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Sample records for parkinsonian substantia nigra

  1. Iron concentrations and distributions in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of aged and young primate models

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    Ren, M.Q.; Xie, J.P.; Wang, X.S.; Ong, W.Y.; Leong, S.K.; Watt, F.

    2001-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuronal degenerative brain disease of the elderly, and is caused by the selective degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain, resulting in a reduced production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Iron has been linked to dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson's disease because of its potential to promote free radicals, leading to oxidative stress. The present study is aimed at using the techniques of nuclear microscopy to elucidate the iron concentrations and distributions in the SN of both young and old monkeys following unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioning. A group of three old monkeys (older than 7 years) and a group of three young monkeys (younger than 7 years) were unilaterally MPTP-lesioned (right side) to induce parkinsonism and sacrificed after 35 days. The left side SN was used as a control. This time interval was chosen to correspond to an average 50% loss of dopamine producing cells in the lesioned right side SN. We have observed a significant difference in iron concentrations between the SNs of the young and old monkeys (increasing from an average of 233 to 1092 parts per million dry weight). When comparing the lesioned and non-lesioned SNs of the same animal, we found no significant difference in iron levels for each young monkey. However we have found a slight increase in iron (approximately 10%) between the lesioned SN and control SN for old monkeys. We have also observed that in the SN of younger primates, there is a weak anti-correlation in the SN iron levels with the neuron distribution. In the older monkeys, however, we have observed a proliferation of iron-rich granules, which appear to be more strongly anti-correlated with the distribution of neurons. The iron-cell anti-correlation occurs both in the control as well as the lesioned SN. Our results suggest that iron, particularly in the form of iron-rich deposits, accumulates in specific sites

  2. Protocol of a prospective study on the diagnostic value of transcranial duplex scanning of the substantia nigra in patients with parkinsonian symptoms

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    Wuisman Piet GWM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. As there is no definitive diagnostic test, its diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. Recently transcranial duplex scanning (TCD of the substantia nigra in the brainstem has been proposed as an instrument to diagnose PD. We and others have found that TCD scanning of substantia nigra duplex is a relatively accurate diagnostic instrument in patients with parkinsonian symptoms. However, all studies on TCD so far have involved well-defined, later-stage PD patients, which will obviously lead to an overestimate of the diagnostic accuracy of TCD. We have therefore set out to conduct a prospective study testing the diagnostic accuracy of TCD in patients with a parkinsonism of unclear origin. Methods/Design We will enrol 250 consecutive patients, who are referred to neurology outpatient clinics of two teaching hospitals, for analysis of clinically unclear parkinsonism. Patients, whose parkinsonism is clearly diagnosable at the first visit, will be excluded from the study. All patients will undergo a TCD of the substantia nigra. As a surrogate gold standard we will use the consensus clinical diagnosis reached by two independent, blinded, movement disorder specialist neurologists after 2 years follow-up. At the time of TCD, patients will also undergo a SPECT scan of the brain. Discussion As this prospective trial enrols only patients with an early-stage parkinsonism, it will yield data on the diagnostic accuracy of TCD that is relevant to daily clinical practice: The neurologist needs a diagnostic tool that provides additional information in patients with a clinically indefinable parkinsonian syndrome. The above described observational longitudinal study was designed to explicitly study this aspect in the diagnostic process. Trial registration (ITRSCC NCT00368199

  3. Iron and cell death in Parkinson's disease: a nuclear microscopic study into iron-rich granules in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of primate models

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    Thong, P.S.P.; Watt, F. E-mail: phywattf@nus.edu.sg; Ponraj, D.; Leong, S.K.; He, Y.; Lee, T.K.Y

    1999-09-02

    Parkinson's disease is a degenerative brain disease characterised by a loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain and accompanying biochemical changes such as inhibition of mitochondrial function, increased iron concentrations and decreased glutathione levels in the parkinsonian SN. Though the aetiology of the disease is still unknown, the observed biochemical changes point to the involvement of oxidative stress. In particular, iron is suspected to play a role by promoting free radical production, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. The increase in iron in the parkinsonian SN has been confirmed by several research groups, both in human post-mortem brains and in brain tissue from parkinsonian animal models. However, the question remains as to whether the observed increase in iron is a cause or a consequence of the SN cell death process. Our previous study using unilaterally 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys in a time sequence experiment has shown that the increase in bulk iron concentrations follow rather than precede dopaminergic cell death. However, changes in the localised iron concentrations, which may play a more direct role in SN cell death, may not be reflected at the bulk level. Indeed, we have observed iron-rich granules in parkinsonian SNs. From this time sequence study into the iron content of iron-rich granules in the SNs of an untreated control and unilaterally MPTP-lesioned parkinsonian models, we present the following observations: (1) Iron-rich granules are found in both control and parkinsonian SNs and are variable in size and iron content in any one model. (2) These iron-rich granules may be associated with neuromelanin granules found in the SN and are known to accumulate transition metal ions such as iron. (3) The early onset of bulk SN cell loss (35%) was accompanied by a significant elevation of iron in granules found in the MPTP-injected SN compared to the contra-lateral SN

  4. Usefulness of Cardiac MIBG Scintigraphy, Olfactory Testing and Substantia Nigra Hyperechogenicity as Additional Diagnostic Markers for Distinguishing between Parkinson's Disease and Atypical Parkinsonian Syndromes.

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    Hiroaki Fujita

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the utility of the combined use of cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG scintigraphy, olfactory testing, and substantia nigra (SN hyperechogenicity on transcranial sonography (TCS in differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD from atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APSs, such as multiple system atrophy (MSA and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP.Cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, card-type odor identification testing (Open Essence (OE, Wako, Japan, and TCS were performed with 101 patients with PD and 38 patients with APSs (MSA and PSP. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these batteries for diagnosing PD from APSs. The diagnostic accuracy of the three tests was also assessed among patients at the early disease stage (drug-naïve patients with a disease duration of 3 years or less.In differentiating PD from APSs, the area under the ROC curve was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.65-0.83, 0.8 (95% CI, 0.73-0.87, and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67-0.82 for TCS, cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, and olfactory testing, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 53.1% and 91.7%, respectively, for TCS, 70.3% and 86.8%, respectively, for cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, 58.4% and 76.3%, respectively, for OE. Among early-stage patients, sensitivity and specificity were 50.0% and 93.8%, respectively, for TCS, 57.1% and 87.5%, respectively, for cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, and 54.8% and 79.2%, respectively, for OE. At least one positive result from 3 tests improved sensitivity (86.1% but decreased specificity (63.2%. In contrast, at least 2 positive results from 3 tests had good discrimination for both early-stage patients (50.0% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity and patients overall (57.8% sensitivity and 95.8% specificity. Positive results for all 3 tests yielded 100% specificity but low sensitivity (25%.At least 2 positive results from among TCS, cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, and olfactory

  5. In parkinsonian substantia nigra, alpha-synuclein is modified by acrolein, a lipid-peroxidation product, and accumulates in the dopamine neurons with inhibition of proteasome activity.

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    Shamoto-Nagai, M; Maruyama, W; Hashizume, Y; Yoshida, M; Osawa, T; Riederer, P; Naoi, M

    2007-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein (alphaSYN) plays a central role in the neural degeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) through its conformational change. In PD, alphaSYN, released from the membrane, accumulates in the cytoplasm and forms Lewy body. However, the mechanism behind the translocation and conformational change of alphaSYN leading to the cell death has not been well elucidated. This paper reports that in the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra containing neuromelanin from PD patients, alphaSYN was modified with acrolein (ACR), an aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation confirmed the co-localization of protein immunoreactive to anti-alphaSYN and ACR antibody. By Western blot analyses of samples precipitated with either anti-alphaSYN or anti-ACR antibody, increase in ACR-modified alphaSYN was confirmed in PD brain. Modification of recombinant alphaSYN by ACR enhanced its oligomerization, and at higher ACR concentrations alphaSYN was fragmented and polymerized forming a smear pattern in SDS-PAGE. ACR reduced 20S proteasome activity through the direct modification of the proteasome proteins and the production of polymerized ACR-modified proteins, which inhibited proteasome activity in vitro. These results suggest that ACR may initiate vicious cycle of modification and aggregation of proteins, including alphaSYN, and impaired proteolysis system, to cause neuronal death in PD.

  6. Determination of trace elements in the human substantia nigra

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    Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: morm@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Meinecke, Ch. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Doerffel, A.C. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Riederer, P. [Klin. Neurochemie, Abt. Psychiatrie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    'The gain in brain is mainly in the stain' was long time a key sentence for research in neurodegenerative disease. However, for a quantification of the element concentrations (especially iron) in brain tissue, standard staining methods are insufficient. Advanced physical methods allow a quantitative elemental analysis of brain tissue. The sophisticated ion beam analysis provides a quantitative determination of elemental concentrations with a subcellular spatial resolution using a scanning proton beam focussed down to below 1 {mu}m that induces characteristic X-rays in the specimen (PIXE - particle induced X-ray emission). Histochemical and biochemical determinations of total iron content in brain regions from idiopathic Parkinson's disease have demonstrated an increase of iron in parkinsonian substantia nigra pars compacta but not in the pars reticulata, however without a clear cellular classification. For the first time, we have differentially investigated the intra- and extraneuronal elemental concentrations (especially iron) of the human substantia nigra pars compacta versus pars reticulata with detection limits in the range of 50 {mu}mol/l. Thus, we could compare the neuronal iron concentration in human brain sections of healthy and parkinsonian brain tissue. Clear differences in the iron concentration and distribution could be disclosed. Additionally, we could show in situ that the increased intraneuronal iron content is linked to neuromelanin.

  7. Substantia Nigra Free Water Increases Longitudinally in Parkinson Disease.

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    Guttuso, T; Bergsland, N; Hagemeier, J; Lichter, D G; Pasternak, O; Zivadinov, R

    2018-02-01

    Free water in the posterior substantia nigra obtained from a bi-tensor diffusion MR imaging model has been shown to significantly increase over 1- and 4-year periods in patients with early-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease compared with healthy controls, which suggests that posterior substantia nigra free water may be an idiopathic Parkinson disease progression biomarker. Due to the known temporal posterior-to-anterior substantia nigra degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson disease, we assessed longitudinal changes in free water in both the posterior and anterior substantia nigra in patients with later-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease and age-matched healthy controls for comparison. Nineteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson disease and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects were assessed on the same 3T MR imaging scanner at baseline and after approximately 3 years. Baseline mean idiopathic Parkinson disease duration was 7.1 years. Both anterior and posterior substantia nigra free water showed significant intergroup differences at baseline ( P Parkinson disease versus healthy controls); however, only anterior substantia nigra free water showed significant longitudinal group × time interaction increases ( P = .021, idiopathic Parkinson disease versus healthy controls). There were no significant longitudinal group × time interaction differences found for conventional diffusion tensor imaging or free water-corrected DTI assessments in either the anterior or posterior substantia nigra. Results from this study provide further evidence supporting substantia nigra free water as a promising disease-progression biomarker in idiopathic Parkinson disease that may help to identify disease-modifying therapies if used in future clinical trials. Our novel finding of longitudinal increases in anterior but not posterior substantia nigra free water is potentially a result of the much longer disease duration of our cohort compared with previously studied cohorts and the known

  8. Effects of mild running on substantia nigra during early neurodegeneration.

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    Almeida, Michael F; Silva, Carolliny M; Chaves, Rodrigo S; Lima, Nathan C R; Almeida, Renato S; Melo, Karla P; Demasi, Marilene; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Netto, Luis E S; Cardoso, Sandra M; Ferrari, Merari F R

    2018-06-01

    Moderate physical exercise acts at molecular and behavioural levels, such as interfering in neuroplasticity, cell death, neurogenesis, cognition and motor functions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the cellular effects of moderate treadmill running upon substantia nigra during early neurodegeneration. Aged male Lewis rats (9-month-old) were exposed to rotenone 1mg/kg/day (8 weeks) and 6 weeks of moderate treadmill running, beginning 4 weeks after rotenone exposure. Substantia nigra was extracted and submitted to proteasome and antioxidant enzymes activities, hydrogen peroxide levels and Western blot to evaluate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), alpha-synuclein, Tom-20, PINK1, TrkB, SLP1, CRMP-2, Rab-27b, LC3II and Beclin-1 level. It was demonstrated that moderate treadmill running, practiced during early neurodegeneration, prevented the increase of alpha-synuclein and maintained the levels of TH unaltered in substantia nigra of aged rats. Physical exercise also stimulated autophagy and prevented impairment of mitophagy, but decreased proteasome activity in rotenone-exposed aged rats. Physical activity also prevented H 2 O 2 increase during early neurodegeneration, although the involved mechanism remains to be elucidated. TrkB levels and its anterograde trafficking seem not to be influenced by moderate treadmill running. In conclusion, moderate physical training could prevent early neurodegeneration in substantia nigra through the improvement of autophagy and mitophagy.

  9. Do Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons Differentiate Between Reward and Punishment?

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    Michael J. Frank; D. James Surmeier

    2009-01-01

    The activity of dopaminergic neurons are thought to be increased by stimuli that predict reward and decreased by stimuli that predict aversive outcomes. Recent work by Matsumoto and Hikosaka challenges this model by asserting that stimuli associated with either rewarding or aversive outcomes increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

  10. Bidirectional modulation of substantia nigra activity by motivational state.

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    Mark A Rossi

    Full Text Available A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra.

  11. Bidirectional Modulation of Substantia Nigra Activity by Motivational State

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    Rossi, Mark A.; Fan, David; Barter, Joseph W.; Yin, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    A major output nucleus of the basal ganglia is the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which sends GABAergic projections to brainstem and thalamic nuclei. The GABAergic (GABA) neurons are reciprocally connected with nearby dopaminergic neurons, which project mainly to the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei critical for goal-directed behaviors. Here we examined the impact of motivational states on the activity of GABA neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the neighboring dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the pars compacta. Both types of neurons show short-latency bursts to a cue predicting a food reward. As mice became sated by repeated consumption of food pellets, one class of neurons reduced cue-elicited firing, whereas another class of neurons progressively increased firing. Extinction or pre-feeding just before the test session dramatically reduced the phasic responses and their motivational modulation. These results suggest that signals related to the current motivational state bidirectionally modulate behavior and the magnitude of phasic response of both DA and GABA neurons in the substantia nigra. PMID:23936522

  12. Proteome analysis of human substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease

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    Werner Cornelius J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder involving the motor system. Although not being the only region involved in PD, affection of the substantia nigra and its projections is responsible for some of the most debilitating features of the disease. To further advance a comprehensive understanding of nigral pathology, we conducted a tissue based comparative proteome study of healthy and diseased human substantia nigra. Results The gross number of differentially regulated proteins in PD was 221. In total, we identified 37 proteins, of which 16 were differentially expressed. Identified differential proteins comprised elements of iron metabolism (H-ferritin and glutathione-related redox metabolism (GST M3, GST P1, GST O1, including novel redox proteins (SH3BGRL. Additionally, many glial or related proteins were found to be differentially regulated in PD (GFAP, GMFB, galectin-1, sorcin, as well as proteins belonging to metabolic pathways sparsely described in PD, such as adenosyl homocysteinase (methylation, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (aldehyde metabolism. Further differentially regulated proteins included annexin V, beta-tubulin cofactor A, coactosin-like protein and V-type ATPase subunit 1. Proteins that were similarly expressed in healthy or diseased substantia nigra comprised housekeeping proteins such as COX5A, Rho GDI alpha, actin gamma 1, creatin-kinase B, lactate dehydrogenase B, disulfide isomerase ER-60, Rab GDI beta, methyl glyoxalase 1 (AGE metabolism and glutamine synthetase. Interestingly, also DJ-1 and UCH-L1 were expressed similarly. Furthermore, proteins believed to serve as internal standards were found to be expressed in a constant manner, such as 14-3-3 epsilon and hCRMP-2, thus lending further validity to our results. Conclusion Using an approach encompassing high sensitivity and high resolution, we show that alterations of SN in PD include many

  13. Glycine receptors in the human substantia nigra as defined by (3H)strychnine binding

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    de Montis, G; Beaumont, K; Javoy-Agid, F; Agid, Y; Constandinidis, J; Lowenthal, A; Lloyd, K G

    1982-03-01

    Specific (3H)strychnine binding was used to identify the glycine receptor macromolecular complex in human spinal cord, substantia nigra, inferior olivary nucleus, and cerebral cortex. In material from control patients a high-affinity KD (3--8 nM) was observed in the spinal cord and the substantia nigra, both the pars compacta and the pars reticulata. This is very similar to the values observed in the rat and bovine spinal cord (8 and 3 nM, respectively) and rat substantia nigra (12 nM). In the human brain the distribution of (3H)strychnine binding (at 10 nM) was: spinal cord . substantia nigra, pars compacta greater than substantia nigra, pars reticulata . inferior olivary nucleus greater than cerebral cortex. The binding capacity (Bmax) of the rat brain (substantia nigra or spinal cord) was approximately 10-fold that of the human brain. (3H)Strychnine binding was significantly decreased in the substantia nigra from Parkinson's disease patients, both in the pars compacta (67% of control) and the pars reticulata (50% of control), but not in the inferior olivary nucleus. The results were reproduced in preliminary experiment in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. In the substantia nigra from patients who died with Huntington's disease, (3H)strychnine binding tended to be high (150% of control, NS) in both the pars compacta and the reticulata. (3H)Strychnine binding was unaltered in the substantia nigra of patients with senile dementia. Together with previous neurophysiological and neuropharmacological findings, those results support the hypothesis of glycine receptors occurring on dopamine cell bodies and/or dendrites in the substantia nigra.

  14. Dopamine-dependent neurotoxicity of lipopolysaccharide in substantia nigra.

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    De Pablos, Rocío M; Herrera, Antonio J; Villarán, Ruth F; Cano, Josefina; Machado, Alberto

    2005-03-01

    Intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent inductor of inflammation, induces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, along with an inflammatory process that features activation of microglial cells and loss of astrocytes. To test the involvement of dopamine (DA) in this degeneration induced by LPS, we treated albino Wistar rats with different concentrations of alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT), an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. Results showed that alpha-MPT prevented LPS-induced loss of TH immunostaining and expression of mRNA for TH and DA transporter; it also prevented substantial activation of microglial cells. Loss of the astroglial population, a marker of damage in our model, was also prevented. This protective effect resulted from inhibition of TH and the consequent decrease in DA concentration, because treatment with L-DOPA/benserazide, which bypasses TH inhibition induced by alpha-MPT, reversed the protective effect produced by this drug. These results point out the important contribution of DA to the vulnerability and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Knowledge about the involvement of DA in this process may lead to the possibility of new protection strategies against this important degenerative process.

  15. Illicit stimulant use is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology in humans.

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    Gabrielle Todd

    Full Text Available Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed 'hyperechogenicity' when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs. Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm(2 than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm(2; P<0.001 and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm(2; P<0.007 groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90(th percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system.

  16. Assessment of substantia nigra echogenicity in German and Filipino populations using a portable ultrasound system.

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    Go, Criscely L; Frenzel, Antonia; Rosales, Raymond L; Lee, Lillian V; Benecke, Reiner; Dressler, Dirk; Walter, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra for diagnosing premotor stages of Parkinson disease has been attracting increasing interest. Standard reference values defining an abnormal increased echogenic size (hyperechogenicity) of the substantia nigra have been established in several populations using high-end stationary ultrasound systems. It is unknown whether a portable ultrasound system can be appropriately used and how the Filipino population would compare with the well-studied white population. We prospectively studied substantia nigra echogenic sizes and third ventricle widths in 71 healthy adult German participants and 30 age- and sex-matched Filipino participants using both a well-established stationary ultrasound system (in the German cohort) and a recently distributed portable ultrasound system (in both ethnic cohorts). Mean substantia nigra echogenic sizes, cutoff values defining abnormal hyperechogenicity, and intra-rater reliability were similar with both systems and in both ethnic cohorts studied. The Filipino and German participants did not differ with respect to the frequency of insufficient insonation conditions (each 3%) and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (10% versus 9%; P = .80). However, third ventricle widths were smaller in the Filipino than the German participants (mean ± SD, 1.6 ± 1.1 versus 2.4 ± 1.0 mm; P = .004). The frequency of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity appears to be homogeneous in white and Asian populations. Screening for this feature may well be performed with a present-day portable ultrasound system.

  17. Substantia nigra depigmentation and exposure to encephalitis lethargica.

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    Hack, Nawaz; Jicha, Gregory A; Abell, Annalisa; Dean, Dawson; Vitek, Jerrold L; Berger, Joseph R

    2012-12-01

    Parkinsonism has occasionally been reported as a consequence of infectious diseases. The present study examines the clinical and pathological correlates of parkinsonism across birth cohorts in relation to critical exposure to the encephalitis lethargica epidemic in the early 1900s. The study population consisted of 678 participants in the Nun Study, of whom 432 died and came to autopsy. Qualitative indices of substantia nigra (SN) depigmentation were verified in a subset of 40 randomly selected subjects using quantitative stereological techniques. SN depigmentation, detected neuropathologically, was correlated with clinical parameters of Parkinson disease, age, and birth cohort. SN depigmentation was detected in 57 (13.2%) of the cohort. Although qualitative SN depigmentation correlated modestly with age (p = 0.02), it correlated best with birth cohort (p = 0.009) for women born in the years 1895-1899. Quantitative measures of SN depigmentation were increased in this birth cohort compared to age matched subjects from flanking birth cohorts 1890-1894 and 1900-1904 (p < 0.001). SN depigmentation correlated with speed of 6- and 50-foot walk (p < 0.0001), up and go test (p < 0.0001), and hand coordination (p < 0.0001). Subjects in the birth cohort 1895-1899 would have been in their late teens and 20s at the onset and during the peak of the encephalitis lethargica epidemic. These were precisely the age ranges of persons who were most often affected by the illness. These data suggest the possibility that the coexistence of parkinsonism and SN depigmentation in this birth cohort may have resulted from the yet undetermined infectious agent responsible for encephalitis lethargica. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  18. Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

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    Zhou, Fu-Ming; Lee, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches −60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (INaP) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below −50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (INaT) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of (INaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. INaT also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators

  19. [Morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease].

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    Salkov, V N; Khudoerkov, R M; Voronkov, D N; Sobolev, V B; Kutukova, K A

    to clarify the features of morphochemical changes in the substantia nigra cellular structures in Parkinson's disease. The structural characteristics of the substantia nigra were studied microscopically and quantified using computer morphometric methods at brain autopsies of individuals with Parkinson's disease who had died from intercurrent diseases and those who had no evidence of neurological disorders in their history (a control group). This investigation could clarify the features of morphochemical changes in both the neural network structures and the glial populations of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. The number of neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of dopamine neurons) in the compact part of the substantia nigra (a ventral region) was smaller and the density distribution of Lewy bodies was higher in the patients with Parkinson's disease than in the control group. The accumulation of iron (II) compounds in the cellular elements and neuropile and the increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in Parkinson's disease were more pronounced than those in the controls. Postmortem diagnosis in Parkinson's disease should be based on a full description of a set of neuronal and glial morphochemical and structural changes in the substantia nigra rather than on the identification of cellular markers for the neurodegenerative process.

  20. Infusion of opiates into substantia nigra protects against maximal electroshock seizures in rats.

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    Garant, D S; Gale, K

    1985-07-01

    Microinfusion of morphine sulfate (50 nmol), [d-Ala2]-Met-enkephalin (35 nmol) or dynorphin A 1-13 (1 nmol) bilaterally into the substantia nigra significantly attenuated seizures induced by maximal electroshock in rats. This action was accompanied by stereotyped behavioral hyperactivity. These anticonvulsant and behavioral effects were antagonized by systemic naloxone administration; neither effect was observed after intranigral microinjection of dynorphin A 1-17 amide (1 nmol). These results are consistent with a mu opiate receptor-mediated inhibition of substantia nigra efferent neurons, and with the proposal that bilateral inhibition of nigral efferents attenuates seizure propagation. However, intranigral morphine failed to alter the severity of i.v. bicuculline seizures, indicating that opiate-mediated inhibition in substantia nigra is distinct from that produced by gamma-aminobutyric acid.

  1. Ventral Tegmental Area and Substantia Nigra Neural Correlates of Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) may provide modulatory signals that, respectively, influence hippocampal (HPC)- and striatal-dependent memory. Electrophysiological studies investigating neural correlates of learning and memory of dopamine (DA) neurons during classical conditioning tasks have found DA…

  2. Substantia nigra in MR images in Parkinson disease and MPTP exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Paz, R.L.; Duguid, J.; Langston, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Eight patients, aged 60-77 years, with idiopathic Parkinson disease were studied to determine whether the characteristic degeneration of the substantia nigra (zona compacta), seen pathologically, could be identified in vivo on T2-weighted proton MR imaging (1.5 T). The mean width of the substantia nigra in the eight patients was 4.1 mm (SEM = 0.21 mm), significantly (rho < .004) less than the mean width of 5.2 mm (SEM= 0.30 mm) in ten age-matched controls. Overlap with control values was seen in only one patient. No clear correlation between low signal in the putamen (suggesting excess deposition of iron, Fe/sup 3+/) and Parkinson disease was seen. Narrowing of the substantia nigra on MR imaging was also seen in one patient with drug-induced Parkinson syndrome (MPTP exposure). These changes on MR imaging are probably due to atrophy of the zona compacta of the substantia nigra, but excess iron in the zona reticulata may partially contribute to these findings. MR imaging may be useful for differentiating ''classic'' Parkinson disease from other extrapyramidal degenerative disorders and for predicting response to drug therapy

  3. Neurosteroid biosynthetic pathway changes in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchetti, Sabina; Bossers, Koen; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    There is emerging evidence from animal studies for a neuroprotective role of sex steroids in neurodegenerative diseases, but studies in human brain are lacking. We have carried out an extensive study of the neurosteroid biosynthetic pathways in substantia nigra (SN), caudate nucleus (CN) and putamen

  4. Electrophysiological localization of distinct calcium potentials at selective somatodendritic sites in the substantia nigra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J; Nedergaard, S; Greenfield, S A

    1992-01-01

    of differential polarization through applied electric fields, the cell body and dendrites have been activated in effective isolation during intracellular recordings from pars compacta neurons in the substantia nigra in vitro. In one class of neurons, which discharge in a "phasic" fashion and are located......The dendrites of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra play a pivotal role in the neurochemical homeostasis of the nucleus. It is conceivable therefore that the cell body and dendrites of these nigral neurons possess distinct and independent electro-responsive features. By means......, a high-threshold calcium spike is located principally in the cell body. The differential localization of these calcium conductances in sub-populations of neurons is likely to determine the functions for the calcium responses in each type of neuron, and moreover highlight the dendrites as dynamic...

  5. 9.4 T MR microscopy of the substantia nigra with pathological validation in controls and disease

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    LA Massey

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We present a histologically validated anatomical description of the substantia nigra on high field spin-echo high resolution magnetic resonance images and were able to delineate all five nigrosomes. In accordance with the pathological literature we did not observe changes in the nigrosome structure as manifest by volume or signal characteristics within the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease whereas in progressive supranuclear palsy there was microarchitectural destruction.

  6. Apelin-13 ameliorates cognitive impairments in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced substantia nigra lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Sheibani, Vahid

    2018-04-01

    Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction. Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was administrated into the substantia nigra. Apelin-13 (1, 2 and 3μg/rat) was administered into the substantia nigra one week after the 6-OHDA injection. Morris water maze (MWM), object location and novel object recognition tests were performed one month after the apelin injection. 6-OHDA-treated animals showed a significant impairment in cognitive functions which was revealed by the increased in the escape latency and traveled distance in MWM test and decreased in the exploration index in novel object recognition and object location tasks. Apelin-13 (3μg/rat) significantly attenuates the mentioned cognitive impairments in 6-OHDA-treated animals. In conclusion, the data support the pro-cognitive property of apelin-13 in 6-OHDA-induced cognitive deficit and provided a new pharmacological aspect of the neuropeptide apelin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative [3H]BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of [3H]SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of [3H]sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of [3H]BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat

  8. Near-Infrared Confocal Laser Reflectance Cytoarchitectural Imaging of the Substantia Nigra and Cerebellum in the Fresh Human Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Grand, Walter; Balos, Lucia L

    2017-01-01

    Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported. However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging. We assessed the utility of unenhanced near-infrared confocal laser reflectance imaging of the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra in 2 fresh human cadaver brains using a confocal near-infrared laser probe. Cellular images based on near-infrared differential reflectance were captured at depths of 20-180 μm from the brain surface. Parts of the cerebellum and substantia nigra imaged using the probe were subsequently excised and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic correlation. Near-infrared reflectance imaging revealed the 3-layered cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum, with Purkinje cells appearing hyperreflectant. In the substantia nigra, neurons appeared hyporeflectant with hyperreflectant neuromelanin cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra revealed on near-infrared imaging closely correlated with the histology on hematoxylin-eosin staining. We showed that unenhanced near-infrared reflectance imaging of fresh human cadaver brain can reliably identify and distinguish neurons and detailed cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  10. State-dependent spike and local field synchronization between motor cortex and substantia nigra in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnik, Elena; Cruz, Ana V; Avila, Irene; Wahba, Marian I; Novikov, Nikolay; Ilieva, Neda M; McCoy, Alex J; Gerber, Colin; Walters, Judith R

    2012-06-06

    Excessive beta frequency oscillatory and synchronized activity has been reported in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian patients and animal models of the disease. To gain insight into processes underlying this activity, this study explores relationships between oscillatory activity in motor cortex and basal ganglia output in behaving rats after dopamine cell lesion. During inattentive rest, 7 d after lesion, increases in motor cortex-substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) coherence emerged in the 8-25 Hz range, with significant increases in local field potential (LFP) power in SNpr but not motor cortex. In contrast, during treadmill walking, marked increases in both motor cortex and SNpr LFP power, as well as coherence, emerged in the 25-40 Hz band with a peak frequency at 30-35 Hz. Spike-triggered waveform averages showed that 77% of SNpr neurons, 77% of putative cortical interneurons, and 44% of putative pyramidal neurons were significantly phase-locked to the increased cortical LFP activity in the 25-40 Hz range. Although the mean lag between cortical and SNpr LFPs fluctuated around zero, SNpr neurons phase-locked to cortical LFP oscillations fired, on average, 17 ms after synchronized spiking in motor cortex. High coherence between LFP oscillations in cortex and SNpr supports the view that cortical activity facilitates entrainment and synchronization of activity in basal ganglia after loss of dopamine. However, the dramatic increases in cortical power and relative timing of phase-locked spiking in these areas suggest that additional processes help shape the frequency-specific tuning of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network during ongoing motor activity.

  11. Stimulation of the substantia nigra influences the specification of memory-guided saccades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamed, Safraaz; Garrison, Tiffany J.; Shires, Joel

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of sensory information, we rely on past experience or memories to guide our actions. Because previous experimental and clinical reports implicate basal ganglia nuclei in the generation of movement in the absence of sensory stimuli, we ask here whether one output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (nigra), influences the specification of an eye movement in the absence of sensory information to guide the movement. We manipulated the level of activity of neurons in the nigra by introducing electrical stimulation to the nigra at different time intervals while monkeys made saccades to different locations in two conditions: one in which the target location remained visible and a second in which the target location appeared only briefly, requiring information stored in memory to specify the movement. Electrical manipulation of the nigra occurring during the delay period of the task, when information about the target was maintained in memory, altered the direction and the occurrence of subsequent saccades. Stimulation during other intervals of the memory task or during the delay period of the visually guided saccade task had less effect on eye movements. On stimulated trials, and only when the visual stimulus was absent, monkeys occasionally (∼20% of the time) failed to make saccades. When monkeys made saccades in the absence of a visual stimulus, stimulation of the nigra resulted in a rotation of the endpoints ipsilaterally (∼2°) and increased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades. When the visual stimulus was present, stimulation of the nigra resulted in no significant rotation and decreased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades slightly. Based on these measurements, stimulation during the delay period of the memory-guided saccade task influenced the metrics of saccades much more than did stimulation during the same period of the visually guided saccade task. Because these effects

  12. Complement activation in the Parkinson's disease substantia nigra: an immunocytochemical study

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    Conant Stephanie B

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory processes are increased in the Parkinson's disease (PD brain. The long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated, in retrospective studies, with decreased risk for PD, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to development of this disorder. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of complement activation, a major inflammatory mechanism, in PD. Methods Substantia nigra specimens from young normal subjects (n = 11–13, aged normal subjects (n = 24–28, and subjects with PD (n = 19–20, Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 12–13, and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 9 were stained for iC3b and C9, representing early- and late-stage complement activation, respectively. Numbers of iC3b+, C9+, and total melanized neurons in each section were counted in a blinded fashion. Nonparametric analyses were used to evaluate differences between groups and to evaluate correlations between complement staining, numbers of melanized neurons, and the duration of PD. Results Lewy bodies in both PD and DLB specimens stained for iC3b and C9. Staining was also prominent on melanized neurons. The percentage of iC3b+ neurons was significantly increased in PD vs. aged normal and AD specimens, and in young normal vs. aged normal specimens. C9 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in PD vs. AD specimens, but unlike iC3b, the increased C9 staining in PD and young normal specimens did not achieve statistical significance vs. aged normal specimens. iC3b and C9 staining in PD specimens was not correlated with the numbers of remaining melanized neurons, nor with the duration of PD. Conclusion Complement activation occurs on Lewy bodies and melanized neurons in the PD substantia nigra. Early complement activation (iC3b is increased on melanized neurons in PD vs. aged normal specimens, and late-stage complement activation (C9 also tends to increase. This latter finding suggests that complement

  13. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela; Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  14. OXIDATIVE STRESS-DEPENDENT ALTERED IMMUNE RESPONSES AND CELL DEATH IN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA AFTER OZONE EXPOSURE IN RAT

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    Selva eRivas - Arancibia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease has been associated with the selective loss of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role. The resulting increase in reactive oxygen species triggers a sequence of events that leads to cell damage, activation of microglia cells and neuroinflammatory responses. Our objective was to study whether chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, which produces oxidative stress itself, induces progressive cell death in conjunction with glial alterations in the substantia nigra. Animals were exposed to an ozone-free air stream (control or to low doses of ozone for 7, 15, 30, 60, or 90 days. Each group underwent 1 spectrophotometric analysis for protein oxidation; 2 western blot testing for microglia reactivity and nuclear factor kappa B expression levels; and 3 immunohistochemistry for cytochrome c, GFAP, Iba-1, NFkB and COX-2. Our results indicate that ozone induces an increase in protein oxidation levels, changes in activated astrocytes and microglia, and cell death. NFkB and cytochrome c showed an increase until 30 days of exposure, while cyclooxygenase 2 in the substantia nigra increased from 7 days up to 90 days of repetitive ozone exposure. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by ozone exposure induces changes in inflammatory responses and progressive cell death in the substantia nigra in rats, which could also be occurring in Parkinson’s disease.

  15. MRI in Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism; Study on the lesion of substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aotsuka, Akiyo; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Keizo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1991-06-01

    We examined the magnetic resonance (MR) image of midbrain and striatum in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 10 patients with vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and 10 age-matched control subjects. Studies were performed on a high field strength (1.5 tesla) MRI unit. T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR 2500 ms/TE 40 ms) was used. Intensity profiles of a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus were made on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of intensity representing the red nucleus and the crus cerebri-pars reticulata complex and used this as an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 2.7 mm in the PD group and 4.3 mm in controls. The difference between the means was highly significant (p<0.01). While not significant statistically, there was a trend toward narrowing of the width of pars compacta signal of substantia nigra in the PD group as the Yahr's grade or disease duration progressed. In hemiparkinsonism, MRI revealed significant narrowing of the pars compacta signal on the contra-lateral side to the clinical predominant side. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 3.9 mm in the VP group, but the decrease was not significant. MRI in VP group showed multiple high intensity area in the basal ganglia and the white matter, and periventricular hyperintensity area (PVHIA). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of restoration of the signal intensity in the lateral portion of the substantia nigra among PD, VP and control groups. The low signal intensity in the posterolateral putamen was not found in the 3 groups. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal has been attributed either to atrophy of the pars compacta or to increased deposition of iron in this region. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal reflected pathophysiology of PD. (J.P.N.).

  16. Direct monitoring of dopamine and 5-HT release in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, M E; Richards, C D; Nedergaard, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with carbon fibre microelectrodes was used to detect endogenous dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from three distinct regions of guinea-pig mid-brain in vitro: rostral and caudal substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous...... these regions with in situ electrodes and demonstrates the utility of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to investigate the mechanisms and possible non-classical functions of somato-dendritic DA release....

  17. Novelty-Sensitive Dopaminergic Neurons in the Human Substantia Nigra Predict Success of Declarative Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Jan; Mamelak, Adam N; Birch, Kurtis; Mosher, Clayton P; Tagliati, Michele; Rutishauser, Ueli

    2018-04-12

    The encoding of information into long-term declarative memory is facilitated by dopamine. This process depends on hippocampal novelty signals, but it remains unknown how midbrain dopaminergic neurons are modulated by declarative-memory-based information. We recorded individual substantia nigra (SN) neurons and cortical field potentials in human patients performing a recognition memory task. We found that 25% of SN neurons were modulated by stimulus novelty. Extracellular waveform shape and anatomical location indicated that these memory-selective neurons were putatively dopaminergic. The responses of memory-selective neurons appeared 527 ms after stimulus onset, changed after a single trial, and were indicative of recognition accuracy. SN neurons phase locked to frontal cortical theta-frequency oscillations, and the extent of this coordination predicted successful memory formation. These data reveal that dopaminergic neurons in the human SN are modulated by memory signals and demonstrate a progression of information flow in the hippocampal-basal ganglia-frontal cortex loop for memory encoding. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The inhibitory microcircuit of the substantia nigra provides feedback gain control of the basal ganglia output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Xing; Dudman, Joshua Tate

    2014-05-21

    Dysfunction of the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in the timing, initiation, and vigor of movement. These diverse impairments suggest a control system gone awry. In engineered systems, feedback is critical for control. By contrast, models of the basal ganglia highlight feedforward circuitry and ignore intrinsic feedback circuits. In this study, we show that feedback via axon collaterals of substantia nigra projection neurons control the gain of the basal ganglia output. Through a combination of physiology, optogenetics, anatomy, and circuit mapping, we elaborate a general circuit mechanism for gain control in a microcircuit lacking interneurons. Our data suggest that diverse tonic firing rates, weak unitary connections and a spatially diffuse collateral circuit with distinct topography and kinetics from feedforward input is sufficient to implement divisive feedback inhibition. The importance of feedback for engineered systems implies that the intranigral microcircuit, despite its absence from canonical models, could be essential to basal ganglia function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02397.001. Copyright © 2014, Brown et al.

  19. Edaravone protects neurons in the rat substantia nigra against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiqi; Shao, Rushing; Li, Meng; Yang, Guofeng

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of edaravone in substantia nigra (SN) of the 6-OHDA-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease. Animal model of Parkinson's disease was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 6-OHDA into the left medial forebrain bundle. Subsequently, rats were intraperitoneally injected with 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg of edaravone for 14 days or with 3 mg/kg edaravone for 14 days followed by 14 days of no treatment. We evaluated the effect of edaravone on the rotational and normal behavior of the rats, and on the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells, the amount of Nissl bodies, and the levels of glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the SN. Edaravone treatment at 3 mg/kg significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotational behavior (P Edaravone exerted a long-term neuroprotective effects in 6-OHDA-induced PD animal model by attenuating changes in the levels of GSH and MDA in SN, caused by oxidative stress. Edaravone prevented 6-OHDA-induced behavioral changes and de-pigmentation of SN that results from the loss of dopaminergic neurons.

  20. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in the substantia nigra in idiopathic Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamagata, Koji; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; Aoki, Shigeki; Hatano, Taku; Okuzumi, Ayami; Motoi, Yumiko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Abe, Osamu; Shimoji, Keigo; Kamiya, Kouhei

    2016-01-01

    We used neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to quantify changes in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum in Parkinson disease (PD). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 58 PD patients and 36 age- and sex-matched controls. The intracellular volume fraction (Vic), orientation dispersion index (OD), and isotropic volume fraction (Viso) of the basal ganglia were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which diffusion parameters were independent predictors of PD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis compared the diagnostic accuracies of the evaluated indices. Pearson coefficient analysis correlated each diffusional parameter with disease severity. Vic in the contralateral SNpc and putamen were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.00058). Vic and OD in the SNpc and putamen showed significant negative correlations (P < 0.05) with disease severity. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that Vic (P = 0.0000046) and mean diffusivity (P = 0.019) in the contralateral SNpc were the independent predictors of PD. In the ROC analysis, Vic in the contralateral SNpc showed the best diagnostic performance (mean cutoff, 0.62; sensitivity, 0.88; specificity, 0.83). NODDI is likely to be useful for diagnosing PD and assessing its progression. (orig.)

  1. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in the substantia nigra in idiopathic Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagata, Koji; Hatano, Taku; Okuzumi, Ayami; Motoi, Yumiko; Abe, Osamu; Shimoji, Keigo; Kamiya, Kouhei; Suzuki, Michimasa; Hori, Masaaki; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Hattori, Nobutaka; Aoki, Shigeki

    2016-08-01

    We used neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to quantify changes in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum in Parkinson disease (PD). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 58 PD patients and 36 age- and sex-matched controls. The intracellular volume fraction (Vic), orientation dispersion index (OD), and isotropic volume fraction (Viso) of the basal ganglia were compared between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined which diffusion parameters were independent predictors of PD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis compared the diagnostic accuracies of the evaluated indices. Pearson coefficient analysis correlated each diffusional parameter with disease severity. Vic in the contralateral SNpc and putamen were significantly lower in PD patients than in healthy controls (P disease severity. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that Vic (P = 0.0000046) and mean diffusivity (P = 0.019) in the contralateral SNpc were the independent predictors of PD. In the ROC analysis, Vic in the contralateral SNpc showed the best diagnostic performance (mean cutoff, 0.62; sensitivity, 0.88; specificity, 0.83). NODDI is likely to be useful for diagnosing PD and assessing its progression. • Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is a new diffusion MRI technique • NODDI estimates neurite microstructure more specifically than diffusion tensor imaging • By using NODDI, nigrostriatal alterations in PD can be evaluated in vivo • NOODI is useful for diagnosing PD and assessing its disease progression.

  2. Chronic intrastriatal dopamine infusions in rats with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargraves, R.; Freed, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of continuously supplied dopamine delivered directly into the dopamine-deficient striatum. Rats received unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra by stereotaxic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine and were tested for apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and general activity. Osmotic mini-pumps were filled with dopamine in various concentrations, implanted subcutaneously and connected to a cannula implanted directly into the striatum. The system delivered solution at a rate of .5 μl/hr for two weeks. Dopamine in a dosage of 0.5 μg/per hour reduced apomorphine-induced rotational behavior by a mean of 52 +/- 5.8% (mean +/- SEM n=20) with a maximal individual decrease of 99%. There was no change in general activity or increase in stereotype behavior. Infusions of vehicle solutions did not decrease rotational behavior. Spread of the infused dopamine and its metabolites was estimated by adding 3 H-dopamine to the pumps in tracer quantities. Radioactivity was highly concentrated at the infusion site and decreased rapidly within a few mm from the infusion site. Continuous infusion methods may eventually prove to be effective in the treatment of nigro-striatal degenerative disease. 12 references, 4 figures

  3. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is related to decline in verbal memory in healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, R; Behnke, S; Liepelt-Scarfone, I; Roeben, B; Pausch, C; Runkel, A; Heinzel, S; Niebler, R; Suenkel, U; Eschweiler, G W; Maetzler, W; Berg, D

    2016-05-01

    Deficits in cognition have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) already in the early and even in the pre-motor stages. Whilst substantia nigra hyperechogenicity measured by transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) represents a strong PD marker and is associated with an increased risk for PD in still healthy individuals, its association with cognitive performance in prodromal PD stages is not well established. Two different cohorts of healthy elderly individuals were assessed by TCS and two different neuropsychological test batteries covering executive functions, verbal memory, language, visuo-constructional function and attention. Cognitive performance was compared between individuals with hyperechogenicity (SN+) and without hyperechogenicity (SN-). In both cohorts, SN+ individuals performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing verbal memory (word list delayed recall P = 0.05, logical memory II P Color-Word Reading, P = 0.004) could only be shown in one of the two cohorts. No between-group effects were found in other cognitive tests and domains. These results indicate that individuals with the PD risk marker SN+ perform worse in verbal memory compared to SN- independent of the assessment battery. Memory performance should be assessed in detail in individuals at risk for PD. © 2016 EAN.

  4. Controlling absence seizures by deep brain stimulus applied on substantia nigra pars reticulata and cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Qingyun

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a typical neural disease in nervous system, and the control of seizures is very important for treating the epilepsy. It is well known that the drug treatment is the main strategy for controlling the epilepsy. However, there are about 10–15 percent of patients, whose seizures cannot be effectively controlled by means of the drug. Alternatively, the deep brain stimulus (DBS) technology is a feasible method to control the serious seizures. However, theoretical explorations of DBS are still absent, and need to be further made. Presently, we will explore to control the absence seizures by introducing the DBS to a basal ganglia thalamocortical network model. In particular, we apply DBS onto substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the cortex to explore its effects on controlling absence seizures, respectively. We can find that the absence seizure can be well controlled within suitable parameter ranges by tuning the period and duration of current stimulation as DBS is implemented in the SNr. And also, as the DBS is applied onto the cortex, it is shown that for the ranges of present parameters, only adjusting the duration of current stimulation is an effective control method for the absence seizures. The obtained results can have better understanding for the mechanism of DBS in the medical treatment.

