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Sample records for parochial school results

  1. Achievement, School Integration, and Self-Efficacy in Single-Sex and Coeducational Parochial High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Kara Hanson

    2014-01-01

    A structural model for prior achievement, school integration, and self-efficacy was developed using Tinto's theory of student attrition and Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The model was tested and revised using a sample of 1,452 males and females from single-sex and coeducational parochial high schools. Results indicated that the theoretically…

  2. Schools K-12, This is a point feature class of Schools within Rock County. This data does not contain religious or parochial schools, or schools affiliated with churches., Published in 2005, Rock County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Schools K-12 dataset current as of 2005. This is a point feature class of Schools within Rock County. This data does not contain religious or parochial schools, or...

  3. Parochial altruism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Helen; Fischbacher, Urs; Fehr, Ernst

    2006-08-24

    Social norms and the associated altruistic behaviours are decisive for the evolution of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order, and they affect family life, politics and economic interactions. However, as altruistic norm compliance and norm enforcement often emerge in the context of inter-group conflicts, they are likely to be shaped by parochialism--a preference for favouring the members of one's ethnic, racial or language group. We have conducted punishment experiments, which allow 'impartial' observers to punish norm violators, with indigenous groups in Papua New Guinea. Here we show that these experiments confirm the prediction of parochialism. We found that punishers protect ingroup victims--who suffer from a norm violation--much more than they do outgroup victims, regardless of the norm violator's group affiliation. Norm violators also expect that punishers will be lenient if the latter belong to their social group. As a consequence, norm violations occur more often if the punisher and the norm violator belong to the same group. Our results are puzzling for evolutionary multi-level selection theories based on selective group extinction as well as for theories of individual selection; they also indicate the need to explicitly examine the interactions between individuals stemming from different groups in evolutionary models.

  4. Leadership Role Expectations and Relationships of Principals and Pastors in Catholic Parochial Elementary Schools: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Duane F.

    2004-01-01

    Parish elementary schools in the United States have a governance structure that often precipitates conflict. The principal is the designated leader of the school, the educational administrator, and the supervisor of the faculty and students. By canon law, however, the pastor of the parish remains ultimately responsible for the spiritual and…

  5. Activity of Russian Orthodox clergy in establishing parochial schools in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonnikov Sergei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses activity of parish clergy of Voronezh Diocese in the area of national education in the second half of XIX and the beginning of the XX century. On the basis of archival and published sources the author have made a thorough research on the contribution of Orthodox clergy to improving the literacy rate of population through establishment of church schools on the example of Voronezh Diocese. Overwhelming quantity of peasants had absolutely no education then. Deep-rooted superstitions and prejudices were widespread among the population of Voronezh region. Local selfgovernment institutions carried out establishing national schools, but their eff orts were not suffi cient. Moreover, teachers of national schools weren’t loyal to the traditional orthodox values, preferring to teach children new “progressive” ideas. Church authorities made deacon a staff member in tructure of Russian orthodox parishes to provide more eff ective work. In 1884, government of Alexander III appealed to the church to make better contribution to national education among peasant population of the Empire. The clergy were aware of importance of the newly established responsibilities and actively engaged in the work on opening church schools. Local pastors conducted the work to raise awareness of importance of basic ducation among peasants. This article analyzes the work of Voronezh Diocese Clergy on development church schools, discusses both the positive aspects of activity of parochial clergy and obvious defects. The author comes to the conclusion that the priests had made a signifi cant contribution to the development of public education despite the lack of support from the state, the rejection of church schools by zemstvo and the diffi culties associated with poor economic standing of the clergy.

  6. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism.

  7. The coevolution of parochial altruism and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Kyoo; Bowles, Samuel

    2007-10-26

    Altruism-benefiting fellow group members at a cost to oneself-and parochialism-hostility toward individuals not of one's own ethnic, racial, or other group-are common human behaviors. The intersection of the two-which we term "parochial altruism"-is puzzling from an evolutionary perspective because altruistic or parochial behavior reduces one's payoffs by comparison to what one would gain by eschewing these behaviors. But parochial altruism could have evolved if parochialism promoted intergroup hostilities and the combination of altruism and parochialism contributed to success in these conflicts. Our game-theoretic analysis and agent-based simulations show that under conditions likely to have been experienced by late Pleistocene and early Holocene humans, neither parochialism nor altruism would have been viable singly, but by promoting group conflict, they could have evolved jointly.

  8. Minding the Gap: Narrative Descriptions about Mental States Attenuate Parochial Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Emile G.; Cikara, Mina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, we examine parochial empathy (feeling more empathy for in-group than out-group members) across novel group boundaries, and test whether we can mitigate parochial empathy with brief narrative descriptions. In the absence of individuating information, participants consistently report more empathy for members of their own assigned group than a competitive out-group. However, individualized descriptions of in-group and out-group targets significantly reduce parochial empathy by interfering with encoding of targets’ group membership. Finally, the descriptions that most effectively decrease parochial empathy are those that describe targets’ mental states. These results support the role of individuating information in ameliorating parochial empathy, suggest a mechanism for their action, and show that descriptions emphasizing targets’ mental states are particularly effective. PMID:26505194

  9. Calming Meditation Increases Altruism, Decreases Parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Karl

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that cultivating calm will increase altruism and decrease parochialism, where altruism is defined as self-sacrifice in support of others, regardless of group affiliation or identity, and parochialism is defined as prosocial self-sacrifice restricted to fellow members of a group. Such could be the case with a calming meditation practice. An alternate hypothesis, coming from the study of ritual, proposes that shared practices lead to bonding, increasing parochialism, but no...

  10. Neural substrates of male parochial altruism are modulated by testosterone and behavioral strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Luise; Büchel, Christian; Diekhof, Esther K

    2017-08-01

    Parochial altruism refers to ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility and has recently been linked to testosterone. Here, we investigated the neurobiological mechanism of parochial altruism in male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game (UG) against ingroup and outgroup members (i.e., fans of the favorite or of a rivalling team) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results suggest that individual differences in altruistic tendency influence the tendency for parochialism. While altruistic subjects rejected unfair offers independent of team membership, the more self-oriented 'pro-selfs' displayed a stronger ingroup bias and rejected outgroup offers more often. However, during a second session that introduced a team competition the altruists adapted to this parochial pattern. Behavioral strategy was further characterized by dissociable and context-dependent correlations between endogenous testosterone and neural responses in the anterior insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In sum, the present findings indicate that parochial altruism is shaped by individual differences in testosterone and behavioral strategy. In that way the results are in line with evolutionary theories of both individual and group selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of parochial altruism by multilevel selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of parochial altruism is not well understood. We study this problem by considering a prisoner's dilemma game with four strategies: altruists who cooperate with everyone; parochialists who only cooperate with members of their own group; traitors who only cooperate with outgroup

  12. Internationalism versus Parochialism in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    United States scholars publishing in U.S., British, and Australian educational journals rarely cite studies from other countries, whereas scholars from other countries cite both U.S. studies and work from their own countries but rarely from elsewhere. Publication patterns are also parochial. Education should become a more international discipline.…

  13. Schools in the Parochial Turmoil: Local Conflict and Dispute in the Province of Popayán in the State of New Granada, 1832-1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ervin Prado Arellano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the State of New Granada (1832-1855 was the establishment of primary schools in every corner of the Republic. Part of this policy was regulated on May 19 1834, together with other policies (Law 2 of the 16th of May 1836 and Law 3 of the 13th of June 1844, which provided the framework within which the parish centers could establish these educational institutions. However, the policy, which promoted literacy in citizens, fostered conflict among local neighbors, be it because of the contributions that the inhabitants had to pay to fund these schools or because of the selection of the primary school teachers. This article examines such conflicts and, behind them, reveals the local rivalries and the factions in which the parish had been split into. The above unveils the dissemination of primary education as complex and torturous as the state process faced the web of local power.

  14. Dying the right-way? Interest in and perceived persuasiveness of parochial extremist propaganda increases after mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischlich, Lena; Rieger, Diana; Hein, Maia; Bente, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Research on parochial altruism demonstrated that hostility toward out-groups (parochialism) represents the dark side of the willingness to benefit one's in-group even at own costs (altruism). Parochial aggression thereby emerged mainly under conditions of threat. Extremist propaganda videos, for instance by right-wing extremists, try to capitalize on parochial altruistic mechanism by telling recipients sharing their national identity that this nation is under threat wherefore they for have to join the extremist's cause to prevent the extinction of their nation. Most of the time, propaganda videos are rated as uninteresting and non-persuasive by the target audience. Yet, evolutionary media psychology posits that the interest in and effectiveness of media increases when evolutionarily relevant problems are addressed. Consequently, interest in parochial altruistic right-wing extremist messages should increase under conditions of threat. The current study tested this assumption by randomly assigning German non-Muslims (N = 109) to either an existential threat (here: mortality salience) or a control condition and asking them to evaluate extremist propaganda that addressed them as either in-group members (right-wing extremists) or as out-group members (Islamic extremists). In support of the hypotheses, subjects under conditions of threat reported a higher interest in the right-wing extremist propaganda and perceived it as more persuasive. We discuss the results concerning the implications for evolutionary media psychology and the transmission of parochial altruism in propaganda videos.

  15. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Barrett, H Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H; Gervais, Matthew M; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-08-22

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Moral parochialism and contextual contingency across seven societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Barrett, H. Clark; Kanovsky, Martin; Stich, Stephen; Holbrook, Colin; Henrich, Joseph; Bolyanatz, Alexander H.; Gervais, Matthew M.; Gurven, Michael; Kushnick, Geoff; Pisor, Anne C.; von Rueden, Christopher; Laurence, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Human moral judgement may have evolved to maximize the individual's welfare given parochial culturally constructed moral systems. If so, then moral condemnation should be more severe when transgressions are recent and local, and should be sensitive to the pronouncements of authority figures (who are often arbiters of moral norms), as the fitness pay-offs of moral disapproval will primarily derive from the ramifications of condemning actions that occur within the immediate social arena. Correspondingly, moral transgressions should be viewed as less objectionable if they occur in other places or times, or if local authorities deem them acceptable. These predictions contrast markedly with those derived from prevailing non-evolutionary perspectives on moral judgement. Both classes of theories predict purportedly species-typical patterns, yet to our knowledge, no study to date has investigated moral judgement across a diverse set of societies, including a range of small-scale communities that differ substantially from large highly urbanized nations. We tested these predictions in five small-scale societies and two large-scale societies, finding substantial evidence of moral parochialism and contextual contingency in adults' moral judgements. Results reveal an overarching pattern in which moral condemnation reflects a concern with immediate local considerations, a pattern consistent with a variety of evolutionary accounts of moral judgement. PMID:26246545

  17. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  18. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism.

  19. Dying the right-way? Interest in and perceived persuasiveness of parochial extremist propaganda increases after mortality salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eFrischlich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on parochial altruism demonstrated that hostility toward out-groups (parochialism represents the dark side of the willingness to benefit one’s in-group even at own costs (altruism. Parochial aggression thereby emerges mainly under conditions of threat. Extremist propaganda videos, for instance by right-wing extremists, try to capitalize on parochial altruistic mechanism by telling recipients sharing their national identity that this nation is under threat wherefore these recipients have to join the extremist’s cause to defend their nation. Most of the time, propaganda videos are rated as uninteresting and non-persuasive by the target audience. Evolutionary media psychology posits that the interest in and effectiveness of media increases when evolutionarily relevant problems are addressed. Consequently, interest in parochial altruistic propaganda should increase under conditions of threat. The current study tested this assumption by randomly assigning German/non-Muslims (N=109 to either an existential threat (here: mortality salience or a control condition and asking them to evaluate extremist propaganda that addressed them as either in-group members (right-wing extremists or not. In support of the hypotheses, subjects under conditions of threat reported a higher interest in the right-wing extremist propaganda and perceived it as more persuasive. We discuss the results concerning their implications.

  20. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildschut, T.; Van Horen, F.; Hart, C.

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism).

  1. American Sociology in a Transnational World: Against Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, John

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, in spite of its cosmopolitan origins, U.S. sociology is regarded widely as parochial in its outlook and concerns. Discusses factors contributing to the intellectual isolationism of U.S. sociological research and pedagogy. Provides suggestions for internationalizing the sociology curriculum. (CFR)

  2. Citizenship in the Faroe Islands: Participant, Parochial or Colonial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; West, Hallbera Frida

    2008-01-01

    to female representation in the Faroese parliament and in government, seems better explained by the relative remoteness of the islands from the Scandinavian political and cultural mainstream (the parochialism hypothesis). Also the fact that the Faroese are much less confident in speaking at public meetings...

  3. An experiment on individual ‘parochial altruism’ revealing no connection between individual ‘altruism’ and individual ‘parochialism’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eHargreaves Heap

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behaviour? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group. We find that it is not. An examination of the Big 5 personality predictors of each behaviour reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how ‘nice’ individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism.

  4. An experiment on individual ‘parochial altruism’ revealing no connection between individual ‘altruism’ and individual ‘parochialism’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J.; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P.; Seger, Charles R.; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism. PMID:26347703

  5. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Wildschut, T.; Van Horen, F.; Hart, C.

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism). Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent). A prisoner’s dil...

  6. Acculturation, Dietary Practices and Risk for Childhood Obesity in an Ethnically Heterogeneous Population of Latino School Children in the San Francisco Bay Area

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4–6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to ...

  7. Nearby, Well Known. The Parochial Realm of Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe Kusenbach

    2011-03-01

    urba neighborhoods often fail to notice that their research areas are typically slices of the parochial realm, meaning a social territory that is not unique to cities but also common in suburbs and even small towns. Of course, there can be huge differences between an urban hood and a small town quarter yet both share important characteristics which some urban scholars overlook in their belief that city boundaries, density and diversity, or a certain look and feel guarantee the urban-ness of their research areas.

  8. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; van Horen, Femke; Hart, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism). Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent). A prisoner's dilemma game experiment supported this prediction. Specifically, intergroup (compared to interindividual) interaction activated an injunctive ingroup-favoring norm, and accountability enhanced the influence of this norm on competitive behavior.

  9. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual—Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWildschut

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism. Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent. A prisoner’s dilemma game experiment supported this prediction. Specifically, intergroup (compared to interindividual interaction activated an injunctive ingroup-favoring norm, and accountability enhanced the influence of this norm on competitive behavior.

  10. Parochialism and Intercourse: Metaphors for Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John

    1994-01-01

    Discusses tensions resulting from dichotomies existing between "smaller" languages and those of wider communications. It is suggested that there are four recurring approaches for dealing with this tension: communicative language shift, defense of the more threatened variety, "localization" of the stronger language (for example,…

  11. Black Berets and the Berry Amendment: Politics, Parochialism, and the Press

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeller, William E

    2006-01-01

    .... It also demonstrates how politics and parochialism can affect an otherwise benign and insignificant procurement of one piece of military headgear and move it to the center of public and political...

  12. Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-09-11

    Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends, and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories for cross-population differences in parochialism.

  13. Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jacob Hruschka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories for cross-population differences in parochialism.

  14. Parochial cooperation in nested intergroup dilemmas is reduced when it harms out-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaldering, Hillie; Ten Velden, Femke S; van Kleef, Gerben A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2018-06-01

    In intergroup settings, humans often contribute to their in-group at a personal cost. Such parochial cooperation benefits the in-group and creates and fuels intergroup conflict when it simultaneously hurts out-groups. Here, we introduce a new game paradigm in which individuals can display universal cooperation (which benefits both in- and out-group) as well as parochial cooperation that does, versus does not hurt the out-group. Using this set-up, we test hypotheses derived from group selection theory, social identity, and bounded generalized reciprocity theory. Across three experiments we find, first, that individuals choose parochial over universal cooperation. Second, there was no evidence for a motive to maximize differences between in- and out-group, which is central to both group selection and social identity theory. However, fitting bounded generalized reciprocity theory, we find that individuals with a prosocial value orientation display parochial cooperation, provided that this does not harm the out-group; individualists, in contrast, display parochialism whether or not nut it hurts the out-group. Our findings were insensitive to cognitive taxation (Experiments 2-3), and emerged even when universal cooperation served social welfare more than parochialism (Experiment 3). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Diminishing parochialism in intergroup conflict by disrupting the right temporo-parietal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Thomas; Schiller, Bastian; Rieskamp, Jörg; Gianotti, Lorena R R; Knoch, Daria

    2014-05-01

    Individuals react to violation of social norms by outgroup members differently than to transgressions of those same norms by ingroup members: namely outgroup perpetrators are punished much more harshly than ingroup perpetrators. This parochial punishment pattern has been observed and extensively studied in social psychology and behavioral economics. Despite progress in recent years, however, little is known about the neural underpinnings of this intergroup bias. Here, we demonstrate by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that the transient disruption of the right, but not the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), reduces parochial punishment in a third-party punishment paradigm with real social groups. Moreover, we show that this observed TMS effect on parochial punishment is mediated by a classical punishment motive, i.e. retaliation. Finally, our data suggests that a change in perspective-taking might be the underlying mechanism that explains the impact of right TPJ disruption on retaliation motivation and parochial punishment. These findings provide the first causal evidence that the right TPJ plays a pivotal role in the implementation of parochial behaviors.

  16. Provocative questions in parochial sex education classes: higher incidence in younger students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan; Breuner, Cora C; Lozano, Paula

    2008-10-01

    Recent data show US adolescents are engaging in sexual activity at earlier ages; however, little is known about young teens' sexual attitudes and behaviors. Examining teens' questions in sex education classes may provide insight into these attitudes and behaviors. Quasi cohort study Parochial middle school sex education classes 5(th) through 8(th) graders Students' anonymous written questions submitted at the outset of sex education classes between 2003 and 2005. Questions were classified into topic categories. Three additional variables were then coded for each question. Ethics/guidance questions included requests for advice or value judgments. Prohibited questions included the topics homosexuality, abortion, masturbation, and contraception. "Red flag" questions were those that suggested consideration of or engagement in sexual behavior. Among 473 questions submitted by 410 students, the most popular topics for 5(th)/6(th) graders were pregnancy and puberty, and for 7(th)/8(th) graders puberty and menstruation. 41 questions (8.6%) were prohibited. 29 questions (6.2%) asked about ethics/guidance. 18 questions (3.81%) were coded as red flag questions. A chi-square analysis showed that 5(th)/6(th) graders asked more questions in the ethics/guidance (8.3% versus 3.64%) and red flag question categories (5.53% versus 1.82%) (P < 0.05) than 7(th)/8(th) graders. Although provocative questions represent a minority of these middle students' queries, these requests suggest the urgency of providing appropriate guidance to young teens, given the risks of early sexual activity. The role of school education programs, physicians and parents in addressing questions of this sort should be considered.

  17. Humans are parochial altruists: neurocognitive foundations with implications for intergroup negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Martinovski, B.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have a stunning capacity for cooperation yet, at the same time, create and escalate conflict with often devastating consequences. Here I argue that both tendencies -- to cooperate and to aggress -- can be understood as manifestations of parochial altruism--the tendency to benefit, at a cost

  18. Sisyphus in Appalachia: Pluralism vs. Parochialism in a Newly Established State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, James R.

    In the mid-1980s, a community college in a parochial Appalachian town became a state university. The new university was created at the behest of a powerful state politician despite the opposition of the faculty, administration, and board of the community college. A college of education was created and an interdisciplinary general education program…

  19. In Intergroup Conflict, Self-sacrifice is Stronger among Pro-social Individuals and Parochial Altruism Emerges specially among Cognitively Taxed Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K.W. De Dreu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict when cognitive deliberation is rendered difficult or not. Predictions were tested in an experiment using an incentivized Intergroup Prisoner’s Dilemma—Maximizing Differences Game (IPD-MD with ninety-five subjects classified as either pro-social or pro-self being randomly allocated to high vs. low impulse-control conditions. Results showed, first of all, that decisions to contribute and self-sacrifice were made faster than decisions not to contribute, and that longer decision time associated with less positive expectations of in-group members. Second, we observed that lowering impulse control with a difficult rather than easy Stroop Task increased the amount contributed to a pool that benefited in-group members while harming out-group members; thus reducing deliberation increased parochial altruism. Finally, results replicated earlier work showing that especially pro-social (versus pro-self individuals contributed more to the in-group and did not lower their contributions to the between-group pool that benefitted their in-group and, simultaneously, hurt the out-group. This pattern emerged independent of their impulse control. Thus, (in-group bounded cooperation is more prominent among individuals with strong rather than weak other-regarding preferences. Moreover, the intuitive tendency to cooperate may have evolved in the context of intergroup conflict and therefore is sharp-edged—in-group bounded and including willingness to aggress out-groups.

  20. Helping Catholic Schools Is Everyone's Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bruce S.

    1994-01-01

    Since the Archdiocese of New York has been forced to reduce Catholic school subsidies, parochial schools will have to become more self-sufficient, merge with nearby schools, or close forever. Because these schools tackle some of the poorest (non-Catholic) students, provide them with an affordable drug and crime-free environment, and are not…

  1. Collective action in culturally similar and dissimilar groups: An axperiment on parochialism, conditional cooperation, and their linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Rebers, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility ("parochialism"), as well as of conditionally cooperative strategies, in explaining contributions to experimental public goods games. The experimental conditions vary group composition along two culturally inheritable

  2. Threat and parochialism in intergroup relations: lab-in-the-field evidence from rural Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Max

    2017-10-25

    Competition between groups is widely considered to foster cooperation within groups. Evidence from laboratory experiments hints at the existence of a proximate mechanism by which humans increase their level of cooperation with their ingroup when faced with an external threat. Further work suggests that ingroup cooperation should go along with aggressive behaviour towards the outgroup, although these theories are at odds with others that see high investments in outgroup relations as important means of stabilizing intergroup relations. Surprisingly, few of these arguments have been tested in the field, and existing studies are also limited by the lack of a direct measure of threat perception and aggressive behaviour. This study presents lab-in-the-field results from a rural context where exposure to an ethnic outgroup varies between villages. This context makes it possible to capture levels of threat perception, aggressive behaviour and cooperation without inducing intergroup competition artificially in the laboratory. All concepts are measured behaviourally. In- and outgroup cooperation was measured with a standard public goods game, and a novel experimental protocol was developed that measures perceived threat and aggressive behaviour: the threat game. The results show that levels of perceived threat, ingroup cooperation and aggressive behaviour are higher in regions more strongly exposed to ethnic outsiders. However, exposed regions also show high levels of outgroup cooperation and a concomitant lack of elevated ingroup bias. This pattern is explained by theorizing that communities show parochial altruism when faced with an ethnic outgroup, but balance aggressive behaviour with cooperative offers to diffuse tensions and to keep open channels of mutually beneficial exchange. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Leveling up? An inter-neighborhood experiment on parochialism and the efficiency of multi-level public goods provision

    OpenAIRE

    Gallier, Carlo; Goeschl, Timo; Kesternich, Martin; Lohse, Johannes; Reif, Christiane; Römer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Many public goods can be provided at different spatial levels. Evidence from social identity theory and in-group favoritism raises the possibility that where higher-level provision is more efficient, subjects’ narrow concern for local outcomes (parochialism) could harm efficiency. Building on the experimental paradigm of multi-level public good games and the ‘neighborhood attachment’ concept, we conduct an artefactual field experiment with 600 participants in a setting conducive to parochial...

  4. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  5. Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Jacob Hruschka; Joseph eHenrich

    2013-01-01

    Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories...

  6. School Counselors: Closing Achievement Gaps and Writing Results Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartline, Julie; Cobia, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Charged with closing the achievement gap for marginalized students, school counselors need to be able to identify gaps, develop interventions, evaluate effectiveness, and share results. This study examined 100 summary results reports submitted by school counselors after having received four days of training on the ASCA National Model. Findings…

  7. In intergroup conflict, self-sacrifice is stronger among pro-social individuals, and parochial altruism emerges especially among cognitively taxed individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Dussel, D.B.; ten Velden, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Parochial altruism is decomposed in a tendency to benefit the in-group along with a tendency to ignore, derogate, and harm rivaling out-groups. Building off recent work suggesting that decisions to cooperate can be relatively fast and intuitive, we examine parochial altruism in intergroup conflict

  8. School Communities That Work for Results and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Annenberg Inst. for School Reform.

    The primary organizational structure for a city's schools is the district. Its critics, however, consider that dysfunction was designed into school districts structure by virtue of their history. District structure was built on the notions that intelligence was innate, that the "scientific management" model produced optimal results, and that…

  9. CONGESTION AS A RESULT OF SCHOOL AND SHOPPING CENTER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Kumaat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of land use in public facilities such as shopping center and school gives an impact on transportation problem in Manado City, North Sulawesi.  To determine factors which have causal relationship with congestion  as a result of school and shopping center activity then it need to be assessed and studied.  Descriptive study with observational survey was used in this study. The study ran Structural Equation Modelling (SEM by using AMOS program. Estimated method was used to calculate sample size then found 300 repondents, comprised : visitors and mall managers, school visitors, parents, school managers, Public Works department, and urban planning department .The study yielded a statistically significant correlation between  school and shopping center activity with congestion s. The result  indicated that school activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. Shopping center activity was positively related to congestion with p value  at p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05. The closer proximity from school to shooping center will causes severe traffic congestion. The relationship between school facility with proximity was found in p value at  p=0,000 (p ≤ 0,05 . The relationship between shopping center facility with proximity was found in p value at  p= 0,020 (p ≤ 0,05. While, the relationship between proximity with congestion was p= 0,008 (p ≤ 0,05. Monastery school and Mega Mall activity were affecting congestion because a closer proximity of two facilities. This indicates that the occurence of traffic congestion in Monastery School  may be dependent on existence of  Piere Tendean road link

  10. Radon in Irish schools: the results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H; Hanley, O; Fenton, D; Colgan, P A

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of radon concentrations in Irish primary and post-primary schools. The objective of this survey was to assess the distribution of radon in Irish schools and to identify those requiring remedial work to reduce radon exposure to children and staff. All primary and post-primary schools were invited to participate in the survey. Indoor radon concentrations were measured during the academic year using integrating passive alpha track-etch detectors with a measurement period from three to nine months. The survey was carried out on a phased basis from 1998 to 2004 and is one of the most comprehensive of its kind undertaken in Europe. Measurements were completed in 38 531 ground floor classrooms and offices in 3826 schools, representing over 95% of the approximate 4000 primary and post-primary schools in Ireland. Of these, 984 schools had radon concentrations greater than 200 Bq m -3 in 3028 rooms and 329 schools had radon concentrations in excess of 400 Bq m -3 in 800 rooms. The average radon concentration in schools was 93 Bq m -3 . This results in an annual average effective dose to an Irish child from exposure to radon of 0.3 mSv per year, assuming that the long-term radon concentration is equal to the radon concentration present during the working hours and that the annual average occupancy is 1000 h per year. A programme of remediation of schools with radon concentrations above 200 Bq m -3 has been put in place

  11. Affective, parochial or innovative? Aleppo traders on the margin of global capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Rabo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article scrutinizes three different, and possible, ways to depict traders in contemporary Aleppo. They can be seen as sharing a distinct culture, as representatives of the petite bourgeoisie, or as examples of entrepreneurs. While all these approaches tell us something about the Aleppo traders, these approaches have great limitations, not least since the latter two – each in its own way – are utility-oriented. It is, I will rather argue, important to analyze Aleppo traders as affective, parochial and innovative, at the same time. Although Aleppo traders find themselves on the margins of global capitalism, they can, in fact, be studied in order to understand salient features of the contemporary world. We have a new affective economy where personalities, emotions and sensibilities are put on the market. The article is based on material collected during social anthropological fieldwork in Aleppo between 1997 and 2003, but mainly carried out in 1998-1999.

  12. School results and access test results as indicators of first-year performance at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bothma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The goals set by the National Plan for Higher Education, the fact that many schools are still severely disadvantaged as well as far-reaching changes in the school system demand that South African universities urgently reconsider their admission procedures. Redesigning admission procedures calls for a thorough understanding of the interrelationships between school marks, results in existing access tests and first-year university performance. These interrelationships were statistically investigated in the case of the 1999, 2000 and 2001 intake groups, who were compelled to write access tests before being admitted to Stellenbosch University. The results of this investigation confirm an alarming degree of unpreparedness among many prospective students regarding what is expected of them at university. This is aggravated by school marks creating a totally unrealistic expectation of performance in the first year at university. It is emphasised that schools and authorities dealing with admission of prospective students at universities should be cognisant of the findings reported here. Furthermore, the statistical analyses demonstrate several novel techniques for investigating the interrelationship between school marks, access test results and university performance.

  13. Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwalwasser, Harold

    2012-01-01

    Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have…

  14. The Law, the Student, and the Catholic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permuth, Steve; And Others

    Providing explanatory information regarding the legal principles and issues affecting Catholic school educators, this handbook summarizes student rights, contractual arrangements, and state and federal requirements as they apply to parochial schools. The legal issues involved in torts of negligence, including establishment and violation of…

  15. Promoting Healthy Behaviors in Children: Applying Ignatian Values in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misty; Lauglin, Ann; Connelly, Susan; Potthoff, Meghan; Synowiecki, Barbara; Yager, Amy

    2013-01-01

    An innovative partnership between a college of nursing and local parochial schools provided opportunities for nursing students to offer basic health promotion and disease prevention services, provide health education, and participate in a service-learning, research endeavor. This partnership provided the nursing school with the ability to…

  16. Inside the Black Box of School Reform: Explaining the How and Why of Change at "Getting Results" Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Dennis; Saunders, William M.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article reports key findings from a process-focused external evaluation that compared a subset of "Getting Results" project schools and comparison schools in order to understand the dynamics of school-wide reform efforts at these primary schools. Findings shed light on the "black box" of school reform and illuminate the…

  17. School Security: For Whom and with What Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servoss, Timothy J.; Finn, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized school-level data from several combined national databases to address two questions regarding school security policy: (1) What are the school characteristics related to levels of security? (2) How does security relate to school suspension, dropout, and college attendance rates? Among the predictors of school security, having a…

  18. AIDS risk among students attending Seventh-day Adventist school, in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, G L; Hopp, J W; Marshak, H P; Neish, C; Rhoads, G

    1998-04-01

    In 1995, a survey was conducted among students attending 69 Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) high schools within the United States and Canada. The survey assessed the extent that these students practiced sexual and drug-use behaviors which place them at risk for contracting or transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 1,748 respondents enrolled in grades 9 through 12 completed questionnaires similar to the instrument used in the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Data were collected and compared to results from the 1993 YRBS. Students who attended SDA parochial schools reported lower rates of sexual intercourse compared to YRBS school counterparts (16.3% vs. 53.1%) and lower rates of all substances measured. Furthermore, respondents were more likely to engage in substance use and sexual intercourse if they had at least one parent who used tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana, as reported by the students.

  19. The Meanings of Hebrew: Defining Bilingual Education in a Dual-Language Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Using a discourse analytic framework that draws on theories of language ideologies, this paper analyzes the semiotics of a heritage language as it moves from the context of parochial education to the realm of public schooling. Specifically, it examines how Hebrew undergoes resemioticization when a Hebrew language charter school in the District of…

  20. The Use of School Self-Evaluation Results in the Netherlands and Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Vanhoof, Jan; van Petegem, Peter; Visscher, Adrie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of two studies on the use of school self-evaluation in the Netherlands and Flanders. It focuses on which forms of instrumental use of school self-evaluation results can be found in schools, and how differences in self-evaluation use between schools can be explained. Results show that the instrumental use of…

  1. Spatial Thinking Ability Assessment in Rwandan Secondary Schools: Baseline Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Vodacek, Anthony; Parody, Robert; Holt, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses use and modification of Lee and Bednarz's (2012) Spatial Thinking Ability Test (STAT) as a spatial thinking assessment device in Rwandan secondary schools. After piloting and modifying the STAT, 222 students total from our rural and urban test schools and one control school were tested. Statistical analysis revealed that…

  2. Schools and Civil Society: Corporate or Community Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    School improvement depends upon mediating the cultural conditions of learning as young people journey between their parochial worlds and the public world of cosmopolitan society. Governing bodies have a crucial role in including or diminishing the representation of different cultural traditions and in enabling or frustrating the expression of…

  3. Between Scylla and Charybdis: How Catholic High School Leaders Negotiate the Polarities of Contemporary U.S. Culture within the Catholic Educational Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinandt, Kevin William

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, comparative case study involves a multi-faceted approach to how lay leaders in four different Catholic high schools brand their schools within a broader Catholic educational marketplace. As compared with the parochial era (1884-1965), the approach of Catholic high school administrators, campus ministers, department chairs, and…

  4. A Framework for School Safety and Risk Management: Results from a Study of 18 Targeted School Shooters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Ann Marie C.; Graham, Lemuel W.; Farrell, Melissa L.

    2018-01-01

    Targeted violence continues to pose a threat to school safety. Reported here are the results of a study of 18 cases of school shooters from 1996 to 2012. Variables examined are individual factors and behaviors, family dynamics, and triggering events. Results indicate the need for expanded school-based mental health services, threat assessment, and…

  5. Portuguese School Libraries Evaluation Model: An Analysis of Primary Schools' Results for the "Reading and Literacy" Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jorge Tiago; Martins, Rosa Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the implementation results of the Portuguese School Libraries Evaluation Model, more specifically the results of primary schools self-evaluation of their libraries' reading promotion and information literacy development activities. School libraries that rated their performance as either "Excellent" or "Poor"…

  6. “An Attractive Idea of Parochial Boards of Trustees…” (based on the documents from Eastern Siberian dioceses dated 1914–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Kattsina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on research literature and published sources and it reveals charity work of parochial boards of trustees in the beginning of the XXth century. The historical analysis is limited by Eastern Siberia, serving as an example of religious aspect of civic activity genesis in pre-revolutionary Russia. The importance of parochial boards of trustees in material and non-material support to soldiers and their families during World War I is described. The factors that reduced the opportunities of parochial boards of trustees are emphasized in the evaluation of useful and necessary function of the boards. The following conclusion is drawn: different conditions in which the activity of this or that board of trustees developed influenced the differences in budgets and measures of support they gave.

  7. The Impact of Poverty and School Size on the 2015-16 Kansas State Assessment Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Schools with higher percentages of students in poverty have lower student assessment results on the 2015-16 Kansas Math and ELA assessments, and larger schools have lower student achievement results than smaller schools. In addition, higher poverty schools are likely to have larger gaps in performance based on special education status and possibly…

  8. Association of Sleep Groups and Sleep Survey Results of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen A.; MacDonald, Lawrence; Frost, Frederica C.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2003 the High School Late Start Committee of the Northville Public Schools sent surveys to all families, faculty, and middle and high school students. The descriptive results of this survey can be found at www.northville.k12.mi.us/hr/late_start_committee_surveysummary.htm. This study focuses on the responses of the high school students,…

  9. The Effects of Maternal Parenting Style and Religious Commitment on Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Risk Behavior among African-American Parochial College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L.; Winsler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic…

  10. New Literacies, Multiple Literacies, Unlimited Literacies: What Now, What Next, Where to? A Response to "Blue Listerine, Parochialism and ASL Literacy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Peter V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a response to "Blue Listerine, Parochialism, and ASL Literacy" (Czubek, 2006). The author presents his views on the concepts of literacy and the new and multiple literacies. In addition, the merits of print literacy and other types of literacies are discussed. Although the author agrees that there is an American Sign…

  11. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soofi Sajid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign. Results A total of 304,836 students were enrolled in 1,096 public, private, and religious schools (Madrasahs of the two towns. Five percent of schools refused to participate in the school census. Twenty-five percent of schools had a total enrolment of less than 100 students whereas 3% had more than 1,000 students. Health education programs were available in less than 8% of public schools, 17% of private schools, and 14% of Madrasahs. One-quarter of public schools, 41% of private schools, and 43% of Madrasahs had previously participated in a school-based vaccination campaign. The most common vaccination campaign in which schools participated was Polio eradication program. Cost of the vaccine, side effects, and parents' lack of information were highlighted as important limiting factors by school administration for school-based immunization programs. Permission from parents, appropriateness of vaccine-related information, and involvement of teachers were considered as important factors to improve participation. Conclusions Health

  13. [Hearing screening at nursery schools: results of an evaluation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbold, Viktor; Rohrer, Monika; Winkler, Cornelia; Welzl-Müller, Kunigunde

    2004-07-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the hearing screening of pre-school children at nursery schools in Tyrol, Austria. 47 nursery schools with a total of 2199 enrolled children participated in the study. At the screening, the children were presented a series of tones at frequencies 0.5 kHz (25dB), 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 3 kHz, and 4 kHz (20 dB each) from portable audiometers. The tones were presented over headphones for each ear separately and at irregular intervals. Failure to respond to any of the frequencies was considered failure of the screening. Parents were then advised in written form to have the child examined by an ENT-specialist. 1832 individuals were screened (coverage: 83% of nursery school children; corresponding to at least 63% of all Tyrolean children aged 3 to 5 years). Of these, 390 failed the test (referral rate: 21% of all screened). Examination through an ENT-specialist occurred with 217 children, and this confirmed the positive test in 139 children (hit rate: 64%). In most cases, a temporary conductive hearing loss due to external or middle ear problems (glue ear, tube dysfunction, cerumen, otitis media) was diagnosed. A sensorineural hearing loss was found in 4 children (in 3 of them bilateral). The need for therapy was recognized in 81 children (4% of all screened). Pre-school hearing screening identifies children with ear and hearing problems that need therapeutical intervention. Although the hearing problems are mostly of a temporary nature, some may require monitoring over some period. Also some children with permanent sensorineural hearing loss may be detected through this measure. Hearing screening is an efficient means of assessing ear and hearing problems in pre-school children. However, the follow-up rate needs to be improved for optimizing the efficacy.

  14. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  15. Y2K Survey Results: Counties, Cities, School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Jim

    Survey data obtained in recent audits updated Ohio's local government units' assessment of Year 2000 (Y2K) readiness. The survey was developed with three intended objectives: (1) to provide an accurate assessment of the efforts to remediate the Y2K problem in Ohio's school districts, cities and counties; (2) to identify issues that could affect…

  16. Emotion Locomotion: Promoting the Emotional Health of Elementary School Children by Recognizing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Debra A.; Burgos, Teresa; Honeycutt, Holly K.; Linam, Eve H.; Moneymaker, Laura D.; Rathke, Meghan K.

    2009-01-01

    Emotion recognition is a critical life skill children need for mental health promotion to meet the complexities and challenges of growing up in the world today. Five nursing students and their instructor designed "Emotion Locomotion," a program for children ages 6-8 during a public health nursing practicum for an inner-city parochial school.…

  17. The association between organic school food policy and school food environment: results from an observational study in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-03-01

    School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.

  18. Improving the Management Style of School Principals: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    Using information from a randomized experiment carried out over the course of two school years in Madagascar, this paper evaluates the impact of specific actions designed to streamline and tighten the work processes of public primary school directors. The results show that interventions at the school level, reinforced by interventions at the…

  19. School-Based Approaches to Affect Adolescents' Diets: Results from the TEENS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Varnell, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at School (TEENS) study, a 2-year intervention study conducted in 16 middle schools with a goal of increasing students' intakes of fruits, vegetables, and lower fat foods. Despite positive interim results for students randomized to intervention schools, the positive…

  20. Results of a multibehavioral health-promoting school pilot intervention in a Dutch secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Rob J J; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies increasingly show adolescent health-related behaviors to be interrelated, interacting synergistically and sharing several common determinants. Therefore, research increasingly focuses on studying interventions that target a range of health behaviors simultaneously. This report describes the results of a pilot study of a secondary school-based, health-promoting intervention that simultaneously targets a range of adolescent health behaviors via a whole-school approach. We collected self-reported behavioral data via an annual online questionnaire to 336 students. We collected data before the intervention implementation and after the intervention's first completed, 3-year curriculum cycle on the fourth-grade students (15- to 16-year-olds). We analyzed differences between pre- and postintervention groups. Significant behavioral changes were reported for extreme alcohol use, smoking, sedentary time, and bullying behaviors. Certain behaviors were significantly different only in girls: namely, weekly alcohol use, ever having used cannabis, compulsive Internet or computer use score, compulsive gaming score, and recent bully victimization. Differences in several sedentary time behaviors (television watching and Internet or computer use) were significant only in boys. No changes were reported regarding body mass index; physical activity; or the time spent on, or the compulsiveness of, video game playing. In addition, the postintervention group showed significantly fewer psychosocial problems. The intervention successfully changed student health behaviors on many accounts. It remains largely unclear as to what causes the different effects for boys and girls. Further studies regarding multiple health behavior targeting interventions for adolescents are required. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Kazan archaeological school: research results and development prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzin Fayaz Sh.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic stages of Kazan archaeological school development are traced from its origin, which was connected to the Society of Archaeology, History and Ethnology with Kazan University (1878 – early 1930s. The establishment of Kazan Institute of Language, Literature and History in 1939 (from 1945 as part of Kazan Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences started the formation of Kazan archaeological school. At the beginning, its representatives worked in the sector of History, Institute of Language, Literature and History, Kazan branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (until 1962, and then joined the sector of Archaeology and Ethnography (1962–1986. Later on, the Department of Archaeology (1986–1995 was created, subsequently (in 1995 transformed into the National Center of Archaeological Research with the Institute of History named after Sh. Marjani of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. In July, 2013, the Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh. Khalikov of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences was established on the basis of the Center. The archaeology of Tatarstan was developing in the framework of three basic directions: 1 entire investigation prospecting of the region aimed at creating the most exhaustive list of archaeological monuments of the Middle Volga River region; 2 stationary investigations the prehistoric and medieval sites, first of all historically known Volga Bulgaria towns, rural settlements and necropolises; 3 studies in the sphere of ethnogenesis and ethnic history, interaction between the cultures of the Turkic and Finno-Ugric peoples of the region. For the next 5 years (2014–2018 the researchers of the Institute plan to develop the following trends: I. the medieval Turkic-Tatar civilization of Eurasia; II. prehistorical archaeology of the Volga-Kama region: genesis and interaction of cultures; III. GIS technologies in archaeology; IV. natural science research methods in archaeology; V. conservation and systematization of archaeological

  2. The evolutionary interplay of intergroup conflict and altruism in humans: a review of parochial altruism theory and prospects for its extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Hannes

    2014-11-07

    Drawing on an idea proposed by Darwin, it has recently been hypothesized that violent intergroup conflict might have played a substantial role in the evolution of human cooperativeness and altruism. The central notion of this argument, dubbed 'parochial altruism', is that the two genetic or cultural traits, aggressiveness against the out-groups and cooperativeness towards the in-group, including self-sacrificial altruistic behaviour, might have coevolved in humans. This review assesses the explanatory power of current theories of 'parochial altruism'. After a brief synopsis of the existing literature, two pitfalls in the interpretation of the most widely used models are discussed: potential direct benefits and high relatedness between group members implicitly induced by assumptions about conflict structure and frequency. Then, a number of simplifying assumptions made in the construction of these models are pointed out which currently limit their explanatory power. Next, relevant empirical evidence from several disciplines which could guide future theoretical extensions is reviewed. Finally, selected alternative accounts of evolutionary links between intergroup conflict and intragroup cooperation are briefly discussed which could be integrated with parochial altruism in the future. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. The evolutionary interplay of intergroup conflict and altruism in humans: a review of parochial altruism theory and prospects for its extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on an idea proposed by Darwin, it has recently been hypothesized that violent intergroup conflict might have played a substantial role in the evolution of human cooperativeness and altruism. The central notion of this argument, dubbed ‘parochial altruism’, is that the two genetic or cultural traits, aggressiveness against the out-groups and cooperativeness towards the in-group, including self-sacrificial altruistic behaviour, might have coevolved in humans. This review assesses the explanatory power of current theories of ‘parochial altruism’. After a brief synopsis of the existing literature, two pitfalls in the interpretation of the most widely used models are discussed: potential direct benefits and high relatedness between group members implicitly induced by assumptions about conflict structure and frequency. Then, a number of simplifying assumptions made in the construction of these models are pointed out which currently limit their explanatory power. Next, relevant empirical evidence from several disciplines which could guide future theoretical extensions is reviewed. Finally, selected alternative accounts of evolutionary links between intergroup conflict and intragroup cooperation are briefly discussed which could be integrated with parochial altruism in the future. PMID:25253457

  4. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  5. Teaching Basic Programming Concepts to Young Primary School Students Using Tablets: Results of a Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokides, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the results of a project in which tablets and a ready-made application were used for teaching basic programming concepts to young primary school students (ages 7-9). A total of 135 students participated in the study, attending primary schools in Athens, Greece, divided into three groups. The first was taught conventionally. The…

  6. Challenging Segregational Practices in a Spanish Secondary School: Results from an Ethnographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Valero, Joan-Anton; Padilla-Petry, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This article presents partial results of a multi-sited ethnographic study about the role of multiple literacies in young people's learning in and outside school. In one of the five participant secondary schools, fourth grade students were segregated in groups according to their special needs. We start with a critical review on segregated and…

  7. Educating Students with Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: Results from Two Schools in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Reginard Milinga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest for equal access, participation and success in education for persons with disabilities is paramount in today’s global education context, and Tanzania is no exception. Since the ages of “denial” to “full inclusion”, educating students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms has had been responded differently by teachers and students alike across countries. Confronted by different challenges in their education, students with disabilities are to devise mechanisms to excel in such restrictive learning environments. Informed by interpretive research traditions with 59 purposefully selected participants, this paper explores challenges that students with disabilities are faced with and coping strategies used by these students in their schooling in two inclusive secondary schools in Tanzania. The findings indicate that, students with disabilities are faced with challenges which are teacher and environment-related. Consequently, the students with disabilities use complaints, assistance seeking, self-initiatives, isolation and despair, and assertiveness to cope with the challenges. The study concludes that; educational stakeholders should work collaboratively in order to lessen the impact of the restrictive nature of learning environments for students with disabilities. The paper recommends on improved teacher preparation and continued professional development in order to cater for the learning needs of students with disabilities in inclusive schools.

