis, treatment and complications were taken into account. It was observed a predominance of females and an average age of 44.6. Prolongued intubation of different origin was the cause of stenosis in 4 of the 5 patients, whereas in the other it occurred after the reparation of the tracheal and athrogenous lesion. The installation of stenosis took place between 8 days and 3 months. Lineal tomography in 3 patients and anteroposterior and lateral simple X-ray of the trachea in 2 confirmed the diagnosis. Preoperative tracheobronchial endoscopy was

  8. Caligus rogercresseyi: posible vector en la transmisión horizontal del virus de la anemia infecciosa del salmón (ISAv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Oelckers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chile el año 2007 se convirtió en el segundo país productor de salmónidos a nivel mundial. Al año siguiente la industria salmonera nacional comenzó a experimentar una severa crisis sanitaria producida por el virus causante de la anemia infecciosa del salmón. Este virus se presentó por primera vez en Noruega (1984, luego en Canadá, Escocia, Islas Faroe, Estados Unidos y Chile (2007. La anemia infecciosa del salmón (ISA, es una enfermedad altamente contagiosa entre los peces, producida por un virus de la familia Orthomyxoviridae. La especie más vulnerable a este virus es el salmón del Atlántico (Salmo salar. La plaga parasitaria producida por el piojo de mar, Caligus rogercresseyi, copépodo ectoparásito, ha ido en aumento lo que favorece el contagio de enfermedades bacterianas y virales. De todas las especies cultivadas en Chile, el salmón del Atlántico, S. salar es una de las especies más susceptibles de ser infestadas por C. rogercresseyi. Durante el 2006, la industria presentó un aumento significativo en las tasas de infestación por Caligus; luego en el 2007, aparecieron brotes del virus ISA. En Noruega, se ha demostrado que el piojo de mar, Lepeophtherius salmonis puede tener un rol como vector en la transmisión del virus ISA, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si C. rogercresseyi es un vector de transmisión del virus ISA en el salmón del Atlántico, cultivado en el sur de Chile.

  9. Longitudinal changes over 2 years in parotid glands of patients treated with preoperative 30-Gy irradiation for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomitaka, Etsushi; Murakami, Ryuji; Teshima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in parotid volumes and saliva production over 2 years after 30 Gy irradiation. We retrospectively evaluated 15 assessable patients treated for advanced oral cancer. Eligibility criteria were a pathologic diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, preoperative radiation therapy with a total dose of 30 Gy delivered in 15 fractions, and the availability of longitudinal data of morphological assessments by computed tomography and functional assessments with the Saxon test spanning 2 years after radiation therapy. In the Saxon test, saliva production was measured by weighing a folded sterile gauze pad before and after chewing; the low-normal value is 2 g/2 min. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was used to determine the longitudinal changes. The normalized ipsilateral parotid volumes 2 weeks and 6-, 12- and 24 months after radiation therapy were found to be 72.5, 63.7, 66.9 and 78.1%, respectively; the normalized contralateral volumes were 69.8, 64.6, 72.2 and 82.0%, respectively. The bilateral parotid volumes were significantly decreased after radiation therapy (P<0.01). The nadir appeared at 6 months post-radiation therapy and the volumes substantially recuperated 24 months after radiation therapy (P<0.01). Mean saliva production before radiation therapy was 3.7 g; the longitudinal changes after radiation therapy were 31.3, 38.0, 43.3 and 69.6%, respectively. Substantial recuperation of saliva production was observed 24 months after radiation therapy (P=0.01). Although parotid volumes and saliva production were decreased after 30 Gy irradiation, we observed the recuperation of morphological and functional changes in the parotid glands 2 years after radiation therapy. (author)

  10. Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving the Parotid Area Lymph Nodes: Dose and Volume Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Grekin, Roy C.; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, Mary K.; Margolis, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes are the most commonly involved when skin cancer of the head and neck metastasizes beyond the primary site. We sought to report the clinical outcome of patients treated with radiation therapy for parotid-area metastases from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: The records of 36 patients treated with radiation therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma involving the parotid-area lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients had clinically N0 necks and were without evidence of distant disease. Thirty patients (83%) were treated postoperatively after gross total tumor resection. Median dose to the parotid area was 60 Gy (range, 50-72 Gy). Treatment of clinically N0 necks consisted of surgical dissection (7 patients), irradiation (15 patients), and observation (14 patients). Results: The 5-year estimate of local (parotid) control was 86% in patients treated using surgery with postoperative therapy and 47% in patients treated using radiation therapy alone. Three of 4 patients with tumors that relapsed locally after surgery and postoperative radiation received a dose of less than 60 Gy. Elective neck irradiation decreased the incidence of subsequent nodal failures from 50% to 0% and significantly improved neck control (p < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 63%. Conclusions: Surgery followed by radiation therapy to doses of at least 60 Gy results in effective local control for patients with parotid area metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Routine irradiation of the clinically N0 neck is recommended

  11. Calculation of the uncertainty in complication probability for various dose-response models, applied to the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilstra, C.; Meertens, H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Usually, models that predict normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) are fitted to clinical data with the maximum likelihood (ML) method. This method inevitably causes a loss of information contained in the data. In this study, an alternative method is investigated that calculates the parameter probability distribution (PD), and, thus, conserves all information. The PD method also allows the calculation of the uncertainty in the NTCP, which is an (often-neglected) prerequisite for the intercomparison of both treatment plans and NTCP models. The PD and ML methods are applied to parotid gland data, and the results are compared. Methods and Materials: The drop in salivary flow due to radiotherapy was measured in 25 parotid glands of 15 patients. Together with the parotid gland dose-volume histograms (DVH), this enabled the calculation of the parameter PDs for three different NTCP models (Lyman, relative seriality, and critical volume). From these PDs, the NTCP and its uncertainty could be calculated for arbitrary parotid gland DVHs. ML parameters and resulting NTCP values were calculated also. Results: All models fitted equally well. The parameter PDs turned out to have nonnormal shapes and long tails. The NTCP predictions of the ML and PD method usually differed considerably, depending on the NTCP model and the nature of irradiation. NTCP curves and ML parameters suggested a highly parallel organization of the parotid gland. Conclusions: Considering the substantial differences between the NTCP predictions of the ML and PD method, the use of the PD method is preferred, because this is the only method that takes all information contained in the clinical data into account. Furthermore, PD method gives a true measure of the uncertainty in the NTCP

  12. Estudios Experimentales 2 Parte: Estudios Cuasi-Experimentales

    OpenAIRE

    Manterola, Carlos; Otzen, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Los estudios experimentales, se caracterizan por la valoración del efecto de una o más intervenciones, habitualmente de forma comparativa con otra intervención, o un placebo; y el carácter prospectivo, de la recolección de datos y seguimiento. Agrupados bajo esta denominación, existe una diversidad de diseños, entre los que se encuentran los estudios cuasi-experimentales (ECE), que se caracterizan especialmente por la ausencia de asignación aleatoria. El objetivo de este manuscrito, es report...

  13. Parotid Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma in a Big-eared Opossum (Didelphis aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Delgado, J; Coimbra, A A C; Dos Santos-Cirqueira, C; Sanches, T C; Guerra, J M; de Oliveira, A S; Di Loretto, C; Zwarg, T; Ressio, R; Rivas, L; Sansone, M; Nagamori, F O; Kanamura, C; Gonçalves, P S; Fernandes, N C C A; Groch, K R; Catão-Dias, J L

    2018-02-01

    The opossum (family Didelphidae) is a marsupial endemic to the Americas. Apart from the South American short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), there is considerable lack of knowledge about the health and diseases of most opossum species. Among these, the big-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) is found in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Natural and experimental studies have shown this species to be susceptible to infectious agents with zoonotic potential and the animals may play a role in transmission of such agents. However, neoplasia appears to be uncommon in this species. We describe the gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of a parotid salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma in a free-living big-eared opossum. This case represents the first report of salivary gland neoplasia in opossums. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Image analysis of microsialograms of the mouse parotid gland using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, K.; Ohki, M.; Yamada, N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors compared two digital-image feature-extraction methods for the analysis of microsialograms of the mouse parotid gland following either overfilling, experimentally induced acute sialoadenitis or irradiation. Microsialograms were digitized using a drum-scanning microdensitometer. The grey levels were then partitioned into four bands representing soft tissue, peripheral minor, middle-sized and major ducts, and run-length and histogram analysis of the digital images performed. Serial analysis of microsialograms during progressive filling showed that both methods depicted the structural characteristics of the ducts at each grey level. However, in the experimental groups, run-length analysis showed slight changes in the peripheral duct system more clearly. This method was therefore considered more effective than histogram analysis

  15. Primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from odontogenic keratocyst with parotid lymph node metastasis. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Shenoy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising from odontogenic cyst lining is rare. The exact incidence of carcinoma arising in odontogenic cyst is unknown, but it is estimated to vary between 1 and 2/1000. The pathogenesis is unknown, but a long-standing inflammation and continuous intracystic pressure have been suggested as possible causative factors. Metastasis from these lesions is not common (< 20%, and most of the carcinomas are moderately to well differentiated. To qualify as a primary intraosseous carcinoma, there must be no initial connection with the oral mucosa, overlying skin, or antral or nasal mucosa. This paper presents a case of primary intraosseous carcinoma arising from odontogenic keratocyst in the anterior mandible with metastasis to left parotid lymph nodes.