  5. Molecular and functional differences in voltage-activated sodium currents between GABA projection neurons and dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Shengyuan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    GABA projection neurons (GABA neurons) in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and dopamine projection neurons (DA neurons) in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) have strikingly different firing properties. SNc DA neurons fire low-frequency, long-duration spikes, whereas SNr GABA neurons fire high-frequency, short-duration spikes. Since voltage-activated sodium (NaV) channels are critical to spike generation, the different firing properties raise the possibility that, compared with DA...

  6. Acute Neuroinflammatory Response in the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta of Rats after a Local Injection of Lipopolysaccharide

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    Yazmin M. Flores-Martinez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Models of Parkinson’s disease with neurotoxins have shown that microglial activation does not evoke a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra, questioning whether neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, the archetypal inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, was injected into the rat substantia nigra. LPS induced fever, sickness behavior, and microglial activation (OX42 immunoreactivity, followed by astrocyte activation and leukocyte infiltration (GFAP and CD45 immunoreactivities. During the acute phase of neuroinflammation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 responded differentially at mRNA and protein level. Increased NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred at 168 h after LPS injection. At this time, evidence of neurodegeneration could be seen, entailing decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunoreactivity, irregular body contour, and prolongation discontinuity of TH+ cells, as well as apparent phagocytosis of TH+ cells by OX42+ cells. Altogether, these results show that LPS evokes a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra that is followed by dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  7. Acute Neuroinflammatory Response in the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta of Rats after a Local Injection of Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan A.; Gutierrez-Castillo, Maria E.

    2018-01-01

    Models of Parkinson's disease with neurotoxins have shown that microglial activation does not evoke a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra, questioning whether neuroinflammation leads to neurodegeneration. To address this issue, the archetypal inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was injected into the rat substantia nigra. LPS induced fever, sickness behavior, and microglial activation (OX42 immunoreactivity), followed by astrocyte activation and leukocyte infiltration (GFAP and CD45 immunoreactivities). During the acute phase of neuroinflammation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10) responded differentially at mRNA and protein level. Increased NO production and lipid peroxidation occurred at 168 h after LPS injection. At this time, evidence of neurodegeneration could be seen, entailing decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, irregular body contour, and prolongation discontinuity of TH+ cells, as well as apparent phagocytosis of TH+ cells by OX42+ cells. Altogether, these results show that LPS evokes a typical inflammatory response in the substantia nigra that is followed by dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:29854828

  8. The GABA uptake inhibitor beta-alanine reduces pilocarpine-induced tremor and increases extracellular GABA in substantia nigra pars reticulata as measured by microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwari, Keita; Mingote, Susana; Correa, Merce; Trevitt, Jennifer T; Carlson, Brian B; Salamone, John D

    2004-12-30

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia that receives GABAergic projections from neostriatum and globus pallidus. Previous research has shown that local pharmacological manipulations of GABA in SNr can influence tremulous jaw movements in rats. Tremulous jaw movements are defined as rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at a particular stimulus, and evidence indicates that these movements share many characteristics with parkinsonian tremor in humans. In order to investigate the role of GABA in motor functions related to tremor, the present study tested the GABA uptake blocker beta-alanine for its ability to reduce pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements. In a parallel experiment, the effect of an active dose of beta-alanine on dialysate levels of GABA in SNr was assessed using microdialysis methods. GABA levels in dialysis samples were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. beta-Alanine (250-500 mg/kg) significantly reduced tremulous jaw movements induced by pilocarpine (4.0 mg/kg). Moreover, systemic administration of beta-alanine at a dose that reduced tremulous jaw movements (500 mg/kg) resulted in a substantial increase in extracellular levels of GABA in SNr compared to the pre-injection baseline. Thus, the present results are consistent with the hypothesis that GABAergic tone in SNr plays a role in the regulation of tremulous jaw movements. This research may lead to a better understanding of how parkinsonian symptoms are modulated by SNr GABA mechanisms.

  9. The cannabinoid-1 receptor is abundantly expressed in striatal striosomes and striosome-dendron bouquets of the substantia nigra.

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    Margaret I Davis

    Full Text Available Presynaptic cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1-R bind endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids to modulate neurotransmitter release. CB1-Rs are expressed throughout the basal ganglia, including striatum and substantia nigra, where they play a role in learning and control of motivated actions. However, the pattern of CB1-R expression across different striatal compartments, microcircuits and efferent targets, and the contribution of different CB1-R-expressing neurons to this pattern, are unclear. We use a combination of conventional techniques and novel genetic models to evaluate CB1-R expression in striosome (patch and matrix compartments of the striatum, and in nigral targets of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs. CB1-R protein and mRNA follow a descending dorsolateral-to-ventromedial intensity gradient in the caudal striatum, with elevated expression in striosomes relative to the surrounding matrix. The lateral predominance of striosome CB1-Rs contrasts with that of the classical striosomal marker, the mu opioid receptor (MOR, which is expressed most prominently in rostromedial striosomes. The dorsolateral-to-ventromedial CB1-R gradient is similar to Drd2 dopamine receptor immunoreactivity and opposite to Substance P. This topology of CB1-R expression is maintained downstream in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Dense CB1-R-expressing striatonigral fibers extend dorsally within the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and colocalize with bundles of ventrally extending, striosome-targeted, dendrites of dopamine-containing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (striosome-dendron bouquets. Within striatum, CB1-Rs colocalize with fluorescently labeled MSN collaterals within the striosomes. Cre recombinase-mediated deletion of CB1-Rs from cortical projection neurons or MSNs, and MSN-selective reintroduction of CB1-Rs in knockout mice, demonstrate that the principal source of CB1-Rs in dorsolateral striosomes is local MSN collaterals

  10. Calpain inhibition reduces NMDA receptor rundown in rat substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jerry; Baudry, Michel; Jones, Susan

    2018-05-04

    Repeated activation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes a Ca 2+ -dependent reduction in NMDAR-mediated current in dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in one week old rats; however, a Ca 2+ -dependent regulatory protein has not been identified. The role of the Ca 2+ -dependent cysteine protease, calpain, in mediating NMDAR current rundown was investigated. In brain slices from rats aged postnatal day 7-9 ('P7'), bath application of either of the membrane permeable calpain inhibitors, N-Acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal (ALLN, 20 μM) or MDL-28170 (30 μM) significantly reduced whole-cell NMDAR current rundown. To investigate the role of the calpain-2 isoform, the membrane permeable calpain-2 inhibitor, Z-Leu-Abu-CONH-CH2-C6H3 (3, 5-(OMe)2 (C2I, 200 nM), was applied; C2I application significantly reduced whole cell NMDAR current rundown. Interestingly, ALLN but not C2I significantly reduced rundown of NMDA-EPSCs. These results suggest the calpain-2 isoform mediates Ca 2+ -dependent regulation of extrasynaptic NMDAR current in the first postnatal week, while calpain-1 might mediate rundown of synaptic NMDAR currents. One week later in postnatal development, at P12-P16 ('P14'), there was significantly less rundown in SNc-DA neurons, and no significant effect on rundown of either Ca 2+ chelation or treatment with the calpain inhibitor, ALLN, suggesting that the rundown observed in SNc-DA neurons from two week-old rats might be Ca 2+ -independent. In conclusion, Ca 2+ -dependent rundown of extrasynaptic NMDAR currents in SNc DA neurons involves calpain-2 activation, but Ca 2+ - and calpain-2-dependent NMDAR current rundown is developmentally regulated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Context-dependent effects of substantia nigra stimulation on eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Michele A; Liu, Ping

    2007-06-01

    In a series of now classic experiments, an output structure of the basal ganglia (BG)--the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr)--was shown to be involved in the generation of saccades made in particular behavioral contexts, such as when memory was required for guidance. Recent electrophysiological experiments, however, call this original hypothesis into question. Here we test the hypothesis that the SNr is involved preferentially in nonvisually guided saccades using electrical stimulation. Monkeys performed visually guided and memory-guided saccades to locations throughout the visual field. On 50% of the trials, electrical stimulation of the SNr occurred. Stimulation of the SNr altered the direction, amplitude, latency, and probability of saccades. Visually guided saccades tended to be rotated toward the field contralateral to the side of stimulation, whereas memory-guided saccades tended to be rotated toward the hemifield ipsilateral to the side of stimulation. Overall, the changes in saccade vector direction were larger for memory-guided than for visually guided saccades. Both memory- and visually guided saccades were hypometric during stimulation trials, but the stimulation preferentially affected the length of memory-guided saccades. Electrical stimulation of the SNr produced decreases in visually guided saccades bilaterally. In contrast, memory-guided saccades often had increases in saccade latency bilaterally. Finally, we found approximately 10% reduction in the probability of memory-guided saccades bilaterally. Visually guided saccade probability was unaltered. Taken together the results are consistent with the hypothesis that SNr primarily influences nonvisually guided saccades. The pattern of stimulation effects suggests that SNr influence is widespread, altering the pattern of activity bilaterally across the superior colliculus map of saccades.

  12. Mesencephalic substantia nigra and Parkinson's disease: spin-echo and inversion-recovery MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaux, Ruben P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively assess the images of the mesencephalic substantia nigra (mSN) obtained with FSE (PD and T2) and IR (STIR; T1; WMS and GMS) sequences in patients with Parkinson's disease (PKD) and normal volunteers. Methods: We studied 8 normal volunteers (N group) and 8 patients (PKD groups) of similar age, both men and women, with a clinical diagnosis of PKD. We obtained axial oblique images of the mesencephalon with FSE PD and T2 sequences; Inversion-Recovery (IR) with a short inversion time (STIR); T1 weighted (IR-T1 phase reconstruction) with white matter signal suppression (IR-WMS) and gray matter signal suppression (IR-GMS). Average values were measured for: a) normalized signal intensity; b) thickness; and c) area of the mSN in each sequence and group. A statistical analysis of the values obtained for each of the variables was performed for both groups (Student and Welch correlation tests), comparing the results of the intra an inter-group sequences. A p value 0.05). Images obtained with IR-WMS and GMS sequences showed significant differences between the three variables assessed, particularly thickness and area (p<0.01), and also showed a posterolateral-anteromedial gradient in the mSN alteration in patients with PKD or recent onset and chronic evolution. Conclusions: The T2 weighted FSE sequences are not useful for the assessment of mSN, whereas PD, STIR and IR-T1 sequences allow to delineate it more accurately, without morphological differences (thickness and area), or signal intensity differences among the groups assessed. The WMS and GMS sequences showed statistically significant differences in the assessment of thickness, area and the signal intensity of the mSN, and may hence be useful for diagnosis. (author)

  13. GABAB-receptor activation alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, G; Kling-Petersen, T; Nissbrandt, H

    1993-11-01

    Previous electrophysiological experiments have emphasized the importance of the firing pattern for the functioning of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. In this regard, excitatory amino acid receptors appear to constitute an important modulatory control mechanism. In the present study, extracellular recording techniques were used to investigate the significance of GABAB-receptor activation for the firing properties of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in the rat. Intravenous administration of the GABAB-receptor agonist baclofen (1-16 mg/kg) was associated with a dose-dependent regularization of the firing pattern, concomitant with a reduction in burst firing. At higher doses (16-32 mg/kg), the firing rate of the DA neurons was dose-dependently decreased. Also, microiontophoretic application of baclofen regularized the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, including a reduction of burst firing. Both the regularization of the firing pattern and inhibition of firing rate produced by systemic baclofen administration was antagonized by the GABAB-receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (200 mg/kg, i.v.). The GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol produced effects on the firing properties of DA neurons that were opposite to those observed following baclofen, i.e., an increase in firing rate accompanied by a decreased regularity. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK 801 (0.4-3.2 mg/kg, i.v.) produced a moderate, dose-dependent increase in the firing rate of the nigral DA neurons as well as a slightly regularized firing pattern. Pretreatment with MK 801 (3.2 mg/kg, i.v., 3-10 min) did neither promote nor prevent the regularization of the firing pattern or inhibition of firing rate on the nigral DA neurons produced by baclofen. The present results clearly show that GABAB-receptors can alter the firing pattern of nigral DA neurons, hereby counterbalancing the previously described ability of glutamate to induce burst firing activity on these neurons.

  14. Protein Markers of Neurotransmitter Synthesis and Release in Postmortem Schizophrenia Substantia Nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Kirsten E; McCollum, Lesley A; Roberts, Rosalinda C

    2017-01-01

    The substantia nigra (SN) provides the largest dopaminergic input to the brain, projects to the striatum (the primary locus of action for antipsychotic medication), and receives GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. This study used western blot analysis to compare protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and vesicular glutamate transporters (vGLUT1 and vGLUT2) in postmortem human SN in schizophrenia subjects (n=13) and matched controls (n=12). As a preliminary analysis, the schizophrenia group was subdivided by (1) treatment status: off medication (n=4) or on medication (n=9); or (2) treatment response: treatment resistant (n=5) or treatment responsive (n=4). The combined schizophrenia group had higher TH and GAD67 protein levels than controls (an increase of 69.6%, P=0.01 and 19.5%, P=0.004, respectively). When subdivided by medication status, these increases were found in the on-medication subjects (TH 88.3%, P=0.008; GAD67 40.6%, P=0.003). In contrast, unmedicated schizophrenia subjects had higher vGLUT2 levels than controls (an increase of 28.7%, P=0.041), but vGLUT2 levels were similar between medicated schizophrenia subjects and controls. Treatment-resistant subjects had significantly higher TH and GAD67 levels than controls (an increase of 121.0%, P=0.0003 and 58.7%, P=0.004, respectively). These data suggest increases in dopamine and GABA transmission in the SN in schizophrenia, with a potential relation to treatment and response.

  15. Assessment of cytochrome C oxidase dysfunction in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area in schizophrenia.

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    Matthew W Rice

    Full Text Available Perturbations in metabolism are a well-documented but complex facet of schizophrenia pathology. Optimal cellular performance requires the proper functioning of the electron transport chain, which is constituted by four enzymes located within the inner membrane of mitochondria. These enzymes create a proton gradient that is used to power the enzyme ATP synthase, producing ATP, which is crucial for the maintenance of cellular functioning. Anomalies in a single enzyme of the electron transport chain are sufficient to cause disruption of cellular metabolism. The last of these complexes is the cytochrome c oxidase (COX enzyme, which is composed of thirteen different subunits. COX is a major site for oxidative phosphorylation, and anomalies in this enzyme are one of the most frequent causes of mitochondrial pathology. The objective of the present report was to assess if metabolic anomalies linked to COX dysfunction may contribute to substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA pathology in schizophrenia. We tested COX activity in postmortem SN/VTA from schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We also tested the protein expression of key subunits for the assembly and activity of the enzyme, and the effect of antipsychotic medication on subunit expression. COX activity was not significantly different between schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. However, we found significant decreases in the expression of subunits II and IV-I of COX in schizophrenia. Interestingly, these decreases were observed in samples containing the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SN/VTA, while no significant differences were observed for samples containing only mid-caudal regions of the SN/VTA. Finally, rats chronically treated with antipsychotic drugs did not show significant changes in COX subunit expression. These findings suggest that COX subunit expression may be compromised in specific sub-regions of the SN/VTA (i.e. rostral regions, which may lead to a faulty

  16. Comparison of 3T and 7T susceptibility-weighted angiography of the substantia nigra in diagnosing Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosottini, M; Frosini, D; Pesaresi, I; Donatelli, G; Cecchi, P; Costagli, M; Biagi, L; Ceravolo, R; Bonuccelli, U; Tosetti, M

    2015-03-01

    Standard neuroimaging fails in defining the anatomy of the substantia nigra and has a marginal role in the diagnosis of Parkinson disease. Recently 7T MR target imaging of the substantia nigra has been useful in diagnosing Parkinson disease. We performed a comparative study to evaluate whether susceptibility-weighted angiography can diagnose Parkinson disease with a 3T scanner. Fourteen patients with Parkinson disease and 13 healthy subjects underwent MR imaging examination at 3T and 7T by using susceptibility-weighted angiography. Two expert blinded observers and 1 neuroradiology fellow evaluated the 3T and 7T images of the sample to identify substantia nigra abnormalities indicative of Parkinson disease. Diagnostic accuracy and intra- and interobserver agreement were calculated separately for 3T and 7T acquisitions. Susceptibility-weighted angiography 7T MR imaging can diagnose Parkinson disease with a mean sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 100%, and diagnostic accuracy of 96%. 3T MR imaging diagnosed Parkinson disease with a mean sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 94%, and diagnostic accuracy of 86%. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was excellent at 7T. At 3T, intraobserver agreement was excellent for experts, and interobserver agreement ranged between good and excellent. The less expert reader obtained a diagnostic accuracy of 89% at 3T. Susceptibility-weighted angiography images obtained at 3T and 7T differentiate controls from patients with Parkinson disease with a higher diagnostic accuracy at 7T. The capability of 3T in diagnosing Parkinson disease might encourage its use in clinical practice. The use of the more accurate 7T should be supported by a dedicated cost-effectiveness study. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  17. Cognitive performance patterns in healthy individuals with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and early Parkinson’s disease

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    Rezzak Yilmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+ is a risk marker for Parkinson’s disease (PD which can be detected before the diagnosis. In healthy individuals, SN+ has been associated with slight deficits in specific cognitive functions, suggesting cognitive impairment as a possible pre-diagnostic marker for PD. However, the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with SN+ has not yet been compared with those present in PD.Methods: Data of 262 healthy individuals with normal echogenicity (SN- and 48 healthy individuals with SN+ were compared with 82 early stage PD patients using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease test battery. First, the test clusters (factors were identified using a principal component analysis (PCA. Mean group performance of cognitive tests belonging to distinct factors, according to the PCA, and single subtest performances were compared using analyses of variance. Second, the number of individuals with abnormal cognitive performances (z-score <-1.0 were compared between groups. Results: Verbal memory, semantic and executive function, and praxis were identified as components of cognitive performances. The SN+ group performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing semantic and executive function, with a non-significant decrease in verbal memory. On the subtest level, individuals of the SN+ group scored significantly lower than the SN- group on the Boston Naming Test (BNT (p=0.008. In all subtests, the percentages of PD patients with values below the cut-off for abnormal performance were higher than in the SN- group. Moreover, more individuals from the SN+ group scored below the cut-off in the BNT (SN-=8.4%, SN+=20.8%, p=0.01 and TMT-B (SN-=6.9%, SN+=16.7%, p=0.02, compared to the SN- group. Conclusion: This study confirms poorer performance of healthy individuals with SN+ compared to SN- in specific cognitive domains. However, against the SN- group, the cognitive

  18. [Effect of activation and blockade of the GABA-ergic system of the substantia nigra in the midbrain on the realization of conditioned food reflexes in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimovskiĭ, A F

    1988-01-01

    Bilateral injection of 45 mcg of GABA into substantia nigra pars compacta produced in dogs a manifested improvement of parameters of the conditioned differentiation inhibition but failed to influence the positive Pavlovian alimentary conditioned reflex. Injection of GABA synaptic antagonist--picrotoxin impaired conditioned alimentary behaviour. Numerous injections of the GABAergic pharmacological agents resulted in motor disturbance--rotatory movements--and skin trophic deviations. The data obtained and literature references give ground for discussion of the role of striato-nigral and internal GABAergic substantia nigra systems in the positive modulation of adaptive alimentary behaviour and conditioned stimuli differentiation.

  19. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela [University of Tuebingen, Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center for Neurodegenerative Disease (DZNE), Tuebingen (Germany); Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  20. Neuromelanin imaging of the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus among patients with Parkinson's disease using 3Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Kanako; Ohtsuka, Chigumi; Kato, Kanako; Terayama, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which loss of dopaminergic neurons from the pars compacta of substantia nigra (SNc) and locus ceruleus (LC) in the major pathologic substrate. To investigate the relationships between the loss of SNc and LC neurons, and the stage of illness, we compared the signal intensity of SNc and LC between PD patients and normal controls by using a neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 Tesla. We examined 41 PD patients in early stage, 10 in progressive stage, and 22 healthy controls. In PD, we observed a significant loss of neuromelanin in LC (p<0.0001) and lateral area of SNc (p=0.0011) while no significant difference between neuromelanin imaging and severity of PD was observed. The present study suggests that neuromelanin imaging using 3T MRI is a useful tool for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. (author)

  1. Does the cerebral cortex exacerbate dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra of 6OHDA-lesioned rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquin, Natasha; Mitrofanis, John

    2008-01-01

    We have explored the survival of dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in 6 hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-lesioned rats with prior cortical removal. There were approximately 35% more dopaminergic cells in the ventral sector of SNc (vSNc) of 6OHDA-lesioned rats that had prior cortical removal compared to those that did not. By contrast, there were no differences in dopaminergic cell number between these experimental groups in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the dorsal sector of SNc (dSNc). Hence, prior cortical removal in 6OHDA-lesioned rats neuroprotected vSNc--but not VTA or dSNc--dopaminergic cells from death.

  2. Ketogenic diet prevents neuronal firing increase within the substantia nigra during pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Stoddard, Madison; Pisano, Simone; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Iovane, Valentina; Monda, Marcellino; Coppola, Giangennaro

    2016-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets is poorly understood. Because the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a "gate" center for seizures, the aim of the present experiment was to evaluate if a ketogenic diet modifies the neuronal response of this nucleus when a seizure-inducing drug is administered in rats. Two groups of rats were given a standard diet (group 1) or a ketogenic diet (group 2) for four weeks, then the threshold for seizure induction and the firing rate of putative GABAergic neurons within the SNr were evaluated with progressive infusion of pentylenetetrazole under general anesthesia. The results demonstrated that the ketogenic diet abolished the correlation between the firing rate response of SNr-neurons and the seizure-threshold. This result suggests that the anti-seizure effect of ketogenic diets can be due to a decrease in reactivity of GABAergic SNr-neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MR Imaging Is Superior to Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the Diagnosis and Severity Evaluation of Parkinson's Disease: a Study on Substantia Nigra and Striatum

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    Chunmei eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by nigrostriatal cell loss. To date the diagnosis of PD is still based primarily on the clinical manifestations which may be typical and obvious only in advanced-stage PD. Thus, it is crucial to find a reliable marker for the diagnosis of PD. We conducted this study to assess the diagnostic efficiency of chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer (CEST imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI in PD at 3 Tesla by evaluating changes on substantia nigra and striatum. Twenty-three PD patients and twenty-three age-matched normal controls were recruited. All patients and controls were imaged on a 3 Tesla MR system, using an 8-channel head coil. CEST imaging was acquired in two transverse slices of the head, including substantia nigra and striatum. The magnetization-transfer-ratio asymmetry at 3.5 ppm, MTRasym(3.5ppm, and the total CEST signal intensity between 0 and 4 ppm were calculated. Multi-slice DTI was acquired for all the patients and normal controls. Quantitative analysis was performed on the substantia nigra, globus pallidus, putamen and caudate. The MTRasym(3.5ppm value, the total CEST signal intensity and fractional anisotropy (FA value of the substantia nigra were all significantly lower in PD patients than in normal controls (P = 0.003, P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively. The MTRasym(3.5ppm values of the putamen and the caudate were significantly higher in PD patients than in normal controls (P = 0.010 and P = 0.009, respectively. There were no significant differences for the mean diffusivity (MD in these four regions between PD patients and normal controls. In conclusion, CEST MR imaging provided multiple CEST image contrasts in the substantia nigra and the striatum in PD and may be superior to DTI in the diagnosis of PD.

  4. Cav1.3 channels control D2-autoreceptor responses via NCS-1 in substantia nigra dopamine neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Elena; Poetschke, Christina; Duda, Johanna; Schlaudraff, Falk; Lammel, Stephan; Schiemann, Julia; Fauler, Michael; Hetzel, Andrea; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lujan, Rafael; Malenka, Robert C.; Striessnig, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra are particularly prone to degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Their selective loss causes the major motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but the causes for the high vulnerability of SN DA neurons, compared to neighbouring, more resistant ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, are still unclear. Consequently, there is still no cure available for Parkinson’s disease. Current therapies compensate the progressive loss of dopamine by administering its precursor l-DOPA and/or dopamine D2-receptor agonists. D2-autoreceptors and Cav1.3-containing L-type Ca2+ channels both contribute to Parkinson’s disease pathology. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers protect SN DA neurons from degeneration in Parkinson’s disease and its mouse models, and they are in clinical trials for neuroprotective Parkinson’s disease therapy. However, their physiological functions in SN DA neurons remain unclear. D2-autoreceptors tune firing rates and dopamine release of SN DA neurons in a negative feedback loop through activation of G-protein coupled potassium channels (GIRK2, or KCNJ6). Mature SN DA neurons display prominent, non-desensitizing somatodendritic D2-autoreceptor responses that show pronounced desensitization in PARK-gene Parkinson’s disease mouse models. We analysed surviving human SN DA neurons from patients with Parkinson’s disease and from controls, and detected elevated messenger RNA levels of D2-autoreceptors and GIRK2 in Parkinson’s disease. By electrophysiological analysis of postnatal juvenile and adult mouse SN DA neurons in in vitro brain-slices, we observed that D2-autoreceptor desensitization is reduced with postnatal maturation. Furthermore, a transient high-dopamine state in vivo, caused by one injection of either l-DOPA or cocaine, induced adult-like, non-desensitizing D2-autoreceptor responses, selectively in juvenile SN DA neurons, but not ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. With pharmacological

  5. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia

  6. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA) National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

  7. Metabolic Disturbances in the Striatum and Substantia Nigra in the Onset and Progression of MPTP-Induced Parkinsonism Model

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    Yi Lu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic confusion has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD, while the dynamic changes associated with the onset and progression of PD remain unclear. Herein, dynamic changes in metabolites were detected from the initiation to the development of 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP -induced Parkinsonism model to elucidate its potential metabolic mechanism. Ex vivo1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was used to measure metabolite changes in the striatum and substantia nigra (SN of mice at 1, 7, and 21 days after injection of MPTP. Metabolomic analysis revealed a clear separation of the overall metabolites between PD and control mice at different time points. Glutamate (Glu in the striatum was significantly elevated at induction PD day 1 mice, which persisted to day 21. N-acetylaspartate (NAA increased in the striatum of induction PD mice on days 1 and 7, but no significant difference was found in striatum on day 21. Myo-Inositol (mI and taurine (Tau were also disturbed in the striatum in induction PD day 1 mice. Additionally, key enzymes in the glutamate-glutamine cycle were significantly increased in PD mice. These findings suggest that neuron loss and motor function impairment in induction PD mice may be linked to overactive glutamate-glutamine cycle and altered membrane metabolism.

  8. Altered Tracer Distribution and Clearance in the Extracellular Space of the Substantia Nigra in a Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease

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    Yuan Fang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between extracellular space (ECS diffusion parameters and brain drug clearance is not well-studied, especially in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD. Therefore, we used a rodent model of PD to explore the distribution and clearance of a magnetic resonance tracer. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into four different groups: a PD group, a Madopar group (PD + Madopar treatment, a sham group, and a control group. All rats received an injection of the extracellular tracer gadolinium-diethylene triaminepentacetic acid (Gd-DTPA directly into the substantia nigra (SN. ECS diffusion parameters including the effective diffusion coefficient (D*, clearance coefficient (k', ratio of the maximum distribution volume of the tracer (Vd-max%, and half-life (t1/2 were measured. We found that all parameters were significantly increased in the PD group compared to the other three groups (D*: F = 5.774, p = 0.0025; k': F = 20.00, P < 0.0001; Vd-max%: F = 12.81, P < 0.0001; and t1/2: F = 23.35, P < 0.0001. In conclusion, the PD group exhibited a wider distribution and lower clearance of the tracer compared to the other groups. Moreover, k' was more sensitive than D* for monitoring morphological and functional changes in the ECS in a rodent model of PD.

  9. Seizure-induced damage to substantia nigra and globus pallidus is accompanied by pronounced intra- and extracellular acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, K.; Smith, M.L.; Hansen, A.J.; Siesjoe, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    Status epilepticus of greater than 30-min duration in rats gives rise to a conspicuous lesion in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNPR) and globus pallidus (GP). The objective of the present study was to explore whether the lesion, which encompasses necrosis of both neurons and glial cells, is related to intra- and extracellular acidosis. Using the flurothyl model previously described to produce seizures, we assessed regional pH values with the autoradiographic 5,5-dimethyl[2-14C]oxazolidine-2,4-dione technique. Regional pH values were assessed in animals with continuous seizures for 20 and 60 min, as well as in those allowed to recover for 30 and 120 min after seizure periods of 20 or 60 min. In additional animals, changes in extracellular fluid pH (pHe) were measured with ion-selective microelectrodes, and extracellular fluid (ECF) volume was calculated from the diffusion profile for electrophoretically administered tetramethylammonium. In structures such as the neocortex and the hippocampus, which show intense metabolic activation during seizures, status epilepticus of 20- and 60-min duration was accompanied by a reduction of the composite tissue pH (pHt) of 0.2-0.3 unit. Recovery of pHt was observed upon termination of seizures. In SNPR and in GP, the acidosis was marked to excessive after 20 and 60 min of seizures (delta pHt approximately 0.6 after 60 min)

  10. Biochemical evidence for. gamma. -aminobutyrate containing fibres from the nucleus accumbens to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the rat

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    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1980-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase activity, a specific marker for ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing neurons, has been analysed in microdissected samples from rat mesencephalon following unilateral electrocoagulations of the nucleus accumbens. This lesion resulted in a consistent decrease of 50% in the enzyme activity in the rostromedial substantia nigra, and a slight, but insignificant decrease (- 15%) in the medial parts of the caudal pars compacta of the substantia nigra. No change was found in the lateral pars compacta or the central pars reticulata. In the ventral tegmental area, the highest activity was found in the rostromedial part, adjacent to the mammillary body. At this level, a significant decrease of 20% was found in the ventral tegmental area on the lesioned side. In contrast, the activities in the medial accessory optic nucleus and the caudal ventral tegmental area adjacent to the interpenduncular nucleus were unchanged. The results indicate that the nucleus accumbens sends ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing fibres to the rostromedial substantia nigra and to the rostral ventral tegmental area. The caudal ventral tegmental area, the lateral pars compacta and the central pars reticulata do not receive measurable amounts of such fibres.

  11. Motor stimulant effects of ethanol injected into the substantia nigra pars reticulata: importance of catalase-mediated metabolism and the role of acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi-LaFrance, Maria N; Correa, Mercè; Aragon, Carlos M G; Salamone, John D

    2006-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the locomotor effects of local injections of ethanol and the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, into substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Infusions of ethanol into SNr resulted in a dose-related increase in locomotor activity, with maximal effects at a dose of 1.4 micromol. Ethanol injected into a control site dorsal to substantia nigra failed to stimulate locomotion, and another inactive site was identified in brainstem areas posterior to substantia nigra. The locomotor effects of intranigral ethanol (1.4 micromol) were reduced by coadministration of 10 mg/kg sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor that acts to reduce the metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde in the brain. SNr infusions of acetaldehyde, which is the first metabolite of ethanol, also increased locomotion. Taken together, these results indicate that SNr is one of the sites at which ethanol and acetaldehyde may be acting to induce locomotor activity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that acetaldehyde is a centrally active metabolite of ethanol, and provide further support for the idea that catalase activity is a critical step in the regulation of ethanol-induced motor activity. These studies have implications for understanding the brain mechanisms involved in mediating the ascending limb of the biphasic dose-response curve for the effect of ethanol on locomotor activity.

  12. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

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    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting

  13. Paraquat induces oxidative stress, neuronal loss in substantia nigra region and Parkinsonism in adult rats: Neuroprotection and amelioration of symptoms by water-soluble formulation of Coenzyme Q10

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    Sridhar TS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease, for which currently there is no cure, develops as a result of progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the brain; thus, identification of any potential therapeutic intervention for disease management is of a great importance. Results Here we report that prophylactic application of water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 could effectively offset the effects of environmental neurotoxin paraquat, believed to be a contributing factor in the development of familial PD. In this study we utilized a model of paraquat-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in adult rats that received three weekly intra-peritoneal injections of the herbicide paraquat. Histological and biochemical analyses of rat brains revealed increased levels of oxidative stress markers and a loss of approximately 65% of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra region. The paraquat-exposed rats also displayed impaired balancing skills on a slowly rotating drum (rotorod evidenced by their reduced spontaneity in gait performance. In contrast, paraquat exposed rats receiving a water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 in their drinking water prior to and during the paraquat treatment neither developed neurodegeneration nor reduced rotorod performance and were indistinguishable from the control paraquat-untreated rats. Conclusion Our data confirmed that paraquat-induced neurotoxicity represents a convenient rat model of Parkinsonian neurodegeneration suitable for mechanistic and neuroprotective studies. This is the first preclinical evaluation of a water-soluble coenzyme Q10 formulation showing the evidence of prophylactic neuroprotection at clinically relevant doses.

  14. Impact of Combined Subthalamic Nucleus and Substantia Nigra Stimulation on Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

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    U. Hidding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to compare the tolerability and the effects of conventional subthalamic nucleus (STN and combined subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra (STN+SNr high-frequency stimulation in regard to neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease patients. In this single center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial, twelve patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (1 female; age: 61.3±7.3 years; disease duration: 12.3±5.4 years; Hoehn and Yahr stage: 2.2±0.39 were included. Apathy, fatigue, depression, and impulse control disorder were assessed using a comprehensive set of standardized rating scales and questionnaires such as the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS, Becks Depression Inventory (BDI-I, Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (QUIP-RS, and Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39. Three patients that were initially assigned to the STN+SNr stimulation mode withdrew from the study within the first week due to discomfort. Statistical comparison of data retrieved from patients who completed the study revealed no significant differences between both stimulation conditions in terms of mean scores of scales measuring apathy, fatigue, depression, impulse control disorder, and quality of life. Individual cases showed an improvement of apathy under combined STN+SNr stimulation. In general, combined STN+SNr stimulation seems to be safe in terms of neuropsychiatric side effects, although careful patient selection and monitoring in the short-term period after changing stimulation settings are recommended.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Biomarkers to Assess Substantia Nigra Damage in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Gaurav, Rahul; Arnaldi, Dario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Valabregue, Romain; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lehéricy, Stephane

    2017-11-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered to be a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD). At PD onset, 40 to 70% of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are already lost. Thus, milder SN damage is expected in participants with iRBD. We aimed to quantify SN damage in participants with iRBD using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine biomarker efficacy in preclinical Parkinsonism. Nineteen participants with iRBD and 18 controls underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging, neuromelanin (NM)-sensitive imaging, and T2* mapping. Regions of interest in the SN area were drawn in NM-sensitive and T2-weighted images. The volume and normalized signal intensity in NM-sensitive images, R2*, and diffusion tensor measures were quantified in the SN. Additionally, two raters performed visual analysis of the SN using the NM-sensitive images. Participants with iRBD showed a reduction in the NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity and a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) versus controls, but showed no differences in axial, radial, or mean diffusivity or in R2*. For NM-sensitive volume and signal intensity, the receiver operating characteristic analysis discriminated between participants with iRBD and controls with a diagnostic accuracy of 0.86 and 0.79, respectively, whereas the accuracy was 0.77 for FA. The three biomarkers had a combined accuracy of 0.92. The fraction of participants correctly characterized by visual assessment was 0.81. NM-sensitive imaging and FA allowed for the detection of SN damage in participants with iRBD with good diagnostic accuracy. These measures may represent valuable biomarkers for prodromal Parkinsonism. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Determines Synaptic Excitability, Calcium Activity and Specific Viability of Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons

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    Carmen Carbone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Differential vulnerability between Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA dopaminergic (DAergic neurons is a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Understanding the molecular bases of this key histopathological aspect would foster the development of much-needed disease-modifying therapies. Non-heterogeneous DAergic degeneration is present in both toxin-based and genetic animal models, suggesting that cellular specificity, rather than causing factors, constitutes the background for differential vulnerability. In this regard, we previously demonstrated that MPP+, a neurotoxin able to cause selective nigrostriatal degeneration in animal rodents and primates, inhibits the Hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih in SNpc DAergic neurons and that pharmacological Ih antagonism causes potentiation of evoked Excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs. Of note, the magnitude of such potentiation is greater in the SNpc subfield, consistent with higher Ih density. In the present work, we show that Ih block-induced synaptic potentiation leads to the amplification of somatic calcium responses (SCRs in vitro. This effect is specific for the SNpc subfield and largely mediated by L-Type calcium channels, as indicated by sensitivity to the CaV 1 blocker isradipine. Furthermore, Ih is downregulated by low intracellular ATP and determines the efficacy of GABAergic inhibition in SNpc DAergic neurons. Finally, we show that stereotaxic administration of Ih blockers causes SNpc-specific neurodegeneration and hemiparkinsonian motor phenotype in rats. During PD progression, Ih downregulation may result from mitochondrial dysfunction and, in concert with PD-related disinhibition of excitatory inputs, determine a SNpc-specific disease pathway.

  17. Reduced Number of Pigmented Neurons in the Substantia Nigra of Dystonia Patients? Findings from Extensive Neuropathologic, Immunohistochemistry, and Quantitative Analyses

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    Diego Iacono

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dystonias (Dys represent the third most common movement disorder after essential tremor (ET and Parkinson's disease (PD. While some pathogenetic mechanisms and genetic causes of Dys have been identified, little is known about their neuropathologic features. Previous neuropathologic studies have reported generically defined neuronal loss in various cerebral regions of Dys brains, mostly in the basal ganglia (BG, and specifically in the substantia nigra (SN. Enlarged pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys patients with and without specific genetic mutations (e.g., GAG deletions in DYT1 dystonia have also been described. Whether or not Dys brains are associated with decreased numbers or other morphometric changes of specific neuronal types is unknown and has never been addressed with quantitative methodologies. Methods: Quantitative immunohistochemistry protocols were used to estimate neuronal counts and volumes of nigral pigmented neurons in 13 SN of Dys patients and 13 SN of age‐matched control subjects (C. Results: We observed a significant reduction (∼20% of pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys compared to C (p<0.01. Neither significant volumetric changes nor evident neurodegenerative signs were observed in the remaining pool of nigral pigmented neurons in Dys brains. These novel quantitative findings were confirmed after exclusion of possible co‐occurring SN pathologies including Lewy pathology, tau‐neurofibrillary tangles, β‐amyloid deposits, ubiquitin (ubiq, and phosphorylated‐TAR DNA‐binding protein 43 (pTDP43‐positive inclusions. Discussion: A reduced number of nigral pigmented neurons in the absence of evident neurodegenerative signs in Dys brains could indicate previously unconsidered pathogenetic mechanisms of Dys such as neurodevelopmental defects in the SN.

  18. Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes GABA release in the substantia nigra and improves locomotion in hemiparkinsonian rats.

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    Ghazaleh Samoudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vestibular system is connected to spinal, cerebellar and cerebral motor control structures and can be selectively activated with external electrodes. The resulting sensation of disturbed balance can be avoided by using stochastic stimulation patterns. Adding noise to the nervous system sometimes improves function. Small clinical trials suggest that stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS may improve symptoms in Parkinson's disease. We have investigated this claim and possible mechanisms using the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA hemilesion model of Parkinson's disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Animals were tested in the accelerating rod test and the Montoya staircase test of skilled forelimb use. In 6-OHDA hemilesioned animals, SVS improved rod performance by 56±11 s. At group level L-DOPA treatment had no effect, but positive responders improved time on rod by 60±19 s. Skilled forelimb use was not altered by SVS. To investigate how SVS may influence basal ganglia network activity, intracerebral microdialysis was employed in four regions of interest during and after SVS. In presence of the γ-amino buturic acid (GABA transporter inhibitor NNC 711, SVS induced an increase in GABA to 150±15% of baseline in the substantia nigra (SN of unlesioned animals, but had no effect in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, the striatum or the ventromedial thalamus (VM. Dopamine release remained stable in all areas, as did GABA and amine concentrations in the SN of unstimulated controls. Following SVS, a sustained increase in GABA concentrations was observed in the ipsilesional, but not in the contralesional SN of 6-OHDA hemilesioned rats. In contrast, L-DOPA treatment produced a similar increase of GABA in the ipsi- and contra-lesional SN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SVS improves rod performance in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, possibly by increasing nigral GABA release in a dopamine independent way. We propose that SVS could be useful for

  19. Iptakalim inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated currents in dopamine neurons acutely dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; DeChon, J; Yan, K C; Liu, Q; Hu, G; Wu, J

    2006-07-31

    Iptakalim hydrochloride, a novel cardiovascular ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel opener, has shown remarkable antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects in a variety of studies using in vivo and in vitro preparations. We recently found that iptakalim blocked human alpha4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) heterologously expressed in the human SH-EP1 cell line. In the present study, we examined the effects of iptakalim on several neurotransmitter-induced current responses in single DA neurons freshly dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), using perforated patch-clamp recordings combined with a U-tube rapid drug application. In identified DA neurons under voltage-clamp configuration, glutamate-, NMDA-, and GABA-induced currents were insensitive to co-application with iptakalim (100 microM), while whole-cell currents induced by ACh (1 mM+1 microM atropine) or an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors relatively selective agonist, RJR-2403 (300 microM), were eliminated by iptakalim. Iptakalim inhibited RJR-2403-induced current in a concentration-dependent manner, and reduced maximal RJR-2403-induced currents at the highest agonist concentration, suggesting a non-competitive block. In current-clamp mode, iptakalim failed to affect resting membrane potential and spontaneous action potential firing, but abolished RJR-2403-induced neuronal firing acceleration. Together, these results indicate that in dissociated SNc DA neurons, alpha4-containing nAChRs, rather than ionotropic glutamate receptors, GABA(A) receptors or perhaps K-ATP channels are the sensitive targets to mediate iptakalim's pharmacological roles.

  20. Metabolism regulates the spontaneous firing of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons via KATP and nonselective cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Yellen, Gary

    2014-12-03

    Neurons use glucose to fuel glycolysis and provide substrates for mitochondrial respiration, but neurons can also use alternative fuels that bypass glycolysis and feed directly into mitochondria. To determine whether neuronal pacemaking depends on active glucose metabolism, we switched the metabolic fuel from glucose to alternative fuels, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate, while monitoring the spontaneous firing of GABAergic neurons in mouse substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) brain slices. We found that alternative fuels, in the absence of glucose, sustained SNr spontaneous firing at basal rates, but glycolysis may still be supported by glycogen in the absence of glucose. To prevent any glycogen-fueled glycolysis, we directly inhibited glycolysis using either 2-deoxyglucose or iodoacetic acid. Inhibiting glycolysis in the presence of alternative fuels lowered SNr firing to a slower sustained firing rate. Surprisingly, we found that the decrease in SNr firing was not mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, but if we lowered the perfusion flow rate or omitted the alternative fuel, KATP channels were activated and could silence SNr firing. The KATP-independent slowing of SNr firing that occurred with glycolytic inhibition in the presence of alternative fuels was consistent with a decrease in a nonselective cationic conductance. Although mitochondrial metabolism alone can prevent severe energy deprivation and KATP channel activation in SNr neurons, active glucose metabolism appears important for keeping open a class of ion channels that is crucial for the high spontaneous firing rate of SNr neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416336-12$15.00/0.

  1. Vitamin B12-impaired metabolism produces apoptosis and Parkinson phenotype in rats expressing the transcobalamin-oleosin chimera in substantia nigra.

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    Carlos Enrique Orozco-Barrios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 is indispensable for proper brain functioning and cytosolic synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. Whether its deficiency produces effects on viability and apoptosis of neurons remains unknown. There is a particular interest in investigating these effects in Parkinson disease where Levodopa treatment is known to increase the consumption of S-adenosylmethionine. To cause deprivation of vitamin B12, we have recently developed a cell model that produces decreased synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine by anchoring transcobalamin (TCII to the reticulum through its fusion with Oleosin (OLEO. METHODOLOGY: Gene constructs including transcobalamin-oleosin (TCII-OLEO and control constructs, green fluorescent protein-transcobalamin-oleosin (GFP-TCII-OLEO, oleosin-transcobalamin (OLEO-TCII, TCII and OLEO were used for expression in N1E-115 cells (mouse neuroblastoma and in substantia nigra of adult rats, using a targeted transfection with a Neurotensin polyplex system. We studied the viability and the apoptosis in the transfected cells and targeted tissue. The turning behavior was evaluated in the rats transfected with the different plasmids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The transfection of N1E-115 cells by the TCII-OLEO-expressing plasmid significantly affected cell viability and increased immunoreactivity of cleaved Caspase-3. No change in propidium iodide uptake (used as a necrosis marker was observed. The transfected rats lost neurons immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase. The expression of TCII-OLEO was observed in cells immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase of the substantia nigra, with a superimposed expression of cleaved Caspase-3. These cellular and tissular effects were not observed with the control plasmids. Rats transfected with TCII-OLEO expressing plasmid presented with a significantly higher number of turns, compared with those transfected with the other plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the TCII-OLEO transfection

  2. Intranasal insulin protects against substantia nigra dopaminergic neuronal loss and alleviates motor deficits induced by 6-OHDA in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Y; Lin, S; Wright, C; Shen, J; Carter, K; Bhatt, A; Fan, L-W

    2016-03-24

    Protection of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DA) neurons by neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is one of the promising strategies in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. A major clinical challenge for NTF-based therapy is that NTFs need to be delivered into the brain via invasive means, which often shows limited delivery efficiency. The nose to brain pathway is a non-invasive brain drug delivery approach developed in recent years. Of particular interest is the finding that intranasal insulin improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer's patients. In vitro, insulin has been shown to protect neurons against various insults. Therefore, the current study was designed to test whether intranasal insulin could afford neuroprotection in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-based rat PD model. 6-OHDA was injected into the right side of striatum to induce a progressive DA neuronal lesion in the ipsilateral SN pars compact (SNc). Recombinant human insulin was applied intranasally to rats starting from 24h post lesion, once per day, for 2 weeks. A battery of motor behavioral tests was conducted on day 8 and 15. The number of DA neurons in the SNc was estimated by stereological counting. Our results showed that 6-OHDA injection led to significant motor deficits and 53% of DA neuron loss in the ipsilateral side of injection. Treatment with insulin significantly ameliorated 6-OHDA-induced motor impairments, as shown by improved locomotor activity, tapered/ledged beam-walking performance, vibrissa-elicited forelimb-placing, initial steps, as well as methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior. Consistent with behavioral improvements, insulin treatment provided a potent protection of DA neurons in the SNc against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity, as shown by a 74.8% increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons compared to the vehicle group. Intranasal insulin treatment did not affect body weight and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, our study showed that intranasal insulin provided strong

  3. Cell survival and differentiation with nanocrystalline glass-like carbon using substantia nigra dopaminergic cells derived from transgenic mouse embryos.