  8. Promoting oral health of children through schools--results from a WHO global survey 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, N; Petersen, P E

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the range of school-based approaches to oral health and describes what is meant by a Health Promoting School. The paper then reports the results of a World Health Organization global survey of school-based health promotion. Purposive sampling across 100 countries produced 108...... evaluations of school oral health projects spread across 61 countries around the globe. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion noted that schools can provide a supportive environment for promoting children's health. However, while a number of well-known strategies are being applied, the full range of health...... promoting actions is not being used globally. A greater emphasis on integrated health promotion is advised in place of narrower, disease- or project-specific approaches. Recommendations are made for improving this situation, for further research and for specifying an operational framework for sharing...

  9. Mixed Schools versus Single-Sex Schools: Are There Differences in the Academic Results for Boys and Girls in Catalonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gracia, Maribel; Donoso Vázquez, Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    This study carries out a comparative analysis of achievement according to gender between mixed and single-sex schools in the region of Catalonia, Spain, for the subjects of Spanish, Catalan, English and Mathematics. After a brief contextualisation, a review of the main findings from international studies on differences in results for mixed schools…

  10. [Evolution of a quality assurance programme for physiotherapy schools - results of the first quality inspections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, B; Schlag, B; Jäckel, W H

    2004-02-01

    In cooperation with the Hochrhein-Institute for Research in Rehabilitation (HRI), the Association for Assuring the Quality of Education in Physiotherapy Schools in Germany (ISQ) has developed a quality assurance programme for physiotherapy schools. It aims at assessing the quality of physiotherapy schools in Germany, and to award a quality seal based on compliance with defined criteria. First, a catalogue of quality features and criteria relevant for education in physiotherapy was developed. It is based on the analysis of questionnaires that had been sent to all German physiotherapy schools, to selected physiotherapists and leading physiotherapists in hospitals, to competent federal authorities, and to three school-classes with group discussions. The persons addressed named 360 different quality features. They were collected in a catalogue, revised in a multi-stage Delphi procedure, and approved consensually. The final criteria were transformed into basic quality requirements, and formulated as a check-list. Assessment of the quality features is carried out by trained visitors. In addition, the satisfaction of students is assessed with a questionnaire. The results of the interviews and the questionnaires are fed back to the schools in a quality report. Schools meeting all basic quality requirements are awarded the seal of quality. The seal is valid for three years. Since January 2003, this procedure is available for all schools in Germany. Until September 2002, a pretest of visitations and student questionnaires had been carried out with 31 member schools of the ISQ; according to the resulting quality reports, none of these schools would instantly be awarded the quality seal. In all, more than half of the schools do not meet 10 of the 42 basic criteria. Fundamental deficiencies have been found in the documentation pertaining to supervision of practical training. In terms of training, further training and professional development of their teachers and associated

  11. Parochial education in a global world? Teaching history and civics in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Bahous

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory article is based on a research project which runs from 2011 to 2013 that examines how global processes are expressed in educational policies and pedagogical texts in Lebanon, Sweden and Turkey by focusing on school subjects like civics, history, geography, and religion. In this text we discuss the development of education in Lebanon, the development of history and civics after the civil war, and on opinions about these school subjects in order to make a preliminary analysis of how the future Lebanese citizen is depicted in policies, curricula, and textbooks. Lebanon is interesting because of its unique education system in which foreign international institutions rather than national ones have the task of preparing individuals for a globalized world. Material for the study were collected from a sample of curricula used in private and public or national schools for history and civics/citizenship education in grade 8 as well as interviews and conference proceedings and conversations with activists, teachers and principals. We also reviewed findings of relevant empirical studies conducted in Lebanon. Our data collection was guided by three questions: how is the right citizen depicted in the Lebanese material? How is the relationship between national and global perspectives treated in guidance documents and pedagogical texts? What civic rights and obligations are given attention and what individuals are included/ excluded? Our preliminary findings imply that there is no consensus on the importance of teaching a unified history and civics book and subjects in Lebanon. Other findings indicate that private and international schools have a greater impact than national schools on preparing Lebanese students as future citizens.

  12. Household responses to school closure resulting from outbreak of influenza B, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, April J; Moore, Zack S; Edelson, Paul J; Kinnane, Lynda; Davies, Megan; Shay, David K; Balish, Amanda; McCarron, Meg; Blanton, Lenee; Finelli, Lyn; Averhoff, Francisco; Bresee, Joseph; Engel, Jeffrey; Fiore, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    School closure is a proposed strategy for reducing influenza transmission during a pandemic. Few studies have assessed how families respond to closures, or whether other interactions during closure could reduce this strategy's effect. Questionnaires were administered to 220 households (438 adults and 355 children) with school-age children in a North Carolina county during an influenza B virus outbreak that resulted in school closure. Closure was considered appropriate by 201 (91%) households. No adults missed work to solely provide childcare, and only 22 (10%) households required special childcare arrangements; 2 households incurred additional costs. Eighty-nine percent of children visited at least 1 public location during the closure despite county recommendations to avoid large gatherings. Although behavior and attitudes might differ during a pandemic, these results suggest short-term closure did not cause substantial hardship for parents. Pandemic planning guidance should address the potential for transmission in public areas during school closure.

  13. Does Competition Really Bring Out the Worst? Testosterone, Social Distance and Inter-Male Competition Shape Parochial Altruism in Human Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Wittmer, Susanne; Reimers, Luise

    2014-01-01

    Parochial altruism, defined as increased ingroup favoritism and heightened outgroup hostility, is a widespread feature of human societies that affects altruistic cooperation and punishment behavior, particularly in intergroup conflicts. Humans tend to protect fellow group members and fight against outsiders, even at substantial costs for themselves. Testosterone modulates responses to competition and social threat, but its exact role in the context of parochial altruism remains controversial. Here, we investigated how testosterone influences altruistic punishment tendencies in the presence of an intergroup competition. Fifty male soccer fans played an ultimatum game (UG), in which they faced anonymous proposers that could either be a fan of the same soccer team (ingroup) or were fans of other teams (outgroups) that differed in the degree of social distance and enmity to the ingroup. The UG was played in two contexts with varying degrees of intergroup rivalry. Our data show that unfair offers were rejected more frequently than fair proposals and the frequency of altruistic punishment increased with increasing social distance to the outgroups. Adding an intergroup competition led to a further escalation of outgroup hostility and reduced punishment of unfair ingroup members. High testosterone levels were associated with a relatively increased ingroup favoritism and also a change towards enhanced outgroup hostility in the intergroup competition. High testosterone concentrations further predicted increased proposer generosity in interactions with the ingroup. Altogether, a significant relation between testosterone and parochial altruism could be demonstrated, but only in the presence of an intergroup competition. In human males, testosterone may promote group coherence in the face of external threat, even against the urge to selfishly maximize personal reward. In that way, our observation refutes the view that testosterone generally promotes antisocial behaviors and

  14. Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathologists on the Use of Telepractice in Schools: Quantitative Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice K. Tucker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research surveyed 170 school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs in one northeastern state, with only 1.8% reporting telepractice use in school-settings. These results were consistent with two ASHA surveys (2002; 2011 that reported limited use of telepractice for school-based speech-language pathology. In the present study, willingness to use telepractice was inversely related to age, perhaps because younger members of the profession are more accustomed to using technology.  Overall, respondents were concerned about the validity of assessments administered via telepractice; whether clinicians can adequately establish rapport with clients via telepractice; and if therapy conducted via telepractice can be as effective as in-person speech-language therapy. Most respondents indicated the need to establish procedures and guidelines for school-based telepractice programs.

  15. Radon in Irish primary and post-primary schools. The results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.; Fennell, S.; Pollard, D.; Colgan, P.A.; Hanley, O.; O'Colmain, M.; Maloney, L.

    2004-05-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of radon concentrations in schools in the Republic of Ireland. The survey was carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) on behalf of the Department of Education and Science. A workplace Reference Level of 400 Bq/m3 is set down in national legislation. However, in the case of schools the RPII has recommended that, wherever possible, radon concentrations should be reduced to below 200 Bq/m3. The objective of the survey was to assess the distribution of radon in Irish schools and to identify those requiring remedial work to reduce radon exposure to children and staff. The survey was carried out on a phased basis from 1998 to 2002. All schools in the Free Education System were invited to participate. Indoor radon concentrations were measured using passive alpha track-etch detectors with a measurement period of one academic year from September to the following June. Measurements were completed in the ground floor classrooms and offices of 3444 schools, representing over 85% of the approximate 4000 primary and post-primary schools in Ireland. Of these, 898 had radon concentrations greater than 200 Bq/m3 and 307 had radon concentrations in excess of the national Reference Level for workplaces of 400 Bq/m3 in one or more ground floor rooms. The average radon concentration in the schools surveyed was 93 Bq/m3. Different remediation strategies have been adopted for schools with maximum radon concentrations between 200 and 400 Bq/m3 and for schools with radon concentrations in excess of 400 Bq/m3. In schools with radon concentrations below 400 Bq/m3, passive remediation through increased background ventilation is, where practicable, being used to reduce the radon concentrations. Where the initial radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m3, a remediation consultant assessed the school and remedial measures specific to each school have been designed. In the majority of these cases active remediation in the

  16. Missing Links in Middle School: Developing Use of Disciplinary Relatedness in Evaluating Internet Search Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Keil

    Full Text Available In the "digital native" generation, internet search engines are a commonly used source of information. However, adolescents may fail to recognize relevant search results when they are related in discipline to the search topic but lack other cues. Middle school students, high school students, and adults rated simulated search results for relevance to the search topic. The search results were designed to contrast deep discipline-based relationships with lexical similarity to the search topic. Results suggest that the ability to recognize disciplinary relatedness without supporting cues may continue to develop into high school. Despite frequent search engine usage, younger adolescents may require additional support to make the most of the information available to them.

  17. New literacies, multiple literacies, unlimited literacies: what now, what next, where to? A response to blue listerine, parochialism and ASL literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Peter V

    2006-01-01

    This article is a response to Blue Listerine, Parochialism, and ASL Literacy (Czubek, 2006). The author presents his views on the concepts of literacy and the new and multiple literacies. In addition, the merits of print literacy and other types of literacies are discussed. Although the author agrees that there is an American Sign Language (ASL) literacy, he maintains that there should be a distinction between conversational "literacy" forms (speech and sign) and secondary literacy forms (reading and writing). It might be that cognitive skills associated with print literacy and, possibly, other captured literacy forms, are necessary for a technological, scientific-driven society such as that which exists in the United States.

  18. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  19. Improved diabetes management in Swedish schools: results from two national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särnblad, Stefan; Åkesson, Karin; Fernström, Lillemor; Ilvered, Rosita; Forsander, Gun

    2017-09-01

    Support in diabetes self-care in school is essential to achieve optimal school performance and metabolic control. Swedish legislation regulating support to children with chronic diseases was strengthened 2009. To compare the results of a national survey conducted 2008 and 2015 measuring parents' and diabetes specialist teams' perceptions of support in school. All pediatric diabetes centers in Sweden were invited to participate in the 2015 study. In each center, families with a child being treated for T1DM and attending preschool class or compulsory school were eligible. The parents' and the diabetes teams' opinions were collected in two separate questionnaires. Forty-one out of 42 eligible diabetes centers participated and 568 parents answered the parental questionnaire in 2015. Metabolic control had improved since the 2008 survey (55.2 ± 10.6 mmol/mol, 7.2% ± 1.0%, in 2015 compared with 61.8 ± 12.4 mmol/mol, 7.8% ± 1.1% in 2008). The proportion of children with a designated staff member responsible for supporting the child's self-care increased from 43% to 59%, (P self-care in school in 2015 compared with 2008. More efforts are needed to implement the national legislation to achieve equal support in all Swedish schools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use: final results of the Climate Schools course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Vogl, Laura E; Andrews, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    To establish the long-term efficacy of a universal internet-based alcohol and cannabis prevention programme in schools. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, is facilitated by the internet and consists of 12 novel and curriculum consistent lessons delivered over 6 months. A total of 764 year 8 students (13 years) from 10 Australian secondary schools were allocated randomly to the internet-based prevention programme (n = 397, five schools), or to their usual health classes (n = 367, five schools). Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and 6 and 12 months following completion of the intervention, on measures of alcohol and cannabis knowledge, attitudes, use and related harms. This paper reports the final results of the intervention trial, 12 months following the completion of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The effectiveness of the course 6 months following the intervention has been reported previously. At the 12-month follow-up, compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge, a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and a reduction in frequency of drinking to excess. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes or alcohol- and cannabis-related harms. The course was found to be acceptable by teachers and students as a means of delivering drug education in schools. Internet-based prevention programs for school-age children can improve student's knowledge about alcohol and cannabis, and may also reduce alcohol use twelve months after completion.

  1. [Stress and Burnout Risk in Nursery School Teachers: Results from a Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, J; Ehlen, S

    2015-06-01

    This article presents results from a study of 834 nursery school teachers in Germany, investigating working conditions, stress, and stress-related health problems. In order to evaluate the extent of mental and psychosomatic troubles, as well as the risk of burnout, we used the standardised questionnaire "Burnout Screening Scales" (BOSS I). Data analysis yielded a high percentage of nursery school teachers who reported a remarkably high stress level; nearly 20% can be considered as a high-risk group for burnout. Poor staff conditions in many nurseries turned out to be the crucial stress source, along with large groups, insufficient teacher-child ratio, time pressure and multitasking. In the concluding discussion of the study results, we consider possible measures to reduce stress and to improve working conditions for nursery school teachers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Results achieved by emergency physicians in teaching basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation to secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fábrega, Xavier; Escalada-Roig, Xavier; Sánchez, Miquel; Culla, Alexandre; Díaz, Núria; Gómez, Xavier; Villena, Olga; Rodríguez, Esther; Gaspar, Alberto; Molina, José Emilio; Salvador, Jordi; Miró, Oscar

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the results obtained with a basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (b-CPR) program (PROCES) specifically designed for secondary school students (14-16 years old) and taught by emergency physicians. We used a multiple-choice test with 20 questions (10 on theory and 10 on skills) answered before and immediately after and 1 year after receiving the b-CPR course. Satisfactory learning was considered when at least 8 out of 10 skill questions were correctly answered. We investigated student variables associated with better immediate and deferred (1 year after) PROCES performance. We compared the results with those obtained using a more standardized program to teach b-CPR to police cadets. We enrolled 600 high school students. PROCES achieved significant improvement in overall, theory and skill marks immediately after the course (PSatisfactory learning was achieved by 57% of school students immediately after PROCES and by 37% when assessed 1 year later. Students without pending study subjects (P=0.001) and those from private schools (Pstudents achieved greater performance 1 year after the course (Psatisfactory learning of school students was lower (79 vs. 57%, respectively; Psatisfactory learning was higher (23 vs. 37%, respectively; Pschool students in b-CPR using PROCES, and this specific program achieves a reasonable amount of satisfactory learning.

  3. Slow progress in changing the school food environment: nationally representative results from public and private elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    Children spend much of their day in school, and authorities have called for improvements in the school food environment. However, it is not known whether changes have occurred since the federal wellness policy mandate took effect in 2006-2007. We examined whether the school food environment in public and private elementary schools changed over time and examined variations by school type and geographic division. Survey data were gathered from respondents at nationally representative samples of elementary schools during the 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 school years (respectively, 578 and 680 public schools, and 259 and 313 private schools). Topics assessed included competitive foods, school meals, and other food-related practices (eg, school gardens and nutrition education). A 16-item food environment summary score was computed, with possible scores ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 100 (healthiest). Multivariate regression models were used to examine changes over time in the total school food environment score and component items, and variations by US census division. Many practices improved, such as participation in school gardens or farm-to-school programs, and availability of whole grains and only lower-fat milks in lunches. Although the school food environment score increased significantly, the magnitude of change was small; as of 2009-2010 the average score was 53.5 for public schools (vs 50.1 in 2006-2007) and 42.2 for private schools (vs 37.2 in 2006-2007). Scores were higher in public schools than in private schools (Pschool size. For public schools, scores were higher in the Pacific and West South Central divisions compared with the national average. Changes in the school food environment have been minimal, with much room remaining for improvement. Additional policy changes may be needed to speed the pace of improvement. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High School Physics Courses & Enrollments: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2014-01-01

    This report examines enrollments in high school physics during the 2012-13 school year. Based on data from the most recent survey (which includes both public and private high schools in the U.S.), it is estimated that 39% of the class of 2013 took high school physics before graduating. During the 2012-13 school year, 1.38 million students were…

  5. Tuberculosis Infection in Urban Adolescents: Results of a School-Based Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M. Anita; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a tuberculosis skin testing program introduced for seventh and tenth grade students in Boston (Massachusetts) public schools. Positivity rate was significantly higher in tenth grade students. Among those testing positive, the majority were born outside the United States. Results suggest that testing may identify a significant number of…

  6. Factors Influencing Enrollment in Public High School German Courses: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minert, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    Questions regarding reasons students select or decline to study German are examined, based on the results of a survey conducted among students of German in 127 U.S. high schools. Student responses are discussed in the light of academic, demographic, social, and familial considerations, and a profile of the 1990s student of German is constructed.…

  7. Design, Baseline Results of Irbid Longitudinal, School-Based Smoking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzayek, Fawaz; Khader, Yousef; Eissenberg, Thomas; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare patterns of water pipe and cigarette smoking in an eastern Mediterranean country. Methods: In 2008, 1781 out of 1877 seventh graders enrolled in 19 randomly selected schools in Irbid, Jordan, were surveyed. Results: Experimentation with and current water pipe smoking were more prevalent than cigarette smoking (boys: 38.7% vs…

  8. Digital Educational Games and Mathematics. Results of a Case Study in Primary School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokides, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the results of a project in which a series of digital games were used for teaching Mathematics to first, fourth, and sixth-grade primary school students (ages 6-7, 8-9, and 11-12). Mathematics was selected as the teaching subject because of the difficulties students face in understanding basic math concepts. Although digital…

  9. Effectiveness of an Intervention Program for Improving School Atmosphere: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom…

  10. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe.

  11. Online system for knowledge assessment enhances students' results on school knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Benjamin; Glazar, Sasa Aleksej

    2013-01-01

    Variety of online tools were built to help assessing students' performance in school. Many teachers changed their methods of assessment from paper-and-pencil (P&P) to online systems. In this study we analyse the influence that using an online system for knowledge assessment has on students' knowledge. Based on both a literature study and our own research we designed and built an online system for knowledge assessment. The system is evaluated using two groups of primary school teachers and students (N = 686) in Slovenia: an experimental and a control group. Students solved P&P exams on several occasions. The experimental group was allowed to access the system either at school or at home for a limited period during the presentation of a selected school topic. Students in the experimental group were able to solve tasks and compare their own achievements with those of their coevals. A comparison of the P&P school exams results achieved by both groups revealed a positive effect on subject topic comprehension for those with access to the online self-assessment system.

  12. U.S. Students, Poverty, and School Libraries: What Results of the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Denice

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at results from the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment to examine the effects of school libraries on students' test performance, with specific focus on the average of students' family wealth in a school. The paper documents students' school library use and students' home possessions to indicate how school…

  13. The Effect of Family and School Cultural Environment Through Self Efficacy on Student Learning Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Rizky Amaliyah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain the relationship between environmental variables out g a, school culture, self-efficacy and student learning outcomes Administrative Program Program at SMK. This research includes quantitative research type with the explanatory descriptive method. The sampling technique was proportionate stratified random sampling, the study sample consisted of 114 students. Data analysis in this research using path analysis. Results research shows that there is a positive and significant influence of family environment on self-efficacy, there is the positive and significant influence of school culture on self-efficacy, there is a direct positive and significant influence between the environment to the family on the results of learning. While the school culture The air does not directly influence the learning outcomes, but the air of self-efficacy ng driving direct effect on learning outcomes, and the family environment is not aired directly influence the outcome through self-efficacy jar arts students, and school culture has an indirect effect on learning outcomes through students' self-efficacy.

  14. High School Physics Availability: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tesfaye, Casey Langer

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors share their analysis of the data from over 3,500 high schools in the U.S. beginning with an examination of the availability of physics in U.S. high schools. The schools in their sample are a nationally-representative random sample of the almost 25,000 high schools in forty-nine of the fifty states. Table 1 shows the…

  15. Patient safety education at Japanese medical schools: results of a nationwide survey

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    Maeda Shoichi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety education, including error prevention strategies and management of adverse events, has become a topic of worldwide concern. The importance of the patient safety is also recognized in Japan following two serious medical accidents in 1999. Furthermore, educational curriculum guideline revisions in 2008 by relevant the Ministry of Education includes patient safety as part of the core medical curriculum. However, little is known about the patient safety education in Japanese medical schools partly because a comprehensive study has not yet been conducted in this field. Therefore, we have conducted a nationwide survey in order to clarify the current status of patient safety education at medical schools in Japan. Results Response rate was 60.0% (n = 48/80. Ninety-eight-percent of respondents (n = 47/48 reported integration of patient safety education into their curricula. Thirty-nine percent reported devoting less than five hours to the topic. All schools that teach patient safety reported use of lecture based teaching methods while few used alternative methods, such as role-playing or in-hospital training. Topics related to medical error theory and legal ramifications of error are widely taught while practical topics related to error analysis such as root cause analysis are less often covered. Conclusions Based on responses to our survey, most Japanese medical schools have incorporated the topic of patient safety into their curricula. However, the number of hours devoted to the patient safety education is far from the sufficient level with forty percent of medical schools that devote five hours or less to it. In addition, most medical schools employ only the lecture based learning, lacking diversity in teaching methods. Although most medical schools cover basic error theory, error analysis is taught at fewer schools. We still need to make improvements to our medical safety curricula. We believe that this

  16. Nutrition Services and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Terrence P.; Anderson, Susan; Miller, Clare; Guthrie, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Schools are in a unique position to promote healthy dietary behaviors and help ensure appropriate nutrient intake. This article describes the characteristics of both school nutrition services and the foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program in the United States, including state- and district-level policies and…

  17. SNA Releases Back to School Nutrition Trends Report: Results Show What Schools Are Doing to Increase Healthy Options for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about the School Nutrition Association's 2008 Back to School Nutrition Trends Report that was released on August 19. According to the report, the trend towards more healthful school meal choices continues this fall with district nutrition programs emphasizing whole grains, fruits, and vegetables while cutting back on trans fats,…

  18. Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Haq, Inam-Ul; Khan, M Imran; Siddiqui, Muhammad Bilal; Mirani, Mushtaq; Tahir, Rehman; Hussain, Imtiaz; Puri, Mahesh K; Suhag, Zamir Hussain; Khowaja, Asif R; Lasi, Abdul Razzaq; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael; Ochiai, R Leon; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2012-01-06

    Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign. A total of 304,836 students were enrolled in 1,096 public, private, and religious schools (Madrasahs) of the two towns. Five percent of schools refused to participate in the school census. Twenty-five percent of schools had a total enrolment of less than 100 students whereas 3% had more than 1,000 students. Health education programs were available in less than 8% of public schools, 17% of private schools, and 14% of Madrasahs. One-quarter of public schools, 41% of private schools, and 43% of Madrasahs had previously participated in a school-based vaccination campaign. The most common vaccination campaign in which schools participated was Polio eradication program. Cost of the vaccine, side effects, and parents' lack of information were highlighted as important limiting factors by school administration for school-based immunization programs. Permission from parents, appropriateness of vaccine-related information, and involvement of teachers were considered as important factors to improve participation. Health education programs are not part of the regular school curriculum

  19. Do 'school coaches' make a difference in school-based mental health promotion? Results from a large focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrieri, Sandro; Conrad, Ines; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-12-01

    Mental disorders in children and adolescents are common and have serious consequences. Schools present a key opportunity to promote mental health and implement prevention measures. Four school coaches in five German schools were enlisted to engage students, teachers and parents in building a sustainably healthy school and classroom climate. Altogether, 58 focus groups with students (N=244), parents (N=54) and teachers (N=62) were conducted longitudinally. Topics included: (1) the development of the school and classroom climate, (2) the role of mental health in the regular curriculum, and (3) the role of school coaches in influencing these aspects. Over time, school coaches became trusted reference persons for an increasing number of school system members. They were able to positively influence the school and classroom climate by increasing the awareness of students, teachers and parents of mental health in daily routines. Nevertheless, topics like bullying and student inclusion remained an issue at follow-up. Overall, the school coach intervention is a good model for establishing the topic of mental health in everyday school life and increasing its importance. Future efforts will focus on building self-supporting structures and networks in order to make these efforts sustainable.

  20. Determinants of personal exposure to ozone in school children. Results from a panel study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Grivas, Georgios; Samoli, Evangelia; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Spyratos, Dionisis; Papakosta, Despoina; Karakatsani, Anna; Chaloulakou, Archontoula; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2017-04-01

    In the wider framework of the RESPOZE (ReSPiratory effects of OZone Exposure in Greek children) panel study, we investigated possible determinants of O 3 exposure of school children, measured with personal passive samplers, in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece. Personal exposure to O 3 was measured for five weeks spread along the academic year 2013-14, in 186 school children in Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece. At the same time, at-school outdoor measurements were performed and ambient levels of 8-h daily maximum O 3 from fixed sites were collected. We also collected information on lifestyle and housing characteristics through an extended general questionnaire (GQ) and each participant completed daily time activity diaries (TADs) during the study period. Mean outdoor concentrations were higher during the warmer months, in the suburbs of the cities and in Athens. Personal exposure concentrations were significantly lower compared to outdoor. Daily levels of at-school outdoor and ambient levels of O 3 from fixed sites were significant determinants of personal exposure to O 3 . For a 10μg/m 3 increase in at-school outdoor O 3 concentrations and PM 10 measurements a 20.9% (95% CI: 13%, 28%) increase in personal exposure to O 3 was found. For a half an hour more spent in transportation an average increase of 7% (95% CI: 0.3%, 14.6%) in personal exposure to O 3 was observed. Among other possible determinants, time spent in transportation (TAD variable) and duration of open windows were the ones associated with personal O 3 exposure levels. Our results support the use of outdoor and ambient measurements from fixed sites in epidemiological studies as a proxy of personal exposure to O 3 , but this has to be calibrated taking into account personal measurements and time-activity patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methodology and results of a space station education pilot programme in the primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirra, G.; Mirra, C.

    Potential users of the Space Station Freedom are now still in the Primary School. Subject studies 1 have shown that a robust familiarization programme has to be developed in order to increase public awareness on the microgravity environment and its capabilities to perform unique science. At the same time, several surveys 2 have demonstrated that elementary school students are showing the greatest interest and enthusiasm in space related activities among all school students. With these boundary conditions, a pilot programme, aimed at verifying the capabilities of young primary school pupils (aged between 10 and 12) in understanding why one performs research in space, has been conceived. In order to overcome the lack of space training of school teachers, an expert in space operations joined a group of elementary teachers to activate this program: merging the necessary didactic and technical capabilities. Consequently, the aim of the program becomes two folded: •generate critical thinking and problem solving capacities as well as inventiveness in children making them aware on the use of space to improve life on Earth. •identify the key issues for the definition of a robust space utilization educational programme. The programme has been managed by MARS Center. the Italian User Support Center for the Space Station utilization, and the institute "Speranzas" in the nearby of Naples, Italy. MARS Center, in particular, is responsible towards the national agency ASI, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, of the execution of the promotional activity towards all the possible target groups: young students are among these groups. This programme started in late 1992 and is currently ongoing. The objective of this paper is to provide a description of the methodology and the reasons of such a programme with a snapshot on the preliminary results and future trends. Means used as supporting tools, such as films, posters and role plays are herein depicted as well as statistics on the pupils

  2. Assessment of Changes in School Nutrition Programs and the School Environment as a Result of Following the HealthierUS School Challenge Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer S.; Bednar, Carolyn; DiMarco, Nancy M.; Connors, Priscilla L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in school nutrition programs and the school environment as reported by school nutrition directors who are following the U.S. Department of Agriculture's HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) program. The objective was to determine before and after changes in the average lunch…

  3. The causes of bullying: results from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the characteristics and reasons reported by Brazilian students for school bullying. Method: this cross-sectional study uses data from an epidemiological survey (National Survey of School Health conducted in 2012. A total of 109,104 9th grade students from private and public schools participated. Data were collected through a self-applied questionnaire and the analysis was performed using SPSS, version 20, Complex Samples Module. Results: the prevalence of bullying was 7.2%, most frequently affecting Afro-descendant or indigenous younger boys, whose mothers were characterized by low levels of education. In regard to the reasons/causes of bullying, 51.2% did not specify; the second highest frequency of victimization was related to body appearance (18.6%; followed by facial appearance (16.2%; race/color (6.8%; sexual orientation 2.9%; religion 2.5%; and region of origin 1.7%. The results are similar to those found in other sociocultural contexts. Conclusion: the problem belongs to the health field because it gathers aspects that determine the students' health-disease-care continuum.

  4. Approval Voting and Parochialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jonathan; Altman, Nicole Y.; Kroll, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In hypothetical scenarios involving two groups (nations or groups of workers), subjects voted on three proposals: one helped group A (their group), one helped B, and one helped both groups, more than the average of the first two but less than their maximum. When subjects voted for one proposal, most voted for the one that helped group A. This…

  5. The effects of maternal parenting style and religious commitment on self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American parochial college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L; Winsler, Adam

    2009-04-01

    This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior. Participants also completed youth report measures of parental religiosity and perceived maternal parenting style. Correlational analyses show authoritative parenting to be associated with high levels of academic performance and study skills. Additional correlations revealed that highly religious students tend to perform well academically, study better, and engage in fewer risk behaviors than youth less committed to religion. Although no direct relations were observed between parenting style and student religiosity, maternal parenting style was found to moderate relations between parental and student religiosity. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the population studied.

  6. The St.Petersburg school of oncogynecology, certain results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhman, Ya.V.; Bishnevskij, A.S.; Maksimov, S.Ya.

    1997-01-01

    Basic results on studies, accomplished at the St.Petersburg school of oncogynecology, relative to the most frequent cases of Timor process localization (uterus cervix cancer, endometritis cancer, ovary cancer). It is shown that results of improved gynecological cancer treatment and decrease in mortality cases may be achieved not because of improving the surgical and radiation methods, the possibilities whereof are to a certain degree exhausted, but due to introduction of screening programs, enabling identification of early preclinical forms of cancer. Computerized and magnetoresonance tomography, USI and mammography are among the most efficient diagnostical methods. The perspectives of chemiohormone therapy and immunotherapy are also noted

  7. Results of the 2002–2010 lower secondary school leaving exams on a common scale

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    Henryk Szaleniec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology and results of a survey on equating the lower secondary school examinations from 2002–2010. The survey was carried out by the Student Performance Analysis Unit at the Educational Research Institute. More than 10 000 students were selected for the equating study and information about more than 500 items was used. IRT models were used for equating exams, the results were presented on a latent variable scale and the observed score scale. Using this procedure, it was possible to isolate random difficulty variation between exam papers from specific years and present changes in ability level of students taking the exam. Based on the results, the level of humanities abilities of lower secondary school leavers was stable, whilst maths and science demonstrated a downward trend. Equating was validated by comparison with the results of the international PISA survey. Results for the arts and humanities were consistent with the PISA results for reading literacy. Maths and science, as compared with the PISA survey maths section demonstrated greater divergence.

  8. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  9. The Role of Research in School Project Work and Teacher Development: Results from Project "Schools Ethics Technology."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellensiek, Anneliese; Lembens, Anja; Schallies, Michael

    "Schools Ethics Technology" was a German interdisciplinary research project with the Centre of Ethics in the Sciences at the University of Tubingen. The project highlighted the new topic of biotechnology and genetic engineering, involving the formation of active project groups within schools. This study examined teaching activities…

  10. Introducing the USAYPT--Do Research in Your High School then Debate Your Results with Other Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldaker, Bruce G.; Jacobs, Greg; Bibilashvili, Tengiz

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the USAYPT--the United States Association for Young Physicists Tournaments, Inc. Our motto is "Better teaching and learning by doing research in your high school." We believe that all high school teachers can improve their knowledge of physics by forming small groups that perform non-trivial--but not cutting edge--research. In order…

  11. Food Service and Foods and Beverages Available at School: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Howell; Brener, Nancy D.; Kuester, Sarah; Miller, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Presents School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 findings about state- and district-level policies and practices regarding various school food service issues, e.g., organization and staffing, food service and child nutrition requirements and recommendations, menu planning and food preparation, and collaboration. Also addressed are food…

  12. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743

  13. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright WS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available William S Wright,1 Kirk Baston2 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Pathology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC, USA Purpose: The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools.Methods: A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME® website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate. A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated “yes” or “no” to the initial question “Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?”.Results: A total of 37 schools (70% administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36% used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17% used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14% used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78% used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67% of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28% schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1.Conclusion

  14. Cross-Sequential Results on Creativity Development in Childhood Within two Different School Systems: Divergent Performances in Luxembourg Versus German Kindergarten and Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Krampen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is conducting methodologically sound, cross-sequential analyses of the creativity development of children attending different school systems. Culture-free tests of creativity (ideational fluency and flexibility and intelligence were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and first three elementary school years, which were retested in three consecutive years. Samples include 244 Luxembourg and 312 German children enrolled in educational systems with obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school versus optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school and educational placement thereafter. Results demonstrate (1 linear increases in intelligence, (2 declines of divergent performances after school enrollment in both samples, (3 increases in divergent performances up to the 5th elementary school year in Luxembourg and up to the 3rd elementary school year in Germany (i.e., the next to last school year before educational placement followed by a second creativity slump. Cross-sequential results confirm discontinuities in the development of divergent productions in childhood.

  15. Foods offered in Quebec school cafeterias: do they promote healthy eating habits? Results of a provincial survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Demers, Karine; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Mongeau, Lyne

    2012-06-05

    A school environment that encourages students to opt for food with sound nutritional value is both essential and formative in ensuring that young people adopt healthy eating habits. The aim of this paper is to describe the food offered for lunch in the cafeteria service lines in Quebec schools on regular school days. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between November 2008 and June 2009 with a representative sample of 207 French-speaking schools in the province of Quebec. The response rate was 71%. The cafeteria food available from the service line was observed directly and systematically by research assistants trained in observational procedures. Bivariate and descriptive analyses were performed. While most schools offered a vegetable side dish, only 71% of primary schools, 71% of public secondary schools, and 54% of private secondary schools did not offer cold-cut dishes, stuffed pastry, or a fried food on their daily menus. The sandwiches available were rarely made with whole-grain bread. Public secondary schools had more cookies, biscuits, muffins, and chewing gum than private primary and secondary schools. Milk was available in 85% of the primary schools. Most of the schools had eliminated sodas but were still offering fruit cocktails instead of 100% fruit juice. The school eating environment changed significantly from 2002 to 2009, presumably as a result of the government action plan and the Framework Policy. Improvements must be made with respect to reducing added sugar in beverages and desserts and promoting baked rather than fried snacks. Vigilance is required since many new products are making their way into the market.

  16. Increased sexual abstinence among in-school adolescents as a result of school health education in Soroti district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, D A; Babishangire, B B; Omiat, S; Bagarukayo, H

    1999-06-01

    A school health education programme in primary schools aimed at AIDS prevention in Soroti district of Uganda emphasized improved access to information, improved peer interaction and improved quality of performance of the existing school health education system. A cross-sectional sample of students, average age 14 years, in their final year of primary school was surveyed before and after 2 years of interventions. The percentage of students who stated they had been sexually active fell from 42.9% (123 of 287) to 11.1% (31 of 280) in the intervention group, while no significant change was recorded in a control group. The changes remained significant when segregated by gender or rural and urban location. Students in the intervention group tended to speak to peers and teachers more often about sexual matters. Increases in reasons given by students for abstaining from sex over the study period occurred in those reasons associated with a rational decision-making model rather than a punishment model. A primary school health education programme which emphasizes social interaction methods can be effective in increasing sexual abstinence among school-going adolescents in Uganda. The programme does not have to be expensive and can be implemented with staff present in most districts in the region.

  17. Status of neurology medical school education: results of 2005 and 2012 clerkship director survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jonathan L; Ali, Imran I; Isaacson, Richard S; Safdieh, Joseph E; Finney, Glen R; Sowell, Michael K; Sam, Maria C; Anderson, Heather S; Shin, Robert K; Kraakevik, Jeff A; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana

    2014-11-04

    To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were "very satisfied" or "somewhat satisfied," but more than half experienced "burnout" and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Enhancing School Asthma Action Plans: Qualitative Results from Southeast Minnesota Beacon Stakeholder Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, Jason S.; Textor, Lauren; Knoebel, Erin; McWilliams, Deborah; Aleman, Marty; Yawn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explores ways southeast Minnesota schools currently address asthma problems, identifies areas for improvement, and assesses the potential value of asthma action plans (AAPs) in schools. Methods: Focus groups were used to query stakeholder groups on asthma care in schools. Groups were held separately for elementary school…

  19. Principal Succession and the Micropolitics of Educators in Schools: Some Incidental Results from a Larger Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthew J.; Macmillan, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Principal turnover has the potential to impact seriously school morale and values as teachers attempt to adjust to new administrators and their possible shifts in focus. In an era of mandated school improvement, teachers in schools with new administrators have to deal not only with changes in district, state and/or provincial policies, but also…

  20. Great Expectations, Mixed Results: Standards and Performance in Denver's New Public Schools, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the Denver Plan instituted in 2005, Denver Public Schools (DPS) has embarked upon a consistent strategy of opening new schools in an effort to improve overall academic performance. DPS has pursued this strategy under several different paths: an annual request for proposals from charter school applicants; allowing current…

  1. What Do Stakeholders Know about School Library Programs? Results of a Focus Group Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Supporting the "Infrastructure Needs of 21st Century School Library Programs," also known as the Pennsylvania School Library Project, was a one-year project conducted in Pennsylvania to better identify and understand what stakeholders--teachers, administrators, parents, school and community leaders, and education associations--expect…

  2. A Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, Family-School…

  3. [Results of school inspections in the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J

    1978-10-01

    Within the Health Protection in Childhood and Adolescence Research Project a hygienic inspection questionnaire was designed for schools. To test this questionnaire, 248 schools in 11 districts of the county of Karl-Marx-Stadt were inspected. From the ascertainments made, several instances are cited to point out the priorities of school hygiene.

  4. Are School Uniforms a Good Fit? Results from the ECLS-K and the NELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most common proposals put forth for reform of the American system of education is to require school uniforms. Proponents argue that uniforms can make schools safer and also improve school attendance and increase student achievement. Opponents contend that uniforms have not been proven to work and may be an infringement on the freedom of…

  5. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data—A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W.; Hayward, Andrew C.; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Background School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. Methods We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. Results 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5–14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. Interpretation This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies

  6. [Basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation program for high school students (PROCES). Results from the pilot program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Oscar; Jiménez-Fábrega, Xavier; Díaz, Núria; Coll-Vinent, Blanca; Bragulat, Ernest; Jiménez, Sònia; Espinosa, Gerard; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; García-Alfranca, Fernando; Alvarez, M Teresa; Salvador, Jordi; Millá, José; Sánchez, Miquel

    2005-01-15

    The PROCES (Programa de Reanimació Cardiopulmonar Orientat a Centres d'Ensenyament Secundari) program is aimed at teaching basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (b-CPR) to teenagers within high school. Our aim was to analyze the results obtained from the pilot program. PROCES was splitted in 7 sessions: 5 of them (5 hours) were taught by teachers at high school and 2 of them (4 hours, including how to perform b-CPR) were taught by emergency physicians. To assess the degree of students' learning, they were administered a 20-question test before and after the program. Epidemiological characteristics and students' opinions (all them were requested to rate the program from 0 to 10) were also collected. Students were 14 years-old in 38%, 15 in 38% and 16 or more in 24%. Before PROCES, the mean mark (over 20 points) was 8.5 (2.4). After PROCES, marks improved up to 13.5 (3.2) (p knowledge and skills in b-CPR, with no exceptions associated with teenagers' characteristics.