  16. Parotiditis crónica recurrente infantil: una revisión actualizada de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso-Hofer, Francisca; Gutiérrez Díaz, Rodrigo; Ortiz Cárdenas, Rodrigo; Osorio Herrera, Gustavo; Landaeta Mendoza, Mirtha

    2017-01-01

    La parotiditis crónica recurrente infantil (PCRI) es una patología relevante. Su diagnóstico es principalmente clínico, pero se apoya en exámenes imagenológicos. El enfoque actual del tratamiento es diverso. El objetivo es realizar una revisión actualizada sobre las características clínicas, exámenes complementarios, modelos etiopatogénicos y protocolos terapéuticos. Material y Método: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en PUBMED utilizando los términos libres y términos MESH: PCRI, paroti...

  17. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the parotid gland in AIDS patients: CT characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holiday, R.A.; Cohen, W.A.; Schinella, R.A.; Rothstein, S.G.; Persky, M.S.; Jacobs, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Contrast agent-enhanced CT scans in nine male patients with histologically proved benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the perotid gland were reviewed. All scans showed cystic-appearing masses with peripheral rim enhancement corresponding to the macroscopic appearance of the lesion. Five patients were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or had infections seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Three patients were members of high-risk groups. Only one patient had symptoms of the SICCA syndrome. Once a rare cause of parotid gland enlargement, benign lymphoepithelial lesions have recently been seen with increasing frequency in patients with HIV infection. Although the CT appearance is not pathognomic, correlation results of aspiration cytology and with clinical history can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of a benign lymphoepithelial lesion

  18. A case of parotid tumor showing remarkable regression following hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Yonemura, Yutaka; Kamata, Toru

    1987-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman developed adenocarcinoma of the left parotid gland. Because of the excessive size of her tumor and the fact that she suffered from severe liver dysfunction, she was treated by hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR therapy). After ten sessions of radiofrequency hyperthermia with HEH 500 (13.56 MHz radiofrequency wave), 50-Gy irradiation from a linac and administration of 33.0 g of tegafur in suppository form, the tumor mass showed remarkable regression decreasing in size by as much as 84 % on computed tomography. Histologically, the tumor which was resected under local anesthesia, showed almost total necrosis. The multidisciplinary HCR therapy was well tolerated and effective as a therapy for cancer in this case. (author)

  19. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma presenting as a painless lump in the parotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Emma; Bashyam, Anthony; Derbyshire, Stephen; Di Palma, Silvana

    2018-05-30

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is a rare neoplasm of the antigen presenting cells of the immune system. The majority occur in lymph nodes but around 30% can occur extranodally including in the spleen, lungs, head and neck and liver. We present an unusual case of an FDCS of the parotid gland in a 51-year-old woman with a history of Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with combination chemotherapy and modified mantle radiotherapy. Only four cases of an intraparotid FDCS have been previously reported. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy and level 2/3 neck dissection. A diagnosis of an intraparotid FDCS (25 mm) with no nodal disease was made. Given this patient's history of radiotherapy 20 years previously, we speculate the possibility of postradiation sarcoma. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Conventional megavoltage radiotherapy in the management of malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Bataini, J.P.; Colin, P.; Jaulerry, C.; Brunin, F.; Pontvert, D.; Durand, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This is an evaluation of definitive conventional megavoltage radiotherapy in a consecutive series of 35 patients presenting malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland. In this series, the 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate was 41% with a 5-year crude survival rate of 36%. The results are analyzed according to tumour presentation and tumour doses. Six of 15 patients with tumours larger than 6 cm have had a lasting locoregional control. During the same period 43 other patients received radiotherapy as a post-operative modality. Results obtained in this group confirm the previously published data. While recent studies tend to demonstrate the specific efficacy of high LET radiation in the management of locally advanced salivary gland tumours, radical conventional radiotherapy can still be employed with a curative intent when neutron facilities are not available. (author). 34 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  1. Maintenance Therapy with Trastuzumab in Her2 Positive Metastatic Parotid Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary ductal carcinomas (SDCs are extremely rare and aggressive malignancies, accounting for approximately 6% of all salivary gland malignancies. One distinct feature is their resemblance to ductal carcinomas of breast. A significant percentage of SDCs overexpress Her2 and the use of targeted therapy with trastuzumab can be considered in these patients. We report a rare case of long term disease control with trastuzumab in Her2 positive metastatic parotid ductal carcinoma. Our case also highlights that isolated brain metastasis should be managed aggressively to allow optimal local control when systemic disease is under remission with trastuzumab. We have also reviewed the published literature on the use of trastuzumab in SDCs.

  2. Dose–response analysis of parotid gland function: What is the best measure of xerostomia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Aisha B.; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Clark, Catharine H.; Bhide, Shreerang A.; Zaidi, Shane H.; Newbold, Kate L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the dose–response relationships for the different measures of salivary gland recovery following radical radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell cancers (LA-HNSCC). Methods and materials: Dosimetric analysis of data from the PARSPORT trial, a Phase III study of conventional RT (RT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for LA-HNSCC was undertaken to determine the relationship between parotid gland mean dose and toxicity endpoints: high-grade subjective and objective xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life scores. LKB-NTCP parameters (TD50, m and n) were generated and tolerance doses (D50) reported using non-linear logistic regression analysis. Results: Data were available on 63 patients from the PARSPORT trial. Parotid saliva flow rate provided the strongest association between mean dose and recovery, D50 = 23.4 Gy (20.6–26.2) and k = 3.2 (1.9–4.5), R 2 = 0.85. Corresponding LKB parameters were TD50 = 26.3 Gy (95% CI: 24.0–30.1), m = 0.25 (0.18–1.0 and n = 1). LENTSOMA subjective xerostomia also demonstrated a strong association D50 = 33.3 Gy (26.7–39.8), k = 2.8 (91.4–4.4), R 2 = 0.77). Conclusion: We recommend using the LENT SOMA subjective xerostomia score to predict recovery of salivation due to its strong association with dosimetry and ease of recording

  3. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Scognamiglio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA. It may be noninvasive (NI or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA.

  4. Noninvasive carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: A difficult diagnosis on fine needle aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Theresa; Joshi, Rohan; Kuhel, William I.; Tabbara, Sana O.; Rezaei, M. Katayoon; Hoda, Rana S.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare epithelial malignancy that arises from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA). It may be noninvasive (NI) or invasive. NI CXPA is extremely rare. Preoperative diagnosis on fine needle aspiration (FNA) of CXPA may be difficult and poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Herein, we describe the FNA findings of a case of NI-CXPA. A 69-year-old woman presented with rapid enlargement of a stable parotid mass of 25 years. Cytologically, malignant cells were focally associated with metachromatic fibromyxoid matrix that was homogeneous and dense with a vague fibrillary quality. There were cell groups, papillary-like clusters and single malignant cells. The nuclei were pleomorphic with irregularly dispersed chromatin, and the cytoplasm was ill-defined and granular. Nucleoli were small to inconspicuous. Mitoses and necrosis were not seen. Cytological features were not specific for any type of salivary gland carcinoma. The FNA diagnosis was primary high-grade adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, not otherwise specified. Facial nerve-sparing total parotidectomy was performed, which histologically showed PA interspersed with ducts and nests composed of pleomorphic atypical nuclei surrounded by extensive hyalinization. Single cells were also noted. No capsular infiltration was seen in the entirely sampled tumor. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 showed a higher proliferation rate in the malignant ducts and p63 positive cells focally surrounded some of the malignant ducts. Histological diagnosis was NI-CXPA. Accurate diagnosis is important for proper surgical management; however, the preoperative diagnosis of NI-CXPA is difficult to make on FNA. PMID:25972908

  5. Comparison of different deep learning approaches for parotid gland segmentation from CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsch, Annika; Schwier, Michael; Gass, Tobias; Morgas, Tomasz; Haas, Benjamin; Klein, Jan; Hahn, Horst K.