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    Noela Rodriguez-Losada

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine requires, in many cases, physical supports to facilitate appropriate cellular architecture, cell polarization and the improvement of the correct differentiation processes of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent cells or adult cells. Because the interest in carbon nanomaterials has grown within the last decade in light of a wide variety of applications, the aim of this study was to test and evaluate the suitability and cytocompatibility of a particular nanometer-thin nanocrystalline glass-like carbon film (NGLC composed of curved graphene flakes joined by an amorphous carbon matrix. This material is a disordered structure with high transparency and electrical conductivity. For this purpose, we used a cell line (SN4741 from substantia nigra dopaminergic cells derived from transgenic mouse embryos. Cells were cultured either in a powder of increasing concentrations of NGLC microflakes (82±37μm in the medium or on top of nanometer-thin films bathed in the same culture medium. The metabolism activity of SN4741 cells in presence of NGLC was assessed using methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT and apoptosis/necrosis flow cytometry assay respectively. Growth and proliferation as well as senescence were demonstrated by western blot (WB of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, monoclonal phosphorylate Histone 3 (serine 10 (PH3 and SMP30 marker. Specific dopaminergic differentiation was confirmed by the WB analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. Cell maturation and neural capability were characterized using specific markers (SYP: synaptophysin and GIRK2: G-protein-regulated inward-rectifier potassium channel 2 protein via immunofluorescence and coexistence measurements. The results demonstrated cell positive biocompatibility with different concentrations of NGLC. The cells underwent a process of adaptation of SN4741 cells to NGLC where their metabolism decreases. This process is related to a decrease of PH3 expression and

  4. [The role of the opiate mechanisms of the hippocampus and substantia nigra in the behavioral and convulsive disorders in picrotoxin-induced kindling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Shandra, A A; Godlevskiĭ, L S; Mazarati, A M; Nguyen, T T

    1991-03-01

    It was shown in the experiments on rats that the repeated picrotoxin administration resulted in the kindling of generalized seizures. Generalized convulsions were followed by the development of either postictal depression or explosiveness. The injection of mu-opiate agonist met-enkephalin into hippocampus of kindled rats resulted in the increase in the severity of seizure reactions which were induced by picrotoxin and also in the increase in the number of animals with postictal explosiveness. The injection of dynorphin-A-1-13 (kappa-opiate agonist) into substantia nigra reticulata induced the locomotor depression which was like one in postictal period and resulted in the decrease of picrotoxin-induced seizures severity. It was concluded that mu-opiate system of hippocampus took part in the formation of generator of pathologically enhanced excitation in the structure during kindling and the development of seizure syndrome, providing also the postictal explosiveness. Kappa-opiate system of substantia nigra plays an important role in the activation of the antiepileptic system, limitation of seizures and the development of postictal depression.

  5. Major Alterations of Phosphatidylcholine and Lysophosphotidylcholine Lipids in the Substantia Nigra Using an Early Stage Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Farmer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal pathway, where patients do not manifest motor symptoms until >50% of neurons are lost. Thus, it is of great importance to determine early neuronal changes that may contribute to disease progression. Recent attention has focused on lipids and their role in pro- and anti-apoptotic processes. However, information regarding the lipid alterations in animal models of PD is lacking. In this study, we utilized high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and novel HPLC solvent methodology to profile phosphatidylcholines and sphingolipids within the substantia nigra. The ipsilateral substantia nigra pars compacta was collected from rats 21 days after an infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, or vehicle into the anterior dorsal striatum. We identified 115 lipid species from their mass/charge ratio using the LMAPS Lipid MS Predict Database. Of these, 19 lipid species (from phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphotidylcholine lipid classes were significantly altered by 6-OHDA, with most being down-regulated. The two lipid species that were up-regulated were LPC (16:0 and LPC (18:1, which are important for neuroinflammatory signalling. These findings provide a first step in the characterization of lipid changes in early stages of PD-like pathology and could provide novel targets for early interventions in PD.

  6. [Effect of stimulation of GABA-ergic structures of the substantia nigra and caudate nucleus on food-getting behavior in the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugalev, N P

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the functional significance of GABA-ergic structures of the substantia nigra (SN) and the caudate nucleus (CN) and their role in food-procuring behaviour of cats. Analysis was made of behavioral and EEG-effects of local GABA and the GABA antagonist, picrotoxin, microinjections into the studied brain structures. Stimulation of the GABA-ergic structures of the SN produced a sedative effect and depression of the cat food-procuring behaviour. Effects of stimulation of the CN GABA-ergic structures were to a great degree reverse. The conclusion has been made that GABA-ergic structures of the SN and the CN play different roles in controlling the CN inhibitory influence upon food-procuring behaviour.

  7. 6-OHDA induced calcium influx through N-type calcium channel alters membrane properties via PKA pathway in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Li, Nan; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Qian; Gao, Guo-Dong; Wang, Xue-Lian

    2014-07-11

    Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) are sensitive to oxidative stress, and their activation or inactivation can impact cell death. Although these channels have been extensively studied in expression systems, their role in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), remain controversial. In this study, we assessed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced transformation of firing pattern and functional changes of calcium channels in SNc dopaminergic neurons. Application of 6-OHDA (0.5-2mM) evoked a dose-dependent, desensitizing inward current and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) rise. In voltage clamp, ω-conotoxin-sensitive Ca(2+) current modulation mediated by 6-OHDA reflected an altered sensitivity. Furthermore, we found that 6-OHDA modulated Ca(2+) currents through PKA pathway. These results provided evidence for the potential role of VGCCs and PKA involved in oxidative stress in degeneration of SNc neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional activity of substantia nigra grafts reinnervating the striatum: neurotransmitter metabolism and (14C)2-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography. [Rats

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    Schmidt, R H; Ingvar, M; Lindvall, O; Stenevi, U; Bjoerklund, A

    1982-03-01

    Dopaminergic innervation of the caudate nucleus in adult rats can be partially restored by the grafting of embryonic substantia nigra into the overlying parietal cortex with concomitant compensation of certain behavioral abnormalities. In this study the function of such grafts was investigated neurochemically by quantification of transmitter metabolism and glucose utilization in the reinnervated target. Rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal bundle received a single graft to the dorsal caudate-putamen and were screened for rotational behavior following 5 mg/kg methamphetamine. The grafts restored dopamine concentrations in the caudate-putamen from initially less than 0.5% to an average of 13.6% of normal in rats with behavioral compensation. The ratio of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to dopamine, which is a measure of the rate of transmitter turnover, were equivalent in transplanted and normal control rats. Moreover, measurements of DOPA accumulation for a 30-min period after DOPA decarboxylase inhibition indicated similar fractional dopamine turnover rates in normal and transplant-reinnervated tissues. Correlations between rotational behavior and dopamine concentrations showed that reinnervation to only 3% of normal was sufficient to counterbalance the motor asymmetry. Measurements of glucose utilization by (14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography indicated equivalent metabolic rates for the grafted tissue and the intact substantia nigra. Overall the results indicate that behaviorally functional neuronal grafts spontaneously metabolize dopamine and utilize glucose at rates characteristic of the intact nigrostriatal system. This provides further evidence that ectopic intracortical nigral transplants can reinstate dopaminergic neurotransmission in regions of the host brain initially denervated by the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion.

  9. Differential Regulation of Action Potential Shape and Burst-Frequency Firing by BK and Kv2 Channels in Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Tilia; Khaliq, Zayd M; Bean, Bruce P

    2015-12-16

    Little is known about the voltage-dependent potassium currents underlying spike repolarization in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Studying mouse substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons both in brain slice and after acute dissociation, we found that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 channels both make major contributions to the depolarization-activated potassium current. Inhibiting Kv2 or BK channels had very different effects on spike shape and evoked firing. Inhibiting Kv2 channels increased spike width and decreased the afterhyperpolarization, as expected for loss of an action potential-activated potassium conductance. BK inhibition also increased spike width but paradoxically increased the afterhyperpolarization. Kv2 channel inhibition steeply increased the slope of the frequency-current (f-I) relationship, whereas BK channel inhibition had little effect on the f-I slope or decreased it, sometimes resulting in slowed firing. Action potential clamp experiments showed that both BK and Kv2 current flow during spike repolarization but with very different kinetics, with Kv2 current activating later and deactivating more slowly. Further experiments revealed that inhibiting either BK or Kv2 alone leads to recruitment of additional current through the other channel type during the action potential as a consequence of changes in spike shape. Enhancement of slowly deactivating Kv2 current can account for the increased afterhyperpolarization produced by BK inhibition and likely underlies the very different effects on the f-I relationship. The cross-regulation of BK and Kv2 activation illustrates that the functional role of a channel cannot be defined in isolation but depends critically on the context of the other conductances in the cell. This work shows that BK calcium-activated potassium channels and Kv2 voltage-activated potassium channels both regulate action potentials in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although both

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation attenuates blood brain barrier damage and neuroinflammation and protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP toxicity in the substantia nigra in a model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yin Xia; He, Bei Ping; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah

    2009-11-30

    Immunomodulatory effects of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of Parkinson's disease were studied in the MPTP-induced mouse model. MPTP treatment induced a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons, decreased expressions of claudin 1, claudin 5 and occludin in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc), and functional damage of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study further discovered that infiltration of MBLs into the brain to bind with microglia was detected in the SNc of MPTP-treated mice, suggesting that the BBB compromise and MBL infiltration might be involved in the pathogenesis of MPTP-induced PD. In addition, MPTP treatment also increased the expression of mannose-binding lectins (MBLs) in the liver tissue. Intravenous transplantation of MSCs into MPTP-treated mice led to recovery of BBB integrity, suppression of MBL infiltration at SNc and MBL expression in the liver, suppression of microglial activation and prevention of dopaminergic neuron death. No transplanted MSCs were observed to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons, while the MSCs migrated into the SNc and released TGF-beta1 there. Therefore, intravenous transplantation of MSCs which protect dopaminergic neurons from MPTP toxicity may be engaged in anyone or a combination of these mechanisms: repair of the BBB, reduction of MBL in the brain, inhibition of microglial cytotoxicity, and direct protection of dopaminergic neurons.

  11. Clinical features and dysfunctions of iron metabolism in Parkinson disease patients with hyper echogenicity in substantia nigra: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Yang; Cao, Chen-Jie; Zuo, Li-Jun; Chen, Ze-Jie; Lian, Teng-Hong; Wang, Fang; Hu, Yang; Piao, Ying-Shan; Li, Li-Xia; Guo, Peng; Liu, Li; Yu, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Rui-Dan; Chan, Piu; Chen, Sheng-di; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Wei

    2018-01-17

    Transcranial ultrasound is a useful tool for providing the evidences for the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD). However, the relationship between hyper echogenicity in substantia nigra (SN) and clinical symptoms of PD patients remains unknown, and the role of dysfunction of iron metabolism on the pathogenesis of SN hyper echogenicity is unclear. PD patients was detected by transcranial sonography and divided into with no hyper echogenicity (PDSN-) group and with hyper echogenicity (PDSN+) group. Motor symptoms (MS) and non-motor symptoms (NMS) were evaluated, and the levels of iron and related proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected for PD patients. Data comparison between the two groups and correlation analyses were performed. PDSN+ group was significantly older, and had significantly older age of onset, more advanced Hohen-Yahr stage, higher SCOPA-AUT score and lower MoCA score than PDSN- group (P hyper echogenicity in SN are older, at more advanced disease stage, have severer motor symptoms, and non-motor symptoms of cognitive impairment and autonomic dysfunction. Hyper echogenicity of SN in PD patients is related to dysfunction of iron metabolism, involving increased iron transport from peripheral system to central nervous system, reduction of intracellular iron release and excessive iron deposition in brain.

  12. Substantia nigra fractional anisotropy is not a diagnostic biomarker of Parkinson's disease: A diagnostic performance study and meta-analysis

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    Hirata, Fabiana C.C.; Vieira, Gilson; Lucato, Leandro T.; Leite, Claudia C.; Pastorello, Bruno F.; Otaduy, Maria C.G.; Chaim, Khallil T.; Campanholo, Kenia R. [University of Sao Paulo, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sato, Joao R. [University of Sao Paulo, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do ABC, Center of Mathematics, Computation and Cognition, Santo Andre (Brazil); Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Novaes, Natalia P. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); University of Sao Paulo, Department of Neurology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Magalhaes Melo, Luciano; Goncalves, Marcia R.; Reis Barbosa, Egberto [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Neurology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pereira do Nascimento, Felipe Barjud; Amaro, Edson [University of Sao Paulo, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Jacobsen Teixeira, Manoel [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Neurosurgery, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cardoso, Ellison Fernando [University of Sao Paulo, LIM-44, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Institute of Mathematics and Statistics University of Sao Paulo (IME-USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Our goal was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of substantia nigra fractional anisotropy (SN-FA) for Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis in a sample similar to the clinical setting, including patients with essential tremor (ET) and healthy controls (HC). We also performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate mean change in SN-FA induced by PD and its diagnostic accuracy. Our sample consisted of 135 subjects: 72 PD, 21 ET and 42 HC. To address inter-scanner variability, two 3.0-T MRI scans were performed. MRI results of this sample were pooled into a meta-analysis that included 1,432 subjects (806 PD and 626 HC). A bivariate model was used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy measures. In our sample, we did not observe a significant effect of disease on SN-FA and it was uninformative for diagnosis. The results of the meta-analysis estimated a 0.03 decrease in mean SN-FA in PD relative to HC (CI: 0.01-0.05). However, the discriminatory capability of SN-FA to diagnose PD was low: pooled sensitivity and specificity were 72 % (CI: 68-75) and 63 % (CI: 58-70), respectively. There was high heterogeneity between studies (I{sup 2} = 91.9 %). SN-FA cannot be used as an isolated measure to diagnose PD. (orig.)

  13. Intracranial dialysis measurement of oxytocin, monoamine and uric acid release from the olfactory bulb and substantia nigra of sheep during parturition, suckling, separation from lambs and eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, K M; Keverne, E B; Chapman, C; Baldwin, B A

    1988-01-26

    Intracranial dialysis was used to measure the release of oxytocin (OXY), monoamines and their metabolites and uric acid (UA) from the substantia nigra (SN) and olfactory bulb (OB) of sheep during parturition, suckling, separation from lambs and eating. Results showed that OXY concentrations increased significantly during parturition, suckling and eating in the SN and during parturition and suckling in the OB. Concentrations of dopamine (DA) increased significantly in the SN during suckling and eating and in the OB during parturition and suckling. The dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid, also increased significantly in the SN during parturition. Concentrations of the noradrenaline metabolite, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethan-1,2-diol (MHPG) and the purine metabolite, UA, were significantly raised during parturition, suckling and separation from the lambs in the SN and increased UA levels were also found during eating. In a separate experiment it was confirmed that OXY was detectable in homogenates of both the SN and the OB. These results show that, in the sheep, OXY and DA release in the SN is associated with maternal and ingestive behaviour whereas similar release in the OB may only be related to maternal behaviour. Release of MHPG in the SN may be associated with maternal behaviour and/or stress.

  14. Secondary parkinsonism due to focal substantia nigra lesions. A PET study with [18F]FDG and [18F]fluorodopa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, H.; Weindl, A.; Kruggel, F.; Graerin v. Einsiedel, H.; Contrad, B.; Leenders, K.; Antonini, A.; Kuwert, T.

    1996-01-01

    We present a 71 year old woman with predominantly right sided parkinsonim of sudden onset, but without tremor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted lesions affecting the substantia nigra (SN) bilaterally, but more pronounced on the left side. There were no other discernible structural lesions. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRG) using the tracer [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and striatal dopa decarboxylase capacity using the tracer [ 18 F]-L-6-fluorodopa (FDOPA). The degree and pattern of distribution of FDOPA uptake reductions (putamen > caudate nuclei) were similar to those in idopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). FDG uptake also revealed similar changes (reductions in frontal cortex and cerebellum, but increases in thalamus), except for putamen which showed reduced rCMRG. In conclusion, the absence of tremor at rest accords with experimental SN lesions. The PET findings in this atypical condition are explained in terms of deafferentation of various brain regions involved in motor control. Furthermore, they illustrate the metabolic effects related to acute focal lesions of the SN as opposed to the progressive degeneration in idiopathic PD and may serve to help unravel the complicated pathophysiology underlying these conditions. (au) 39 refs

  15. Control of the subthalamic innervation of substantia nigra pars reticulata by D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Hernández, Adán; Florán, Benjamin; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Valdiosera, Rene; Erlij, David; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José

    2006-03-01

    The effects of activating dopaminergic D1 and D2 class receptors of the subthalamic projections that innervate the pars reticulata of the subtantia nigra (SNr) were explored in slices of the rat brain using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that could be blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalene-2,3-dione and D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid were evoked onto reticulata GABAergic projection neurons by local field stimulation inside the subthalamic nucleus in the presence of bicuculline. Bath application of (RS)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SKF-38393), a dopaminergic D1-class receptor agonist, increased evoked EPSCs by approximately 30% whereas the D2-class receptor agonist, trans-(-)-4aR-4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo(3,4-g)quinoline (quinpirole), reduced EPSCs by approximately 25%. These apparently opposing actions were blocked by the specific D1- and D2-class receptor antagonists: R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepinehydrochloride (SCH 23390) and S-(-)-5-amino-sulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-methyl]-2-methoxybenzamide (sulpiride), respectively. Both effects were accompanied by changes in the paired-pulse ratio, indicative of a presynaptic site of action. The presynaptic location of dopamine receptors at the subthalamonigral projections was confirmed by mean-variance analysis. The effects of both SKF-38393 and quinpirole could be observed on terminals contacting the same postsynaptic neuron. Sulpiride and SCH 23390 enhanced and reduced the evoked EPSC, respectively, suggesting a constitutive receptor activation probably arising from endogenous dopamine. These data suggest that dopamine presynaptically modulates the subthalamic projection that targets GABAergic neurons of the SNr. Implications of this modulation for basal ganglia function are discussed.

  16. Regulation of Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata GABAergic Neuron Activity by H2O2 via Flufenamic Acid-Sensitive Channels and KATP Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christian R.; Witkovsky, Paul; Rice, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects the activity of these neurons and to explore the classes of ion channels underlying those effects. Elevation of H2O2 levels caused an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of SNr GABAergic neurons, whether by application of exogenous H2O2 or amplification of endogenous H2O2 through inhibition of glutathione peroxidase with mercaptosuccinate. This effect was reversed by flufenamic acid (FFA), implicating transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Conversely, depletion of endogenous H2O2 by catalase, a peroxidase enzyme, decreased spontaneous firing rate and firing precision of SNr neurons, demonstrating tonic control of firing rate by H2O2. Elevation of H2O2 in the presence of FFA revealed an inhibition of tonic firing that was prevented by blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels with glibenclamide. In contrast to guinea-pig SNr neurons, the dominant effect of H2O2 elevation in mouse SNr GABAergic neurons was hyperpolarization, indicating a species difference in H2O2-dependent regulation. Thus, H2O2 is an endogenous modulator of SNr GABAergic neurons, acting primarily through presumed TRP channels in guinea-pig SNr, with additional modulation via KATP channels to regulate SNr output. PMID:21503158

  17. Inhibition of Cathepsins B Induces Neuroprotection Against Secondary Degeneration in Ipsilateral Substantia Nigra After Focal Cortical Infarction in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialin Zuo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the world. In general, recovery from stroke is incomplete. Accumulating evidences have shown that focal cerebral infarction leads to dynamic trans-neuronal degeneration in non-ischemic remote brain regions, with the disruption of connections to synapsed neurons sustaining ischemic insults. Previously, we had reported that the ipsilateral striatum, thalamus degenerated in succession after permanent distal branch of middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and cathepsin (Cath B was activated before these relay degeneration. Here, we investigate the role of CathB in the secondary degeneration of ipsilateral substantia nigra (SN after focal cortical infarction. We further examined whether the inhibition of CathB with L-3-trans-(Propyl-carbamoyloxirane-2-carbonyl-L-isoleucyl-L-proline methyl ester (CA-074Me would attenuate secondary degeneration through enhancing the cortico-striatum-nigral connections and contribute to the neuroprotective effects. Our results demonstrated that secondary degeneration in the ipsilateral SN occurred and CathB was upregulated in the ipsilateral SN after focal cortical infarction. The inhibition of CathB with CA-074Me reduced the neuronal loss and gliosis in the ipsilateral SN. Using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA or pseudorabies virus (PRV 152 as anterograde or retrograde tracer to trace striatum-nigral and cortico-nigral projections pathway, CA-074Me can effectively enhance the cortico-striatum-nigral connections and exert neuroprotection against secondary degeneration in the ipsilateral SN after cortical ischemia. Our study suggests that the lysosomal protease CathB mediates the secondary damage in the ipsilateral SN after dMCAO, thus it can be a promising neuroprotective target for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  18. 3D neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging with semi-automated volume measurement of the substantia nigra pars compacta for diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

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    Ogisu, Kimihiro; Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hokkaido (Japan); Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultrahigh Field MRI, Iwate (Japan); Sakushima, Ken; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Hokkaido (Japan); Terae, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Mitsuhiro [Hokkaido University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Neuromelanin-sensitive MRI has been reported to be used in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD), which results from loss of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In this study, we aimed to apply a 3D turbo field echo (TFE) sequence for neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of semi-automated method for measurement of SNc volume in patients with PD. We examined 18 PD patients and 27 healthy volunteers (control subjects). A 3D TFE technique with off-resonance magnetization transfer pulse was used for neuromelanin-sensitive MRI on a 3T scanner. The SNc volume was semi-automatically measured using a region-growing technique at various thresholds (ranging from 1.66 to 2.48), with the signals measured relative to that for the superior cerebellar peduncle. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed at all thresholds. Intra-rater reproducibility was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The average SNc volume in the PD group was significantly smaller than that in the control group at all the thresholds (P < 0.01, student t test). At higher thresholds (>2.0), the area under the curve of ROC (Az) increased (0.88). In addition, we observed balanced sensitivity and specificity (0.83 and 0.85, respectively). At lower thresholds, sensitivity tended to increase but specificity reduced in comparison with that at higher thresholds. ICC was larger than 0.9 when the threshold was over 1.86. Our method can distinguish the PD group from the control group with high sensitivity and specificity, especially for early stage of PD. (orig.)

  19. Neuromelanin-related contrast in the substantia nigra semiquantitatively evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. Comparison between normal aging and Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Makoto; Aihara, Yuko; Ikeda, Sachie; Aihara, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Fast spin-echo (FSE) T 1 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T, which was optimized to detect neuromelanin-related contrast (NRC), was applied to quantitative estimation of signal alterations in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of 72 normal volunteers and 59 patients with Parkinson disease (PD). We examined relationship between NRC in SNc and clinical parameters. The NRC showed significant positive correlation with normal aging and was slightly but significantly higher in women than in men. Significant reduction in the NRC was found in PD as compared with 59 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers. The NRC in PD was negatively and significantly correlated with duration of illness and disease severity assessed by unified Parkinoson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn and Yahr stage. Significant reduction of the NRC was demonstrated in patients with visual hallucinations as compare with patients without the symptoms. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder also contributed reduction of NRC although it did more mildly than visual hallucination. Anosmia or hyposmia had no statistical relationship with the amount of NRC in PD. The overall visual inspection indicated that the reduction of the NRC in PD should start at the ventrolateral portion of SNc and advance medially. Additionally, we studied dementia with Lewy body disease (DLB). The NRC was reduced more significantly in DLB patients with PD symptoms than in those without them who also showed a significant reduction compared with normal controls. Quantification and distribution of the NRC obtained by 3T MRI was well correlated with pathological findings reported previously and clinical parameters in this study. Visualization and quantification of the NRC provide some parts of clinical and diagnostic information about pathologic condition of SNc. (author)

  20. Gastric dysregulation induced by microinjection of 6-OHDA in the substantia nigra pars compacta of rats is determined by alterations in the brain-gut axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toti, Luca; Travagli, R Alberto

    2014-11-15

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a late-onset, chronic, and progressive motor dysfunction attributable to loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Patients with PD experience significant gastrointestinal (GI) issues, including gastroparesis. We aimed to evaluate whether 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA)-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) induces gastric dysmotility via dysfunctions of the brain-gut axis. 6-OHDA microinjection into the SNpc induced a >90% decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity (IR) on the injection site. The [13C]-octanoic acid breath test showed a delayed gastric emptying 4 wk after the 6-OHDA treatment. In control rats, microinjection of the indirect sympathomimetic, tyramine, in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) decreased gastric tone and motility; this inhibition was prevented by the fourth ventricular application of either a combination of α1- and α2- or a combination of D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. Conversely, in 6-OHDA-treated rats, whereas DVC microinjection of tyramine had reduced effects on gastric tone or motility, DVC microinjection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone induced a similar increase in motility as in control rats. In 6-OHDA-treated rats, there was a decreased expression of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT)-IR and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-IR in DVC neurons but an increase in dopamine-β-hydroxylase-IR in the A2 area. Within the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum, there were no changes in the total number of neurons; however, the percentage of NOS-IR neurons increased, whereas that of ChAT-IR decreased. Our data suggest that the delayed gastric emptying in a 6-OHDA rat model of PD may be caused by neurochemical and neurophysiological alterations in the brain-gut axis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Pool size ratio of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease derived from two different quantitative magnetization transfer approaches

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    Trujillo, Paula [Department of Neuroradiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, MI (Italy); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Nashville, TN (United States); Summers, Paul E.; Costa, Antonella [Department of Neuroradiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, MI (Italy); Smith, Alex K. [University of Oxford, Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Oxford (United Kingdom); Smith, Seth A. [Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Mainardi, Luca T.; Cerutti, Sergio [Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, MI (Italy); Claassen, Daniel O. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2017-12-15

    We sought to measure quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) properties of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls (HCs) using a full qMT analysis and determine whether a rapid single-point measurement yields equivalent results for pool size ratio (PSR). Sixteen different MT-prepared MRI scans were obtained at 3 T from 16 PD patients and eight HCs, along with B1, B0, and relaxation time maps. Maps of PSR, free and macromolecular pool transverse relaxation times (T{sub 2}{sup f}, T{sub 2}{sup m}) and rate of MT exchange between pools (k{sub mf}) were generated using a full qMT model. PSR maps were also generated using a single-point qMT model requiring just two MT-prepared images. qMT parameter values of the SNc, red nucleus, cerebral crus, and gray matter were compared between groups and methods. PSR of the SNc was the only qMT parameter to differ significantly between groups (p < 0.05). PSR measured via single-point analysis was less variable than with the full MT model, provided slightly better differentiation of PD patients from HCs (area under curve 0.77 vs. 0.75) with sensitivity of 0.75 and specificity of 0.87, and was better than transverse relaxation time in distinguishing PD patients from HCs (area under curve 0.71, sensitivity 0.87, and specificity 0.50). The increased PSR observed in the SNc of PD patients may provide a novel biomarker of PD, possibly associated with an increased macromolecular content. Single-point PSR mapping with reduced variability and shorter scan times relative to the full qMT model appears clinically feasible. (orig.)

  2. Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata

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    Aceves, J.; Young, J.M.; Arias-Montano, J.A.; Floran, B.; Garcia, M.

    1997-01-01

    The release of [ 3 H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K + from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 μM sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 μM SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D 1 receptor activation. The histamine H 3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 μM) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 μM) inhibited [ 3 H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H 3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 μM). However, in the presence of 1 μM SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [ 3 H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 μM immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [ 3 H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 μM SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 μM) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [ 3 H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H 3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [ 3 H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D 1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [ 3 H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. THE EFFECT OF BETA GLUCAN OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISAE ON THE INCREASE OF THE NUMBER OF BRAIN CELLS IN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA BRAIN OF PARKINSON’S WISTAR STRAIN RAT (RATTUS NORVEGICUS MODEL INDUCED WITH ROTENONE

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    Masruroh Rahayu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ackground and aims. One of many neurodegenerative diseases afflicting the elderly is Parkinson. Beta glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisae is very potential to be used as a regenerative therapy of Parkinson's disease. Beta glucan can increase the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from the bone marrow into the damaged tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs which have been mobilized can regenerate and differentiate into brain cells so that the symptoms of Parkinson would be reduced. This research aims to find out the effects of the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae toward the number of brain cells in substantia nigra Parkinson’s rat model. Method. The research was experimental in vivo using the draft of randomized post test only controlled group design. There were five groups that become the sample in this research with 5 rats for each group, i.e. negative control group, positive control group, Treatment Group 1, 2 and 3 (Rotenone + Saccharomyces cerevisae 18 mg/kgBB, 36 mg/kgBB, 72 mg/kgBBfor 4 weeks. Variable measured in this study was the number of brain cells in substantia nigra. The results of this study showed that Treatment Group 3 (72 mg/kgBB was a group with the largest number of brain cells than the other treatment groups. Statistical data obtained showed that the average number of brain cells in negative control group was 192.00 cells; positive control amounted to 116.80 cells; Treatment 1 amounted to 135.40 cells; Treatment 2 amounted to 140.80 cells; and Treatment 3 amounted to 161.80 cells. Result. The result of ANOVA test showed a significant difference between groups (p< 0.05, while the correlation test result indicated a strong correlation between the dose of Saccharomyces cerevisae and the number of substantia nigra of rat’s brain cells (r = 0,818. Conclusion. From this research, it can be concluded that the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae with a dose of 18mg/kgBB, 36mg/kgBBdan 72 mg/kgBB is able to increase

  4. Hypoxic-ischemic injury decreases anxiety-like behavior in rats when associated with loss of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons of the substantia nigra

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    Hei, Ming-Yan; Luo, Ya-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Hong; Gao, Ru; Wu, Jing-Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, mild hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and severe HI groups (N = 10 in each group at each time) on postnatal day 7 (P7) to study the effect of mild and severe HI on anxiety-like behavior and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra (SN). The mild and severe HI groups were exposed to hypoxia (8% O 2 /92% N 2 ) for 90 and 150 min, respectively. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) test was performed to assess anxiety-like behavior by measuring time spent in the open arms (OAT) and OAT%, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of TH in the SN at P14, P21, and P28. OAT and OAT% in the EPM were significantly increased in both the mild (1.88-, 1.99-, and 2.04-fold, and 1.94-, 1.51-, and 1.46-fold) and severe HI groups (1.69-, 1.68-, and 1.87-fold, and 1.83-, 1.43-, and 1.39-fold, respectively; P < 0.05). The percent of TH-positive cells occupying the SN area was significantly and similarly decreased in both the mild (17.7, 40.2, and 47.2%) and severe HI groups (16.3, 32.2, and 43.8%, respectively; P < 0.05). The decrease in the number of TH-positive cells in the SN and the level of protein expression were closely associated (Pearson correlation analysis: r = 0.991, P = 0.000 in the mild HI group and r = 0.974, P = 0.000 in the severe HI group) with the impaired anxiety-like behaviors. We conclude that neonatal HI results in decreased anxiety-like behavior during the juvenile period of Sprague-Dawley rats, which is associated with the decreased activity of TH in the SN. The impairment of anxiety and the expression of TH are not likely to be dependent on the severity of HI

  5. Hypoxic-ischemic injury decreases anxiety-like behavior in rats when associated with loss of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons of the substantia nigra

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    Hei Ming-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, mild hypoxia-ischemia (HI, and severe HI groups (N = 10 in each group at each time on postnatal day 7 (P7 to study the effect of mild and severe HI on anxiety-like behavior and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the substantia nigra (SN. The mild and severe HI groups were exposed to hypoxia (8% O2/92% N2 for 90 and 150 min, respectively. The elevated plus-maze (EPM test was performed to assess anxiety-like behavior by measuring time spent in the open arms (OAT and OAT%, and immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of TH in the SN at P14, P21, and P28. OAT and OAT% in the EPM were significantly increased in both the mild (1.88-, 1.99-, and 2.04-fold, and 1.94-, 1.51-, and 1.46-fold and severe HI groups (1.69-, 1.68-, and 1.87-fold, and 1.83-, 1.43-, and 1.39-fold, respectively; P < 0.05. The percent of TH-positive cells occupying the SN area was significantly and similarly decreased in both the mild (17.7, 40.2, and 47.2% and severe HI groups (16.3, 32.2, and 43.8%, respectively; P < 0.05. The decrease in the number of TH-positive cells in the SN and the level of protein expression were closely associated (Pearson correlation analysis: r = 0.991, P = 0.000 in the mild HI group and r = 0.974, P = 0.000 in the severe HI group with the impaired anxiety-like behaviors. We conclude that neonatal HI results in decreased anxiety-like behavior during the juvenile period of Sprague-Dawley rats, which is associated with the decreased activity of TH in the SN. The impairment of anxiety and the expression of TH are not likely to be dependent on the severity of HI.

  6. Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated G-protein activation in rat striatum: functional autoradiography and influence of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra.

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    Newman-Tancredi, A; Cussac, D; Brocco, M; Rivet, J M; Chaput, C; Touzard, M; Pasteau, V; Millan, M J

    2001-11-30

    Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC) neurons in rats induce behavioural hypersensitivity to dopaminergic agonists. However, the role of specific dopamine receptors is unclear, and potential alterations in their transduction mechanisms remain to be evaluated. The present study addressed these issues employing the dopaminergic agonist, quinelorane, which efficaciously stimulated G-protein activation (as assessed by [35S]GTPgammaS binding) at cloned hD2 (and hD3) receptors. At rat striatal membranes, dopamine stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding by 1.9-fold over basal, but its actions were only partially reversed by the selective D2/D3 receptor antagonist, raclopride, indicating the involvement of other receptor subtypes. In contrast, quinelorane-induced stimulation (48% of the effect of dopamine) was abolished by raclopride, and by the D2 receptor antagonist, L741,626. Further, novel antagonists selective for D3 and D4 receptors, S33084 and S18126, respectively, blocked the actions of quinelorane at concentrations corresponding to their affinities for D2 receptors. Quinelorane potently induced contralateral rotation in unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, an effect abolished by raclopride and L741,626, but not by D3 and D4 receptor-selective doses of S33084 and S18126, respectively. In functional ([35S]GTPgammaS) autoradiography experiments, quinelorane stimulated G-protein activation in caudate putamen and, to a lesser extent, in nucleus accumbens and cingulate cortex of naive rats. In unilaterally SNPC-lesioned rats, quinelorane-induced G-protein activation in the caudate putamen on the non-lesioned side was similar to that seen in naive animals (approximately 50% stimulation), but significantly greater on the lesioned side (approximately 80%). This increase was both pharmacologically and regionally specific since it was reversed by raclopride, and was not observed in nucleus accumbens or cingulate cortex. In conclusion

  7. Brain monoamine oxidase B and A in human parkinsonian dopamine deficiency disorders.

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    Tong, Junchao; Rathitharan, Gausiha; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Guttman, Mark; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Kish, Stephen J

    2017-09-01

    See Jellinger (doi:10.1093/awx190) for a scientific commentary on this article. The enzyme monoamine oxidases (B and A subtypes, encoded by MAOB and MAOA, respectively) are drug targets in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Inhibitors of MAOB are used clinically in Parkinson's disease for symptomatic purposes whereas the potential disease-modifying effect of monoamine oxidase inhibitors is debated. As astroglial cells express high levels of MAOB, the enzyme has been proposed as a brain imaging marker of astrogliosis, a cellular process possibly involved in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis as elevation of MAOB in astrocytes might be harmful. Since brain monoamine oxidase status in Parkinson's disease is uncertain, our objective was to measure, by quantitative immunoblotting in autopsied brain homogenates, protein levels of both monoamine oxidases in three different degenerative parkinsonian disorders: Parkinson's disease (n = 11), multiple system atrophy (n = 11), and progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 16) and in matched controls (n = 16). We hypothesized that if MAOB is 'substantially' localized to astroglial cells, MAOB levels should be generally associated with standard astroglial protein measures (e.g. glial fibrillary acidic protein). MAOB levels were increased in degenerating putamen (+83%) and substantia nigra (+10%, non-significant) in multiple system atrophy; in caudate (+26%), putamen (+27%), frontal cortex (+31%) and substantia nigra (+23%) of progressive supranuclear palsy; and in frontal cortex (+33%), but not in substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease, a region we previously reported no increase in astrocyte protein markers. Although the magnitude of MAOB increase was less than those of standard astrocytic markers, significant positive correlations were observed amongst the astrocyte proteins and MAOB. Despite suggestions that MAOA (versus MAOB) is primarily responsible for metabolism of dopamine in dopamine neurons, there was no loss of the

  8. Topographic and functional neuroanatomical study of GABAergic disinhibitory striatum-nigral inputs and inhibitory nigrocollicular pathways: neural hodology recruiting the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, for the modulation of the neural activity in the inferior colliculus involved with panic-like emotions.

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    Castellan-Baldan, Lissandra; da Costa Kawasaki, Mateus; Ribeiro, Sandro José; Calvo, Fabrício; Corrêa, Vani Maria Alves; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2006-08-01

    Considering the influence of the substantia nigra on mesencephalic neurons involved with fear-induced reactions organized in rostral aspects of the dorsal midbrain, the present work investigated the topographical and functional neuroanatomy of similar influence on caudal division of the corpora quadrigemina, addressing: (a) the neural hodology connecting the neostriatum, the substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray matter and inferior colliculus (IC) neural networks; (b) the influence of the inhibitory neostriatonigral-nigrocollicular GABAergic links on the control of the defensive behavior organized in the IC. The effects of the increase or decrease of activity of nigrocollicular inputs on defensive responses elicited by either electrical or chemical stimulation of the IC were also determined. Electrolytic or chemical lesions of the substantia nigra, pars reticulata (SNpr), decreased the freezing and escape behaviors thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC, and increased the behavioral responses evoked by the GABAA blockade in the same sites of the mesencephalic tectum (MT) electrically stimulated. These findings were corroborated by similar effects caused by microinjections of the GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol in the SNpr, followed by electrical and chemical stimulations of the IC. The GABAA blockade in the SNpr caused a significant increase in the defensive behavior thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of the IC and a decrease in the mean incidence of panic-like responses induced by microinjections of bicuculline in the mesencephalic tectum (inferior colliculus). These findings suggest that the substantia nigra receives GABAergic inputs that modulate local and also inhibitory GABAergic outputs toward the IC. In fact, neurotracing experiments with fast blue and iontophoretic microinjections of biotinylated dextran amine either into the inferior colliculus or in the reticular division of the substantia nigra demonstrated a neural link

  9. Mucuna pruriens seed extract reduces oxidative stress in nigrostriatal tissue and improves neurobehavioral activity in paraquat-induced Parkinsonian mouse model.

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    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2013-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease which causes rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. Treatment for this disease is still under investigation. Mucuna pruriens (L.), is a traditional herbal medicine, used in India since 1500 B.C., as a neuroprotective agent. In this present study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of aqueous extract of M. pruriens (Mp) seed in Parkinsonian mouse model developed by chronic exposure to paraquat (PQ). Results of our study revealed that the nigrostriatal portion of Parkinsonian mouse brain showed significantly increased levels of nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced levels of catalase compared to the control. In the Parkinsonian mice hanging time was decreased, whereas narrow beam walk time and foot printing errors were increased. Treatment with aqueous seed extract of Mp significantly increased the catalase activity and decreased the MDA and nitrite level, compared to untreated Parkinsonian mouse brain. Mp treatment also improved the behavioral abnormalities. It increased hanging time, whereas it decreased narrow beam walk time and foot printing error compared to untreated Parkinsonian mouse brain. Furthermore, we observed a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum region of the brain, after treatment with PQ which was considerably restored by the use of Mp seed extract. Our result suggested that Mp seed extract treatment significantly reduced the PQ induced neurotoxicity as evident by decrease in oxidative damage, physiological abnormalities and immunohistochemical changes in the Parkinsonian mouse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation restores altered electrophysiological properties of cortical neurons in parkinsonian rat.

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    Bertrand Degos

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological recordings performed in parkinsonian patients and animal models have confirmed the occurrence of alterations in firing rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons, but the outcome of these changes in thalamo-cortical networks remains unclear. Using rats rendered parkinsonian, we investigated, at a cellular level in vivo, the electrophysiological changes induced in the pyramidal cells of the motor cortex by the dopaminergic transmission interruption and further characterized the impact of high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a procedure alleviating parkinsonian symptoms. We provided evidence that a lesion restricted to the substantia nigra pars compacta resulted in a marked increase in the mean firing rate and bursting pattern of pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex. These alterations were underlain by changes of the electrical membranes properties of pyramidal cells including depolarized resting membrane potential and increased input resistance. The modifications induced by the dopaminergic loss were more pronounced in cortico-striatal than in cortico-subthalamic neurons. Furthermore, subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation applied at parameters alleviating parkinsonian signs regularized the firing pattern of pyramidal cells and restored their electrical membrane properties.

  11. A comparison of substantia nigra T1 hyperintensity in Parkinson's disease dementia, Alzheimer's disease and age-matched controls: Volumetric analysis of neuromelanin imaging

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    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Ju Yeon; Yun, Won Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Ki Chang; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases.

  12. Urocortin, a CRF-like peptide, restores key indicators of damage in the substantia nigra in a neuroinflammatory model of Parkinson's disease

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    Biggs Christopher S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have recently observed that the corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRF related peptide urocortin (UCN reverses key features of nigrostriatal damage in the hemiparkinsonian 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat. Here we have studied whether similar effects are also evident in the lipopolysaccaride (LPS neuroinflammatory paradigm of Parkinson's disease (PD. To do this we have measured restoration of normal motor behaviour, retention of nigral dopamine (DA and also tyrosine hydroxylase (TH activity. Fourteen days following intranigral injections of LPS and UCN, rats showed only modest circling after DA receptor stimulation with apomorphine, in contrast to those given LPS and vehicle where circling was pronounced. In separate experiments, rats received UCN seven days following LPS, and here apomorphine challenge caused near identical circling intensity to those that received LPS and UCN concomitantly. In a similar and consistent manner with the preservation of motor function, UCN 'protected' the nigra from both DA depletion and loss of TH activity, indicating preservation of DA cells. The effects of UCN were antagonised by the non-selective CRF receptor antagonist α-helical CRF and were not replicated by the selective CRF2 ligand UCN III. This suggests that UCN is acting via CRF1 receptors, which have been shown to be anti-inflammatory in the periphery. Our data therefore indicate that UCN is capable of maintaining adequate nigrostriatal function in vivo, via CRF1 receptors following a neuro-inflammatory challenge. This has potential therapeutic implications in PD.

  13. Panicolytic-like effects caused by substantia nigra pars reticulata pretreatment with low doses of endomorphin-1 and high doses of CTOP or the NOP receptors antagonist JTC-801 in male Rattus norvegicus.

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    da Silva, Juliana Almeida; Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; Almada, Rafael Carvalho; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2017-10-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) are connected to the deep layers of the superior colliculus (dlSC). The dlSC, in turn, connect with the SNpr through opioid projections. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (N/OFQ) is a natural ligand of a Gi protein-coupled nociceptin receptor (ORL1; NOP) that is also found in the SNpr. Our hypothesis is that tectonigral opioid pathways and intranigral orphanin-mediated mechanisms modulate GABAergic nigrotectal connections. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the role of opioid and NOP receptors in the SNpr during the modulation of defence reactions organised by the dlSC. The SNpr was pretreated with either opioid or NOP receptor agonists and antagonists, followed by dlSC treatment with bicuculline. Blockade of GABA A receptors in the dlSC elicited fear-related defensive behaviour. Pretreatment of the SNpr with naloxone benzoylhydrazone (NalBzoH), a μ-, δ-, and κ 1 -opioid receptor antagonist as well as a NOP receptor antagonist, decreased the aversive effect of bicuculline treatment on the dlSC. Either μ-opioid receptor activation or blockade by SNpr microinjection of endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and CTOP promoted pro-aversive and anti-aversive actions, respectively, that modulated the defensive responses elicited by bicuculline injection into the dlSC. Pretreatment of the SNpr with the selective NOP receptor antagonist JTC801 decreased the aversive effect of bicuculline, and microinjections of the selective NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 promoted the opposite effect. These results demonstrate that opioid pathways and orphanin-mediated mechanisms have a critical role in modulating the activity of nigrotectal GABAergic pathways during the organisation of defensive behaviours.