  7. Assessing School Wellness Policies and Identifying Priorities for Action: Results of a Bi-State Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan P; Markenson, Deborah; Gibson, Cheryl A

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is a complex health problem affecting more than one-third of school-aged youth. The increasing obesity rates in Kansas and Missouri has been particularly concerning, with efforts being made to improve student health through the implementation of school wellness policies (SWPs). The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a rigorous assessment of SWPs in the bi-state region. SWPs were collected from 46 school districts. The Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) was used to assess comprehensiveness and strength. Additionally, focus group discussions and an online survey were conducted with school personnel to identify barriers and supports needed. Assessment of the SWPs indicated that most school districts failed to provide strong and specific language. Due to these deficiencies, districts reported lack of enforcement of policies. Several barriers to implementing the policies were reported by school personnel; supports needed for effective implementation were identified. To promote a healthful school environment, significant improvements are warranted in the strength and comprehensiveness of the SWPs. The focus group discussions provided insight as to where we need to bridge the gap between the current state of policies and the desired beneficial practices to support a healthy school environment. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  8. Promoting walking to school: results of a quasi-experimental trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rosie; Mutrie, Nanette; Crawford, Fiona; Green, Brian

    2007-09-01

    To assess the impact of a combined intervention on children's travel behaviour, stage of behavioural change and motivations for and barriers to actively commuting to school. A quasi-experimental trial involving pre- and post-intervention mapping of routes to school by active and inactive mode of travel and surveys of "stage of behaviour change" and motivations for and barriers to actively commuting to school. The intervention school participated in a school-based active travel project for one school term. Active travel was integrated into the curriculum and participants used interactive travel-planning resources at home. The control school participated in before and after measurements but did not receive the intervention. Two primary schools in Scotland with similar socioeconomic and demographic profiles. Two classes of primary 5 children and their families and teachers. Post intervention, the mean distance travelled to school by walking by intervention children increased significantly from baseline, from 198 to 772 m (389% increase). In the control group mean distance walked increased from 242 to 285 m (17% increase). The difference between the schools was significant (t (38) = -4.679, pschool by car by intervention children reduced significantly from baseline, from 2018 to 933 m (57.5% reduction). The mean distance travelled to school by car by control children increased from baseline, from 933 to 947 m (1.5% increase). The difference in the change between schools was significant (t (32) = 4.282, peffective in achieving an increase in the mean distance travelled by active mode and a reduction in the mean distance travelled by inactive mode on school journey.

  9. The Impact of Every Classroom, Every Day on High School Student Achievement: Results from a School-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Diane M.; Berg, Juliette K.; Alicea, Stacey; Si, Yajuan; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Every Classroom, Every Day (ECED) is a set of instructional improvement interventions designed to increase student achievement in math and English/language arts (ELA). ECED includes three primary components: (a) systematic classroom observations by school leaders, (b) intensive professional development and support for math teachers and…

  10. Schools as potential vaccination venue for vaccines outside regular EPI schedule: results from a school census in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soofi, S.B.; Haq, I.U.; Khan, M.I.; Siddiqui, M.B.; Mirani, M.; Tahir, R.; Hussain, I.; Puri, M.K.; Suhag, Z.H.; Khowaja, A.R.; Lasi, A.R.; Clemens, J.D.; Favorov, M.; Ochiai, R.L.; Bhutta, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school

  11. Who Teaches High School Physics? Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Tyler, John

    2014-01-01

    During the 2012-13 academic year, the authors collected data from a representative national sample of over 3,500 public and private high schools across the U.S. to inquire about physics availabilities and offerings. This report describes their findings.

  12. TEACHERS AND EDUCATION OF CHARACTER INSTILLATION (Research Result at Private Elementary School of Muhammadiyah in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are the most important element in the development of character education in elementary school, because it becomes the main foundation for a child. Therefore character education made a continuous process to produce a future human figure rooted in the cultural values of the Indonesian nation. Character education in the current context is very relevant to students to tackle the ongoing moral crisis in our country, including free association, crime against friends, teenage theft, cheating, drug abuse and drugs, pornography, brawls, and others. This is based on the results of research on SDS Muhammadiyah about teacher and character education education. The research methodology was conducted with qualitative descriptive analysis. Data obtained based on interviews, observation, and study documentation with the object of research. The result of the research shows that character education education in SDS Muhammadiyah 29 Medan City is contained in all subjects and outside subjects that are instilled early on by all teachers. Cultivation of character education conducted in all subjects through 3 content, ie general content (PAI, PKn, IPS, IPA, Bahasa Indonesia, Mathematics, Arts and Culture, special content (Kemuhammadiyahan, and Local Content (Malay Arabic / Arabic, English, Computer. Character education model performed outside the subjects through 4 things, namely: religious habituation (religious, discipline exercises, fun activities, and sports activities. Commonalities include (the implementation of Zuhr prayers bertamaaah, dhuha congregation, tadarus Al-Qur'an and memorizing the verses of Al-Qur'an, and culture shake. Discipline includes (the existence of rules and school rules and liaison books every day. Kewiraaan include (Flag ceremony and Hizbul wathan. Exercise includes (physical fitness exercise.

  13. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Ko?, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected acc...

  14. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Melvyn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercalated BScs (iBScs are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year exams. Methods A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276. A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance. Results The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without. Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01. (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300. There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66. (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed". Conclusions Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this

  15. The current state of radiation education in schools and results of the opinion survey on radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, a new guideline about radioactivity was added to the government guidelines for teaching junior high school science. Since then people involved with school education have been trying to spread correct information about radioactivity. On the other hand, people's confusion in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has clearly shown that people do not know much about radioactivity. Considering the situation, the author conducted an investigation about the current state of radiation education and carried out an opinion survey about radioactivity among adults. The investigation about education showed the following: (1) the nature of radiation, such as its permeability, and its uses were described in the government-approved textbooks; (2) basic knowledge, such as what are radiation effects, were described comprehensively in the supplementary reading recommendations made by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology; and (3) locale education committees created teaching materials such as guidance to present topics. The opinion survey had questions to judge: (1) current public understanding of radioactivity; (2) the degree of general information that people collected for themselves; (3) the degree of specific knowledge about radioactivity that people had; and (4) people's attitudes toward various problems with radioactivity in the environment. The results suggested that for radiation education the following items are important: (1) to learn that radioactivity exists in people's daily lives and is used safely in various field; (2) to get basic knowledge and better quantitative understanding of such things as radioactivity units, radiation dose and radiation effects; and (3) to acquire practical experience to use the information effectively. (author)

  16. Results of a Master's degree program for high-school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocke, W. J.

    1993-05-01

    Starting in the summer of 1990, the Astronomy Department at the University of Arizona began a 3-year summer program for upgrading the skills of high-school and middle-school science teachers. The program granted Master's degrees in Astronomy to the 33 teachers that completed the program this past summer. The teachers received tuition waivers and stipends to cover living expenses. The funding came mostly from the National Science Foundation, but the University of Arizona cost-shared at the 15% level. About half of the teachers were from Arizona, and the rest came from out-of-state. Although minorities were encouraged to apply, we had few minority applicants, and there were no Afro-Americans and only one Hispanic in the program. The content of the courses was heavily slanted towards mathematics and the physical sciences. The math level went up to vector calculus and linear partial differential equations, and there was a heavy emphasis on physics and astrophysics. Astronomy turned out to be a good umbrella under which to strengthen the teachers' knowledge of the physical sciences. One of the weak points in the program was the pace at which we introduced new material to the teachers. The summer sessions were short and very intense, and the teachers often found themselves with insufficient time to digest the information. This was offset to some degree by the high rate of cooperative learning that the teachers exhibited. The program seems to have been a great success, and the teachers report that their higher level of understanding is very useful to them in the classroom, and the astronomy content provided an excellent source of new demonstrations and projects. We present the results of a final survey, in which we ask the teachers to summarize their thoughts about the program and its effectiveness.

  17. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svandova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

  18. The Team up for School Nutrition Success Workshop Evaluation Study: Three Month Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Rushing, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "Team Up for School Nutrition Success" pilot initiative, conducted by the Institute of Child Nutrition (ICN), on meeting the objectives of the individual action plans created by school food authorities (SFAs) during the workshop. The action plans could address improving…

  19. Assessing School Wellness Policies and Identifying Priorities for Action: Results of a Bi-State Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan P.; Markenson, Deborah; Gibson, Cheryl A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a complex health problem affecting more than one-third of school-aged youth. The increasing obesity rates in Kansas and Missouri has been particularly concerning, with efforts being made to improve student health through the implementation of school wellness policies (SWPs). The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a…

  20. Results of Summer Enrichment Program to Promote High School Students' Interest in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Brenda; McAnulty, Kate

    2014-01-01

    For more than thirty years, personnel from the University of Louisville J.B. Speed School of Engineering have presented a summer program targeting high school students historically underrepresented in engineering fields. INSPIRE provides these students with an introduction to careers in engineering and assists the students in planning their…

  1. School Vending Machine Purchasing Behavior: Results from the 2005 YouthStyles Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Moser, Richard P.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Agurs-Collins, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in…

  2. Governing Schools for Productivity. The Productivity for Results Series No. 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of productivity of school systems stems from a number of reasons, including the way in which schools are governed. The author explains in this paper that policies from on high often work against campuses being more productive. His list includes state policies that stop districts from hiring experts to teach subjects that other educators…

  3. A Catalogue of Dutch Protestant Primary Schools in the Secular Age: Empirical Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebren Miedema; dr. Ina ter Avest; Gerdien Bertram-Troost; Cees Kom

    2013-01-01

    The ways schools shape their (religious) identity may change over time. Due to developments in society and individualization of religion the formal identity of schools in the pillarized educational system of the Netherlands is not completely representing the religious identity of teachers anymore,

  4. A Catalogue of Dutch Protestant Primary Schools in the Secular age: Empirical Results. (online early publication)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertram-Troost, G.D.; Miedema, S.; Kom, K; ter Avest, I.

    2013-01-01

    The ways schools shape their (religious) identity may change over time. Because of developments in society and individualization of religion, the formal identity of schools in the pillarized educational system of the Netherlands is not completely representing the religious identity of teachers

  5. The Team Up for School Nutrition Success workshop evaluation study: 3-month results

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Team Up for School Nutrition Success pilot initiative, conducted by the Institute of Child Nutrition (ICN), on meeting the objectives of the individual action plans created by school food authorities (SFAs) during the workshop. The action plans could add...

  6. National Board Certified School Librarians' Leadership in Technology Integration: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Nancy; Mardis, Marcia A.; Johnston, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to address the lack of empirical knowledge about the school librarians' role in technology, the Institute for Museum and Library Services funded Project Leadership-in-Action (LIA) to study leadership practices of school librarians. This current grant project includes a survey of the technology integration practices of school…

  7. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: Results from a school feeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Rahmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. Methods: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each. Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven′s Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. Results: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05. Psychological tests′ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05 at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05. Conclusions: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran.

  8. Implementation of Biplot Analysis for Mapping Elementary and Junior High Schools in West Sumatra Based on National Examination Results 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalita, N.; Fitria, D.; Distian, V.

    2018-04-01

    National examination is an assessment of learning outcomes that aims to assess the achievement of graduate competence nationally. The result of the national examination is used as a mapping of educational issues in order to arrange the national education policy. Therefore the results of National Examination are used, also, as a reference for the admission of new students to continue their education to a higher level. The results of National Examination in West Sumatra in 2016 decreased from the previous year, both elementary schools (SD) and Junior High School level (SMP). This paper aims to determine the characteristics of the National Examination results in each regency / city in West Sumatra for elementary and junior levels by using Bi-plot analysis. The result of Bi-plot Analysis provides the information that the results of the National Examination of Regency / City in West Sumatra Province are quite diverse. At Junior High School level there are 9 of Regencies / Cities which have similar characteristics. English subjects are the greatest diversity among all of subjects. The calculation results of the correlation of each variable in junior high school level are positively correlated. The variables with positive correlation are mathematics that correlates with English. Based on the mark of National Examination for elementary school level in West Sumatra, there are 8 Regencies / Cities have similar characteristics. The correlations of each variable at the elementary level are positively correlated. The variables that have positive correlation are Sciences (IPA) with Language.

  9. School vending machine purchasing behavior: results from the 2005 YouthStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Agurs-Collins, Tanya

    2010-05-01

    Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in children and adolescents. To evaluate the relationship between school vending machine purchasing behavior and school vending machine access and individual-level dietary characteristics, we used population-level YouthStyles 2005 survey data to compare nutrition-related policy and behavioral characteristics by the number of weekly vending machine purchases made by public school children and adolescents (N = 869). Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted logistic regression models that were weighted on age and sex of child, annual household income, head of household age, and race/ethnicity of the adult in study. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2008. Compared to participants who did not purchase from a vending machine, participants who purchased >or=3 days/week were more likely to (1) have unrestricted access to a school vending machine (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.13-2.59); (2) consume regular soda and chocolate candy >or=1 time/day (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.87-5.51 and OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.34-5.46, respectively); and (3) purchase pizza or fried foods from a school cafeteria >or=1 day/week (OR = 5.05; 95% CI = 3.10-8.22). Future studies are needed to establish the contribution that the school-nutrition environment makes on overall youth dietary intake behavior, paying special attention to health disparities between whites and nonwhites.

  10. Results of a study on solar collectors on primary school buildings; Resultaten onderzoek zonnepanelen op basisscholen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    A survey has been carried out among a large number of primary schools in the Netherlands with the aim to map experiences and constraints with regard to the use of solar collectors on the school buildings [Dutch] Om bestaande (succes)ervaringen en belemmeringen met betrekking tot plaatsing en gebruik van zonnepanelen in kaart te brengen, is een enquete uitgezet onder een groot aantal basisscholen in Nederland.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding waste management options in Romania: results from a school questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Karin KOLBE

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the area of different waste management approaches of pupils in Romania. Examining school students' knowledge about waste management options and finding out the reasons that prevent them from participating in environmentally sound disposal options is essential for teachers and legislators. For this purpose, questionnaires were designed and distributed in two schools in Romania. The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in...

  12. School health promotion providers' roles in practice and theory: results from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, Friedrich; Gugglberger, Lisa; Dür, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Implementation is critical to the success of health promotion (HP) in schools, but little is known about how schools can best be assisted during this process. This article focuses on Austrian HP providers and aspects their roles incorporate. To investigate the providers' role in the practice of HP implementation and how it differs from its official description. On the basis of these findings, implications are suggested. The data were gathered within the framework of an explorative case study of complex HP interventions. We draw on four interviews with HP organisation staff, five documents from the providers' organisations and seven interviews with school staff from three schools. In practice, providers took up different responsibilities, e.g., acting as emotional support to school staff and supporting the documentation of projects, guided more by the schools' needs than by the programmes they are helping to implement. Providers focused mostly on the implementation of single activities and did little to emphasize the necessity of organisational change. Our findings suggest that providers' background in health should be complemented by a deeper understanding of the importance of organisational change to further support HP implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results from the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Stats in Brief. NCES 2018-106

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Christina; Lessne, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Student victimization and school violence have been an ongoing cause of national concern, resulting in a concerted effort among educators, administrators, parents, and policymakers to determine the gravity of the issue and consider approaches to crime prevention. This Statistics in Brief presents estimates of student criminal victimization at…

  14. The effect of video interviews with STEM professionals on STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest of middle school students in conservative Protestant Christian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Philip R.

    Inspiring learners toward career options available in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is important not only for economic development but also for maintaining creative thinking and innovation. Limited amounts of research in STEM education have focused on the population of students enrolled in religious and parochial schools, and given the historic conflict between religion and science, this sector of American education is worthy of examination. The purpose of this quantitative study is to extend Gottfredson's (1981) Theory of Circumscription and Compromise as it relates to occupational aspirations. Bem's (1981) Gender Schema Theory is examined as it relates to the role of gender in career expectations, and Crenshaw's (1989) Intersectionality Theory is included as it pertains to religion as a group identifier. Six professionals in STEM career fields were video recorded while being interviewed about their skills and education as well as positive and negative aspects of their jobs. The interviews were compiled into a 25-minute video for the purpose of increasing understanding of STEM careers among middle school viewers. The research questions asked whether middle school students from conservative, Protestant Christian schools in a Midwest region increased in STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest as a result of viewing the video and whether gender interacted with exposure to the video. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control groups, pretest/posttest factorial design was employed to evaluate data collected from the STEM Semantic Survey. A Two-Way ANCOVA revealed no significant differences in dependent variables from pretest to posttest. Implications of the findings are examined and recommendations for future research are made. Descriptors: STEM career interest, STEM attitude, STEM gender disparity, Occupational aspirations, Conservative Protestant education.

  15. Factors relating to the feeling of school avoidance among elementary school children: Results from the MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Education) Super Shokuiku School Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Masahiro; Sekine, Michikazu; Yamada, Masaaki; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to evaluate whether lifestyle factors including media use and social and family environments are associated with elementary school children's feeling of school avoidance.Methods Total study population for this study was 2,057 children in 5 elementary schools in Takaoka city, Toyama prefecture, which participated in the MEXT Super Shokuiku School Project. A questionnaire survey was conducted in July 2014 and 1,936 students responded (Response rate: 94.1%). Of those who responded, data from 1,698 respondents were relevant for this study. The questionnaire included questions on lifestyle factors (e.g., eating habits, media use, exercise habits, and sleep), health status, and the social and family environments. Children responded to questions on lifestyle factors, health status, and feeling of school avoidance with their parents. Parents were asked to only respond to the questions on social and family environments. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether the feeling of avoiding school, as the dependent variable, is associated with the independent variables such as social and family environment factors and lifestyle factors. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated.Results The percentage of children who had the feeling of avoiding school was 32.2% in the study sample. In comparison with the 6 th graders, the 1 st , 3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th graders were more likely to have this feeling. Relevant adjusted ORs [95%CI] for Grades 1-5 were found to be 1.48 [1.02-2.13], 1.63 [1.10-2.42], 1.60 [1.08-2.39], and 1.56 [1.03-2.35], respectively. Other factors positively correlated with this feeling were skipping breakfast (OR 1.76, 95%CI [1.12-2.75]), daily snacking (OR 1.64, 95%CI [1.21-2.22]), watching TV for 3 hours or longer (OR 1.55, 95%CI [1.05-2.28]), video gaming for 0.5-2 hours (OR 1.37, 95%CI [1.08-1.74]), feeling sleepy (OR 1.51, 95%CI [1.14-1.99]), not feeling well upon waking up

  16. Patient safety education at Japanese medical schools: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shoichi; Kamishiraki, Etsuko; Starkey, Jay

    2012-05-10

    Patient safety education, including error prevention strategies and management of adverse events, has become a topic of worldwide concern. The importance of the patient safety is also recognized in Japan following two serious medical accidents in 1999. Furthermore, educational curriculum guideline revisions in 2008 by relevant the Ministry of Education includes patient safety as part of the core medical curriculum. However, little is known about the patient safety education in Japanese medical schools partly because a comprehensive study has not yet been conducted in this field. Therefore, we have conducted a nationwide survey in order to clarify the current status of patient safety education at medical schools in Japan. Response rate was 60.0% (n = 48/80). Ninety-eight-percent of respondents (n = 47/48) reported integration of patient safety education into their curricula. Thirty-nine percent reported devoting less than five hours to the topic. All schools that teach patient safety reported use of lecture based teaching methods while few used alternative methods, such as role-playing or in-hospital training. Topics related to medical error theory and legal ramifications of error are widely taught while practical topics related to error analysis such as root cause analysis are less often covered. Based on responses to our survey, most Japanese medical schools have incorporated the topic of patient safety into their curricula. However, the number of hours devoted to the patient safety education is far from the sufficient level with forty percent of medical schools that devote five hours or less to it. In addition, most medical schools employ only the lecture based learning, lacking diversity in teaching methods. Although most medical schools cover basic error theory, error analysis is taught at fewer schools. We still need to make improvements to our medical safety curricula. We believe that this study has the implications for the rest of the world as a

  17. Radon survey in twenty schools of Campania Region (South Italy) carried out from students in the frame of a project on the study of environmental radioactivity: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, M.; Roca, V.; Sabbarese, C.; Venoso, G.; Gialanella, L.; Pugliese, M.; Roca, V.; Venoso, G.; Sabbarese, C.

    2006-01-01

    School may be the second largest contributor to radon exposure of students, teachers and stuff,. About 500 measurements have been started in 20 schools located in Campania. Preliminary results showed that higher radon concentrations are in the scientific laboratory. (authors)

  18. Summary of Program Evaluation Results: 1985-1986 School Year Pre-Kindergarten Educational Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert W.; And Others

    Reported are findings of the 1985-86 program evaluation of the prenatal-to-preschool and preschool programs operating under the auspices of the Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate. Evaluation of the prenatal-to-preschool program (the Kupulani Program) included item analysis of the Questions about Pregnancy Test, development of a revised data…

  19. Selection of Children for the KEEP Demonstration School: Criteria, Procedures, and Results. Technical Report #13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Violet; And Others

    This brief report describes the selection of the pupil population of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) Demonstration School. The pupil population must be representative of the Kalihi community (an urban area of Honolulu) from which it is drawn. An attempt was made to include 75% Hawaiian and 25 % Non-Hawaiian children, to select equal…

  20. Use of Language Sample Analysis by School-Based SLPs: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Stacey L.; Owens, Robert E., Jr.; Ireland, Marie; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines use of language sample analysis (LSA) by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs), including characteristics of language samples, methods of transcription and analysis, barriers to LSA use, and factors affecting LSA use, such as American Speech-Language-Hearing Association certification, number of years'…

  1. An Engineering Research Program for High School Science Teachers: Year Two Changes and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Brian P.; Yelamarthi, Kumar; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    The research experiences for teachers program at Central Michigan University was initiated to team in-service and pre-service teachers with undergraduate engineering students and engineering faculty, in an engineering research setting. During the six-week program, teachers learn engineering concepts and develop high-school instructional material…

  2. The Resulting Perceptions of "Greening" a Local School: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Daniel R.

    2017-01-01

    The world today faces enormous challenges on the environmental front. Schools may be part of the problem as they use enormous amounts of energy, create thousands of tons of waste, and often operate in less than ideal environments, all of which may negatively impact the health and welfare of students. Some environmental educators and researchers…

  3. Time Span of Discretion and Administrative Work in School Systems: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Derek J.; Morfitt, Grace

    This paper presents findings of a study that utilized Elliott Jaques' theories of organizational depth structure and time span of discretion in administrative work to examine administrators' responsibilities in two Ontario (Canada) school systems. The theory predicts that the time-span of discretion associated with the administrative tasks will…

  4. Geographic information systems for mapping the National Exam Result of Junior High School in 2014 at West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan Abdullah, Atje; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Rejito, Juli; Rosadi, Rudi; Candra Permana, Fahmi

    2017-10-01

    National Exam level of schooling is implemented by the Ministry of Education and Culture for the development of education in Indonesia. The national examinations are centrally evaluated by the National Education Standards Agency, and the expected implementation of the national exams can describe the successful implementation of education at the district, municipal, provincial, or national level. In this study, we evaluate, analyze, and explore the implementation of the national exam database of the results of the Junior High School in 2014, with the Junior High School (SMP/MTs) as the smallest unit of analysis at the district level. The method used in this study is a data mining approach using the methodology of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) using descriptive analysis and spatial mapping of national examinations. The results of the classification of the data mining process to national exams of Junior High School in 2014 using data 6,878 SMP/MTs in West Java showed that 81.01 % were at moderate levels. While the results of the spatial mapping for SMP/MTs in West Java can be explained 36,99 % at the unfavorable level. The evaluation results visualization in graphic is done using ArcGIS to provide position information quality of education in municipal, provincial or national level. The results of this study can be used by management to make decision to improve educational services based on the national exam database in West Java. Keywords: KDD, spatial mapping, national exam.

  5. The state of leadership education in US medical schools: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Sabrina M; Clyne, Brian; Resnick-Ault, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been increasing calls for physicians to develop the capabilities to lead health care transformation. Many experts and authors have suggested that leadership education should begin during medical school; however, little information exists regarding the presence or nature of undergraduate medical education leadership curricula in the USA. This study sought to determine the prevalence of formal leadership education in US undergraduate medical schools, as well as the delivery methods and degree of student participation. A web-based survey of medical education deans from US allopathic medical schools (N = 144) was administered from November 2014 to February 2015. The survey included questions on the presence of leadership curricula, delivery format, student participation rates, and forms of recognition. Eighty-eight surveys were completed; the majority (85%) of respondents were associate or assistant deans for medical education. Approximately half (54.5%) of respondents reported leadership curricula within their medical schools. Of those, 34.8% (16/46) were required; 32.6% (15/46) were elective; and 32.6% (15/46) indicated both required and elective components. Of schools with formal leadership curricula ​(n = 48), the common forms of content delivery were: mentoring programs (65.1%); dual degree programs (54.5%); workshops (48.8%); seminar/lecture series (41.9%); courses (41.9%); or single seminars (18.6%). Nineteen percent of institutions offer longitudinal leadership education throughout medical school. Common forms of recognition for leadership education were: course credit (48.8%); dual degrees (37.2%); certificates of completion (18.6%); and transcript notations (7.0%). This study indicates that formal leadership education exists in more than half of US allopathic medical schools, suggesting it is an educational priority. Program format, student participation, delivery methods, and recognition varied considerably

  6. The recognition of child abuse and the perceived need for intervention by school personnel of primary schools: Results of a vignette study on the influence of case, school personnel, and school characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderfaeillie, Johan; De Ruyck, Karolien; Galle, Johan; Van Dooren, Erik; Schotte, Chris

    2018-05-01

    In 2015, 523 reports of suspected child abuse and neglect (CAN) were brought to the attention of the Confidential Center of Child Abuse and Neglect (CCCAN) of Brussels. Around 38% of these reports came from school personnel. This study investigated which factors affect the recognition of CAN by school personnel of Dutch-speaking primary education in Brussels and their intervention need. Two hundred seventy-nine staff members of 16 schools professionally working with children, filled in a Questionnaire Assessment of Situations of CAN. The instrument consists of 24 vignettes describing CAN. Respondents were asked questions regarding recognition and intervention need about each vignette. Detection, severity assessment, the need for professional help, the need for referral to a CCCAN and the need to involve judicial authorities were mainly associated with case characteristics. Although most situations of CAN were detected, situations of emotional abuse were less often recognized. Situations involving non-Western victims were considered to be more severe and the perceived need for involvement of professional help, CCCAN and judicial authorities was larger. Ethnic stereotypes affect the actions undertaken in case of CAN. Awareness of these reactions may result in equal treatment for all victims. Staff characteristics were little associated with detection and intervention need. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Do Girls and Boys Perceive Themselves as Equally Engaged in School? The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Kikas, Eve; Cefai, Carmel; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Nelson, Brett; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Liu, Yi; Negovan, Valeria; Shin, Hyeonsook; Stanculescu, Elena; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Yang, Hongfei; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in student engagement and academic performance in school. Participants included 3420 students (7th, 8th, and 9th graders) from Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The results indicated that, compared to boys, girls…

  8. Toward Effective and Compelling Instruction for High School eCommerce Students: Results from a Small Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Rodriguez, Diane; Love, Lakecia

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional development effort to create effective and compelling instruction for eCommerce students. Results from a small field study inform the development project. Four high school students in an eCommerce course completed the standalone tutorial developed to teach them how to create a web page in the HyperText Markup…

  9. Competency test result of vocational school teacher's majoring light vehicles subject in East Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudung, Agus

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study of Teacher Competency Test (UKG) is to know about (a) the description of the vocational school teachers' competency test result majoring light vehicle subject in eastern Jakarta, (b) the effect between those certified teachers, non-certified teachers, civil servant teachers and non-civil servant teachers to Teacher Competency Test (UKG) result. The UKG result indicates that (1) certified teachers hold the highest score, however non-certified teachers obtain at the average of 55, in terms of UKG technicality preparation; (2) there are 43 teachers (48.9%) mention that the room facility for conducting UKG is good, while 45 teachers (51.1%) mention the opposite opinion. This shows that the average UKG room is relatively good enough. Meanwhile, in terms of youth facilities availability, (3) there are 86 teachers (97.7%) agree that the facilities are good while 2 teachers (2.3%) say the opposite opinion. This shows that the average UKG preparation is relatively very good. About the implementation of UKG, (4) there are 65 teachers (73,9%) give good impression, while 23 teachers (26,1%) give poor quality impression. This shows that the average UKG implementation is relatively good. About the way UKG is managed, (5) there are 87 teachers (98,9%) identify satisfactory comments, while there is only 1 teacher (1,1%) gives unsatisfactory comment. This shows that the average UKG management is relatively very good. ANNOVA analysis is used in this study to estimate the effect of UKG on certified and non-certified teachers. The ANNOVA test result shows that (6) H_0 is accepted because α = 0,05 facilities such as (a) test Room, (b) UKG readiness, (c) UKG implementation (d) UKG management including UKG materials. (2) The grid in the given test should (a) represent the content of the syllabus/curriculum or materials that teachers teach appropriately and proportionately (b) represent the components which are clearly and easily understood by the teachers as

  10. Factors associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children: results from the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Bernardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children (5-11 years in the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overweight and obesity (defined as an excess of adipose tissue in the body were evaluated through the Body Mass Index (BMI in 10,901 children, using the standard proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Sociodemographic variables were obtained using a questionnaire administered to the children's mothers. RESULTS: The national prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported to be 19.5%. The highest prevalence figures were found in Mexico City (26.6% and the North region (25.6%. When adjusting by region, rural or urban area, sex, maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, indigenous ethnicity and age, the highest prevalences of overweight and obesity were found among girls. The risks of overweight and obesity were positively associated with maternal schooling, children's age and socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity are prevalent health problems in Mexican school-age children, particularly among girls, and positively associated with socioeconomic status, age, and maternal schooling. This is a major public health problem requiring preventive interventions to avoid future health consequences.

  11. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  12. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods are not known by most of the scientific community. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of the different physiotherapy methodologies (specific exercises, integrated into the whole rehabilitation program, is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about it. This is what the SCOLIOSIS Journal is going to do through the "Rehabilitation Schools for Scoliosis" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  13. Does asthma affect school performance in adolescents? Results from the Swedish population-based birth cohort BAMSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sara; Ödling, Maria; Andersson, Niklas; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger

    2018-03-01

    Asthma is common among schoolchildren and may influence quality of life and school attendance. However, it is unclear if asthma affects school performance. The aim of this study was to examine whether different phenotypes of asthma affect school performance during adolescence. The study population consisted of 1715 adolescents from a population-based birth cohort, followed up to age 16 with questionnaires and clinical examinations. Asthma was defined as at least 4 wheeze episodes or at least 1 wheeze episode in combination with inhaled steroids in the last 12 months. School grades were obtained from Statistics Sweden, and logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between the final overall grade from secondary school and asthma phenotypes. Among the adolescents, 20.8% have had ever asthma; 24.2% early transient, 47.2% school-age onset, and 24.2% persistent asthma. At 16 years, 7.8% had asthma; 71.7% multimorbidity and 73.9% allergic asthma. A statistically significant association for performing less well was seen for ever asthma (OR adj  = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09-1.88). In analyses of asthma onset, an association was seen for school-age onset (OR adj  = 1.49, CI = 1.02-2.16) and a tendency for persistent asthma (OR adj  = 1.61, CI = 0.98-2.66), although with overlapping confidence intervals. Further, adolescents with uncontrolled asthma tended to perform less well (OR adj  = 2.60, CI = 0.87-7.80) compared to adolescents with partly controlled (OR adj  = 1.12, CI = 0.68-1.83) and fully controlled (OR adj  = 1.29, CI = 0.55-3.01) asthma. Our results indicate that asthma impairs school performance in adolescence. Moreover, some evidence suggests the adolescents with asthma during school age and with poorer asthma control to be more likely to perform less well. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  14. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also exa...

  15. Psychological stress in undergraduate dental students: baseline results from seven European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry; Blinkhorn, Andy; Freeman, Ruth; Gorter, Ronald; Hoad-Reddick, Gillian; Murtomaa, Heikki; O'Sullivan, Robin; Splieth, Christian

    2002-02-01

    To determine the degree of psychological distress, the experience of emotional exhaustion, and the extent of stress associated with course work in dental students and to compare these measurements among seven European dental schools. Multi-centred survey. Dental Schools at Amsterdam, Belfast, Cork, Greifswald, Helsinki, Liverpool and Manchester. 333 undergraduate first-year dental students. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Dental Environment Stress Questionnaire (DES), demographic variables. Questionnaire administered to all students attending first year course. Completed questionnaires sent to central office for processing. Seventy-nine percent of the sampled students responded. Over a third of the students (36%) reported significant psychological distress (morbidity) at the recommended cut-off point (>3 on GHQ). These scores were similar to those reported for medical undergraduates. Twenty-two percent recorded comparatively high scores on emotional exhaustion. A wide variation in these 2 measurements was found across schools (p'sStress levels indicated by the DES were less variable (p>0.5). Some evidence showed that contact with patients and the level of support afforded by living at home may be protective. Higher than expected levels of emotional exhaustion were found in a large sample of first-year undergraduate dental students in Europe.

  16. Baseline Results of the First Healthy Schools Evaluation among a Community of Young, Irish, Urban Disadvantaged Children and a Comparison of Outcomes with International Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, Catherine M.; O'Sullivan, Karin; Quirke, Mary B.; Wynne, Ciara; Hollywood, Eleanor; MGillloway, Sinead

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the Irish Government initiated a pilot Healthy Schools Programme based on the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Model among children attending schools officially designated as urban and disadvantaged. We present here the first results on physical and emotional health and the relationship between childhood…

  17. LGBT Coverage in U.S. Dental Schools and Dental Hygiene Programs: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenburg, Kenneth L; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol A; Kinney, Janet S; Temple, Henry; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess curricular coverage of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) content in U.S. and Canadian dental schools and U.S. dental hygiene programs, including hours of LGBT content, pedagogy used, and assessment methods, and to determine whether respondents perceived their institution's coverage as adequate. Data were collected from academic deans at 32 U.S. and two Canadian dental schools and from program directors at 71 U.S. dental hygiene programs (response rates 49%, 20%, 23%, respectively). The results showed that 29% of responding dental schools and 48% of responding dental hygiene programs did not cover LGBT content. Among the respondents, dental schools dedicated on average 3.68 hours and dental hygiene programs 1.25 hours in required settings to LGBT content. Lectures (dental schools 68%, dental hygiene programs 45%) and small group instruction (43%, 25%) were reported as the most common methodology used in teaching this content. Most of the responding dental schools and dental hygiene programs covered HIV (85%, 53%), oral disease risk (63%, 54%), and barriers to accessing health care for LGBT people (58%, 38%). Up to a third reported no need for coverage of topics such as sexual orientation (21%, 32%), coming out (29%, 37%), transitioning (29%, 38%), and sex reassignment surgery (32%, 35%). Assessment was through written examinations (41%, 30%) and faculty-observed patient interactions (21%, 23%); some respondents (20%, 33%) reported no assessment of learning outcomes. The most frequently endorsed strategies for increasing LGBT content were receiving curricular material focusing on LGBT-related health issues and health disparities and having trained faculty to teach LGBT content.

  18. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.

    Body Less Head size-adjusted Bone Mineral Content than the control diet, but lower in May/June (pMineral Density. Conclusions Fish-containing NND school meals affected vitamin D intake and ?status, and seemed to mitigate children?s decreases in 25(OH......Background and aims Few foods contain vitamin D and many children fail to meet recommended intakes, including Danish children. This may promote low serum concentrations, particularly as cutaneous vitamin D production is negligible during winter/spring at Northern latitudes. Aims To examine if New......-over intervention. A total of 784 third and fourth graders received NND school meals for 3 months and habitual packed lunch for 3 months. Dietary intake and serum 25(OH)D was measured, and DXA-scans performed, at baseline and after each dietary period. Results Intake of fatty fish (? 3.6-7.2 g/d) and vitamin D (? 0...

  19. ART restorations and sealants placed in Chinese school children--results after three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, C J; Lo, E C; Hu, D; Wan, H

    2000-08-01

    These were to assess whether ART restorations and sealants could be provided to children in a school environment in China, to assess patient acceptability of the ART approach, and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the treatments performed. This study was conducted in Deyang, Sichuan Province, in western China. A total of 294 ART restorations were placed in 197 children and 191 fissure sealants were placed in 140 children by five middle-level dentists in four secondary schools. Standard instruments and procedures for ART were used. The restorative material used was a high-strength glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, ESPE). The treatments were evaluated annually after placement by the same examiner who had not been involved in the placement of the restorations nor sealants using explorers and mouth-mirrors. At the 3-year examination an independent external examiner evaluated the restorations using USPHS criteria. Most of the children did not report discomfort during treatment and 92% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 1-year and 3-year survival rates of small Class I restorations were 99% and 92% respectively. The corresponding figures for large Class I restorations were 90% and 77%. After 3 years, 72% of the sealants were either partially or completely retained. Only 2% of the sealed teeth developed fissure caries and these involved teeth where the sealants had been lost. Similar success rates were found using USPHS criteria. The ART approach for preventing and treating tooth decay in Chinese school children was shown to be appropriate, effective and acceptable. The 3-year survival rates of the restorations were high but were related to the size and type of the restoration.

  20. Regular Meals at School as a Factor of Physical Development of Children and Adolescents: Results of a Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor J. Esaulenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Russian schools, children are provided with meals, and certain categories of students get free meals. However, not all school students eat regularly.Objective: Our aim was to study the role of school meals in physical development of children and adolescents.Methods: The survey of schoolchildren aged 8–18 years (Voronezh revealed two groups of students who eat at school regularly (Group 1 and on occasions (Group 2. We calculated Z scores of body length and body mass index (BMI using ANTHROPlus software. Nutritional status was determined based on the values of standard BMI deviations ( +2, +2 to +1, -1 to -2, -2. Health groups were formed according to the Children Health Comprehensive Assessment Instruction.Results: 484 schoolchildren (students of grades 3–11 were examined. 251 (52% school students had regular meals at school. Regular meal frequency decreased from 69% in the group of 8–10 year old students to 30% in the group of 15–18-year-olds. Z scores of body length in students of Groups 1 and 2 did not differ (0.44 ± 1.00 and 0.30 ± 1.00, respectively; p = 0.124. At the same time, children in Group 1 had higher Z scores of BMI (0.44 ± 1.30 and 0.12 ± 1.30, respectively; p = 0.007. In Group 1, the incidence of overweight and obesity decreased from 40% in group of 8–10 year old students to 15% in 15–18-year-olds, in Group 2 — from 35 to 18%, respectively; incidence of malnutrition increased from 9 to 24% in Group 1 and from 11 to 15% in Group 2. In Group 1, the number of students with health group III or IV was smaller (30% compared to 42% in the control group; p = 0.005.Conclusion: Regular meals at school are an important, but not critical factor in the physical development of children. The absence of regular meals at school may be a risk factor for chronic diseases in schoolchildren.

  1. EXTENDED SCHOOL YEAR DESIGNS--AN INTRODUCTION TO NEW PLANS OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION WHICH CAN RESULT IN FINANCIAL ECONOMIES AND PROVIDE MORE EDUCATION FOR ALL PUPILS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS, GEORGE ISAIAH

    THIS REPORT EXPLORES PLANS OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL ORGANIZATION BASED UPON THE LENGTHENING OF THE SCHOOL YEAR TO REDUCE BY ONE OR MORE YEARS THE TOTAL PERIOD OF SCHOOLING. PRACTICAL INFORMATION IS PRESENTED CONCERNING (1) THE CONTINUOUS SCHOOL YEAR PLAN, (2) THE TRIMESTER PLAN, (3) THE QUADRIMESTER PLAN, (4) THE MODIFIED SUMMER SCHOOL…

  2. Do attitudes, intentions and actions of school food coordinators regarding public organic food procurement policy improve the eating environment at school? Results from the iPOPY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigates whether public organic food procurement policies have the potential to induce changes in the school food service environment. A comparative cross-national survey was conducted in public primary and/or secondary schools in Finland, Germany and Italy. The school food coordinators completed a web-based questionnaire on their attitudes, intentions and actions towards organic school food provision. In Germany, 122 out of 2050 schools in the state of Hesse responded. In Finland, 250 out of 998 schools across the country responded. In Italy, 215 out of 940 schools from eight provinces responded. School food coordinators in the sample of schools in the three countries. The German and Finnish school food coordinators separately most agreed with the promotion of healthy eating habits (P environment.

  3. Effect of mindfulness and yoga on quality of life for elementary school students and teachers: results of a randomized controlled school-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzano AN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Christopher E Anderson,2 Chelsea Hylton,3 Jeanette Gustat2 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 3Project Peaceful Warriors, New Orleans, LA, USA Objective: To assess the impact of a yoga curriculum in an elementary school on student quality of life, and to assess teacher and staff perception of potential barriers to, and benefits of, introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom.Methods: A randomized controlled trial was utilized to assess the impact of a brief intervention on third-grade students who screened positive for symptoms of anxiety. Students were randomized to an intervention group of 20 students receiving small-group yoga/mindfulness activities for 8 weeks between October 2016 and February 2017, and a control group of 32 students receiving care as usual. The Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale-Peabody Treatment Progress Battery and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL served as outcomes. Teachers were invited to participate in two professional development sessions about introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom, and completed a survey following each of the sessions.Results: In generalized estimating equation models adjusted for time, the yoga-based intervention was associated with a 14.17 unit increase in student emotional PedsQL (p-value 0.001 and a 7.43 unit increase in psychosocial PedsQL (p-value 0.01. Results were not attenuated by adjustment. Teachers and staff reported using yoga more frequently in the classroom following the second of two professional development sessions (p-value <0.05. Perceived barriers to introducing yoga to the classroom were similar at two data collection time points, while perceived benefits remained high

  4. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Beijing: results from the 2003 Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying has public health importance. It has been reported that both the victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to have suicidal ideation and other suicidal behaviours. Moreover, bullying can be a precursor for school violence and can contribute to poor academic performance. The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on the subject in China. We, therefore conducted an analysis of secondary data to determine the prevalence and correlates of having been bullied among in-school adolescents. Methods The data was taken from the Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2003. A weighted analysis to reduce bias due to differing patterns of non-response was conducted using statistical software (SPSS version 14.0. We conducted a backward logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors for being bullied. Results Out of a total of 2,348 in-school adolescents who participated in the survey, 20% (23% males, and 17% females reported having been bullied. Risk factors for having been bullied were loneliness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.42–1.45, being worried (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29–1.32, being sad or having feelings of hopelessness (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.19–1.22, smoking cigarettes (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.08–1.11, drinking alcohol (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.29–1.32, and being truant (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.22–1.27. Meanwhile protective factors were having close friends (AOR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.83–0.86, receiving parental supervision (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.80–0.81, and ever been drunk (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.84–0.87. Conclusion We believe the results of this study will raise awareness among school health practitioners and administrators, paediatric psychiatrists and psychologists on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Beijing, China.