    2018-02-01

    The segmentation of target structures and organs at risk is a crucial and very time-consuming step in radiotherapy planning. Good automatic methods can significantly reduce the time clinicians have to spend on this task. Due to its variability in shape and often low contrast to surrounding structures, segmentation of the parotid gland is especially challenging. Motivated by the recent success of deep learning, we study different deep learning approaches for parotid gland segmentation. Particularly, we compare 2D, 2D ensemble and 3D U-Net approaches and find that the 2D U-Net ensemble yields the best results with a mean Dice score of 0.817 on our test data. The ensemble approach reduces false positives without the need for an automatic region of interest detection. We also apply our trained 2D U-Net ensemble to segment the test data of the 2015 MICCAI head and neck auto-segmentation challenge. With a mean Dice score of 0.861, our classifier exceeds the highest mean score in the challenge. This shows that the method generalizes well onto data from independent sites. Since appropriate reference annotations are essential for training but often difficult and expensive to obtain, it is important to know how many samples are needed to properly train a neural network. We evaluate the classifier performance after training with differently sized training sets (50-450) and find that 250 cases (without using extensive data augmentation) are sufficient to obtain good results with the 2D ensemble. Adding more samples does not significantly improve the Dice score of the segmentations.

  6. Asistolia por compresión del seno carotídeo: una complicación potencialmente fatal de la parotiditis vírica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Novoa-Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Presentamos una rara complicación, no descrita en la literatura, de asistolias recurrentes provocadas por la compresión del seno carotídeo, debido a la inflamación local producida por la parotiditis.

  7. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by sparing one single parotid gland. Methods Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (Dmean) were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Results Patients were grouped according to the Dmean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - Dmean 40 Gy (n = 36). 15/117 (13%) patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the Dmean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (Dmean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p < 0.001). The relative salivary flow rates (RFSR) as a function of the mean parotid dose after 24 and 36 months was in group I 66% and 74%, in group II 56% and 49%, and in group III 31% and 24%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the parotid gland dose and the tumor site were the independent determinants 12 and 36 months after the end of RT. Patients of group I and II parotid gland function did recover at 12, 24, and 36 months after the end of RT. Conclusions If a Dmean < 26 Gy for at least one parotid gland can be achieved then this is sufficient to reach complete recovery of pre-RT salivary flow rates. The radiation volume which depends on tumor site did significantly impact on the Dmean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of parotid gland. PMID:21951317

  8. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Janich, Martin; Hildebrandt, Guido; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by sparing one single parotid gland. Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (D mean ) were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Patients were grouped according to the D mean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - D mean < 26 Gy (n = 36), group II - D mean 26-40 Gy (n = 45), and group III - D mean > 40 Gy (n = 36). 15/117 (13%) patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the D mean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (D mean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p < 0.001). The relative salivary flow rates (RFSR) as a function of the mean parotid dose after 24 and 36 months was in group I 66% and 74%, in group II 56% and 49%, and in group III 31% and 24%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the parotid gland dose and the tumor site were the independent determinants 12 and 36 months after the end of RT. Patients of group I and II parotid gland function did recover at 12, 24, and 36 months after the end of RT. If a D mean < 26 Gy for at least one parotid gland can be achieved then this is sufficient to reach complete recovery of pre-RT salivary flow rates. The radiation volume which depends on tumor site did significantly impact on the D mean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of

  9. Impact of residual setup error on parotid gland dose in intensity-modulated radiation therapy with or without planning organ-at-risk margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delana, Anna; Menegotti, Loris; Valentini, Aldo; Bolner, Andrea; Tomio, Luigi; Vanoni, Valentina; Lohr, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the dosimetric impact of residual setup errors on parotid sparing in head-and-neck (H and N) intensity-modulated treatments and to evaluate the effect of employing an PRV (planning organ-at-risk volume) margin for the parotid gland. Patients and methods: Ten patients treated for H and N cancer were considered. A nine-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was planned for each patient. A second optimization was performed prescribing dose constraint to the PRV of the parotid gland. Systematic setup errors of 2 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were simulated. The dose-volume histograms of the shifted and reference plans were compared with regard to mean parotid gland dose (MPD), normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP), and coverage of the clinical target volume (V 95% and equivalent uniform dose [EUD]); the sensitivity of parotid sparing on setup error was evaluated with a probability-based approach. Results: MPD increased by 3.4%/mm and 3.0%/mm for displacements in the craniocaudal and lateral direction and by 0.7%/mm for displacements in the anterior-posterior direction. The probability to irradiate the parotid with a mean dose > 30 Gy was > 50%, for setup errors in cranial and lateral direction and 95% and EUD variations < 1% and < 1 Gy). Conclusion: The parotid gland is more sensitive to craniocaudal and lateral displacements. A setup error of 2 mm guarantees an MPD ≤ 30 Gy in most cases, without adding a PRV margin. If greater displacements are expected/accepted, an adequate PRV margin could be used to meet the clinical parotid gland constraint of 30 Gy, without affecting target volume coverage. (orig.)

  10. Scintigraphic assessment of salivary function after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: correlations with parotid dose and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hsuan; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Hung, Chao-Hsiung; Liu, Kuo-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Fong; Wang, Wen-Hung; Chen, Hungcheng; Fang, Fu-Ming; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated salivary function using quantitative scintigraphy and sought to identify functional correlations between parotid dose and quality of life (QoL) for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Between August, 2007 and June, 2008, 31 patients treated IMRT for HNC were enrolled in this prospective study. Salivary excretion function (SEF) was previously measured by salivary scintigraphy at annual intervals for 2 years after IMRT. A dose-volume histogram of each parotid gland was calculated, and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) was used to determine the tolerance dose. QoL was longitudinally assessed by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and H&N35 questionnaires prior to RT, and at one, three, 12 and 24 months after RT. A significant correlation was found between the reduction of SEF and the mean parotid dose measured at 1 year (correlation coefficient, R(2)=0.651) and 2 years (R(2)=0.310) after IMRT (pwestern countries. We further found that contralateral parotid and submandibular gland function preservation was correlated with reduced sticky saliva and a better QoL compared to the functional preservation of both parotid glands, as determined by the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire. A significant correlation was found between the reduction of SEF and the mean parotid dose. Preservation of contralateral parotid and submandibular gland function predicts a better QoL compared to preservation of the function of both parotid glands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. External beam radiotherapy for head and neck carcinomas with preservation of parotid function: indications, techniques and long term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding-Jen, Lee; Fairbanks, Robert; Lee, Frank C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To reduce the incidence of radiotherapy induced xerostomia, we developed techniques of external beam irradiation with preservation of parotid function for patients with early to intermediate stage carcinomas of the head and neck. This analysis reports the efficacy of our methods. Materials and Methods: From 1985 to 1993, 42 patients with early to intermediate stage (T 1-3 N 0-2 M 0 ) head and neck carcinomas received a course of external beam radiotherapy. There were 13 patients with carcinoma of the oropharynx, 26 with carcinomas of the oral cavity and 3 with carcinomas of the hypopharynx (lateral wall). 7 patients received a course of definitive radiotherapy (66 to 72 Gy), while 35 patients received a course of postoperative radiotherapy (60-66 Gy). The fraction size was 2 Gy per day. In terms of treatment planning, the primary site (plus a margin) and the ipsilateral neck were covered by the irradiation volume. The ipsilateral parotid gland was within the treatment volume while the contralateral parotid gland was not. The most frequently used field arrangement was a paired wedge fields with an AP (medially just across the mid-line) and an ipsilateral posterior oblique field (usually 30 deg. off vertical axis with a spinal cord block). Multiple level of contours were taken and transmission blocks were used to improve dose homogeneity. In all patients, the ipsilateral parotid gland (and the neck) was irradiated while the contralateral parotid gland (and the neck) was not. Results: With a median follow up of 4 years (ranged from 1.5 to 9 years), only one patient developed symptomatic xerostomia. None had radiation induced dental caries. No patient developed recurrent disease in the contralateral neck. The local control rate was (38(42)) (90%) in the primary site and(41(42)) (98%) in the ipsilateral neck. Conclusion: With appropriate treatment planning, external beam irradiation with parotid function preservation can be achieved. Our results