  14. Brain MR Contribution to the Differential Diagnosis of Parkinsonian Syndromes: An Update

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    Giovanni Rizzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance (MR represents a useful and feasible tool for the differential diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Conventional MR may reveal secondary forms of parkinsonism and may show peculiar brain alterations of atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Furthermore, advanced MR techniques, such as morphometric-volumetric analyses, diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, tractography, proton MR spectroscopy, and iron-content sensitive imaging, have been used to obtain quantitative parameters useful to increase the diagnostic accuracy. Currently, many MR studies have provided both qualitative and quantitative findings, reflecting the underlying neuropathological pattern of the different degenerative parkinsonian syndromes. Although the variability in the methods and results across the studies limits the conclusion about which technique is the best, specific radiologic phenotypes may be identified. Qualitative/quantitative MR changes in the substantia nigra do not discriminate between different parkinsonisms. In the absence of extranigral abnormalities, the diagnosis of PD is more probable, whereas basal ganglia changes (mainly in the putamen suggest the diagnosis of an atypical parkinsonian syndrome. In this context, changes in pons, middle cerebellar peduncles, and cerebellum suggest the diagnosis of MSA, in midbrain and superior cerebellar peduncles the diagnosis of PSP, and in whole cerebral hemispheres (mainly in frontoparietal cortex with asymmetric distribution the diagnosis of Corticobasal Syndrome.

  15. Sex and laterality differences in parkinsonian impairment and transcranial ultrasound in never-treated schizophrenics and their first degree relatives in an Andean population.

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    Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Florenzano, Néstor; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Molina, Juan; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2015-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of substantia nigra neurons in subjects at risk of schizophrenia (1), as reflected by midbrain hyperechogenicity (2) and parkinsonian motor impairment (3), is asymmetric and influenced by sex. We evaluated 62 subjects with never-treated chronic schizophrenia, 80 of their adult, unaffected first degree relatives and 62 healthy controls (matched by sex and age to the cases), part of an Andean population of Northern Argentina. Parkinsonism was scored blindly using UPDRS-3 (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) on videotaped exams by 2 independent raters. Transcranial ultrasound was performed by an expert sonographist blind to subject condition with a 2.5 MHz transducer through a temporal bone window. Quantification of echogenic area was carried out on saved images by a different evaluator. We found a significant difference in parkinsonian motor impairment between patients, their relatives as well as controls. All three groups showed worse parkinsonism on the left side than the right, corresponding with increased echogenicity on the right substantia nigra compared with the left. Females had significantly more right echogenicity than males, and patients and unaffected relatives were significantly more echogenic than controls on that side. On the left, only female patients had significant echogenicity. Our data supports the notion that unaffected relatives of schizophrenic subjects have increased parkinsonism and concomitant brainstem abnormalities which may represent a vulnerability to the disease. Both motor and brainstem abnormalities are asymmetric and influenced by sex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rethinking Energy in Parkinsonian Motor Symptoms: A Potential Role for Neural Metabolic Deficits

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    Shinichi eAmano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized as a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in a variety of debilitating symptoms, including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. Research spanning several decades has emphasized basal ganglia dysfunction, predominantly resulting from dopaminergic cell loss, as the primarily cause of the aforementioned parkinsonian features. But, why those particular features manifest themselves remains an enigma. The goal of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework that parkinsonian motor features are behavioral consequence of a long-term adaptation to their inability (inflexibility or lack of capacity to meet energetic demands, due to neural metabolic deficits arising from mitochondrial dysfunction associated with PD. Here, we discuss neurophysiological changes that are generally associated with PD, such as selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, in conjunction with metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction. We then characterize the cardinal motor symptoms of PD, bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and gait disturbance, reviewing literature to demonstrate how these motor patterns are actually energy efficient from a metabolic perspective. We will also develop three testable hypotheses: (1 neural metabolic deficits precede the increased rate of neurodegeneration and onset of behavioral symptoms in PD, (2 motor behavior of persons with PD are more sensitive to changes in metabolic/bioenergetic state, and (3 improvement of metabolic function could lead to better motor performance in persons with PD. These hypotheses are designed to introduce a novel viewpoint that can elucidate the connections between metabolic, neural and motor function in PD.

  17. Trace element mapping in Parkinsonian brain by quantitative ion beam microscopy

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    Barapatre, Nirav; Morawski, Markus; Butz, Tilman; Reinert, Tilo

    2010-06-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) is a current subject of research in Neurochemistry, since an abnormal increase in iron is reported in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinsonian patients. A severe loss of the cells containing dopamine in the SN in the PD has also drawn attention towards the function of a browny-black pigment called neuromelanin, which accumulates predominantly in these dopaminergic neurons. The neuromelanin has an ability to chelate metal ions, which, in free state, may cause considerable damage to cells by reacting with their lipid-rich membranes. However, it could also potentiate free radical production if it releases the bound metal ions. The highly sensitive and non-destructive micro-PIXE method suits best to quantify and map the trace elements in the SN. The accuracy in charge measurement for such microanalysis studies is of utmost importance for quantitative analysis. Since a Faraday cup is usually placed behind the thin biological sample to measure the charge, the primary and the secondary electrons, knocked out from the sample by traversing ion beam, hamper an exact charge determination. Hence, a new non-interceptive technique was developed for precise charge measurement and for continuous monitoring of beam current.

  18. Trace element mapping in Parkinsonian brain by quantitative ion beam microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barapatre, Nirav; Morawski, Markus; Butz, Tilman; Reinert, Tilo

    2010-01-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) is a current subject of research in Neurochemistry, since an abnormal increase in iron is reported in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinsonian patients. A severe loss of the cells containing dopamine in the SN in the PD has also drawn attention towards the function of a browny-black pigment called neuromelanin, which accumulates predominantly in these dopaminergic neurons. The neuromelanin has an ability to chelate metal ions, which, in free state, may cause considerable damage to cells by reacting with their lipid-rich membranes. However, it could also potentiate free radical production if it releases the bound metal ions. The highly sensitive and non-destructive micro-PIXE method suits best to quantify and map the trace elements in the SN. The accuracy in charge measurement for such microanalysis studies is of utmost importance for quantitative analysis. Since a Faraday cup is usually placed behind the thin biological sample to measure the charge, the primary and the secondary electrons, knocked out from the sample by traversing ion beam, hamper an exact charge determination. Hence, a new non-interceptive technique was developed for precise charge measurement and for continuous monitoring of beam current.

  19. Trace element mapping in Parkinsonian brain by quantitative ion beam microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barapatre, Nirav, E-mail: barapatre@physik.uni-leipzig.d [Nukleare Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Morawski, Markus [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnalle 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, Tilman; Reinert, Tilo [Nukleare Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) is a current subject of research in Neurochemistry, since an abnormal increase in iron is reported in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinsonian patients. A severe loss of the cells containing dopamine in the SN in the PD has also drawn attention towards the function of a browny-black pigment called neuromelanin, which accumulates predominantly in these dopaminergic neurons. The neuromelanin has an ability to chelate metal ions, which, in free state, may cause considerable damage to cells by reacting with their lipid-rich membranes. However, it could also potentiate free radical production if it releases the bound metal ions. The highly sensitive and non-destructive micro-PIXE method suits best to quantify and map the trace elements in the SN. The accuracy in charge measurement for such microanalysis studies is of utmost importance for quantitative analysis. Since a Faraday cup is usually placed behind the thin biological sample to measure the charge, the primary and the secondary electrons, knocked out from the sample by traversing ion beam, hamper an exact charge determination. Hence, a new non-interceptive technique was developed for precise charge measurement and for continuous monitoring of beam current.

  20. Improvement of spatial memory of male parkinsonian rats after treatment with adipose stem cells and rosemary leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Ramezanihossienabadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the neuroprotective effect of rosemary extract, this study aimed at examining the effect of co-treatment of adipose stem cells transplantation and the extract on memory disability of parkinsonian rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male parkinsonian rats were prepared by bilateral injection of 6-OHDA. The sham group was injected normal saline into the substantia nigra. The extract+medium group was gavaged with the extract 14 days before until 8 weeks after the injury, and the medium was intravenously injected. The extract+cell group was orally gavaged with the extract and the cells were injected. Morris water maze training was conducted one week before and after the lesion and also a retrieval test was performed 4 and 8 weeks after the lesion. Results: There was no significant difference in distance moved and escape latency at training days, before the injury, between the groups. However, a week after the injury, learning ability in lesioned animals was significantly decreased as compared to the sham group (P<0.05. Results of retention tests in four and eight weeks were similar. Duration of escape latency and time spent in target quadrant of lesioned rats were significantly increased and decreased respectively as compared to the sham (P<0.05. The extract+medium and extract+cell groups showed significant decrease and increase in escape latency and time spent in target quadrant as compared to the lesioned group (P<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The cell therapy accompanied with orally administration of the rosemary extract can improve memory deficit in Parkinson’s disease.

  1. Imaging biomarkers in Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonian syndromes: current and emerging concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Usman; Compagnone, Jordana; Aviv, Richard I; Strafella, Antonio P; Black, Sandra E; Lang, Anthony E; Masellis, Mario

    2017-01-01

    transporters and postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors), and cerebral perfusion, 5) positron emission tomography for gauging nigrostriatal functions, glucose metabolism, amyloid and tau molecular imaging, as well as neuroinflammation, 6) myocardial scintigraphy for dysautonomia, and 7) transcranial sonography for measuring substantia nigra and lentiform nucleus echogenicity. Imaging biomarkers, using the 'multimodal approach', may aid in making early, accurate and objective diagnostic decisions, highlight neuroanatomical and pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as assist in evaluating disease progression and therapeutic responses to drugs in clinical trials.

  2. The role of high-field magnetic resonance imaging in parkinsonian disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehericy, Stéphane; Vaillancourt, David E.; Seppi, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    changes in the substantia nigra. Quantitative MRI markers can be derived from diffusion weighted and iron-sensitive imaging or volumetry. Functional brain alterations at rest or during task performance have been captured with functional and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. These markers are useful...

  3. Recovery of behavioral symptoms in hemi-parkinsonian rhesus monkeys through combined gene and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Sun, Maosheng; Li, Hongjun; Yan, Min; He, Zhanlong; Wang, Wenju; Wang, Wanpu; Lu, Shuaiyao

    2013-04-01

    The use of adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) in cellular and genic therapy has attracted considerable attention as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease. However, the effects of gene therapy combined with intracerebral cell transplantation have not been well defined. Recent studies have demonstrated the respective roles of LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, alpha (LMX1A) and Neurturin (NTN) in the commitment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to a midbrain dopaminergic neuronal fate and the commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells to cells supporting the nutrition and protection of neurons. We investigated a novel in vitro neuronal differentiation strategy with the use of LMX1A and Neurturin. We were able to elicit a neural phenotype regarding cell morphology, specific gene/protein expression and physiological function. Neuronal-primed ASCs derived from rhesus monkey (rASCs) combined with adenovirus containing NTN and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (Ad-NTN-TH) were implanted into the striatum and substantia nigra of methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned hemi-parkinsonian rhesus monkeys. Monkeys were monitored with the use of behavioral tests and health measures until the fourth month after implantation. The differentiated cells transcribed and expressed a variety of dopaminergic neuron-specific genes involved in the SHH/LMX1A pathway. Single-photon emission computed tomography analysis and postmortem analysis revealed that the grafting of rASCs combined with Ad-NTN-TH had neuroprotective effects compared with Ad-NTN-TH or rASCs alone. Behavioral measures demonstrated autograft survival and symptom amelioration. These findings may lead to cellular sources for autologous transplantation of Parkinson disease. Combined transplantation of Ad-NTN-TH and induced rASCs expressing LMX1A and NTN may be a better therapy candidate for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2013 International Society

  4. Deep brain stimulation of the center median-parafascicular complex of the thalamus has efficient anti-parkinsonian action associated with widespread cellular responses in the basal ganglia network in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouve, Loréline; Salin, Pascal; Melon, Christophe; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia

    2010-07-21

    The thalamic centromedian-parafascicular (CM/Pf) complex, mainly represented by Pf in rodents, is proposed as an interesting target for the neurosurgical treatment of movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease. In this study, we examined the functional impact of subchronic high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of Pf in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned hemiparkinsonian rat model. Pf-HFS had significant anti-akinetic action, evidenced by alleviation of limb use asymmetry (cylinder test). Whereas this anti-akinetic action was moderate, Pf-HFS totally reversed lateralized neglect (corridor task), suggesting potent action on sensorimotor integration. At the cellular level, Pf-HFS partially reversed the dopamine denervation-induced increase in striatal preproenkephalin A mRNA levels, a marker of the neurons of the indirect pathway, without interfering with the markers of the direct pathway (preprotachykinin and preprodynorphin). Pf-HFS totally reversed the lesion-induced changes in the gene expression of cytochrome oxidase subunit I in the subthalamic nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and partially in the entopeduncular nucleus. Unlike HFS of the subthalamic nucleus, Pf-HFS did not induce per se dyskinesias and directly, although partially, alleviated L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced forelimb dyskinesia. Conversely, L-DOPA treatment negatively interfered with the anti-parkinsonian effect of Pf-HFS. Altogether, these data show that Pf-DBS, by recruiting a large basal ganglia circuitry, provides moderate to strong anti-parkinsonian benefits that might, however, be affected by L-DOPA. The widespread behavioral and cellular outcomes of Pf-HFS evidenced here demonstrate that CM/Pf is an important node for modulating the pathophysiological functioning of basal ganglia and related disorders.

  5. The phenomenology of parkinsonian tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschl, Günther; Papengut, Frank; Hellriegel, Helge

    2012-01-01

    The definition of Parkinsonian tremor covers all different forms occurring in Parkinson's disease. The most common form is rest tremor, labelled as typical Parkinsonian tremor. Other variants cover also postural and action tremors. Data support the notion that suppression of rest tremor may be more specific for PD tremors. Several differential diagnoses like rest tremor in ET, dystonic tremor, psychogenic tremor and Holmes' tremor may be misinterpreted as PD-tremor. Tests and clinical clues to separate them are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Substantia innominata: MR findings in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hirobumi; Ehara, Shigeru; Sasaki, Makoto; Abe, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    To elucidate MR imaging changes of the substantia innominata in Parkinson's disease (PD), using a 1.5-T superconductive MR unit, the thickness of the substantia innominata was measured on coronal thin-section images in 44 PD patients and 20 age-matched control subjects. We also evaluated the correlation between the thickness of the substantia innominata and mental status in PD patients. Mean thickness of the substantia innominata was 2.3 mm in PD patients, and 2.5 mm in control subjects. Thinning of the substantia innominata was statistically significant in PD patients compared with control subjects, although there were large overlaps. Among the PD patients, thinning was remarkable in cases with dementia. A positive correlation between thickness of substantia innominata and score of Mini-Mental-Status-Examination was also observed in PD patients. Atrophy of the substantia innominata was demonstrated, especially in PD patients with cognitive impairment, on coronal MR images, and this is compatible with the previous pathological reports. (orig.)

  7. Diagnostic value of combined assessment of olfaction and sustantia nigra hyperechogenicity for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Hernández, N; García Escrivá, A; Shalabi Benavent, M

    2015-10-01

    Hyposmia and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) are characteristic markers of Parkinson's disease (PD), although their diagnostic value in isolation may be limited. We evaluated the combined prevalence of both disorders in patients diagnosed with PD and assessed their diagnostic yield compared to a sample with essential tremor (ET) and another group of healthy subjects. Patients diagnosed with PD and ET and treated in our outpatient clinic were enrolled. Olfaction was assessed using the "Sniffin' Sticks" odour identification test (SS-12) and hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+) was assessed by transcranial duplex ultrasound. A total of 98 subjects were analysed, comprising 30 with PD, 21 with ET, and 47 controls. The respective prevalence rates of hyposmia (SS-12 .24cm(2)) were 70% and 83.3% in PD, 33.3% and 9.5% in ET, and 17% and 10.6% in controls. Both markers were present in 63% of patients with PD, none of the patients with ET, and only 2 of the controls. Combined use of substantia nigra sonography and olfactory testing with SS-12, two rapid, safe, and accessible tests, was more specific than each isolated marker for distinguishing patients with PD from patients with ET and control subjects. Since both markers have been described in very early phases of PD, combined use may be helpful in providing early diagnosis of PD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing bradykinesia in Parkinsonian disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian ePal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bradykinesia is one of the clinical hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease (PD and atypical Parkinsonian syndromes. Clinical ratings scales and technology based assessments have been developed to measure bradykinesia. We review the different tools that exist for measurement of bradykinesia and analyze their reliability and applicability to PD and atypical Parkinsonian syndromes.Methods: We summarize data on the factor structure of the two primary scales used to assess PD, the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and Movement Disorder Society revision of the UPDRS, the MDS-UPDRS. We review how these scales have been used in atypical Parkinsonian syndromes, specifically Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP. Finally, we report on the different technology based tools being used to assess bradykinesia. Results: The UPDRS is a useful measure of PD function and disability with 6 clinically distinct factors, 3 of which pertain to bradykinesia. The MDS-UPDRS has shown high internal consistency and correlation with the original UPDRS. Factor analysis of the UPDRS in PSP reveals 5 clinically distinct factors, 2 of which are independent bradykinesia factors. Thus the UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS are reliable and applicable scales for PD and the UPDRS can be used to assess bradykinesia in PSP. Technology based tools for measuring bradykinesia include gyrosensors, Coordination Ability Test System, Brain Test, quantitative digitography, Motus motion analysis system, PRIMAS, and the At-Home Testing Device. These tools have been compared to the UPDRS motor subscale and are effective in assessing bradykinesia.Conclusion: The UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS are well-established measures of bradykinesia that are applicable and useful in PD. The UPDRS is also been shown to be applicable to PSP. Different technologies exist to measure bradykinesia, though further work is needed to validate these assessment tools and bring them to clinical practice.

  9. Calcium Homeostatasis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Dopaminergic Neurons of the Substantia Nigra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC) [18]; this deficit is specific to PD patients [19] and seems to reflect oxidative damage to complex I...to drive pacemaking, SNc DA neurons also engage ion channels that enable Ca2+ to enter the cyto- plasm [36–38], leading to elevated intracellular Ca2...shown schematically are elements of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that produces reducing equivalents for the electron transport chain; complexes I

  10. Motor Asymmetry and Substantia Nigra Volume Are Related to Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Erin R.; Black, Kevin J.; Antenor-Dorsey, Jo Ann V.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Hershey, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Studies suggest motor deficit asymmetry may help predict the pattern of cognitive impairment in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). We tested this hypothesis using a highly validated and sensitive spatial memory task, spatial delayed response (SDR), and clinical and neuroimaging measures of PD asymmetry. We predicted SDR performance would be…

  11. Supersensitivity of GABAergic systems induced within rat substantia nigra and globus pallidus by haloperidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, J.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The supersensitivity was demonstrated by an increase in the responsiveness of individual neurons within these brain regions to microiontophoretically-applied GABA and by an up regulation of GABA binding sites. Rates received haloperidol for 30 days in their feed and were then withdrawn from treatment for 48 hrs. 3 H-GABA binding was found to be significantly elevated with the SN R (55%) and GP (42%). Scatchard analysis of 3 H-muscimol binding isotherms indicated that the number (B max ) of high affinity binding sites within the GP was significantly increased (32%); within the SN R , significant increases were detected in the B max of both high (23%) and low (58%) affinity 3 H-muscimol binding sites. After CHAL treatment, signs of dopaminergic supersensitivity within the basal ganglia were also observed. Spontaneous locomotor activity and apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior were increased and specific 3 H-spiroperidol binding was elevated within the striatum (60%) and GP (236%)

  12. Fast Na+ spike generation in dendrites of guinea-pig substantia nigra pars compacta neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, S; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær

    1996-01-01

    were not inhibited in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists or during Ca2+ channel blockade. Blockers of gap junctional conductance (sodium propionate, octanol and halothane) did not affect the field-induced spikes. The spike generation was highly sensitive to changes in membrane conductance...

  13. Age and Parkinson's disease-related neuronal death in the substantia nigra pars compacta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Nina; Stark, Anette Kirstine; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2009-01-01

    During aging, decline in memory and cognitive abilities as well as motor weakening is of great concern. The dopaminergic system mediates some aspects of manual dexterity, in addition to cognition and emotion, and may be especially vulnerable to aging. A common neurodegenerative disorder of this s......During aging, decline in memory and cognitive abilities as well as motor weakening is of great concern. The dopaminergic system mediates some aspects of manual dexterity, in addition to cognition and emotion, and may be especially vulnerable to aging. A common neurodegenerative disorder...

  14. Pneumophonic Coordination Impairments in Parkinsonian Dysarthria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: Using a dedicated system (EVA2), 24 parkinsonian patients were recorded after withdrawal of Ldopa for at least 12 h (condition called OFF DOPA) in order to evaluate intra-oral pressure (IOP), mean oral air flow (MOAF) and laryngeal resistance (LR) on six /p/ during realization of the sentence ''Papa ...

  15. Protective Effects of Water Extract of Morus Nigra L. on 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Parkinson’s Disease in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Ziai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although the etiology of PD is unknown, but major biochemical processes such as oxidative stress is largely described. Angiotensin II activates NADPH depending oxidases and produce superoxides formation. Morus nigra L. extract is an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitor and tested for anti-Parkinsonism effects by biochemical and behavioral evaluations.Materials and Methods: In total 48 Male Wistar rats weighting 200-250 g were divided into 4 groups: (1 Sham (normal saline was injected in the left SNC, (2 Neurotoxin (injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into left SNC, (3 Morus nigra L. aqueous extract and (4 captopril. Morus nigra (10 mg/kg and captopril (5 mg/kg were daily-injected i.p. from 6 days before neurotoxin injection, until one day after 6-hydroxydopamine injection. Muscle stiffness and apomorphine test were assessed in 6 rats of any groups after two weeks. Protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and ACE activity were assessed in brains of 6 rats of each group after 24 hours.Results: Rotation test with apomorphine, Rigidity with Murprogo’s test, and lipid peroxidation in sham, captopril and Morus nigra groups were significantly lower than neurotoxin group. Protein oxidation in Morus nigra group was significantly lower than neurotoxin group. Brain ACE activity in neurotoxin, captopril and Morus nigra groups were inhibited.Conclusion: Morus nigra L. extract had protective effects on neuronal oxidation and death and improved signs of PD possibly by ACE inhibition.

  16. Parkinsonian signs are a risk factor for falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahodwala, Nabila; Nwadiogbu, Chinwe; Fitts, Whitney; Partridge, Helen; Karlawish, Jason

    2017-06-01

    Parkinsonian signs are common, non-specific findings in older adults and associated with increased rates of dementia and mortality. It is important to understand which motor outcomes are associated with parkinsonian signs. To determine the role of parkinsonian signs on fall rates among older adults. We conducted a longitudinal study of primary care patients from the University of Pennsylvania Health System. Adults over 55 years were assessed at baseline through surveys and a neurological examination. We recorded falls over the following 2 years. Parkinsonian signs were defined as the presence of 2 of 4 cardinal signs. Incident falls were compared between subjects with and without parkinsonian signs, and modified Poisson regression used to adjust for potential confounders in the relationship between parkinsonian signs and falls. 982 subjects with a mean age of 68 (s.d. 8.8) years participated. 29% of participants fell and 12% exhibited parkinsonian signs at baseline. The unadjusted RR for falls among individuals with parkinsonian signs was 1.36 (95% CI 1.05-1.76, p=0.02). After adjusting for age, cognitive function, urinary incontinence, depression, diabetes, stroke and arthritis, individuals with parkinsonian signs were still 38% more likely to fall than those without parkinsonian signs (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.04-1.82; p=0.03). Falls among those with parkinsonian signs were more likely to lead to injury (53% vs 37%; p=0.04). Parkinsonian signs are a significant, independent risk factor for falls. Early detection of this clinical state is important in order to implement fall prevention programs among primary care patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Therapeutic cloning in individual parkinsonian mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabar, Viviane; Tomishima, Mark; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Wakayama, Sayaka; Menon, Jayanthi; Chan, Bill; Mizutani, Eiji; Al-Shamy, George; Ohta, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Studer, Lorenz

    2009-01-01

    Cell transplantation with embryonic stem (ES) cell progeny requires immunological compatibility with host tissue. ‘Therapeutic cloning’ is a strategy to overcome this limitation by generating nuclear transfer (nt)ES cells that are genetically matched to an individual. Here we establish the feasibility of treating individual mice via therapeutic cloning. Derivation of 187 ntES cell lines from 24 parkinsonian mice, dopaminergic differentiation, and transplantation into individually matched host mice showed therapeutic efficacy and lack of immunological response. PMID:18376409

  18. Dopamine receptors in the Parkinsonian brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, U K; Loennberg, P; Koskinen, V [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Neurology

    1981-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptors were studied in 44 patients with Parkinson disease by the radioligand-binding technique using /sup 3/H-spiroperidol. The specific binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol was either significantly increased or reduced in the caudate nucleus and putamen of parkinsonian patients without levodopa therapy. Scatchard analysis showed that there were corresponding changes in the receptor number, but no significant changes in the mean dissociation constant. The increased binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol in the basal ganglia was also found in parkinsonian patients suffering from psychotic episodes and treated with neuroleptic drugs. Normal and low binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol was found in patients treated with levodopa. Clinically, the patient with low binding were more disabled and had lost the beneficial response to levodopa. Thus in Parkinson disease in some patients a denervation supersensitivity seemed to develop and in some others a loss of postsynaptic dopamine receptor sites in the neostriatium. The latter alteration may contribute to the decreased response of parkinsonian patients to chronic levodopa therapy.

  19. Dopamine receptors in the Parkinsonian brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, U.K.; Loennberg, P.; Koskinen, V.

    1981-01-01

    Striatal dopamine receptors were studied in 44 patients with Parkinson disease by the radioligand-binding technique using 3 H-spiroperidol. The specific binding of 3 H-spiroperidol was either significantly increased or reduced in the caudate nucleus and putamen of parkinsonian patients without levodopa therapy. Scatchard analysis showed that there were corresponding changes in the receptor number, but no significant changes in the mean dissociation constant. The increased binding of 3 H-spiroperidol in the basal ganglia was also found in parkinsonian patients suffering from psychotic episodes and treated with neuroleptic drugs. Normal and low binding of 3 H-spiroperidol was found in patients treated with levodopa. Clinically, the patient with low binding were more disabled and had lost the beneficial response to levodopa. Thus in Parkinson disease in some patients a denervation supersensitivity seemed to develop and in some others a loss of postsynaptic dopamine receptor sites in the neostriatium. The latter alteration may contribute to the decreased response of parkinsonian patients to chronic levodopa therapy. (author)

  20. Mucuna pruriens reduces inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in Parkinsonian mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2017-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in aged peoples. Plentiful studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for this disease giving special impetus on use of herbal plants. The study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (Mp) on level of nitric oxide (NO) in paraquat (PQ) induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model and its subsequent contribution to lipid peroxidation. Twenty four Swiss albino mice were divided into three groups; Control, PQ and PQ+Mp. PQ doses were given intraperitoneally, twice in a week and oral dose of ethanolic extract of Mp seed was given for 9 weeks. Nitrite content and lipid peroxidation was measured in all treated groups along with respective controls. RNA was isolated from the nigrostriatal tissue of control and the treated mice and was reverse transcribed into cDNA. PCR was performed to amplify iNOS mRNA and western blot analysis was performed to check its protein level. We had also perfused the mice in all treated group and performed Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and iNOS immunoreactivity in substantia nigra region of mice brain. PQ-treatment increased nitrite content, expression of iNOS and lipid peroxidation compared to respective controls. Mp treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of iNOS expression, nitrite content and lipid peroxidation demonstrating that it reduces nitric oxide in PQ-induced Parkinson's disease. Interestingly; we also observed that mRNA, protein expression and immunoreactivity of iNOS was significantly decreased after Mp treatment and TH immunoreactivity was significantly improved after the treatment of Mp. Our results demonstrated that Mp protects the dopaminergic neurons from the NO injury in substantia nigra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of estrogen and levodopa in 1-methyl-4-pheny-l-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (mptp)-induced cognitive deficit in Parkinsonian ovariectomized mice model: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Pandey, Shivani; Singh, Babita

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disease found in the aging population. Currently, many studies are being conducted to find a suitable and effective cure for PD, with an emphasis on the use of herbal plants. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of estrogen was evaluated in the 1-methyl-4-phe-nyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD with cognitive deficit and compared to Levodopa (LD), a well reported neuroprotective agent used for treating PD. Twenty-four Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, MPTP, MPTP+LD and MPTP+estrogen. The behavioral recovery in both LD and estrogen treated mice were investigated using the rotarod, foot printing, narrow beam walking test and hanging tests. Non-motor behavioral recovery in both LD and estrogen treated were investigated using the Y-maze and Morris water maze. Furthermore, we performed the biochemical test i.e. catalase, lipid and nitrite in prefrontal cortex as well as nigrostriatal region of mouse brain. We also performed the acetylcholine esterase activity in prefrontal cortex and nigrostriatal region of mice brain. The recovery of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region was estimated by immunostaining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Estrogen treatment restored all the deficits induced by MPTP more effectively than levodopa. Estrogen treatment recovered the number of TH-positive cells in both the SN region. Treatment with Estrogen significantly increased the levels of catalase, decreased the level of lipid and nitite in both region SN as well as prefrontal cortex region. Notably, the effect of estrogen was greater than that elicited by levodopa. Acetylcholine esterase activity was significantly increased in MPTP and it was found to be decreased by the treatment of estrogen as well as levodopa, although decrease in the activity was highly significant in estrogen treated group. Our result suggested that estrogen treatment significantly

  2. Potential allelochemicals from Sambucus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abrosca, B; DellaGreca, M; Fiorentino, A; Monaco, P; Previtera, L; Simonet, A M; Zarrelli, A

    2001-12-01

    Twenty-four aromatic metabolites belonging to cyanogenins, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic glycosides were obtained from Sambucus nigra. Structures were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic features. Two compounds have been isolated and identified as (2S)-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and benzyl 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2,6-dihydroxybenzoate. All the compounds have been assayed on dicotyledons Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Raphanus sativus (radish) and monocotyledon Allium cepa (onion) to test their stimulatory or inhibitory effects on seed germination and radicle elongation. Cyanogenins have a mainly inhibiting effect while lignans stimulate the growth. Some compounds show different effects on dicotyledons and monocotyledons.

  3. Modulating basal ganglia and cerebellar activity to suppress parkinsonian tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Zhao, Yan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the detailed pathophysiology of the parkinsonian tremor is still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the generation of parkinsonian tremor is related to abnormal activity within the basal ganglia. The cerebello-thalamic-cortical loop has been suggested to indirectly

  4. Cognition In Parkinsonian Syndromes : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sujata

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease is a distinctive progressive disorder characterised clinically by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural imbalance. Although James Parkinson himself denied the presence of intellectual changes in the parkinsonian Disease, thorough exploration has revealed behavioural and cognitive changes to be explicit in the patients. India, along with its demographic shift and its overwhelming population growth, falls a victim to all old-age degenerative diseases. A large percentage of the elderly Indian population today suffers from Parkinsonian and related disorders. Disturbed cognition and neurobehavioral abnormalities are enough reasons for a falling ADL (activities of daily living curve, and consequent distress to families of PD patients. Spontaneous involvement of one and all is required to not only intervene with the right pharmacological therapy, but also to empathize and develop the right attitude towards the affected person. Cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson′s disease is well established and its affection in the early stage has been reported. In this article. We attempt to review and update the various cognitive impairments that occur in all the Parkinson related disorders which necessitates diagnosis, management and rehabilitation to alleviate patients′ suffering. It also reviews the role of frontal lobe, dementia and depression with respect to these patients.

  5. How Parkinsonian Toxins Dysregulate the Autophagy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben K. Dagda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, Parkinsonian toxins (6-hydroxydopamine, MPP+, paraquat, and rotenone have been widely employed as in vivo and in vitro chemical models of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis, protein quality control pathways, and more recently, autophagy/mitophagy have been implicated in neurotoxin models of PD. Here, we highlight the molecular mechanisms by which different PD toxins dysregulate autophagy/mitophagy and how alterations of these pathways play beneficial or detrimental roles in dopamine neurons. The convergent and divergent effects of PD toxins on mitochondrial function and autophagy/mitophagy are also discussed in this review. Furthermore, we propose new diagnostic tools and discuss how pharmacological modulators of autophagy/mitophagy can be developed as disease-modifying treatments for PD. Finally, we discuss the critical need to identify endogenous and synthetic forms of PD toxins and develop efficient health preventive programs to mitigate the risk of developing PD.

  6. PET imaging using parkinsonian primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    Many animal models have been for studying neutrodegenerative diseases in humans. Among them, Parkinson's disease (PD) model in primates treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is expected to be valid and useful in the field of regenerative medicine. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate parkinsonian syndrome, such as tremor, dyskinesia, rigidity, immobility, caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons at the nigrostriatal pathway. In this model, investigation of cognitive impairment that is one of the important aspects of PD could be possible. We evaluated the degeneration process of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons with positron emission tomography (PET) using unanesthetized MPTP-treated two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The tracers used were [11C]PE2I, [11C]DOPA, [11C]raclopride for monitoring dopamine transporter (DAT) densities, dopamine (DA) turnover, dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) densities, respectively. The gross behavioral observation was also performed referring to the criteria of the PD symptoms. The motor dysfunction was not clearly observed up to the cumulative doses of 3 mg/kg MPTP. This period was called 'asymptomatic period'. As a result of PET scans in the asymptomatic period, DAT densities and DA turnover had already decreased greatly, but D2R densities had not changed clearly. These findings suggest that PET imaging can delineate the dopaminergic dysfunction in vivo even in the asymptomatic period. In human study of PD, it is reported that parkinsonism is shown after great loss of dopaminergic neutrons as well as pre-synaptic dysfunction. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate the parkinsonian syndrome with the similar mechanism as human PD. It can be expected that PET study with MPTP-monkeys would provide important clues relevant to the underlying cause of PD and be useful for preclinical study of regenerative medicine in this disease. (author)

  7. Effects of [Des-Tyr1]-γ-endorphin and α-endorphin on substantia nigra self-stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsa, D.M.; Ree, J.M. van; Wied, D. de

    The β-lipotropin fragments, [des-Tyr1]-γ-endorphin (DTγE, β-LPH62–77) and α-endorphin (β-LPH61–76) affect self-stimulating behavior associated with electrical stimulation of neurons of the ventral tegmentum area of rats in an opposite way. Subcutaneous administration of DTγE (5 and 25 μg) attenuated

  8. Chemogenetic activation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, but not substantia nigra, induces hyperactivity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, Linde; Omrani, Azar; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Wolterink-Donselaar, Inge G; Wijbrans, Ellen C; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Adan, Roger A H

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity is a core symptom in various psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and anorexia nervosa. Although hyperactivity has been linked to dopaminergic  signalling, the causal relationship between midbrain dopamine neuronal

  9. Development of striatal patch/matrix organization in organotypic co-cultures of perinatal striatum, cortex and substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Keller, A; Costantini, L C; Graber, D J

    2001-01-01

    Organotypic cultures of fetal or early postnatal striatum were used to assess striatal patch formation and maintenance in the presence or absence of dopaminergic and glutamatergic influences. Vibratome-cut slices of the striatum prepared from embryonic day 19 to postnatal day 4 rat pups were maintained in static culture on clear membrane inserts in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 (1:1) with 20% horse serum. Some were co-cultured with embryonic day 12-16 ventral mesencephalon and/or embryonic day 19 to postnatal day 4 cortex, which produced a dense dopaminergic innervation and a modest cortical innervation. Donors of striatal and cortical tissue were previously injected with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on embryonic days 13 and 14 in order to label striatal neurons destined to populate the patch compartment of the striatum. Patches of BrdU-immunoreactive cells were maintained in organotypic cultures of late prenatal (embryonic days 20-22) or early postnatal striatum in the absence of nigral dopaminergic or cortical glutamatergic influences. In slices taken from embryonic day 19 fetuses prior to the time of in vivo patch formation, patches were observed to form after 10 days in vitro, in 39% of nigral-striatal co-cultures compared to 6% of striatal slices cultured alone or in the presence of cortex only. Patches of dopaminergic fibers, revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, were observed in the majority of nigral-striatal co-cultures. Immunostaining for the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluR1 revealed a dense patch distribution in nearly all cultures, which developed in embryonic day 19 cultures after at least six days in vitro. These findings indicate that striatal patch/matrix organization is maintained in organotypic culture, and can be induced to form in vitro in striatal slices removed from fetuses prior to the time of in vivo patch formation. Furthermore, dopaminergic innervation from co-cultured pieces of ventral mesencephalon enhances patch formation in organotypic cultures.

  10. The neurogenetics of atypical parkinsonian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Brent L; Clark, Mary C; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2014-04-01

    Although classic Parkinson disease is the disorder most commonly associated with the clinical feature of parkinsonism, there is in fact a broader spectrum of disease represented by a collection of phenotypically similar neurodegenerative conditions that mimic many of its core features. These atypical parkinsonian disorders most commonly include progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, disorders both associated with frontotemporal dementia, as well as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Although the clinical distinction of these disorders still remains a challenge to physicians, recent advances in genetics are poised to tease apart the differences. Insights into the molecular etiologies underlying these conditions will improve diagnosis, yield a better understanding of the underlying disease pathology, and ultimately lend stimulation to the development of potential treatments. At the same time, the wide range of phenotypes observed from mutations in a single gene warrants broad testing facilitated by advances in DNA sequencing. These expanding genomic approaches, ranging from the use of next-generation sequencing to identify causative or risk-associated gene variations to the study of epigenetic modification linking human genetics to environmental factors, are poised to lead the field into a new age of discovery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Parkinsonian syndroms: Clinical phenotype, differential diagnosis and disease progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, A.

    2002-01-01

    Parkinsonian syndromes include idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), other neurodegenerative diseases with parkinsonism, the so-called atypical parkinsonian syndromes, and symptomatic parkinsonian syndromes, such as Wilson's disease. IPD is the most frequent disease with parkinsonism as the main clinical feature and is responsible for approx. 80% of all parkinsonian syndromes. Atypical parkinsonian syndromes are the most important differential diagnoses of IPD. The two most frequent types are multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). For clinical diagnosis it is essential to take a careful medical history and to examine the patients physically in regular intervals. However, various clinico-pathological studies have shown that approx. 25% of patients with clinical diagnosis of IPD may have other causes of parkinsonism. Selected technical investigations, in particular functional imaging of the central dopaminergic system using PET or SPECT, may help to make clinical diagnosis more secure. This paper reviews the clinical features and diagnostic findings in diseases with parkinsonism and summarises the difficulties in establishing early and differential diagnoses. (orig.) [de

  12. Analysis of glottal source parameters in Parkinsonian speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Jane; Deegan, Catherine; Walsh, Mary; Kirkpatrick, Barry

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis and monitoring of Parkinson's disease has a number of challenges as there is no definitive biomarker despite the broad range of symptoms. Research is ongoing to produce objective measures that can either diagnose Parkinson's or act as an objective decision support tool. Recent research on speech based measures have demonstrated promising results. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of the glottal source signal in Parkinsonian speech. An experiment is conducted in which a selection of glottal parameters are tested for their ability to discriminate between healthy and Parkinsonian speech. Results for each glottal parameter are presented for a database of 50 healthy speakers and a database of 16 speakers with Parkinsonian speech symptoms. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to analyse the results and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values were used to quantify the performance of each glottal parameter. The results indicate that glottal parameters can be used to discriminate between healthy and Parkinsonian speech, although results varied for each parameter tested. For the task of separating healthy and Parkinsonian speech, 2 out of the 7 glottal parameters tested produced AUC values of over 0.9.

  13. Dermatosis papulosa nigra in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babapour, R; Leach, J; Levy, H

    1993-12-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra was diagnosed in a 3-year-old black boy. This follicular nevoid condition, which is common in adult blacks, is seldom diagnosed in prepubescent children. The diagnosis was confirmed by the biopsy specimen that showed features of epidermal acanthosis and papillomatosis, similar to seborrheic keratosis.

  14. The nature of tremor circuits in parkinsonian and essential tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnan, Hayriye; Little, Simon; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Cheeran, Binith; Fitzgerald, James; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu

    2014-01-01

    Tremor is a cardinal feature of Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor, the two most common movement disorders. Yet, the mechanisms underlying tremor generation remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that driving deep brain stimulation electrodes at a frequency closely matching the patient’s own tremor frequency should interact with neural activity responsible for tremor, and that the effect of stimulation on tremor should reveal the role of different deep brain stimulation targets in tremor generation. Moreover, tremor responses to stimulation might reveal pathophysiological differences between parkinsonian and essential tremor circuits. Accordingly, we stimulated 15 patients with Parkinson’s disease with either thalamic or subthalamic electrodes (13 male and two female patients, age: 50–77 years) and 10 patients with essential tremor with thalamic electrodes (nine male and one female patients, age: 34–74 years). Stimulation at near-to tremor frequency entrained tremor in all three patient groups (ventrolateral thalamic stimulation in Parkinson’s disease, P = 0.0078, subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson’s disease, P = 0.0312; ventrolateral thalamic stimulation in essential tremor, P = 0.0137; two-tailed paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests). However, only ventrolateral thalamic stimulation in essential tremor modulated postural tremor amplitude according to the timing of stimulation pulses with respect to the tremor cycle (e.g. P = 0.0002 for tremor amplification, two-tailed Wilcoxon rank sum test). Parkinsonian rest and essential postural tremor severity (i.e. tremor amplitude) differed in their relative tolerance to spontaneous changes in tremor frequency when stimulation was not applied. Specifically, the amplitude of parkinsonian rest tremor remained unchanged despite spontaneous changes in tremor frequency, whereas that of essential postural tremor reduced when tremor frequency departed from median values. Based on these results we conclude that

  15. Tolerance of Brassica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  16. Tolerence of Braccica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, D.; van Loon, J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  17. Trinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers for Black Poplar (Populus nigra L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.; Vosman, B.

    2001-01-01

    Using an enrichment procedure, we have cloned microsatellite repeats from black poplar (Populus nigra L.) and developed primers for microsatellite marker analysis. Ten primer pairs, mostly for trinucleotide repeats, produced polymorphic fragments in P. nigra. Some of them also showed amplification

  18. Estimation of the phase response curve from Parkinsonian tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifee, Tabish A; Edwards, Mark J; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Gilbertson, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Phase response curves (PRCs), characterizing the response of an oscillator to weak external perturbation, have been estimated from a broad range of biological oscillators, including single neurons in vivo. PRC estimates, in turn, provide an intuitive insight into how oscillatory systems become entrained and how they can be desynchronized. Here, we explore the application of PRC theory to the case of Parkinsonian tremor. Initial attempts to establish a causal effect of subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to primary motor cortex on the filtered tremor phase were unsuccessful. We explored the possible explanations of this and demonstrate that assumptions made when estimating the PRC in a traditional setting, such as a single neuron, are not arbitrary when applied to the case of tremor PRC estimation. We go on to extract the PRC of Parkinsonian tremor using an iterative method that requires varying the definition of the tremor cycle and estimating the PRC at multiple peristimulus time samples. Justification for this method is supported by estimates of PRC from simulated single neuron data. We provide an approach to estimating confidence limits for tremor PRC and discuss the interpretational caveats introduced by tremor harmonics and the intrinsic variability of the tremor's period. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. A Japanese Encephalitis Patient Presenting with Parkinsonism with Corresponding Laterality of Magnetic Resonance and Dopamine Transporter Imaging Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Koh; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Sato, Kota; Maeki, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ryo; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Shang, Jingwei; Takemoto, Mami; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Yamashita, Toru; Lim, Chang Kweng; Tajima, Shigeru; Abe, Koji

    2018-03-09

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) survivors often present with nigrostriatal aftereffects with parkinsonian features. A 67-year-old woman with JE showed right-dominant clinical parkinsonism and left-dominant substantia nigra lesions after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging using 123 I-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) revealed a corresponding left-dominant decrease. The present case is the first to reveal a clear match of laterality between clinical parkinsonism, MRI-based substantia nigra lesions, and impaired DAT in presynaptic dopaminergic neurons in JE.