  5. Glass ionomer ART sealants in Chinese school children-6-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Christopher J; Lo, Edward C M; Hu, Deyu

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate longitudinally ART sealants placed in Chinese school children under field conditions. 191 ART sealants were placed in 140 children, aged 11-14 years, by five assistant dentists in four secondary schools in Deyang, Sichuan Province, China. Teeth selected for sealing were those with pits and fissures that were deep or showing early enamel caries. Teeth were excluded if there was obvious cavitation extending into dentine. Standard instruments and procedures for ART sealants were used. The material used was a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, 3MESPE) that was inserted into the pits and fissures with the "press-finger" technique. The status of the sealants was evaluated annually over 6 years after placement by the same examiner who was not involved in the placement of the sealants using explorers, mouth-mirrors and an intra-oral fibre-optic light. No missing sealants were replaced during the study. 107 sealants (56% of the original) were examined after 6 years. The cumulative survival rates of the sealants (partially or fully retained) after 2, 4 and 6 years were 79%, 68% and 59%, respectively. Caries prevention lagged the fall in sealant survival but remained high throughout the study period, being over 90% in the first 4 years and 85% after 6 years. ART sealants placed under field conditions in Chinese schoolchildren have a high retention rate. Missing sealants should be replaced to maintain their preventive efficacy. The sealing of pits and fissures can be an effective caries preventive approach. Resin-based sealants have the disadvantage in that they require an optimal level of moisture control during placement. In children and in outreach situations glass ionomer ART sealants, which are more moisture tolerant, can offer a viable alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults—Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam

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    Le Thi Thanh Huong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011–2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children’s reported their father’s in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention (p < 0.001 in the intervention school while no change happened in the control school. The study found that the better changed smoking location of adult smokers as reported by children associated with the school who received intervention activities (adjusted OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28–3.24. Poorer changed attitudes towards secondhand smoke of children associated with a lower percentage of better change in smoking location of their fathers/other adult smokers (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28–0.96. Children’s poorer changed knowledge towards secondhand smoke also associated with poorer changed smoking location of adult smokers (aOR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.07–7.76. It is recommended by this study that similar school based intervention approaches should be applied in primary schools in Viet Nam to increase children’s awareness on the

  7. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Beijing: results from the 2003 Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazemba, Alice; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-04-02

    Bullying has public health importance. It has been reported that both the victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to have suicidal ideation and other suicidal behaviours. Moreover, bullying can be a precursor for school violence and can contribute to poor academic performance. The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on the subject in China. We, therefore conducted an analysis of secondary data to determine the prevalence and correlates of having been bullied among in-school adolescents. The data was taken from the Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2003. A weighted analysis to reduce bias due to differing patterns of non-response was conducted using statistical software (SPSS version 14.0). We conducted a backward logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors for being bullied. Out of a total of 2,348 in-school adolescents who participated in the survey, 20% (23% males, and 17% females) reported having been bullied. Risk factors for having been bullied were loneliness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-1.45), being worried (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29-1.32), being sad or having feelings of hopelessness (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.19-1.22), smoking cigarettes (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.08-1.11), drinking alcohol (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.29-1.32), and being truant (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.22-1.27). Meanwhile protective factors were having close friends (AOR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.83-0.86), receiving parental supervision (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.80-0.81), and ever been drunk (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.84-0.87). We believe the results of this study will raise awareness among school health practitioners and administrators, paediatric psychiatrists and psychologists on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Beijing, China.

  8. Results of a nurse-led intervention: connecting pediatric cancer patients from the hospital to the school using videoconferencing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sarah J; Drew, Donna; Wakefield, Claire E; Saikal, Samra L; Punch, Deborah; Cohn, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility and perceived academic/psychosocial outcomes of a pilot program using videoconferencing facilities to connect children with cancer to their home school. Eight parents, three patients, and five teachers (n = 16) participated in semistructured interviews evaluating the efficacy/feasibility of this program. Results were analyzed using the qualitative framework of Miles and Huberman. Parents reported that videoconferencing provided the family with a sense of normalcy and connection to the outside world (4/8), often boosting patients' mood (6/8). Further benefits included stronger relationships with classmates and teachers (15/16) and improved peer acceptance and school reintegration. There were no notable impacts on patients' academic progression. Reported barriers included: costs, time commitments, bureaucratic hurdles, and technical and logistical difficulties. Videoconferencing technologies provide an important tool to connect childhood cancer patients to their classrooms; however, further solution-based investigation is warranted to overcome existing barriers.

  9. Metacognitive Ability Relationship with Test Result of Senior High School of Biology Teacher Competence in Sijunjung District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardi, A.; Fadilah, M.; Ichsani, W.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to reveal how the relationship between metacognitive ability and the test result of biology teacher competence in Sijunjung District. The population of this descriptive research were all high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District, and sample is all teachers who are members of the population, which is 23 biology teachers. The instrument used in this research are a questionnaire of research on teacher's metacognitive ability and document about teacher competence test result. The questionnaire was validated first by two lecturers of biology and one lecturer of English. Data analysis using Pearson Product Moment's. Based on the results of research and discussion that have been described, it can generally be concluded that there is a low relationship between metacognitive ability with competence test results of high school biology teachers in Sijunjung District. Partially, the relationship of metacognitive ability with the test result of professional competence of biology teacher showed significant result, with correlation coefficient 0,46 and t table 1,72 while titung 2,37. The contribution of metacognitive ability to the competence test result of the teacher is 21.6%, while the other 78.4% have not been revealed in this research.

  10. Two new species of true morels from Newfoundland and Labrador: cosmopolitan Morchella eohespera and parochial M. laurentiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies of true morels (Morchella) in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) resulted in the surprising discovery of two undescribed species in the M. elata clade, which we initially distinguished by the informal designations Mel-19 and Mel-3...

  11. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

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    Bessems Kathelijne MHH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup effects of the revised programme on students’ fruit, fruit juice, breakfast, and snack consumption. Methods Schools were randomized to the experimental condition, teaching the Krachtvoer programme, or to the control condition teaching the regular nutrition lessons. Self-reported consumption of fruit, fruit juice, breakfast and snacks was measured at baseline directly before programme implementation, one to four weeks after finishing programme implementation, and after six months. Mixed linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results In total 1117 students of 13 experimental schools and 758 students of 11 control schools participated in the study. Short- and longer-term favourable intervention effects were found on fruit consumption (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.15 servings at both posttests. Regarding fruit juice consumption, only short-term favourable effects were revealed (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.05 glasses. Intervention effects on breakfast intakes were limited. No changes in snack frequency were reported, but students made healthier snack choices as a result of the programme. Some favourable as well as unfavourable effects occurred in subgroups of students. Conclusions The effects on fruit consumption and snack choices justify the current nationwide dissemination of the programme. Achieving changes in breakfast consumption may, however, require other strategies.

  12. Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results from the 2013-14 Private School Universe Survey. First Look. NCES 2016-243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, Stephen P.; Swaim, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    In 1988, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) developed a private school data collection that improved on the sporadic collection of private school data dating back to 1890 and at the same time developed an alternative to commercially available private school sampling frames. Since 1989, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted…

  13. Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results from the 2011-12 Private School Universe Survey. First Look. NCES 2013-316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, Stephen P.; Swaim, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    In 1988, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) developed a private school data collection that improved on the sporadic collection of private school data dating back to 1890 by developing an alternative to commercially available private school sampling frames. Since 1989, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted the biennial…

  14. Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results from the 2009-10 Private School Universe Survey. First Look. NCES 2011-339

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, Stephen P.; Swaim, Nancy L.; Hryczaniuk, Cassie A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1988, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) introduced a proposal to develop a private school data collection that would improve on the sporadic collection of private school data dating back to 1890 and improve on commercially available private school sampling frames. Since 1989, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted the…

  15. Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Private School Universe Survey--First Look. NCES 2009-313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughman, Stephen P.; Swaim, Nancy L.; Keaton, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted the biennial Private School Universe Survey (PSS) for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The PSS is designed to generate biennial data on the total number of private schools, students, and teachers, and to build a universe of private schools in the 50 states and the District…

  16. Slight Decline in Use of Private School Tuition Vouchers in 2010-2011: Loss of Schools Results in Fewer Students. Research Brief. Volume 99, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    For the first time since its 1998 expansion to include religious schools, enrollment in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) did not grow in the 2010-2011 school year. Currently, 20,996 private school students receive taxpayer-funded tuition vouchers (of $6,442 per pupil), a decrease of 66 students over last year. Chart 1 shows program…

  17. Research-Based Recommendations to Improve Child Nutrition in Schools and Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandner, Laura D.; Hair, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This brief discusses aspects of healthy diets for children in elementary and middle school. It summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition. (Contains 27 endnotes.)

  18. School Health Connection Goes Electronic: Developing a Health Information Management System for New Orleans' School-Based Health Centers. Program Results Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorfer, Darl

    2011-01-01

    From February 2008 through April 2011, School Health Connection, a program of the Louisiana Public Health Institute, developed an electronic health information management system for newly established school-based health centers in Greater New Orleans. School Health Connection was established as part of a broader effort to restore community health…

  19. Finnish Parental Involvement Ethos, Health Support, Health Education Knowledge and Participation: Results from a 2-Year School Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular…

  20. Virtual fetal pig dissection as an agent of knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change in female high school biology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Rebecca Scudari

    One way to determine if all students can learn through the use of computers is to introduce a lesson taught completely via computers and compare the results with those gained when the same lesson is taught in a traditional manner. This study attempted to determine if a virtual fetal pig dissection can be used as a viable alternative for an actual dissection for females enrolled in high school biology classes by comparing the knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change between the experimental (virtual dissection) and control (actual dissection) groups. Two hundred and twenty-four students enrolled in biology classes in a suburban all-girl parochial high school participated in this study. Female students in an all-girl high school were chosen because research shows differences in science competency and computer usage between the genders that may mask the performance of females on computer-based tasks in a science laboratory exercise. Students who completed the virtual dissection scored significantly higher on practical test and objective tests that were used to measure knowledge acquisition. Attitudinal change was measured by examining the students' attitudes toward dissections, computer usage in the classroom, and toward biology both before and after the dissections using pre and post surveys. Significant results in positive gain scores were found in the virtual dissection group's attitude toward dissections, and their negative gain score toward virtual dissections. Attitudinal changes toward computers and biology were not significant. A purposefully selected sample of the students were interviewed, in addition to gathering a sample of the students' daily dissection journals, as data highlighting their thoughts and feelings about their dissection experience. Further research is suggested to determine if a virtual laboratory experience can be a substitute for actual dissections, or may serve as an enhancement to an actual dissection.

  1. Constructing "Authentic" Science: Results from a University/High School Collaboration Integrating Digital Storytelling and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy; Becker, Elizabeth A.; Jayo, Ignacio; Vinogradov, Philip; Montcalmo, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    This study explores the implications of a redesign of a college course that entailed a new partnership between a college neuroscience classroom and a high school. In this course, the college students engaged in original research projects which included conducting brain surgery and behavioural tests on rats. They used digital storytelling and social networking to communicate with high school students and were visited by the students during the semester. The aims of the redesign were to align the course with science conducted in the field and to provide opportunities to disseminate scientific knowledge through emerging technologies. This study investigates the impact of these innovations on the college and high school students' perceptions of authentic science, including their relationship with science-centred communities. We found that these collaborative tools increased college students' perceptions that authentic science entailed communication with the general public, in addition to supporting prior perceptions of the importance of conducting experiments and presenting results to experts. In addition, the view of science as high-status knowledge was attenuated as students integrated non-formal communication practices into presentations, showing the backstage process of learning, incorporating music and youth discourse styles, and displaying emotional engagement. An impact of these hybrid presentation approaches was an increase in the high school students' perceptions of the accessibility of laboratory science. We discuss how the use of technologies that are familiar to youth, such as iPads, social networking sites, and multimedia presentations, has the potential to prioritize students' voices and promote a more inclusive view of science.

  2. [Effects of daily physical exercise at school on cardiovascular risk--results of a 2-year cluster-randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, C; Mende, M; Gaede, L; Müller, U; Machalica, K; Schuler, G

    2011-11-01

    It was the aim of this study to measure the effects over two years of daily sport activity during the school-day on their physical fitness (primary endpoint), motor coordination and blood pressure (secondary endpoints). A total of 232 children from eleven different 6 (th) grade classes were enrolled after informed parental consent. Their mean age was 11.1  ±  0.6 years. Six classes were randomly assigned for intervention (n=141), five as control (n=91). Those of the intervention cohort undertook, for five days weekly during the school year one hour of regulated sport exercise, including 15 min of endurance training. The pupils of the control group undertook customary sport activity (two hours a week). Anthropometric data were recorded and maximal oxygen uptake measured in each pupil, as well as blood pressure and motor coordination at the beginning and at the end of each of the two years of the study. The data were analyzed using the cluster randomization method. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO (2)max) had improved among the intervention group after two years, compared with the controls (3.12 m/kg/min, 95% confindence interval [CI] 0.06-6.19), while improvement in motor coordination just failed to reach statistical significance (3.06, 95% CI -0.17-6.29). There was no significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but a downward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity from 12.1% to 7.8% in the intervention group. The results indicate that daily physical exercise during school hours should be given greater importance. But it will require a long-term trial to determine whether promotion of increased physical activity at school influences the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors when the pupils reach adulthood. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  4. School-Level Genetic Variation Predicts School-Level Verbal IQ Scores: Results from a Sample of American Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed that average IQ scores vary significantly across macro-level units, such as states and nations. The reason for this variation in IQ, however, has remained at the center of much controversy. One of the more provocative explanations is that IQ across macro-level units is the result of genetic differences, but…

  5. Investigating the Geophysics of Venus: Result of the post-Alpbach Summer School 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Robert-Jan; Łosiak, Anna; Białek, Agata; Donohoe, Anthony; Fernández Jiménez, María; Frasl, Barbara; Gurciullo, Antonio; Kleinschneider, Andreas; Mannel, Thurid; Muñoz Elorza, Iñigo; Nilsson, Daniel; Oliveira, Marta; Sørensen-Clark, Paul; Timoney, Ryan; van Zelst, Iris

    2015-04-01

    Venus has been investigated by only five dedicated mission programs since the beginning of space flight. This relatively low level of interest is remarkable when considering that mass and radius of Venus are very similar to Earth's, while at the same time characteristics such as spin rate, atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, make Venus a very different, inhabitable world. The underlying causes of these differences are not well understood. Apprehending Venus' tectonics and internal structure would not only shed light on the question why those two planets evolved so differently, but also help refining current models of planetary systems formation. In order to answer the question about reasons for differences in evolution of those two planets a group of 15 young scientists and engineers designed a mission to Venus during a follow-up of the Alpbach Summer School 2014. The primary objective of this mission is to learn whether Venus is tectonically active and on what time scale. In order to accomplish this goal the mission will determine the crustal structure of Venus, the current activity and distribution of active volcanoes and the movement of continental plates. The secondary objective is to further constrain the models of Venus' internal structure and composition. To achieve this, the mission will investigate the size, state and composition of the core as well as the state and composition of the mantle. The proposed mission consists of an orbiter in a near-polar circular orbit around Venus and a balloon for in-situ measurements operating during the initial phase of the mission. The balloon carries a nephelometer, a magnetometer, a mass spectrometer and stereo microphones and meteorological package. The orbiter carries a gradiometer for determining the gravity field, a synthetic aperture radar for investigating small changes in surface topography and mapping microwave signals from the surface and an IR and UV spectrometer and IR camera for monitoring

  6. [BEO'S - physical activity and healthy eating at schools in Oberfranken, Bavaria concept and first results of a resource-oriented, systemic approach in school-based health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, C; Bodner, L; Liebl, S; Scholz, U; Wozniak, D; Möstl, M; Ungerer-Röhrich, U; Nagel, E; Loss, J

    2012-02-01

    The high prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents has led to an increase in school-based prevention programmes. The aim of the present paper is to present the concept of an initiative called "BEO'S" as well as the experience made with the implementation und acceptance of this programme in the participating schools. Different from the majority of school-based projects for healthy eating and physical activity, BEO'S pursues a systemic approach that includes the whole school and is tailored to the school's respective resources. Characteristics are (1) the participation of teachers, students, parents, and caretakers, (2) the motivation and empowerment of schools to plan and implement activities by themselves, (3) the focus on environmental approaches, and (4) addressing and considering the individual school's needs and resources. The university project team supports the schools by individual counselling as well as providing information materials, trainings and workshops for teachers, an internet page, newsletters, and financial support. In the school years 2007/08 and 2008/09, BEO'S was conducted at 14 primary and secondary schools in the district of Oberfranken, Bavaria. It was extended to other schools in 2009/10. The short- and mid-term goals are the improvement of the school's environments as well as the eating behaviour and physical activity of the students. In the long run, it is intended to prevent obesity and improve the students' health and school performance. The implementation processes showed that the teachers for physical education and domestic science as well as the headmasters were especially committed. The participation of the teaching staff, the students and the parents proved to be difficult, however. The schools implemented many activities for healthy eating and physical activity, but the planning process was not very systematic: needs assessment, status quo analysis, identification of successful strategies and definition of aims was

  7. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William S; Baston, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    The National Board of Medical Examiners ® (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE) is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination ® (USMLE) Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools. A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME ® ) website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate). A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated "yes" or "no" to the initial question "Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?". A total of 37 schools (70%) administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36%) used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17%) used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14%) used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78%) used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67%) of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28%) schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1. Our data suggest that the NBME CBSE is administered by many US medical schools. However, the objective, timing, and number of exams administered vary greatly among schools.

  8. Readiness of educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in the inclusive educational practice of higher school

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    Vladimir Ts. Tsyrenov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research is due to the necessity of integration of persons with health limitations and disabilities into the educational space of higher education institutions. With regard to this, the paper is aimed at finding out the extent of readiness of the educational activity subjects for results-oriented cooperation in inclusive educational practice of the higher school. The leading approach to studying this problem is the retrospective interdisciplinary analysis that allows an integrated consideration of the universities' readiness for full-fledged integration of people with health limitations and disabilities into the educational process. In the paper, the results of research into students' attitude toward the disabled and HL people and their readiness for results-oriented cooperation are presented, and the specific problems of psychological and social support rendering are described. The value references system of students with health limitations and disabilities has been found out, and grounds have been provided for having to include the subjects that form a tolerant attitude to special needs people into the student-training content. It has also been proven that qualified professional training has to be ensured for the academic teaching staff, infrastructure has to be provided, and an integrated program has to be developed that would allow personifying the academic process adjusted for the development particularities of students with health limitations. The materials of the paper are of practical importance for educational activity subjects involved into the higher-school inclusive educational practice.

  9. Cultural universality and specificity of student engagement in school: The results of an international study from 12 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Shin, Hyeonsook; Cefai, Carmel; Veiga, Feliciano H; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Kikas, Eve; Wong, Bernard P H; Stanculescu, Elena; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Liu, Yi; Negovan, Valeria; Nelson, Brett; Yang, Hongfei; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors that are linked to student engagement requires research that includes cross-cultural perspectives. This study investigated how student engagement in school is associated with grade, gender, and contextual factors across 12 countries. It also investigated whether these associations vary across countries with different levels of individualism and socio-economic development. The participants were 3,420 7th, 8th, and 9th grade students from Austria, Canada, China, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Malta, Portugal, Romania, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The participants completed a questionnaire to report their engagement in school, the instructional practices they experienced, and the support they received from teachers, peers, and parents. Hierarchical linear modelling was used to examine the effects at both student and country levels. The results across countries revealed a decline in student engagement from Grade 7 to Grade 9, with girls reporting higher engagement than boys. These trends did not vary across the 12 countries according to the Human Development Index and Hofstede's Individualism Index. Most of the contextual factors (instructional practices, teacher support, and parent support) were positively associated with student engagement. With the exception that parent support had a stronger association with student engagement in countries with higher collectivism, most of the associations between the contextual factors and student engagement did not vary across countries. The results indicate both cultural universality and specificity regarding contextual factors associated with student engagement in school. They illustrate the advantages of integrating etic and emic approaches in cross-cultural investigations. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Constructing the [Parochial] Global Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Peta; Halbert, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    Cultural exchange is privileged in many higher education programs across the globe. The Australian government's New Colombo Plan refers to a "Third Wave" of globalisation which foregrounds global interrelatedness through developing student capabilities to live, work and contribute to global communities and aims to make the global an…

  11. Proactive Encouragement of Interdisciplinary Research Teams in a Business School Environment: Strategy and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Susan M.; Carter, Nathan C.; Hadlock, Charles R.; Haughton, Dominique M.; Sirbu, George

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes efforts to promote collaborative research across traditional boundaries in a business-oriented university as part of an institutional transformation. We model this activity within the framework of social network analysis and use quantitative tools from that field to characterize resulting impacts. (Contains 4 tables and 2…

  12. Science Camps in Europe--Collaboration with Companies and School, Implications and Results on Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, M.; Kubat, C.

    2014-01-01

    The paper informs on the characteristics of a Comenius Network of seven organizations, who are collaborating in exchanging best practice on science camps. This exchange includes evaluation results on more science camps of European organizations, which will deliver information on organization, collaboration with companies, pedagogical aspects, as…

  13. Baseline results of the first healthy schools evaluation among a community of young, Irish, urban disadvantaged children and a comparison of outcomes with international norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, Catherine M; O'Sullivan, Karin; Quirke, Mary B; Wynne, Ciara; Hollywood, Eleanor; MGillloway, Sinead

    2012-11-01

    In 2008, the Irish Government initiated a pilot Healthy Schools Programme based on the World Health Organization Health Promoting Schools Model among children attending schools officially designated as urban and disadvantaged. We present here the first results on physical and emotional health and the relationship between childhood depression and demographic and socioeconomic factors. The Healthy Schools Programme evaluation was a 3-year longitudinal outcome study among urban disadvantaged children aged 4 to 12 years. Physical and psychological health outcomes were measured using validated, international instruments at baseline. Outcomes at baseline were compared with international norms and where differences were found, results were statistically modeled to determine factors predicting poor outcomes. A total of 552 children responded at baseline, representing over 50% of all eligible children available to participate from 7 schools. Findings at baseline revealed that in general, children did not differ significantly from international norms. However, detailed analysis of the childhood depression scores revealed that in order of importance, psychological well-being, the school environment, social support, and peer relations and age were statistically significant predictors of increased childhood depression in children under 12 years of age. Future health and well-being studies in schools among urban disadvantaged children need to broaden their scope to include measures of depression in children under 12 years of age and be cognisant of the impact of the school environment on the mental and emotional health of the very young. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding waste management options in Romania: results from a school questionnaire

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    Karin KOLBE

    2014-12-01

    The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in Romania regarding the potential of recycling, while the concepts of waste management technologies are far less known about and understood. Landfill is seen as a problem for human health and the environment. However, recycling behaviour is low - partly as a result of limited possibilities. In general, the treatment hierarchy that is recommended in the "European waste hierarchy" is only partly reflected in students’ attitudes towards waste management options.

  15. [Factors associated with the consumption of school meals by Brazilian adolescents: results of the PeNSE survey 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Nathália Tarossi; Canella, Daniela Silva; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2017-05-18

    The aim was to study the association between socio-demographic and routine dietary variables and consumption of school meals by adolescents enrolled in public schools in Brazil. The study used data used from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012. To assess differences between schoolchildren based on whether or not they ate school meals, the study used Pearson's chi-square test, and associations were analyzed with univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models. Of the 86,660 students included in the study, 22.8% eat school meals. Higher consumption of school meals is associated with male gender, brown skin color, residence outside state capitals, working, and low maternal schooling, for those that ate breakfast and lunch with their parents. The findings are relevant for planning strategies to encourage consumption of school meals.

  16. The Cosmic Ray Observatory Project: Results of a Summer High-School Student, Teacher, University Scientist Partnership Using a Capstone Research Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Duane F.; Snow, Gregory R.; Claes, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports results from evaluation of the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP), a student, teacher, scientist partnership to engage high-school students and teachers in school based cosmic ray research. Specifically, this study examined whether an intensive summer workshop experience could effectively prepare teacher-student teams to…

  17. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

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    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  18. „Small children are not able to ask that their essential needs be satisfied ...” – the role of Mariavite parochial communities in Łódź in helping children during the World War I [„Dziatwa mała nie jest w stanie prosić o zaspokojenie swych nieodzownych potrzeb”1 – rola łódzkich mariawickich wspólnot parafialnych w niesieniu pomocy dzieciom podczas I wojny światowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna SOSNOWSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its very beginning, the life of the Mariavite community focused around parishes and churches. It was the parishes that satisfied the religious needs of their members but also performed social functions related to education, culture, and welfare issues. Before, as well as during. World War I, the Mariavite Church was one of the largest religious communities in Łódź. Mariavite parishes in Łódź were established several years before World War I, in the period when Mariavite parishes, independent from the Roman Catholic Church, were organised. The first Mariavite church was built in December 1906, the next in September 1907, and the third and the last after a year, in September 1908. Apart from churches and chapels erected with exceptional speed, institutions for adult parish members and their children were also established, such as libraries, reading rooms, classrooms for girls and boys, schools, shelters, and flats for poor families. They were supposed to serve Mariavite Church members. Directly after the outbreak of the World War I, Łódź Mariavite clergy joined aid campaigns organized in parishes. Food was provided for adults and children on a larger scale; meals were prepared and served in Mariavite parochial kitchens. In that period, care and education institutions for children continued to perform their tasks; however, they intensified their activities aimed at providing meals, clothes, and shoes. The overriding task of Mariavite shelters included care, religious and moral education, and helping children of pre-school age (3–7. Aid was provided to children from poor families of factory workers and craftsmen.

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Physical Activity Behavior among Elementary School Personnel: Baseline Results from the ACTION! Worksite Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Larry S.; Rice, Janet C.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Rose, Donald; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the prevalence of obesity is increasing during adulthood, there have been few assessments of obesity, cardiovascular risk factors, and levels of physical activity among adult elementary school staff. Methods: Data were collected from 745 African-American and White female school personnel in a suburban school district in…

  20. Disaffected Boys and the Achievement Gap: "The Wallpaper Effect" and What Is Hidden by a Focus on School Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amanda; Doherty, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a teacher inquiry project in a primary school that serves disadvantaged communities on the outskirts of a de-industrialised city in the north of England. Of particular concern is a small group of white British boys in receipt of free school meals, who are identified by the school as disaffected and as a consequence…

  1. Effect of mindfulness and yoga on quality of life for elementary school students and teachers: results of a randomized controlled school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Anderson, Christopher E; Hylton, Chelsea; Gustat, Jeanette

    2018-01-01

    To assess the impact of a yoga curriculum in an elementary school on student quality of life, and to assess teacher and staff perception of potential barriers to, and benefits of, introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom. A randomized controlled trial was utilized to assess the impact of a brief intervention on third-grade students who screened positive for symptoms of anxiety. Students were randomized to an intervention group of 20 students receiving small-group yoga/mindfulness activities for 8 weeks between October 2016 and February 2017, and a control group of 32 students receiving care as usual. The Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale-Peabody Treatment Progress Battery and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) served as outcomes. Teachers were invited to participate in two professional development sessions about introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom, and completed a survey following each of the sessions. In generalized estimating equation models adjusted for time, the yoga-based intervention was associated with a 14.17 unit increase in student emotional PedsQL ( p -value 0.001) and a 7.43 unit increase in psychosocial PedsQL ( p -value 0.01). Results were not attenuated by adjustment. Teachers and staff reported using yoga more frequently in the classroom following the second of two professional development sessions ( p -value classroom were similar at two data collection time points, while perceived benefits remained high. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in emotional and psychosocial quality of life in the intervention group when compared to the control group, suggesting that yoga/mindfulness interventions may improve symptoms of anxiety among students. Yoga/mindfulness activities may facilitate stress management among elementary school students and may be added as a complement to social and emotional learning activities.

  2. Critical analysis of the Romanian Mathematics and Sciences school curricula based on the Romanian pupils’ results on international testing

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    LILIANA CIASCAI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania occupied a back position in the international tests on Mathematics and Sciences. Teachers stress out that one possible cause of this situation could be finding on the Mathematics and Sciences curricula. This paper presents the results of the comparisons of the Romanian curricula with the curricula promoted by the international testing (PISA 2000, 2003 and 2006, and TIMSS 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007 and the curricula of the countries occupied the first places in these tests. The comparisons underline those curricula approaches, which insure success on these tests and realize the reasons of the lack of success of the Romanian pupils. These results will be presented to the curriculum makers, universities and schools, to identify the specific and transferable competencies of the pupils with success in the above-mentioned disciplines.

  3. Situations of violence experienced by students in the state capitals and the Federal District: results from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Dias, Antônio Ribeiro; do Prado, Rogério Ruscitto; Lima, Cheila Marina; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; da Silva Júnior, Jarbas Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    To describe violent events experienced by school-aged adolescents in school, around the school and in the family context, and to compare the results of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey of 2009 and 2012. Indicators related to violence involving teenagers were analyzed. The prevalence rates and confidence intervals of 95% were calculated for events of interest according to gender and type of school (public or private) and regions. Prevalence rates were: insecurity in the route between home-school (9.1%), insecurity in school (8.0%), physical assault in the last 12 months (18.2%), engaging in fights in the last 12 months (20.7%), fighting with a cold weapon (8.3%), fighting with firearms (6.9%), physical assault by a family member (11.6%) and having been seriously injured in the last 12 months (10.3%). The situations of violence were more prevalent among male students from public schools. The comparison with the 2009 survey showed increased prevalence in all the variables studied. Teenagers are exposed to different forms of violence, and the data from the National Survey of School Health can support the planning of preventive actions.

  4. Practices of Disciplinarity and Interdisciplinarity in Quebec Elementary Schools: Results of Twenty Years of Research

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    Yves Lenoir

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of different research projects that have been carried out inthe province of Quebec, Canada over the past 20 years concerning the representations and practices ofelementary teachers regarding the relative importance given to subject matter and the use ofinterdisciplinarity in their teaching practice. The first section will explain the context of the Quebecschool system on a socio-historical and political level and review the emergence of the concept ofinterdisciplinarity in Quebec. The second section will present succinctly the different research projectsthat have been conducted since 1980 and the conceptual framework they were based on. The thirdsection will consider the main results of the various research projects from two angles: first, therepresentations and practices of the teachers regarding interdisciplinarity; secondly, the relativeimportance and role that the teachers give to interdisciplinarity. In the conclusion, we will highlightamong other things the central position teachers give to the role of socialization and their minimalconsideration for the teaching of disciplinary knowledge.

  5. Parents’ engagement in the education of lower secondary school students with and without special educational needs – which strategies bring expected results?

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    GRZEGORZ SZUMSKI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of approaches to the engagement of parents in the education of lower secondary school students with and without special educational needs (SEN, as well as its effect on school achievement. The analysis of the results from almost 1500 Polish lower secondary school students, including almost 300 students assessed as SEN, showed that parents in both groups varied in their strategies to help their children. Parents of students with SEN more often directly helped their children with homework, although this strategy negatively correlated with school achievement for both groups. The results opposed a widely held claim that students with SEN require alternative types of parental support. These findings may, therefore, have a practical role for shaping parental and teacher’ beliefs about the most effective ways to improve the achievement of lower secondary school students.

  6. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults-Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Anh, Le Vu; Cook, Margaret; Capra, Mike

    2016-01-01

    It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011-2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group) involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children's exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children's reported their father's in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention ( p Viet Nam to increase children's awareness on the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke and to help them to be able to avoid their exposure to secondhand smoke at their home environment.

  7. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data-A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W; Hayward, Andrew C; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane

    2016-01-01

    School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5-14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies in the future.

  8. Bridging Public Health and Education: Results of a School-Based Physical Activity Program to Increase Student Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Williams, Shannon L; Franks, Padra; Kay, Christi; Meyer, Adria; Cornett, Kelly; Mosier, Brian

    Power Up for 30 (PU30) is a schoolwide intervention that encourages schools to provide an additional 30 minutes of physical activity during the school day, beyond physical education. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of PU30 on Georgia public elementary schools and their students. A total of 719 of 1320 public elementary schools in Georgia that were sent a baseline survey about school physical activity during October 2013 to September 2014 completed the survey, 160 of which were asked to complete a second survey. In the interim (March to June 2015), half (80) of these schools implemented the PU30 program. The interim surveys, which were completed during March to June 2015, assessed opportunities for student physical activity and staff member professional development focused on student physical activity. Compared with schools that had not implemented the program, more schools using the PU30 program reported offering before- and after-school physical activity programs. Forty-four of 78 (57%) PU30 schools compared with 20 of 53 (38%) non-PU30 schools offered before-school physical activity programs. Likewise, more PU30 schools than non-PU30 schools offered after-school physical activity programs (35% vs 16%), and a greater proportion of students at PU30 schools compared with non-PU30 schools met fitness benchmarks: recess 5 days per week (91% [288 of 323] vs 80% [273 of 341]), offering ≥11 minutes per day of classroom-based physical activity (39% [53 of 136] vs 25% [47 of 189] for kindergarten through second grade; 20% [37 of 187] vs 6% [9 of 152] for grades 3 through 5), and receiving physical activity-related professional development time (42% [136 of 323] vs 14% [48 of 341]). The surveys provided a statewide picture of the physical activity opportunities offered to students and staff members in Georgia elementary schools and demonstrated the effective use of a comprehensive, multicomponent program to offer more school-based physical activity

  9. Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-07-09

    Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders' effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=-5.4; CI -10 to -1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Risk factors for school absence included girl's attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management methods prior to menarche, privacy and a

  10. Finnish parental involvement ethos, health support, health education knowledge and participation: results from a 2-year school health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-04-01

    A 2-year, participatory action research school health study focused on developing components for home-school partnerships to support children's health learning process. Two intervention schools implemented strengthened health and collaboration-orientated activities; two control schools followed the national core curriculum without extracurricular activities. The parents of fourth-grade pupils (10-11 years at baseline) completed questionnaires before intervention in spring 2008 (N = 348) and after intervention in spring 2010 (N = 358). A two-way analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether time (2008/2010) and group (intervention/control) influenced parents' perceptions and experiences of parental involvement, health education and health support received from the school. Compared with controls, the intervention schools' parents experienced greater involvement ethos (Cohen's d = 0.57, P education (Cohen's d = 0.60, P = 0.02) and health support (Cohen's d = 0.35, P = 0.02). Health education participation among parents increased only partially during the intervention (Cohen's d = -0.12, P = 0.193). School health interventions based on schools' needs may have the potential to influence positively the relationship between home and school and increase the visibility of health education. The study was undertaken within the Schools for Health in Europe program.

  11. Reducing visual deficits caused by refractive errors in school and preschool children: results of a pilot school program in the Andean region of Apurimac, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Arteaga, Sergio; Gil-González, Diana; Enciso, Olga; Phelan, Aoife; García-Muñoz, Ángel; Kohler, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background Refractive error is defined as the inability of the eye to bring parallel rays of light into focus on the retina, resulting in nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (Hyperopia) or astigmatism. Uncorrected refractive error in children is associated with increased morbidity and reduced educational opportunities. Vision screening (VS) is a method for identifying children with visual impairment or eye conditions likely to lead to visual impairment. Objective To analyze the utility of vision screening conducted by teachers and to contribute to a better estimation of the prevalence of childhood refractive errors in Apurimac, Peru. Design A pilot vision screening program in preschool (Group I) and elementary school children (Group II) was conducted with the participation of 26 trained teachers. Children whose visual acuity was<6/9 [20/30] (Group I) and≤6/9 (Group II) in one or both eyes, measured with the Snellen Tumbling E chart at 6 m, were referred for a comprehensive eye exam. Specificity and positive predictive value to detect refractive error were calculated against clinical examination. Program assessment with participants was conducted to evaluate outcomes and procedures. Results A total sample of 364 children aged 3–11 were screened; 45 children were examined at Centro Oftalmológico Monseñor Enrique Pelach (COMEP) Eye Hospital. Prevalence of refractive error was 6.2% (Group I) and 6.9% (Group II); specificity of teacher vision screening was 95.8% and 93.0%, while positive predictive value was 59.1% and 47.8% for each group, respectively. Aspects highlighted to improve the program included extending training, increasing parental involvement, and helping referred children to attend the hospital. Conclusion Prevalence of refractive error in children is significant in the region. Vision screening performed by trained teachers is a valid intervention for early detection of refractive error, including screening of preschool children. Program

  12. Correlates of walking to school and implications for public policies: survey results from parents of elementary school children in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Lee, Chanam

    2009-01-01

    Walking can be a healthy, sustainable, and equitable mode of transportation, but is not widely used for children's school travel. This study identifies multi-level correlates of walking to/from school and relevant policy implications. We surveyed parents/guardians of 2,695 students from 19 elementary schools in Austin, Texas, which featured diverse sociodemographic and environmental characteristics. Among the personal and social factors, negative correlates were parents' education, car ownership, personal barriers, and school bus availability; positive correlates were parents' and children's positive attitude and regular walking behavior, and supportive peer influences. Of physical environmental factors, the strongest negative correlates were distance and safety concerns, followed by the presence of highways/freeways, convenience stores, office buildings, and bus stops en route. Our findings suggest that society should give high priority to lower socioeconomic status populations and to multi-agency policy interventions that facilitate environmental changes, safety improvements, and educational programs targeting both parents and children.

  13. U.S. Dental School Deans’ Perceptions of the Rising Cost of Dental Education and Borrowing Pressures on Dental Students: Report of Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Dora Elías; Garrison, Gwen E; Feldman, Cecile A; Anderson, Eugene L; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    This report presents findings from a survey of U.S. dental school deans designed to capture their perceptions regarding the rising cost of dental education and its impact on borrowing by dental students to finance their education. The survey included questions about factors influencing the cost of dental education, concerns about dental student borrowing, and financial awareness resources for students. The survey was distributed to the deans of all 63 U.S. dental schools in January 2013; 42 deans responded, for a 67% response rate. The results indicate that, according to the responding deans, new clinical technologies, technology costs, and central university taxes are the main factors that contribute to the increasing cost of dental education. Coupled with reduced state appropriations at public dental schools and declines in private giving at all dental schools, dental school deans face a perplexing set of financial management challenges. Tuition and fees are a primary source of revenue for all dental schools; however, many deans do not have total control over the cost of attending their schools since tuition and fees are often tied to mandates and policies from the parent university and the state legislature. The findings of this study indicate that U.S. dental school deans are aware of and concerned about the impact of increases in tuition and fees on dental student debt and that they are using a variety of strategies to address the growth in dental student borrowing.

  14. Regular Meals at School as a Factor of Physical Development of Children and Adolescents: Results of a Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Igor J. Esaulenko; Tatiana L. Nastausheva; Olga A. Zhdanova; Olga V. Minakova; Iya I. Logvinova; Ludmila I. Ippolitova

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Russian schools, children are provided with meals, and certain categories of students get free meals. However, not all school students eat regularly.Objective: Our aim was to study the role of school meals in physical development of children and adolescents.Methods: The survey of schoolchildren aged 8–18 years (Voronezh) revealed two groups of students who eat at school regularly (Group 1) and on occasions (Group 2). We calculated Z scores of body length and body mass index (BM...

  15. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-04-01

    School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p performances specifically among girls in Iran.

  16. Acculturation, Dietary Practices and Risk for Childhood Obesity in an Ethnically Heterogeneous Population of Latino School Children in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4–6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to all students. Children and parents had weights, heights, demographic information, dietary patterns and lifestyle variables collected in English or Spanish through an interview format. A high percentage of our children were overweight [≥85th percentile body mass index (BMI)] (62.5%) and obese (≥95th percentile BMI) (45.2%). Correspondingly parents also had a high percentage of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 & obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (45.3%). Mexico was the country of origin for 62.2% of parents, and 26.6% were from Central or South America. In multivariate logistic analysis, speaking Spanish at home was an independent risk factor for obesity [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28–6.86]. Eating breakfast daily (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.78) and consumption of tortas (a Mexican fast food sandwich) (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21–1.00) were associated with decreased risk. In stratified analysis, significant differences in risk factors existed between Mexican origin versus Central/South American Latino children. The processes of acculturation likely impact eating and lifestyle practices differentially among Latino groups. Interventions should focus on ensuring that all children eat a nutritious breakfast and take into consideration ethnicity when working with Latino populations. PMID:22101726

  17. Organization of training and educational process in the church school of Transbaikalia at the end of 19 th - early 20 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnina Natal'ia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The articledeals with the problemsof the educationalandupbringing process inparochial schoolsin Transbaikalia in the late XIX - earlyXXcenturies.This type ofschoolswasthe most widespread on the territory ofthe Transbikalregion.Parochial schoolsplayed an importantrole in the culturaldevelopment of the regionin thelate XIX - earlyXX centuries, they became an integralpart of thehistorical andcultural process.The history of their formation, analysis of their activitiesareof great scientifi c andpractical interestfor the history of culture, education, religious studies.The author concludesthat theeducational processinparochial schoolswas organized in the form of unifiededucational system, aimedat religiousand moral education ofcomprehensively developed personality. According to “Regulations on the parochial schools” (1884, the main purpose of-such a school is“to approvethe orthodox doctrineof the Christianfaith and morals among people, andto transfer the initialuseful knowledge”.Therefore,the most important componentof the educational systemof church-maintained schoolswas the subjects ofpurely religious education, but comprehensiveeducational componentof church-maintained schoolswas notso narrow too, as evidenced bythe schools’ schedule. In addition tothe Law of God, Church Slavonic languageandchurch musicstudents learnedreading, writing, arithmetic, history, geography, calligraphy, Russianlanguage, drawing. In some schoolsvocational classesand societies of crafts, drawing, choral singing were created. Educational process wasbuildingon the basisof main requirementsof the educational programs, the content of whichwassaturatedand to some extend included detailedlesson plans. Eachsection of the programwas provided by the list ofmanuals andguidelines for teachers. The church-maintained schools were run by parish priest, trustees. Schoolswere often locatedin the homes ofclergymen, but many priestsnoted thatonly havingits own building, the

  18. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Fiorentino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal. The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children. Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2. Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9. Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3. To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal.

  19. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% < 10 years, 53% girls) and adjusted for intra-individual variability to estimate nutrient usual intakes. Energy intake was insufficient and unbalanced with insufficient contribution of protein and excessive contribution of fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  20. "Crazy? So what!": A School Programme to Promote Mental Health and Reduce Stigma--Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Ines; Dietrich, Sandra; Heider, Dirk; Blume, Anne; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the health-promoting and stigma-reducing effect of the German school-based programme "Crazy? So what!". Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental longitudinal control-study was carried out with assessments one week prior to the school programme, immediately after it and three…

  1. School Tobacco Control Policies Related to Students' Smoking and Attitudes toward Smoking: National Survey Results, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2005-01-01

    The belief that schools can play a powerful role in preventing tobacco use among adolescents has led to the implementation of various tobacco-related polices and practices. This study examines the association between school policies regarding monitoring student behavior, severity of action taken for infraction of policies, and tobacco use by…

  2. The Efficacy of Choice Threats within School Accountability Systems: Results from Legislatively Induced Experiments. PEPG 05-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Martin R.; Peterson, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    Stigma and school voucher threats under a revised 2002 Florida accountability law have positive impacts on student performance. Stigma and public school choice threats under the U.S. federal accountability law, No Child Left Behind, do not have similar effects in Florida. Significant impacts of stigma, when combined with the voucher threat, are…

  3. Financial Crisis Now Striking Home for School Districts: Project Delays, Worries About Cash Flow Result of Tight Credit Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the crisis besetting U.S. and world financial markets is hitting school districts hard, as they struggle to float the bonds needed for capital projects, borrow money to ensure cash flow, and get access to investment funds locked up in troubled institutions. Some schools districts depend heavily on borrowed money to pay…

  4. Barriers to and Facilitators of Walking and Bicycling to School: Formative Results from the Non-Motorized Travel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlport, Kathryn N.; Linnan, Laura; Vaughn, Amber; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2008-01-01

    Barriers to and facilitators of walking and bicycling to school were explored through 12 focus groups made up of fourth- and fifth-grade students and their parents who lived near their respective schools. The barriers and facilitators reported by parents and children generally fell into one of three categories: intrapersonal and interpersonal…

  5. In-School Psychosocial Support Services for Safeguarding Children's Rights: Results and Implications of a Botswana Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntinda, Kayi; Maree, Jacobus Gideon; Mpofu, Elias; Seeco, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In-school psychosocial support services are intended to create safe learning environments for children, enabling the children to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks. This study investigated protections to children's right to safe learning environments through the provision of in-school psychosocial support services. Participants were 230…

  6. A Different Result of Community Participation in Education: An Indonesian Case Study of Parental Participation in Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriah, Amaliah; Sumintono, Bambang; Subekti, Nanang Bagus; Hassan, Zainudin

    2013-01-01

    Parental participation in school management is regarded as a good thing according to the rationale that local people know better and are able to be more responsive to their own needs. However, little is understood about the implications of the School Operational Support policy for community participation in education. This study investigated…

  7. Managing for Results in America's Great City Schools. A Report of the Performance Measurement and Benchmarking Project, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report describes statistical indicators developed by the Council of the Great City Schools and its member districts to measure big-city school performance on a range of operational functions in business, finance, human resources and technology. The report also presents data city-by-city on those indicators. This is the second time that…

  8. Managing for Results in America's Great City Schools. A Report of the Performance Measurement and Benchmarking Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report describes statistical indicators developed by the Council of the Great City Schools and its member districts to measure big-city school performance on a range of operational functions in business, finance, human resources and technology. The report also presents data city-by-city on those indicators. This is the second time that…

  9. New design concepts for energy-conserving buildings. Results of a national competition among students in schools of architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The National Student Competition in Energy Conscious Design held among professional schools of architecture in 1976 is documented. Fifty-five schools participated, submitting 115 entries; twelve were chosen as finalists. Details are presented on the twelve winning designs and excerpts from the remaining 103 entries are published. (MCW)

  10. Effects of school district factors on alcohol consumption: results of a multi-level analysis among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Ejstrud, Bo; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Area-level socio-economic factors are significantly related to a population's health. This study investigates how school district-level factors affect the initiation of alcohol drinking of Danish adolescents. METHODS: A survey sample of 11,223 female and male pupils in the 7th grade...... buildings. Other school district factors were not associated with drinking initiation when controlled for individual level factors. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of socio-economic variables at school district level seems to be smaller in the welfare state of Denmark than known for other countries. However...... from 447 schools across Denmark was analysed for the outcome variable drinking initiation and a number of individual level predictors. Aggregated variables on school district level were created from national registry data for education, occupational level and household savings of residents, type...