  12. Incorporating single-side sparing in models for predicting parotid dose sparing in head and neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Lulin; Wu, Q. Jackie; Yin, Fang-Fang; Yoo, David; Jiang, Yuliang; Ge, Yaorong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Sparing of single-side parotid gland is a common practice in head-and-neck (HN) intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning. It is a special case of dose sparing tradeoff between different organs-at-risk. The authors describe an improved mathematical model for predicting achievable dose sparing in parotid glands in HN IMRT planning that incorporates single-side sparing considerations based on patient anatomy and learning from prior plan data. Methods: Among 68 HN cases analyzed retrospectively, 35 cases had physician prescribed single-side parotid sparing preferences. The single-side sparing model was trained with cases which had single-side sparing preferences, while the standard model was trained with the remainder of cases. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the best criterion that separates the two case groups using the physician's single-side sparing prescription as ground truth. The final predictive model (combined model) takes into account the single-side sparing by switching between the standard and single-side sparing models according to the single-side sparing criterion. The models were tested with 20 additional cases. The significance of the improvement of prediction accuracy by the combined model over the standard model was evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Using the ROC analysis, the best single-side sparing criterion is (1) the predicted median dose of one parotid is higher than 24 Gy; and (2) that of the other is higher than 7 Gy. This criterion gives a true positive rate of 0.82 and a false positive rate of 0.19, respectively. For the bilateral sparing cases, the combined and the standard models performed equally well, with the median of the prediction errors for parotid median dose being 0.34 Gy by both models (p = 0.81). For the single-side sparing cases, the standard model overestimates the median dose by 7.8 Gy on average, while the predictions by the combined

  13. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  14. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  15. Optimisation and evaluation of the foetal dose during a radiotherapy of the right parotid; Optimisation et evaluation de la dose foetale pendant une radiotherapie de la parotide droite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, V.; Noel, A. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Unite de Radiophysique Medicale, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Graff, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, CRAN, CNRS UMR-7039, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2008-09-15

    Purpose was to optimize and to estimate the dose delivered to the foetus during a postoperative irradiation of a 5-month twin pregnant woman presenting with adenocarcinoma of the right parotid. The treatment protocol aimed to deliver 66 Gy conformal radiation therapy on the tumour bed associated to a prophylactic irradiation of 50 Gy on the upper cervical nodes. A series of measurements allowed to estimate the delivered dose in the abdomen by the means of an ion chamber inserted in a water phantom placed side by side of an anthropomorphic Alderson Rando phantom simulating the body of the patient from the head to the pelvis. An appropriate optimisation of the number and orientation of beams were performed in order to minimize the peripheral dose, which is mostly dependent of the total number of monitor unit per fraction: cervical nodes and tumour site included in the same fields, limitation of the irradiated volume, 6 MV X-ray beams rather than Cobalt beams. The measured doses at the upper, in the middle and at the lower part of the abdomen were 17.0, 11.0 and 11.9 mGy, respectively, for the entire treatment, representing 0.025, 0.016 and 0.017%, respectively of the prescribed dose. The actions conducted to optimise the treatment allowed to lower doses delivered to the foetus under the limits proposed by international recommendations (100 mGy). Thus, the treatment of the pregnant patient had been performed with a minimized risk for the foetus. (authors)

  16. Estimation of the fetal dose by dose measurement during an irradiation of a parotid tumor; Estimation de la dose foetale par mesure de dose lors d'une irradiation d'une tumeur de la parotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, V.; Graff-Cailleaud, P.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, CRAN CNRS UMR-7039, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-11-15

    The irradiation of a five months pregnant patient has been made for a right parotid attack. In conformation with the legislative texts relative to radiation protection ( publication 84 of the ICRP) an estimation of the dose received for the fetus has been led by dose measurement on phantom. With the dose limit ( 100 mGy) recommended in the publication 84 of the ICRP neither modification of the treatment nor abortion was necessary. (N.C.)

  17. Correlação clínico-laboratorial de úlceras infecciosas de córnea Correlation between clinical and laboratory findings of infectious corneal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adália Dias Dourado Oliveira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta terapêutica inicial instituída para úlceras de córneas infecciosas correlacionando-a com os achados laboratoriais. Métodos: Foram estudados prospectivamente 24 casos de úlcera de córneas infecciosas atendidos no Setor de Córnea e Patologia Externa do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual - São Paulo, no período entre julho de 1997 e novembro de 1999. Acompanhou-se a resposta destes pacientes ao tratamento antibiótico inicial (cefalotina 50 mg/ml e gentamicina 14 mg/ml ou ciprofloxacina 0,3%, verificando-se a necessidade de modificação deste tratamento a partir dos testes microbiológicos pré-tratamento. Resultados: Dezessete culturas (70,83% foram positivas e sete (29,17% negativas. Apenas em três amostras analisadas pelo exame direto e coradas pelo método de Gram, observou-se a presença de algum microrganismo, sendo que em duas (8,33% houve correlação com a cultura. Três pacientes (12,5% apresentaram piora clínica e foram submetidos à mudança da medicação inicialmente instituída de acordo com a cultura e antibiograma. Todos os pacientes (100% cursaram com a cura do processo infeccioso. Conclusão: Pela análise dos resultados, observa-se que o tratamento tópico com antibióticos de amplo espectro ou associação de colírios com antibióticos fortificados foi, na maioria dos casos, eficaz na abordagem terapêutica inicial das ceratites infecciosas.Purpose: To evaluate the initial treatment of infectious corneal ulcers and their laboratory tests. Methods: Twenty four cases of infectious corneal ulcers seen in the External Corneal Disease Section at the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual - São Paulo - Brazil, underwent Gram staining and culture for bacterial and fungus. Treatment with fortified cefalotine (50 mg/ml and gentamicin (14 mg/ml was started. Results: Seventeen cultures (70.83% were positive for bacterial infection and seven (29.17% showed no growth. In three cases (15

  18. Índice de risco de mortalidade por endocardite infecciosa: um modelo logístico multivariado Risk index for death by infective endocarditis: a multivariate logistic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Augusto Cray da Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram identificar variáveis preditivas de mortalidade hospitalar em endocardite infecciosa e criar fórmula matemática para cálculo do risco de óbito e um escore de risco, comparando os dois métodos com a curva ROC. MÉTODO: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, 186 casos consecutivos de endocardite infecciosa (EI confirmados, divididos em dois grupos: alta (137 e óbito hospitalar (49. A partir das razões das chances obtidas em análise multivariada, foram criados: uma fórmula para cálculo do risco de óbito e um escore de risco. RESULTADOS: Fatores preditivos de maior mortalidade (análise multivariada e o escore de risco com seus respectivos pesos foram: idade > 40 anos (RC = 4.16-95%I.C. [1.63,10.80] - 4 pontos, insuficiência cardíaca classe IV ou choque cardiovascular (RC = 4.93 - 95%I.C. [1.86,13.05] - 5 pontos, sepsis não-controlada (RC =5.97 - 95%I.C. [1.95,18.35] - 6 pontos, distúrbio de condução (RC = 5.07-95%I.C. [1.67,15.35] - 5 pontos, arritmia (RC = 8.17 - 95%I.C. [2.60,25.71] - 8 pontos, valva com grande destruição ou abscesso ou prótese (RC = 4.77-95%I.C. [1.44,15.76] - 5 pontos, e vegetação grande e móvel (RC = 4.36-95%I.C. [1.55,12.90] - 4 pontos. Pacientes com escore entre 0 e 10 tiveram 5,26% de MT e maior que 20: 78,9%. CONCLUSÕES: Quanto maior o escore, maior é a mortalidade, complemente-se, ainda, que a estimativa de mortalidade obtida por cálculo ou pelo escore é semelhante. É possível utilizar software para facilitar a aplicação do escore e calcular risco de mortalidade por endocardite infecciosa.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at identifying predictive variables for in-hospital mortality, calculating the probability of death and creating a risk index for death by infective endocarditis by comparing two methods using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of 186 consecutive cases of confirmed infective