  20. Homologous Basal Ganglia Network Models in Physiological and Parkinsonian Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotika Bahuguna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of basal ganglia has been refined in recent years with discoveries of subpopulations within a nucleus and previously unknown projections. One such discovery is the presence of subpopulations of arkypallidal and prototypical neurons in external globus pallidus, which was previously considered to be a primarily homogeneous nucleus. Developing a computational model of these multiple interconnected nuclei is challenging, because the strengths of the connections are largely unknown. We therefore use a genetic algorithm to search for the unknown connectivity parameters in a firing rate model. We apply a binary cost function derived from empirical firing rate and phase relationship data for the physiological and Parkinsonian conditions. Our approach generates ensembles of over 1,000 configurations, or homologies, for each condition, with broad distributions for many of the parameter values and overlap between the two conditions. However, the resulting effective weights of connections from or to prototypical and arkypallidal neurons are consistent with the experimental data. We investigate the significance of the weight variability by manipulating the parameters individually and cumulatively, and conclude that the correlation observed between the parameters is necessary for generating the dynamics of the two conditions. We then investigate the response of the networks to a transient cortical stimulus, and demonstrate that networks classified as physiological effectively suppress activity in the internal globus pallidus, and are not susceptible to oscillations, whereas parkinsonian networks show the opposite tendency. Thus, we conclude that the rates and phase relationships observed in the globus pallidus are predictive of experimentally observed higher level dynamical features of the physiological and parkinsonian basal ganglia, and that the multiplicity of solutions generated by our method may well be indicative of a natural

  1. [Deep brain stimulation in parkinsonian patients with dopa intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Pedro J; Feliz-Feliz, Cici; Ayerbe Gracia, Joaquín; Matías Arbelo, José; Salvador, Carlos; Val Fernández, Javier Del; García-Caldentey, Juan

    2017-10-28

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is at present, a useful treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and motor complications. The crucial step toward consistent DBS outcomes remains careful patient selection; several conditions must be fulfilled including excellent levo dopa response. We report two cases of early onset Parkinson's disease with severe intolerance to levo dopa but excellent and sustained response to DBS. DBS can be a useful alternative for parkinsonian patients with severe intolerance to levo dopa, provided a positive acute response to levo dopa or apomorphine is obtained. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Piribedil and pathological gambling in six parkinsonian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Federico E; Giugni, Juan C; Espinosa, Micke E De Arco; Calvo, Daniela S; Raina, Gabriela B

    2015-02-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have attracted increasing interest. They are characterized by the inability to control the impulse to perform an act that can be detrimental to them or to others. Although dopamine agonists (DA), as a group, have been associated with impulse control disorders (ICD), piribedil has rarely been reported to cause them. Case reports of six parkinsonian patients on piribedil presenting pathological gambling (PG). All of the patients presented ICD associated with piribedil use. Two of them received this medication as first treatment and four of them who had developed ICDs secondary to other DA that reappeared with piribedil. Despite piribedil is commercially available in only a few countries, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of PG in patients with PD.

  3. Piribedil and Pathological Gambling in six Parkinsonian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico E. Micheli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders (ICD in Parkinson's disease (PD have attracted increasing interest. They are characterized by the inability to control the impulse to perform an act that can be detrimental to them or to others. Although dopamine agonists (DA, as a group, have been associated with impulse control disorders (ICD, piribedil has rarely been reported to cause them. Method Case reports of six parkinsonian patients on piribedil presenting pathological gambling (PG. Results All of the patients presented ICD associated with piribedil use. Two of them received this medication as first treatment and four of them who had developed ICDs secondary to other DA that reappeared with piribedil. Conclusion Despite piribedil is commercially available in only a few countries, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of PG in patients with PD.

  4. Potential mechanisms for imperfect synchronization in parkinsonian basal ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongseok Park

    Full Text Available Neural activity in the brain of parkinsonian patients is characterized by the intermittently synchronized oscillatory dynamics. This imperfect synchronization, observed in the beta frequency band, is believed to be related to the hypokinetic motor symptoms of the disorder. Our study explores potential mechanisms behind this intermittent synchrony. We study the response of a bursting pallidal neuron to different patterns of synaptic input from subthalamic nucleus (STN neuron. We show how external globus pallidus (GPe neuron is sensitive to the phase of the input from the STN cell and can exhibit intermittent phase-locking with the input in the beta band. The temporal properties of this intermittent phase-locking show similarities to the intermittent synchronization observed in experiments. We also study the synchronization of GPe cells to synaptic input from the STN cell with dependence on the dopamine-modulated parameters. Earlier studies showed how the strengthening of dopamine-modulated coupling may lead to transitions from non-synchronized to partially synchronized dynamics, typical in Parkinson's disease. However, dopamine also affects the cellular properties of neurons. We show how the changes in firing patterns of STN neuron due to the lack of dopamine may lead to transition from a lower to a higher coherent state, roughly matching the synchrony levels observed in basal ganglia in normal and parkinsonian states. The intermittent nature of the neural beta band synchrony in Parkinson's disease is achieved in the model due to the interplay of the timing of STN input to pallidum and pallidal neuronal dynamics, resulting in sensitivity of pallidal output to the phase of the arriving STN input. Thus the mechanism considered here (the change in firing pattern of subthalamic neurons through the dopamine-induced change of membrane properties may be one of the potential mechanisms responsible for the generation of the intermittent synchronization

  5. Imaging biomarkers in Parkinson?s disease and Parkinsonian syndromes: current and emerging concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Usman; Compagnone, Jordana; Aviv, Richard I.; Strafella, Antonio P.; Black, Sandra E.; Lang, Anthony E.; Masellis, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Two centuries ago in 1817, James Parkinson provided the first medical description of Parkinson?s disease, later refined by Jean-Martin Charcot in the mid-to-late 19th century to include the atypical parkinsonian variants (also termed, Parkinson-plus syndromes). Today, Parkinson?s disease represents the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with an estimated global prevalence of over 10 million. Conversely, atypical parkinsonian syndromes encompass a group of relatively heterogeneous d...

  6. Electrical stimulation of the substantia nigra reticulata : Detection of neuronal extracellular GABA in the ventromedial thalamus and its regulatory mechanism using microdialysis in awake rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, W; Westerink, B.H.C.

    A combination of electrical stimulation and microdialysis was used to study the nigrothalamic gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system and its regulatory mechanisms in awake rats. Extracellular GABA levels in the ventromedial nucleus of the thalamus were detected in S-min fractions collected

  7. Loss of Substantia Nigra Hyperintensity at 3.0-T MR Imaging in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Comparison with 123I-FP-CIT SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Kyeong Joon; Kim, Eunhee; Park, Hyun Soo; Kang, Seo Young; Yoon, In-Young; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beomseok; Kim, Sang Eun

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To examine whether the loss of nigral hyperintensity (NH) on 3.0-T susceptibility-weighted (SW) magnetic resonance (MR) images can help identify high synucleinopathy risk in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Materials and Methods Between March 2014 and April 2015, 18 consecutively recruited patients with iRBD were evaluated with 3.0-T SW imaging and iodine 123-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane ( 123 I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography and compared with 18 healthy subjects and 18 patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Two readers blinded to clinical diagnosis independently assessed the images. 123 I-FP-CIT uptake ratios were compared by using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and intra- and interobserver agreements were assessed with the Cohen κ. The synucleinopathy conversion according to NH status was evaluated in patients with iRBD after follow-up. Results NH was intact in seven patients with iRBD and lost in 11. The 123 I-FP-CIT uptake ratios were comparable between those with intact NH (mean, 3.22 ± 0.47) and healthy subjects (mean, 3.37 ± 0.47) (P = .495). The 123 I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in the 11 patients with iRBD and NH loss (mean, 2.48 ± 0.44) were significantly lower than those in healthy subjects (mean, 3.37 ± 0.47; P 0.9). Five patients with iRBD and NH loss developed symptoms of parkinsonism or dementia 18 months after neuroimaging. Conclusion NH loss at 3.0-T SW imaging may be a promising marker for short-term synucleinopathy risk in iRBD. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  8. Effect of speech therapy and pharmacological treatment in prosody of parkinsonians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lemos de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Parkinsonian patients usually present speech impairment. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of levodopa and of the adapted Lee Silverman Vocal Treatment® method on prosodic parameters employed by parkinsonian patients. Method Ten patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease using levodopa underwent recording of utterances produced in four stages: expressing attitudes of certainty and doubt and declarative and interrogative modalities. The sentences were recorded under the effect of levodopa (on, without the effect of levodopa (off; before and after speech therapy during the on and off periods. Results The speech therapy and its association with drug treatment promoted the improvement of prosodic parameters: increase of fundamental frequency measures, reduction of measures of duration and greater intensity. Conclusion The association of speech therapy to medication treatment is of great value in improving the communication of parkinsonian patients.

  9. Pharmacognostical Investigations on Sambucus ebulus L. and Sambucus nigra L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. A. R. Ghannadi

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Sambucus have been used in treating symptoms of the common cold and some skin ailments. Four species of this plant are growing extensively in Iran. One of these species is S.ebulus. In this study, S. ebulus was examined botanically and phytochemicatly in comparison to S. nigra."nMorphological as well as microscopical characteristics of S. ebulus and S. nigra were examined. By means of TLC in comparison to authentic samples, Rutin, Hyperin. Apigenin and Chlorogenic acid were identified in these plants. By preparative TLC method, Rutin is isolated and then purified from these plants. The structure of Rutin was determined by the UV-Vis. Techniques in methanol and by addition of the shift reagents and hydrolysis. The quantitative determinations of fiavonoids in these plants were also performed by using an UV-Vis. Spectroscopy method.

  10. Fetal porcine ventral mesencephalon graft. Determination of the optimal gestational age for implantation in Parkinsonian patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HogenEsch, RI; Koopmans, J; Copray, JCVM; van Roon, WMC; Kema, [No Value; Molenaar, G; Go, KG; Staal, MJ

    Human fetal ventral mesencephalon tissue has been used as dopaminergic striatal implants in Parkinsonian patients, so far with variable effects. Fetuses from animals that breed in large litters, e.g., pigs, have been considered as alternative donors of dopaminergic tissue. The optimal gestational

  11. The effect of anti-parkinsonian drugs on chlorpromazine-induced depression of operant behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, J I; Dunai-Kovács, Z; Borsy, J

    1976-01-01

    Rats were conditioned in automatic Skinner boxes on a discrete trial avoidance-escape schedule. The chlorpromazine-induced conditioned reflex inhibition could be reversed by apomorphine and amantadine, but not by atropine, trihexyphenidyl and diethazine. These findings seem to provide an additional tool for differentiating the atropine-like and dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian drugs.

  12. Differential Diagnosis Tool for Parkinsonian Syndrome Using Multiple Structural Brain Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Ota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes such as the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P and cerebellar subtype (MSA-C from Parkinson's disease is difficult in the early stage of the disease. To identify the correlative pattern of brain changes for differentiating parkinsonian syndromes, we applied discriminant analysis techniques by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. T1-weighted volume data and diffusion tensor images were obtained by MRI in eighteen patients with MSA-C, 12 patients with MSA-P, 21 patients with Parkinson’s disease, and 21 healthy controls. They were evaluated using voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively. Discriminant functions derived by step wise methods resulted in correct classification rates of 0.89. When differentiating these diseases with the use of three independent variables together, the correct classification rate was the same as that obtained with step wise methods. These findings support the view that each parkinsonian syndrome has structural deviations in multiple brain areas and that a combination of structural brain measures can help to distinguish parkinsonian syndromes.

  13. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation in parkinsonian and essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limousin, P.; Speelman, J. D.; Gielen, F.; Janssens, M.

    1999-01-01

    Thalamic stimulation has been proposed to treat disabling tremor. The aims of this multicentre study were to evaluate the efficacy and the morbidity of thalamic stimulation in a large number of patients with parkinsonian or essential tremor. One hundred and eleven patients were included in the study

  14. Amyloid-related biomarkers and axonal damage proteins in parkinsonian syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Sara; Hjermind, Lena E; Salvesen, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Clinical differentiation between parkinsonian syndromes (PS) remains a challenge despite well-established clinical diagnostic criteria. Specific diagnostic biomarkers have yet to be identified, though in recent years, studies have been published on the aid of certain brain related proteins (BRP) ...

  15. Intrathecal application of autologous bone marrow cell preparations in parkinsonian syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Alexander; Csoti, Ilona; Eggert, Karla

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of patients is treated with intrathecal application of autologous bone marrow cells (aBMCs), but clinical data are completely lacking in movement disorders. We provide first clinical data on efficacy and safety of this highly experimental treatment approach in parkinsonian...

  16. Pneumophonic coordination impairments in parkinsonian dysarthria: importance of aerodynamic parameters measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustapha, S M; Alain, G; Robert, E; Bernard, T; Mourtalla, Kâ M; Lamine, G; François, V

    2012-01-01

    Among Parkinsonian axial signs, dysarthria represents an important disabling symptom able to lead towards a significant reduction of oral communication. Several methods of dysarthria assessment have been used but aerodynamic evaluation is rare in the literature. To highlight the importance of aerodynamic parameters measurements in assessment of parkinsonian dysarthria. Using a dedicated system (EVA2), 24 parkinsonian patients were recorded after withdrawal of L-dopa for at least 12 h (condition called OFF DOPA) in order to evaluate intra-oral pressure (IOP), mean oral air flow (MOAF) and laryngeal resistance (LR) on six /p/ during realization of the sentence "Papa ne m'a pas parle' de beau-papa" ("Daddy did not speak to me about daddy-in-law") which corresponds to a breath group. 50 control subjects were recorded in parallel in order to define reference measurements. It appeared that there is in Parkinson's disease aerodynamic impairments which were evidenced by the fall in IOP and that of MOAF in patients compared with control subjects. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. In addition a greater instability of LR in patients compared with control subjects was also noted. Our results show that measurements of aerodynamics parameters, by reflecting the dysfunction induced by disease, may well be relevant factors in parkinsonian dysarthria evaluation.

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging differentiates vascular parkinsonism from parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin in elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverdun, Jérémy [Department of Neuroradiology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221 - Université Montpellier II, Montpellier (France); I2FH, Institut d’Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine, Hôpital Gui de Chauliac, CHRU de, Montpellier (France); Menjot de Champfleur, Sophie [Department of Neuroradiology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Clinique du Parc, Castelnau-le-Lez (France); Cabello-Aguilar, Simon [Department of Neuroradiology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); I2FH, Institut d’Imagerie Fonctionnelle Humaine, Hôpital Gui de Chauliac, CHRU de, Montpellier (France); Maury, Florence [Department of Neurology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Molino, François [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, CNRS UMR 5221 - Université Montpellier II, Montpellier (France); Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, UMR 5203 - INSERM U661 - Université Montpellier II - Université, Montpellier I (France); Charif, Mahmoud [Department of Neurology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Leboucq, Nicolas [Department of Neuroradiology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); Ayrignac, Xavier; Labauge, Pierre [Department of Neurology, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier (France); and others

    2014-11-15

    Background and Purpose: The etiologic diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes is of particular importance when considering syndromes of vascular or degenerative origin. The purpose of this study is to find differences in the white-matter architecture between those two groups in elderly patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients were prospectively included (multiple-system atrophy, n = 5; Parkinson's disease, n = 15; progressive supranuclear palsy, n = 9; vascular parkinsonism, n = 6), with a mean age of 76 years. Patients with multiple-system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease were grouped as having parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin. Brain MRIs included diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy and mean-diffusivity maps were spatially normalized, and group analyses between parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin and vascular parkinsonism were performed using a voxel-based approach. Results: Statistical parametric-mapping analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data showed decreased fractional anisotropy value in internal capsules bilaterally in patients with vascular parkinsonism compared to parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin (p = 0.001) and showed a lower mean diffusivity in the white matter of the left superior parietal lobule (p = 0.01). Fractional anisotropy values were found decreased in the middle cerebellar peduncles in multiple-system atrophy compared to Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. The mean diffusivity was increased in those regions for these subgroups. Conclusion: Clinically defined vascular parkinsonism was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy in the deep white matter (internal capsules) compared to parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin. These findings are consistent with previously published neuropathological data.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging differentiates vascular parkinsonism from parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin in elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverdun, Jérémy; Menjot de Champfleur, Sophie; Cabello-Aguilar, Simon; Maury, Florence; Molino, François; Charif, Mahmoud; Leboucq, Nicolas; Ayrignac, Xavier; Labauge, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The etiologic diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes is of particular importance when considering syndromes of vascular or degenerative origin. The purpose of this study is to find differences in the white-matter architecture between those two groups in elderly patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients were prospectively included (multiple-system atrophy, n = 5; Parkinson's disease, n = 15; progressive supranuclear palsy, n = 9; vascular parkinsonism, n = 6), with a mean age of 76 years. Patients with multiple-system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease were grouped as having parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin. Brain MRIs included diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy and mean-diffusivity maps were spatially normalized, and group analyses between parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin and vascular parkinsonism were performed using a voxel-based approach. Results: Statistical parametric-mapping analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data showed decreased fractional anisotropy value in internal capsules bilaterally in patients with vascular parkinsonism compared to parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin (p = 0.001) and showed a lower mean diffusivity in the white matter of the left superior parietal lobule (p = 0.01). Fractional anisotropy values were found decreased in the middle cerebellar peduncles in multiple-system atrophy compared to Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. The mean diffusivity was increased in those regions for these subgroups. Conclusion: Clinically defined vascular parkinsonism was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy in the deep white matter (internal capsules) compared to parkinsonian syndromes of degenerative origin. These findings are consistent with previously published neuropathological data

  19. Focused and Sustained Attention Is Modified by a Goal-Based Rehabilitation in Parkinsonian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzoli, Davide; Ortelli, Paola; Maestri, Roberto; Bera, Rossana; Gargantini, Roberto; Palamara, Grazia; Zarucchi, Marianna; Giladi, Nir; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on cognitive strategies that exploit attention. Parkinsonians exhibit impairments in divided attention and interference control. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of specific rehabilitation treatments based on attention suggests that other attentional functions are preserved. Data about attention are conflicting in PD, and it is not clear whether rehabilitative treatments that entail attentional strategies affect attention itself. Reaction times (RTs) represent an instrument to explore attention and investigate whether changes in attentional performances parallel rehabilitation induced-gains. RTs of 103 parkinsonian patients in "on" state, without cognitive deficits, were compared with those of a population of 34 healthy controls. We studied those attentional networks that subtend the use of cognitive strategies in motor rehabilitation: alertness and focused and sustained attention, which is a component of the executive system. We used visual and auditory RTs to evaluate alertness and multiple choices RTs (MC RTs) to explore focused and sustained attention. Parkinsonian patients underwent these tasks before and after a 4-week multidisciplinary, intensive and goal-based rehabilitation treatment (MIRT). Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were assessed at the enrollment and at the end of MIRT to evaluate the motor-functional effectiveness of treatment. We did not find differences in RTs between parkinsonian patients and controls. Further, we found that improvements in motor-functional outcome measures after MIRT ( p attention, are preserved in "on" state. This explains why Parkinsonians benefit from a goal-based rehabilitation that entails the use of attention. The reduction in MC RTs suggests a positive effect of MIRT on the executive component of attention and indicates that this type of rehabilitation provides benefits by exploiting executive functions

  20. Parkinsonian phenotype in Machado-Joseph disease (MJD/SCA3: a two-case report

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    Vasconcelos João

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder of late onset, which is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the coding region of the ATXN3 gene. This disease presents clinical heterogeneity, which cannot be completely explained by the size of the repeat tract. MJD presents extrapyramidal motor signs, namely Parkinsonism, more frequently than the other subtypes of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias. Although Parkinsonism seems to segregate within MJD families, only a few MJD patients develop parkinsonian features and, therefore, the clinical and genetic aspects of these rare presentations remain poorly investigated. The main goal of this work was to describe two MJD patients displaying the parkinsonian triad (tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity, namely on what concerns genetic variation in Parkinson's disease (PD associated loci (PARK2, LRRK2, PINK1, DJ-1, SNCA, MAPT, APOE, and mtDNA tRNAGln T4336C. Case presentation Patient 1 is a 40 year-old female (onset at 30 years of age, initially with a pure parkinsonian phenotype (similar to the phenotype previously reported for her mother. Patient 2 is a 38 year-old male (onset at 33 years of age, presenting an ataxic phenotype with parkinsonian features (not seen either in other affected siblings or in his father. Both patients presented an expanded ATXN3 allele with 72 CAG repeats. No PD mutations were found in the analyzed loci. However, allelic variants previously associated with PD were observed in DJ-1 and APOE genes, for both patients. Conclusions The present report adds clinical and genetic information on this particular and rare MJD presentation, and raises the hypothesis that DJ-1 and APOE polymorphisms may confer susceptibility to the parkinsonian phenotype in MJD.

  1. Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.

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    Yan-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

  2. High density of benzodiazepine binding sites in the substantia innominata of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarter, M.; Schneider, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    In order to study the neuronal basis of the pharmacological interactions between benzodiazepine receptor ligands and cortical cholinergic turnover, we examined the regional distribution of specific benzodiazepine binding sites using in vitro autoradiography. In the basal forebrain, the substantia innominata contained a high density of [ 3 H]lormetazepam (LMZ) binding sites (Bmax = 277 fmol/mg tissue; Kd = 0.55 nM). The label could be displaced by diazepam (IC50 = 100 nM), the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist beta-carboline ZK 93426 (45 nM) and the partial inverse agonist beta-carboline FG 7142 (540 nM). It is hypothesized that the amnesic effects of benzodiazepine receptor agonists are exerted through benzodiazepine receptors which are situated on cholinergic neurons in the substantia innominata and are involved in a tonic inhibition of cortical acetylcholine release. The benzodiazepine receptor antagonist ZK 93426 may exert its nootropic effects via benzodiazepine receptors in the substantia innominata and, consequently, by disinhibiting cortical acetylcholine release

  3. A Multi-tracer Dopaminergic PET Study of Young-Onset Parkinsonian Patients With and Without Parkin Gene Mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.J.; Thobois, St.; Broussolle, E.; Lohmann, E.; Lesage, S.; Dubois, B.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A.; Lohmann, E.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A.; Lohmann, E.; Lesage, S.; Dubois, B.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A.; Tezenas du Montcel, S.; Tezenas du Montcel, S.; Pelissolo, A.; Dubois, B.; Mallet, L.; Pollak, P.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A.; Remy, Ph.; Remy, Ph.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of parkin gene mutations on nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is not well established. The purpose of this study was to characterize by PET using 18 F-fluoro-L-3, 4- dihydroxyphenylalanine ( 18 F-fluoro-L-DOPA), 11 C-PE2I, and 11 C-raclopride the pattern of dopaminergic lesions in young-onset Parkinson disease (YOPD) patients with or without mutations of the parkin gene and to correlate the clinical and neuro-psychologic characteristics of these patients with PET results. Methods: A total of 35 YOPD patients were enrolled (16 with parkin mutation, 19 without). The uptake constant (K i ) of 18 F-fluoro- L-DOPA and the binding potential (BP) of 11 C-PE2I (BPDAT) and of 11 C-raclopride (BPD2) were calculated in the striatum. Comparisons were made between the 2 groups of YOPD and between controls and patients. For each radiotracer, parametric images were obtained, and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis using a voxel-by-voxel statistical t test was performed. Correlations between the cognitive and motor status and PET results were analyzed. Results: In YOPD patients, 18 F-fluoro-L-DOPA K i values were reduced to 68% (caudate) and 40% (putamen) of normal values (P ≤ 0.0001). This decrease was symmetric and comparable for non-parkin and parkin patients. No correlation was found between the K i values and cognitive or motor status. 11 C-PE2I BPDAT values in YOPD patients were decreased to 56% (caudate) and 41% (putamen) of normal values (P ≤ 0.0001) and did not differ between the 2 YOPD populations. The mean 11 C-raclopride BPD2 values were reduced to 72% (caudate) and 84% (putamen) of the normal values (P ≤ 0.02) and did not differ between non-parkin and parkin patients. SPM analyses showed in patients an additional decrease of 11 C-raclopride in the frontal cortex and a decrease of 18 F-fluoro-L-DOPA and 11 C-PE2I uptake in the substantia nigra bilaterally (P ≤ 0.05, false-discovery rate-corrected). Conclusion: Carriers of parkin

  4. A Multi-tracer Dopaminergic PET Study of Young-Onset Parkinsonian Patients With and Without Parkin Gene Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M.J. [CEA, I2BM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Thobois, St.; Broussolle, E. [University of Lyon, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Neurological Hospital, Lyon (France); Lohmann, E.; Lesage, S.; Dubois, B.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A. [INSERM, Paris (France); Lohmann, E.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A. [Department of the Nervous System Disorders, AP-HP, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Lohmann, E.; Lesage, S.; Dubois, B.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A. [UPMC University of Paris, Paris (France); Tezenas du Montcel, S. [Unit of de Biostatistics and Medical Information and Unit of Medical Research, AP-HP, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Tezenas du Montcel, S. [Modelisation in Clinical Research, UPMC University of Paris, Paris (France); Pelissolo, A. [Department of Psychiatry, AP-HP, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Dubois, B. [Centre de Reference sur la Maladie de Pick, AP-HP, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Mallet, L. [Behaviour, Emotion and Basal Ganglia, Center of Clinical Investigation, INSERM Avenir Group, Paris (France); Pollak, P. [Department of Clinical and Biological Neurosciences, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Agid, Y. [Clinical Investigation Center, AP-HP, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Brice, A. [Department of Genetics and Cytogenetics, AP-HP, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Remy, Ph. [CEA, I2BM, MIRCEN, URA CEA-CNRS 2210, Orsay (France); Remy, Ph. [CHU Henri Mondor, AP-HP and Faculte de Medecine Paris 12, Creteil (France)

    2009-07-01

    The impact of parkin gene mutations on nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration is not well established. The purpose of this study was to characterize by PET using {sup 18}F-fluoro-L-3, 4- dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-fluoro-L-DOPA), {sup 11}C-PE2I, and {sup 11}C-raclopride the pattern of dopaminergic lesions in young-onset Parkinson disease (YOPD) patients with or without mutations of the parkin gene and to correlate the clinical and neuro-psychologic characteristics of these patients with PET results. Methods: A total of 35 YOPD patients were enrolled (16 with parkin mutation, 19 without). The uptake constant (K{sub i}) of {sup 18}F-fluoro- L-DOPA and the binding potential (BP) of {sup 11}C-PE2I (BPDAT) and of {sup 11}C-raclopride (BPD2) were calculated in the striatum. Comparisons were made between the 2 groups of YOPD and between controls and patients. For each radiotracer, parametric images were obtained, and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis using a voxel-by-voxel statistical t test was performed. Correlations between the cognitive and motor status and PET results were analyzed. Results: In YOPD patients, {sup 18}F-fluoro-L-DOPA K{sub i} values were reduced to 68% (caudate) and 40% (putamen) of normal values (P {<=} 0.0001). This decrease was symmetric and comparable for non-parkin and parkin patients. No correlation was found between the K{sub i} values and cognitive or motor status. {sup 11}C-PE2I BPDAT values in YOPD patients were decreased to 56% (caudate) and 41% (putamen) of normal values (P {<=} 0.0001) and did not differ between the 2 YOPD populations. The mean {sup 11}C-raclopride BPD2 values were reduced to 72% (caudate) and 84% (putamen) of the normal values (P {<=} 0.02) and did not differ between non-parkin and parkin patients. SPM analyses showed in patients an additional decrease of {sup 11}C-raclopride in the frontal cortex and a decrease of {sup 18}F-fluoro-L-DOPA and {sup 11}C-PE2I uptake in the substantia nigra bilaterally

  5. Association of heart rate variability with clinical outcome in Parkinsonian patients after subthalamic deep brain stimulation: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yuan Chen

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed an improvement in autonomic cardiovascular regulation in Parkinsonian patients with >50% improvement in rating scale after STN-DBS, which implied morbidity reduction in nonmotor symptoms among such patients.

  6. Antioxidant effect of Morus nigra on Chagas disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenote, Michelly Cristina; Wajsman, Vithor Zuccaro; Konno, Yoichi Takaki; Ferreira, Paulo César; Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves; Therezo, Altino Luiz Silva; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Martins, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    2017-11-06

    Considering the widespread popular use of Morus nigra and the amount of scientific information on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, the effectiveness of this phytotherapeutic compound in the parasitemia progression during the acute phase of Chagas disease and its role in the development of the inflammatory process as well as its effects on the oxidative damage in the chronic phase of infection were evaluated. Thus, 96 male Swiss mice were randomly divided into eight groups, four groups were uninfected controls, and four groups were intraperitoneally infected with 5.0 x 104 blood trypomastigotes forms of T. cruzi QM2 strain. Four batches composed of one uninfected and one infected group were respectively treated with 70% alcohol solution and 25 μL, 50 μL and 75 μL of the phytotherapeutic compound. Levels of antioxidant elements (TBARS, FRAP, GSH and Sulfhydryl groups) were measured in plasma samples. The phytotherapeutic compound's antioxidant activity was measured by polyphenol and total flavonoid quantification, DPPH, NO, and FRAP method. Our results showed that the vehicle influenced some of the results that may have physiological relevance in Chagas disease. However, an important action of M. nigra tincture was observed in the progression of Chagas disease, since our results demonstrated a reduction in parasitemia of treated groups when compared to controls, especially in the group receiving 25 µL. However, in the chronic phase, the 50-µL dosage presented a better activity on some antioxidant defenses and minimized the tissue inflammatory process. Results indicated an important action of M. nigra tincture on the Chagas disease progression.

  7. Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gómez-Daza, Fernando; Paredes, Vanessa; Ponce, Rosa María

    2010-03-04

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. White piedra and black piedra are parasitic infections of scalp hairs in the form of concretions caused by fungal growth. Diagnosis of these mycoses is made from mycologic studies, direct examination, stains, and isolation, and identification of the fungi. Treatment includes systemic antifungals, topical antifungals, and keratolytics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. STRUCTURE IDENTIFICATION OF A TRIMER STILBENOID COMPOUND FROM STEM BARK Hopea nigra (DIPTEROCARPACEAE

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    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity as antihephatotoxic directed fractionation of aceton extract from the stem bark of Hopea nigra (Dipterocarpaceae afforded a stilbenoid trimer, namely vaticanol G (1. The structure of this compound were elucidated based on physical and spectroscopic data (UV, IR, MS, 1H and 13C NMR 1D and 2D. Keywords: Vaticanol G; Hopea nigra; antihepatotoxic; Dipterocarpaceae.

  9. Parkinsonian Symptomatology May Correlate with CT Findings before and after Shunting in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

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    Mitsuaki Ishii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the characteristics of Parkinsonian features assessed by the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS and determine their correlations with the computed tomography (CT findings in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH. The total score and the scores for arising from chair, gait, postural stability, and body hypokinesia in the motor examination section of UPDRS were significantly improved after shunt operations. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that postural stability was the determinant of the gait domain score of the iNPH grading scale. The canonical correlation analysis between the CT findings and the shunt-responsive Parkinsonian features indicated that Evans index rather than midbrain diameters had a large influence on the postural stability. Thus, the pathophysiology of postural instability as a cardinal feature of gait disturbance may be associated with impaired frontal projections close to the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles in the iNPH patients.

  10. Effects of Electrical and Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation on Synchronized Oscillatory Activity in Parkinsonian Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnadurai-Giridharan, Shivakeshavan; Cheung, Chung C; Rubchinsky, Leonid L

    2017-11-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation of basal ganglia uses high-frequency regular electrical pulses to treat Parkinsonian motor symptoms but has a series of limitations. Relatively new and not yet clinically tested, optogenetic stimulation is an effective experimental stimulation technique to affect pathological network dynamics. We compared the effects of electrical and optogenetic stimulation of the basal gangliaon the pathologicalParkinsonian rhythmic neural activity. We studied the network response to electrical stimulation and excitatory and inhibitory optogenetic stimulations. Different stimulations exhibit different interactions with pathological activity in the network. We studied these interactions for different network and stimulation parameter values. Optogenetic stimulation was found to be more efficient than electrical stimulation in suppressing pathological rhythmicity. Our findings indicate that optogenetic control of neural synchrony may be more efficacious than electrical control because of the different ways of how stimulations interact with network dynamics.

  11. Therapeutic deep brain stimulation in Parkinsonian rats directly influences motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ke, Ya; Chan, Danny C W; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Yung, Ken K L; Ko, Ho; Arbuthnott, Gordon W; Yung, Wing-Ho

    2012-12-06

    Much recent discussion about the origin of Parkinsonian symptoms has centered around the idea that they arise with the increase of beta frequency waves in the EEG. This activity may be closely related to an oscillation between subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus. Since STN is the target of deep brain stimulation, it had been assumed that its action is on the nucleus itself. By means of simultaneous recordings of the firing activities from populations of neurons and the local field potentials in the motor cortex of freely moving Parkinsonian rats, this study casts doubt on this assumption. Instead, we found evidence that the corrective action is upon the cortex, where stochastic antidromic spikes originating from the STN directly modify the firing probability of the corticofugal projection neurons, destroy the dominance of beta rhythm, and thus restore motor control to the subjects, be they patients or rodents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination for the differential diagnosis and longitudinal assessment of patients with parkinsonian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, Timothy; Ghosh, Boyd C; McColgan, Peter; Breen, David P; Evans, Jonathan; Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Barker, Roger A; Rowe, James B

    2013-05-01

    Differentiating idiopathic Parkinson's disease from atypical parkinsonian syndromes is challenging, especially in the early stages. We assessed whether the Revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) could differentiate between parkinsonian syndromes and reflect longitudinal changes in cognition in these disorders. The ACE-R was administered at baseline and after approximately 18 months to 135 patients with parkinsonian disorders: 86 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), 30 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 19 with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). We assessed differences between groups for ACE-R, ACE-R subscores and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores at baseline (analyses of variance, receiver operating characteristics curves), and the interaction between diagnosis and change in ACE-R scores between visits (analyses of variance). The ACE-R verbal fluency subscore distinguished between PSP and PD with a high sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.87); total ACE-R score and the visuospatial subscore were less specific (0.87 and 0.84 respectively) and sensitive (0.70 and 0.73). Significant group level differences were found between PD and PSP for MMSE and ACE-R (total score and subscores for attention and concentration, fluency, language, and visuospatial function), and between PD and CBD for the ACE-R visuospatial subscore. Performance worsened between visits for ACE-R score in PD (p=0.001) and CBD (p=0.001); visuospatial subscore in PD (p=0.003), PSP (p=0.022) and CBD (p=0.0002); and MMSE in CBD (p=0.004). We propose the ACE-R, particularly the verbal fluency subscore, as a valuable contributor to the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes in the correct clinical context. The ACE-R may reflect disease progression in PD and CBD.

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Morus nigra against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

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    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Morus nigra (Family Moraceae is traditionally used injaundice, diabetes, hypertension, cough, fever and cancer. The current study was conducted to determine hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of leaves of M. nigra. Two doses of 250 mg/kg p.o and 500 mg/kg p.o showed that extract of M. nigra produced significant (p<0.001 reduction in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin induced by paracetamol and the results are comparable to silymarin (p<0.001. Results were supported by histopathologi-cal investigations, phytochemical screening and detection of active consti-tuents by HPLC. The current study showed that aqueous methanolic extract of M. nigra possess hepatoprotective activity that might be due to quercetin, luteolin and isorhamnetin. It was concluded from this study that M. nigra has hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver injury in mice.

  14. What basal ganglia changes underlie the parkinsonian state? The significance of neuronal oscillatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Varela, A.; Walters, J.R.; Brazhnik, E.; Marin, C.; Obeso, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One well accepted functional feature of the parkinsonian state is the recording of enhanced beta oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia. This has been demonstrated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models such as the rat with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesion and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys, all of which are associated with severe striatal dopamine depletion. Neuronal hyper-synchronization in the beta (or any other) band is not present despite the presence of bradykinetic features in the rat and monkey models, suggesting that increased beta band power may arise when nigro-striatal lesion is advanced and that it is not an essential feature of the early parkinsonian state. Similar observations and conclusions have been previously made for increased neuronal firing rate in the subthalamic and globus pallidus pars interna nuclei. Accordingly, it is suggested that early parkinsonism may be associated with dynamic changes in basal ganglia output activity leading to reduced movement facilitation that may be an earlier feature of the parkinsonian state. PMID:23727447

  15. Associations between quantitative mobility measures derived from components of conventional mobility testing and Parkinsonian gait in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron S Buchman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide objective measures which characterize mobility in older adults assessed in the community setting and to examine the extent to which these measures are associated with parkinsonian gait. METHODS: During conventional mobility testing in the community-setting, 351 ambulatory non-demented Memory and Aging Project participants wore a belt with a whole body sensor that recorded both acceleration and angular velocity in 3 directions. We used measures derived from these recordings to quantify 5 subtasks including a walking, b transition from sit to stand, c transition from stand to sit, d turning and e standing posture. Parkinsonian gait and other mild parkinsonian signs were assessed with a modified version of the original Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (mUPDRS. RESULTS: In a series of separate regression models which adjusted for age and sex, all 5 mobility subtask measures were associated with parkinsonian gait and accounted for 2% to 32% of its variance. When all 5 subtask measures were considered in a single model, backward elimination showed that measures of walking sit to stand and turning showed independent associations with parkinsonian gait and together accounted for more than 35% of its variance. Cross-validation using data from a 2(nd group of 258 older adults showed similar results. In similar analyses, only walking was associated with bradykinesia and sway with tremor. INTERPRETATION: Quantitative mobility subtask measures vary in their associations with parkinsonian gait scores and other parkinsonian signs in older adults. Quantifying the different facets of mobility has the potential to facilitate the clinical characterization and understanding the biologic basis for impaired mobility in older adults.

  16. Associations between Quantitative Mobility Measures Derived from Components of Conventional Mobility Testing and Parkinsonian Gait in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Aron S.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Weiss, Aner; VanderHorst, Veronique; Mirelman, Anat; Dawe, Robert; Barnes, Lisa L.; Wilson, Robert S.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Bennett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide objective measures which characterize mobility in older adults assessed in the community setting and to examine the extent to which these measures are associated with parkinsonian gait. Methods During conventional mobility testing in the community-setting, 351 ambulatory non-demented Memory and Aging Project participants wore a belt with a whole body sensor that recorded both acceleration and angular velocity in 3 directions. We used measures derived from these recordings to quantify 5 subtasks including a) walking, b) transition from sit to stand, c) transition from stand to sit, d) turning and e) standing posture. Parkinsonian gait and other mild parkinsonian signs were assessed with a modified version of the original Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (mUPDRS). Results In a series of separate regression models which adjusted for age and sex, all 5 mobility subtask measures were associated with parkinsonian gait and accounted for 2% to 32% of its variance. When all 5 subtask measures were considered in a single model, backward elimination showed that measures of walking sit to stand and turning showed independent associations with parkinsonian gait and together accounted for more than 35% of its variance. Cross-validation using data from a 2nd group of 258 older adults showed similar results. In similar analyses, only walking was associated with bradykinesia and sway with tremor. Interpretation Quantitative mobility subtask measures vary in their associations with parkinsonian gait scores and other parkinsonian signs in older adults. Quantifying the different facets of mobility has the potential to facilitate the clinical characterization and understanding the biologic basis for impaired mobility in older adults. PMID:24465997

  17. Acetyl-L-Carnitine via Upegulating Dopamine D1 Receptor and Attenuating Microglial Activation Prevents Neuronal Loss and Improves Memory Functions in Parkinsonian Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonu; Mishra, Akanksha; Srivastava, Neha; Shukla, Rakesh; Shukla, Shubha

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is accompanied by nonmotor symptoms including cognitive impairment, which precede the onset of motor symptoms in patients and are regulated by dopamine (DA) receptors and the mesocorticolimbic pathway. The relative contribution of DA receptors and astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) in cognitive functions is largely unexplored. Similarly, whether microglia-derived increased immune response affects cognitive functions and neuronal survival is not yet understood. We have investigated the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on cognitive functions and its possible underlying mechanism of action in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rats. ALCAR treatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats improved memory functions as confirmed by decreased latency time and path length in the Morris water maze test. ALCAR further enhanced D1 receptor levels without altering D2 receptor levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions, suggesting that the D1 receptor is preferentially involved in the regulation of cognitive functions. ALCAR attenuated microglial activation and release of inflammatory mediators through balancing proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which subsequently enhanced the survival of mature neurons in the CA1, CA3, and PFC regions and improved cognitive functions in hemiparkinsonian rats. ALCAR treatment also improved glutathione (GSH) content, while decreasing oxidative stress indices, inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, and astrogliosis resulting in the upregulation of GLT-1 levels. Additionally, ALCAR prevented the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in ventral tagmental area (VTA)/substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) regions of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, thus maintaining the integrity of the nigrostriatal pathway. Together, these results demonstrate that ALCAR treatment in hemiparkinsonian rats ameliorates neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits, hence suggesting its therapeutic potential in

  18. Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells exerts therapeutic effects on parkinsonian model of rats: Focusing on neuroprotective effects of stromal cell-derived factor-1α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayra Judith

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are pluripotent stem cells derived from bone marrow with secretory functions of various neurotrophic factors. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α is also reported as one of chemokines released from MSCs. In this research, the therapeutic effects of MSCs through SDF-1α were explored. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 20 μg was injected into the right striatum of female SD rats with subsequent administration of GFP-labeled MSCs, fibroblasts, (i.v., 1 × 107 cells, respectively or PBS at 2 hours after 6-OHDA injection. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test for 1 month with consequent euthanasia for immunohistochemical evaluations. Additionally, to explore the underlying mechanisms, neuroprotective effects of SDF-1α were explored using 6-OHDA-exposed PC12 cells by using dopamine (DA assay and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Rats receiving MSC transplantation significantly ameliorated behaviorally both in cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test compared with the control groups. Correspondingly, rats with MSCs displayed significant preservation in the density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive fibers in the striatum and the number of TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc compared to that of control rats. In the in vitro study, SDF-1α treatment increased DA release and suppressed cell death induced by 6-OHDA administration compared with the control groups. Conclusions Consequently, MSC transplantation might exert neuroprotection on 6-OHDA-exposed dopaminergic neurons at least partly through anti-apoptotic effects of SDF-1α. The results demonstrate the potentials of intravenous MSC administration for clinical applications, although further explorations are required.

  19. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea nigra, and piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Chaudhry, Maria; Elewski, Boni

    2003-07-01

    Tinea infections are among the most common dermatologic conditions throughout the world. To avoid a misdiagnosis, identification of dermatophyte infections requires both a fungal culture on Sabouraud's agar media, and a light microscopic mycologic examination from skin scrapings. Topical antifungals may be sufficient for treatment of tinea corporis and cruris and tinea nigra, and the shaving of hair infected by piedra may also be beneficial. Systemic therapy, however, may be required when the infected areas are large, macerated with a secondary infection, or in immunocompromised individuals. Preventative measures of tinea infections include practicing good personal hygiene; keeping the skin dry and cool at all times; and avoiding sharing towels, clothing, or hair accessories with infected individuals.

  20. Dalnigrin, a neoflavonoid marker for the identification of Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) in CITES enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Groves, Madeleine C; Gasson, Peter E; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2010-07-01

    International trade in Brazilian rosewood, Dalbergia nigra (Vell.) Allemão ex Benth., is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). One problem in enforcing these regulations is the difficulty in distinguishing the wood of D. nigra from that of a closely-related but unregulated species, Dalbergia spruceana Benth. Using LC-MS to analyse methanol extracts of xylaria specimens, we identified a chemical marker for D. nigra heartwood, and determined its structure as the neoflavonoid 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4'-O-methylmelanettin; dalnigrin), using spectroscopic techniques. Dalnigrin was present in all nine available heartwood specimens of D. nigra, but it was not detected in extracts of 59 other heartwood samples representing 15 species of Dalbergia, including D. spruceana. Five other phenolic compounds were also isolated from D. nigra heartwood and similarly identified as the neoflavonoids 3'-hydroxymelanettin, melanettin, melannein and dalbergin, and the isoflavone caviunin. In extracts of D. spruceana heartwood, pseudobaptigenin was identified by LC-MS to be a major phenolic component that was not detected in wood extracts of D. nigra. We conclude that chemical analysis, in combination with anatomical investigation, can provide persuasive evidence to support the positive identification of untreated heartwood of D. nigra. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 18F FDG PET/CT in differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa; Moon, S.; Mahajan, S.; Thapa, P.; Gupta, P.; Sahana; Tripathi, M.; Sharma, R.; Mondal, A.; Batla, A.; Nehru, R.; Kushwaha, S.; Mishra, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders can be challenging in the early phase of disease course. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with 18 F Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been used to identify characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) as well as variant forms of Parkinsonism such as Multisystem Atrophy (MSA), Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) and cortico basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). In this study we assessed the utility of 18 F FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis Parkinsonian syndromes. 66 Parkinsonian patients with a mean age of 59.6 ± 11.50 years, male: female ratio of 3.12:1, age range of 35-84 years with a disease duration of 2.6 ± .68 years were referred for FDG PET to determine whether their scan patterns could distinguish idiopathic Parkinsons from the Parkinson plus syndromes. Approximately 60 minutes following intravenous injection of 370 MBq of 18 F-FDG, PET/CT scan of the brain was acquired in a whole-body Full Ring PET/CT scanner (Discovery STE16 camera). A low dose CT was obtained on the same area without IV contrast for attenuation correction and coregistration. Images were reconstructed using a 3D VUE algorithm and slices were reformatted into transaxial, coronal and sagittal views. Subsequently the images were processed and visually analyzed on Xeleris workstation. Images were classified by visual analysis into the various subgroups, those with normal to increased basal ganglia uptake were classified into Idiopathic Parkinson's (40/45) and when basal ganglia uptake was decreased they were Parkinsons Plus (19/21). The study demonstrates that 18 F FDG PET performed at the time of initial referral for parkinsonism could accurately classify patients into Parkinson's disease and Parkinson plus subtypes

  2. Dynamical analysis of Parkinsonian state emulated by hybrid Izhikevich neuron models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Li, Huiyan; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Fietkiewicz, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Computational models play a significant role in exploring novel theories to complement the findings of physiological experiments. Various computational models have been developed to reveal the mechanisms underlying brain functions. Particularly, in the development of therapies to modulate behavioral and pathological abnormalities, computational models provide the basic foundations to exhibit transitions between physiological and pathological conditions. Considering the significant roles of the intrinsic properties of the globus pallidus and the coupling connections between neurons in determining the firing patterns and the dynamical activities of the basal ganglia neuronal network, we propose a hypothesis that pathological behaviors under the Parkinsonian state may originate from combined effects of intrinsic properties of globus pallidus neurons and synaptic conductances in the whole neuronal network. In order to establish a computational efficient network model, hybrid Izhikevich neuron model is used due to its capacity of capturing the dynamical characteristics of the biological neuronal activities. Detailed analysis of the individual Izhikevich neuron model can assist in understanding the roles of model parameters, which then facilitates the establishment of the basal ganglia-thalamic network model, and contributes to a further exploration of the underlying mechanisms of the Parkinsonian state. Simulation results show that the hybrid Izhikevich neuron model is capable of capturing many of the dynamical properties of the basal ganglia-thalamic neuronal network, such as variations of the firing rates and emergence of synchronous oscillations under the Parkinsonian condition, despite the simplicity of the two-dimensional neuronal model. It may suggest that the computational efficient hybrid Izhikevich neuron model can be used to explore basal ganglia normal and abnormal functions. Especially it provides an efficient way of emulating the large-scale neuron network

  3. Neural dynamics in Parkinsonian brain: The boundary between synchronized and nonsynchronized dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choongseok; Worth, Robert M.; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.