  11. Influence of Noise Resulting From the Location and Conditions of Classrooms and Schools in Upper Egypt on Teachers' Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Ketaki Vasant; Abo-Hasseba, Ahmed; Švec, Jan G; Geneid, Ahmed

    2018-05-03

    Teachers are professional voice users, always at high risk of developing voice disorders due to high vocal demand and unfavorable environmental conditions. This study aimed at identifying possible correlations between teachers' voice symptoms and their perception of noise, the location of schools, as well as the location and conditions of their classrooms. One hundred forty teachers (ages 21-56) from schools in Upper Egypt participated in this study. They filled out a questionnaire including questions about the severity and frequency of their voice symptoms, noise perception, and the location and conditions of their schools and classrooms. Questionnaire responses were statistically analyzed to identify possible correlations. There were significant correlations (P Egyptian schools. This study may help future studies that focus on developing guidelines for the better planning of Egyptian schools in terms of improved infrastructure and architecture, thus considering the general and vocal health of teachers. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary school children in Malawi: results from the 2009 Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambene, J B; Muula, A S; Leo, J C

    2013-06-01

    Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize the future of children. There are, however, limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. The study used data from the Malawi Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi-squared test and logistic regression. A total of 2359 students were available for analysis. The overall self-reported prevalence of hunger within the last 30 days was 12.5% (18.9% (172) in the rural and 8.3% (115) in urban areas; and 11.9%(123) for male and 12.5(148) for female children). In the final analysis, geographical location, eating fruits, having been bullied, suicide ideation, and washing hands with soap were significantly associated with hunger. Hunger in both primary and secondary school children in Malawi is a major social problem. The design of school feeding programmes aimed to reduce hunger should incorporate the factors identified as associated with hunger.

  13. What High School Physics Teachers Teach: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, John; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    During the 2012-13 academic year, the Statistic Research Center (SRC) collected data from a representative national sample of over 3,500 public and private high schools across the U.S. to inquire about physics availabilities and offerings. This report describes their findings. SRC takes two different approaches to describe the characteristics of…

  14. High School Physics Textbooks, Resources and Teacher Resourcefulness: Results from the 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    What textbooks are physics teachers using? How highly do they rate those textbooks? What other types of materials do teachers use? The textbooks and other resources used by high school physics teachers in the US have evolved along with the changing demands of physics classes and the evolving set of options available to teachers. In this report,…

  15. Can Professional Development Improve School Leadership? Results from a Randomized Control Trial Assessing the Impact of McREL's Balanced Leadership Program on Principals in Rural Michigan Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert James; Goddard, Roger D.; Kim, Minjung; Jacob, Robin; Goddard, Yvonne; Schroeder, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This multiyear experimental study was designed to examine (1) the causal impact of McREL International's Balanced Leadership® Professional Development (BLPD) program on school principals' learning, beliefs, and behaviors and (2) whether there were differences in the types of outcomes the professional development influenced. Outcomes…

  16. The effect of online quizzes on student achievement in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeter, Christopher L.

    The idea of student engagement has come to the forefront of the United States educational system over the past decade. Student engagement requires learners to be actively involved in all stages of the learning process. This study focuses on the use of online quizzes in the chemistry classroom as a means to help students become more engaged in their learning outside of the classroom. Students were given three different types of online quizzes over the course of a chemistry chapter. Student scores on end of the chapter examinations was used to determine whether there was a significant difference in the amount of learning that occurred when a student took each of the three types of online quizzes. Students in a private parochial high school chemistry class completed online quizzes over the course of a semester. The quizzes were taken after completing assigned readings from the chemistry text. After each reading, a third of the students took online multiple-choice quizzes, a third took a paragraph quiz, and a third took no quiz. Scores received from end of chapter tests were evaluated to determine if the impact each of the quiz types had on the learning. All statistical analysis was done using SPSS using two-way split plot ANOVA with condition (paragraph, multiple-choice, nothing) as the within subject factor and group (A, B, C) as between subject factor. The data indicates that there was no significance within the condition F (1.877, 90.087) =.996, p>.05, or the interaction results. F (3.754, 90.087) =.509, p>.05. The data indicated that the effect of group was not significant either. F (2, 48) =.981, p>.05. Interviews undertaken to explain this outcome discovered that students did not become engaged with the content until the night before each test. When they did so, they used a teacher-provided study guide as their primary learning tool.

  17. Bullying victimization among 13 to 15-year-old school children: results from two comparative studies in 66 countries and regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2008-01-01

    AIM: to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization in 66 countries and territories from five continents based on data from two large international surveys: the 2001/2 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey (HBSC) and the Global School-based Students Health Survey (GSHS). The surveys...... provide nationally representative, cross-sectional information on 13-15-year-old school children (N = 218,104). OUTCOME MEASURES: Bullying victimization, once or more within the past 2 months (HBSC)/30 days (GSHS). RESULTS: On average, 32.1% of the children were bullied at school at least once within...... the past 2 months in countries involved in the HBSC study and 37.4% of children were bullied at least one day within the past 30 days in countries involved in the GSHS study. In both surveys, a large variation in prevalence was found across countries. The lowest prevalence in the GSHS survey was observed...

  18. Psychological Distress in Parents and School-Functioning of Adolescents: Results from the World Trade Center Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M; Dechen, Tenzin; Cone, James E; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M

    2017-10-01

    Poor school-functioning can be indicative of parent and adolescent mental health and adolescent behavior problems. This study examined 472 adolescents enrolled in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, with a two-step path analysis, using regression-based models, to unravel the relationships between parent and adolescent mental health, adolescent behavior problems, and adolescent unmet healthcare need (UHCN) on the outcome school-functioning. WTC exposure was associated with UHCN and parental mental health was a significant mediator. There was no evidence that family WTC exposure was associated with UHCN independent of its effect on parental mental health. For the second path, after accounting for the effects of adolescent mental health, behavioral problems, and UHCN, there remained a significant association between parental mental health and school-functioning. Interventions for poor school-functioning should have multiple components which address UHCN, mental health, and behavioral problems, as efforts to address any of these alone may not be sufficient.

  19. Prevalence and clinical features of Thought-Perception-Sensitivity Symptoms: results from a community survey of Korean high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-In; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Oh, Keun-Young; Shim, Shi-Ha; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-08-15

    Epidemiologic research indicates that psychosis and depression most frequently develop during adolescence. Hence, an efficient strategy for improving youth mental health would be to focus on detection of early-stage psychosis and depression in adolescence. In this study, 1461 high school students were surveyed using self-report scales. Students who scored equal to or above the cut-off value on any of the scales and who agreed to a further examination proceeded to a second assessment, using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States along with self-reporting scales. The estimated prevalence of adolescents at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and of depression-spectrum disorders was 1.26 and 3.69% respectively. Compared with the normal group, experiences of bullying, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were significantly higher in these two groups; the subjects at UHR for psychosis were found to have significantly lower academic performance and lower ratings on SCRS; and submissive behavior was more prevalent in the depression-spectrum group. Our results reveal several clinical features of adolescents at UHR for psychosis and with depression-spectrum disorder and underscore the importance of accurate assessment of and early appropriate care for these adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Results of actions to reduce the amount of radon in the town of Jachymov. The nursery school building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domas, J.; Posmourny, K.

    1993-01-01

    Radon measurements in some buildings in the town of Jachymov indicated that the limiting volume activities were exceeded substantially. Remedial actions were made in the nursery school building. These included gravitational ventilation of the cellar, fitting of all doors and passages between the cellar and school rooms with packing, installation of overpressure ventilation with heat recuperation, and sealing of all window gaps. (J.B.). 2 refs

  1. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Malawi: results from the 2009 Global School-Based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwalo, H W; Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Pasupulati, S; Rudatsikira, E

    2013-03-01

    Physical and emotional violence against adolescents is a neglected, but growing problem globally. Violence against adolescents negatively affects the victim in terms of physical health, school attendance and performance and social adjustment. The literature on the prevalence and associated factors of bullying against adolescents is sparse in southern Africa outside South Africa. Such data are even sparser for Malawi. The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-reported bullying and its personal and social correlates. A secondary analysis of the Malawi School-Based Student Health Survey (2009) was done. Descriptive analyses were done to describe the sample and estimate the prevalence of reporting history of bullying in the past 30 days preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between several factors and being a victim of bullying. Crude and adjusted odds ratios are reported. A total of 2,264 in-school adolescents participated in the Malawi School-Based Student Health Survey of 2009. Just under half (44.5%) reported having been bullied in the previous month to the survey (44.1% among boys versus 44.9% among girls). Compared to adolescents of age 16 years or older, those who were 12 years old or younger and those who were 14 years of age were more likely to be bullied (AOR=1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.76]) and OR=1.26; 95% CI [1.21, 1.31]) respectively. The other risk factors that were identified in the analysis were loneliness (AOR = 2.23; 95% CI [2.20, 2.27]), and being worried (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI [2.76, 2.85[). Adolescents who had no close friends were 14% (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI [1.11-1.17]) more likely to be reporting bullied compared to adolescents who reported having close friends. Adolescents who smoked cigarettes were more than three times more likely to reporting be bullied compared to non-smokers (AOR=3.97; 955 CI [3.83, 4.10]), while those who drank alcohol were more than twice as likely to be

  2. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Tadesse, Gemechu; Gardiner, Iain A; Yard, Elodie; Wuletaw, Yonas; Templeton, Michael R; Harrison, Wendy E; Drake, Lesley J

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting. In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent); and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting. Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively); or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  3. Associations between stress and migraine and tension-type headache: Results from a school-based study in adolescents from grammar schools in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; Blaschek, Astrid; Heinen, Florian; Borggräfe, Ingo; Koerte, Inga; Straube, Andreas; Schankin, Christoph; Kries, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Stress is considered the major contributor to migraine and tension-type headache in adolescents. Previous studies have focused on general stressors, whereas the aim of the present study was to investigate associations between individuals’ stressful experiences and different types of headache. Methods: Adolescents from 10th and 11th grades of grammar schools filled in questionnaires. Stressful experiences were measured with the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress. Type of heada...

  4. A Multilingual Approach to Analysing Standardized Test Results: Immigrant Primary School Children and the Role of Languages Spoken in a Bi-/Multilingual Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Gessica

    2014-01-01

    The present study adopts a multilingual approach to analysing the standardized test results of primary school immigrant children living in the bi-/multilingual context of South Tyrol, Italy. The standardized test results are from the Invalsi test administered across Italy in 2009/2010. In South Tyrol, several languages are spoken on a daily basis…

  5. Mental health promotion in a school community by using the results from the Well-being Profile: an action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakka, Kristiina; Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Konu, Anne; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Paavilainen, Eija

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research project as a method to combine science and practical expertise in order to develop the practices of the health care system. The project aimed at developing mental health promotion in the school community in general and at finding tools for timely help when mental health is at risk. The underlying idea is that mental health is an integral part of health and by promoting general well-being it is also possible to promote and ensure mental health at school. The study was conducted in a Finnish lower secondary school of 446 pupils where the pupils are aged between 12 and 15 years. The initial survey was conducted using the School Well-being Profile, a tool developed by Anne Konu. A well-being questionnaire was used to identify the areas in need of improvement, providing the basis for planning and implementing development measures together with the local actors. The instrument proved to be a usable way of collecting feedback of the well-being of the school environment. As a result of the action research project, the school's physical conditions and social relationships improved and appropriate practices for future problem situations were set.

  6. Help seeking in school by Israeli Arab minority adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems: results from the Galilee Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeem, Raida; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Farbstein, Ilana; Khamaisi, Raseem; Ifrah, Anneke; Sheikh Muhammad, Ahmad; Fennig, Sylvana; Apter, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Many distressed minority adolescents with little access to professional mental health services use teachers and school counselors as their main consultation sources. This paper presents data from the Galilee study on factors that may increase the probability of adolescents' help-seeking in school and discusses the needed linkage between the school mental health services and those provided by other agencies, in the framework of the Mental Health Reform in Israel. This cross-sectional survey included 1639, 9th grade students living in 5 Arab localities in the Galilee in northern Israel, representative of the Muslim and Druze populations. The study was carried out in two stages: in the screening stage, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was completed in the classroom. During the follow-up stage 704 students were selected and interviewed at home regarding service use in school and wellbeing at home. Their mothers were interviewed as well providing information on sociodemographic traits of the family. Total response rate was 69.3 % during the screening stage and 84.4 % during the follow-up. Students were categorized according to their SDQ scores and all students in the higher 25th percentile (high risk) and a simple systematic sample without replacement of those in the lower 75 % (low risk) were included in the follow-up study. Significantly more high risk than low risk students reported having felt the need to seek professional help (14.0 and 6.5 % respectively) and more high risk than low risk consulted a school source (27.1 and 15.2 %, respectively). Bivariate analyses show that among Muslim adolescents more high risk than low risk consulted a school source (30 vs. 16.2 % respectively) and among high risk students more Muslim than Druze sought help from a school source (30 vs. 18 %). Higher consultation rates were found among adolescents who felt uncomfortable at home, than among those who felt very comfortable. Binary logistic regression

  7. Kindergarten attendance may reduce developmental impairments in children: results from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, Riccardo N; Alvarenga, Marlies E; Stich, Heribert L; Jansen, Holger; Baune, Berhard T

    2010-08-01

    The relative risks and benefits of children attending kindergarten or pre-school remain uncertain and controversial. We used data from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey (BPMS) to look at the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children entering primary school and to assess if these were correlated with the duration of kindergarten attendance. We collected data from all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing, Bavaria from 2004 to 2007 (n = 4,005) and utilised a retrospective cross-sectional study design to review the information. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardized medical assessment. Point prevalence of impairments of speech, cognition, motor functioning and psychosocial functioning were compared by chi(2)-test for the variable of time spent in kindergarten. We detected a high incidence of impairments, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all the areas assessed. Longer length of time spent in kindergarten was associated with reduced rates of motor, cognitive and psychosocial impairments. There was no clear correlation between length of kindergarten attendance and speech disorders. Kindergarten attendance may have a positive effect on a number of domains of development including motor, cognitive and psychosocial development, but no significant effect on speech impairments. Implications for public health policies are discussed.

  8. Parents' and peers' normative influence on adolescents' smoking: results from a Swiss-Italian sample of middle schools students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-01-21

    Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking. Multinomial logistic regression show that, as adolescents get older, more of the pro-smoking factors come from peers and parents, the higher the risk gets of being a "heavy smoker" has compared against having no experience with smoking. Living in a context with no factor of normative influence toward smoking play a protective role against smoking, and this effect becomes more important than more harmful the smoking behavior in question is. Furthermore, peers' descriptive norms are more influential for adolescents to become "light" and "heavy smokers", while smoking being approved by peers is important for adolescents to become accustomed to smoking. Findings support the different influence of parents' and peers' norms on adolescents' smoking, and highlight the importance of peers' model behavior as the most important factor influencing smoking during adolescence. Such results have implications for programs that aim to prevent or reduce smoking in early adolescence when friendship choice starts to become crucial.

  9. A school-based human papillomavirus vaccination program in barretos, Brazil: final results of a demonstrative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani

    Full Text Available The implementation of a public HPV vaccination program in several developing countries, especially in Latin America, is a great challenge for health care specialists.To evaluate the uptake and the three-dose completion rates of a school-based HPV vaccination program in Barretos (Brazil.THE STUDY INCLUDED GIRLS WHO WERE ENROLLED IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND WHO REGULARLY ATTENDED THE SIXTH AND SEVENTH GRADES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (MEAN AGE: 11.9 years. A meeting with the parents or guardians occurred approximately one week before the vaccination in order to explain the project and clarify the doubts. The quadrivalent vaccine was administered using the same schedule as in the product package (0-2-6 months. The school visits for regular vaccination occurred on previously scheduled dates. The vaccine was also made available at Barretos Cancer Hospital for the girls who could not be vaccinated on the day when the team visited the school.Among the potential candidates for vaccination (n = 1,574, the parents or guardians of 1,513 girls (96.1% responded to the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 1,389 parents or guardians agreed to participate in the program (acceptance rate = 91.8%. The main reason for refusing to participate in the vaccination program was fear of adverse events. The vaccine uptake rates for the first, second, and third doses were 87.5%, 86.3% and 85.0%, respectively. The three-dose completion rate was 97.2%.This demonstrative study achieved high rates of vaccination uptake and completion of three vaccine doses in children 10-16 years old from Brazil. The feasibility and success of an HPV vaccination program for adolescents in a developing country may depend on the integration between the public health and schooling systems.

  10. Project PANK: Rationale, study protocol and baseline results of a multidisciplinary school based intervention in children with cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Batalau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cardiovascular disease risk factors occur more frequently in children with obesity. Project PANK is a multidisciplinary school-based intervention lasting 6 months to improve BMI z-score, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, blood pressure (BP, nutrition, physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviour (SB, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG. Methods/DesignA total of 77 children (7-10 years were recruited from an urban school. The protocol includes PA and SB individual meetings for children/parents; increasing school exercise; PA and SB lessons for children; A goal in the number of steps/day to accomplish in and after school. In nutrition, the protocol includes three individual meetings for children/parents and six lessons for children. ResultsPositive associations were found between the BMI Z-score, WC, and WHtR with TG; the BMI Z-score and WHtR with glucose; the light PA time and HDL-C; the vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous PA with CRF; the caloric intake and lipids with LDL-C, BMI z-score, WC, and WHtR. A negative association was found between CRF and TG. ConclusionBaseline results stress the importance of multidisciplinary school-based interventions. We hypothesized that PANK will improve blood variables, anthropometric measures, and BP, by changing food intake, enhancing PA and CRF, and decreasing SB.

  11. Treating Anxiety Disorders in Inner City Schools: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing CBT and Usual Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) in inner city schools, when delivered by novice CBT clinicians, and compared to usual care (UC), is unknown. Objective: This pilot study addressed this issue by comparing a modular CBT for anxiety disorders to UC in a sample of 32 volunteer youth (mean age 10.28 years, 63%…

  12. Associations between Grades and Physical Activity and Food Choices: Results from YRBS from a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Beard, Jonathan; Young, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between television viewing time, physical activity level, food consumption patterns, and academic performance of adolescents in a large urban school district in the USA where health disparities are prevalent, particularly among minority residents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  13. Study of the Results in the Acquisition of Core Competencies in Schools That Integrate Primary Education and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu Duran, Maria; Godall Castell, Pere; Amador Guillem, Miquel; Castro Morera, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research was to carry out an exploratory study on how music education integrated into primary schooling (children from 6 to 12 years old) can help in acquiring the core competencies characteristic of this stage. The study was conducted by developing a validated instrument, pilot-tested for reliability, to assess the eight core…

  14. Healthier food choices as a result of the revised healthy diet programme Krachtvoer for students of prevocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, K.M.H.H.; Assema, P. van; Martens, M.K.; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Raaijmakers, L.G.M.; Rooij, M. de; Vries, N.K. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup

  15. The Meaning of Life among Secondary School Pupils. A Theoretical Framework and Some Initial Results. Research Bulletin 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Hannele

    This monograph reports on an empirical survey of 394 secondary school students investigating their desire to seek the meaning of their own lives. The theoretical framework upon which the study was based is that of Viktor E. Frankl's hypotheses that a human being wants to seek the meaning in his own life. The questionnaire consisted of tests…

  16. Cultural Universality and Specificity of Student Engagement in School: The Results of an International Study from 12 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Jimerson, Shane; Shin, Hyeonsook; Cefai, Carmel; Veiga, Feliciano H.; Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini; Kikas, Eve; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Stanculescu, Elena; Basnett, Julie; Duck, Robert; Farrell, Peter; Liu, Yi; Negovan, Valeria; Nelson, Brett; Yang, Hongfei; Zollneritsch, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background: A comprehensive understanding of the contextual factors that are linked to student engagement requires research that includes cross-cultural perspectives. Aims: This study investigated how student engagement in school is associated with grade, gender, and contextual factors across 12 countries. It also investigated whether these…

  17. Secondary School Results for the Fourth NAEP Mathematics Assessment: Discrete Mathematics, Data Organization and Interpretation, Measurement, Number and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Catherine A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that secondary school students seem to have reasonably good procedural knowledge in areas of mathematics as rational numbers, probability, measurement, and data organization and interpretation. It appears, however, that students are lacking the conceptual knowledge enabling them to successfully do the assessment items on applications,…

  18. Relationship between Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity among Primary and Secondary School Students: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…

  19. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  20. Targeting Complex Sentences in Older School Children with Specific Language Impairment: Results from an Early-Phase Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Catherine H.; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of a complex sentence treatment at 2 dosage levels on language performance of 30 school-age children ages 10-14 years with specific language impairment. Method: Three types of complex sentences (adverbial, object complement, relative) were taught in sequence in once or twice weekly dosage conditions.…

  1. Assessing Teacher Change in Facilitating Mathematizing in Urban Middle Schools: Results of an Effective Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlow, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    This study documents the change in teaching practices of a group of mathematics teachers in urban middle schools as they participated in a program of professional development to promote standards-based learning environments. The teachers made a shift in their classroom practice from a traditional, didactic lecture approach towards a role of…

  2. Lifelong Learning as a goal - Do autonomy and self-regulation in school result in well prepared pupils?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüftenegger, M.; Schober, B.; Van de Schoot, R.; Wagner, P.; Finsterwald, M.; Spiel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering lifelong learning (LLL) is a topic of high relevance for current educational policy. School lays the cornerstone for the key components of LLL, specifically persistent motivation to learn and self-regulated learning behavior. The present study investigated the impact of classroom

  3. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of the Statistical Analysis of the February 2010 TMSL Texas Bar Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhi, T.; Holley, D.; Rudley, D.; Garrison, P.; Green, T.

    2010-01-01

    The following report gives the statistical findings of the 2010 Thurgood Marshall School of Law (TMSL) Texas Bar results. This data was pre-existing and was given to the Evaluator by email from the Dean. Then, in-depth statistical analyses were run using the SPSS 17 to address the following questions: 1. What are the statistical descriptors of the…

  4. Analysis of Student and School Level Variables Related to Mathematics Self-Efficacy Level Based on PISA 2012 Results for China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, H. Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the student and school level variables that affect students' self-efficacy levels in mathematics in China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece based on PISA 2012 results. In line with this purpose, the hierarchical linear regression model (HLM) was employed. The interschool variability is estimated at approximately 17% in…

  5. Education to Thrive in a Heterogeneous and Democratic Society - A Task for Citizenship and Character Education? Results of Case Studies in Three Berlin Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Bacia

    2017-09-01

    Findings: Findings: The results of the case studies provide numerous insights into the issue’s complexity and highlight the need to discuss the goals as well as different models of CCE more broadly. Since the understanding of goals and appropriate means of CCE differs strongly depending on cultural and school context, analyzing CCE in the context of heterogeneity in democratic societies implies multidimensional questions. Practical implications: Future research needs to include more members of the studied school communities in the process of participatory action research: Deeper insight into the field can be achieved by integrating multiple perspectives. At the same time more members of the school community can reflect on the study outcomes, which might facilitate their direct implementation into practice.

  6. Computer-Based Training in Math and Working Memory Improves Cognitive Skills and Academic Achievement in Primary School Children: Behavioral Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Sánchez-Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF, has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills.

  7. Computer-Based Training in Math and Working Memory Improves Cognitive Skills and Academic Achievement in Primary School Children: Behavioral Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Castillo, Alejandro; López-López, José A; Pina, Violeta; Puga, Jorge L; Campoy, Guillermo; González-Salinas, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF), has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ) and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities) were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills.

  8. [HPV prophylactic vaccine coverage in France: Results of a survey among high school and university students in Marseilles' area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiani, L; Bremond, A; Mortier, I; Lecuyer, M; Boubli, L; Carcopino, X

    2012-04-01

    To assess HPV prophylactic vaccine coverage among French high school and university students as well as their level of education about this vaccine. An anonymous survey was conducted among 2500 high school and university students from the area of Marseilles, France, from December 2009 to April 2010. A total of 2018 questionnaires were collected (80.7% participation rate). Mean age of participants was 20 years (range, 15-45 years). Only 671 (35.4%) participants reported having been vaccinated against HPV, of whom 510 (73.4%) had completed the three injections scheme. Practice of cytological cervical cancer screening was not significantly influenced by vaccination status. Thus, 578 (45.2%) participants who had not been vaccinated already had had a cervical cytology performed, versus 295 (43.3%) vaccinated ones (P=0.445). Among those not being vaccinated, 671 (49.8%) fulfilled criteria for a catch-up vaccination, of whom only 325 (48.4%) agreed for such a catch-up. Main reasons given for refusal for a catch-up vaccination were the lack of information about HPV vaccine and fear of side effects. In total, 1722 (90%) considered themselves as educated about the HPV vaccine. Source of education was attributed to doctors and media by 54.4% and 53.7% of participants, respectively. Educational role attributed to school and university was poor (3.4%). Despite apparent satisfactory level of education, HPV prophylactic vaccine coverage among high school and university students appears to be insufficient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Perception of the health risks resulting from health, lifestyle and professional strain of teachers of various school levels

    OpenAIRE

    Papršteinová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Perception of health risks from lifestyle and work psychic load of teachers from different school levels Introduction: It is well known that the teaching profession is associated with numerous health risks. Teachers are exposed to excessive mental work and sensory stress, long working in a forced position at increased risk of noise, infections and voice disorders. Compared with the general population, there are more frequently found diseases related to occupational stress. Aim: To determine t...

  10. Clinical Reasoning Education at US Medical Schools: Results from a National Survey of Internal Medicine Clerkship Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencic, Joseph; Trowbridge, Robert L; Fagan, Mark; Szauter, Karen; Durning, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Recent reports, including the Institute of Medicine's Improving Diagnosis in Health Care, highlight the pervasiveness and underappreciated harm of diagnostic error, and recommend enhancing health care professional education in diagnostic reasoning. However, little is known about clinical reasoning curricula at US medical schools. To describe clinical reasoning curricula at US medical schools and to determine the attitudes of internal medicine clerkship directors toward teaching of clinical reasoning. Cross-sectional multicenter study. US institutional members of the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM). Examined responses to a survey that was emailed in May 2015 to CDIM institutional representatives, who reported on their medical school's clinical reasoning curriculum. The response rate was 74% (91/123). Most respondents reported that a structured curriculum in clinical reasoning should be taught in all phases of medical education, including the preclinical years (64/85; 75%), clinical clerkships (76/87; 87%), and the fourth year (75/88; 85%), and that more curricular time should be devoted to the topic. Respondents indicated that most students enter the clerkship with only poor (25/85; 29%) to fair (47/85; 55%) knowledge of key clinical reasoning concepts. Most institutions (52/91; 57%) surveyed lacked sessions dedicated to these topics. Lack of curricular time (59/67, 88%) and faculty expertise in teaching these concepts (53/76, 69%) were identified as barriers. Internal medicine clerkship directors believe that clinical reasoning should be taught throughout the 4 years of medical school, with the greatest emphasis in the clinical years. However, only a minority reported having teaching sessions devoted to clinical reasoning, citing a lack of curricular time and faculty expertise as the largest barriers. Our findings suggest that additional institutional and national resources should be dedicated to developing clinical reasoning curricula to improve

  11. Computerized tablet based versus traditional paper- based survey methods: results from adolescent's health research in schools of Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Agarwal; Balram Paswan; Prakash H. Fulpagare; Dhirendra N Sinha; Thaksaphon Thamarangsi; Manju Rani

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation Technological advancement is growing very fast in India and majority of young population is handling electronic devices often during leisure as well as at work. This study indicates that electronic tablets are less time consuming and improves survey response rate over the traditional paper-pencil survey method. Intervention or response An Android-based Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire was used with the...

  12. The volume and type of unhealthy bus shelter advertising around schools in Perth, Western Australia: Results from an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Ashleigh; Edmunds, Melinda; Pierce, Hannah; Stoneham, Melissa J

    2018-03-05

    Exposure to advertising for unhealthy food, alcohol and gambling has been shown to influence children and adolescents' behaviours and attitudes. This exploratory study aimed to assess the volume and type of unhealthy bus shelter advertisements near schools in five local government areas in Perth, Western Australia and to monitor whether the volume of unhealthy advertisements varied seasonally. The 29 local governments in the Perth metropolitan region were contacted seeking information regarding the locations of bus shelters featuring advertisements in their local government area. Five local governments provided sufficient information for an audit of the bus shelter advertisements in their area to be conducted. Every bus shelter within 500 m of a school was photographed and the type of advertisement recorded. The advertisements in the food, non-alcoholic beverage, alcohol, or gambling categories were then classified as being healthy, moderate, or unhealthy. This process was carried out in June, September, December 2016, and March 2017 to ascertain whether the type of advertisements displayed changed depending on the season. Of the 293 advertisements recorded over the four audits, 31% featured unhealthy products, 3% moderate, and <1% healthy. Only two of the 293 advertisements were classified as being healthy. Seasonal variation in the volume of unhealthy advertisements was not identified. SO WHAT?: Western Australian school students are regularly exposed to unhealthy bus shelter advertisements. Stricter regulation of outdoor advertising is needed to ensure that young people are protected from the influence of unhealthy industries. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  13. Causes of childhood blindness in Ghana: results from a blind school survey in Upper West Region, Ghana, and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Grace J; Simon, Judith; Grace Prakalapakorn, S

    2017-06-13

    Data on childhood blindness in Ghana are limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the major causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment (SVI) at Wa Methodist School for the Blind in Northern Ghana, and to compare our results to those published from other studies conducted in Ghana. In this retrospective study, data from an eye screening at Wa Methodist School in November 2014 were coded according to the World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness standardized reporting methodology. Causes of blindness/SVI were categorized anatomically and etiologically, and were compared to previously published studies. Of 190 students screened, the major anatomical causes of blindness/SVI were corneal scar/phthisis bulbi (CS/PB) (n = 28, 15%) and optic atrophy (n = 23, 12%). The major etiological causes of blindness/SVI were unknown (n = 114, 60%). Eighty-three (44%) students became blind before age one year. Of four published blind school surveys conducted in Ghana, CS/PB was the most common anatomical cause of childhood blindness. Over time, the prevalence of CS/PB within blind schools decreased in the north and increased in the south. Measles-associated visual loss decreased from 52% in 1987 to 10% in 2014 at Wa Methodist School. In a blind school in northern Ghana, CS/PB was the major anatomical cause of childhood blindness/SVI. While CS/PB has been the most common anatomical cause of childhood blindness reported in Ghana, there may be regional changes in its prevalence over time. Being able to identify regional differences may guide future public health strategies to target specific causes.

  14. Current cigarette smoking among in-school American youth: results from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey

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    Muula Adamson S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Results Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60], Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58], Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92], and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]. American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]. Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked. Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or

  15. Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Katrin U; Brüheim, Linda; Westermann, Jürgen; Katalinic, Alexander; Kötter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A stronger consideration of non-cognitive characteristics in Medical School application procedures is desirable. Psychometric tests could be used as an economic supplement to face-to-face interviews which are frequently conducted during university internal procedures for Medical School applications (AdH, Auswahlverfahren der Hochschulen). This study investigates whether the results of psychometric questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics such as personality traits, empathy, and resilience towards stress are vulnerable to distortions of social desirability when used in the context of selection procedures at Medical Schools. Methods: This study took place during the AdH of Lübeck University in August 2015. The following questionnaires have been included: NEO-FFI, SPF, and AVEM. In a 2x1 between-subject experiment we compared the answers from an alleged application condition and a control condition. In the alleged application condition we told applicants that these questionnaires were part of the application procedure. In the control condition applicants were informed about the study prior to completing the questionnaires. Results: All included questionnaires showed differences which can be regarded as social-desirability effects. These differences did not affect the entire scales but, rather, single subscales. Conclusion: These results challenge the informative value of these questionnaires when used for Medical School application procedures. Future studies may investigate the extent to which the differences influence the actual selection of applicants and what implications can be drawn from them for the use of psychometric questionnaires as part of study-place allocation procedures at Medical Schools.

  16. Are the results of questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics during the selection procedure for medical school application biased by social desirability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obst, Katrin U.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A stronger consideration of non-cognitive characteristics in Medical School application procedures is desirable. Psychometric tests could be used as an economic supplement to face-to-face interviews which are frequently conducted during university internal procedures for Medical School applications (AdH, Auswahlverfahren der Hochschulen. This study investigates whether the results of psychometric questionnaires measuring non-cognitive characteristics such as personality traits, empathy, and resilience towards stress are vulnerable to distortions of social desirability when used in the context of selection procedures at Medical Schools.Methods: This study took place during the AdH of Lübeck University in August 2015. The following questionnaires have been included: NEO-FFI, SPF, and AVEM. In a 2x1 between-subject experiment we compared the answers from an alleged application condition and a control condition. In the alleged application condition we told applicants that these questionnaires were part of the application procedure. In the control condition applicants were informed about the study prior to completing the questionnaires.Results: All included questionnaires showed differences which can be regarded as social-desirability effects. These differences did not affect the entire scales but, rather, single subscales.Conclusion: These results challenge the informative value of these questionnaires when used for Medical School application procedures. Future studies may investigate the extent to which the differences influence the actual selection of applicants and what implications can be drawn from them for the use of psychometric questionnaires as part of study-place allocation procedures at Medical Schools.

  17. Associations between stress and migraine and tension-type headache: results from a school-based study in adolescents from grammar schools in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; Blaschek, Astrid; Heinen, Florian; Borggräfe, Ingo; Koerte, Inga; Straube, Andreas; Schankin, Christoph; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2011-05-01

    Stress is considered the major contributor to migraine and tension-type headache in adolescents. Previous studies have focused on general stressors, whereas the aim of the present study was to investigate associations between individuals' stressful experiences and different types of headache. Adolescents from 10th and 11th grades of grammar schools filled in questionnaires. Stressful experiences were measured with the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress. Type of headache was classified according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Linear regressions, adjusted for sex and grade, were calculated to estimate differences in stress scores that can be attributed to migraine, tension-type headache or miscellaneous headache. A total of 1260 questionnaires were analysed. Tension-type headache, migraine and co-existing migraine plus tension-type headache were found in 48.7%, 10.2% and 19.8% of the participants. In subjects with migraine or co-existing migraine plus tension-type headache, high increases in stress scores were found in all investigated dimensions, whereas much weaker and inconsistent associations were found in subjects with tension-type headache only. The characteristic of migraine is more associated with stressful experiences than this is the case for tension-type headache. This suggests that adolescent migraine patients might especially benefit from behavioural interventions regarding stress.

  18. High incidence of sleep problems in children with developmental disorders: results of a questionnaire survey in a Japanese elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Michiko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Mizue; Iemura, Akiko; Yamashita, Yushiro; Maeda, Masaharu; Kitani, Shingo; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Uchimura, Naohisa; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present school-based questionnaire was to analyze the sleep problems of children with developmental disorders, such as pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The sleep problems of 43 children with developmental disorders were compared with those of 372 healthy children (control group). All children attended one public elementary school in Kurume, Japan; thus, the study avoided the potential bias associated with hospital-based surveys (i.e. a high prevalence of sleep disturbance) and provided a more complete picture of the children's academic performance and family situation compared with a control group under identical conditions. Children's sleep problems were measured with the Japanese version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Children with developmental disorders had significantly higher total CSHQ scores, as well as mean scores on the parasomnias and sleep breathing subscales, than children in the control group. The total CSHQ score, bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and daytime sleepiness worsened with increasing age in children with developmental disorders; in contrast, these parameters were unchanged or became better with age in the control group. In children with developmental disorders, there was a significant association between a higher total CSHQ score and lower academic performance, but no such association was found in the control group. For both groups, children's sleep problems affected their parents' quality of sleep. There were no significant differences in physical, lifestyle, and sleep environmental factors, or in sleep/wake patterns, between the two groups. Children with developmental disorders have poor sleep quality, which may affect academic performance. It is important for physicians to be aware of age-related differences in sleep problems in children with developmental disorders. Further studies are needed to identify the association between sleep quality and

  19. The Applications of Mindfulness with Students of Secondary School: Results on the Academic Performance, Self-concept and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Clemente; Mañas, Israel; Cangas, Adolfo J.; Gallego, José

    The aim of the present research is to verify the impact of a mindfulness programme on the levels academic performance, self-concept and anxiety, of a group of students in Year 1 at secondary school. The statistical analyses carried out on the variables studied showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group with regard to the control group in all the variables analysed. In the experimental group we can observe a significant increase of academic performance as well as an improvement in all the self-concept dimensions, and a significant decrease in anxiety states and traits. The importance and usefulness of mindfulness techniques in the educative system is discussed.

  20. Do school inspections improve primary school performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinand Webbink; Rob Luginbuhl; I. de Wolf

    2007-01-01

    Inspectors from the Dutch Inspectorate of Education inspect primary schools, write inspection reports on each inspected school, and make recommendations as to how each school can improve. We test whether these inspections result in better school performance. Using a fixed-effects model, we find evidence that school inspections do lead to measurably better school performance. Our assessment of school performance is based on the Cito test scores of pupils in their final year of primary school. ...

  1. Help-seeking behavior among Japanese school students who self-harm: results from a self-report survey of 18,104 adolescents

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    Furukawa TA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,* Atsushi Nishida,2,* Shinji Shimodera,3 Ken Inoue,4 Norihito Oshima,5 Tsukasa Sasaki,6 Shimpei Inoue,3 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Yuji Okazaki81Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Schizophrenia Research, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, 4Department Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, 5Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 6Health Service Center, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 7Department of Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, 8Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with poor help-seeking among adolescents who self-harm and to explore the resources used for help.Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted in 47 junior and 30 senior high schools in Japan. Adolescent self-harm was defined as an adolescent who had harmed himself or herself in the previous year, as in previous studies reported in Western countries. Poor help-seeking was defined as not consulting anyone despite reporting current psychological or somatic complaints. Information about sociodemographic and psychological factors possibly associated with help-seeking, such as suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like experiences, was also collected. Regression analyses were performed to examine associated factors.Results: A total of 18,104 students (8620 aged 12–15 years, 9484 aged 15–18 years, accounting for 93% of all students in the relevant student classes, participated in the study. Two hundred and

  2. Documenting the conversion from traditional to Studio Physics formats at the Colorado School of Mines: Process and early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Kuo, H. Vincent; Ruskell, Todd G.

    2008-10-01

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) has taught its first-semester introductory physics course using a hybrid lecture/Studio Physics format for several years. Over the past year we have converted the second semester of our calculus-based introductory physics course (Physics II) to a Studio Physics format, starting from a traditional lecture-based format. In this paper, we document the early stages of this conversion in order to better understand which features succeed and which do not, and in order to develop a model for switching to Studio that keeps the time and resource investment manageable. We describe the recent history of the Physics II course and of Studio at Mines, discuss the PER-based improvements that we are implementing, and characterize our progress via several metrics, including pre/post Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) scores, Colorado Learning About Science Survey scores (CLASS), solicited student comments, failure rates, and exam scores.

  3. Why do faculty leave? Reasons for attrition of women and minority faculty from a medical school: four-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Masho, Saba W; Shiang, Rita; Sikka, Veronica; Kornstein, Susan G; Hampton, Carol L

    2008-09-01

    Faculty attrition, particularly among female and minority faculty, is a serious problem in academic medical settings. The reasons why faculty in academic medical settings choose to leave their employment are not well understood. Further, it is not clear if the reasons why women and minority faculty leave differ from those of other groups. One hundred sixty-six medical school faculty who left the School of Medicine (SOM) between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2005, completed a survey about their reasons for leaving. The three most common overall reasons for leaving the institution included career/professional advancement (29.8%), low salary (25.5%), and chairman/departmental leadership issues (22.4%). The ranking of these reasons varied slightly across racial and gender groups, with women and minority faculty also citing personal reasons for leaving. Women and minority faculty were at lower academic ranks at the time they left the SOM compared with male and majority groups. Although salary differences were not present at the time of initial hire, sex was a significant predictor of lower salary at the start of the new position. Opportunity for advancement and the rate of promotion were significantly different between women and men. Job characteristics prior to leaving that were rated most poorly were protected time for teaching and research, communication across the campus, and patient parking. Harassment and discrimination were reported by a small number of those surveyed, particularly women and minority faculty. The majority of reasons for faculty attrition are amenable to change. Retaining high-quality faculty in medical settings may justify the costs of faculty development and retention efforts.

  4. Online health information seeking among Jewish and Arab adolescents in Israel: results from a national school survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, Yehuda; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Feldman, Becca S; Hirsch Allen, A J; Shtarkshall, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns and determinants of seeking online health information among a nationally representative sample of 7,028 Jewish and Arab 7th- through 12th-grade students in 158 schools in Israel. Nearly all respondents (98.7%) reported Internet access, and 52.1% reported having sought online health information in the past year. Arab students (63%) were more likely than Jewish students (48%) to seek online health information. Population-group and sex differences in health topics sought online were identified, although fitness/exercise was most common across groups. Multivariate regression models revealed that having sought health information from other sources was the strongest independent correlate of online health information-seeking among Jews (adjusted odds ratio = 8.93, 95% CI [7.70, 10.36]) and Arabs (adjusted odds ratio = 9.77, 95% CI [7.27, 13.13]). Other factors associated with seeking online health information common to both groups were level of trust in online health information, Internet skill level, having discussed health/medical issues with a health care provider in the past year, and school performance. The most common reasons for not seeking online health information were a preference to receive information from a health professional and lack of interest in health/medical issues. The closing of the digital divide between Jews and Arabs represents a move toward equality. Identifying and addressing factors underpinning online health information-seeking behaviors is essential to improve the health status of Israeli youth and reduce health disparities.