  19. Use of immunomodulators in infectious diseases of domestic animals/ Uso de imunomoduladores nas enfermidades infecciosas dos animais domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulators are substances that act in the immune system providing, increase of the organic answer against microorganisms, including virus, bacteria and protozoa, by inducing the production of interferon and its inducers. There are a lot of situations in veterinary medicine where it is usefull to potencialize the immune response of individuals, mainly when is desired to increase the resistance to infections and the treatment of immunossupressing or multifactorials infectious diseases. In veterinary medicine some of more used immunomodulators are interferons and interferon inducers, interleukines, Baccilus of Calmett-Guérin (BCG and its derivated, Propionibacterium acnes (Corynebacterium parvum, mixed bacterial vaccine, PIND-ORF, Phosprenyl, Quillja Saponis, Bordetella pertussis, avridine and the levamizole. The present work review the available scientific literature, regarding the use of different immunomodulators in the prophylaxis and in the therapeutics of infectious diseases in domestic animals.Imunomoduladores são substâncias que atuam no sistema imunológico conferindo aumento da resposta orgânica contra determinados microorganismos, incluindo vírus, bactérias e protozoários, mediante à produção de interferon e seus indutores. Existem muitas situações na medicina veterinária em que se torna desejável potencializar a resposta imune, principalmente quando se pretende aumentar a resistência às infecções e no tratamento de enfermidades imunossupressoras ou de doenças infecciosas multifatorias, ou seja, nas quais vários agentes estão envolvidos e devido a isso, dificilmente obtêm-se sucesso no emprego de tratamentos convencionais. Na medicina veterinária alguns imunomoduladores utilizados são interferons , interleucinas, Bacilo de Calmett-Guérin (BCG e seus derivados, Propionibacterium acnes (Corynebacterium parvum, vacina bacteriana mista, PIND-ORF, Phosprenyl, Quillaja saponis, Bordetella pertussis, avridina e

  20. Effects of continuous hyperfractionated accelerated and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy on the parotid and submandibular salivary glands of rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.E.; Ang, K.K.; Stephens, L.C.; Peters, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a major treatment modality for head and neck cancer. It is often not possible to exclude the salivary glands from the treatment fields. The unique susceptibility of the serous cells of the salivary glands to irradiation often results in xerostomia with ensuing secondary complications and discomfort to the patients. Recent reports have suggested that continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) can lead to considerably less reduction in salivary flow of the parotid salivary gland than conventional radiotherapy. This study was undertaken to assess histologic changes of salivary glands induced by CHART and conventional radiation fractionation schedules. The parotid and submandibular salivary glands of adult rhesus monkeys were irradiated with cobalt-60 γ radiation at 50 Gy/20 fractions/4 weeks, 55 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks, or 54 Gy/36 fractions/12 days (CHART). Salivary tissues were harvested at 16 weeks following irradiation and evaluated histopathologically. Microscopically, the glands receiving 50 Gy, 55 Gy, or CHART were virtually indistinguishable. There was severe atrophy and fibrosis of all glands. Quantitative analysis revealed that 50 Gy, 55 Gy, and CHART induced a reduction of serous acini in parotid glands by 86.4%, 84.8%, and 88.8%, respectively. In submandibular glands, serous acini were reduced by 99.4%, 99.0%, and 100%, respectively. The corresponding reduction in mucous acini were 98.4%, 98.4%, and 99.2%, respectively. These histopathologic and quantitative morphologic studies show that the magnitude of serous gland atrophy in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands of rhesus monkeys was similar at 16 weeks after receiving 50 Gy in 20 fractions, 55 Gy in 25 fractions, or CHART

  1. Radiotherapy in treatment of carcinoma of the parotid gland, an approach for the medically or technically inoperable patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthiesen, Chance; Thompson, Spencer; Steele, Alisha; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Bogardus Jr, Carl; Thompson, David

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Initial surgical resection is considered the standard of care for patients diagnosed with tumours involving the salivary glands. We reviewed our institutional outcomes of patients treated with initial radiation therapy (RT) for diagnosed carcinoma of the parotid gland. Methods: This review examined seventeen patients that received RT as initial therapy for tumours involving the parotid gland. Fifteen patients had primary salivary gland cancer, and two patients had metastatic carcinoma to the parotid gland. Sixteen patients (94.1%) following surgical evaluation had operative risk of facial nerve impairment or sacrifice with initial surgery, four (23.5%) had clinical objective evidence of nerve involvement at evaluation, five (29.4%) were poor surgical candidates and three (17.6%) refused initial surgery. Primary tumour stages ranged T2-T4b, and disease stages ranged II-IVb. RT median dose was 70 Gy, and median follow-up was 12 months. Results: Eleven patients (64.7%) achieved a clinical complete response (CR) to therapy. Of these CR patients eight (72.7%) received definitive RT and three (27.3%) underwent surgery following RT. Two surgical patients avoided facial nerve impairment while one required nerve sacrifice. The other six patients (35.3%) achieved an unfavourable response to RT and had unresectable or metastatic disease at follow-up. No long-term complications were reported. Conclusion: Initial radiation therapy for tumours involving the parotid gland is effective to achieve clinical CR, eliminate surgical resection for many patients, and decrease risk of facial nerve impairment or sacrifice for those patients requiring surgery following RT.

  2. Monoclonal antibody localization of Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase in the exocrine pancreas and parotid of the dog

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    Smith, Z.D.J.; Caplan, M.J.; Forbush, B. III; Jamieson, J.D. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1987-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody specific to the {beta}-subunit of the canine {sup 125}I-labeled-Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase has been characterized and used to directly localize the enzyme in thin frozen sections of dog pancreas and parotid. The antibody, 7-2M, recognizes only the {beta}-subunit of the sodium pump as determined by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot and is not directed against an oligosaccharide determinant. 7-2M immunolocalizes to the same cellular and subcellular domains of renal tubular cells as do other, previously characterized, antibodies directed to the {alpha}-subunit of the sodium pump. In the pancreas the preponderance of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase is found on the basolateral membranes of centroacinar and intralobular duct cells. Interlobular duct cells also express a large component of basolaterally located enzyme, although comparatively little pump is seen on acinar cells. In the parotid a large amount of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase is seen on the striated cut cells, with high levels also noted on cells of the intercalated ducts and serous demilunes. Again the acinar cells show comparatively low levels of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase. In no instance is Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase found on the apical membranes of pancreas or parotid cells. These data suggest that Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase, located on the basolateral plasmalemma of duct-derived cells, may be involved in water and electrolyte secretion from the pancreas and parotid.

  3. SU-E-J-109: Evaluation of Deformable Accumulated Parotid Doses Using Different Registration Algorithms in Adaptive Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S [Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100084 China (China); Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 China (China); Liu, B [Image processing center, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 China (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Three deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms are utilized to perform deformable dose accumulation for head and neck tomotherapy treatment, and the differences of the accumulated doses are evaluated. Methods: Daily MVCT data for 10 patients with pathologically proven nasopharyngeal cancers were analyzed. The data were acquired using tomotherapy (TomoTherapy, Accuray) at the PLA General Hospital. The prescription dose to the primary target was 70Gy in 33 fractions.Three DIR methods (B-spline, Diffeomorphic Demons and MIMvista) were used to propagate parotid structures from planning CTs to the daily CTs and accumulate fractionated dose on the planning CTs. The mean accumulated doses of parotids were quantitatively compared and the uncertainties of the propagated parotid contours were evaluated using Dice similarity index (DSI). Results: The planned mean dose of the ipsilateral parotids (32.42±3.13Gy) was slightly higher than those of the contralateral parotids (31.38±3.19Gy)in 10 patients. The difference between the accumulated mean doses of the ipsilateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (36.40±5.78Gy, 34.08±6.72Gy and 33.72±2.63Gy ) were statistically significant (B-spline vs Demons, P<0.0001, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.002). And The difference between those of the contralateral parotids in the B-spline, Demons and MIMvista deformation algorithms (34.08±4.82Gy, 32.42±4.80Gy and 33.92±4.65Gy ) were also significant (B-spline vs Demons, p =0.009, B-spline vs MIMvista, p =0.074). For the DSI analysis, the scores of B-spline, Demons and MIMvista DIRs were 0.90, 0.89 and 0.76. Conclusion: Shrinkage of parotid volumes results in the dose increase to the parotid glands in adaptive head and neck radiotherapy. The accumulated doses of parotids show significant difference using the different DIR algorithms between kVCT and MVCT. Therefore, the volume-based criterion (i.e. DSI) as a quantitative evaluation of