    2011-04-01

    Synchronous oscillatory dynamics is frequently observed in the human brain. We analyze the fine temporal structure of phase-locking in a realistic network model and match it with the experimental data from Parkinsonian patients. We show that the experimentally observed intermittent synchrony can be generated just by moderately increased coupling strength in the basal ganglia circuits due to the lack of dopamine. Comparison of the experimental and modeling data suggest that brain activity in Parkinson's disease resides in the large boundary region between synchronized and nonsynchronized dynamics. Being on the edge of synchrony may allow for easy formation of transient neuronal assemblies.

  4. Evaluation of phenolic compounds and lipid-lowering effect of Morus nigra leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA LÚCIA B. ZENI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morus nigra L. (Moraceae is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively, as well as antioxidant activity (83.85% than decoction or hydromethanolic extracts. Although, decoction showed the best result for ascorbic acid (4.35 mg/100 g than hydromethanolic or infusion (2.51 or 2.13 mg/100 g, respectively. The phenolic acids gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic and the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and catechin were found in the M. nigra extracts. Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of MN decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides and normalized lipoproteins. Furthermore, MN inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain of hyperlipidemic rats. This study provides evidence that M. nigra leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols, mainly chlorogenic acid, which normalized hyperlipidemic disturbance. The results suggest a potential therapeutic effect of the M. nigra leaves infusion on dislipidemic condition and related oxidative stress.

  5. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  6. Gamma radiation effect on Populus nigra assimilatory pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creanga, I. A.; Tudorie, Marcela; Mocanasu, C.; Creanga, Dorina

    2002-01-01

    The influence of low intensity gamma radiation on the photosynthesis in young poplar saplings was studied. Black poplar (Populus nigra) was chosen due to its ecological importance, as fast growing tree species with many hybrids, in the frame of a polluted environment. Assimilatory pigments in the leaves of irradiated saplings were assayed using standard spectrophotometric method in acetone extract. Series of five saplings formed the experimental samples. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b levels appeared as diminished in exposed samples in comparison to the controls. Linear regression was established in every case, the line slope showing the higher effect in chlorophyll b. Carotene pigments presented a slight increasing tendency in the exposed samples. Assimilatory pigment sum was shown to be affected by the same decreasing tendency. Student t-test was applied (two tailed, pair type) to reveal statistical significance of observed modifications. Though not very deep, the modifications induced by exposure to gamma radiation of low intensity (comparable to the local atmospheric variations, caused by both natural and artificial sources) represent putative inhibitory factors in young plant photosynthesis. The main mechanism of radiation action seems to be water radiolysis, triggering peroxide cascade, generally producing toxic products for the cell metabolism. Nevertheless, living cell ability to repair some damages caused by external stress could be revealed in the present case by the enhancing tendency of the carotenes which sustain photosynthesis as secondary pigments. (authors)

  7. Effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on parkinsonian gait: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Shashank; Ghai, Ishan; Schmitz, Gerd; Effenberg, Alfred O

    2018-01-11

    The use of rhythmic auditory cueing to enhance gait performance in parkinsonian patients' is an emerging area of interest. Different theories and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have been suggested for ascertaining the enhancement in motor performance. However, a consensus as to its effects based on characteristics of effective stimuli, and training dosage is still not reached. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to analyze the effects of different auditory feedbacks on gait and postural performance in patients affected by Parkinson's disease. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to PRISMA guidelines, from inception until May 2017, on online databases; Web of science, PEDro, EBSCO, MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE and PROQUEST. Of 4204 records, 50 studies, involving 1892 participants met our inclusion criteria. The analysis revealed an overall positive effect on gait velocity, stride length, and a negative effect on cadence with application of auditory cueing. Neurophysiological mechanisms, training dosage, effects of higher information processing constraints, and use of cueing as an adjunct with medications are thoroughly discussed. This present review bridges the gaps in literature by suggesting application of rhythmic auditory cueing in conventional rehabilitation approaches to enhance motor performance and quality of life in the parkinsonian community.

  8. Model-based iterative learning control of Parkinsonian state in thalamic relay neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Li, Huiyan; Xue, Zhiqin; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2014-09-01

    Although the beneficial effects of chronic deep brain stimulation on Parkinson's disease motor symptoms are now largely confirmed, the underlying mechanisms behind deep brain stimulation remain unclear and under debate. Hence, the selection of stimulation parameters is full of challenges. Additionally, due to the complexity of neural system, together with omnipresent noises, the accurate model of thalamic relay neuron is unknown. Thus, the iterative learning control of the thalamic relay neuron's Parkinsonian state based on various variables is presented. Combining the iterative learning control with typical proportional-integral control algorithm, a novel and efficient control strategy is proposed, which does not require any particular knowledge on the detailed physiological characteristics of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop and can automatically adjust the stimulation parameters. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed control strategy to restore the fidelity of thalamic relay in the Parkinsonian condition. Furthermore, through changing the important parameter—the maximum ionic conductance densities of low-threshold calcium current, the dominant characteristic of the proposed method which is independent of the accurate model can be further verified.

  9. Neuroprotective and behavioral efficacy of intravenous transplanted adipose stem cells in experimental Parkinsonian rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Nakhaeifard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a deficiency of dopamine in the striatum, characterized by bradykinesis, rigidity and resting tremor. Adipose tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs have many advantages for cell therapy because of the easy availability and pluripotency without ethical problems. In this research, the effects of ADSCs transplantation on motor impairment of rat Parkinsonian models were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Parkinson model was constructed by the unilateral lesion of striatum of male Wistar rats using 20µg of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA as lesion group. Cell and α-MEM (α-minimal essential medium groups were lesioned animals that received intravenous injection of 3×106 cells suspended in medium and medium repectively. All rats were evaluated behaviorally with rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests, at 4 and 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: Lesion and α-MEM groups showed increased contralateral turns while cell group significantly ameliorated both in rotarod and apomorphine-induced rotation tests. There was a significant difference of contralateral turns between cell and lesioned groups at 8 weeks after transplantation. Lesioned rats showed significant decrease of staying on the rod as compared to control, but in cell group there was a significant increase in comparision with the lesioned animals. Conclusion: ADSCs injected intravenously promote functional recovery in Parkinsonian rats.

  10. Predictive value of dopamine transporter SPECT imaging with [123I]PE2I in patients with subtle parkinsonian symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, Morten; Thomsen, Gerda; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Andersen, Birgitte B.; Pinborg, Lars H.; Karlsborg, Merete; Hasselbalch, Steen G.

    2012-01-01

    To examine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of dopamine transporter SPECT imaging with a highly dopamine transporter selective radioligand. The study included consecutively enrolled, drug-naive patients with an average short history of parkinsonian motor symptoms, referred for diagnostic scanning. The study group comprised 288 patients naive to antiparkinson treatment who were enrolled as they were admitted for a diagnostic SPECT scan with the radioligand [ 123 I]-N-(3-iodoprop-2E-enyl)-2-β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-methylphenyl)n ortropane ( 123 I-PE2I). After the diagnostic scanning, patients were followed clinically with an average follow-up of 19.7 ± 12.5 months. A diagnosis could be clinically settled in 189 patients and among these patients, a dopamine transporter scan had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 91% for discrimination between patients with and without striatal neurodegeneration. In cognitively impaired patients (Mini Mental State Examination 2 differentiated between idiopathic Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes with a specificity of 84% and a sensitivity of 63%. In drug-naive patients with subtle clinical parkinsonian motor symptoms, dopamine transporter scan using 123 I-PE21 has a high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between patients with and without striatal neurodegeneration. The specificity is lower in patients who are also cognitively impaired. Calculation of the striatal APR can assist in differentiating between idiopathic Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes. (orig.)

  11. Modulation of attentional processing by deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus region in patients with parkinsonian disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Julia; Schwiecker, Kati; Bittner, Verena; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Voges, Jürgen; Galazky, Imke; Zaehle, Tino

    2015-07-01

    Low-frequency electrical stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a therapeutic approach aiming to improve motor symptoms such as freezing of gate and postural instability in parkinsonian disorders. Because the PPN is a component of the reticular activating system, we tested whether PPN stimulation directly affects attention and consciousness. Eight patients with parkinsonian disorders and implanted with electrodes in the bilateral PPN underwent computerized assessment of attention. Performance in 3 standard reaction time (RT) tasks was assessed at 5 different stimulation frequencies in 5 consecutive sessions. Stimulation of the PPN at low (8 Hz) and therapeutic (20 Hz) frequencies led to a significant improvement of performance in a simple RT task. Patients' RTs were significantly faster at stimulation frequencies of 8 Hz and 20 Hz relative to no stimulation. Stimulation did not affect patients' performance in more complex attentional tasks. Low-frequent stimulation of PPN improves basal attentional processing in patients with parkinsonian disorders, leading to an improved tonic alertness. As successful performance in this task requires the intrinsic ability to build up and keep a certain level of attention, this might be interpreted as attentional augmentation related to stimulation features. Stimulation had no effect on more complex attentional processing. Our results suggest an influence of the PPN on certain aspects of attention, supporting attentional augmentation as one possible mechanism to improve motor action and gait in patients with parkinsonian disorders. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. IBZM SPECT and FDG PET in the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndromes. Comparison with respect to inter-rater agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derlin, T; Afzal, W; Wilke, F

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Both IBZM SPECT and FDG PET may be used for differentiation between Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (APS). However, there are only very limited data of both modalities in the same subjects. The present study compared both modalities with respect...

  13. Characterization of the porcine FBX07 gene: the first step towards generation of a pig model for Parkinsonian pyramidal syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Parkinsonian pyramidal syndrome, also named pallido-pyramidal syndrome (PKPS), is the combination of early-onset progressive Parkinsonism with pyramidal tract signs. FBXO7, an F-box protein, is a component of modular E3 ubiquitin protein ligases called SCFs (SKP1, cullin, F-box proteins), which...

  14. Mycorrhization of containerised Pinus nigra seedlings with Suillus granulatus under open field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarevic, J.; Keca, N.; Martinovie, A.

    2012-07-01

    Seedling mycorrhization acts as an efficient tool for improving the quality of seedlings. In this study, the effectiveness of Suillus granulatus, originating from Pinus heldreichii forests (Montenegro), to produce containerized ectomycorrhizal seedlings of autochthonous Pinus nigra in open field conditions was investigated. Spore (106, 107, 108) and vegetative (1:16, 1:8, 1:4) inoculation on ectomycorrhizal formation and seedling growth were tested. Spore and vegetative inoculums of autochthonous Pisolithus arhizus were used in the same trial as additional control treatments. The utilization of vegetative and spore inoculums of autochthonous S. granulatus has proven to be an effective method of obtaining containerized ectomycorrhizal P. nigra seedlings under open field conditions after 11 months. S. granulatus spore inoculations resulted in well developed ectomycorrhiza, decreasing the growth of the P. nigra seedlings in the first growing season. Mycelial inoculations resulted in slightly developed S. granulatus ectomycorrhiza, which increased the growth of the seedlings. Therefore, it would be feasible to use spore inocula of S. granulatus, with 10{sup 6} spores per plant, to produce ectomycorrhizal P. nigra plants on a large scale. Controlled mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings is not a common practice in Montenegrin and Serbian nurseries; as such, the obtained results will contribute to the enhancement of nursery production of Pinus nigra and other conifers. This also could be assumed as a starting point for many further efforts and investigations with autochthonous fungal and plant material in this region. (Author) 47 refs.

  15. Parkinsonian Balance Deficits Quantified Using a Game Industry Board and a Specific Battery of Four Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbin, Olivier; Gubler, Coral; Naritoku, Dean; Dees, Daniel; Martino, Anthony; Adams, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a cost-effective screening protocol for parkinsonism based on combined objective and subjective monitoring of balance function. Objective evaluation of balance function was performed using a game industry balance board and an automated analyses of the dynamic of the center of pressure in time, frequency, and non-linear domains collected during short series of stand up tests with different modalities and severity of sensorial deprivation. The subjective measurement of balance function was performed using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaire. Principal component analyses on both objective and subjective measurements of balance function allowed to obtained a specificity and selectivity for parkinsonian patients (vs. healthy subjects) of 0.67 and 0.71 respectively. The findings are discussed regarding the relevance of cost-effective balance-based screening system as strategy to meet the needs of broader and earlier screening for parkinsonism in communities with limited access to healthcare.

  16. Parkinsonian balance deficits quantified using a game industry board and a specific battery of four paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Darbin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a cost-effective screening protocol for parkinsonism based on combined objective and subjective monitoring of balance function. Objective evaluation of balance function was performed using a game industry balance board and an automated analyses of the dynamic of the center of pressure in time, frequency and non-linear domains collected during short series of stand up tests with different modalities and severity of sensorial deprivation. The subjective measurement of balance function was performed using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaire. Principal component analyses on both objective and subjective measurements of balance function allowed to obtained a specificity and selectivity for parkinsonian patients (v.s. healthy subjects of 0.67 and 0.71 respectively. The findings are discussed regarding the relevance of cost-effective balance-based screening system as strategy to meet the needs of broader and earlier screening for parkinsonism in communities with limited access to healthcare.

  17. Distributed neural actions of anti-parkinsonian therapies as revealed by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerendt, I.K.; Mehta, M.A; Stern, J.S.; Brooks, D.J.; Lawrence, A.D.; Odin, P.

    2006-01-01

    There is a limited understanding of how different anti-parkinsonian treatments act at the neuronal systems level. Using positron emission tomography we examined the effects of levodopa and deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease during a homogenous cognitive-behavioral state rather than during an unspecified resting state. We found that when medicated precuneus, frontal, parietal, cerebellar and midbrain areas were relatively more activated than when stimulated, whereas when stimulated the precentral gyrus, caudate and thalamus were relatively more activated than when medicated. Areas that were activated by both treatments included the temporal gyri, anterior thalamus, and midbrain. Regions of prefrontal cortex showed relatively greater activation in the 'off treatment' conditions of both the medicated and stimulated groups. Our findings suggest that the two treatment methods may lead to symptomatic relief via both common and different sites of action. (author)

  18. A Smart Tool for the Diagnosis of Parkinsonian Syndromes using Wireless Watches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Goll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and diagnosis of Parkinson disease will provide a good chance for patients to take early actions and prevent its further development. In this paper, a smart tool for the diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndromes is designed and developed using low–cost Texas Instruments eZ430-Chronos wireless watches. With this smart tool, Parkinson Bradykinesia is detected based on the cycle of a human gait, with the watch worn on the foot, and Parkinson Tremor shaking is detected and differed by frequency 0 to 8 Hz on the arm in real-time with a developed statistical diagnosis chart. It can be used in small clinics as well as home environment due to its low-cost and easy-use property.

  19. Variation of leaf margin serration in Populus nigra of industrial dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Shtirs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The variability of leaf margin serration of Populus nigra L. in conditions of industrial dumps (coal mines dumps and overburden dumps and city park is estimated. The value of this indicator is in the range from 1.25 to 1.76 and significantly increases along the gradient: coal mines dumps – overburden dumps – city park. From the number of selected gradations of P. nigra leaf blades, the gradation with values of 1.45-1.55 is most pronounced according to the analyzed index for industrial dumps, for the park – with the values of 1.55-1.65. The degree of serration of edge leaf blade is characterized by low values of variation – coefficient of variation is less than 10.0%. We registered the significant positive correlation between the average values of leaf margin serration and the length of P. nigra leaf blade.

  20. Parkinsonian Rest Tremor Is Associated With Modulations of Subthalamic High-Frequency Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Jan; Butz, Markus; Hartmann, Christian J; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Özkurt, Tolga E; Vesper, Jan; Wojtecki, Lars; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2016-10-01

    High frequency oscillations (>200 Hz) have been observed in the basal ganglia of PD patients and were shown to be modulated by the administration of levodopa and voluntary movement. The objective of this study was to test whether the power of high-frequency oscillations in the STN is associated with spontaneous manifestation of parkinsonian rest tremor. The electromyogram of both forearms and local field potentials from the STN were recorded in 11 PD patients (10 men, age 58 [9.4] years, disease duration 9.2 [6.3] years). Patients were recorded at rest and while performing repetitive hand movements before and after levodopa intake. High-frequency oscillation power was compared across epochs containing rest tremor, tremor-free rest, or voluntary movement and related to the tremor cycle. We observed prominent slow (200-300 Hz) and fast (300-400 Hz) high-frequency oscillations. The ratio between slow and fast high-frequency oscillation power increased when tremor became manifest. This increase was consistent across nuclei (94%) and occurred in medication ON and OFF. The ratio outperformed other potential markers of tremor, such as power at individual tremor frequency, beta power, or low gamma power. For voluntary movement, we did not observe a significant difference when compared with rest or rest tremor. Finally, rhythmic modulations of high-frequency oscillation power occurred within the tremor cycle. Subthalamic high-frequency oscillation power is closely linked to the occurrence of parkinsonian rest tremor. The balance between slow and fast high-frequency oscillation power combines information on motor and medication state. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders using a channelized Hotelling observer model: Proof of principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, H.; Bal, G.; Acton, P. D.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging dopamine transporters using PET and SPECT probes is a powerful technique for the early diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders. In order to perform automated accurate diagnosis of these diseases, a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) based model was developed and evaluated using the SPECT tracer [Tc-99m]TRODAT-1. Computer simulations were performed using a digitized striatal phantom to characterize early stages of the disease (20 lesion-present cases with varying lesion size and contrast). Projection data, modeling the effects of attenuation and geometric response function, were obtained for each case. Statistical noise levels corresponding to those observed clinically were added to the projection data to obtain 100 noise realizations for each case. All the projection data were reconstructed, and a subset of the transaxial slices containing the striatum was summed and used for further analysis. CHO models, using the Laguerre-Gaussian functions as channels, were designed for two cases: (1) By training the model using individual lesion-present samples and (2) by training the model using pooled lesion-present samples. A decision threshold obtained for each CHO model was used to classify the study population (n=40). It was observed that individual lesion trained CHO models gave high diagnostic accuracy for lesions that were larger than those used to train the model and vice-versa. On the other hand, the pooled CHO model was found to give a high diagnostic accuracy for all the lesion cases (average diagnostic accuracy=0.95±0.07; p<0.0001 Fisher's exact test). Based on our results, we conclude that a CHO model has the potential to provide early and accurate diagnosis of Parkinsonian disorders, thereby improving patient management

  2. Parkinsonian syndromes presenting with circadian rhythm sleep disorder- advanced sleep-phase type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Garima; Kaul, Bhavna; Gupta, Anupama; Goyal, Vinay; Behari, Madhuri

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorder-advanced sleep-phase type is a relatively uncommon disorder, mostly seen among the elderly population. Impaired circadian rhythms have been reported in neurodegenerative conditions; however, there are no reports of any circadian rhythm sleep disorder among patients with Parkinsonian syndromes. We report two patients who presented with this circadian rhythm disorder, and were then diagnosed with a Parkinsonian syndrome. The cases. A 65-year-old retired man presented with history of abrupt change in sleep schedules, sleeping around 6.30-7 p.m. and waking up around 3-4 a.m. for the last 2 months. On detailed examination, the patient was observed to have symmetrical bradykinesia and cogwheel rigidity of limbs. A diagnosis of multiple system atrophy was made, supported by MRI findings and evidence of autonomic dysfunction. Symptoms of change in sleep-wake cycles resolved over the next 1 year, while the patient was treated with dopaminergic therapy. A 47-year-old man, who was being evaluated for presurgical investigation for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, presented with complaints suggestive of dysarthria, bradykinesia of limbs and frequent falls for 5 months. Simultaneously, he began to sleep around 7 p.m. and wake up at about 2-3 a.m. Examination revealed severe axial rigidity, restricted vertical gaze and bradykinesia of limbs. A diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy was made. This is the first report of Parkinson's plus syndromes presenting with a circadian rhythm sleep disorder-advanced sleep-phase type. More prospective assessment for circadian sleep disorders may introduce useful insights into similar associations. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  3. Simvastatin prevents dopaminergic neurodegeneration in experimental parkinsonian models: the association with anti-inflammatory responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to their original applications to lowering cholesterol, statins display multiple neuroprotective effects. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors interact closely with the dopaminergic system and are strongly implicated in therapeutic paradigms of Parkinson's disease (PD. This study aims to investigate how simvastatin impacts on experimental parkinsonian models via regulating NMDA receptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Regional changes in NMDA receptors in the rat brain and anxiolytic-like activity were examined after unilateral medial forebrain bundle lesion by 6-hydroxydopamine via a 3-week administration of simvastatin. NMDA receptor alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [³H]MK-801(Dizocilpine binding autoradiography. 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12 was applied to investigate the neuroprotection of simvastatin, the association with NMDA receptors, and the anti-inflammation. 6-hydroxydopamine induced anxiety and the downregulation of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, CA1(Cornu Ammonis 1 Area, amygdala and caudate putamen was observed in 6-OHDA(6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats whereas simvastatin significantly ameliorated the anxiety-like activity and restored the expression of NMDA receptors in examined brain regions. Significant positive correlations were identified between anxiolytic-like activity and the restoration of expression of NMDA receptors in the hippocampus, amygdala and CA1 following simvastatin administration. Simvastatin exerted neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain and 6-hydroxydopamine treated PC12, partially by regulating NMDA receptors, MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9, and TNF-a (tumour necrosis factor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide strong evidence that NMDA receptor modulation after simvastatin treatment could partially explain its anxiolytic-like activity and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in experimental parkinsonian models. These findings

  4. Development of Brassica oleracea-nigra monosomic alien addition lines: genotypic, cytological and morphological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen; Cui, Cheng; Xiang, Yi; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2017-12-01

    We report the development and characterization of Brassica oleracea - nigra monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) to dissect the Brassica B genome. Brassica nigra (2n = 16, BB) represents the diploid Brassica B genome which carries many useful genes and traits for breeding but received limited studies. To dissect the B genome from B. nigra, the triploid F 1 hybrid (2n = 26, CCB) obtained previously from the cross B. oleracea var. alboglabra (2n = 18, CC) × B. nigra was used as the maternal parent and backcrossed successively to parental B. oleracea. The progenies in BC 1 to BC 3 generations were analyzed by the methods of FISH and SSR markers to screen the monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) with each of eight different B-genome chromosomes added to C genome (2n = 19, CC + 1B 1-8 ), and seven different MAALs were established, except for the one with chromosome B2 which existed in one triple addition. Most of these MAALs were distinguishable morphologically from each other, as they expressed the characters from B. nigra differently and at variable extents. The alien chromosome remained unpaired as a univalent in 86.24% pollen mother cells at diakinesis or metaphase I, and formed a trivalent with two C-genome chromosomes in 13.76% cells. Transmission frequency of all the added chromosomes was far higher through the ovules (averagely 14.40%) than the pollen (2.64%). The B1, B4 and B5 chromosomes were transmitted by female at much higher rates (22.38-30.00%) than the other four (B3, B6, B7, B8) (5.04-8.42%). The MAALs should be valuable for exploiting the genome structure and evolution of B. nigra.

  5. Insights into some physiological and biochemical responses of Populus alba and Populus nigra to lead contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Etemadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of lead (PbCl2 increment, under hydroponic conditions up to 15, 45 and 90 mg/l in presence of EDTA, on some physiological and biochemical traits of one year old saplings of P. nigra and P. alba, were investigated. Six weeks after establishing in target concentration, the amount of lead, biomass, water, soluble sugars, proline, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and pigments were assessed in different organs. The results revealed that with increasing lead concentration in culture medium in the studied period, the amount of lead in saplings increased, but no effect was observed on their biomass. In both species the magnitude of lead accumulation in root was higher than leaf. P. nigra had more water and less soluble sugars than P. alba. The concentration of soluble sugars increased up to 1.5 times with lead increment in both species, but proline content increased only in P. nigra up to 2 times and remained constant in P. alba. Elevation of electrolyte leakage in saplings of P. nigra in excess lead treatment was accompanied by no change in malondialdehyde content. Concentrations of pigments were not affected by lead, and only the ratio of chlorophyll a to b in P. nigra increased in high lead concentration. In general both species accumulated high extent of lead in their organs. But it seems that P. nigra, at least with respect of enhancing plasma membrane permeability, increasing proline and the ratio of chlorophyll a to b, was more sensitive to this toxic metal in compare with P. alba.

  6. Contribution of presynaptic HCN channels to excitatory inputs of spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S-C; Wu, J; Zhang, D-Y; Jiang, C-Y; Xie, C-N; Liu, T

    2017-09-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are pathological pain-associated voltage-gated ion channels. They are widely expressed in central nervous system including spinal lamina II (also named the substantia gelatinosa, SG). Here, we examined the distribution of HCN channels in glutamatergic synaptic terminals as well as their role in the modulation of synaptic transmission in SG neurons from SD rats and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67)-GFP mice. We found that the expression of the HCN channel isoforms was varied in SG. The HCN4 isoform showed the highest level of co-localization with VGLUT2 (23±3%). In 53% (n=21/40 neurons) of the SG neurons examined in SD rats, application of HCN channel blocker, ZD7288 (10μM), decreased the frequency of spontaneous (s) and miniature (m) excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) by 37±4% and 33±4%, respectively. Consistently, forskolin (FSK) (an activator of adenylate cyclase) significantly increased the frequency of mEPSCs by 225±34%, which could be partially inhibited by ZD7288. Interestingly, the effects of ZD7288 and FSK on sEPSC frequency were replicated in non-GFP-expressing neurons, but not in GFP-expressing GABAergic SG neurons, in GAD67-GFP transgenic C57/BL6 mice. In summary, our results represent a previously unknown cellular mechanism by which presynaptic HCN channels, especially HCN4, regulate the glutamate release from presynaptic terminals that target excitatory, but not inhibitory SG interneurons. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Minocycline enhances inhibitory transmission to substantia gelatinosa neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H-Z; Ma, L-X; Lv, M-H; Hu, T; Liu, T

    2016-04-05

    Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline, is well known for its antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. Modulation of synaptic transmission is one of the analgesic mechanisms of minocycline. Although it has been reported that minocycline may suppress excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission, it remains unclear whether it could affect inhibitory synaptic transmission, which also plays a key role in modulating pain signaling. To examine the effect of minocycline on synaptic transmission in rat spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons, we recorded spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) using whole-cell patch-clamp recording at a holding potential of 0 mV. Bath application of minocycline significantly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of sIPSCs in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 85. The enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission produced by minocycline was not affected by the glutamate receptor antagonists CNQX and D-APV or by the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Moreover, the potency of minocycline for facilitating sIPSC frequency was the same in both glycinergic and GABAergic sIPSCs without changing their decay phases. However, the facilitatory effect of minocycline on sIPSCs was eliminated in a Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution or by co-administration with calcium channel blockers. In summary, our data demonstrate that baseline inhibitory synaptic transmission in SG neurons is markedly enhanced by minocycline. This may function to decrease the excitability of SG neurons, thus leading to a modulation of nociceptive transmission. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Gambling and the need for new responses in Public Health with an addiction "sine substantia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusco, M; Massoni, F; Luzi, E; Ricci, P; Pelosi, M; Corbosiero, P; Rapp-Ricciardi, M; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    The Gambling Disorder (GD) was recently defined as a behavioral addiction by the "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV"( DSM-V) since the clinical, neurobiological and psychopathological similarities led it to be defined it as an addiction "sine substantia". The aim of this study is to formulate an "identikit" of the gambler, to evaluate a possible association between GD / emotional specific factors and the correlation between GD / substance abuse, GD / suicide. In the study, 41 subjects were included (31 males and 10 females) and all were diagnosed with GD. A questionnaire was distributed containing 24 questions deriving from South Oaks Gambling Screen and the DSM-IVTR. The study showed that 51% of the respondents makes use of alcohol and / or drugs; that 73% of the patients started playing in order to relieve feelings of dysphoria and suffering consequences on work as well as family life (51%). A great deal of the respondents were indebted (39%) to the extent of needing to ask for loans from usurer (17%). Furthermore, 41% of the respondents in the sample showed that GD could be transformed into an alarming risk of suicide. The correlation between GD and drug abuse may depend on the brain function and the neural circuits that support impulsive behavior and the gratification mechanisms. Emotional experiences (stress, low level of education, divorce, poor social support) could constitute a possible risk factor that increases the GD. The committed offenses related to gambling could be explained by "loss of control". The results of the present study contributes to the body of knowledge regarding the size of phenomenon from a statistical and epidemiological point of view, suggesting the necessity for targeted information on the risks connected to GD in order to capture early warning signs which enables the intervention with suitable strategies.

  9. Differential Diagnosis of Patients with Inconclusive Parkinsonian Features Using [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyung; Hwang, Yu Mi; Lee, Channyoung; Oh, Sun Young; Kim, Young Chul; Choe, Jae Gol; Park, Kun Woo [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sujin [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    It is often difficult to differentiate parkinsonism, especially when patients show uncertain parkinsonian features. We investigated the usefulness of dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging for the differential diagnosis of inconclusive parkinsonism using [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT PET. Twenty-four patients with inconclusive parkinsonian features at initial clinical evaluation and nine healthy controls were studied. Patients consisted of three subgroups: nine patients whose diagnoses were unclear concerning whether they had idiopathic Parkinson's disease or drug-induced parkinsonism ('PD/DIP'), nine patients who fulfilled neither the diagnostic criteria of PD nor of essential tremor ('PD/ET'), and six patients who were alleged to have either PD or atypical parkinsonian syndrome ('PD/APS'). Brain PET images were obtained 120 min after injection of 185 MBq [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT. Imaging results were quantified and compared with follow-up clinical diagnoses. Overall, 11 of 24 patients demonstrated abnormally decreased DAT availability on the PET scans, whereas 13 were normal. PET results could diagnose PD/DIP and PD/ET patients as having PD in six patients, DIP in seven, and ET in five; however, the diagnoses of all six PD/APS patients remained inconclusive. Among 15 patients who obtained a final follow-up diagnosis, the image-based diagnosis was congruent with the follow-up diagnosis in 11 patients. Four unsolved cases had normal DAT availability, but clinically progressed to PD during the follow-up period. [{sup 18}F]FP-CIT PET imaging is useful in the differential diagnosis of patients with inconclusive parkinsonian features, except in patients who show atypical features or who eventually progress to PD.

  10. Effect of variety on content of bioactive phenolic compounds in common elder (Sambucus nigra L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrchotová, Naděžda; Dadáková, E.; Matějíček, A.; Tříska, Jan; Kaplan, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2017), s. 700-703 ISSN 1478-6419 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Sambucus nigra * flavonoids * phenolic acids * HPLC-MS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2016

  11. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin

    2010-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  12. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Turkey, Composition of the essential oils of Pin; SEZİK, Ekrem; ÜSTÜN, Osman; DEMİRCİ, Betül; BAŞER, K. Hüsnü Can

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil composition of the needles of Pinus nigra Arnold collected from different localities in Turkey was investigated by GC and GC/MS. The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D.

  13. Rapid in vitro shoot multiplication of the recalcitrant species Juglans nigra L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micah E. Stevens; Paula M. Pijut

    2018-01-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) has long been prized for its timber, leading to commercial cultivation and significant breeding efforts for improving marketable traits. Vegetative and in vitro black walnut propagation techniques, however, are variable and highly genotype dependent. Optimizing plant growth regulator type and...

  14. Wood Anatomical Structure of Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L., Native to Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham KARAMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a wast country with many different tree species. Among those there are two species of Morus genus including alba and nigra. Since long time ago, white mulberry�s wood (Morus alba has been used for making musical instruments especially bowl shaped instruments in Iran.. In contrast, black mulberry�s wood (Morus nigra has never been used for these types of applications. In order to investigate the possible replacement choices, this study has been carried out to investigate the anatomical differences and similarities between these two species. Wood samples of the two species have been collected from same site and microsections for light microscopic studies and maceration samples have been prepared. The anatomical characteristics were studied according to the IAWA List of Hardwoods. The most important similarities between them are: vessel solitary in short radial multiples or irregular clusters, fiber nonseptate, rays uniseriate and multiseriate type, paratracheal parenchyma, varying from vasicentric to aliform confluent, apotracheal as marginal bands, Rhombic crystals present in rays and sometimes in parenchyma. The main differences are: semi-ring porous distribution of vessels in M. alba, fewer number of vessels and presence of aliform parenchyma in M. nigra. Taking these results into consideration, the most important features of both species are similar and it could be recommended to use the nigra species as well as the alba for making musical instruments.

  15. Lead tolerance of Populus nigra in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, A.; Tabari, M.; Mohammadi Goltapeh, E.; Shirvani, A.

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to examine lead tolerance of Populus nigra (clone 62/154) in symbiosis witharbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a greenhouse experiment was carried out in a factorial randomized complete scheme with two factors 1) fungal inoculation in 4 levels (control, inoculation with Glomus mosseae, inoculation with G. intraradices and inoculation with G. mosseae+G. intraradices) and 2) lead in 4 levels (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 soil). Mycorrhizal colonization and physiological parameters of plants were measured at the end of growth season. Results showed that at all Pb levels, the percentage of root mycorrhizal colonization in fungal treatments was significantly higher than that in control treatment (without fungal inoculation), however without significant differences between 3 fungal treatments. Pb treatments had no significant effect on root mycorrhizal colonization of P. nigra plants. Also, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, intercellular CO2 concentration and water use efficiency of P. nigra plants had no significant inhibitory effects versus the control found under Pb and fungal treatments or their interaction.The results of present study demonstrated that fungal treatments had no significant effects on physiological parameters and Pb tolerance of P. nigraplants. While, in relation to mycorrhizal colonization and physiological parameters, P. nigra clone 62/154 showeda good tolerance to Pb stress. So, in further investigations of phytoremediation of lead-contaminated soils, this clone can be considered as a proposed species.

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) along Dutch rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, P.; Coops, H.; Jansen, J.; Vosman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The genetic structure of remaining black poplar (Populus nigra) trees on the banks of the Dutch Rhine branches was investigated using the AFLP technique. In total, 143 trees, including one P. deltoides and some P. x euramericana, were analysed using six AFLP primer combinations which generated 319

  17. Habitat characteristics at den sites of the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John E. Hunter; Robin Hamlin; Keith M. Slauson; M. J. Mazurek

    2010-01-01

    The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is a federally listed endangered species, but has been the subject of few studies. Mountain beavers use burrows that include a single subterranean den. Foremost among the information needs for this subspecies is a description of the above-ground habitat features associated with dens. Using...

  18. Reproductive characteristics of the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Zielinski; M. J. Mazurek

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the ecology and life history of the federally endangered Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra). The distribution of this primitive burrowing rodent is disjunct from the balance of the species’ range and occurs in a unique maritime environment of coastal grasslands and forests. Fundamental to protecting this taxon...

  19. First Record of Dicheilonema Ciconiae (Nematoda, Diplotriaenoidea From Ciconia Nigra (Aves, Ciconiidae in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrota Ya. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Five specimens of a parasitic nematode Dicheilonema ciconiae (Schrank, 1788 were collected from black stork, Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, in Kyiv Zoological Park. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by morphological examination of the specimens collected. The ornamentation of the body cuticle in caudal region of males (area rugosa is first described in D. ciconiae.

  20. Developing new microsatellite markers in walnut (Juglans regia L.) from Juglans nigra genomic GA enriched library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat Topcu; Nergiz Coban; Keith Woeste; Mehmet Sutyemez; Salih. Kafkas

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to develop new polymorphic SSR primer pairs in walnut using sequences derived from Juglans nigra L. genomic enriched library with GA repeat. The designed 94 SSR primer pairs were subjected to gradient PCR in 12 walnut cultivars to determine their optimum annealing temperatures and to determine whether they produce bands. Then, the...

  1. From Parkinsonian thalamic activity to restoring thalamic relay using deep brain stimulation: new insights from computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, H. G. E.; Krupa, M.; Cagnan, H.; Lourens, M. A. J.; Heida, T.; Martens, H. C. F.; Bour, L. J.; van Gils, S. A.

    2011-10-01

    We present a computational model of a thalamocortical relay neuron for exploring basal ganglia thalamocortical loop behavior in relation to Parkinson's disease and deep brain stimulation (DBS). Previous microelectrode, single-unit recording studies demonstrated that oscillatory interaction within and between basal ganglia nuclei is very often accompanied by synchronization at Parkinsonian rest tremor frequencies (3-10 Hz). These oscillations have a profound influence on thalamic projections and impair the thalamic relaying of cortical input by generating rebound action potentials. Our model describes convergent inhibitory input received from basal ganglia by the thalamocortical cells based on characteristics of normal activity, and/or low-frequency oscillations (activity associated with Parkinson's disease). In addition to simulated input, we also used microelectrode recordings as inputs for the model. In the resting state, and without additional sensorimotor input, pathological rebound activity is generated for even mild Parkinsonian input. We have found a specific stimulation window of amplitudes and frequencies for periodic input, which corresponds to high-frequency DBS, and which also suppresses rebound activity for mild and even more prominent Parkinsonian input. When low-frequency pathological rebound activity disables the thalamocortical cell's ability to relay excitatory cortical input, a stimulation signal with parameter settings corresponding to our stimulation window can restore the thalamocortical cell's relay functionality.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  3. Primary motor cortex of the parkinsonian monkey: altered encoding of active movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquereau, Benjamin; DeLong, Mahlon R.

    2016-01-01

    beginning in the 150-ms period that immediately preceded movement. Overall, the results are consistent with proposals that under-activation and abnormal timing of movement-related activity in M1 contribute to parkinsonian motor signs but are not consistent with the idea that a loss of functional specificity plays an important role. Given that pyramidal tract-type neurons form the primary efferent pathway that conveys motor commands to the spinal cord, the dysfunction of movement-related activity in pyramidal tract-type neurons is likely to be a central factor in the pathophysiology of parkinsonian motor signs. PMID:26490335

  4. Optimal control of directional deep brain stimulation in the parkinsonian neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Qingyun

    2016-07-01

    The effect of conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) on debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be limited because it can only yield the spherical field. And, some side effects are clearly induced with influencing their adjacent ganglia. Recent experimental evidence for patients with Parkinson's disease has shown that a novel DBS electrode with 32 independent stimulation source contacts can effectively optimize the clinical therapy by enlarging the therapeutic windows, when it is applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN). This is due to the selective activation in clusters of various stimulation contacts which can be steered directionally and accurately on the targeted regions of interest. In addition, because of the serious damage to the neural tissues, the charge-unbalanced stimulation is not typically indicated and the real DBS utilizes charge-balanced bi-phasic (CBBP) pulses. Inspired by this, we computationally investigate the optimal control of directional CBBP-DBS from the proposed parkinsonian neuronal network of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit. By appropriately tuning stimulation for different neuronal populations, it can be found that directional steering CBBP-DBS paradigms are superior to the spherical case in improving parkinsonian dynamical properties including the synchronization of neuronal populations and the reliability of thalamus relaying the information from cortex, which is in a good agreement with the physiological experiments. Furthermore, it can be found that directional steering stimulations can increase the optimal stimulation intensity of desynchronization by more than 1 mA compared to the spherical case. This is consistent with the experimental result with showing that there exists at least one steering direction that can allow increasing the threshold of side effects by 1 mA. In addition, we also simulate the local field potential (LFP) and dominant frequency (DF) of the STN neuronal population induced by the activation

  5. Neuronal firing in the globus pallidus internus and the ventrolateral thalamus related to parkinsonian motor symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai; ZHUANG Ping; ZHANG Yu-qing; LI Jian-yu; LI Yong-jie

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that parkinsonian motor signs result from hyperactivity in the output nucleus of the basal ganglia, which suppress the motor thalamus and cortical areas. This study aimed to explore the neuronal activity in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) and the ventrolateral thalamic nuclear group (ventral oral posterior/ventral intermediate, Vop/Vim) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).Methods Twenty patients with PD who underwent neurosurgery were studied. Microelectrode recording was performed in the GPi (n=10) and the Vop/Vim (n=10) intraoperatively. Electromyography (EMG) contralateral to the surgery was simultaneously performed. Single unit analysis was carried out. The interspike intervals (ISI) and coefficient of variation (CV) of ISI were calculated. Histograms of ISI were constructed. A unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) was used to assess the clinical outcome of surgery.Results Three hundred and sixty-three neurons were obtained from 20 trajectories. Of 175 GPi neurons, there were 15.4% with tremor frequency, 69.2% with tonic firing, and 15.4% with irregular discharge. Of 188 thalamic neurons, there were 46.8% with tremor frequency, 22.9% with tonic firing, and 30.3% with irregular discharge. The numbers of three patterns of neuron in GPi and Vop/Vim were significantly different (P <0.001). ISI analysis revealed that mean firing rate of the three patterns of GPi neurons was (80.9±63.9) Hz (n=78), which was higher than similar neurons with 62.9 Hz in a normal primate. For the Vop/Vim group, ISI revealed that mean firing rate of the three patterns of neurons (n=95) was (23.2±17.1) Hz which was lower than similar neurons with 30 Hz in the motor thalamus of normal primates. UPDRS indicated that the clinical outcome of pallidotomy was (64.3±9.5)%, (83.4±19.1)% and (63.4±36.3)%, and clinical outcome of thalamotomy was (92.2±12.9)%, (68.0±25.2)% and (44.3±27.2)% for tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia, respectively

  6. A Population of Indirect Pathway Striatal Projection Neurons Is Selectively Entrained to Parkinsonian Beta Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharott, Andrew; Vinciati, Federica; Nakamura, Kouichi C; Magill, Peter J

    2017-10-11

    Classical schemes of basal ganglia organization posit that parkinsonian movement difficulties presenting after striatal dopamine depletion stem from the disproportionate firing rates of spiny projection neurons (SPNs) therein. There remains, however, a pressing need to elucidate striatal SPN firing in the context of the synchronized network oscillations that are abnormally exaggerated in cortical-basal ganglia circuits in parkinsonism. To address this, we recorded unit activities in the dorsal striatum of dopamine-intact and dopamine-depleted rats during two brain states, respectively defined by cortical slow-wave activity (SWA) and activation. Dopamine depletion escalated striatal net output but had contrasting effects on "direct pathway" SPNs (dSPNs) and "indirect pathway" SPNs (iSPNs); their firing rates became imbalanced, and they disparately engaged in network oscillations. Disturbed striatal activity dynamics relating to the slow (∼1 Hz) oscillations prevalent during SWA partly generalized to the exaggerated beta-frequency (15-30 Hz) oscillations arising during cortical activation. In both cases, SPNs exhibited higher incidences of phase-locked firing to ongoing cortical oscillations, and SPN ensembles showed higher levels of rhythmic correlated firing, after dopamine depletion. Importantly, in dopamine-depleted striatum, a widespread population of iSPNs, which often displayed excessive firing rates and aberrant phase-locked firing to cortical beta oscillations, preferentially and excessively synchronized their firing at beta frequencies. Conversely, dSPNs were neither hyperactive nor synchronized to a large extent during cortical activation. These data collectively demonstrate a cell type-selective entrainment of SPN firing to parkinsonian beta oscillations. We conclude that a population of overactive, excessively synchronized iSPNs could orchestrate these pathological rhythms in basal ganglia circuits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic depletion of dopamine

  7. Recovery of neurological functions in non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease by transplantation of encapsulated neonatal porcine choroid plexus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xian-Ming; Lin, Hai; Wang, Wei; Geaney, Marilyn S; Law, Lee; Wynyard, Shaun; Shaikh, Shamim B; Waldvogel, Henry; Faull, Richard L M; Elliott, Robert B; Skinner, Stephen J M; Lee, Jacqueline E; Tan, Paul L-J

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is primarily characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and a loss of their fibre projections in the striatum. We utilized the neonatal porcine choroid plexus (CP), an organ that secretes cerebrospinal fluid containing various types of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors, to ameliorate the Parkinsonian symptoms in MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-treated rhesus monkeys without requiring immunosuppression. We demonstrate that transplanted encapsulated CP clusters (eCPs) significantly improved neurological functions in MPTP-treated monkeys during the course of six months after transplantation (p Parkinson's disease.

  8. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Mitigates 6-OHDA-Induced Behavioral Impairments in Parkinsonian Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effectiveness of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP was evaluated by behavioral tests in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA hemi-parkinsonian (PD rats. Pharmacokinetic measurements of GIP were carried out at the same dose studied behaviorally, as well as at a lower dose used previously. GIP was delivered by subcutaneous administration (s.c. using implanted ALZET micro-osmotic pumps. After two days of pre-treatment, male Sprague Dawley rats received a single unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB. The neuroprotective effects of GIP were evaluated by apomorphine-induced contralateral rotations, as well as by locomotor and anxiety-like behaviors in open-field tests. Concentrations of human active and total GIP were measured in plasma during a five-day treatment period by ELISA and were found to be within a clinically translatable range. GIP pretreatment reduced behavioral abnormalities induced by the unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA lesion produced by 6-OHDA, and thus may be a novel target for PD therapeutic development.