  5. Risk factors for a delay in medical education: Results of an online survey among four German medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, Jens; Fischer, Martin R

    2018-01-01

    Delayed study progress in medical school is a challenging issue for the tax paying community, the faculty and the medical students themselves. Reasons for a delay might be different from known risk factors for academic difficulties. An online survey regarding delays in the study progress and including a personality test (BFI-10) was presented to medical students from four German medical schools after completion of their 3rd year of study. Of 617 students, 51.2% reported a mean delay of 2.1 ± 1.5 semesters. Frequent risk factors were secondary employment (69.5%, odds ratio (OR) 1.7, p = 0.004), female gender (69.8%, OR 1.6, p = 0.007), work or study abroad (35.9%, OR 1.5, p = 0.02), a late graduation (5.9%, OR 2.4, p = 0.02), as well as support through scholarship or mentoring (19.9%, OR 1.8, p = 0.004). "Working on doctoral thesis" (11.3%, OR 1.9, p = 0.03) and structural curricular issues (36.6%, OR 0.9, p = 0.7) were frequently identified as obstacles. "Support by friends/family" was considered helpful by 24.1% (OR 1.4, p = 0.09), as well as a high intrinsic motivation (19.1%, OR 0.5, p = 0.01). In the BFI-10, students with study delay were more prone to openness and agreeableness. Risk factors for delay are not identical to those for academic difficulties. To decrease the risk for delays, firm curricular structures should be identified and alleviated. Intrinsic motivation is a strong impetus of study progress and additionally might be strengthened by curricular changes.

  6. Effects of seasonal and pandemic influenza on health-related quality of life, work and school absence in England: Results from the Flu Watch cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaszy, Ellen B; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; White, Peter J; Zambon, Maria; Edmunds, William J; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Hayward, Andrew C

    2018-01-01

    Estimates of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and work/school absences for influenza are typically based on medically attended cases or those meeting influenza-like-illness (ILI) case definitions and thus biased towards severe disease. Although community influenza cases are more common, estimates of their effects on HRQoL and absences are limited. To measure quality-adjusted life days and years (QALDs and QALYs) lost and work/school absences among community cases of acute respiratory infections (ARI), ILI and influenza A and B and to estimate community burden of QALY loss and absences from influenza. Flu Watch was a community cohort in England from 2006 to 2011. Participants were followed up weekly. During respiratory illness, they prospectively recorded daily symptoms, work/school absences and EQ-5D-3L data and submitted nasal swabs for RT-PCR influenza testing. Average QALD lost was 0.26, 0.93, 1.61 and 1.84 for ARI, ILI, H1N1pdm09 and influenza B cases, respectively. 40% of influenza A cases and 24% of influenza B cases took time off work/school with an average duration of 3.6 and 2.4 days, respectively. In England, community influenza cases lost 24 300 QALYs in 2010/11 and had an estimated 2.9 million absences per season based on data from 2006/07 to 2009/10. Our QALDs and QALYs lost and work and school absence estimates are lower than previous estimates because we focus on community cases, most of which are mild, may not meet ILI definitions and do not result in healthcare consultations. Nevertheless, they contribute a substantial loss of HRQoL on a population level. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Relationship between markers of body fat and calcaneal bone stiffness differs between preschool and primary school children: results from the IDEFICS baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Mouratidou, Theodora; Herrmann, Diana; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Marild, Staffan; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Siani, Alfonso; Gianfagna, Francesco; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between markers of body fat and bone status assessed as calcaneal bone stiffness in a large sample of European healthy pre- and primary school children. Participants were 7,447 children from the IDEFICS study (spread over eight different European countries), age 6.1 ± 1.8 years (range 2.1-9.9), 50.5 % boys. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, bioelectrical impedance, waist and hip circumference, and tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness) as well as quantitative ultrasonographic measurements to determine calcaneal stiffness index (SI) were performed. Partial correlation analysis, linear regression analysis, and ANCOVA were stratified by sex and age group: preschool boys (n = 1,699) and girls (n = 1,599) and primary school boys (n = 2,062) and girls (n = 2,087). In the overall study population, the average calcaneal SI was equal to 80.2 ± 14.0, ranging 42.4-153. The results showed that preschool children with higher body fat had lower calcaneal SI (significant correlation coefficients between -0.05 and -0.20), while primary school children with higher body fat had higher calcaneal SI (significant correlation coefficients between 0.05 and 0.13). After adjusting for fat-free mass, both preschool and primary school children showed an inverse relationship between body fat and calcaneal stiffness. To conclude, body fat is negatively associated with calcaneal bone stiffness in children after adjustment for fat-free mass. Fat-free mass may confound the association in primary school children but not in preschool children. Muscle mass may therefore be an important determinant of bone stiffness.

  8. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Monika

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES. Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p. More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p. A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6% was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2% or never (22.9% consumed breakfast (p. This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5, 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5 times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image satisfaction; and positive

  9. From researchers to primary school: dissemination of scientific research results on the beach. An experience of environmental education at Nefza, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fanini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the MEDCORE project on the ecology andmanagement of Mediterranean coastal areas we decided to includethe local dissemination of scientific results in Tunisia. Theinvolvement of a local public school, and the joint work of localteachers and of local and international researchers, was chosenas a dissemination method because of the role of the school asan educational centre and the natural interest and curiositycharacterising the schoolchildren. As the subject of the experienceof dissemination a beach-dune system was considered suitablebecause of it was near, familiar and easy to reach, and alsobecause of the economic importance of such environments, whichgenerate considerable income as a result of tourists frequentingthem. In environmental education, however, less emphasis is placedon this particular environment. A test performed before and aftera school trip to the beach showed an increase in knowledge amongchildren about beach-dune systems. Correlations between the genderand background of the children with their previous knowledgeand information acquired from the field experience were analysed,and found to be not significant. All the children were equallyreceptive to environmental issues, regardless of their genderor background (urban/rural environment. One of the main resultsobtained through this experience is the effectiveness of sharingknowledge with local people, as stakeholders of study sites.The next step in the process of disseminating scientific knowledgefor the benefit of the local community should be to examine itspossible long-term effects.

  10. Giving High School Students a Research Grade Radio Telescope to Control; Motivational Results from Access to Real Scientific Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Russell; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever wondered what it might be like to place control of a six-story building in the hands of eager high school students? This past summer, the USNO 20m telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV was brought back online for just such a purpose. This telescope is equipped with an X-band receiver, capable of observing center frequencies from 8-10 GHz and is the first radio telescope accessible by students and observers through the SKYNET telescope network. Operated remotely with a queue-based system, students can now collect real radio data for any range of projects. This past summer, five lessons were written that were tailor-made for student exploration of radio astronomy. Each lesson explores various radio objects in the context of an action-packed sci-fi adventure. Some of the work required to bring the 20m online for student use will be discussed here, but the main focus of this presentation will be how this work has been received by the author’s own students in its first classroom application. Topics that are normally difficult to discuss with students in an inquiry-based classroom setting, such as HII regions, synchrotron radiation, lunar temperature profiles, and galactic supermassive black holes were addressed in the classroom using the lessons developed by the author for the 20m as well as data collected by students using the telescope via SKYNET.

  11. On the relationship between dynamic visual and auditory processing and literacy skills; results from a large primary-school study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, Joel B; Witton, Caroline; Hebb, Gillian S; Stoodley, Catherine J; Westwood, Elizabeth A; France, Susan J; Hansen, Peter C; Stein, John F

    2002-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty randomly selected primary school children completed a psychometric and psychophysical test battery to ascertain relationships between reading ability and sensitivity to dynamic visual and auditory stimuli. The first analysis examined whether sensitivity to visual coherent motion and auditory frequency resolution differed between groups of children with different literacy and cognitive skills. For both tasks, a main effect of literacy group was found in the absence of a main effect for intelligence or an interaction between these factors. To assess the potential confounding effects of attention, a second analysis of the frequency discrimination data was conducted with performance on catch trials entered as a covariate. Significant effects for both the covariate and literacy skill was found, but again there was no main effect of intelligence, nor was there an interaction between intelligence and literacy skill. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the magnitude of the relationship between sensory and literacy skills in the entire sample. Both visual motion sensitivity and auditory sensitivity to frequency differences were robust predictors of children's literacy skills and their orthographic and phonological skills.

  12. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  13. High School Students With Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Michael G; Fall, Anna-Mária; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state accountability test and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and a business as usual (BAU) condition: reading without dropout prevention, reading with dropout prevention, dropout prevention without reading, or a BAU condition. Findings from the 2-year reading intervention (reading with and without dropout prevention combined and BAU) are reported in this article. Students in reading treatment compared to students in BAU demonstrated significant gains on reading comprehension (effect size = .43), and improved reading was associated with better grades in social studies. Findings from this study provide a rationale for further implementation and investigation of intensive intervention for high school students with reading difficulties. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  14. Effectiveness of a peer-led HIV prevention intervention in secondary schools in Rwanda: results from a non-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen Kristien

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the HIV epidemic is levelling off in sub-Saharan Africa, it remains at an unacceptably high level. Young people aged 15-24 years remain particularly vulnerable, resulting in a regional HIV prevalence of 1.4% in young men and 3.3% in young women. This study assesses the effectiveness of a peer-led HIV prevention intervention in secondary schools in Rwanda on young people’s sexual behavior, HIV knowledge and attitudes. Methods In a non-randomized longitudinal controlled trial, fourteen schools were selected in two neighboring districts in Rwanda Bugesera (intervention and Rwamagana (control. Students (n = 1950 in eight intervention and six control schools participated in three surveys (baseline, six and twelve months in the intervention. Analysis was done using linear and logistic regression using generalized estimation equations adjusted for propensity score. Results The overall retention rate was 72%. Time trends in sexual risk behavior (being sexually active, sex in last six months, condom use at last sex were not significantly different in students from intervention and control schools, nor was the intervention associated with increased knowledge, perceived severity or perceived susceptibility. It did significantly reduce reported stigma. Conclusions Analyzing this and other interventions, we identified several reasons for the observed limited effectiveness of peer education: 1 intervention activities (spreading information are not tuned to objectives (changing behavior; 2 young people prefer receiving HIV information from other sources than peers; 3 outcome indicators are not adequate and the context of the relationship in which sex occurs and the context in which sex occurs is ignored. Effectiveness of peer education may increase through integration in holistic interventions and redefining peer educators’ role as focal points for sensitization and referral to experts and services. Finally, we argue that a

  15. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance, K-12 Schools (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed the Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) to provide specific methodologies, information, and guidance to help energy managers and other stakeholders plan and execute energy efficiency improvements. Detailed technical discussion is fairly limited. Instead, we emphasize actionable information, practical methodologies, diverse case studies, and unbiased evaluations of the most promising retrofit energy efficiency measures for each building type. A series of AERGs is under development, addressing key segments of the commercial building stock. K-12 schools were selected as one of the highest priority building sectors, because schools affect the lives of most Americans. They also represent approximately 8% of the energy use and 10% of the floor area in commercial buildings nationwide. U.S. K-12 school districts spend more than $8 billion each year on energy - more than they spend on computers and textbooks combined. Most occupy older buildings that often have poor operational performance - more than 30% of schools were built before 1960. The average age of a school is about 42 years - which is nearly the expected serviceable lifespan of the building. K-12 schools offer unique opportunities for deep, cost-effective energy efficiency improvements, and this guide provides convenient and practical guidance for exploiting these opportunities in the context of public, private, and parochial schools.

  16. Results of an academic promotion and career path survey of faculty at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia A; Diener-West, Marie; Canto, Marcia I; Martin, Don R; Post, Wendy S; Streiff, Michael B

    2004-03-01

    Clinician-educator faculty are increasing in numbers in academic medical centers, but their academic advancement is slower than that of research faculty. The authors sought to quantify the magnitude of this difference in career advancement and to explore the characteristics of faculty that might explain the difference. In 1999, a questionnaire was administered to all MD faculty at the rank of instructor and above (259) in the Department of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. A total of 180 (69%) faculty returned questionnaires. Of these, 178 identified with one of four career paths: basic researcher (46), clinical researcher (69), academic clinician (38), or teacher-clinician (25). Career path did not differ by age, gender, rank, years on faculty, hours worked per week, family responsibility, or global work satisfaction. After adjusting for age, gender, time at rank, and work satisfaction, the odds of being at a higher rank were 85% less for academic clinicians (odds ratio,.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.40) and 69% less for teacher-clinicians (odds ratio,.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.88) than for basic researchers. Clinical researchers did not differ from basic researchers in the likelihood of being at higher rank. Similarly, compared with basic research faculty, the adjusted odds of being more satisfied with progress towards academic promotion were 92% lower for academic clinicians and 87% lower for teacher-clinicians. Clinician-educator faculty were less likely to be at higher rank at this institution than were faculty in research paths. Differences in rank may be explained by lower rank at hire for faculty in these career paths, time available for scholarly activities, or other resources available to support scholarship. Retaining clinician-educators will require further exploration of barriers to promotion inherent to these career paths and methods of modifying these barriers.

  17. Vitamin D status and association to bone health in 781 healthy 8–11 years old Danish school children: preliminary results from the Opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.

    2013-01-01

    for bone area (BA), age, height, weight, gender, pubertal stage, ethnicity and physical activity. Likewise, no associations were found between serum 25(OH)D and BA or BMD. Conclusion: A substantial number of Danish children did not reach the recommended level of 25(OH)D (>50 nmol/l) during autumn. Despite...... conducted and anthropometry, puberty stage, intake of dietary supplements and physical activity was measured. Whole body DXA scans were performed and total body less head (TBLH) DXA values were used in data analyses. Results: Serum 25(OH)D ranged from 15.2 to 132 nmol/l, with mean of 60.7±18.7 nmol......PTH (P=0.012) concentrations than boys. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with iPTH without, and with, adjustment for age, gender, pubertal stage, month and ethnicity (P

  18. Development of a school-based program for adolescents at-risk for depression in India: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Meghna; Manjula, M; Vijay Sagar, K John

    2014-08-01

    A majority of adolescents in India, who are at risk for depression, do not receive treatment or receive it when the psychopathology has become entrenched and chronic. The present pilot study was an endeavor to assess the felt needs of adolescents vis-à-vis the difficulties and stressors experienced by them. For this purpose, 300 students across three schools were screened using standardized measures. Another objective of the study was to develop and test a school-based Coping Skills Program to address adolescents at-risk for depression. Schools were sequentially assigned to intervention or control conditions; students of index (n=13) and control (n=6) groups were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months follow-up. At post-intervention for the index group, all outcomes measures except coping skills-including depressive symptoms, negative cognitions, academic stress, and social problem-solving-showed change in the expected direction, this difference assuming significance at follow-up. The program was rated positively by students using anonymous feedback and there was low to nil perceived stigmatization. Results are discussed in the context of need for such intervention programs in India, and future scope of research involving larger samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct and self-reported measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours by weight status in school-aged children: results from ISCOLE-Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuri, Stella K; Wachira, Lucy-Joy M; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown little association between self-report and directly measured physical activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-reported and directly assessed measures of physical activity and sedentary time by weight status in Kenyan children. Direct assessment of body weight, physical activity and sedentary time of 563 children was collected through anthropometry and accelerometry, while self-reported assessment was achieved by administering a questionnaire. Under/healthy weight children had significantly higher directly measured mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to overweight/obese children (39 vs 20 minutes); had lower mean weekend-day minutes of sedentary time (346 vs 365 minutes); had a higher proportion who met accepted physical activity guidelines (15.3% vs 2.6%); and a higher number reported using active transportation to/from school (49.2% vs 32.4%). Self-reported time spent outside before and after school and active transport to/from school were significantly associated with mean weekday minutes of MVPA (r-value range = 0.12-0.36), but only for the under/healthy weight children. The results of this study found a number of differences in the accumulation of MVPA and sedentary time by weight status and weak-to-moderate correlations between self-report and direct measures of weekday and weekend-day physical activity among the under/healthy weight children.

  20. Social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth: results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools (TEENS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Lytle, Leslie A; Chen, Vincent

    2008-07-01

    To explore the social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth, as shown in results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools study. Longitudinal data from a school-based intervention trial. Adolescents who were involved in the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools intervention study who reported a healthful weight at baseline in 1998 (n=1,728). Transition to overweight status (body mass index > or =85th percentile) at follow-up in eighth grade. Generalized linear mixed model regression. Factors in the social, environmental, individual, and behavioral domains had significant unadjusted relationships with a transition to overweight status. In the multivariate analysis, adolescents who perceived themselves to be overweight at baseline were 2.3 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up compared to those with a normal weight self-perception. Compared to nondieters, current dieters were 2.6 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up, and boys were nearly three times more likely to transition to overweight status at follow-up compared with girls. Individual factors, primarily related to a self-perception of being overweight, were the strongest predictors of transitioning to overweight as adolescents progressed from seventh through eighth grade. A better understanding of the relationship between weight concern and transition to overweight is needed.

  1. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  2. Current cigarette smoking among in-school American youth: results from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S; Siziya, Seter

    2009-04-03

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. A secondary analysis of the 2004 United States National Youth Tobacco Survey was carried out to estimate the association between current cigarette smoking and selected smoking-related variables. Study participants were recruited from middle and high schools in the United States. Logistic regression analysis using SUDAAN software was conducted to estimate the association between smoking and the following explanatory variables: age, sex, race-ethnicity, peer smoking, living in the same household as a smoker, amount of pocket money at the disposal of the adolescents, and perception that smoking is not harmful to health. Of the 27727 respondents whose data were analysed, 15.9% males and 15.3% females reported being current cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, compared to Whites, respondents from almost all ethnic groups were less likely to report current cigarette smoking: Blacks (OR = 0.52; 95% CI [0.44, 0.60]), Asians (OR = 0.45; 95% CI [0.35, 0.58]), Hispanic (OR = 0.81; 95% CI [0.71, 0.92]), and Hawaii/Pacific Islanders (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.52, 0.93]). American Indians were equally likely to be current smokers as whites, OR = 0.98 [95% CI; 0.79, 1.22]. Participants who reported living with a smoker were more than twice as likely to smoke as those who did not live with a cigarette smoker (OR = 2.73; 95% CI [2.21, 3.04]). Having friends who smoked was positively associated with smoking (OR = 2.27; 95% CI [1.91, 2.71] for one friend who smoked, and OR = 2.71; 95% CI [2.21, 3.33] for two or more friends who smoked). Subjects who perceived that it was safe to smoke for one or two years were more likely to smoke than those who

  3. A simple method for identification of misreporting of energy intake from infancy to school age: Results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Delphina; Luque, Veronica; Xhonneux, Annick; Verduci, Elvira; Socha, Piotr; Koletzko, Berthold; Berger, Ursula; Grote, Veit

    2017-06-01

    Misreporting is a major source of reporting bias in nutritional surveys. It can affect the analysis of associations between diet and disease. Although various methods have been proposed to identify misreporting, their application to infants and young children is difficult. We identify misreporting of energy intake in infants and young children and propose a simplified approach. 1199 children were enrolled in the Childhood Obesity Programme (CHOP) based in 5 European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain) with repeated measurements of 3-day weighed food protocol and anthropometric indices at 10 time points between ages 1-96 months. Individual cut-offs for the ratio of reported energy intake and estimated energy requirement were calculated to identify misreporters. Misreporting was studied according to age, gender, BMI z-scores and country. We identified a higher proportion of over-reporters (18.9%) as compared to under-reporters (10.6%). The proportion of over-reporting was higher among infants while under-reporting was more prevalent in school-aged children. Under-reporting was higher in boys (12.0%) and in obese/over-weight children (36.3%). Mean values for upper and lower cut-offs for the ratio of reported energy intake and estimated energy requirement in children ≤12 months were 0.80 and 1.20, and 0.75 and 1.25 for children >12 months, respectively. Using these fixed (mean) values, 90.4% (kappa statistic: 0.78) of all misreporters could be identified. Despite intensive measures to obtain habitual intake of children, an essential proportion of nutritional reports were found to be implausible. Both over- and under-reporting should be carefully analysed, even in studies on infants. Fixed cut-offs can be applied to identify misreporting if no individual variation in energy intake can be calculated. This trial was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00338689. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition

  4. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  5. Examining the Effects of Displaying Clicker Voting Results on High School Students' Voting Behaviors, Discussion Processes, and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Ta; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Li, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' clicking behaviors, discussion processes, learning outcomes, and a prominent feature of clicker systems--the whole class' response results aggregated by clickers in real time. The results indicate that, while teaching Newton's laws of motion, displaying the real-time responses of the whole…

  6. Results of the population study of the prevalence and risk factors of the food intolerance in children of different school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Р. Pakholchuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that allergy is genetically predispose. But gene change takes much time, ages. Some researches have doubts that it occurred during last two decades, but allergic pathology spread increased in several times more and continue to grow. That’s why the cause should be searched in the epigenetic influences (environmental, food, ets.. More than the half of the modern hypothesis concerning allergy spread are associated with food (7 from 13. EAACI data showed that quantity of children with self reported food hypersensitivity and positive provocation test results decrease with age. But specific IgE levels to food showed other pattern: it increases in young school children in two times and decreases in elders. We supposed different pathogenetic mechanisms of food intolerance (FI in school children of different ages. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, risk factors and features of the FI in children of different school age. Materials and methods. 250 children 6-17 years old were included into the study. All of them were citizens from the industrial region of the Zaporizhia city. 217 respondents returned questionnaire. 137 of them undergone physical examination. Questionnaire was created on the base of the ISAAC survey and included questions on the life style, food, early age. For the assessment of the skin symptoms severity SCORAD scale was used. Transepidermal water lost was estimated with humidity meter (Queentone,France. Skin pH metria was performed with pH-meter (Ezodo,Taiwan. Statistical analysis was made with Microsoft Exel, Statistica 6.0 programs. Results and discussion. 217 respondents returned questionnaire (86,8%. 129 (59,4% of them were males, 88 (40,6% - females. 85 of children (38,6% – were pupils from the elementary school (age 6-10 y.o., 82 children (37,7% – from the 5-8 classes (age 10-14 y.o., 50 (23,7% - 10-11 classes (age 15-17 y.o.. More than ½ of the respondents (54,3% had skin food

  7. Tablets in Education. Results from the Initiative ETiE, for Teaching Plants to Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokides, Emmanuel; Atsikpasi, Pinelopi

    2017-01-01

    The study presents the results from the first phase of the initiative Emerging Technologies in Education. At this stage, we examined the learning outcomes from the use of tablets and an application as content delivery methods for teaching plants' parts, reproduction types and organs, photosynthesis, and respiration. The project lasted for four…

  8. Teacher Responses to Pay-for-Performance Policies: Survey Results from Four High-Poverty, Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John

    2011-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly adopting "pay-for-performance" policies in which teachers are compensated based on their performance as measured by classroom evaluations and/or student achievement test results. Prior research has produced largely inconclusive findings concerning support among teachers for these policies and their effects…

  9. The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2010-11-01

    A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.

  10. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  11. A School Competition on the computation of the solar parallax using observations from the Mercury Transit of 9 May 2016 - Results and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, Joe; Barnes, Rebecca; Zuidervaart, Huib; Benkhoff, Johannes; Martinez, Santa; Breitfellner, Michel; Almeida, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    On 9 May 2016 an intriguing and rare event occurred. Seen from most countries in Europe, Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, crossed the Sun's surface. Such a phenomenon is better known for the moon, for during such an eclipse it gets dark (or darker), so everyone will notice that something special is going on. But as Mercury is very, very small compared to the Sun, one will never remark such a Mercury-eclipse by oneself. It was the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler who realized in 1601 that Mercury (or Venus) transits could be observed from the Earth. Later in 1691, Edmund Halley published a mathematical algorithm to compute the solar parallax (from which one can determine the distance from Earth to the Sun) from observations made during the transit. It is sad to note that neither of the both scientists had the chance to witness a Mercury transit during their lifetime. Well before the event, the ESA Communication Office announced a school competition to observe the Mercury transit and repeat the measurements proposed by Edmund Halley and other scientists since then. Several hints were given on the observation possibilities (telescope, binoculars, solar glasses), and examples of the algorithms in form of written formulae or excel sheet formulae were given. All schools were encouraged to share their data with each other and the needed support was provided by ESA. After the transit, all school teams were asked to provided their results and an accompanying report to allow us to get a picture of the team's technical, mathematical, and social activities in preparation of the event and the event itself. In our presentation, we will give a short overview of the participants and their efforts. We analyze our school competition expectations against the results as seen from a scientist point of view (1st and 3rd author) and a scientific communicator point of view (2nd author), and give our perspective towards upcoming planetary eclipse opportunities, i.e. the Mercury

  12. Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2009 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2011-336

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jill; Murphy, Christina

    2011-01-01

    In school year 2008-09, some 7,066,000 U.S. students ages 12 through 18, or 28.0 percent of all such students, reported they were bullied at school, and about 1,521,000, or 6.0 percent, reported they were cyber-bullied anywhere (i.e., on or off school property). These Web Tables use data from the 2009 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National…

  13. Stress levels in parents of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during the back-to-school period: results of an international survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprieno, Urania; Gagliano, Antonella

    2016-10-01

    The back-to-school stress survey was an international, non-clinical opinion survey, which aimed to compare stress levels in parents of children with/without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the back-to-school period. Here, we present results relating to the Italian sample, comparing them with European data. The questionnaire was built using a modified Holmes and Rahe stress scale. Parents of children with/without ADHD evaluated potentially stress-causing situations on a scale from 1 (low stress) to 10 (high stress). In Italy, 107 parents of children with ADHD (mean age ± SD 40.3±7.3 years) and 105 parents of children without ADHD (mean age 42.2±6.6 years) participated in the survey. The mean age of children with ADHD was 10.3±3.1 years; 77.6% were male, 72.9% had been diagnosed with at least one comorbid condition - in particular conduct disorder (24.3%), learning disorders/dyslexia (23.4%) and language/communication disorder (19.6%) - and 32.7% were receiving ADHD medication. Parents of children with ADHD showed significantly higher stress levels (p≤0.005) compared with the non-ADHD group in all areas analyzed that were related to the return to school. Significant differences between groups (Pchildren with ADHD suffer significantly higher stress levels compared with parents of children without ADHD. Considering parental stress is important for the management of children with ADHD, as stress can affect the control of behavioral symptoms of children.

  14. High School-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Pilot Study Examining Outcomes and Dosage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W.; Schultz, Brandon K.; DeMars, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and dose-response relationship of a school-based treatment program for high school students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two paraprofessionals provided interventions to 24 students with ADHD randomly assigned to the treatment condition at two public high schools. They…

  15. Rural Student Entrepreneurs: Linking Commerce and Community. (Benefits)[Squared]: The Exponential Results of Linking School Improvement and Community Development, Issue Number Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boethel, Martha

    In many rural areas, both communities and schools are threatened by decreasing population and changing economic conditions. To boost both the local economy and student achievement, a growing number of rural schools are turning to entrepreneurial education. In school entrepreneurship programs, students create small businesses under the guidance of…

  16. Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2007 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2011-316

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jill; Murphy, Christina

    2011-01-01

    These Web Tables use data from the 2007 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to show the relationship between bullying and cyber-bullying victimization and other variables of interest such as the reported presence of gangs, guns, drugs, and alcohol at school; select school security measures; student…

  17. Risk factors for obesity among school aged children in western Algeria: results of a study conducted on 293 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Mohamed Abdelhaq; Bereksi-Reguig, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Before a prevention approach, it is essential to make a diagnosis on the problem and its risk factors. We opted for a cross-sectional survey of 293 primary students of Sougueur. The prevalence of overweight including obesity according to IOTF cutoffs was 8.18%. A significant relationship existed between obesity and educational level of parents, level of physical activity; taking a snack and skipping the dinner. Our results seem much lower than published values. We find that excess food intake and light exercise can trigger overweight. In Algeria, it is time to launch programs for good nutritional information and a sufficient physical activity in children.

  18. Os resultados do Ideb no cotidiano escolar Los resultados del Ideb en la vida cotidiana escolar The results of the Ideb in everyday school life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Mesquita

    2012-09-01

    metodología un abordaje etnográfico. El investigador permaneció inmerso en el campo durante seis meses recopilando datos a través de la observación participante y entrevistando gestores y profesores, además de observar y acompañar las actividades en el aula y analizar los documentos de la escuela. Se adoptaron como base teórica los estudios de la sociología de establecimientos escolares, además de la investigación sobre escuelas eficaces en Brasil, Estados Unidos e Inglaterra. Se logró identificar que los datos, recogidos a través de encuestas de evaluación externa, se redirigen dentro del ámbito escolar por sus actores, pero eso no significa que dejan de contribuir para el entendimiento del sistema de enseñanza. Queda claro que si se aproximan los datos cuantitativos con el punto de vista de los actores de la comunidad escolar se pueden aprehender las contribuciones de estos dos campos de investigación para poder reflexionar sobre la escuela y la búsqueda por más calidad.This work is part of the master's research on " Intra-school factors and school performance: what makes the difference?" This text presents the data collected during the investigation show that the impact of the disclosure of the results of the Ideb on everyday life of a public school in Rio de Janeiro. Aiming to integrate quantitative data, brought by the statistics of external evaluations, with the qualitative data from school of everyday life, if adopted as methodology the ethnographic approach. The researcher remained immersed in the field for six months gathering data through participant observation, interviews with managers and teachers, and track the activities in the classroom and analyze documents from school. It was adopted as theoretical studies of the sociology school establishments, in addition to research on effective schools in Brazil, United States and England. It was possible to identify that data, collected through research of external evaluation are redirected within

  19. Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-324

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Jared

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school teacher data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public school…

  20. Evaluation of a manual-based programme for the promotion of social and emotional skills in elementary school children: results from a 4-year study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Paulo; Crusellas, Lorena; Sá, Isabel; Gomes, Paulo; Matias, Carla

    2010-09-01

    The promotion of socio-emotional skills in educational contexts is highly beneficial to individuals' global adjustment and development. Evaluation research suggests that interventions for the promotion of socio-emotional skills are effective. However, most of this work has been carried out in the USA and there is now a pressing need to evaluate interventions at the cross-cultural level. This 4-year study evaluated the effectiveness of a teacher manual-based intervention for the promotion of social and emotional skills in Portuguese elementary school children. Using a quasi-experimental design, teachers taught manual-based strategies to children in the experimental group, focusing on specific social and emotional skills. These strategies were integrated as part of the curricular activities. Results showed statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group on the evaluated outcomes (self-control, emotional differentiation, emotional regulation, social skills, and self-esteem). For each of the dimensions studied, effect sizes were large (above 0.80). Findings are similar to those reported by international research evaluating the effectiveness of programmes for the promotion of social and emotional skills in school-age children. This study is an important contribution in the establishment of evidence-based socio-emotional skills programmes at the cross-cultural level.

  1. Fear based Education or Curiosity based Education as an Example of Earthquake and Natural Disaster Education: Results of Statistical Study in Primary Schools in Istanbul-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, T.; Ozcep, F.

    2012-04-01

    Natural disaster reduction focuses on the urgent need for prevention activities to reduce loss of life, damage to property, infrastructure and environment, and the social and economic disruption caused by natural hazards. One of the most important factors in reduction of the potential damage of earthquakes is trained manpower. To understanding the causes of earthquakes and other natural phenomena (landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, etc.) is one of the pre-conditions to show a conscious behavior. The aim of the study is to analysis and to investigate, how earthquakes and other natural phenomena are perceived by the students and the possible consequences of this perception, and their effects of reducing earthquake damage. One of the crucial questions is that is our education system fear or curiosity based education system? Effects of the damages due to earthquakes have led to look like a fear subject. In fact, due to the results of the effects, the earthquakes are perceived scary phenomena. In the first stage of the project, the learning (or perception) levels of earthquakes and other natural disasters for the students of primary school are investigated with a survey. Aim of this survey study of earthquakes and other natural phenomena is that have the students fear based or curiosity based approaching to the earthquakes and other natural events. In the second stage of the project, the path obtained by the survey are evaluated with the statistical point of approach. A questionnaire associated with earthquakes and natural disasters are applied to primary school students (that total number of them is approximately 700 pupils) to measure the curiosity and/or fear levels. The questionnaire consists of 17 questions related to natural disasters. The questions are: "What is the Earthquake ?", "What is power behind earthquake?", "What is the mental response during the earthquake ?", "Did we take lesson from earthquake's results ?", "Are you afraid of earthquake

  2. Foreign Students: Catalyst for Reducing Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, James E.

    Foreign students make up an important, and growing, segment of higher education in the United States. Reasons why foreign students come to the United States to study include the following: (1) the United States offers a serious approach to higher education in which students receive appropriate training and generally are able to complete the…

  3. Parochial trust and cooperation across 17 societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel; Liu, James H.

    2017-01-01

    International challenges such as climate change, poverty, and intergroup conflict require countries to cooperate to solve these complex problems. However, the political tide in many countries has shifted inward, with skepticism and reluctance to cooperate with other countries. Thus, cross-societal investigations are needed to test theory about trust and cooperation within and between groups. We conducted an experimental study in 17 countries designed to test several theories that explain why, who, and where people trust and cooperate more with ingroup members, compared with outgroup members. The experiment involved several interactions in the trust game, either as a trustor or trustee. We manipulated partner group membership in the trust game (ingroup, outgroup, or unknown) and if their reputation was at stake during the interaction. In addition to the standard finding that participants trust and cooperate more with ingroup than outgroup members, we obtained findings that reputational concerns play a decisive role for promoting trust and cooperation universally across societies. Furthermore, men discriminated more in favor of their ingroup than women. Individual differences in cooperative preferences, as measured by social value orientation, predicted cooperation with both ingroup and outgroup members. Finally, we did not find support for three theories about the cross-societal conditions that influence the degree of ingroup favoritism observed across societies (e.g., material security, religiosity, and pathogen stress). We discuss the implications for promoting cooperation within and between countries. PMID:29133403

  4. Blue Listerine, Parochialism, and ASL Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubek, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    There are not many elements of human life that have had as significant an impact on our development as literacy. Literacy has certainly been, and remains, a crucial issue especially in Deaf Education and in the Deaf World. The traditional definition of literacy has been exclusively understood as reading and writing. However, this article is…

  5. Leadership and Parochialism: An Enduring Reality?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bash, Brooks

    1999-01-01

    .... But organizational influences can enter the decisionmaking process. One critic argues that standard operating procedures as well as survival instincts and a desire for prestige can influence and bias decisions...

  6. The Efficacy of a Universal School-Based Prevention Program for Eating Disorders among German Adolescents: Results from a Randomized-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschburger, Petra; Zitzmann, Jana

    2018-04-10

    Disordered eating is highly prevalent during adolescence and has a detrimental effect on further development. Effective prevention programs are needed to prevent unhealthy developmental trajectories. This study evaluated the efficacy of the POPS-program (POtsdam Prevention at Schools), a universal school-based eating disorder prevention program for adolescents. In a cluster-randomized design, we compared the intervention group receiving the prevention program to a waiting control group. Outcomes included indicators of disordered eating and relevant risk factors for eating disorders (body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, perceived media pressure, perfectionism, emotional element of exercise, social comparison, and perceived teasing). Questionnaires were administered at the start of the intervention, 3 and 12 months post intervention. At baseline, 1112 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years participated (49% girls; 51% intervention group). Intention-to-treat analyses with the complete data set and per-protocol analyses as a completer analysis were performed. The intervention group showed a more favorable course compared to the control group regarding all observed risk factors for eating disorders except for perceived teasing. Effect sizes were small but comparable to other primary prevention programs. At 1-year follow-up, a small but significant effect on disordered eating was observed. Results of the per-protocol analyses were mostly confirmed by the intention-to-treat analyses. Results were promising for both genders although girls benefited more regarding disordered eating and internalization of the thin ideal. Further studies are warranted examining successful program elements and whether gender-specific programs are needed.

  7. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  8. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-10-10

    Background : Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology : 156 pupils 8-11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z -score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results : PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% ( n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions : The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  9. [Health status and health behaviour of apprentices in the first year of apprenticeship - first results of a survey in vocational training schools in Bielefeld].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, A; Nauerth, A; Pfefferle, P I

    2008-01-01

    activity programs as an integrated unit in the daily life in schools and at the working places are necessary to increase the awareness for health-related life-style factors and to counterbalance the effects of occupational exposure. Based on the results both partners of the dual vocational training are challenged to implement effective and coordinated programmes to maintain health in this population.

  10. Livros didáticos de Biologia do Ensino Médio: resultados do PNLEM/2007 High school biology textbooks: results from PNLEM/2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel Niño El-Hani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 2005, os livros didáticos de Biologia do ensino médio publicados no Brasil foram avaliados, como parte do Programa Nacional do Livro para o Ensino Médio (PNLEM. Neste artigo, relatamos resultados dessa avaliação. Os critérios e o processo de avaliação são apresentados de modo detalhado, bem como os principais problemas das obras não-recomendadas para compra pelo MEC e os principais aspectos positivos das obras recomendadas. Das 18 obras submetidas à avaliação, nove satisfizeram os critérios mínimos de qualidade para aprovação. Sete obras didáticas excluídas apresentaram problemas em todas as classes de critérios de avaliação. Todas as nove obras excluídas exibiram problemas relativos à correção e adequação conceituais, e à precisão da informação básica fornecida. As qualidades mais frequentes nas obras recomendadas diziam respeito à adequação metodológica e à construção do conhecimento. Não encontramos evidências claras de que a frequência de escolha pelos professores do ensino médio refletiu a qualidade dos itens avaliados, conforme estabelecida pela equipe que analisou as obras.In 2005, Brazilian Biology high school textbooks were evaluated as part of the National Program for the High School Textbook (PNLEM. In this paper, we report results of this evaluation. The evaluation criteria and processes are presented in a detailed manner, as well as the main flaws found in the textbooks not recommended to be bought by the Ministry of Education and the main positive aspects of the approved materials. Nine out of 18 textbooks satisfied the minimum quality criteria for approval. Seven excluded textbooks showed problems in all classes of evaluation criteria. All nine excluded textbooks exhibited problems related to conceptual correctness and adequacy, and accuracy of basic information. The most frequent qualities of approved textbooks concerned aspects of methodological adequacy and knowledge construction

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a communication-focused therapy for pre-school children with autism: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Sarah; Cary, Maria; Barrett, Barbara; Aldred, Catherine R; Charman, Tony; Howlin, Patricia; Hudry, Kristelle; Leadbitter, Kathy; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen; Pickles, Andrew; Slonims, Vicky; Temple, Kathryn J; Green, Jonathan

    2015-12-21

    Autism is associated with impairments that have life-time consequences for diagnosed individuals and a substantial impact on families. There is growing interest in early interventions for children with autism, yet despite the substantial economic burden, there is little evidence of the cost-effectiveness of such interventions with which to support resource allocation decisions. This study reports an economic evaluation of a parent-mediated, communication-focused therapy carried out within the Pre-School Autism Communication Trial (PACT). 152 pre-school children with autism were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) or PACT + TAU. Primary outcome was severity of autism symptoms at 13-month follow-up. Economic data included health, education and social services, childcare, parental productivity losses and informal care. Clinically meaningful symptom improvement was evident for 53 % of PACT + TAU versus 41 % of TAU (odds ratio 1.91, p = 0.074). Service costs were significantly higher for PACT + TAU (mean difference £4,489, p < 0.001), but the difference in societal costs was smaller and non-significant (mean difference £1,385, p = 0.788) due to lower informal care rates for PACT + TAU. Improvements in outcome generated by PACT come at a cost. Although this cost is lower when burden on parents is included, the cost and effectiveness results presented do not support the cost-effectiveness of PACT + TAU compared to TAU alone. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58133827.

  12. "Unplugged," a European School-Based Program for Substance Use Prevention among Adolescents: Overview of Results from the EU-Dap Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna-Taglianti, Federica D.; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Burkhart, Gregor; Caria, Maria Paola; Vadrucci, Serena; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The EU-Dap study aimed to develop and evaluate a school-based curriculum for the prevention of substance use among young people. The school curriculum, "Unplugged," is based on social influence approach and addresses social and personal skills, knowledge, and normative beliefs. It consists of 12 one-hour interactive sessions delivered by…

  13. Improving Attendance and Retention in Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Practitioner Insights. Publication # 2007-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Elena; Wilson, Brooke; Valladares, Sherylls; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta

    2007-01-01

    Regular participation in out-of-school time activities is associated with benefits for children. However, children cannot reap the benefits of program participation if they do not attend programs in the first place. This brief focuses on ways in which out-of-school time programs can improve the attendance and retention of children and youth in…

  14. Association between attempted suicide and academic performance indicators among middle and high school students in Mexico: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ricardo; Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Moneta Arce, María Fátima; Fregoso Ito, Diana; Fleiz, Clara; Villatoro, Jorge Ameth

    2018-01-01

    Students' mental health is associated to academic performance. In high income countries, higher students' grades are related to lower odds of suicidal behaviors, but studies on other indicators of academic performance are more limited, specially in middle income countries. Data from 28,519 middle and high school students selected with multistage clustered sampling in the Mexican National Survey of Student's Drug Use. Using a self-administered questionnaire, lifetime suicidal attempt and four indicators of academic performance were assessed: age inconsistency with grade level, not being a student in the last year, perceived academic performance and number of failed courses. Multiple logistic regression models were used to control for sociodemographic and school characteristics. The lifetime prevalence of attempted suicide was 3.0% for middle school students and 4.2% for high school students. Among middle school students, statistically adjusted significant associations of suicide attempt with academic performance indicators were: not being a student the year before, worse self-perceived performance and a higher number of failed courses; among high school students, predictors were failed courses and self-perceived academic performance, with ORs of 1.65 and 1.96 for the categories of good and fair/poor respectively, compared to those who reported very good performance. Self-perceived academic performance was the main indicator for suicide in both school levels. Suicide prevention efforts in Mexico's schools should include asking students about the perception they have about their own academic performance.

  15. Prevalence of negative life events and chronic adversities in European pre- and primary-school children: results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bammann, Karin; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Eiben, Gabriele; Konstabel, Kenn; Michels, Nathalie; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Pigeot, Iris; Reisch, Lucia; Siani, Alfonso; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-11-22

    Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children's health. As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4-11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project ('Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS'). The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children is exposed to multiple, accumulating adversities; (3) The prevalence of childhood adversity is influenced by geographical location (e.g. north versus south), age group and sex; (4) Childhood adversities are associated and co-occur, resulting in potential cumulative childhood stress. This study demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities.

  16. THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING ASSISTED WITH MODULE AND STUDENTS LEARNING MOTIVATION TOWARD THE STUDY RESULT ON STUDENTS SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotman Sitanggang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to improve learning quality of high school students in grade ten (X to the study material is about the vector. This research is a quasiexperimental study. Samples selection is random, using the control class from the adjacent class to avoid the large bias. The results of samples selection are the students of class X-H as the control class and the students of class X-I as the experimental class. The motivation variable was distinguished from the observations of student activities at the pre-study and at current research. Highly motivated students are the students who actively ask the questions and give answers to problems. While the low-motivated students are the students whose learning activities are the less. This research was designed using 2x2 factorial ANOVA, namely the effects of cooperative learning between learning without module and module-assisted learning on students’ learning results; and the effects of students’ learning motivation between highly motivated students and low motivated students. After given the treatment, those are: the same pre-test, cooperative learning without modules in control class, module-assisted cooperative learning in experimental class, the same post-test, questionnaires distribution, collection and tabulation of the data. The data were analyzed using qualitative-descriptive technique and percentage. The data analysis results using SPSS 17.0 conclude that: (1 There is a significant difference of study results in cooperative learning without module against module-assisted cooperative learning. (2 There is a significant difference of study results between highly motivated students and low motivated students. (3 There is a significant difference of study results between the group of cooperative learning and the group of student motivation at the significance value of = 0.05.