  4. {sup 125}I seed implant brachytherapy for the treatment of parotid gland cancers in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Zhang, J.; Song, T.; Zhang, J.; Yu, G.; Zhang, Y. [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: There is a lack of optimal treatment strategies for managing salivary gland cancers in children and adolescents. This study is aimed at assessing the effect of {sup 125}I seed implantation for the treatment of parotid cancers in children and adolescents. Patients and methods: A total of 12 patients younger than 16 years with parotid gland malignant tumors underwent {sup 125}I seed implant brachytherapy between October 2003 and November 2008. All patients were assessed after treatment and at the local tumor control appointments. Facial nerve function, maxillofacial development, and radioactive side-effects were assessed. Results: The follow-up period ranged from 41-104 months. One patient with T4b died of pulmonary metastasis. The other patients were alive during the follow-up period. There were no serious radiation-related complications. The treatment did not affect facial nerve function and dentofacial growth in any of the children. Conclusion: For parotid gland cancers in children, {sup 125}I seed implant brachytherapy may be an acceptable treatment without serious complications and with satisfactory short-term effects. (orig.)

  5. Dose Measurements of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord in Conventional Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using RANDO Phantom and Thermoluminescent Dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiotherapy is regarded as the first treatment of choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Despite the advantages of radiotherapy, patients may suffer from a wide range of side-effects due to the presence of many sensitive normal tissues in these regions. If the absorbed dose exceeds the tolerance level in parotid glands and the spinal cord, myelopathy, Lhermitte's sign and xerostomia cannot be avoided. Materials and Methods The head and neck of a RANDO phantom (reference man, which was regarded as a hypothetical patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was evaluated. The full course of treatment consisted of three phases. At the beginning of each phase, an oncologist marked conventional fields on the RANDO phantom using a simulator. For measuring the absorbed dose, Thermoluminescent Dosimeters(TLD chips (TLD-100 were utilized.The absorbed dose by TLDs was read by Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. Results The total absorbed dose was calculated by measuring the absorbed dose in each phase, multiplied by the fraction numbers of each phase; the obtained values were summed up. The results showed that the received doses by spinal cord ranged from 15.24 to 54.56 Gy. Also, the absorbed dose of parotid glands was approximately 39.23 Gy. Conclusion Considering the minimum tolerance dose the absorbed doses in the spinal cord and parotid glands were above the tolerance level. The incidence rate of xerostomia and myelopathy were higher in patients, treated by conventional methods.

  6. Effects of large pressure amplitude low frequency noise in the parotid gland perivasculo-ductal connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, José; Mendes, João; da Fonseca, Jorge; Águas, Artur; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    In tissues and organs exposed to large pressure amplitude low frequency noise fibrosis occurs in the absence of inflammatory signs, which is thought to be a protective response. In the parotid gland the perivasculo-ductal connective tissue surrounds arteries, veins and the ductal tree. Perivasculo-ductal connective tissue is believed to function as a mechanical stabilizer of the glandular tissue. In order to quantify the proliferation of perivasculo-ductal connective tissue in large pressure amplitude low frequency noise-exposed rats we used sixty Wistar rats which were equally divided into 6 groups. One group kept in silence, and the remaining five exposed to continuous large pressure amplitude low frequency noise: g1-168h (1 week); g2-504h (3 weeks); g3-840h (5 weeks); g4-1512h (9 weeks); and g5-2184h (13 weeks). After exposure, parotid glands were removed and the perivasculo-ductal connective tissue area was measured in all groups. We applied ANOVA statistical analysis, using SPSS 13.0. The global trend is an increase in the average perivasculo-ductal connective tissue areas, that develops linearly and significantly with large pressure amplitude low frequency noise exposure time (p connective tissue. Hence, these results show that in response to large pressure amplitude low frequency noise exposure, rat parotid glands increase their perivasculo-ductal connective tissue.

  7. Does cell phone use increase the chances of parotid gland tumor development? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho; de Souza, Fabrício Tinoco Alvim; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; de Souza, Renan Pedra

    2017-08-01

    Prior epidemiological studies had examined the association between cell phone use and the development of tumors in the parotid glands. However, there is no consensus about the question of whether cell phone use is associated with increased risk of tumors in the parotid glands. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the existing literature about the mean question and to determine their statistical significance. Primary association studies. Papers that associated cell phone use and parotid gland tumors development were included, with no restrictions regarding publication date, language, and place of publication. Systematic literature search using PubMed, SciELO and Embase followed by meta-analysis. Initial screening included 37 articles, and three were included in meta-analysis. Using three independent samples including 5087 subjects from retrospective case-control studies, cell phone use seems to be associated with greater odds (1.28, 95%- confidence interval: 1.09-1.51) to develop salivary gland tumor. Results should be read with caution due to the limited number of studies available and their retrospective design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Combined effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin on the proliferation of isoproterenol-stimulated mouse parotid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoju, Masumi

    1977-01-01

    Effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin (BLM) on DNA synthesis in isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated mouse parotid glands were investigated. The incorporation of thymidine- 3 H into DNA in parotid glands increased remarkably in 16 hours with a peak at 22 hours after the injection of IPR. When x-irradiation (250 rads) was given at 1 hour after IPR (early G 1 phase), the stimulation of DNA synthesis was inhibited by about 50%, and the beginning of DNA synthesis was delayed nearly 6 hours. BLM injected in the early G 1 phase was also effective in inhibiting DNA synthesis. However, the injection of BLM in the late G 1 or S phase did not interfere with DNA synthesis. Combined x-irradiation and BLM inhibited DNA synthesis and delayed the beginning of the S phase far more strikingly than did x-irradiation alone. When BLM was injected at various intervals before and after x-irradiation, the greatest inhibition was found just after irradiation. Therefore, a longer interval between x-irradiation and BLM injection had a tendency to decrease the rate of inhibiting DNA synthesis. These findings were confirmed by measuring the labeling index and the mitotic index in the acinar cells of the mouse parotid gland. These results suggest that simultaneous application of x-irradiation and BLM has the greatest effect. (Evans, J.)

  9. The combined use of US and MR imaging for the diagnosis of masses in the parotid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.K.; Yoshiura, K.; Nakayama, E.; Yuasa, K.; Tabata, O.; Nakano, T.; Kawazu, T.; Tanaka, T.; Miwa, K.; Shimizu, M.; Chikui, T.; Okamura, K.; Kanda, S.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the two non-invasive modalities US and MR imaging to diagnose masses in the parotid region. The US and MR findings of 21 patients with parotid masses were analyzed retrospectively by two radiologists without any clinical or histopathological information. The specific points evaluated were location, shape, margin, internal architecture, and intensity level on both US and MR, posterior echo enhancement on US, and capsule-like lining of the tumor on MR. The findings concerning the shape and margin on US and MR were in fairly good agreement. Concerning the findings of the internal architecture, US could reveal the minute structures of the tumor while MR demonstrated differences in the signal intensities of histological tissue types of the various tumors. The posterior echo enhancement on US and the capsule-like lining on MR of the tumors were also useful for the diagnosis. Our results suggest that the combination of US and MR is useful for examining soft tissue masses in the parotid region to make a more accurate diagnosis, and not just differentiate malignant lesions from those which are benign

  10. Accuracy of FNAC and CT in the differentiation of benign and malignant parotid tumours in a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavín-Clavero, Marina A; Usón-Bouthelier, Tomás; Jariod-Ferrer, Úrsula M; Fernández-Larrañaga, Arancha; Pantilie, Bianca; Lobera-Molina, Fernando; Simón-Sanz, M Victoria; Nadal Cristóbal, Bartolomé