  9. Long-term detection of Parkinsonian tremor activity from subthalamic nucleus local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Brady; Blumenfeld, Zack; Quinn, Emma; Bronte-Stewart, Helen; Chizeck, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Current deep brain stimulation paradigms deliver continuous stimulation to deep brain structures to ameliorate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This continuous stimulation has undesirable side effects and decreases the lifespan of the unit's battery, necessitating earlier replacement. A closed-loop deep brain stimulator that uses brain signals to determine when to deliver stimulation based on the occurrence of symptoms could potentially address these drawbacks of current technology. Attempts to detect Parkinsonian tremor using brain signals recorded during the implantation procedure have been successful. However, the ability of these methods to accurately detect tremor over extended periods of time is unknown. Here we use local field potentials recorded during a deep brain stimulation clinical follow-up visit 1 month after initial programming to build a tremor detection algorithm and use this algorithm to detect tremor in subsequent visits up to 8 months later. Using this method, we detected the occurrence of tremor with accuracies between 68-93%. These results demonstrate the potential of tremor detection methods for efficacious closed-loop deep brain stimulation over extended periods of time.

  10. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Mitigates 6-OHDA-Induced Behavioral Impairments in Parkinsonian Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu-Wen; Hsueh, Shih-Chang; Lai, Jing-Huei; Chen, Yen-Hua; Kang, Shuo-Jhen; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Hoffer, Barry J.; Li, Yazhou; Greig, Nigel H.; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was evaluated by behavioral tests in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-parkinsonian (PD) rats. Pharmacokinetic measurements of GIP were carried out at the same dose studied behaviorally, as well as at a lower dose used previously. GIP was delivered by subcutaneous administration (s.c.) using implanted ALZET micro-osmotic pumps. After two days of pre-treatment, male Sprague Dawley rats received a single unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). The neuroprotective effects of GIP were evaluated by apomorphine-induced contralateral rotations, as well as by locomotor and anxiety-like behaviors in open-field tests. Concentrations of human active and total GIP were measured in plasma during a five-day treatment period by ELISA and were found to be within a clinically translatable range. GIP pretreatment reduced behavioral abnormalities induced by the unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) lesion produced by 6-OHDA, and thus may be a novel target for PD therapeutic development. PMID:29641447

  11. Exercise alters resting state functional connectivity of motor circuits in Parkinsonian rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G.; Heintz, Ryan; Peng, Yu-Hao; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined changes in functional connectivity after long-term aerobic exercise. We examined the effects of 4 weeks of forced running wheel exercise on the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of motor circuits of rats subjected to bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dorsal striatum. Our results showed substantial similarity between lesion-induced changes in rsFC in the rats and alterations in rsFC reported in Parkinson’s disease subjects, including disconnection of the dorsolateral striatum. Exercise in lesioned rats resulted in: (a) normalization of many of the lesion-induced alterations in rsFC, including reintegration of the dorsolateral striatum into the motor network; (b) emergence of the ventrolateral striatum as a new broadly connected network hub; (c) increased rsFC among the motor cortex, motor thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Our results showed for the first time that long-term exercise training partially reversed lesion-induced alterations in rsFC of the motor circuits, and in addition enhanced functional connectivity in specific motor pathways in the Parkinsonian rats, which could underlie recovery in motor functions observed in these rats. PMID:25219465

  12. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadziabdic, D.; Vito, L.; Windham, M. T.; Pscheidt, J. W.; Trigiano, R. N.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2014), s. 75-87 ISSN 0172-8083 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Thousand cankers disease * Juglans nigra * Geosmithia morbida Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2014

  13. A New Record of Chaunocephalus ferox (Digenea, Echinostomatidae from Ciconia nigra in Ukraine Including Morphological and Molecular Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greben О. B.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and molecular data on the type-species of Chaunocephalus Dietz, 1910, Chaunocephalus ferox (Rudolphi, 1795 is provided based on material collected from the type-host, Ciconia nigra (Linnaeus, from Kiev Zoo, Ukraine.

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAKSHA PANDIT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pandit R. 2015. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 15-19. We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Brassica nigra. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 432 nm which indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles Tracking and Analysis (NTA was used to determine the size of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Zeta potential analysis was carried out to study the stability of nanoparticles while FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins as capping agents that provided stability to nanoparticles in colloid. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The activity of Vancomycin was significantly increased in combination with silver nanoparticles showing synergistic activity against all bacteria while the maximum activity was noted against P. acnes.

  15. Reproductive biology and food habits of Pseudoboa nigra (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paula Orofino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide data on body size, sexual size dimorphism,reproductive cycle, and food habits of the pseudoboini snake Pseudoboa nigra, which is distributed mainly in central South America throughout the Cerrado domain. Based on dissections of 147 preserved specimens, it is shown that females attain, and mature at,larger body sizes than males. There is no significant sexual dimorphism in head length, but males have longer tails relative to their body sizes. Vitellogenesis, egg-laying, and sperm production occur throughout the year, but males do not exhibit long-term sperm storage. The main prey of P. nigra is lizards; there is no evidence of ontogenetic change or sex differences in the diet of this species.

  16. The development of hyperhydric tissue on the stems of Sambucus nigra L.

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    Jadwiga A. Tarkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydric intumescences on the stems of Sambucus nigra arise in places where the stem lenticels are immersed in water. The hyperhydric tissue develops through the transformation of the multilayered phelloderm, the parenchyma of the cortex. endodermis and pericycle. The phellogen loses its meristematic properties and is either incorporated into the developing hyperhydric tissue or crushed. The succesive stages of hyperhydric changes which depend on the intense growth of cells and on the ability to devide acquired by them are presented.

  17. The stability of rutin and chlorogenic acid during the processing of black elder (Sambucus nigra) inflorescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dadáková, E.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Chmelová, Š.; Šerá, Božena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2011), s. 327-334 ISSN 0139-3006 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/05/2546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : black elder * Sambucus nigra L * rutin * chlorogenic acid * high-performance liquid chromatography * micellar electrokinetic chromatography Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.444, year: 2011

  18. PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF TETRA ACETYL ETHYLENE DIAMINE ACTIVATED HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF POPULUS NIGRA CTMP

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Zhao; Junwen Pu; Shulei Mao; Guibo Qi

    2010-01-01

    To enhance the bleaching efficiency, the activator of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) was used in conventional H2O2 bleaching. The H2O2/TAED bleaching system can accelerate the reaction rate and shorten bleaching time at relative low temperature, which can reduce the production cost. In this research, the process with hydrogen peroxide activated by TAED bleaching of Populus nigra chemi-thermo mechanical pulp was optimized. Suitable bleaching conditions were confirmed as follows: pulp con...

  19. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Turan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morus nigra L. belongs to the family Moraceae and is frequently used in traditional medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of various extracts of different Morus species, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of M. nigra extract are very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of M. nigra (DEM and to investigate, for the first time, the probable cytotoxic effect in human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3 cells together with the mechanism involved. Methods: Total polyphenolic contents (TPC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and phenolic compounds of DEM were evaluated using spectrophotometric procedures and HPLC. The cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase activity was investigated using luminometric analysis. Results: TPC and FRAP values were 20.7 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalents and 48.8 ± 1.6 mg trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were the major phenolic compounds detected at HPLC analysis. DEM arrested the cell cycle of PC-3 cells at the G1 phase, induced apoptosis via increased caspase activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions: Our results indicate that M. nigra may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product based therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  20. White piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra: contribution to the diagnosis of superficial mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi de; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi

    2017-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries.

  1. White piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra: contribution to the diagnosis of superficial mycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; de Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi

    2017-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries. PMID:29186263

  2. Intra- and interpopulation relationships and taxonomic status of Pinus nigra Arnold in Croatia according to morphology and anatomy of needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational relationships and taxonomic status of six natural black pine populations (Pinus nigra Arnold from Croatia were analyzed. Special attention in this research was paid to the establishment of taxonomic status and distribution of stenoendemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco. Three morphological and twenty-one anatomical traits of needles were used as well as analysis by the methods of multivariate statistics. Most of the researched individuals showed strong population affiliation, whereas a clinal transition of morphological and anatomical traits of needles was determined among the populations. The opinion of the existence of three subspecies of black pine on the territory of Republic of Croatia (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. nigra, Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. dalmatica (Vis. Franco and Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. illyrica (Vid. Fukarek was confirmed. For each of the three subspecies new ranges were represented. Four Croatian populations were included in the stenoendemic subspecies of the Dalmatian black pine (Brač, Hvar, Grobnik and Pelješac, and a new distribution, broken in two, was suggested. Since the Dalmatian black pine has been reduced to several populations only, and there are some signs of continuous diminishing of its range, this research points out the need of making an action plan to preserve all natural populations of this subspecies.

  3. Wood identification of Dalbergia nigra (CITES Appendix I) using quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naive Bayes classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Peter; Miller, Regis; Stekel, Dov J; Whinder, Frances; Zieminska, Kasia

    2010-01-01

    Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over 300 years. Due to over-exploitation it is facing extinction and trade has been banned under CITES Appendix I since 1992. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification. This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. nigra from other commercially important species of Dalbergia from Latin America. Qualitative and quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification were conducted on 43 specimens of Dalbergia, eight D. nigra and 35 from six other Latin American species. Dalbergia cearensis and D. miscolobium can be distinguished from D. nigra on the basis of vessel frequency for the former, and ray frequency for the latter. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Naïve Bayes classification using the four characters: minimum vessel diameter; frequency of solitary vessels; mean ray width; and frequency of axially fused rays, classified all eight D. nigra correctly with no false negatives, but there was a false positive rate of 36.36 %. Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. nigra from all other commercially important Dalbergia species likely to be encountered by customs officials, but can be used to reduce the number of specimens that would need further study.

  4. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.; Blande, James D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  5. Determination of Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Sambucus nigra Fruit Extract Using Alternative Methods

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    Elena Doroftei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method. The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. Aqueous solutions of the fruit powder have a reasonably expressed mutagenic activity in vivo on the radicles of Allium cepa, especially when they are used at a concentration of 1 g/dL for a prolonged time (48 h. At lower concentrations (0.1 g/dL, however, the mutagenic effect was not observed any more. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

  6. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Pala, Mauro; Bonaccurso, Bruna; Stella, Anna; Redaelli, Anna; Paola, Gaudenzio; Valerio, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated

  7. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: chimamb@istge.it; Pala, Mauro [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Bonaccurso, Bruna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Stella, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Redaelli, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Paola, Gaudenzio [Botany Department, Genoa University, C.so Dogali 1 canc., 16136 Genova (Italy); Valerio, Federico [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated.

  8. Impaired glutamatergic projection from the motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned hemi-parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Hai-Fei; Liu, Jun-Hua; Jia, Jun; Wang, Ke; Zhao, Fei; Luo, Min-Hua; Luo, Min-Min; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2018-02-01

    The glutamatergic projection from the motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitutes the cortico-basal ganglia circuit and plays a critical role in the control of movement. Emerging evidence shows that the cortico-STN pathway is susceptible to dopamine depletion. Specifically in Parkinson's disease (PD), abnormal electrophysiological activities were observed in the motor cortex and STN, while the STN serves as a key target of deep brain stimulation for PD therapy. However, direct morphological changes in the cortico-STN connectivity in response to PD progress are poorly understood at present. In the present study, we used a trans-synaptic anterograde tracing method with herpes simplex virus-green fluorescent protein (HSV-GFP) to monitor the cortico-STN connectivity in a rat model of PD. We found that the connectivity from the primary motor cortex (M1) to the STN was impaired in parkinsonian rats as manifested by a marked decrease in trans-synaptic infection of HSV-GFP from M1 neurons to STN neurons in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Ultrastructural analysis with electron microscopy revealed that excitatory synapses in the STN were also impaired in parkinsonian rats. Glutamatergic terminals identified by a specific marker (vesicular glutamate transporter 1) were reduced in the STN, while glutamatergic neurons showed an insignificant change in their total number in both the M1 and STN regions. These results indicate that the M1-STN glutamatergic connectivity is downregulated in parkinsonian rats. This downregulation is mediated probably via a mechanism involving the impairments of excitatory terminals and synapses in the STN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A common optimization principle for motor execution in healthy subjects and parkinsonian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraduc, Pierre; Thobois, Stéphane; Gan, Jing; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Desmurget, Michel

    2013-01-09

    Recent research on Parkinson's disease (PD) has emphasized that parkinsonian movement, although bradykinetic, shares many attributes with healthy behavior. This observation led to the suggestion that bradykinesia in PD could be due to a reduction in motor motivation. This hypothesis can be tested in the framework of optimal control theory, which accounts for many characteristics of healthy human movement while providing a link between the motor behavior and a cost/benefit trade-off. This approach offers the opportunity to interpret movement deficits of PD patients in the light of a computational theory of normal motor control. We studied 14 PD patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation and 16 age-matched healthy controls, and tested whether reaching movements were governed by similar rules in these two groups. A single optimal control model accounted for the reaching movements of healthy subjects and PD patients, whatever the condition of STN stimulation (on or off). The choice of movement speed was explained in all subjects by the existence of a preset dynamic range for the motor signals. This range was idiosyncratic and applied to all movements regardless of their amplitude. In PD patients this dynamic range was abnormally narrow and correlated with bradykinesia. STN stimulation reduced bradykinesia and widened this range in all patients, but did not restore it to a normal value. These results, consistent with the motor motivation hypothesis, suggest that constrained optimization of motor effort is the main determinant of movement planning (choice of speed) and movement production, in both healthy and PD subjects.

  10. Automated, high accuracy classification of Parkinsonian disorders: a pattern recognition approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F Marquand

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, multiple system atrophy (MSA and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD can be clinically indistinguishable, especially in the early stages, despite distinct patterns of molecular pathology. Structural neuroimaging holds promise for providing objective biomarkers for discriminating these diseases at the single subject level but all studies to date have reported incomplete separation of disease groups. In this study, we employed multi-class pattern recognition to assess the value of anatomical patterns derived from a widely available structural neuroimaging sequence for automated classification of these disorders. To achieve this, 17 patients with PSP, 14 with IPD and 19 with MSA were scanned using structural MRI along with 19 healthy controls (HCs. An advanced probabilistic pattern recognition approach was employed to evaluate the diagnostic value of several pre-defined anatomical patterns for discriminating the disorders, including: (i a subcortical motor network; (ii each of its component regions and (iii the whole brain. All disease groups could be discriminated simultaneously with high accuracy using the subcortical motor network. The region providing the most accurate predictions overall was the midbrain/brainstem, which discriminated all disease groups from one another and from HCs. The subcortical network also produced more accurate predictions than the whole brain and all of its constituent regions. PSP was accurately predicted from the midbrain/brainstem, cerebellum and all basal ganglia compartments; MSA from the midbrain/brainstem and cerebellum and IPD from the midbrain/brainstem only. This study demonstrates that automated analysis of structural MRI can accurately predict diagnosis in individual patients with Parkinsonian disorders, and identifies distinct patterns of regional atrophy particularly useful for this process.

  11. Parkinsonian motor impairment predicts personality domains related to genetic risk and treatment outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan L; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Balda, Mara; Alemán, Gabriela González; Florenzano, Néstor V; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Rangeon, Beatriz Molina; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Conesa, Horacio A; Escobar, Javier I; Zwir, Igor; Cloninger, C Robert; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2017-01-01

    Identifying endophenotypes of schizophrenia is of critical importance and has profound implications on clinical practice. Here we propose an innovative approach to clarify the mechanims through which temperament and character deviance relates to risk for schizophrenia and predict long-term treatment outcomes. We recruited 61 antipsychotic naïve subjects with chronic schizophrenia, 99 unaffected relatives, and 68 healthy controls from rural communities in the Central Andes. Diagnosis was ascertained with the Schedules of Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; parkinsonian motor impairment was measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; mesencephalic parenchyma was evaluated with transcranial ultrasound; and personality traits were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Ten-year outcome data was available for ~40% of the index cases. Patients with schizophrenia had higher harm avoidance and self-transcendence (ST), and lower reward dependence (RD), cooperativeness (CO), and self-directedness (SD). Unaffected relatives had higher ST and lower CO and SD. Parkinsonism reliably predicted RD, CO, and SD after correcting for age and sex. The average duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was over 5 years. Further, SD was anticorrelated with DUP and antipsychotic dosing at follow-up. Baseline DUP was related to antipsychotic dose-years. Further, 'explosive/borderline', 'methodical/obsessive', and 'disorganized/schizotypal' personality profiles were associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. Parkinsonism predicts core personality features and treatment outcomes in schizophrenia. Our study suggests that RD, CO, and SD are endophenotypes of the disease that may, in part, be mediated by dopaminergic function. Further, SD is an important determinant of treatment course and outcome.

  12. Mean-field modeling of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical system. II Dynamics of parkinsonian oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Albada, S J; Gray, R T; Drysdale, P M; Robinson, P A

    2009-04-21

    intracortical connections in parkinsonian patients. Strict separation of the direct and indirect pathways is not necessary to obtain these results.

  13. Recruitment of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in Parkinsonian rats following skilled aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa G; Heintz, Ryan; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    Exercise modality and complexity play a key role in determining neurorehabilitative outcome in Parkinson's disease (PD). Exercise training (ET) that incorporates both motor skill training and aerobic exercise has been proposed to synergistically improve cognitive and automatic components of motor control in PD patients. Here we introduced such a skilled aerobic ET paradigm in a rat model of dopaminergic deafferentation. Rats with bilateral, intra-striatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were exposed to forced ET for 4weeks, either on a simple running wheel (non-skilled aerobic exercise, NSAE) or on a complex wheel with irregularly spaced rungs (skilled aerobic exercise, SAE). Cerebral perfusion was mapped during horizontal treadmill walking or at rest using [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine 1week after the completion of ET. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping. SAE compared to NSAE resulted in equal or greater recovery in motor deficits, as well as greater increases in rCBF during walking in the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex, broad areas of the somatosensory cortex, and the cerebellum. NSAE compared to SAE animals showed greater activation in the dorsal caudate-putamen and dorsal hippocampus. Seed correlation analysis revealed enhanced functional connectivity in SAE compared to NSAE animals between the prelimbic cortex and motor areas, as well as altered functional connectivity between midline cerebellum and sensorimotor regions. Our study provides the first evidence for functional brain reorganization following skilled aerobic exercise in Parkinsonian rats, and suggests that SAE compared to NSAE results in enhancement of prefrontal cortex- and cerebellum-mediated control of motor function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proton MR spectroscopic changes in Parkinson's diseases after thalamotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Hyun-Man; Choe, Bo-Young; Son, Byung-Chul; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Kim, Moon-Chan; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Bum-Soo; Lee, Jae-Mun; Lee, Hyoung-Koo; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether there are significant changes in regional brain metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease before and after thalamotomy using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS). Fifteen patients underwent 15 stereotactic thalamotomies for control of medically refractory parkinsonian tremor. Single-voxel 1 H MRS was carried out on a 1.5 T unit using stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence (TR/TM/TE, 2000/14/20 ms). Spectra were obtained from substantia nigra, thalamus and putamen areas with volumes of interests (7-8 ml) in patients before and after the surgery. Metabolite ratios of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were calculated from relative peak area measurements. We evaluated alterations of metabolite ratios in brain metabolism in Parkinson's disease patients with clinical outcome following thalamotomy. NAA/Cho ratios showed generally low levels in substantia nigra and thalamus in Parkinson's disease patients with clinical improvement following thalamotomy. In 80% (12/15) patients, decreased NAA/Cho ratios were observed from the selected voxels in substantia nigra after thalamic surgery (P 1 H MRS may be a useful utility for the aid in better understanding the pathophysiologic process in Parkinson's disease patients on the basis of the variation of NAA/Cho ratio

  15. Activation of substantia gelatinosa by midbrain reticular stimulation demonstrated with 2-deoxyglucose in the rat spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales-Lima, F.

    1986-01-01

    The autoradiographic ( 14 C)2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) method was used to map the descending effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the rat cervical spinal cord. The stimulation evoked consistently a defensive 'freezing' reaction as well as a large and highly localized increase in 2-DG uptake in the substantia gelatinosa (SG)(Rexed laminae 2-3). No stimulus-induced changes in 2-DG uptake were produced in the other regions of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the spinal cord. They also support the concept of an integrative role for the SG in descending reticular mechanisms at the spinal cord level. (author)

  16. Activation of substantia gelatinosa by midbrain reticular stimulation demonstrated with 2-deoxyglucose in the rat spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales-Lima, F

    1986-04-24

    The autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) method was used to map the descending effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the rat cervical spinal cord. The stimulation evoked consistently a defensive 'freezing' reaction as well as a large and highly localized increase in 2-DG uptake in the substantia gelatinosa (SG)(Rexed laminae 2-3). No stimulus-induced changes in 2-DG uptake were produced in the other regions of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of the spinal cord. The findings represent the first anatomical demonstration of the activating effects of midbrain reticular stimulation on the spinal cord. They also support the concept of an integrative role for the SG in descending reticular mechanisms at the spinal cord level. 12 refs.

  17. Multi-class parkinsonian disorders classification with quantitative MR markers and graph-based features using support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisi, Rita; Manners, David Neil; Gnecco, Giorgio; Lanconelli, Nico; Testa, Claudia; Evangelisti, Stefania; Talozzi, Lia; Gramegna, Laura Ludovica; Bianchini, Claudio; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Sambati, Luisa; Giannini, Giulia; Cortelli, Pietro; Tonon, Caterina; Lodi, Raffaele

    2018-02-01

    In this study we attempt to automatically classify individual patients with different parkinsonian disorders, making use of pattern recognition techniques to distinguish among several forms of parkinsonisms (multi-class classification), based on a set of binary classifiers that discriminate each disorder from all others. We combine diffusion tensor imaging, proton spectroscopy and morphometric-volumetric data to obtain MR quantitative markers, which are provided to support vector machines with the aim of recognizing the different parkinsonian disorders. Feature selection is used to find the most important features for classification. We also exploit a graph-based technique on the set of quantitative markers to extract additional features from the dataset, and increase classification accuracy. When graph-based features are not used, the MR markers that are most frequently automatically extracted by the feature selection procedure reflect alterations in brain regions that are also usually considered to discriminate parkinsonisms in routine clinical practice. Graph-derived features typically increase the diagnostic accuracy, and reduce the number of features required. The results obtained in the work demonstrate that support vector machines applied to multimodal brain MR imaging and using graph-based features represent a novel and highly accurate approach to discriminate parkinsonisms, and a useful tool to assist the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elevated homocysteine by levodopa is detrimental to neurogenesis in parkinsonian model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modulation of neurogenesis that acts as an endogenous repair mechanism would have a significant impact on future therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD. Several studies demonstrated dopaminergic modulation of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the adult brain. Levodopa, the gold standard therapy for PD, causes an increase in homocysteine levels that induces neuronal death via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. The present study investigated whether elevated homocysteine by levodopa treatment in a parkinsonian model would modulate neurogenesis via NMDA receptor signal cascade and compared the effect of levodopa and pramipexol (PPX on neurogenic activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Neurogenesis was assessed in vitro using neural progenitor cells (NPCs isolated from the SVZ and in vivo with the BrdU-injected animal model of PD using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Modulation of homocysteine levels was evaluated using co-cultures of NPCs and astrocytes and PD animals. Immunochemical and Western blot analyses were used to measure neurogenesis and determine the cell death signaling. Levodopa treatment increased release of homocysteine on astrocytes culture media as well as in plasma and brain of PD animals. Increased homocysteine by levodopa led to increased apoptosis of NPCs through the NMDA receptor-dependent the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathways. The administration of a NMDA antagonist significantly attenuated apoptotic cell death in levodopa-treated NPCs and markedly increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in the SVZ of levodopa-treated PD animals. Comparative analysis revealed that PPX treatment significantly increased the number of NPCs and BrdU-positive cells in the SVZ of PD animals compared to levodopa treatment. Our present study demonstrated that increased homocysteine by levodopa has a detrimental effect on neurogenesis through NMDA receptor

  19. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nathalie L; Unterrainer, Marcus; Diemling, Markus

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Even though [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS wit...

  20. In vitro antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities, phytochemical screening and heavy metals toxicity of different parts of Ballota nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Najeeb; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ayaz, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    The study was done to assess the phytochemicals (flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannin, alkaloids, and phenol) in different parts (root, stem, and leaves) of Ballota nigra and correlated it to inhibition of microbes (bacteria and fungi), protozoan (Leishmania), and heavy metals toxicity evaluation. In root and stem flavonoids, terpenes and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fraction; these were found to be the most active inhibiting fractions against all the tested strains of bacteria, fungi, and leishmania. While in leaves flavonoids, terpenes, and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions which were the most active fractions against both types of microbes and protozoan (leishmania) in in vitro study. Ethanol and chloroform fractions show maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli (17 mm). The phytochemical and biological screenings were correlated with the presence of heavy metals in selected plant Ballota nigra. Cr was found above permissible value (above 1.5 mg/kg) in all parts of the plant. Ni was above WHO limit in B. nigra root and leaves (3.35 ± 1.20 mg/kg and 5.09 ± 0.47 mg/kg, respectively). Fe was above permissible value in all parts of B. nigra (above 20 mg/kg). Cd was above permissible value in all parts of the plant (above 0.3 mg/kg). Pb was above WHO limit (above 2 mg/kg) in all parts of Ballota nigra.

  1. Morphological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of black mulberry fruits (Morus nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Beáta Stehlíková; Marcela Čuláková; Andrej Sinica; Lucia Kucelová; Ján Brindza

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed at the morphological, biochemical, technological and sensorial determination of black mulberry (Morus nigra L. – MN)  fruitage and their utilization in the food production branches. For the experimental purposes were selected 50 genotypes of this population grown in the Pukanec surroundings. The medium fruitage weight determined in the selected collection ranged from 7.26 g (MN-1) to 1.42 g (MN-14), fruitage length in a range of 13.51 mm (MN-14) to 29.20 mm (MN-12) and the med...

  2. Ultrasonic surface measurements at the Porta Nigra, Trier, and the Neptungrotte, Park Sanssouci Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Fehr, Moritz; Köhn, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonic measurements along profiles at the surface of an object are well suited to characterize non-destructively weathering of natural stone near the surface. Ultrasonic waveforms of surface measurements in the frequency range between 10 kHz and 300 kHz are often dominated by the Rayleigh wave - a surface wave that is mainly sensitive to the velocity and attenuation of S-waves in the upper 0.3 cm to 3 cm. The frequency dependence of the Rayleigh wave velocity may be used to analyze variations of the material properties with depth. Applications of ultrasonic surface measurements are shown for two buildings: the Roman Porta Nigra in Trier from the 3rd century AD and the Neptungrotte at Park Sanssouci in Potsdam designed by von Knobelsdorff in the 18th century. Both buildings belong to the world cultural heritage and restorations are planned for the near future. It is interesting to compare measurements at these two buildings because they show the applicability of ultrasonic surface measurements to different natural stones. The Porta Nigra is made of local sandstones whereas the facades of the Neptungrotte are made of Carrara and Kauffunger marble. 71 and 46 surface measurements have been carried out, respectively. At both buildings, Rayleigh-wave group velocities show huge variations. At the Porta Nigra they vary between ca. 0.4 km/s and 1.8 km/s and at the Neptungrotte between ca. 0.7 km/s and 3.0 km/s pointing to alterations in the Rayleigh- and S-wave velocities of more than 50 % due to weathering. Note that velocities of elastic waves may increase e.g. because of the formation of black crusts like at the Porta Nigra or they may be strongly reduced due to weathering. The accuracy of the ultrasonic surface measurements, its reproducibility, and the influence of varying water saturation are discussed. Options for the analysis of ultrasonic waveforms are presented ranging from dispersion analysis to full waveform inversions for one-dimensional and two

  3. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of prenylated substances isolated from Morus alba and Morus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelová, Hana; Hanáková, Zuzana; Čermáková, Zuzana; Šmejkal, Karel; Dalĺ Acqua, Stefano; Babula, Petr; Cvačka, Josef; Hošek, Jan

    2014-06-27

    Chromatographic separation of root extracts of Morus alba and M. nigra led to the identification of the 2-arylbenzofurans moracin C (1), mulberrofuran Y (2), and mulberrofuran H (3), and the prenylated flavonoids kuwanon E (4), kuwanon C (5), sanggenon H (6), cudraflavone B (7), and morusinol (8), and the Diels-Alder adducts soroceal (9), and sanggenon E (10). The cytotoxicity and their antiphlogistic activity, determined as the attenuation of the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β and the inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation in LPS-stimulated macrophages, were evaluated for compounds 1-10.

  4. Efficacy of rasagiline in patients with the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poewe, Werner; Seppi, Klaus; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl J; Wenning, Gregor K; Gilman, Sid; Low, Phillip A; Giladi, Nir; Barone, Paolo; Sampaio, Cristina; Eyal, Eli; Rascol, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a complex neurodegenerative disorder for which no effective treatment exists. We aimed to assess the effect of rasagiline on symptoms and progression of the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy. We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial between Dec 15, 2009, and Oct 20, 2011, at 40 academic sites specialised in the care of patients with multiple systemic atrophy across 12 countries. Eligible participants aged 30 years or older with possible or probable parkinsonian variant multiple system atrophy were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated block randomisation (block size of four), to receive either rasagiline 1 mg per day or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by study centre. The investigators, study funder, and personnel involved in patient assessment, monitoring, analysis and data management were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to study end in total Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) score (parts I and II). Analysis was by modified intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00977665. We randomly assigned 174 participants to the rasagiline group (n=84) or the placebo group (n=90); 21 (25%) patients in the rasagiline group and 15 (17%) in the placebo group withdrew from the study early. At week 48, patients in the rasagiline group had progressed by an adjusted mean of 7·2 (SE 1·2) total UMSARS units versus 7·8 (1·1) units in those in the placebo group. This treatment difference of -0·60 (95% CI -3·68 to 2·47; p=0·70) was not significant. 68 (81%) patients in the rasagiline group and 67 (74%) patients in the placebo group reported adverse events, and we recorded serious adverse events in 29 (35%) versus 23 (26%) patients. The most common adverse events in the rasagiline group were dizziness (n=10 [12%]), peripheral oedema (n=9 [11%]), urinary tract infections (n=9 [11%]), and orthostatic

  5. [123I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPET in the diagnostics of Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonian syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielowski, K.; Szalus, B.; Pietrzykowski, J.; Brodacki, B.; Kotowicz, J.; Skrobowska, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of study was to verify the diagnostic value of the radiopharmaceutic [ 123I ]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) in functional imaging of the presynaptical dopaminergic system in patients with Parkison's disease and parkinsonian syndromes: multiple system atrophy, orthostatic hypotonia Shy-Drager, essential tremor. That pilot study group consisted of 8 patients in which either preliminary diagnosis or suspicion of Parkinson's disease, parkinsonian syndrome or multiple system atrophy was set. Imaging of the brain with SPET (dual head detector Varicam Elscint) and MRI were performed. The radiopharmaceutic [ 123I ] FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) was administered intravenously in the dose 145 -148 MBq. SPET images were reconstructed by filtered backprojection with the use of Butterworth filter. The images were inspected visually. Images from SPET and MRI were superimposed by means of the workstation Hermes (Nucklear Diagnostic) with designatad regions interest (ROI) in the striatum and occipital cortex in order to assess semiquantitatively the binding of dopamine transporter. In the group of 8 patients evaluated with the use of [ 123I ]FP-CIT DaTSCAN four had normal results, and four - abnormal. The preliminary diagnosis was sustained in 3/8 of patients (including Parkinson's disease in two patients and multiple system atrophy in one patient). In the remainig 5 patients the preliminary diagnosis was changed, namely: in 2 cases the essential tremor was diagnosed, in 1 case - Parkinson's disease, in 1 case - orthostaic Sky-Drager, and in 1 case - despite the tremor of the upper limbs - results were normal. In all 8 patients the tracer proved to be useful in the confirmation of clinical diagnosis, especially in the differentiation between the essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. In the case of multiple system atrophy the imaging revealed significant loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Such loss was observed also in the cases of Parkinson's disease affecting the posterior parts of the

  6. Enkephalin and dynorphin neuropeptides are differently correlated with locomotor hypersensitivity and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, Stefania; Capper-Loup, Christine; Paganetti, Paolo; Kaelin-Lang, Alain

    2016-06-01

    The opioidergic neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN) and enkephalin (ENK) and the D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors (D1R, D2R) are involved in the striatal control of motor and behavioral function. In Parkinson's disease, motor disturbances such as "on-off" motor fluctuations and involuntary movements (dyskinesia) are severe complications that often arise after chronic l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) treatment. Changes in the striatal expression of preproENK (PPENK), proDYN (PDYN), D1R, and D2R mRNA have been observed in parkinsonian animals treated with l-DOPA. Enhanced opioidergic transmission has been found in association with l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, but the connection of PPENK, PDYN, D1R, and D2R mRNA expression with locomotor activity remains unclear. In this study, we measured PPENK, PDYN, D1R and D2R mRNA levels by in situ hybridization in the striatum of 6-OHDA hemi-parkinsonian rats treated with l-DOPA (PD+l-DOPA group), along with two control groups (PD+saline and naive+l-DOPA). We found different levels of expression of PPENK, PDYN, D1R and D2R mRNA across the experimental groups and correlated the changes in mRNA expression with dyskinesia and locomotor variables assessed by open field test during several phases of l-DOPA treatment. Both PDYN and PPENK mRNA levels were correlated with the severity of dyskinesia, while PPENK mRNA levels were also correlated with the frequency of contralateral rotational movements and with locomotor variables. Moreover, a strong correlation was found between D1R mRNA expression and D2R mRNA expression in the PD+l-DOPA group. These findings suggest that, in parkinsonian animals treated with l-DOPA, high levels of PPENK are a prerequisite for a locomotor sensitization to l-DOPA treatment, while PDYN overexpression is responsible only for the development of dyskinesia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanism by Sambucus nigra Extract Improves Bone Mineral Density in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Badescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes. DEXA bone mineral density tests were performed in order to determine bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and fat (%Fat in control and diabetic animals, before and after polyphenol delivery. As compared to the normoglycemic group, the rats treated with STZ (60 mg/kg body weight revealed a significant malondialdehyde (MDA increase, as an index of the lipid peroxidation level, by 69%, while the total antioxidant activity (TAS dropped by 36%, with a consistently significant decrease (<0.05 in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX. Also, the treatment of rats with STZ revealed a significant increase of IL-6, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and osteopenia detected by DEXA bone mineral density tests. The recorded results highlight a significant improvement (<0.001 in the antioxidative capacity of the serum in diabetic rats treated with natural polyphenols, bringing back to normal the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as an important decrease in the serum concentration of MDA, with improved osteoporosis status. Knowing the effects of polyphenols could lead to the use of the polyphenolic extract of Sambucus nigra as a dietary supplement in diabetic osteoporosis.

  8. Boron accumulation and toxicity in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × euramericana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Menon, Manoj; Lehmann, Eberhard; Günthardt-Goerg, Madeleine S; Schulin, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Here, we performed pot experiments in which Populus nigra × euramericana were grown on a substrate with B concentrations ranging from 13 to 280 mg kg(-1) as H(3)BO(3). Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg(-1). Growth was progressively reduced at levels of 168 and 280 mg kg(-1). None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels. At leaf B concentrations toxicity. Neutron radiography revealed that chlorotic leaf tissues had B concentrations of 1000-2000 mg kg(-1), while necrotic tissues had >2000 mg kg(-1). Average B concentrations of up to 3500 mg kg(-1) were found in leaves, while spots within leaves had concentrations >7000 mg kg(-1), showing that B accumulation in leaf tissue continued even after the onset of necrosis. The B accumulation ability of P. nigra × euramericana is associated with B hypertolerance in the living tissue and storage of B in dead leaf tissue.

  9. Morus nigra plant leaves as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.; Khalid, N.; Waheed, S.; Wasim, M.; Arif, M.; Zaidi, J.H. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper deals with the determination of 36 elements in 120 leaf samples of Morus nigra plant to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. The elemental quantification was made by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) techniques. The leaf samples were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad with different types of anthropogenic activities as well as from a reference site with minimum of such activities. Twenty four soil samples from the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the adopted procedures was established by analyzing the certified reference materials, i.e., citrus leaves-1572 and soil-7, from NIST and IAEA, respectively, under identical experimental conditions and comparing the results obtained with the certified values which are in quite good agreement with each other. The enrichment values and Pollution Load Index (PLI) of the determined elements were computed and discussed accordingly. The elemental translocation from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been studied by analyzing these parts of the same plant. The results indicated that the leaves of Morus nigra plant have promising potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of industrial as well as in high traffic areas. (orig.)

  10. The subspecific characters and distribution of the New World Skimmers - Rynchops nigra The subspecific characters and distribution of the New World Skimmers - Rynchops nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetmore Alexander

    1944-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the forms of the New World rayador, or skimmer, Rynchops nigra, and the characters that mark the geographic races, have been matters of interest to me for a number of years, an interest heightened by recent discussions in current literature of the identity of the birds found on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and far to the south in Chile. Investigation into these matters with the material available in the National Museum not being conclusive, specimens from Mexico and the West Indies southward to Argentina and Chile in other large collections in the United states have been assembled through the courtesy of Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy of the American Museum of Natural History, James l.. Peters of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,W. E. C. Todd of the Carnegie Museum, and Dr. Karl P. Schmidt of the Field Museum of Natural History. I have also to thank Dr. Alden H. Miller for the use of one specimen from Chubut in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, and Dean Amadon for certain notes on this group of birds that he had assembled.The distribution of the forms of the New World rayador, or skimmer, Rynchops nigra, and the characters that mark the geographic races, have been matters of interest to me for a number of years, an interest heightened by recent discussions in current literature of the identity of the birds found on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and far to the south in Chile. Investigation into these matters with the material available in the National Museum not being conclusive, specimens from Mexico and the West Indies southward to Argentina and Chile in other large collections in the United states have been assembled through the courtesy of Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy of the American Museum of Natural History, James l.. Peters of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,W. E. C. Todd of the Carnegie Museum, and Dr. Karl P. Schmidt of the Field Museum of Natural History. I have also to thank Dr. Alden H. Miller for the use of one specimen

  11. Canopy treatment influences growth of replacement tree species in Fraxinus nigra forests threatened by the emerald ash borer in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash), a dominant tree species of wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, is imperiled by the invasive insect emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888). Regeneration of associated tree species is generally low in F. nigra forests and could be impacted...

  12. Natural hybridization between Populus nigra L. and P. x canadensis Moench. Hybrid offspring competes for niches along the Rhine river in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Beringen, R.; Volosyanchuk, R.; Vanden Broeck, A.; Schoot, van der J.; Arens, P.F.P.; Vosman, B.

    2008-01-01

    Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a major species for European riparian forests but its abundance has decreased over the decades due to human influences. For restoration of floodplain woodlands, the remaining black poplar stands may act as source population. A potential problem is that P. nigra and

  13. Effects of high-frequency stimulation of the internal pallidal segment on neuronal activity in the thalamus in parkinsonian monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammermeier, Stefan; Pittard, Damien; Hamada, Ikuma

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) is a major treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. The effects of this intervention on electrical activity patterns in targets of GPi output, specifically in the thalamus, are poorly understood. The experiments described here examined these effects using electrophysiological recordings in two Rhesus monkeys rendered moderately parkinsonian through treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), after sampling control data in the same animals. Analysis of spontaneous spiking activity of neurons in the basal ganglia-receiving areas of the ventral thalamus showed that MPTP-induced parkinsonism is associated with a reduction of firing rates of segments of the data that contained neither bursts nor decelerations, and with increased burst firing. Spectral analyses revealed an increase of power in the 3- to 13-Hz band and a reduction in the γ-range in the spiking activity of these neurons. Electrical stimulation of the ventrolateral motor territory of GPi with macroelectrodes, mimicking deep brain stimulation in parkinsonian patients (bipolar electrodes, 0.5 mm intercontact distance, biphasic stimuli, 120 Hz, 100 μs/phase, 200 μA), had antiparkinsonian effects. The stimulation markedly reduced oscillations in thalamic firing in the 13- to 30-Hz range and uncoupled the spiking activity of recorded neurons from simultaneously recorded local field potential (LFP) activity. These results confirm that oscillatory and nonoscillatory characteristics of spontaneous activity in the basal ganglia receiving ventral thalamus are altered in MPTP-induced parkinsonism. Electrical stimulation of GPi did not entrain thalamic activity but changed oscillatory activity in the ventral thalamus and altered the relationship between spikes and simultaneously recorded LFPs. PMID:27683881

  14. Alterations in energy metabolism, neuroprotection and visual signal transduction in the retina of Parkinsonian, MPTP-treated monkeys.

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    Laura Campello

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease is mainly characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system, including the retina. Different interrelated molecular mechanisms underlying Parkinson disease-associated neuronal death have been put forward in the brain, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Systemic injection of the proneurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP to monkeys elicits the appearance of a parkinsonian syndrome, including morphological and functional impairments in the retina. However, the intracellular events leading to derangement of dopaminergic and other retinal neurons in MPTP-treated animal models have not been so far investigated. Here we have used a comparative proteomics approach to identify proteins differentially expressed in the retina of MPTP-treated monkeys. Proteins were solubilized from the neural retinas of control and MPTP-treated animals, labelled separately with two different cyanine fluorophores and run pairwise on 2D DIGE gels. Out of >700 protein spots resolved and quantified, 36 were found to exhibit statistically significant differences in their expression levels, of at least ± 1.4-fold, in the parkinsonian monkey retina compared with controls. Most of these spots were excised from preparative 2D gels, trypsinized and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS analyses. Data obtained were used for protein sequence database interrogation, and 15 different proteins were successfully identified, of which 13 were underexpressed and 2 overexpressed. These proteins were involved in key cellular functional pathways such as glycolysis and mitochondrial electron transport, neuronal protection against stress and survival, and phototransduction processes. These functional categories underscore that alterations in energy metabolism, neuroprotective mechanisms and signal transduction are involved in MPTP-induced neuronal degeneration in the retina, in similarity to

  15. The emergence of two anti-phase oscillatory neural populations in a computational model of the Parkinsonian globus pallidus

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    Robert John Merrison-Hort

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in rodent models of Parkinson's Disease have demonstrated a prominent increase of oscillatory firing patterns in neurons within the Parkinsonian globus pallidus (GP which may underlie some of the motor symptoms of the disease. There are two main pathways from the cortex to GP: via the striatum and via the subthalamic nucleus (STN, but it is not known how these inputs sculpt the pathological pallidal firing patterns. To study this we developed a novel neural network model of conductance-based spiking pallidal neurons with cortex-modulated input from STN neurons. Our results support the hypothesis that entrainment occurs primarily via the subthalamic pathway. We find that as a result of the interplay between excitatory input from the STN and mutual inhibitory coupling between GP neurons, a homogeneous population of GP neurons demonstrates a self-organising dynamical behaviour where two groups of neurons emerge: one spiking in-phase with the cortical rhythm and the other in anti-phase. This finding mirrors what is seen in recordings from the GP of rodents that have had Parkinsonism induced via brain lesions. Our model also includes downregulation of Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated (HCN channels in response to burst firing of GP neurons, since this has been suggested as a possible mechanism for the emergence of Parkinsonian activity. We found that the downregulation of HCN channels provides even better correspondence with experimental data but that it is not essential in order for the two groups of oscillatory neurons to appear. We discuss how the influence of inhibitory striatal input will strengthen our results.

  16. Activation of Glycine and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors by Taurine on the Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis

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    Thi Thanh Hoang Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantia gelatinosa (SG of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc has been known for the processing and transmission of orofacial nociceptive information. Taurine, one of the most plentiful free amino-acids in humans, has proved to be involved in pain modulation. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we investigated the direct membrane effects of taurine and the action mechanism behind taurine-mediated responses on the SG neurons of the Vc. Taurine showed non-desensitizing and repeatable membrane depolarizations and inward currents which remained in the presence of amino-acid receptors blocking cocktail (AARBC with tetrodotoxin, indicating that taurine acts directly on the postsynaptic SG neurons. Further, application of taurine at different doses (10 μM to 3 mM showed a concentration dependent depolarizations and inward currents with the EC50 of 84.3 μM and 723 μM, respectively. Taurine-mediated responses were partially blocked by picrotoxin (50 μM and almost completely blocked by strychnine (2 μM, suggesting that taurine-mediated responses are via glycine receptor (GlyR activation. In addition, taurine (1 mM activated extrasynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR-mediated currents. Taken together, our results indicate that taurine can be a target molecule for orofacial pain modulation through the activation of GlyRs and/or extrasynaptic GABAARs on the SG neurons.