  17. Parental, Sex-Role, and Interpersonal Correlates of Religiousness in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suziedelis, Antanas; Potvin, Raymond H.

    Factorially derived aspects of religiousness, i.e., intrinsic, orthodoxy, practice, and cognitive, were examined in juxtaposition with indices of parental influence, sex-role identity and interpersonal style. The data were analyzed separately for boys (N=297) and girls (N=344) from several Catholic parochial schools. The results indicate that: (1)…

  18. [Nutrition and exercise of schoolchildren. Results of a cross-sectional study at the Lessing Gymnasium (secondary) school in Mannheim, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H; Neumann, P

    2007-12-01

    During the last few years there have been many articles in various newspapers about the unhealthy nutrition of children. It was the aim of this study to find out about the state of nutrition and exercise among the children at our school, a Gymnasium (secondary or grammar school) in Mannheim, Germany. We distributed questionnaires to 729 fellow pupils at the school to get some data/information about their exercise, nutrition and leisure activities. We developed a point-based system to record the quality of the food eaten; the time spent on sports, playing musical instruments; looking at television (TV) etc. or using the computer; and other leisure activities (e.g. reading, meeting friends, playing games). 84% of completed questionnaires were returned (98% of those sent to pupils in the lower forms). Food served at our school was reasonably good, but could have been improved by having a proper dining room or cafeteria. The situation regarding exercise tended to get worse in the younger pupils, because the school day has been lengthened. We found gender-related differences between school marks and other parameters. There was a positive relationship between good marks and a low [normal?] body mass index (BMI) and a negative effect on nutrition/exercise of hours spent watching TV or on the computer (PC). We also found a strong correlation in girls between school marks and their leisure. The number of points for wholesome meals, how much time the pupils spent on sports and music led to better school marks. Pupils of the lower grades exercised much less than older ones. Body weight index and their TV/computer time had similar effects in girls and boys. A low BMI correlated with better school marks, while high TV/PC time worsened them At our school relatively few pupils were overweight. Good nutrition and good amounts of exercise correlated positively with good marks. The amount of exercise taken by the pupils decreased as they advanced to the higher grades.

  19. Use, acceptability and impact of booklets designed to support mental health self-management and help seeking in schools: results of a large randomised controlled trial in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Helen; Patalay, Praveetha; Vostanis, Panos; Belsky, Jay; Humphrey, Neil; Wolpert, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    Mental health booklets may provide a low-cost means of promoting mental health self-management and help seeking in schools. The aim of the study was to assess the (a) use, (b) acceptability and (c) impact of booklets for students in primary (10-11 years) and secondary school (12-13 years) alone and in conjunction with funding for targeted mental health support. This was a 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomized controlled trial, in which 846 schools in England were randomly allocated to receive/not receive: (1) booklets for students containing information on mental health self-management and help seeking, and (2) funding for mental health support as part of a national mental health initiative. 14,690 students (8139 primary, 6551 secondary) provided self-report on mental health, quality of life (baseline and 1 year follow-up) and help seeking (follow-up). (a) Approximately, 40 % primary school students and 20 % secondary school students reported seeing the booklets. (b) Of these, 87 % of primary school students reported that the booklet was 'very helpful' or 'quite helpful', compared with 73 % in secondary school. (c) There was no detectable impact of booklets on mental health, quality of life or help seeking, either alone or in conjunction with additional funding through the national mental health initiative. Lack of discernable impact of booklets underscores the need for caution in adopting such an approach. However, it is feasible that the impact was obscured by low uptake or that booklets may be more effective when used in a targeted way.

  20. Teaching basic life support to school children using medical students and teachers in a 'peer-training' model--results of the 'ABC for life' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, P; Connolly, M; Laverty, L; McGrath, P; Connolly, D; McCluskey, D R

    2007-10-01

    The 'ABC for life' programme was designed to facilitate the wider dissemination of basic life support (BLS) skills and knowledge in the population. A previous study demonstrated that using this programme 10-12-year olds are capable of performing and retaining these vital skills when taught by medical students. There are approximately 25,000 year 7 school children in 900 primary schools in Northern Ireland. By using a pyramidal teaching approach involving medical students and teachers, there is the potential to train BLS to all of these children each year. To assess the effectiveness of a programme of CPR instruction using a three-tier training model in which medical students instruct primary school teachers who then teach school children. School children and teachers in the Western Education and Library Board in Northern Ireland. A course of instruction in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--the 'ABC for life' programme--specifically designed to teach 10-12-year-old children basic life support skills. Medical students taught teachers from the Western Education and Library Board area of Northern Ireland how to teach basic life support skills to year 7 pupils in their schools. Pupils were given a 22-point questionnaire to assess knowledge of basic life support immediately before and after a teacher led training session. Children instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation using this three-tier training had a significantly improved score following training (57.2% and 77.7%, respectively, p<0.001). This study demonstrates that primary school teachers, previously trained by medical students, can teach BLS effectively to 10-12-year-old children using the 'ABC for life' programme.

  1. Determinants of Primary School Non-Enrollment and Absenteeism: Results from a Retrospective, Convergent Mixed Methods, Cohort Study in Rural Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia King

    Full Text Available Education is a key element in the socioeconomic development required to improve quality of life in Kenya. Despite the introduction of free primary education, primary school enrollment and attendance levels remain low. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data, this study explores the determinants of non-enrollment and absenteeism in rural western Kenya and potential mitigation strategies to address these issues.The study was conducted in Bwaliro village in rural western Kenya. A random sample of 64 students was obtained by blocking the village primary school's student population according to grade level, gender, and orphan status. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through interviews with parents, guardians, and key informants, and focus group discussions with students. Quantitative data were compared using chi-square tests, Student's T-test, and Poisson regressions. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis.Malaria, menstruation, and lack of money were among the most notable determinants of primary school dropout and absenteeism, and these factors disproportionately impacted orphans and female students. Potential mitigation strategies suggested by the community included provision of malaria treatment or prevention, reduction in education costs, expansion of the established school-feeding program, and provision of sanitary pads.Despite free primary education, numerous factors continue to prevent children in rural western Kenya from attending primary school. The findings suggest that interventions should primarily target orphaned and female students. Prior to implementation, suggested mitigation strategies should be assessed for cost-effectiveness.

  2. [Towards a pedagogical e-learning approach to improve preparation for medical school curriculum in Grenoble: results over the 10 last years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillois, Pierre; Pagonis, Daniel; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Romanet, Jean-Paul

    2013-02-01

    Before 2005, at Grenoble, the teaching of the first year of medicine satisfied neither the students, nor the teachers anxious to exempt a correctly targeted effective teaching. By 2006, the Grenoble-native teaching method was reformed in-depth with the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Each sequence was over 4 weeks connecting: self- learning using multi-media resources, questions submitted online, meetings with teaching staff for interactive question-answer sessions in the presence of the teacher,) tutorials animated by older students for Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) training in preparation for the exams. The whole health formation was structured in 12 cycles of this same structured sequence. Since 2010, this method was extended from the faculty of medicine to the faculty of pharmacy and maieutic. Each year, more than 1600 students, 40 teachers and 140 tutors are concerned. The ICT laboratory was responsible for the production of the multi-media support, of the management of the questions online, the collection and the treatment of the evaluations of the lesson by the students. It also took part in the preparation of the MCQ trainings and after each sequence, delivered to students their personal ranking. Staffs between teachers and students are organized for the 12 cycles. The teachers' and students' opinions were analyzed to evaluate the reforms and allow teaching methods to be adapted accordingly. The expressed satisfaction' rate vary from 85% with more than 91% by students and teachers. The intensive use of new information and communication technologies is well accepted, by both sides: teachers and students. After each tutorial, students had their results and their rank, which are linked with the contest result. The mean of the 12 notes obtained during the tutorials is correlated with the note with the contest (R of Spearman=0.75). Student profiles at registration and success in the exams following the reform are

  3. Influence of having breakfast on cognitive performance and mood in 13- to 20-year-old high school students: results of a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widenhorn-Müller, Katharina; Hille, Katrin; Klenk, Jochen; Weiland, Ulrike

    2008-08-01

    The goal was to determine whether breakfast had effects on the cognitive performance and mood of high school students. A crossover trial was performed in boarding schools, involving 104 students between 13 and 20 years of age. The participants were randomly assigned to 2 equal-size groups on the morning of the first testing day. One half of the total sample received a standardized breakfast, whereas the other half received no breakfast. Seven days later, the treatment order was reversed. Measurements of cognitive function included standardized tests of attention and concentration, as well as tests of verbal and spatial memory. In addition, mood was rated with a self-administered questionnaire covering the dimensions of positive and negative affect, information uptake, arousal, and alertness. Statistical analysis consisted of repeated-measures analysis of variance. Breakfast had no effect on sustained attention among high school students. Visuospatial memory was improved in male students. Self-reported alertness improved significantly in the entire study population. Male students reported feeling more positive after consuming breakfast, compared with the fasting condition. This crossover trial demonstrated positive short-term effects of breakfast on cognitive functioning and self-reported alertness in high school students.

  4. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-18

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

  5. A Profile of Criminal Incidents at School: Results from the 2003-05 National Crime Victimization Survey Crime Incident Report NCES 2010-318

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Sally A.; Bauer, Lynn; Neiman, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    This report provides estimates of criminal incidents that occur at school. Incident-level data were obtained from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), the nation's primary source of information on criminal victimization and criminal incidents in the United States. The NCVS collects demographic information on respondents in the NCVS…

  6. Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…

  7. The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

  8. The Texas Youth Fitness Study: Looking at School Policies as They Relate to Physical Fitness and Academic Variables. Program Results Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiden, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    In partnership with three universities, the Cooper Institute, Dallas, completed the Texas Youth Fitness Study from 2008 to 2009. The study explored three key questions: (1) Is physical fitness associated with academic performance?; (2) Can physical education teachers collect high-quality information on student fitness?; and (3) Are school policies…

  9. Enhancing the Interpretive Reading and Analytical Writing of Mainstreamed English Learners in Secondary School: Results from a Randomized Field Trial Using a Cognitive Strategies Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Kim, James S.; Scarcella, Robin; Kramer, Jason; Pearson, Matthew; van Dyk, David A.; Collins, Penny; Land, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 72 secondary English teachers from the Santa Ana Unified School District were randomly assigned to participate in the Pathway Project, a cognitive strategies approach to teaching interpretive reading and analytical writing, or to a control condition involving typical district training focusing on teaching content from the textbook.…

  10. Psychological stress and health in undergraduate dental students: fifth year outcomes compared with first year baseline results from five European dental schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, R.C.; Freeman, R.; Hammen, S.; Murtomaa, H.; Blinkhorn, A.; Humphris, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of a series of health-related indicators from a cohort of fifth year dental students from five European schools with their first year scores, and to investigate the relationship between these follow-up measures. Methods: Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout

  11. A Glossary of Research Terms for Out-of-School Time Program Practitioners. Research-to-Results Fact Sheet. Publication #2007-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Horowitz, Allison; Redd, Zakia; Moore, Kristin A.; Valladares, Sherylls

    2007-01-01

    This glossary of common research and evaluation terms can serve as a quick reference guide for out-of school time practitioners as they face the challenges posed in this new era of program accountability. Subsequent briefs will provide more detailed information on particular types of research and evaluation designs. A list of additional resources…

  12. Effect of Feedback Strategy and Motivation of Achievement to Improving Learning Results Concept in Learning Civic Education in Vocational High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarno; Setyosari, Punaji; Haryono

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of feedback strategies on understanding and applying the concept of National ideology to students who have different achievement motivation, on learning Citizenship Education in vocational high schools. This research uses quasi experiment research design (Quasi Experiment). The subjects of this study were 133…

  13. Inflammatory potential in relation to the microbial content of settled dust samples collected from moisture domaged and reference schools: results of HITEA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttunen, K.; Tirkkonen, J.; Täubel, M.; Krop, E.; Mikkonen, S.; Pekkanen, J.; Heederik, D.; Zock, J.P.; Hyvärinen, A.; Hirvonen, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to identify factors causing the adverse health effects associated with moisture-damaged indoor environments, we analyzed immunotoxicological potential of settled dust from moisture-damaged and reference schools in relation to their microbiological composition. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were

  14. Results of Using the Take-Away Technique on Students' Achievements and Attitudes in High School Physics and Physical Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James; Doherty, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Take-away Technique was used in High School Physics and Physical Science courses for the unit on Newtonian mechanics in a teacher (6) by grade level (4) partially crossed design (N = 272). All classes received the same IE instructional treatment. The experimental group (classrooms) did a short Take-away after each class summarizing the key…

  15. Student Reports of Bullying and Cyber-Bullying: Results from the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Web Tables. NCES 2013-329

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessne, Deborah; Harmalkar, Sayali

    2013-01-01

    This document reports data from the 2011 School Crime Supplement (SCS) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report bullying and cyber-bullying. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and…

  16. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  17. [Aspirations of medical students: "planning for a secure career" - results of an online-survey among students at five medical schools in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, K; Miksch, A; Hermann, K; Loh, A; Kiolbassa, K; Joos, S; Steinhäuser, J

    2011-02-01

    In times of shortage of doctors, expectations and interests of the future generation of doctors towards their career aspiration is of major importance. The aim of this study was to analyze expectations of medical students at the five medical schools in the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) concerning their career choice and factors influencing it. Between January and February 2010, 1299 medical students (out of 12 062 medical students at the five medical schools) participated in an online-survey. In addition to sociodemographic items, career choice and aspects of planning reliability were raised. Three quarters of the students assign a medical profession for their future occupation. There is a dominance of internal medicine (n = 152), gynaecology (n = 127), paediatrics (n = 125), surgery (n = 115), anaesthesiology (n = 101), and family medicine (n = 88). The time point of decision varies between the different undergraduate years of medical school and specialty. Students at the beginning of their studies seem to be interested mostly in surgery. During medical school the interests towards internal medicine grows. Regarding planning dependability important aspects for medical students were to work in a job that has a future (61.2 % fully agree), to have a safe job (57.7 %), and to have a safe income (57.1 %). Less important seems to be to have good opportunity to earn money (29.6 %). Interest in a certain specialty changes markedly at during medical school. Factors such as economical guarantee, good future prospects and also the studies itself have an essential impact for students on choosing a specific career. Strategies to face physicians' shortage in different specialties need to be close to the needs and expectations of future physicians. This is not only valid for the undergraduate time period but also for the work circumstances of their future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  19. Improving the fitness and physical activity levels of primary school children: results of the Fit-4-Fun group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a multi-component school-based physical activity intervention (Fit-4-Fun) on health-related fitness and objectively measured physical activity in primary school children. Four Hunter primary schools were recruited in April, 2011 and randomized by school into treatment or control conditions. Participants included 213 children (mean age = 10.72 years ± 0.6; 52.2% female) with the treatment group (n = 118) completing the 8-week Fit-4-Fun Program. Participants were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up, with a 91% retention rate. Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) (20 m shuttle run) was the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes included body composition (BMI, BMI(Z)), muscular fitness (7-stage sit-up test, push-up test, basketball throw test, Standing Jump), flexibility (sit and reach) and physical activity (7 days pedometry). After 6-months, significant treatment effects were found for CRF (adjusted mean difference, 1.14 levels, p < 0.001), body composition (BMI mean, -0.96 kg/m(2), p < 0.001 and BMI z-score mean -0.47 z-scores, p < 0.001), flexibility (sit and reach mean, 1.52 cm, p = 0.0013), muscular fitness (sit-ups) (mean 0.62 stages, p = 0.003) and physical activity (mean, 3253 steps/day, p < 0.001). There were no group by time effects for the other muscular fitness measures. A primary school-based intervention focusing on fitness education significantly improved health-related fitness and physical activity levels in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka J; Finn, Tara; Callister, Robin

    2010-10-28

    Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the field. Australian New Zealand Clinical

  1. Visual Perception and Recall of School-Age Navajo, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, and Caucasian Children of the Southwest including Results from a Pilot Study Among Eskimos and Athabascan School-Age Children of North Alaska. Monograph #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    The study determined if a significant difference was demonstrated between American Indians and Caucasians on visual perception and recall tasks associated with cognitive function. It was hypothesized that a significant difference existed between scores obtained by Indian children enrolled in reservation schools and that of Caucasian children…

  2. Training Out-of-School Time Staff. Part 2 in a Series on Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Out-of-School Time Programs: The Role of Frontline Staff. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Allison J. R.; Burkhauser; Mary; Bowie, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    A skilled and sustainable workforce is one of the most important markers of high-quality out-of-school time programs. Given the links between skilled staff, high-quality programs, and better youth outcomes, staff training has become an essential part of program implementation. To expand what is known about staff training, Child Trends recently…

  3. Does transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment protect mental health? Results from a 14-year follow-up of school-leavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarström Anne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transition from unemployment to a paid job could lead to improved health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that obtaining permanent employment after being in an unstable labour market position protects mental health. Methods A 14-year follow-up of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in northern Sweden was performed at ages 16, 18, 21 and 30 years. Complete data on the cohort were collected for 1044 individuals with the aid of a comprehensive questionnaire. The response rate was 96.4%. The health measurement used in this study was the psychological symptoms analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Those who obtained permanent employment were the focus of the analysis. This group consisted of people who were in an unstable labour market position for a year or more between the ages of 25 and 29, and who had acquired a permanent job one year before and at the time of the investigation. Results After controlling for gender as well as for an indicator of health-related selection, possible confounders and mediators, an association was found between the lower probability of psychological symptoms and obtaining permanent employment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19–0.63 as well as having permanent employment (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10–0.51. Conclusion Our findings suggest that transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment could be health-promoting, even after controlling for possible confounders and mediators, as well as for an indicator of health-related selection. However, as there are few studies in the field, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to further analyse the relationship and to examine possible explanations. The policy implication of

  4. The attendance of women in mammographic early detection programme and the results of the observation of the breast glands condition. 1. The attendance of higher schools female employees in mammography examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romejko, M.; Kleszczewska, J.; Liszek, A.; Tarlowska, L.; Wronkowski, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to assess the attendance in the early detection (mammography) in female employees of Warsaw-based higher schools aged 40-69. During the 4.5 year period (1985-1989) 1325 female employees of higher schools (23.5% of the schools' total employment) turned up to the Female Cancer Prevention Center of The Higher Schools' Medical Center (ZOZ) in Warsaw. Observation of this group continued until June 30, 1992. Majority of the women (56.5%) showed up only once, 21.7% came twice, and 21.8% at least three times. Out of the 1021 women (77% of all the examined female employees) who showed no symptoms in the first test, only 37% came again for the second checkup. Out of the 305 women who had changes detected in their X-ray images, 66% turned up for the second test. 23 women (1.7%) had suspicious mammography results or typical cancer symptoms in the first test. The present work shows that the reason of the insufficient attendance of higher schools' female employees in early detection programs need to be investigated and that a more efficient early detection system must be developed. (author)

  5. Prognosis and continuity of child mental health problems from preschool to primary school: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Thomas; Postert, Christian; Müller, Jörg M; Furniss, Tilman

    2012-08-01

    In a four-year longitudinal study, changes in and continuity of behavioral and emotional problems were examined in 814 subjects from kindergarten to primary school. Mental health problems were assessed by means of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The distribution of the CBCL broadband groups revealed a high level of continuity of internalizing symptoms over the four-year period and a shift from externalizing symptoms at baseline towards a combination of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at follow-up. The presence of mental health problems at follow-up was correlated with gender (higher amongst boys), pre-existing mental health problems at baseline, and separation or divorce of the parents, but not with single-family status or the age and educational level of the mother. The increasing number of children with a combination of internalizing and externalizing symptoms demonstrates the increasing complexity of child mental health problems in the developmental span from preschool age to school age.

  6. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    OpenAIRE

    Okely Anthony D; Plotnikoff Ronald C; Collins Clare E; Dewar Deborah; Morgan Philip J; Lubans David R; Batterham Marijka J; Finn Tara; Callister Robin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolesc...

  7. Mental and somatic health complaints associated with school bullying between 10th and 12th grade students; results from cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Lars; Green, Kristian; Welander-Vatn, Audun; Bjertness, Espen

    2009-01-01

    Background Bullying is a widespread and serious problem that might influence both mental and psychical well being as well as school performance and social life. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of bullying, mental health problems and psychical complaints among 10th and 12th grade students and to analyze the association between bullying, mental health problems and muscle and skeletal complaints. Metho...

  8. Strengths and weaknesses in the supply of school food resulting from the procurement of family farm produce in a municipality in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Panmela; Martinelli, Suellen Secchi; Melgarejo, Leonardo; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen; Cavalli, Suzi Barletto

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess compliance with school food programme recommendations for the procurement of family farm produce. This study consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilising a qualitative approach based on semistructured interviews with key informants in a municipality in the State of Santa Catarina in Brazil. Study participants were managers and staff of the school food programme and department of agriculture, and representatives of a farmers' organisation. The produce delivery and demand fulfilment stages of the procurement process were carried out in accordance with the recommendations. However, nonconformities occurred in the elaboration of the public call for proposals, elaboration of the sales proposal, and fulfilment of produce quality standards. It was observed that having a diverse range of suppliers and the exchange of produce by the cooperative with neighbouring municipalities helped to maintain a regular supply of produce. The elaboration of menus contributed to planning agricultural production. However, agricultural production was not mapped before elaborating the menus in this case study and an agricultural reform settlement was left out of the programme. A number of weaknesses in the programme were identified which need to be overcome in order to promote local family farming and improve the quality of school food in the municipality.

  9. Medical student debt at the Christchurch School of Medicine. The New Zealand Wellbeing, Intentions, Debt and Experiences (WIDE) survey of medical students pilot study. Results part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D; Palmer, C; Mulder, R; Wilkinson, T

    2001-10-26

    To determine the level and sources of medical student debt at the Christchurch School of Medicine. A questionnaire, The New Zealand Wellbeing, Intentions, Debt, and Experiences (WIDE) Survey of Medical Students, was developed and administered to all 204 medical students at the Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Included were questions on student demographics, sources and levels of debt, parental financial support, and student perceptions of their debt. The response rate was 88%. International students, whose debt was with an overseas government, and students with mortgages were excluded from the data analysis. The combined total debt for the remaining 165 students was $7775000 with $6290000 (81%) owed to the Government Students Loans scheme. One quarter of 6th year medical students had a debt over $83250, 50% had a debt over $70000, and 75% had a debt over $50000. Student allowances were inaccessible to 64% of 4th and 5th year students and part-time employment during term-time was common. Lack of funds was reported to impair full participation in the medical course. The majority of medical students at the Christchurch School of Medicine accumulate high levels of debt, mainly dtrough the Government Student Loans scheme, during their medical training.

  10. [Adolescents' knowledge and behavior on sexuality, infectious transmitted diseases, and human papillomavirus vaccination: results of a survey in a French high school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, C; Duron, S; Robin, F; Verret, C; Imbert, P

    2013-08-01

    Teenager sexuality is a public health issue. In teenagers attending a high school, we assessed their knowledge and behavior on sexuality, infectious transmitted diseases, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination, and cervical cancer. Then in girls, we estimated the anti-HPV vaccination coverage and focused on factors associated with poor knowledge of these topics. This was a knowledge, attitudes, and practices cross-sectional study conducted at the beginning of the 2010-2011 school year in the Saint-Cyr military high school, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Among 669 adolescents (M/F sex-ratio, 2.3; mean age, 17 years [IC 95%, 15-20]), 40% had already had sex and 92% had used contraception. Boys and girls had a poor level of knowledge on infectious transmitted diseases. Regarding knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer, a better level was significantly associated with female gender (P=10(-4)). In multivariate analysis, male gender, age under 18 years, lack of dialogue with parents on these subjects, low socioeconomic status of parents, and absence of health education were significantly associated with poor knowledge on these topics. These data should help healthcare providers better target access and content of sexual health education training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Unsecure School Environment and School Phobic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukur, Abubakar Hamman; Muhammad, Khadijatu

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the level of student's school phobic behavior as a result of insecurity of school environment. The study was guided by one research question and one null hypothesis. The population of the study was all the secondary schools in Maiduguri, Borno state numbering about the same of the study was senior secondary students in…

  12. School Related Alienation: Perceptions of Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Richard C.; And Others

    Responses to questionnaires administered to 10,000 senior high school students to ascertain their feelings of alienation as related to their schools are presented. The questionnaire items concerned: School as an Institution, The School as Teacher, Authority--Autonomy, and Parental Interest in School. The findings that resulted from the…

  13. Some results on ethnic conflicts based on evolutionary game simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Yi, Yunfei; Wu, Hongrun; Liu, Yuhang; Tong, Xiaonian; Zheng, Bojin

    2014-07-01

    The force of the ethnic separatism, essentially originating from the negative effect of ethnic identity, is damaging the stability and harmony of multiethnic countries. In order to eliminate the foundation of the ethnic separatism and set up a harmonious ethnic relationship, some scholars have proposed a viewpoint: ethnic harmony could be promoted by popularizing civic identity. However, this viewpoint is discussed only from a philosophical prospective and still lacks support of scientific evidences. Because ethnic group and ethnic identity are products of evolution and ethnic identity is the parochialism strategy under the perspective of game theory, this paper proposes an evolutionary game simulation model to study the relationship between civic identity and ethnic conflict based on evolutionary game theory. The simulation results indicate that: (1) the ratio of individuals with civic identity has a negative association with the frequency of ethnic conflicts; (2) ethnic conflict will not die out by killing all ethnic members once for all, and it also cannot be reduced by a forcible pressure, i.e., increasing the ratio of individuals with civic identity; (3) the average frequencies of conflicts can stay in a low level by promoting civic identity periodically and persistently.

  14. Relationship between overweight and health-related quality of life in secondary school children in Fiji: results from a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, S; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Waqa, G; Goundar, R; Swinburn, B

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between excess weight (overweight and obesity) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of secondary school children in Fiji, by gender, age and ethnicity. The study comprised 8947 children from forms 3-6 (age 12-18 years) in 18 secondary schools on Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and weight, and weight status was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force recommendations. HRQoL was measured by the self-report version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. HRQoL was similar in children with obesity and normal weight. Generally, this was replicated when analyzed separately by gender and ethnicity, but age stratification revealed disparities. In 12-14-year-old children, obesity was associated with better HRQoL, owing to better social and school functioning and well-being, and in 15-18-year olds with poorer HRQoL, owing to worse physical, emotional and social functioning and well-being (Cohen's d 0.2-0.3). Children with a BMI in the overweight range also reported a slightly lower HRQoL than children with a BMI in the normal weight range, but although statistically significant, the size of this difference was trivial (Cohen's d Fiji. This is in contradiction to the negative relationship between excess weight and HRQoL shown in studies from other countries and cultures. The assumption that a large body size is associated with a lower quality of life cannot be held universally. Although a generally low HRQoL among children in Fiji may be masking or overriding the potential effect of excess weight on HRQoL, socio-economic and/or socio-cultural factors, may help to explain these relationships.

  15. Mental and somatic health complaints associated with school bullying between 10th and 12th grade students; results from cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Lars; Green, Kristian; Welander-Vatn, Audun; Bjertness, Espen

    2009-03-23

    Bullying is a widespread and serious problem that might influence both mental and psychical well being as well as school performance and social life. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of bullying, mental health problems and psychical complaints among 10th and 12th grade students and to analyze the association between bullying, mental health problems and muscle and skeletal complaints. Two cross sectional studies of adolescents living in Oslo, Norway the first conducted in 2001 among 10th grade students (15/16 years old) and the second in 2004 among 12th grade students (18/19 years old). Both surveys were based on self report, were mostly school based and had almost identical questionnaires. There were around 3700 participants in both surveys, but the participation rate was lower in the latter survey (88 versus 80%). The Hopkins Symptoms Check List (HSCL-10) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to measure mental health problems. Bullying is decreasing both among boys and girls while the prevalence of internalized mental health problems are increasing from 10th to 12th grade. For muscle and skeletal pain there is a diverging trend between boys and girls, with an increase among girls and a decrease among boys. The highest Odds Ratios, as a measure for the association between bullying, mental health problems and pain, were found for internalized mental health problems at both 10th and 12th grade both for boys and girls. Both internalized and externalized mental health problems together with pain seem to be associated with bullying irrespective of school type and gender.

  16. Adolescent injuries in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Uruguay: Results from the 2012-2013 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Naja I; Arif, Issra; Paumier, Michelle F; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2016-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify the proportion of early adolescents in southern South America who were injured in the past year, to identify risk behaviours and other exposures associated with injuries, and to evaluate the most common types and causes of injury in this population. We used complex samples analysis to examine cross-sectional data from more than 35,000 students from all four countries in South America that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2012-2013. The proportion of students reporting at least one injury in the past year that required medical treatment or caused at least one full day of missed school or usual activities was 27.1% in Argentina, 29.5% in Uruguay, 30.9% in Chile, and 36.8% in Bolivia. Significantly more boys than girls reported injuries. Injured students were more likely than non-injured students to report anxiety-induced insomnia, being physically attacked, being in a physical fight, and being lonely in the past year, and they were also more likely to report being bullied, using tobacco, drinking alcohol, and missing school in the past month. For both boys and girls, the most common type of injury reported was a broken bone or dislocated joint and the most common injury cause was the student falling. However, most students were not able to provide a specific answer to either question. The GSHS has been conducted in 100 low- and middle-income countries and territories around the world, and new waves of data collection are currently being planned and implemented. The utility of the injury data from the GSHS would be improved if the injury type and cause response items were updated to better capture information about self-harm, sports injuries, and other statistics that will provide a stronger foundation for evidence-based injury prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of the results of excavation response experiments at climax and the Colorado School of Mines to the development of an experiment for the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Large-scale underground experiment programs to examine excavation response have been performed at the Climax facility in Nevada and at the Colorado School of Mines. These two programs provided fundamental information on the behavior of rock and the effects of excavation; on instrument performance and configuration; and on the relationship between test geometry and test behavior. This information is being considered in the development of a major excavation response experiment to be carried out in the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory. 11 refs., 3 figs

  18. The effect of dance mat exergaming systems on physical activity and health-related outcomes in secondary schools: results from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Liane B; Burges Watson, Duika; Haighton, Catherine; Adams, Jean

    2014-09-12

    Exergaming has been proposed as an innovative method for physical activity promotion. However, large effectiveness studies are rare. In January 2011, dance mat systems were introduced in secondary schools in two districts in England with the aim of promoting an innovative opportunity for physical activity. The aim of this natural experiment was to examine the effect of introducing the dance mat exergaming systems on physical activity and health-related outcomes in 11-13 year old students using a non-randomised controlled design and mixed methods. Participants were recruited from five schools in intervention districts (n = 280) and two schools in neighbouring control districts (n = 217). Data on physical activity (accelerometer), anthropometrics (weight, BMI and percentage of body fat), aerobic fitness (20-m multistage shuttle run test), health-related quality of life (Kidscreen questionnaire), self-efficacy (children's physical activity self-efficacy survey), school attendance, focus groups with children and interviews with teachers were collected at baseline and approximately 12 months follow-up. There was a negative intervention effect on total physical activity (-65.4 cpm CI: -12.6 to -4.7), and light and sedentary physical activity when represented as a percentage of wear time (Light: -2.3% CI: -4.5 to 0.2; Sedentary: 3.3% CI: 0.7 to 5.9). However, compliance with accelerometers at follow-up was poor. There was a significant positive intervention effect on weight (-1.7 kg, 95% CI: -2.9 to -0.4), BMI (-0.9 kg/m2, 95% CI: -1.3 to -0.4) and percentage of body fat (-2.2%, 95% CI: -4.2 to -0.2). There was also evidence of improvement in some health-related quality of life parameters: psychological well-being (2.5, 95% CI: 0.1 to 4.8) and autonomy and parent relation (4.2, 95% CI: 1.4 to 7.0). The implementation of a dance mat exergaming scheme was associated with improvement in anthropometric measurements and parameters of health-related quality of life. However

  19. Bullying in Brazilian schools: results from the National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE, 2009 Bullying nas escolas brasileiras: resultados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE, 2009

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and describe the occurrence of bullying among students in the 9th year (8th grade from public and private schools from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. It is a cross-sectional study involving 60,973 students and 1,453 public and private schools. Data analysis indicates that 5.4% (IC95%: 5.1%-5.7% of students reported having suffered bullying almost always or always in the last 30 days, 25.4% (IC95%: 24.8%-26.0% were rarely or sometimes the victim of bullying and 69.2% (IC95%: 68.5%-69.8% of students felt no humiliation or provocation at school. The capital with higher frequency of bullying was Belo Horizonte (6.9%; IC95%: 5,9%-7,9%, Minas Gerais, and the lowest was Palmas (3.5%; IC95%: 2.6%-4.5%, Tocantins. Boys reported more bullying (6,0%; IC95%: 5.5%-6.5% compared with girls (4,8%; IC95%: 4.4%-5.3%. There was no difference between public schools 5.5% (IC95%: 5.1%-5.8% and private (5.2% (IC95%: 4.6%-5.8%, except in Aracaju, Sergipe, that show more bullying in private schools. The findings indicate an urgent need for intersectoral action from educational policies and practices that enforce the reduction and prevention of the occurrence of bullying in schools in Brazil.O objetivo deste estudo é identificar e descrever a ocorrência do bullying, episódios de humilhação ou provocação perpetrados pelos colegas da escola, entre estudantes do 9º ano do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas e privadas das 26 capitais dos estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal. Trata-se de estudo transversal feito com 60.973 escolares de 1.453 escolas públicas e privadas. A análise dos dados aponta que 5,4% (IC95%: 5,1%-5,7% dos estudantes relataram ter sofrido bullying quase sempre ou sempre nos últimos 30 dias; 25,4% (IC95%: 24,8%-26,0% foram raramente ou às vezes vítimas de bullying e 69,2% (IC95%: 68,5%-69,8% não sentiram nenhuma humilhação ou provocação (bullying. A capital com maior

  20. Infection and co-infection with helminths and Plasmodium among school children in Côte d'Ivoire: results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey.

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    Richard B Yapi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth infection and malaria remain major causes of ill-health in the tropics and subtropics. There are several shared risk factors (e.g., poverty, and hence, helminth infection and malaria overlap geographically and temporally. However, the extent and consequences of helminth-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted in 92 schools across Côte d'Ivoire during the dry season, from November 2011 to February 2012. School children provided blood samples for detection of Plasmodium infection, stool samples for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth (STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections, and urine samples for appraisal of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Multinomial regression models were utilized to determine risk factors for STH-Plasmodium and Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete parasitological and questionnaire data were available for 5,104 children aged 5-16 years. 26.2% of the children were infected with any helminth species, whilst the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 63.3%. STH-Plasmodium co-infection was detected in 13.5% and Schistosoma-Plasmodium in 5.6% of the children. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that boys, children aged 10 years and above, and activities involving close contact to water were significantly and positively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection. Boys, wells as source of drinking water, and water contact were significantly and positively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Access to latrines, deworming, higher socioeconomic status, and living in urban settings were negatively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection; whilst use of deworming drugs and access to modern latrines were negatively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: More

  1. Risk Compensation Following Medical Male Circumcision: Results from a 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study of Young School-Going Men in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, K; George, G; Beckett, S; Montague, C; Frohlich, J

    2018-02-01

    This study sought to assess risk compensation following voluntary medical male circumcision of young school-going men. Risk compensation is defined as an inadvertent increase in sexual risk behaviors and a corresponding decrease in self-perceived risk for contracting HIV following the application of a risk reduction technology. This study documented the sexual practices of circumcised (n = 485) and uncircumcised (n = 496) young men in 42 secondary schools at three time points (baseline and 6 and 12 months) in a sub-district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Study participants were aged from 16 to 24 years old. At the end of the study period, there was no significant difference between the two cohorts concerning learners' perceptions of being at risk of contracting HIV (interaction effect: b = -0.12, p = 0.40). There was also no significant difference in the number of sexual partners in the previous month (interaction effect: b = -0.23, p = 0.15). The proportion of learners who have never used a condom decreased significantly over time (time effect: b = -0.27, p = 0.01), and there was no difference between the circumcised and uncircumcised learners (interaction effect: b = -0.09, p = 0.91). Risk compensation, as evidenced in this study over a 1-year period, was not associated with undergoing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in our sample of young school-going men. However, it is of concern that at the end of this study, less than half of the sexually active sample in a high-HIV-prevalence community used condoms consistently in the previous month (39% for both study cohorts). The latter underscores the need to view VMMC as a potential entry point for planned HIV and sexuality education interventions targeting young men in this community.

  2. Stability and change in the mental health of New Zealand secondary school students 2007-2012: results from the national adolescent health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Theresa M; Clark, Terryann; Denny, Simon; Bullen, Pat; Crengle, Sue; Peiris-John, Roshini; Robinson, Elizabeth; Rossen, Fiona V; Sheridan, Janie; Lucassen, Mathijs

    2014-05-01

    To describe the self-reported mental health of New Zealand secondary school students in 2012 and to investigate changes between 2007 and 2012. Nationally representative health and wellbeing surveys of students were completed in 2007 (n=9107) and 2012 (n=8500). Logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between mental health and changes over time. Prevalence data and adjusted odds ratios are presented. In 2012, approximately three-quarters (76.2%, 95% CI 74.8-77.5) of students reported good overall wellbeing. By contrast (also in 2012), some students reported self-harming (24.0%, 95% CI 22.7-25.4), depressive symptoms (12.8%, 95% CI 11.6-13.9), 2 weeks of low mood (31%, 95% CI 29.7-32.5), suicidal ideation (15.7%, 95% 14.5-17.0), and suicide attempts (4.5%, 95% CI 3.8-5.2). Between 2007 and 2012, there appeared to be slight increases in the proportions of students reporting an episode of low mood (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23, p=0.0009), depressive symptoms (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30, p=0.011), and using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire - emotional symptoms (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.23-1.54, pmental health amongst New Zealand secondary school students between 2007 and 2012. There is a need for ongoing monitoring and for evidence-based, accessible interventions that prevent mental ill health and promote psychological wellbeing.

  3. Suicide and related health risk behaviours among school learners in South Africa: results from the 2002 and 2008 national youth risk behaviour surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart; Sewpaul, Ronel; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2013-10-04

    Attempted and completed suicide constitute a major public health problem among young people world-wide, including South Africa (SA). Suicide attempt and completed suicide increase during the adolescent period. One in 5 adolescents considers attempting suicide, but statistics are frequently unreliable. Data for this study were derived from the 2002 and 2008 South African Youth Risk Behaviour Surveys (YRBS). The study population comprised grades 8, 9, 10 and 11 students in governmental schools in the nine provinces of SA (N = 10,699 in 2002 and 10,270 in 2008). Key outcome measures were suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Of the total sample, 18% of the students in 2002 and 19% in 2008 reported to have seriously considered and/or made a plan to commit suicide during the past six months (Suicide ideation), whereas 18.5% of students in 2002 and 21.8% in 2008 reported that they had attempted suicide at least 1 time during the past six months. On both suicide measures girls have higher prevalence scores than boys, and older school learners score higher than younger learners. In addition, 32% of the learners reported feelings of sadness or hopelessness. These feelings contributed significantly to the explanation of suicide ideation and suicide attempt next to being the victim or actor in violent acts and illegal substance use. The prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempts among South African adolescents is high and seems to be influenced by a wide spectrum of factors at the demographic, psychological and behavioural level. Hence, more research is needed to determine the behavioural and psychological determinants of suicide among youngsters in order to develop comprehensive intervention strategies for suicide prevention and care.

  4. Working While in Middle School: Student Perceptions of School Climate & Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sabrena

    2016-01-01

    Does working during the school year result in lowered perceptions of school climate and connectedness for middle school students? According to outcomes from a Rocky Mountain Region School District's (RMRSD) school climate survey, 20% of their middle school student population works during the school year. Existing literature on youth employment…

  5. Parental Internet Use and Lifestyle Factors as Correlates of Prolonged Screen Time of Children in Japan: Results From the Super Shokuiku School Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masaaki; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2018-03-24

    Prolonged screen time (ST), which includes TV viewing and gaming on smartphones and computers, is linked to poor health. Our aim was to explore the associations between school children with prolonged ST and parental internet use (IU) and lifestyles in Japan. Children aged 6 to 13 years from the Super Shokuiku School Project, were surveyed using questionnaires in 2016. The survey assessed the grade, sex, and lifestyle of 1,659 children and parental internet use (IU) and lifestyle using Breslow's seven health behaviors. IU consisted of internet surfing and gaming on personal computers (PC), smartphones, or consoles. Three or more hours of ST was defined as prolonged ST, and its correlates were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all, 643 (38.8%) children spent ≥2 hours/day of ST on a week day, whilst 153 (9.2%) children spent ≥3 hours/day. Prolonged ST was significantly associated with children in higher grade (odds ratio [OR] 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.51), boys (OR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.49-3.14), skipping breakfast (OR 1.88; 95% CI, 1.05-3.35), late bedtime (OR 1.80; 95% CI, 1.15-2.82), physical inactivity (OR 1.79; 95% CI, 1.12-2.87), father's IU ≥2 hours/day (OR 2.35; 95% CI, 1.52-3.63), mother's prolonged IU ≥2 hours/day (OR 2.55; 95% CI, 1.43-4.52), mothers with unhealthy behaviors (OR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.05-3.13), no rule setting governing screen time (OR 2.41; 95% CI, 1.63-3.58), and mothers with full-time employment (OR 1.95; 95% CI, 1.06-3.64). Prolonged ST among Japanese children was strongly associated with parental IU, no set rules for ST, and mother's unhealthy lifestyles. To reduce children's ST, parental engagement is warranted in the intervention strategy.

  6. Phenology of a Vegetation Barrier and Resulting Impacts on Near-Highway Particle Number and Black Carbon Concentrations on a School Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina H. Fuller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic-related air pollution is a persistent concern especially in urban areas where populations live in close proximity to roadways. Innovative solutions are needed to minimize human exposure and the installation of vegetative barriers shows potential as a method to reduce near-road concentrations. This study investigates the impact of an existing stand of deciduous and evergreen trees on near-road total particle number (PNC and black carbon (BC concentrations across three seasons. Measurements were taken during spring, fall and winter on the campus of a middle school in the Atlanta (GA, USA area at distances of 10 m and 50 m from a major interstate highway. We identified consistent decreases in BC concentrations, but not for PNC, with increased distance from the highway. In multivariable models, hour of day, downwind conditions, distance to highway, temperature and relative humidity significantly predicted pollutant concentrations. The magnitude of effect of these variables differed by season, however, we were not able to show a definitive impact of the vegetative barrier on near-road concentrations. More detailed studies are necessary to further examine the specific configurations and scenarios that may produce pollutant and exposure reductions.