    Parotid tumours, in addition to the wide variety of types, are histologically complex. Differentiating between benign and malignant tumours in preoperative diagnosis is important in deciding the type of surgery required. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, quick, low-cost, low-invasive and well-tolerated tool used in the preoperative diagnosis of these tumours. we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNAC and computed tomography (CT) in the differentiation of benign and malignant parotid tumours operated between 2010 to 2014 in the oral and maxillofacial surgery department of the University Hospital Miguel Servet. The sensitivity of FNAC is 50%, while the specificity is high, at 98.7%. FNAC offers high reliability in the diagnosis of malignant tumours, despite its low sensitivity. However, when the diagnosis is indeterminate or benign, other than pleomorphic adenoma or Whartin tumour, the reliability to exclude malignancy decreases. The low sensitivity of FNAC to differentiate malignant from benign parotid tumours, means that we cannot rule out other diagnostic tests, clinical symptoms and especially the intraoperative vision of each surgeon. Especially when the diagnosis is indeterminate. Nevertheless, it is a technique used in a systematised way and helps in pre-surgical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural and histochemical considerations of parotid gland from adult rats (Holtzmann) submitted to x-rays exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposto, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    A histomorphological and histochemical study of the parotid gland of adult rats was carried out after subjecting the animals to a single X-ray irradiation dose of 900 R directed to the cervical region. The samples for the histological analysis were obtained at 2, 7, 15, 21, 30 and 45 days after radiation through desiccation and removal of the glands. The results showed clearly that the parotid gland is quite sensitive to X-ray irradiation with the serous acinar cells presenting heavier injuries than the mucous ones. A maximum in the deleterial action of the irradiation was detected at 15 days during the observation period. A comparative analysis of the glandular ducts showed that both of the types intercalated and striated were damaged, with the last presenting severe alterations in morphology and volume. By interpretation of the histochemical results it was concluded that a reduction in protein metabolism of the parotid gland occurred as a consequence of the X-ray irradiation. (author)

  12. Asociación entre el estado de infección por VIH y complicaciones infecciosas poscesárea electiva Association between HIV infection status and infectious complications after an elective c-section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Tejada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la asociación entre VIH y complicaciones infecciosas (CI después de una cesárea electiva. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de cohortes no concurrentes; se revisaron las historias clínicas de 237 cesáreas electivas en gestantes VIH reactivas atendidas en el Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal de Perú, realizadas entre 2004 a 2012. Estas fueron pareadas por cirujano y fecha de cesárea con 237 gestantes VIH no reactivas. Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos, clínicos, características de la cesárea y relacionados a la infección por el VIH. Las CI se evaluaron según las recomendaciones del NHI Consensus Development Task Force. Se realizó el análisis bivariado con un nivel de significación del 5% y el cálculo del Odds Ratio (OR con intervalo de confianza (IC al 95%. Se construyó un modelo de regresión logística condicional. Resultados. El 13,9% de mujeres VIH positivas presentaron CI y 9,7% del grupo control (OR: 1,5 IC95% [0,9-2,7]; las expuestas (mujeres con VIH tuvieron mayor probabilidad de tener una infección del tracto urinario (ITU que las no expuestas (ORa: 4,5 IC95% [1,4-14,5]. Se encontró asociación entre CI y el tipo de incisión (ORa: 2,3 IC95% [1,1-4,5] y el tiempo de hospitalización (6 frente a 3 días, pObjectives: To determine the connection between HIV and infectious complications (IC after an elective C-section. Materials and methods. A non-concurrent cohort study was conducted, in which the clinical records of 237 elective C-sections on HIV-positive pregnant women who gave birth at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (National Maternal Perinatal Institute between 2004 and 2012 were revised. The records were matched by surgeon and C-section date, with 237 HIV-negative pregnant women. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected, along with characteristics of the C-section and data related to the HIV infection. IC were evaluated according to the NIH Consensus Development Task

  13. Correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion MR parameters and MR nodular grade of parotid glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Chen; Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Huayong; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie; He, Jian; Sun, Lingyun; Zhou, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Parotid glands at grade 0–3 had significant values from those in healthy glands. • Parotid D and f values were correlated with MR nodule grade significantly. • There were significant differences of D, f, and D * values among glands at grade 0–3. - Abstract: Purpose: To explore the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance (MR) parameters and MR nodular grade of parotid glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Materials and methods: A total of 31 consecutive patients with SS and 28 gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent bilateral parotid 3.0T MR examination including the IVIM sequence (9 b values, 0–800 s/mm 2 ). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), diffusion coefficient D, pseudo-diffusion coefficient D * , and perfusion fraction f of bilateral parotid glands were obtained, and the nodular grade of each parotid gland was evaluated according to the MR morphological appearance. Results: Sixty-two parotid glands in 31 patients with SS consisted of 32, 14, 8, and 8 parotid glands at MR nodular grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In parotid glands of grade 0, 1, 2, 3 and healthy volunteers, the ADC values were (1.13 ± 0.25, 1.11 ± 0.17, 1.05 ± 0.24, 0.89 ± 0.04 and 1.00 ± 0.21) × 10 −3 mm 2 /s, D values were (0.92 ± 0.13, 0.90 ± 0.19, 0.90 ± 0.03, 0.67 ± 0.03, 0.81 ± 0.03) × 10 −3 mm 2 /s, f values were 0.20 ± 0.04, 0.18 ± 0.02, 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.06, and D * values were (53.89 ± 28.26, 41.78 ± 16.35, 51.24 ± 18.69, 31.83 ± 18.03, 36.83 ± 16.14) × 10 −3 mm 2 /s respectively. The ADC, D, f, and D * values of parotid glands in patients with SS at grade 0 were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers (all P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the D and f values of parotid glands in patients with SS among different grades (P = 0.003, < 0.001, respectively). The IVIM parameters (D, f) of parotid glands at early

  14. Correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion MR parameters and MR nodular grade of parotid glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Chen, E-mail: chuchen19920905@163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhou, Nan, E-mail: snscorpion@163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhang, Huayong, E-mail: 13770560567@163.com [Department of Rheumatology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Dou, Xin, E-mail: douxin125@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Li, Ming, E-mail: lm069393@163.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Liu, Song, E-mail: liusongnj@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhu, Yun, E-mail: qqt111@hotmail.com [Department of Rheumatology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Chen, Weibo, E-mail: Weibo.Chen@philips.com [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai, 200233 (China); Chan, Queenie, E-mail: queenie.chan@philips.com [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong (China); He, Jian, E-mail: hjxueren@126.com [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Sun, Lingyun, E-mail: lysun_nju@163.com [Department of Rheumatology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhou, Zhengyang, E-mail: zyzhou@nju.edu.cn [Department of Radiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Parotid glands at grade 0–3 had significant values from those in healthy glands. • Parotid D and f values were correlated with MR nodule grade significantly. • There were significant differences of D, f, and D{sup *} values among glands at grade 0–3. - Abstract: Purpose: To explore the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) magnetic resonance (MR) parameters and MR nodular grade of parotid glands in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Materials and methods: A total of 31 consecutive patients with SS and 28 gender- and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent bilateral parotid 3.0T MR examination including the IVIM sequence (9 b values, 0–800 s/mm{sup 2}). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), diffusion coefficient D, pseudo-diffusion coefficient D{sup *}, and perfusion fraction f of bilateral parotid glands were obtained, and the nodular grade of each parotid gland was evaluated according to the MR morphological appearance. Results: Sixty-two parotid glands in 31 patients with SS consisted of 32, 14, 8, and 8 parotid glands at MR nodular grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In parotid glands of grade 0, 1, 2, 3 and healthy volunteers, the ADC values were (1.13 ± 0.25, 1.11 ± 0.17, 1.05 ± 0.24, 0.89 ± 0.04 and 1.00 ± 0.21) × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, D values were (0.92 ± 0.13, 0.90 ± 0.19, 0.90 ± 0.03, 0.67 ± 0.03, 0.81 ± 0.03) × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, f values were 0.20 ± 0.04, 0.18 ± 0.02, 0.15 ± 0.01, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.15 ± 0.06, and D{sup *}values were (53.89 ± 28.26, 41.78 ± 16.35, 51.24 ± 18.69, 31.83 ± 18.03, 36.83 ± 16.14) × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively. The ADC, D, f, and D{sup *} values of parotid glands in patients with SS at grade 0 were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers (all P < 0.05). Significant differences were observed in the D and f values of parotid glands in patients with SS among different grades (P = 0.003, < 0.001, respectively). The IVIM