  7. Missing School Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted by the Office for Civil Rights show that 6 million public school students (13%) are not attending school regularly. Chronic absenteeism--defined as missing more than 10% of school for any reason--has been negatively linked to many key academic outcomes. Evidence shows that students who exit chronic absentee status can…

  8. Alienation from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascher, Tina; Hagenauer, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Two studies aimed at understanding the time course of alienation from school and school factors that may influence alienation from school during early adolescence. In Study 1, 434 students from grade 5-8 participated (cross-sectional design). In Study 2, we followed 356 students from grade 6-7 (longitudinal design). The results confirm the…

  9. Risky internet behaviors of middle-school students: communication with online strangers and offline contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess Dowdell, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    In today's world, more adolescents are using the Internet as an avenue for social communication and a source of information and to experiment with risky online behaviors. To better understand how early adolescents are using the Internet, a study was undertaken to more clearly identify online use and online risky behaviors and to describe any online relationships with strangers middle-school students may be participating in. This exploratory study adapted the Youth Internet Safety Survey of Finkelhor et al to identify the usage and characteristics of online youth, solicitation of youth, and risky behaviors. Four hundred and four students, with a mean age of 12 years, were recruited from public and parochial schools located in the Northeast. Findings from this study indicate that of a total sample of 404 middle-school students, a small grouping (n = 59; 14.6%) are beginning risky online communication behaviors with strangers. Students who communicated online with strangers were older and had higher rates of posting personal information, risky online behaviors, and stealing. The majority of this group (84%) met offline with the online stranger, and three students reported having been assaulted. Findings suggest that early adolescents are beginning risky online and offline behaviors. Understanding their experiences is important since they highlight how middle-school students are undertaking risks in a new environment that many adults and parents do not fully understand. Clinicians, educators, healthcare providers, and other professionals need to be informed of Internet behaviors in order to assess for risk, to make referrals, to intervene, and to educate.

  10. Does transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment protect mental health? Results from a 14-year follow-up of school-leavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, Ieva; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-05-13

    Having secure employment, in contrast to being unemployed, is regarded as an important determinant of health. Research and theories about the negative health consequences of unemployment indicated that transition from unemployment to a paid job could lead to improved health. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that obtaining permanent employment after being in an unstable labour market position protects mental health. A 14-year follow-up of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in northern Sweden was performed at ages 16, 18, 21 and 30 years. Complete data on the cohort were collected for 1044 individuals with the aid of a comprehensive questionnaire. The response rate was 96.4%. The health measurement used in this study was the psychological symptoms analysed by multivariate logistic regression. Those who obtained permanent employment were the focus of the analysis. This group consisted of people who were in an unstable labour market position for a year or more between the ages of 25 and 29, and who had acquired a permanent job one year before and at the time of the investigation. After controlling for gender as well as for an indicator of health-related selection, possible confounders and mediators, an association was found between the lower probability of psychological symptoms and obtaining permanent employment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.63) as well as having permanent employment (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.51). Our findings suggest that transition from an unstable labour market position to permanent employment could be health-promoting, even after controlling for possible confounders and mediators, as well as for an indicator of health-related selection. However, as there are few studies in the field, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in order to further analyse the relationship and to examine possible explanations. The policy implication of our study is that the transformation of unstable labour market

  11. Effects of a community-oriented obesity prevention programme on indicators of body fatness in preschool and primary school children. Main results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Bammann, K; Barba, G; Lissner, L; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Verbestel, V; Ahrens, W

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern but evidence-based approaches to tackle this epidemic sustainably are still lacking. The Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study investigated the aetiology of childhood obesity and developed a primary prevention programme. Here, we report on the effects of the IDEFICS intervention on indicators of body fatness. The intervention modules addressed the community, school and parental level, focusing on diet, physical activity and stress-related lifestyle factors. A cohort of 16,228 children aged 2-9.9 years - about 2000 per country - was equally divided over intervention and control regions. (Participating countries were Sweden, Germany, Estonia, Hungary, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and Belgium.) We compared the prevalence of overweight/obesity and mean values of body mass index z-score, per cent body fat and waist-to-height ratio over 2 years of follow-up. Mixed models adjusting for age and socioeconomic status of the parents and with an additional random effect for country accounted for the clustered study design. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in both the intervention and control group from 18.0% at baseline to 22.9% at follow-up in the control group and from 19.0% to 23.6% in the intervention group. The difference in changes between control and intervention was not statistically significant. For the cohort as a whole, the changes in indicators of body fatness did not show any clinically relevant differences between the intervention and control groups. Changes in favour of intervention treatment in some indicators were counterbalanced by changes in favour of the control group in some other indicators. Over the 2-year-observation period, the IDEFICS primary prevention programme for childhood obesity has not been successful in reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity nor in improving indicators of body fatness in

  12. Comparing New School Effects in Charter and Traditional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school…

  13. EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL TYPE STAD JUST-IN TIME BASED ON THE RESULTS OF LEARNING TEACHING PHYSICS COURSE IN PHYSICS SCHOOL IN PHYSICS PROGRAM FACULTY UNIMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Febri Sudarma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research was aimed to determine: (1 Students’ learning outcomes that was taught with just in time teaching based STAD cooperative learning method and STAD cooperative learning method (2 Students’ outcomes on Physics subject that had high learning activity compared with low learning activity. The research sample was random by raffling four classes to get two classes. The first class taught with just in time teaching based STAD cooperative learning method, while the second class was taught with STAD cooperative learning method. The instrument used was conceptual understanding that had been validated with 7 essay questions. The average gain values of students learning results with just in time teaching based STAD cooperative learning method 0,47 higher than average gain values of students learning results with STAD cooperative learning method. The high learning activity and low learning activity gave different learning results. In this case the average gain values of students learning results with just in time teaching based STAD cooperative learning method 0,48 higher than average gain values of students learning results with STAD cooperative learning method. There was interaction between learning model and learning activity to the physics learning result test in students

  14. Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia and cognitive and educational performance among school children in an area of moderate malaria transmission: baseline results of a cluster randomized trial on the coast of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Katherine E; Karanja, Peris; Turner, Elizabeth L; Okello, George; Njagi, Kiambo; Dubeck, Margaret M; Allen, Elizabeth; Jukes, Matthew C H; Brooker, Simon J

    2012-05-01

    Studies have typically investigated health and educational consequences of malaria among school-aged children in areas of high malaria transmission, but few have investigated these issues in moderate transmission settings. This study investigates the patterns of and risks for Plasmodium falciparum and anaemia and their association with cognitive and education outcomes on the Kenyan coast, an area of moderate malaria transmission. As part of a cluster randomised trial, a baseline cross-sectional survey assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for P. falciparum infection and anaemia and the associations between health status and measures of cognition and educational achievement. Results are presented for 2400 randomly selected children who were enrolled in the 51 intervention schools. The overall prevalence of P. falciparum infection and anaemia was 13.0% and 45.5%, respectively. There was marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of P. falciparum infection by school. In multivariable analysis, being male, younger age, not sleeping under a mosquito net and household crowding were adjusted risk factors for P. falciparum infection, whilst P. falciparum infection, being male and indicators of poor nutritional intake were risk factors for anaemia. No association was observed between either P. falciparum or anaemia and performance on tests of sustained attention, cognition, literacy or numeracy. The results indicate that in this moderate malaria transmission setting, P. falciparum is strongly associated with anaemia, but there is no clear association between health status and education. Intervention studies are underway to investigate whether removing the burden of chronic asymptomatic P. falciparum and related anaemia can improve education outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of the Statistical Analysis of the July 2010 TMSL Texas Bar Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhi, Tau; Holley, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following report gives the statistical findings of the July 2010 TMSL Bar results. Procedures: Data is pre-existing and was given to the Evaluator by email from the Registrar and Dean. Statistical analyses were run using SPSS 17 to address the following research questions: 1. What are the statistical descriptors of the July 2010 overall TMSL…

  16. Evaluation of the web-based computer-tailored FATaintPHAT intervention to promote energy balance among adolescents: Results from a school cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole); J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of FATaintPHAT, a Web-based computer-tailored intervention aiming to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behavior, and promote healthy eating to contribute to the prevention of excessive weight gain among adolescents.

  17. Evaluation of the Web-Based Computer-Tailored FATaintPHAT Intervention to Promote Energy Balance Among Adolescents Results From a School Cluster Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, N.P.M.; Brug, J.; Oenema, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of FATaintPHAT, a Web-based computer-tailored intervention aiming to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behavior, and promote healthy eating to contribute to the prevention of excessive weight gain among adolescents. Design: Cluster

  18. Foreign Language Competence and Content and Language Integrated Learning in Multilingual Schools in Catalonia: An "Ex Post Facto" Study Analysing the Results of State Key Competences Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral, Josep; Lleixà, Teresa; Ventura, Carles

    2018-01-01

    The member states of the European Union have funded many initiatives supporting the teaching and learning of foreign languages. Content and language integrated learning is one of the experimental language programmes that have been introduced in Catalonia, in the north-east of Spain. The aims of this study are to analyse the results achieved by…

  19. Online Course Use in Iowa and Wisconsin Public Schools: The Results of Two Statewide Surveys. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-090

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Margaret; Pazzaglia, Angela M.; Stafford, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The purpose of the study conducted by REL Midwest in partnership with the Midwest Virtual Education Research Alliance was to develop and administer a survey to describe online course use in Iowa and Wisconsin brick-and-mortar…

  20. Effects of Problem-Based Learning Model versus Expository Model and Motivation to Achieve for Student's Physic Learning Result of Senior High School at Class XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    "Problem-based learning" (PBL) is one of an innovative learning model which can provide an active learning to student, include the motivation to achieve showed by student when the learning is in progress. This research is aimed to know: (1) differences of physic learning result for student group which taught by PBL versus expository…

  1. Small School Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll E. Bronson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic case study explored the evolution of a public urban high school in its 3rd year of small school reform. The study focused on how the high school proceeded from its initial concept, moving to a small school program, and emerging as a new small high school. Data collection included interviews, observations, and document review to develop a case study of one small high school sharing a multiplex building. The first key finding, “Too Many Pieces, Not Enough Glue,” revealed that the school had too many new programs starting at once and they lacked a clear understanding of their concept and vision for their new small school, training on the Montessori philosophies, teaching and learning in small schools, and how to operate within a teacher-cooperative model. The second key finding, “A Continuous Struggle,” revealed that the shared building space presented problems for teachers and students. District policies remain unchanged, resulting in staff and students resorting to activist approaches to get things done. These findings offer small school reform leaders suggestions for developing and sustaining a small school culture and cohesion despite the pressures to revert back to top-down, comprehensive high school norms.

  2. Differences between secondary schools : A study about school context, group composition, school practice, and school effects with special attention to public and Catholic schools and types of schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdenakker, MC; Van Damme, J

    The results indicate that in Flanders secondary schools of different denomination and of different school type (based on their curriculum offerings) differ with respect to several characteristics. With respect to the educational framework, learning environment and learning climate differences

  3. The association of household food security, household characteristics and school environment with obesity status among off-reserve First Nations and Métis children and youth in Canada: results from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Cooke, Martin J; Guo, Yanling; Wilk, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    Indigenous children are twice as likely to be classified as obese and three times as likely to experience household food insecurity when compared with non- Indigenous Canadian children. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between food insecurity and weight status among Métis and off-reserve First Nations children and youth across Canada. We obtained data on children and youth aged 6 to 17 years (n = 6900) from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. We tested bivariate relationships using Pearson chi-square tests and used nested binary logistic regressions to examine the food insecurity-weight status relationship, after controlling for geography, household and school characteristics and cultural factors. Approximately 22% of Métis and First Nations children and youth were overweight, and 15% were classified as obese. Over 80% of the sample was reported as food secure, 9% experienced low food security and 7% were severely food insecure. Off-reserve Indigenous children and youth from households with very low food security were at higher risk of overweight or obese status; however, this excess risk was not independent of household socioeconomic status, and was reduced by controlling for household income, adjusted for household size. Negative school environment was also a significant predictor of obesity risk, independent of demographic, household and geographic factors. Both food insecurity and obesity were prevalent among the Indigenous groups studied, and our results suggest that a large proportion of children and youth who are food insecure are also overweight or obese. This study reinforces the importance of including social determinants of health, such as income, school environment and geography, in programs or policies targeting child obesity.

  4. DAILY MEAL FREQUENCY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LJUBLJANA IN RELATION TO SOME OF THEIR OTHER NUTRITIONAL AND LIFE-STYLE CHARACTERISTICS AND BODY MASS INDEX – PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Gabrijelčič-Blenkuš

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The recommended number of daily meals is three to five. The aim of this study was to establish the number of meals, daily consumed by secondary school students from Ljubljana, and the relationship with nutritional and other habits, including bad habits, demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the secondary school students and their body mass index.Methods. In 1999, an cross-section epidemiological study was performed on a proportional sample of 296 pupils attending the third class of Ljubljana secondary schools. The applied dietary data collection methods were the survey and the 24-hour dietary recall. The body mass index was calculated on the basis of the measured body height and body mass values. The Chi-square test, t-test, variance analysis and the multivariant linear regression method were used for the analysis.Results. The students consume 3.16 meals per day on average (boys 3.44, girls 2.87. The students who reported a smaller number of meals per day consume statistically significantly less fruit, vegetables, milk, milk products and fish. They take hot meals less frequently, consume less often all daily meals, their daily meals are of a poorer quality in respect to their composition, they eat less often their meals in a sitting position, they feel a greater difference in diet between working week days and weekends, their regular nourishment is more influenced by school obligations, they have poorer knowledge of healthy dietary practices, smoke more often, are less satisfied with their weight, are less physically active and girls sleep less at nights. The inverse proportional relationship between the number of daily meals and the body mass index was not statistically significant. The multivariant linear regression model explained the low variance percentage (R2 = 0.28.Conclusions. The average number of daily meals consumed by schoolboys is at the lower border of recommendations, while the average number of daily meals

  5. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Punjab, India: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. There is therefore need to identify relevant factors associated with smoking among adolescents in order to better tailor public health interventions aimed at preventing smoking. Methods We used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS conducted in 2003 in Punjab, India, on 2014 adolescents of whom 58.9% were males. We conducted a weighted logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex, to determine associations between predictor variables and current tobacco smoking status. Results A total of 2014 adolescents participated in the survey in 2003, and of these 58.9% were males. Male respondents tended to be older than females (21.2% of males, and 13.1% of females were of age 16 years or above. The percent of males and females in the other age groups were: 23.0% and 28.6% for Conclusion The observed associations between current smoking on one hand and peer smoking, and perception that boys who smoke are less attractive on the other, deserve further studies. The factors reported in the current study should be considered in the design of public health interventions aimed to reduce adolescent cigarette smoking.

  6. Certified Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Certified schools must provide specific information regarding the school, the nature and requirements of the educational program, location and contact information,...

  7. Overweight in school-aged children and its relationship with demographic and lifestyle factors: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, E; Rasmussen, Mette; Samdal, O

    2009-01-01

    samples in 41 countries (n=204,534). RESULTS: Overweight prevalence was highest in USA (28.8 %) and lowest in Latvia (7.6 %). In most countries, overweight was more prevalent in boys than girls. Overweight was consistently negatively associated with breakfast consumption and moderate to vigorous physical......OBJECTIVES: To examine overweight prevalence and its association with demographic and lifestyle factors in 11-15 year olds in the HBSC 2005-2006 survey. METHODS: Self-reports of height, weight, eating patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviours were obtained from nationally representative...... activity; OR range: 0.48-0.79 and 0.50-0.78, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overweight prevalence in youth remained high across the countries examined. The primary factors linked to overweight were breakfast consumption and physical activity. These data should contribute to formulating preventive programs...

  8. Determinants of Parent Involvement in Romanian Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Damean

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on exploring the factors that facilitate parent involvement in their child’s education and school life. A sample of 670 Romanian school principals from the Cross-National Survey of School Principals in South East Europe (SEE) countries 2008 was used. Two-step linear regressions were run in order to predict parent participation in school meetings, parent engagement in school activities and parent influence in school governance, as reported by school principals. The results...

  9. Lesher Middle School: Commitment by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Lesher Middle School, a school of choice, as are all of the schools in the Poudre School District in Ft. Collins, Colorado. In 2004, it was a traditional junior high school with a declining enrollment that housed an application-based International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (IB MYP) that resulted in tracking…

  10. Nursery School

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Enrolments 2016-2017 Enrolments for the school year 2016-2017 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on 7, 8 and 9 March 2016 from 8 to 10 am at the Nursery School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 3rd March. More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/.

  11. Seeing Results in Flooring for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Operations staffs at education facilities of all sizes are tasked with selecting a hard floor cleaning program that is cost-effective, efficient and highly productive. With an increased focus on the sustainability of an environment, facility managers also must select a program that meets sustainability goals while maintaining a healthful, safe…

  12. Applying cheerful disco learning for improving of motivation and learning result of PKn in grade viii c students junior high school 1 Kebumen in second semester 2013/2014 academic years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Makmuroh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this classroom action research is to improve students’ learning motivation, learning result of PKn on Basic Competence of Describing Indonesian Government System and the Roles of the State Institutions as the Sovereignty Executive and the characters of Grade VIII C Students of Junior High School 1 of Kebumen in Second Semester of Academic Year 2013/2014 by applying CHEERFUL DISCO learning method. The research is a classroom action research conducted in two cycles; each cycle of which includes planning, conducting, observation, and reflection. The result of the research shows that the learning method was able to improve the students’ learning motivation in learning activities from 62.37% in pre cycle to 73.74% in the first cycle, then from 78.91% in the second cycle, improved the PKn learning achievement in mastering concept of the ability to describe Indonesian Government System and the Roles of the State Institutions as the Sovereignty Executive, which can be seen that the students’ achievement test result is improving in average from 78.18 with 54.55% of mastery learning in pre cycle to 83.23 with 72.73% of mastery learning in the first cycle, then it was improved to 86.59 in average with 81.82% of mastery learning in the second cycle.

  13. Investing in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Strapped for cash, a Massachusetts high school creates its own venture capital fund to incentivize teachers to create programs that improve student learning. The result has been higher test scores and higher job satisfaction. One important program is credited with helping close the achievement gap at the school, while others have helped ambitious…

  14. Settings for School Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Claude

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews findings from research and practice in school reform, with a special focus on literacy outcomes in schools with students at risk. It describes videotape excerpts that illustrate the "Getting Results Model." This model involves four key change factors: goals, indicators, assistance from others, and leadership. (Contains…

  15. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  16. Vivência de violência entre escolares brasileiros: resultados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE Violence exposures by school children in Brazil: results from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os principais resultados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE. Aplicou-se questionário em uma amostra de conglomerados de 60.973 estudantes do 9º ano do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas e privadas das capitais dos estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal, entre março e junho de 2009. Analisam-se prevalências e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95% das situações de violência envolvendo adolescentes. Foram identificadas as seguintes situações: insegurança no trajeto casa-escola (6,4%; IC95%: 6,1%-6,8% e na escola (5,5%; IC95%: 5,2%-5,8%; envolvimento em brigas com agressão física (12,9%; IC95%: 12,4%-13,4%, com arma branca (6,1%; IC95%: 5,7%-6,4% ou arma de fogo (4,0%; IC95%: 3,7%-4,3%; agressão física por familiar (9,5%; IC95%: 9,1%-9,9%. As situações de violência foram mais prevalentes entre estudantes do sexo masculino. Houve grande variação segundo as cidades estudadas. Os adolescentes estão expostos a diferentes manifestações de violência nas instituições que supostamente deveriam garantir sua proteção e desenvolvimento saudável e seguro - a escola e o lar. Esses resultados visam apoiar medidas de promoção à saúde e prevenção desses fatores de risco.This article presents the main results of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE. A questionnaire was applied to a sample of 60,973 students of the 9th year of Junior high school in public and private schools of the Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District, between March and June 2009. The prevalence and confidence interval of 95% (CI 95% of the violence situations involving adolescents were analyzed. The following situations were identified: lack of safety on the way home-school (6.4%; CI95%: 6.1%-6.8% and at school (5.5%; CI95%: 5.2%-5.8%; involving fights with physical aggression (12.9%; CI95%: 12.4%-13.4%, with knife (6.1%; CI95%: 5.7%-6.4% or fire arm (4.0%; CI95%: 3.7%-4.3%; physical

  17. Mid-way and post-intervention effects on potential determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior, results of the HEIA study - a multi-component school-based randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Ingunn H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB. Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. Methods The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. Results At mid-way enjoyment (p = .03, perceived social support from teachers (p = .003 and self-efficacy (p = .05 were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p = .001, while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p = .02. Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several

  18. Women of Color School Leaders: Leadership Schools Should Not Ignore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Jean M.; Robicheau, Jerry W.

    2009-01-01

    School districts are faced with challenges resulting from the changing demographics of the student population. Consequently, school districts are creating positive, multicultural learning environments. School districts intent on establishing multicultural learning environments should consider the contributions people of color, specifically women…

  19. Student-teacher relationships matter for school inclusion: school belonging, disability, and school transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Ronald; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    For students with disabilities, the process of school inclusion often begins with a move from segregated settings into general education classrooms. School transitions can be stressful as students adjust to a new environment. This study examines the adjustment of 133 students with and without disabilities who moved from a school that served primarily students with disabilities into 23 public schools in a large urban school district in the Midwest. These students and 111 of their teachers and other school staff rated the degree that students felt they belonged in their new schools and the quality of their social interactions. Results show that students who experienced more positive and fewer negative social interactions with school staff had higher school belonging. Teachers accurately noted whether students felt they belonged in their new settings, but were not consistently able to identify student perceptions of negative social interactions with staff. Implications for inclusion and improving our educational system are explored.

  20. Uniforms in the Middle School: Student Opinions, Discipline Data, and School Police Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jafeth E.; Yoxsimer, Andrew; Hill, George C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated public middle school students' opinions on the benefits of wearing a school uniform. A review of related literature is provided along with results of the opinions obtained from 604 seventh- and eighth-grade middle school students attending a public school in Nevada that had recently initiated a school uniform policy.…

  1. Private Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...

  2. of Schools*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elementary Schools' (1908) and the 'School Health Service. Regulations' (1953). ... to the social and medical changes which have taken place during the past 20 years. ... both by mass media, and group discussion between teachers and the ...

  3. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  4. Mid-way and post-intervention effects on potential determinants of physical activity and sedentary behavior, results of the HEIA study - a multi-component school-based randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Grydeland, May; Lien, Nanna; Andersen, Lene F; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2012-05-29

    There is limited knowledge as to whether obesity prevention interventions are able to produce change in the determinants hypothesized to precede change in energy balance-related behaviors in young people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-component intervention on a wide range of theoretically informed determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Moderation effects of gender, weight status and parental education level and whether the perceived intervention dose received influenced the effects were also explored. The HEIA study was a 20-month school-based, randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight development. In total, 1418 11-year-olds participated at baseline and post-intervention assessment. Enjoyment, self-efficacy, perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends related to PA, perceived parental regulation of TV-viewing and computer/game-use and perceived social inclusion at schools were examined by covariance analyses to assess overall effects and moderation by gender, weight status and parental education, mid-way and post-intervention. Covariance analyses were also used to examine the role of intervention dose received on change in the determinants. At mid-way enjoyment (p = .03), perceived social support from teachers (p = .003) and self-efficacy (p = .05) were higher in the intervention group. Weight status moderated the effect on self-efficacy, with a positive effect observed among the normal weight only. At post-intervention results were sustained for social support from teachers (p = .001), while a negative effect was found for self-efficacy (p = .02). Weight status moderated the effect on enjoyment, with reduced enjoyment observed among the overweight. Moderation effects for parental education level were detected for perceived social support from parents and teachers. Finally, positive effects on several determinants were observed among those receiving a high

  5. Complexity, Accountability, and School Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Jennifer A.

    2002-01-01

    Using complexity theory, examines standards-based accountability focused on improving school organization. Compares Chicago Public Schools' outcomes-based bureaucratic accountability approach with Baltimore City Schools' combined administrator-professional accountability. Concludes that the combined approach should result in more lasting change.…

  6. On School Educational Technology Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis of the literatures on school educational technology leadership addresses definitions of school technology leaders and leadership, their role in educational change, and why schools are now changing as a result of 21st century advancements in technology. The literatures disagree over the definition of educational technology leadership.…

  7. Changes in adolescents’ and parents’ intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit and vegetables after 20 months: results from the HEIA study – a comprehensive, multi-component school-based randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Bjelland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions conducted in school-aged children often involve parents, but few studies have reported effects on parents’ own behaviour as a result of these interventions. Objective: To determine if a multi-component, cluster randomized controlled trial targeting 11–13 year olds influenced their consumption of fruit, vegetables, sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks, and to explore whether the results varied by gender, adolescent weight status or parental educational level. A final aim was to assess whether the parents’ intakes were affected by the intervention. Design: Participants were 1,418 adolescents, 849 mothers and 680 fathers. Baseline and post-intervention data from the 20 months intervention study HEIA (HEalth In Adolescents were included. Data were collected assessing frequency (and amounts; beverages only. Results: No significant differences were found at baseline between the intervention and control groups, except for the parental groups (educational level and intakes. At post-intervention, the adolescents in the intervention group consumed fruit more frequently (P<0.001 and had a lower intake of sugar-sweetened fruit drinks compared to the control group (P=0.02. The parental educational level moderated the effect on intake of sugar-sweetened fruit drinks in adolescents. The intake was less frequent in the intervention groups compared to the control groups (P=0.02 for those who had parents with low and medium educational level. Furthermore, the intervention may have affected mothers’ fruit intake and the vegetable intake in higher educated fathers. Conclusion: Favourable effects in favour of the intervention group were found for intake of fruit and sugar-sweetened fruit drinks among the adolescents in the HEIA study. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce adolescents’ intake of sugar-sweetened fruit drinks across parental education, and potentially affect sub-groups of parents.

  8. Patriotism and Parochialism: Why Teach American Jewish History, and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levisohn, Jon A.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on these questions: why is American Jewish history worthy of being "taught"? And what purpose should such teaching serve? Philosophical questions such as these are important because topics of study are not self-justifying, and asking the questions--questions that must be pursued through conceptual inquiry,…

  9. Can nurse practitioners and physicians beat parochialism into plowshares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert L; Harper, Doreen C; Wakefield, Mary; Green, Larry A; Fryer, George E

    2002-01-01

    Nurse practitioners have evolved into a large and flexible workforce. Far too often, nurse practitioner and physician professional organizations do not work together but rather expend considerable effort jousting in policy arenas. Turf battles interfere with joint advocacy for needed health system change and delay development of interdisciplinary teams that could help patients. A combined, consistent effort is urgently needed for studying, training, and deploying a collaborative, integrated workforce aimed at improving the health care system of tomorrow. The country can ill afford doctors and nurses who ignore one another's capabilities and fail to maximize each other's contributions cost-effectively.

  10. Overcoming parochialism: interdisciplinary training of the generalist team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J A

    1997-01-01

    The work force that will staff most health care systems of the future will include a complex array of professionals working together in teams. The traditional inpatient model of patient care has been only multidisciplinary--nurses, medical social workers, dietitians, pharmacists, and physicians, all interested in each patient, but with divided responsibilities, training formats, and faculties--whereas interdisciplinary teams openly share decision making, expectations for care, goals for the team, and mutual respect.

  11. Applying the One Health Concept to Mycobacterial Research - Overcoming Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, S; Plain, K M; de Silva, K; Marais, B J; Whittington, R J

    2017-09-01

    Mycobacterial infections remain a public health problem. Historically important, globally ubiquitous and with a wide host range, we are still struggling to control mycobacterial infections in humans and animals. While previous reviews have focused on individual mycobacterial infections in either humans or animals, a comprehensive review of the zoonotic aspect of mycobacteria in the context of the One Health initiative is lacking. With the purpose of providing a concise and comprehensive resource, we have collated literature to address the zoonotic potential of different mycobacterial species and elaborate on the necessity for an inter-sectorial approach to attain a new vision to combat mycobacterial infections. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. School Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    School phobia is a serious disorder affecting up to 5% of elementary and middle school children. Long-term consequences include academic failure, diminished peer relationships, parental conflict, and development of additional psychiatric disorders. Hiding behind such common physical symptoms as headaches, stomachaches, and fatigue, school phobia…

  13. School Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964

    The importance of insurance in the school budget is the theme of this comprehensive bulletin on the practices and policies for Texas school districts. Also considered is the development of desirable school board policies in purchasing insurance and operating the program. Areas of discussion are: risks to be covered, amount of coverage, values,…

  14. School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  15. Nursery School

    CERN Document Server

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    Enrolments 2015-2016 Enrolments for the school year 2015-2016 to the Nursery, the Nursery school and the school will take place on: Monday 2, Tuesday 3 and Thursday 4 March 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/

  16. School Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…

  17. IRU Results and Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the disciplines within USOBuilt Graduate School as organized in International Research and Design Units, the fora where research and design at a (post)doctorate level is performed and taught. A fixed template was used to self-assess results and perspectives, consisting of

  18. School-Within-A-School (Hawaii Nui High) Hilo High School Report 1969-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.

    The second year of operation of Hilo High School's "School-Within-A-School" [SWS] program is evaluated in this paper. Planning, training, and program implementation are described in the document. The following are the results of the program: There was an improvement in attendance among project students when compared to their record in…

  19. Middle School Concept Helps High-Poverty Schools Become High-Performing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Brownson, Amanda; Kahlert, Rahel; Sobel, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin for the U.S. Department of Education during the 2001-02 school year showed that elements of the middle school concept can lead to improved student performance, even in high-poverty schools. This article describes common elements of the middle school…

  20. Charter Schools and Student Compositions of Traditional Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevbahar Ertas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most contentious urban education policy issues in the United States today is the expansion of charter schools and its repercussions. Does the expansion of charter schools affect the racial and socioeconomic composition of traditional public schools in the United States? This study provides empirical evidence on this question by relying on a panel design that uses school-level data from two states that have experimented with charter schools for more than 15 years: Ohio and Texas. Using county-level, spatial, and enrollment-based measures of charter exposure, the changes from pre- to post-charter-legislation stages in the student compositions of public schools that do and do not face competition from charters are examined. The results suggest that charter school presence contributes to aggregate-level changes in the share of non-Hispanic White and free-lunch-eligible students in traditional public schools in both states in different ways.

  1. Un estudio exploratorio de los esquemas que emplean los alumnos de bachillerato para validar resultados matemáticos/ An exploratory study of schemes used by senior high school students to validate mathematic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Larios Osorio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics, as a body of scientific knowledge, includes not only a set of concepts and theories described in books and scientific journals but a procedural knowledge used for solving problems and proving the resulting solution. There is a tool for proving solutions, the so-called mathematical proof, which is worth to be included in the educational process. To complete the study herein described a random stratified sample was selected and given a test demanding to explain the answers given. However, high school students (15-18 years old do not rely on the use of the known proof scheme. For that reason, a diagnostic study was carried out at the Autonomous University of Querétaro (UAQ in order to identify the strategies the students are currently following and finding ways to teach such mathematical proof scheme. The findings are a description of individual students’ argumentative practices and the identification and grouping of the most frequently used proof scheme.

  2. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

  3. Teachers perception of school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This paper is part of MA thesis in which primary school teachers' perceptions of was explored. The study was ... of relevance, management, and result in enhancement of students learning, and obstructions. ...... Professional Ethics, Counseling.

  4. ESL Placement and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Wilkinson, Lindsey; Muller, Chandra; Frisco, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore English as a Second Language (ESL) placement as a measure of how schools label and process immigrant students. Using propensity score matching and data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors estimate the effect of ESL placement on immigrant achievement. In schools with more immigrant students, the authors find that ESL placement results in higher levels of academic performance; in schools with few immigrant students, the effect reverses. This is not to suggest a one-size-fits-all policy; many immigrant students, regardless of school composition, generational status, or ESL placement, struggle to achieve at levels sufficient for acceptance to a 4-year university. This study offers several factors to be taken into consideration as schools develop policies and practices to provide immigrant students opportunities to learn. PMID:20617111

  5. Violence and school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.

  6. Does Combining School and Work Affect School and Post-School Outcomes? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlezark, Alison; Lim, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In this report the authors seek to answer the question of whether combining school and work is detrimental or beneficial to a student's school educational performance and labour market outcomes. They find that young people who combine school and work are distributed right across the school population. Results show that individuals can combine…

  7. [Differences in subjective health, mental health, and health behavior among 11- to 17-year-olds at secondary schools in Germany : Results of the German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhauer, Julia; Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Social inequalities in health can already be found among children and adolescents to the disadvantage of socially deprived population groups. This paper aims to detect, whether differences in subjective health, mental health and health behavior among young people are due to the secondary school type attended and whether these associations exist independently of the family's socioeconomic position (SEP). The data basis was the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 1, 2009-2012). Data of 11- to 17-year-old girls and boys (n = 4665) who attend different types of secondary schools in Germany were analyzed. The dependent variables were self-rated health, findings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the detection of psychological abnormalities, as well as self-reported information regarding leisure sport, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. Prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) based on logistic regressions are shown. For the majority of the examined indicators, it can be shown that adolescents in lower secondary schools are more likely to report worse self-rated health and mental problems and engage in unhealthy behavior than peers in grammar schools ("Gymnasium"). The differences decrease after controlling for family's SEP but mostly remain statistically significant. Adolescents who don't attend grammar schools are most strongly disadvantaged in terms of inattention/hyperactivity for both gender (OR: 2.29 [1.70-3.08]), smoking among girls (2.91 [1.85-4.57]) and physical inactivity (no leisure sport) among boys (OR: 2.71 [1.85-3.95]). Unequal health opportunities should be viewed in relation to people's living conditions. For adolescents, school constitutes an important setting for learning, experience, and health. The results indicate divergent needs of school-based health promotion and prevention regarding differences among gender and type of school.

  8. Effectiveness of the “What’s Up!” Intervention to Reduce Stigma and Psychometric Properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ: Results from a Cluster Non-randomized Controlled Trial Conducted in Catalan High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrés-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorders are highly prevalent in the general population, and people who experience them are frequently stigmatized. Stigma has a very negative impact on social, academic/professional, and personal life. Considering the high rates of mental disorders among children and adolescents (13.4% and how critical this age is in the formation of nuclear beliefs, many campaigns to combat stigma have been developed in the last decade, with mixed results. The OBERTAMENT initiative has produced various anti-stigma campaigns in Catalonia (Spain. In the present study, the main objective was to report on the effectiveness of the OBERTAMENT “What’s up!” intervention, a curricular intervention including education and social contact conducted by the teachers in the classroom with teenagers aged between 14 and 18. Prior to this, we examined the psychometric properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ, our main outcome measure, in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and validity. A cluster non-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess this intervention, which was tested in nine high schools situated in the Barcelona region. A convenience sample of 261 students formed the intervention group and 132 the control group (52% women, mean age = 14, SD = 0.47. The assignment to study conditions was conducted by Departament d’Ensenyament (Department of Education, Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan Government. Participants were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and 9-month follow-up. The main outcome measure of this study was the YPQ. The Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS was used as secondary outcome measure. The statistical analysis indicated that the YPQ possesses a two-factor structure (stereotypical attitudes and intended behavior and sound psychometric properties. The multilevel mixed-effects models revealed statistically significant interactions for both study measures and post hoc intragroup analyses revealed a

  9. Stress levels experienced by parents of children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during the back-to-school period: results of a European and Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Doddamani, Lakshman; Dutray, Benoit; Gagliano, Antonella; Haertling, Fabian; Bloomfield, Ralph; Ramnath, Gracita

    2015-03-01

    The back-to-school stress survey was designed to compare stress in parents of children/ adolescents with/without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in six European countries and Canada when children prepare to return to school. Parents of children/adolescents (6-17 years) with/without ADHD were recruited and interviewed by a consumer research organization. Parents rated potentially stress-causing situations (both standard and specifically related to the return to school) on a scale from 1 (low stress) to 10 (high stress). Mean scores were compared using Student's t-test. In Europe, 613/693 (mean [SD] age: 40.7 [7.0]/40.1 [6.9] years) and in Canada, 102/150 (mean [SD] age: 44.4 [8.1]/44.1 [7.2] years) parents of children with/without ADHD, respectively, participated in the survey. Children with ADHD (mean [SD] age: 11.2 [3.2]/12.6 [3.2] years in Europe/Canada) had generally similar characteristics in both samples. Parents in the ADHD group showed higher stress levels than parents in the non-ADHD group in all situations (p school was considered one of the most stressful events during the year. In Europe and Canada, ADHD has a significant impact on parental stress, particularly during the back-to-school period. This can have important implications as parental stress can affect presentation of ADHD symptoms.

  10. Negotiating School Conflicts to Prevent Student Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, John P.; Roberts, John K.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a model of negotiation as a means to resolve school conflict. The assumption is that school conflict is inevitable, but student delinquency is not. Delinquent behavior results from the way that the school deals with conflict. Students resort to…

  11. 77 FR 67572 - Magnet Schools Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 280 [Docket ID ED-2010-OII-0003] RIN 1855-AA07 Magnet Schools... amended the regulations governing the Magnet Schools Assistance Program (MSAP) to provide greater... creation of magnet schools that result in minority group enrollments in magnet and feeder schools exceeding...

  12. Testing the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Emily G.

    2017-01-01

    The School-to-Prison Pipeline is a social phenomenon where students become formally involved with the criminal justice system as a result of school policies that use law enforcement, rather than discipline, to address behavioral problems. A potentially important part of the School-to-Prison Pipeline is the use of sworn School Resource Officers…

  13. The Role of Censorship in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petress, Ken

    2005-01-01

    School authorities face great complexities and inevitable challenges when deciding to make or not to make censorship decisions in schools. Matters of educational content, age level, acceptability by parents and communities, and appropriateness in the school setting are among the decisions having to be made. When school official decisions result in…

  14. Medical school-based teaching kitchen improves HbA1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol for patients with type 2 diabetes: Results from a novel randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monlezun, Dominique J; Kasprowicz, Eric; Tosh, Katherine W; Nix, Jenni; Urday, Pedro; Tice, Daphne; Sarris, Leah; Harlan, Timothy S

    2015-08-01

    A medical school-based teaching kitchen sought to establish proof-of-principle for its hands-on Mediterranean diet (MD)-based cooking and nutrition curriculum for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) allocated 27 patients with T2D between the control and GCCM arms. Mixed effects linear regression with repeated measures was used to investigate differences from baseline to 6 months. The primary and secondary endpoints were HbA1c -0.3% (-27 mmol/mol) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) -10 mmHg and a 25% improved responses in dietary habits and attitudes and competencies in healthy nutrition. Compared to the control group, the GCCM group had superior HbA1c reduction (-0.4% vs. -0.3%, p = 0.575) that was not statistically significant. There were significantly greater reductions in the GCCM vs. control group for DBP (-4 vs. 7 mmHg, p=0.037) and total cholesterol (-14 vs. 17 mg/dL, p = 0.044). There was a greater proportion increase though not significant of GCCM subjects compared to controls who mostly believed they could eat correct portions (18% vs. -11%, p = 0.124), and who used nutrition panels to make food choices (34% vs. 0%, p = 0.745). This is the first known RCT demonstrating improved biometrics using a novel MD-based hands on cooking and nutrition curriculum for patients with T2D. These results suggest subsequent clinical trials are warranted on the grounds of documented feasibility and clinical efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in adolescents' intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and sedentary behaviour: Results at 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study - a comprehensive, multi-component school-based randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Lene F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inconsistent effects of school-based obesity prevention interventions may be related to how different subgroups receive them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intervention program, including fact sheets to parents and classroom components, on intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and screen time. Further, to explore whether potential effects and parental involvement varied by adolescents' gender, weight status (WS and parental educational level. Methods In total, 1465 11-year-olds participated at the pre-test and the 8 month mid-way assessment of the HEIA study. Parents (n = 349 contributed with process evaluation data. Self-reported intake of SSB was collected from the 11-year-olds assessing frequency and amount, while time used on watching TV/DVD and computer/game-use (weekday and weekend day were assed by frequency measures. Data on awareness of the intervention and dose received were collected from parents. Covariance analyses (ANCOVA were conducted testing for effects by gender and for moderation by WS and parental education. Results Time spent on TV/DVD (week p = 0.001, weekend p = 0.03 and computer/game-use (week p = 0.004, weekend p Conclusions The preventive initiatives appeared to change behaviour in girls only. This study suggests that exploration of potential beneficial or negative effects of intervention in subgroups is important. In formative evaluation of obesity prevention studies it seems warranted to include issues related to gender, WS and parental involvement in order to enhance the effectiveness of preventive initiatives.

  16. [School bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, J; Van Paemel, S; Pitchot, W

    2018-02-01

    School bullying consists of harassment behaviours in a school setting and is characterized by violence acts, mockery or even humiliations between students. More recently, with the development of new technologies, our society has seen the cyber-bullying born. This new type of harassment "on-line" comes and intersects the harassment at school. After the description of a clinical situation, we describe the impact of this phenomenon on the different actors concerned, the lines for prevention and for appropriate support.

  17. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buijs Goof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years. Prevalences of the outcome variables were calculated for the schools in total and by school level. The association between school level and outcome variables were analysed by a log linear regression. Results Unhealthy foods and drinks are widely available at secondary schools. One third of the schools indicated that overweight has increased among students and half of the schools agreed that schools were (coresponsible for the prevention of overweight. Only 3% of the schools have a policy on overweight prevention. Small differences were observed between vocational education schools and higher education schools. The presence of vending machines did not differ by school level, but at vocational education schools, the content of the vending machines was less healthy. Conclusion This study describes the current situation at schools which is essential for the development and evaluation of future overweight prevention policies and interventions. In general, secondary schools are not actively involved in overweight prevention and the nutritional environment at most schools could be improved. The small differences between school levels do not give reason for a differential approach for a certain school level for overweight prevention.

  18. Using Coaching to Provide Ongoing Support and Supervision to Out-of-School Time Staff. Part 3 in a Series on Implementing Evidence-Based Practices in Out-of-School Time Programs: The Role of Frontline Staff. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2009-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhauser, Mary; Metz, Allison J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Although skills needed by out-of-school time practitioners can be introduced during training, many skills can only really be learned on the job with ongoing support and supervision provided by a "coach." Research from both the education and out-of-school time fields supports the value of staff coaching as a professional development tool, and staff…

  19. Research and partnerships with schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Aitken, Jill; Dogra, Nisha

    2016-08-01

    Despite the quantity of research on child and adolescent mental health being done in schools, little output has focused on the practical aspects of recruiting schools and students into a study. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge on how to develop and sustain productive and mutually beneficial partnerships with schools after the project finishes. A large study examining prevalence of mental health problems in young people involving nine schools is used as an example for the procedure of recruitment and carrying out a research project, while developing and sustaining partnerships with schools. While recruiting the schools, a three-stage model was developed that corresponded closely to the school's needs and existing demands. The suggested procedure for the study, thus, closely reflected the varying existing cultures of participating schools. Partnerships, developed as a result of the project, were used in developing further projects and interventions for promoting good mental health in schools. Rather than a blanket research recruitment and procedural approach with an end to school involvement at the end of the project, the paper advocates for a deeper understanding of the schools' internal culture for improved recruitment and study outcomes. Developed partnerships, when sustained past the completion of research, prove to be a useful tool in applying the findings in promoting good mental health in schools and continuing research further.

  20. SCHOOL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tsinghua SEM Gets EQUIS Accreditation The School of Economies and Management of Tsinghua University(Tsinghua SEM)was awarded accreditation from the European Quality’ Improvement System(EQUIS)at the end of February 2008.This makes Tsinghua SEM the first business school on the Chinese mainland to be accredited by EQUIS.Together with the accreditation awarded by AACSB International (the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business)in 2007,Tsinghua SEM becomes the only business school on the Chinese mainland to be accredited by both AACSB and EQUIS,two of the most prestigious international accreditations of management education.