  15. Cirurgia conservadora de próteses aórtica e mitral na endocardite infecciosa Conservative surgery for aortic and mitral prosthesis in infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanim Kalil KASSAB

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A endocardite infecciosa (EI acometendo próteses valvares é uma complicação freqüente, sendo tratada geralmente com cirurgia, devido ao seu difícil controle clínico e má resposta à antibioticoterapia. Este relato descreve o caso de uma paciente com EI, acometendo simultaneamente as biopróteses aórtica (Ao e mitral (Mi após vinte e quatro meses de cirurgia de implantes valvares, submetida a tratamento cirúrgico conservador, e com resultado favorável. Discutem-se as vantagens deste procedimento em situações específicas.Infective endocarditis is a frequent complication for valvar prosthesis currently treated with surgery, orving to its difficult control and poor response to therapy with antibiotics. Although conservative surgery for infective endocarditis of prosthesis is not a procedure of choice, this report shows a case of infective endocarditis of aortic and mitral prosthesis, after 24 months of implantation, treated by conservative surgery with favorable outcome.

  16. Bronquite infecciosa das galinhas: conhecimentos atuais, cepas e vacinas no Brasil Infectious bronchitis of chickens: current knowledge, strains and vaccines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Figueiredo Pitangui Mendonça

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (IB é uma doença viral aguda e altamente contagiosa que provoca grandes perdas econômicas à indústria avícola em todo o mundo. Considerando que surtos têm ocorrido no Brasil com emergência de novas variantes de IBV, desafiando as estratégias de vacinação atuais, este trabalho objetiva revisar os conhecimentos sobre IB e IBV, a sua distribuição, as cepas e as vacinas utilizadas no Brasil.Infectious bronchitis (IB is an acute, highly contagious disease of chickens, caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV, which results in great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide, despite the routine use of vaccines. Several outbreaks do occur periodically in densely populated poultry regions in Brazil and there are constant emergence of new variants. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about IBV and IB, the distribution, strains and vaccines in Brazil.

  17. Ultrasonic Nakagami-parameter characterization of parotid-gland injury following head-and-neck radiotherapy: A feasibility study of late toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Wang, Yuefeng [Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Tridandapani, Srini [Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Beitler, Jonathan J.; Yu, David S.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.edu [Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The study aims to investigate whether Nakagami parameters—estimated from the statistical distribution of the backscattered ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) signals—could provide a means for quantitative characterization of parotid-gland injury resulting from head-and-neck radiotherapy. Methods: A preliminary clinical study was conducted with 12 postradiotherapy patients and 12 healthy volunteers. Each participant underwent one ultrasound study in which ultrasound scans were performed in the longitudinal, i.e., vertical orientation on the bilateral parotids. For the 12 patients, the mean radiation dose to the parotid glands was 37.7 ± 9.5 Gy, and the mean follow-up time was 16.3 ± 4.8 months. All enrolled patients experienced grade 1 or 2 late salivary-gland toxicity (RTOG/EORTC morbidity scale). The normal parotid glands served as the control group. The Nakagami-scaling and Nakagami-shape parameters were computed from the RF data to quantify radiation-induced parotid-gland changes. Results: Significant differences in Nakagami parameters were observed between the normal and postradiotherapy parotid glands. Compared with the control group, the Nakagami-scaling parameter of the postradiotherapy group decreased by 25.8% (p < 0.001), and the Nakagami-shape parameter decreased by 31.3% (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.85 for the Nakagami-scaling parameter and was 0.95 for the Nakagami-shape parameter, which further demonstrated the diagnostic efficiency of the Nakagami parameters. Conclusions: Nakagami parameters could be used to quantitatively measure parotid-gland injury following head-and-neck radiotherapy. Moreover, the clinical feasibility was demonstrated and this study provides meaningful preliminary data for future clinical investigation.

  18. A longitudinal evaluation of early anatomical changes of parotid gland in intensity modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with parapharyngeal space involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingting; Lin, Chengguang; Wu, Jianhua; Jiang, Xiaobo; Lee, Shara W Y; Tam, Shing-Yau; Wu, Vincent W C

    2017-09-01

    Radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with parapharyngeal space (PPS) involvement may deliver high dose to the parotid gland. This study evaluated parotid gland changes during and up to 3 months after radiotherapy. Kilovoltage computed tomography (CT) scans of head and neck region of 39 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with PPS involvement were performed at pre-radiotherapy, 10th, 20th and 30th fractions and 3 months after treatment. The parotid glands were contoured in pre-radiotherapy planning CT scan and in subsequent scans. Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), percentage volume change and centroid movement between the planning CT and the subsequent CTs were obtained from the contouring software. In addition, the distance between medial and lateral borders of parotid glands from the mid-line at various time intervals were also measured. The ipsilateral parotid gland received a mean dose of about 5 Gy higher than the contralateral side. The mean DSC and parotid volume decreased by more than 30% at 20th fraction and reached the minimum at 30th fraction. Partial recovery was observed at 3 months after treatment. The centroid displacement followed a similar pattern, which moved medially and superiorly by an average of 0.30 cm and 0.18 cm, respectively, at 30th fraction. The changes in ipsilateral gland were slightly greater than the contralateral side. Substantial volume change and medial movement of parotid gland were observed with slightly greater magnitude in the ipsilateral side. Adaptive radiotherapy was suggested at around 15th to 20th fraction so as to optimise the original dose distribution of the plan. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  19. FDG-PET Assessment of the Effect of Head and Neck Radiotherapy on Parotid Gland Glucose Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Michael C. [School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Turkington, Timothy G. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Higgins, Kristin A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Hawk, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Hoang, Jenny K. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M., E-mail: david.brizel@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Functional imaging with [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) provides the opportunity to define the physiology of the major salivary glands before and after radiation therapy. The goal of this retrospective study was to identify the radiation dose-response relationship of parotid gland glucose metabolism in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods: Forty-nine adults with HNSCC were identified who had curative intent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and FDG-PET imaging before and after treatment. Using a graphical user interface, contours were delineated for the parotid glands on axial CT slices while all authors were blinded to paired PET slices. Average and maximal standard uptake values (SUV) were measured within these anatomic regions. Changes in SUV and volume after radiation therapy were correlated with parotid gland dose-volume histograms from IMRT plans. Results: The average parotid gland volume was 30.7 mL and contracted 3.9 {+-} 1.9% with every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). However, within the first 3 months after treatment, there was a uniform reduction of 16.5% {+-} 7.3% regardless of dose. The average SUV{sub mean} of the glands was 1.63 {+-} 0.48 pretreatment and declined by 5.2% {+-} 2.5% for every increase of 10 Gy in mean dose (p = 0.04). The average SUV{sub max} was 4.07 {+-} 2.85 pretreatment and decreased in a sigmoid manner with mean dose. A threshold of 32 Gy for mean dose existed, after which SUV{sub max} declined rapidly. Conclusion: Radiation dose responses of the parotid glands can be measured by integrated CT/FDG-PET scans. Retrospective analysis showed sigmoidal declines in the maximum metabolism but linear declines in the average metabolism of the glands with dose. Future studies should correlate this decline in FDG uptake with saliva production to improve treatment planning.

  20. Acinic cell carcinoma of parotid gland metastasis to left cavernous sinus: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xiao-yan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and pathological features of parotid gland papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Methods The clinical manifestations, pathological features and differential diagnosis were studied in one case of parotid papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Related literatures were also reviewed. Results The patient was a 50-year-old female who presented paroxysmal dizziness for 5 months and blurred vision in her left eye for 10 months. The MRI examination showed left parasellar space-occupying mass in the cavernous sinus. In operation, the tumor was located in the superior wall of left cavernous sinus, soft and red-grey in color, with abundant blood supply. The histomorphological examination revealed the tumor cells were arranged in solid, acinar or papillary pattern. The tumor cells were large, with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round or oval nuclei and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemical staining found that the tumor cells expressed cytokeratin (CK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, vimentin (Vim and S-100 protein (S-100, and showed weak positive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and focal positive expression of P53 protein. Ki-67 labeling index was about 5%-10% . The tumor ce