  17. Activation of Glycine and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors by Taurine on the Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Han, Seong Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) has been known for the processing and transmission of orofacial nociceptive information. Taurine, one of the most plentiful free amino-acids in humans, has proved to be involved in pain modulation. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we investigated the direct membrane effects of taurine and the action mechanism behind taurine-mediated responses on the SG neurons of the Vc. Taurine showed non-desensitizing and repeatable membrane depolarizations and inward currents which remained in the presence of amino-acid receptors blocking cocktail (AARBC) with tetrodotoxin, indicating that taurine acts directly on the postsynaptic SG neurons. Further, application of taurine at different doses (10 μM to 3 mM) showed a concentration dependent depolarizations and inward currents with the EC50 of 84.3 μM and 723 μM, respectively. Taurine-mediated responses were partially blocked by picrotoxin (50 μM) and almost completely blocked by strychnine (2 μM), suggesting that taurine-mediated responses are via glycine receptor (GlyR) activation. In addition, taurine (1 mM) activated extrasynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated currents. Taken together, our results indicate that taurine can be a target molecule for orofacial pain modulation through the activation of GlyRs and/or extrasynaptic GABAARs on the SG neurons. PMID:24379976

  18. Chemotaxonomic significance of the terpene composition in natural populations of Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Zorica; Bojović, Srdjan; Nikolić, Biljana; Tešević, Vele; Ethorđević, Iris; Marin, Petar D

    2013-08-01

    The essential-oil variability in seven native populations belonging to different infraspecific taxa of Pinus nigra (ssp. nigra, var. gocensis, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) growing wild in Serbia was analyzed. In the needles of 195 trees from seven populations, 58 essential-oil components were identified. The major components were α-pinene (43.6%) and germacrene D (29.8%), comprising together 73.4% of the total oil composition. Based on the average chemical profile of the main terpene components (with contents >5%), the studied populations were found to be the most similar to populations from central Italy and Greece (ssp. nigra). Cluster analysis showed the division of the populations into three principal groups: the first group consisted of Populations I, II, III, IV, and V (considered as ssp. nigra group), the second of Population VI (ssp. pallasiana group), and the third of Population VII, which had the most distinct oil composition (ssp. banatica group). The taxonomic implications of the essential-oil profiles of the investigated taxa of this very complex species are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Species verification of Dalbergia nigra and Dalbergia spruceana samples in the wood collection of the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; Edgard O. Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    To evade endangered timber species laws, unscrupulous importers sometimes attempt to pass protected Dalbergia nigra as look-alike but unprotected, Dalbergia Spruceana. Wood density and fluorescence properties are sometimes used to identify the species. Although these properties are useful and do not require special equipment,...

  20. First report of Geosmithia morbida on ambrosia beetles emerged from thousand cankers-diseased Juglans nigra in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; M. McDermott-Kubeczko; T. J. Stewart; M. D. Ginzel

    2016-01-01

    Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) is a highly-valued species for timber and nut production in the eastern United States. Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the interaction of the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) and the canker fungus Geosmithia morbida (Tisserat et al. 2009), was first...

  1. Development of a reliable method for determining sex for a primitive rodent, the Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine L. Pilgrim; William J. Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Michael K. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    The mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is a primitive species of rodent, often considered a living fossil. The Point Arena mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa nigra) is an endangered subspecies that occurs in a very restricted range in northern California. Efforts to recover this taxon have been limited by the lack of knowledge on their demography, particularly sex and age...

  2. Rhabdomyosarcoma in a terrestrial tortoise (Geochelone nigra in Nigeria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenemega D. Eyarefe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A skeletal muscle tumour (rhabdomysarcoma was diagnosed in a 4-year-old captive female terrestrial tortoise (Geochelone nigra weighing 7 kg presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The tumour was located at the anterior right portion of the body and ventral to the carapace. The location of the tumour prevented the tortoise from extending its head from the body. The tumour was a sessile, smooth white mass, with a soft myxomatous consistency. The histological features that were diagnostic of rhabdomyosarcoma included a sparse population of haphazardly arranged spindle-shaped cells within a homogenous matrix (anisocytosis, occasional tumour giant and binucleate cells, and some well differentiated myofibrils with cross striations within the cytoplasm. The paucity of information on tumours in the land tortoise was the reason for this report, which appears to be the first report of rhabdomyosarcoma in the tortoise.

  3. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes (nifH) from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hironari; Anderson, Ian C; Alexander, Ian J; Killham, Ken; Moore, Edward R B

    2006-12-01

    The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes (nifH) and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) were examined. DNA and RNA were extracted from surface-sterilized and non-sterilized Corsican pine roots colonized by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Suillus variegatus and Tomentellopsis submollis. DNA-derived nifH polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained from all samples, but only a few reverse transcription PCRs for nifH mRNA were successful, suggesting that nitrogenase genes were not always transcribed. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR. Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

  4. Effects of water stress on germination of Pinus nigra Arnold. seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topacoglu, O.; Sevik, H.; Akkuzu, E.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, global warming and the deterioration of related environmental conditions cause an important problem for forest tree species. For this reason, it is necessary to determine the response of trees to these conditions. The Objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress on seed germination of fifteen Pinus nigra Arnold. provenances in Turkey. For this purpose, the water stresses between 0 and -8.0 bars were obtained using polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG) solutions. Seeds were kept for 35 days at 20 ± 0.5 degree C. In this study, significant variations between the provenances were found. Ankara Uluhan ( percent 95, 08) and Isparta Tota ( percent 85, 41) provenances at -8.0 bars having the highest cumulative germination percentages were the most resistant provenances against the water stress. This study has shown that the water stress reduced the germination speed, germination percentage and germination value. (author)

  5. Identification of Peptides in Flowers of Sambucus nigra with Antimicrobial Activity against Aquaculture Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Claudio Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Albericio, Fernando; Romero, María Soledad; Guzmán, Fanny

    2018-04-27

    The elder ( Sambucus spp.) tree has a number of uses in traditional medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of elderberry liquid extract against human pathogenic bacteria and also influenza viruses. These properties have been mainly attributed to phenolic compounds. However, other plant defense molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), may be present. Here, we studied peptide extracts from flowers of Sambucus nigra L. The mass spectrometry analyses determined peptides of 3 to 3.6 kDa, among them, cysteine-rich peptides were identified with antimicrobial activity against various Gram-negative bacteria, including recurrent pathogens of Chilean aquaculture. In addition, membrane blebbing on the bacterial surface after exposure to the cyclotide was visualized by SEM microscopy and SYTOX Green permeabilization assay showed the ability to disrupt the bacterial membrane. We postulate that these peptides exert their action by destroying the bacterial membrane.

  6. Fatty acids composition of Spanish black (Morus nigra L.) and white (Morus alba L.) mulberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Salcedo, Eva M; Sendra, Esther; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Martínez, Juan José; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    This research has determined qualitatively and quantitatively the fatty acids composition of white (Morus alba) and black (Morus nigra) fruits grown in Spain, in 2013 and 2014. Four clones of each species were studied. Fourteen fatty acids were identified and quantified in mulberry fruits. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2), palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), and stearic (C18:0) acids in both species. The main fatty acid in all clones was linoleic (C18:2), that ranged from 69.66% (MN2) to 78.02% (MA1) of the total fatty acid content; consequently Spanish mulberry fruits were found to be rich in linoleic acid, which is an essential fatty acid. The fatty acid composition of mulberries highlights the nutritional and health benefits of their consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GERMINAÇÃO IN VITRO DE DALBERGIA NIGRA VELL. FR. ALL. EX BENTH

    OpenAIRE

    João Otávio Silva Malaquias; Aline Tintori Mantovani; Tabatta Caroline Cerri França; Geisiele Silva Martins; Renan Carrari dos Santos; Mariana Spala Corrêa; Elias Terra Werner

    2017-01-01

    A história do Brasil é inteiramente ligada a espécies nativas que moveram a economia do país por décadas, entre essas espécies está o jacarandá-da-bahia (Dalbergia nigra Vell. Fr. All. Ex Benth), cuja madeira possui alto valor comercial. Sua exploração aliada à falta de manejo levou essa espécie a figurar na lista das espécies ameaçadas de extinção da flora brasileira. Diante do exposto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as condições mais favoráveis à germinação e estabelecimento in...

  8. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

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    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  9. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of ovarian tissue storage in Morus nigra extract on the morphology and DNA fragmentation of ovine preantral follicles

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    Agnes Yasmin Pitombeira Cavalcante

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the effect of Morus nigra leaf extract during ovine ovarian tissue transportation on the survival and apoptosis of preantral follicles in vitro. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract. Four pairs of ovaries from four sheep were collected. The ovarian cortex was fragmented and one fragment was fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and processed for histological and TUNEL analysis (fresh control. The other fragments were placed in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM – control medium or M. nigra extract (0.025; 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL and stored (simulating transport at 4ºC for 6, 12 or 24 h. Preserved fragments (6 h were also destined to histological and TUNEL analysis. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of antioxidant compounds (rutin, isoquercetin e kaempferitrin in the extract. There was a decrease (P 0.05 to 0.1 mg/mL of the extract. Apoptosis increased (P < 0.05 after conservation for 6 h in all treatments compared to the fresh control. Moreover, TUNEL positive cells decreased (P < 0.05 after preservation in 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL M. nigra compared to MEM or 0.025 mg/mL M. nigra. In conclusion, 0.05 mg/mL M. nigra extract can be used as a preservation medium for ovine ovarian tissue at 4°C for up to 6 h.

  11. SAXS and other spectroscopic analysis of 12S cruciferin isolated from the seeds of Brassica nigra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Binish; Falke, Sven; Negm, Amr; Buck, Friedrich; Munawar, Aisha; Saqib, Maria; Mahmood, Seema; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Betzel, Christian; Akrem, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Oilseeds of the plant family Brassicaceae are important for providing both lipid and protein contents to human nutrition. Cruciferins (12S globulins) are seed storage proteins, which are getting attention due to their allergenic and pathogenicity related nature. This study describes the purification and characterization of a trimeric (∼190 kDa) cruciferin protein from the seeds of Brassica nigra (L.). Cruciferin was first partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (30% saturation constant) and further purified by size exclusion chromatography. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis showed 82% sequence homology with cruciferin from Arabidopsis thaliana. The 50-55 kDa monomeric cruciferin produced multiple bands of two major molecular weight ranges (α-polypeptides of 28-32 kDa and β-polypeptides of 17-20 kDa) under reduced conditions of SDS-PAGE. The 2D gel electrophoretic analysis showed the further separation of the bands into their isoforms with major pI ranges between 5.7 and 8.0 (α-polypeptides) and 5.5-8.5 (β-polypeptides). The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) showed the monodisperse nature of the cruciferin with hydrodynamic radius of 5.8 ± 0.1 nm confirming the trimeric nature of the protein. The Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra showed both α-helices and β-sheets in the native conformation of the trimeric protein. The pure cruciferin protein (40 mg/ml) was successfully crystallized; however, the crystals diffracted only to low resolution data (8 Å). Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure in solution. SAXS showed that the radius of gyration is 4.24 ± 0.25 nm and confirmed the nearly globular shape. The SAXS based ab initio dummy model of B. nigra cruciferin was compared with 11S globulins.

  12. Study of the relative toxicity of anions, with Polycelis nigra as test animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J R.E.

    1942-01-01

    A brief review is given of existing knowledge regarding the physiological effects of anions, and literature dealing with their relative toxicity. The degree of toxicity of twenty-seven anions to Polycelis nigra (Mueller) has been assessed, by determining in each case the molar concentration the animal survives for 48 hr. at 15-18/sup 0/C. On this basis their order of increasing toxicity is as follows; commas separate ions of similar degree of toxicity: Clnigra is 0.165 cc O/sub 2//g./hr. This is not very much less than that of the trout. Polycelis is considerably the more resistant to cyanide. This is probably connected with its capability of surviving very many hours in water containing a very reduced supply of oxygen. 34 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  13. Acondicionamiento de reproductores, desove y cultivo larval de Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 (Kyphosidae: Girellinae Broodstock conditioning, spawning and larval culture of Graus nigra (Philippi, 1887 (Kyphosidae: Girellinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen resultados sobre acondicionamiento reproductivo, desove y cultivo larval de Graus nigra ("vieja negra", "mulata". Peces adultos silvestres se recolectaron y se utilizaron como reproductores, los que al final del período de acondicionamiento alcanzaron el estado de maduración gonadal y desovaron en forma natural y espontánea. Los huevos fueron recolectados y después de 36 h de incubación eclosionaron, con una tasa de eclosión promedio de 60%. Las larvas recién eclosionadas midieron 2,9 ± 0,23 mm y alcanzaron el día 50 post-eclosión (PE una longitud total de 12,6 ± 0,37 mm. La sobrevivencia larval posterior a la eclosión fue entre 50,9 y 79,1% y al día 30 PE fue de 12,1%. El cultivo larval se desarrolló en estanques con suministro de agua de mar filtrada y esterilizada. Después de la reabsorción del saco vitelino se produjo el desarrollo del tracto digestivo y las larvas se alimentaron con dieta viva enriquecida con emulsión de ácidos grasos altamente insaturados. A los 35 días de cultivo se ofreció alimento artificial a las larvas cuyo tamano fue aumentando progresivamente a medida que progresó su desarrollo ontogénico. Se describe la evolución anatómica de las larvas y las relaciones morfométricas que representan su desarrollo; se caracteriza el patrón de crecimiento de las larvas hasta los 50 días post-eclosión y se discuten aspectos relacionados con la sobrevivencia larval y la introducción de mejoras para optimizar la producción de larvas y juveniles.In this study results related to reproductive conditioning, spawning and larval culture of Graus nigra ("vieja negra", "mulata" are given. Wild adult fishes were collected and used as brooders which at the end of the conditioning period reached gonadal maturation state and spawned naturally and spontaneously. Eggs were collected and after 36 hours of incubation they hatched at average rate of 60%. The hatched larvae measured 2.9 ± 0.23 mm and at day 50

  14. Subthalamic deep brain stimulation reduces pathological information transmission to the thalamus in a rat model of parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin James Anderson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta leads to parkinsonian motor symptoms via changes in electrophysiological activity throughout the basal ganglia. High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS partially treats these symptoms, but the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are associated with increased information transmission from basal ganglia output neurons to motor thalamus input neurons, and that therapeutic DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN treats these symptoms by reducing this extraneous information transmission. We tested these hypotheses in a unilateral, 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rodent model of hemiparkinsonism. Information transfer between basal ganglia output neurons and motor thalamus input neurons increased in both the orthodromic and antidromic directions with hemiparkinsonian onset, and these changes were reversed by behaviorally therapeutic STN-DBS. Omnidirectional information increases in the parkinsonian state underscore the detrimental nature of that pathological information, and suggest a loss of information channel independence. Therapeutic STN-DBS reduced that pathological information, suggesting an effective increase in the number of independent information channels. We interpret these data with a model in which pathological information and fewer information channels diminishes the scope of possible motor activities, driving parkinsonian symptoms. In this model, STN-DBS restores information-channel independence by eliminating or masking the parkinsonism-associated information, and thus enlarges the scope of possible motor activities, alleviating parkinsonian symptoms.

  15. A monoclonal antibody-GDNF fusion protein is not neuroprotective and is associated with proliferative pancreatic lesions in parkinsonian monkeys.

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    Sachiko Ohshima-Hosoyama

    Full Text Available Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is a neurotrophic factor that has neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD and has been proposed as a PD therapy. GDNF does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB, and requires direct intracerebral delivery to be effective. Trojan horse technology, in which GDNF is coupled to a monoclonal antibody (mAb against the human insulin receptor (HIR, has been proposed to allow GDNF BBB transport (ArmaGen Technologies Inc.. In this study we tested the feasibility of HIRMAb-GDNF to induce neuroprotection in parkinsonian monkeys, as well as its tolerability and safety. Adult rhesus macaques were assessed throughout the study with a clinical rating scale, a computerized fine motor skills task and general health evaluations. Following baseline measurements, the animals received a unilateral intracarotid artery MPTP injection. Seven days later the animals were evaluated, matched according to disability and blindly assigned to receive twice a week i.v. treatments (vehicle, 1 or 5 mg/kg HIRmAb-GDNF for a period of three months. HIRmAb-GDNF did not improve parkinsonian motor symptoms and induced a dose-dependent hypersensitivity reaction. Quantification of dopaminergic striatal optical density and stereological nigral cell counts did not demonstrate differences between treatment groups. Focal pancreatic acinar to ductular metaplasia (ADM was noted in four of seven animals treated with 1 mg/kg HIRmAb-GDNF; two of four with ADM also had focal pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 1B (PanIN-1B lesions. Minimal to mild, focal to multifocal, nonsuppurative myocarditis was noted in all animals in the 5 mg/kg treatment group. Our results demonstrate that HIRmAb-GDNF dosing in a monkey model of PD is not an effective neuroprotective strategy and may present serious health risks that should be considered when planning future use of the IR antibody as a carrier, or of any systemic treatment of a

  16. Conducta alimenticia, supervivencia y crecimiento de juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 en cautiverio (Perciformes: Kyphosidae Feeding behavior, survival, and growth of wild Graus nigra Philippi, 1887 juveniles in captivity (Perciformes: Kyphosidae

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    Héctor Flores

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron juveniles silvestres de Graus nigra, que fueron aclimatados durante 30 días en estanques con flujo de agua abierto y a temperatura ambiente, siendo alimentados con alimento formulado. Los peces fueron separados en seis grupos que se mantuvieron en experimentación por 196 días. La supervivencia promedio fue de 80%. El crecimiento en longitud total mostró un incremento promedio del 93,3% para los juveniles grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y 125% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. El crecimiento en peso total mostró un incremento promedio de 434% para los peces grandes (grupos 4, 5 y 6 y de 707% para los pequeños (grupos 1, 2 y 3. Se concluyó que G. nigra toleró el cautiverio y el manejo, con una supervivencia relativamente alta, lo que hace de ella una especie atractiva para la acuicultura chilena.Wild juveniles of Graus nigra were collected and acclimated for 30 days in ponds with open-water flow and ambient temperature; the specimens were given a formulated feed. Fish individuals were separated into six groups that were studied for 196 days. The average survival was 80%. The total length increased an average of 93.3% for large individuals (groups 4, 5, 6 and 125% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. The total weight showed an average increase of 434% for large fishes (groups 4, 5, 6 and 707% for small ones (groups 1, 2, 3. Graus nigra was found to tolerate captivity and handling, with a relatively high survival rate, making it an attractive species for aquaculture in Chile.

  17. A case of multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type with stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies and putaminal atrophy.

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    Kikuchi, Yoshikazu; Umezaki, Toshiro; Uehara, Taira; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Yamashita, Koji; Hiwatashi, Akio; Sawatsubashi, Motohiro; Adachi, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Yumi; Murakami, Daisuke; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2017-11-14

    Both developmental and acquired stuttering are related to the function of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which includes the putamen. Here, we present a case of stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies that manifested as an early symptom of multiple system atrophy-parkinsonian type (MSA-P) and bilateral atrophy of the putamen. The patient was a 72-year-old man with no history of developmental stuttering who presented with a stutter for consultation with our otorhinolaryngology department. The patient was diagnosed with MSA-P based on parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, and bilateral putaminal atrophy revealed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment with levodopa improved both the motor functional deficits related to MSA-P and stuttering-like dysfluencies while reading; however, the palilalia-like dysfluencies were much less responsive to levodopa therapy. The patient died of aspiration pneumonia two years after his first consultation at our hospital. In conclusion, adult-onset stuttering- and palilalia-like dysfluencies warrant careful examination of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, and especially the putamen, using neuroimaging techniques. Acquired stuttering may be related to deficits in dopaminergic function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutamatergic Tuning of Hyperactive Striatal Projection Neurons Controls the Motor Response to Dopamine Replacement in Parkinsonian Primates.

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    Singh, Arun; Jenkins, Meagan A; Burke, Kenneth J; Beck, Goichi; Jenkins, Andrew; Scimemi, Annalisa; Traynelis, Stephen F; Papa, Stella M

    2018-01-23

    Dopamine (DA) loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) alters the function of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) and causes motor deficits, but DA replacement can induce further abnormalities. A key pathological change in animal models and patients is SPN hyperactivity; however, the role of glutamate in altered DA responses remains elusive. We tested the effect of locally applied AMPAR or NMDAR antagonists on glutamatergic signaling in SPNs of parkinsonian primates. Following a reduction in basal hyperactivity by antagonists at either receptor, DA inputs induced SPN firing changes that were stable during the entire motor response, in clear contrast with the typically unstable effects. The SPN activity reduction over an extended putamenal area controlled the release of involuntary movements in the "on" state and therefore improved motor responses to DA replacement. These results demonstrate the pathophysiological role of upregulated SPN activity and support strategies to reduce striatal glutamate signaling for PD therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Classification of Parkinsonian syndromes from FDG-PET brain data using decision trees with SSM/PCA features.

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    Mudali, D; Teune, L K; Renken, R J; Leenders, K L; Roerdink, J B T M

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have been used to aid in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this study, the objective is to classify FDG-PET brain scans of subjects with Parkinsonian syndromes (Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy) compared to healthy controls. The scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA) method was applied to FDG-PET brain image data to obtain covariance patterns and corresponding subject scores. The latter were used as features for supervised classification by the C4.5 decision tree method. Leave-one-out cross validation was applied to determine classifier performance. We carried out a comparison with other types of classifiers. The big advantage of decision tree classification is that the results are easy to understand by humans. A visual representation of decision trees strongly supports the interpretation process, which is very important in the context of medical diagnosis. Further improvements are suggested based on enlarging the number of the training data, enhancing the decision tree method by bagging, and adding additional features based on (f)MRI data.

  20. Mild parkinsonian signs in the elderly--is there an association with PD? Crossectional findings in 992 individuals.

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    Stefanie Lerche

    Full Text Available Mild parkinsonian signs (MPS are common in the elderly population, and have been associated with vascular diseases, mild cognitive impairment and dementia; however their relation to Parkinson's disease (PD is unclear. Hypothesizing that individuals with MPS may reflect a pre-stage of PD, i.e. a stage in which the nigrostriatal system is already affected although to a milder degree than at the time of PD diagnosis, aim of this study was to evaluate the similarities between MPS and PD.The TREND study is a prospective cross-sectional cohort study in individuals >50 years with biennial assessments designed to identify markers for an earlier diagnosis of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. For this substudy 992 individuals were included for analyses (892 controls, 73 MPS individuals, 27 PD patients. Parameters defining risk of PD (sex, age, positive family history, prodromal markers (hyposmia, REM sleep behavior disorder, depression and autonomic failure as well as quantitative fine motor, axial motor and cognitive parameters were compared between the three cohorts.As expected, PD patients differed from controls with regard to 12 of 15 of the assessed parameters. MPS individuals differed significantly from controls in 12 of the PD-associated parameters, but differed from PD only in 5 parameters.This study shows that individuals with MPS share many prodromal and clinical markers of PD with PD patients, implying that either a common dynamic process or similar constitutional factors occur in MPS individuals and PD patients.

  1. Therapeutic effects of arotinolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, on tremor in MPTP-induced parkinsonian monkeys.

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    Kuno, S; Mizuta, E; Nishida, J; Takechi, M

    1992-10-01

    The effect of arotinolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, on postural or kinetic tremor was studied in monkeys with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were treated with three injections of MPTP hydrochloride (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.) at an interval of 3-4 days, followed by several injections of the same dose every 7 days. Four monkeys with persistent parkinsonian symptoms manifested for greater than 1 year were used. The animals developed mild to moderate degrees of postural or kinetic tremor, and their motor activity was reduced. Arotinolol (20-30 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly suppressed postural tremor in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol (20-30 mg/kg) was also effective in suppressing the tremor. However, the application of propranolol induced emesis, whereas arotinolol had no adverse effects. These results suggest that arotinolol is a useful adjunct to dopaminergic therapy for tremor in Parkinson's disease.

  2. Assessment of extracts of Helichrysum arenarium, Crataegus monogyna, Sambucus nigra in photoprotective UVA and UVB; photostability in cosmetic emulsions.

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    Jarzycka, Anna; Lewińska, Agnieszka; Gancarz, Roman; Wilk, Kazimiera A

    2013-11-05

    The aim of our study was to investigate the photoprotective activity and photostability efficacy of sunscreen formulations containing Helichrysum arenarium, Sambucus nigra, Crataegus monogyna extracts and their combination. UV transmission of the emulsion films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection and photostability efficacy were evaluated according to the following parameters: sun protection factor (SPF), UVA protection factor (PF-UVA), UVA/UVB ratio and critical wavelength (λc) before and after UV irradiation. The results obtained show that the formulations containing polyphenols fulfill the official requirements for sunscreen products due to their broad spectrum of UV protection combined with their high photostability and remarkable antioxidant properties. Therefore H. arenarium, S. nigra, C. monogyna extracts represent useful additives for cosmetic formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative study on bioremediation of heavy metals by solitary ascidian, Phallusia nigra, between Thoothukudi and Vizhinjam ports of India.

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    Abdul Jaffar Ali, H; Tamilselvi, M; Akram, A Soban; Kaleem Arshan, M L; Sivakumar, V

    2015-11-01

    Ascidians belonging to the sub-phylum Uro-chordata are used as potential model organisms in various parts of the world for biosorption of metals. The sedentary nature, filter feeding habits, presence of vanadocytes and the absence of kidneys cause them to accumulate metals. The present study was aimed to compare biosorption of metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and vanadium in test and mantle body of solitary ascidian Phallusia nigra between two ecologically significant stations such as Thoothukudi (Station 1) and Vizhinjam (Station 2) ports of India. Monthly samplings of water and P. nigra were done for a period of one year from September 2010 to August 2011 and subjected to analysis of metal accumulation. The average metal concentrations except mercury in the Thoothukudi water were found to be higher of comparable magnitudes than the Vizhinjam water. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between the stations. A comparison of average metal concentrations in the test and mantle body of P. nigra between two stations showed that the enrichment of V, Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg in the Thoothukudi samples may be due to high bioaccumulation factors of these elements as compared to other species of ascidians. The bioaccumulation factors were in the order of V>Pb>Cd>Cu> Hg for the test and mantle body in stations 1 and 2. Application of one-way ANOVA for the concentration of these metals between test and mantle body showed significant differences in both stations. Similarly, ANOVA for biosorption of these trace metals by P. nigra showed significant difference between stations. Metal concentrations recorded in this ascidian could effectively be used as good reference material for monitoring metal contamination in Indian sea waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wood identification of Dalbergia nigra (CITES Appendix I) using quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Peter; Miller, Regis; Stekel, Dov J.; Whinder, Frances; Ziemińska, Kasia

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over 300 years. Due to over-exploitation it is facing extinction and trade has been banned under CITES Appendix I since 1992. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification. This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. nigra from other commercially important species of Dalbergia from Latin America. Methods Qualitative and quantitative wood anatomy, principal components analysis and naïve Bayes classification were conducted on 43 specimens of Dalbergia, eight D. nigra and 35 from six other Latin American species. Key Results Dalbergia cearensis and D. miscolobium can be distinguished from D. nigra on the basis of vessel frequency for the former, and ray frequency for the latter. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Naïve Bayes classification using the four characters: minimum vessel diameter; frequency of solitary vessels; mean ray width; and frequency of axially fused rays, classified all eight D. nigra correctly with no false negatives, but there was a false positive rate of 36·36 %. Conclusions Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. nigra from all other commercially important Dalbergia species likely to be encountered by customs officials, but can be used to reduce the number of specimens that would need further study. PMID:19884155

  5. Clinical features and treatment of dermatosis papulosa nigra in migrants to Italy.

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    Calcaterra, Roberta; Franco, Gennaro; Valenzano, Mariacarla; Fazio, Raffaella; Morrone, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epithelial tumor that is common in dark-skinned people. Although the diagnosis is easily made on medical examination, DPN is characterized by a chronic and worsening course. Therefore, even if DPN is a benign disease, the lesions are unaesthetic and the therapeutic options are quite inefficient. A prospective study was carried out during a period of 24 months (January 2006 to December 2007) at the Department for Preventive Medicine for Migration, Tourism and Tropical Dermatology of San Gallicano Dermatological Institute in Rome. Among 58 patients, 41 (71%) were women and 17 (29%) were men. The mean age was 33.5 years (range, 8-45 years). One pediatric patient was observed. This study is the first in Italy that, in recent years, has observed an important growth of the migration. The classic female predominance, family predisposition, and photodistribution of the lesion were found. DPN is frequently associated with patient discomfort, therefore the education of patients to reduce self-treatment is important.

  6. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

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    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  7. Optimization of the pretreatment of Prosopis nigra sawdust for the production of fermentable sugars

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    Eliana P. Dagnino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The black carob tree (Prosopis nigra is a particularly valued species in Chaco, Argentina on account of its hard wood. Finding a use for the sawdust, the main industrial residue of wood, could be useful within the furniture industry of any country in the tropics seeking to apply the biorefinery concept. For the conversion of wood carbohydrates to bioethanol, a pretreatment stage is necessary. The objective of this work was to find the acid pretreatment conditions that maximize the extraction of xylose with minimum degradation, while maximizing the concentration of glucans in the pretreated solid to obtain better enzymatic accessibility, using black carob tree sawdust as the raw material. The optimization was carried out by use of a central composite design (CCD with two independent variables: the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution and the heating time. Optimal enzymatic hydrolysis occurred at the mean values of the tested acid solution concentration (1.2% and after shorter heating times (10.2 min. The concentration of sugars after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated solid over a time period of 72 h was three times higher than the untreated solid.

  8. Immunohistochemical and morphological features of a small bowel leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra

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    Aristizabal-Arbelaez Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous gastrointestinal neoplasms in non-human primates are commonly seen in aged individuals. Due to genetic similarities between human and non-human primates, scientists have shown increasing interest in terms of comparative oncology studies. Case presentation The present study is related to a case of an intestinal leiomyoma in a black crested macaque (Macaca nigra, kept on captivity by Matecaña Zoo, Pereira City, Colombia. The animal had abdominal distension, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea and behavioral changes. Clinical examination showed an increased volume in the upper right abdominal quadrant caused by a neoplastic mass. The patient died during the surgical procedure. Necropsy revealed several small nodules in the peritoneum with adhesion to different portions of the small and large intestines, liver, stomach and diaphragm. Tissue samples were collected, routinely processed and stained by H&E. Microscopic examination revealed a mesenchymal tumor limited to tunica muscularis, resembling normal smooth muscle cells. Neoplastic cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 by immunohistochemistry. Those morphological and immunohistochemical findings allowed to diagnose the intestinal leiomyoma referred above. Conclusion Neoplastic diseases in primates have multifaceted causes. Their manifestations are understudied, leading to a greater difficulty in detection and measurement of the real impact provides by this disease.

  9. ENRAIZAMENTO IN VITRO DE BROTOS DE JACARANDÁ-DA-BAHIA (DALBERGIA NIGRA VELLOZO

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    Aline Tintori Mantovani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A espécie Dalbergia nigra é conhecida popularmente como jacarandá-da-bahia. Devido ao seu destaque e importância econômica, a exploração para uso madeireiro e a pecuária acarretou devastação no seu ambiente natural o que a incluiu na lista de espécies da flora brasileira ameaçadas de extinção e apesar disso, pouco tem sido feito para a multiplicação desta espécie devido ao seu crescimento lento. A micropropagação é uma alternativa para obtenção de grande quantidade de mudas sadias em curto espaço de tempo. Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar as condições mais favoráveis ao enraizamento de brotos in vitro, possibilitando a produção de plântulas viáveis. Foram utilizados meristemas apicais e cotiledonares de plântulas de jacarandá-da-bahia, cultivadas em condições assépticas nos tratamentos compostos por meio de cultura MS e concentrações de ANA (0 e 1 µM. O meio de cultura contendo 1 μM ANA após 30 dias de cultivo induziu a formação de raízes, apresentando melhores resultados.

  10. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

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    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    Bamboo is grown sporadically in the north of Iran and is confined to very limited areas. The history of growing bamboo was to some extent simultaneous with the entrance, commencement, and growth of the tea industry in the north about a century ago. The bamboo was used for making baskets to transfer the harvested tea foliage from farm to the factory and other linked functions. A main area allocated for bamboo growing is located in Lahidjan Agricultural Research Station (LARS) in the north of Iran, where several species of bamboo were cultivated in an area of 5 ha. The species include five species of Phyllostachys (viz., P. aurea, P. bambusoides, P. decora, P. nigra, P. vivax) and one species of Arundinaria gigantean, Pleioblastus fortune, and Semiarundinaria fastuosa; however, only P. aurea and P. nigra have been precisely identified. A survey on plant parasitic nematodes associated with bamboo mainly on P. nigra in LARS revealed second-stage juveniles of cyst forming nematode in soil samples. Further analysis of root and soil samples led to recovery of a cyst nematode belonging to the genus Heterodera and the Afenestrata group. Cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles were studied for morphological and morphometric features. The classical identification was followed by amplification of the ribosomal RNA-ITS region and the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S large-subunit rRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced, edited, and compared with those of the corresponding published gene sequences. New D2-D3 and rRNA-ITS gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KR818910 and KR818911, respectively. Based on the morphological and molecular data, the species of the cyst-forming nematode was identified as H. koreana (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). The body contour of cysts was mainly subspherical, vey often with irregular shape (Fig. 1A), yellowish to light brown, thin cuticle with fine zigzag pattern

  11. Antimicrobial activity, phyto chemical profile and trace minerals of black mulberry (morus nigra l.) fresh juice

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    Khalid, N.; Fawad, S.A.; Ahmed, I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the fresh juice of black mulberry (Morus nigra) was tested for antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic microorganisms. Total antioxidant contents, total phenolic contents, total anthocyanins, trace minerals, total acid contents, total solids and ascorbic acid content were also evaluated. The results showed good antimicrobial activity both for Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with highest zones of inhibition for Bacillus spizizenii (19.68 mm, Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.87 mm, Gram-negative). The black mulberry juice was rich in ascorbic acid (23.45 mg/100 g), had low overall acid content (1.60 %) and had 19% total soluble solids. The average total anthocyanins and total phenolic contents of black mulberry juice were 769 mu g/g of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-gly) per gram and 2050 mu g of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of fresh juice. The average antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalent, TE) of fresh juice was 14.00 mu mol/g according to a FRAP assay and 20.10 mu mol/g according to a DPPH assay. The fresh juice was also rich in a variety of trace minerals. (author)

  12. Synergistic Effects of Aerobic Exercise after Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Recovery of Dopaminergic Neurons and Angiogenesis Markers of Parkinsonian Rats

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    Seyed Abdollah Hashemvarzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Parkinson is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in central nervous system. Non-pharmacologic treatment methods such as stem cell transplantation and exercise have been considered as a treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effects of aerobic exercise after bone marrow stem cells transplantation on recovery of dopaminergic neurons and promotion of angiogenesis markers in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. 42 rats were divided into six groups: Normal (N, Sham (S, Parkinson’s (P, Stem cells transplanted Parkinson’s (SP, Exercised Parkinson’s (EP and Stem cells transplanted+Exercised Parkinson’s (SEP. To create a model of Parkinson's, the striatum was destroyed by injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into the striatum through stereotaxic apparatus. Stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of male rats aged 6-8 weeks. After cultivation, approximately 5×105 cells were injected into the striatum of rats through the channel. Aerobic exercise was included 8 weeks of running on treadmill with a speed of 15 meters per minute. At the end of the study, all subjects were decapitated and striatum tissues were separately isolated for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, dopamine (DA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH levels. VEGF, DA and TH levels in the striatum of parkinsonian rats significantly increased in treatment groups (SP, EP and SEP, especially in SEP group compared to P group after treatment (P<0.05. The BMSCs transplantation in combination with exercise would have synergistic effects leading to functional recovery, dopaminergic neurons recovery and promotion of angiogenesis marker in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Keywords: Stem cells, Aerobic exercise, Neurotrophic factors, Parkinson

  13. Dynamic stereotypic responses of basal ganglia neurons to subthalamic nucleus high frequency stimulation in the parkinsonian primate

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    Anan eMoran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN is a well-established therapy for patients with severe Parkinson‟s disease (PD; however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study we explored static and dynamic activation patterns in the basal ganglia during high frequency macro-stimulation of the STN. Extracellular multi-electrode recordings were performed in primates rendered parkinsonian using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Recordings were preformed simultaneously in the STN and the globus pallidus externus and internus. Single units were recorded preceding and during the stimulation. During the stimulation, STN mean firing rate dropped significantly, while pallidal mean firing rates did not change significantly. The vast majority of neurons across all three nuclei displayed stimulation driven modulations, which were stereotypic within each nucleus but differed across nuclei. The predominant response pattern of STN neurons was somatic inhibition. However, most pallidal neurons demonstrated synaptic activation patterns. A minority of neurons across all nuclei displayed axonal activation. Temporal dynamics were observed in the response to stimulation over the first 10 seconds in the STN and over the first 30 seconds in the pallidum. In both pallidal segments, the synaptic activation response patterns underwent delay and decay of the magnitude of the peak response due to short term synaptic depression. We suggest that during STN macro stimulation the STN goes through a functional ablation as its upper bound on information transmission drops significantly. This notion is further supported by the evident dissociation between the stimulation driven pre-synaptic STN somatic inhibition and the post-synaptic axonal activation of its downstream targets. Thus, basal ganglia output maintains its firing rate while losing the deleterious effect of the STN. This may be a part of the mechanism leading to the beneficial

  14. Development of a controlled-release anti-parkinsonian nanodelivery system using levodopa as the active agent

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    Kura AU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aminu Umar Kura,1 Samer Hasan Hussein Al Ali,2 Mohd Zobir Hussein,3 Sharida Fakurazi,1,4 Palanisamy Arulselvan11Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 3Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 4Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Pharmacology Unit, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: A new layered organic–inorganic nanocomposite material with an anti-parkinsonian active compound, L-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl alanine (levodopa, intercalated into the inorganic interlayers of a Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH was synthesized using a direct coprecipitation method. The resulting nanocomposite was composed of the organic moiety, levodopa, sandwiched between Zn/Al-LDH inorganic interlayers. The basal spacing of the resulting nanocomposite was 10.9 Å. The estimated loading of levodopa in the nanocomposite was approximately 16% (w/w. A Fourier transform infrared study showed that the absorption bands of the nanocomposite were characteristic of both levodopa and Zn/Al-LDH, which further confirmed intercalation, and that the intercalated organic moiety in the nanocomposite was more thermally stable than free levodopa. The resulting nanocomposite showed sustained-release properties, so can be used in a controlled-release formulation. Cytotoxicity analysis using an MTT assay also showed increased cell viability of 3T3 cells exposed to the newly synthesized nanocomposite compared with those exposed to pure levodopa after 72 hours of exposure.Keywords: levodopa, layered double hydroxides, coprecipitation, sustained release

  15. Dynamic stereotypic responses of Basal Ganglia neurons to subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation in the parkinsonian primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anan; Stein, Edward; Tischler, Hadass; Belelovsky, Katya; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2011-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a well-established therapy for patients with severe Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study we explored static and dynamic activation patterns in the basal ganglia (BG) during high-frequency macro-stimulation of the STN. Extracellular multi-electrode recordings were performed in primates rendered parkinsonian using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Recordings were preformed simultaneously in the STN and the globus pallidus externus and internus. Single units were recorded preceding and during the stimulation. During the stimulation, STN mean firing rate dropped significantly, while pallidal mean firing rates did not change significantly. The vast majority of neurons across all three nuclei displayed stimulation driven modulations, which were stereotypic within each nucleus but differed across nuclei. The predominant response pattern of STN neurons was somatic inhibition. However, most pallidal neurons demonstrated synaptic activation patterns. A minority of neurons across all nuclei displayed axonal activation. Temporal dynamics were observed in the response to stimulation over the first 10 seconds in the STN and over the first 30 seconds in the pallidum. In both pallidal segments, the synaptic activation response patterns underwent delay and decay of the magnitude of the peak response due to short term synaptic depression. We suggest that during STN macro-stimulation the STN goes through a functional ablation as its upper bound on information transmission drops significantly. This notion is further supported by the evident dissociation between the stimulation driven pre-synaptic STN somatic inhibition and the post-synaptic axonal activation of its downstream targets. Thus, BG output maintains its firing rate while losing the deleterious effect of the STN. This may be a part of the mechanism leading to the beneficial effect of DBS in PD.

  16. External pallidal stimulation improves parkinsonian motor signs and modulates neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Jerrold L; Zhang, Jianyu; Hashimoto, Takao; Russo, Gary S; Baker, Kenneth B

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are effective for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). We have shown previously that DBS of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) is associated with improvements in parkinsonian motor signs; however, the mechanism of this effect is not known. In this study, we extend our findings on the effect of STN and GPi DBS on neuronal activity in the basal ganglia thalamic network to include GPe DBS using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1.2.3.6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkey model. Stimulation parameters that improved bradykinesia were associated with changes in the pattern and mean discharge rate of neuronal activity in the GPi, STN, and the pallidal [ventralis lateralis pars oralis (VLo) and ventralis anterior (VA)] and cerebellar [ventralis lateralis posterior pars oralis (VPLo)] receiving areas of the motor thalamus. Population post-stimulation time histograms revealed a complex pattern of stimulation-related inhibition and excitation for the GPi and VA/VLo, with a more consistent pattern of inhibition in STN and excitation in VPLo. Mean discharge rate was reduced in the GPi and STN and increased in the VPLo. Effective GPe DBS also reduced bursting in the STN and GPi. These data support the hypothesis that therapeutic DBS activates output from the stimulated structure and changes the temporal pattern of neuronal activity throughout the basal ganglia thalamic network and provide further support for GPe as a potential therapeutic target for DBS in the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluvoxamine maleate effects on dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex of stressed Parkinsonian rats: Implications for learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallé, Ernest; Daniels, Willie M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is also associated with cognitive impairment and reduced extrinsic supply of dopamine (DA) to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In the present study, we looked at whether exposure to early life stress reduces DA and serotonin (5-HT) concentration in the PFC thus leading to enhanced cognitive impairment in a Parkinsonian rat model. Maternal separation was the stressor used to develop an animal model for early life stress that has chronic effects on brain and behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the antidepressant Fluvoxamine maleate (FM) prior to a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion to model motor deficits in rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) and the forelimb use asymmetry (cylinder) tests were used to assess learning and memory impairment and motor deficits respectively. Blood plasma was used to measure corticosterone concentration and prefrontal tissue was collected for lipid peroxidation, DA, and 5-HT analysis. Our results show that animals exposed to early life stress displayed learning and memory impairment as well as elevated basal plasma corticosterone concentration which were attenuated by treatment with FM. A 6-OHDA lesion effect was evidenced by impairment in the cylinder test as well as decreased DA and 5-HT concentration in the PFC. These effects were attenuated by FM treatment resulting in higher DA concentration in the PFC of treated animals than in non-treated animals. This study suggests that DA and 5-HT signaling in the PFC are responsive to FM and may reduce stress-induced cognitive impairment in PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is associated with increased thyrotropin releasing hormone in the dorsal striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats.

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    Ippolita Cantuti-Castelvetri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dyskinesias associated with involuntary movements and painful muscle contractions are a common and severe complication of standard levodopa (L-DOPA, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine therapy for Parkinson's disease. Pathologic neuroplasticity leading to hyper-responsive dopamine receptor signaling in the sensorimotor striatum is thought to underlie this currently untreatable condition.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the molecular changes associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. With this technique, we determined that thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH was greatly increased in the dopamine-depleted striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats that developed abnormal movements in response to L-DOPA therapy, relative to the levels measured in the contralateral non-dopamine-depleted striatum, and in the striatum of non-dyskinetic control rats. ProTRH immunostaining suggested that TRH peptide levels were almost absent in the dopamine-depleted striatum of control rats that did not develop dyskinesias, but in the dyskinetic rats, proTRH immunostaining was dramatically up-regulated in the striatum, particularly in the sensorimotor striatum. This up-regulation of TRH peptide affected striatal medium spiny neurons of both the direct and indirect pathways, as well as neurons in striosomes.TRH is not known to be a key striatal neuromodulator, but intrastriatal injection of TRH in experimental animals can induce abnormal movements, apparently through increasing dopamine release. Our finding of a dramatic and selective up-regulation of TRH expression in the sensorimotor striatum of dyskinetic rat models suggests a TRH-mediated regulatory mechanism that may underlie the pathologic neuroplasticity driving dopamine hyper-responsivity in Parkinson's disease.

  19. Usefulness of 3D-PRESTO imaging in evaluating putaminal abnormality in parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Keita; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Kawai, Tatsuya; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta; Okita, Kenji; Yamawaki, Takemori

    2010-01-01

    Principles of echo shifting with a train of observations (PRESTO) sequence has long echo time which emphasizes the effect of T2* relaxation time and contribute to its high sensitivity to the susceptibility change. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of 3D-PRESTO sequence in detecting putaminal hypointensity in patients with parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and in discriminating between MSA-P and Parkinson's disease (PD). The signal intensity of the putamen and localization of abnormality were evaluated on 3D-PRESTO, T2*-weighted (T2*W), and T2-weighted (T2W) sequences in ten patients with MSA-P, 14 with PD, and ten controls. The putaminal signal intensity was assessed in all sequences and graded relative to the palladium. Atrophy of the putamen and posterolateral hyperintensity rim on T2W sequence were also evaluated in MSA-P patients. Putaminal hypointensity was more often seen in MSA-P than PD and controls on 3D-PRESTO sequence (p = 0.002) as well as on T2*W sequence (p = 0.003). 3D-PRESTO sequence could reveal lower intensity better than T2*W sequence in four of ten MSA-P cases. Hemi- or bilateral putaminal hypointensity, atrophy, and posterolateral hyperintensity rim were recognized in 90%, 70%, and 70% of ten MSA-P cases, respectively. Three cases revealed hypointensity on 3D-PRESTO sequence without posterolateral hyperintensity rim. Putaminal signal changes occurred in the posterolateral part with a striking lateral to medial gradient in all nine cases with putaminal hypointensity (nine out of nine, 100%). 3D-PRESTO sequence appears to be useful for depicting putaminal hypointensity in MSA-P patients and in differentiating MSA-P from PD. (orig.)

  20. Morphological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of black mulberry fruits (Morus nigra L.

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    Beáta Stehlíková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at the morphological, biochemical, technological and sensorial determination of black mulberry (Morus nigra L. – MN  fruitage and their utilization in the food production branches. For the experimental purposes were selected 50 genotypes of this population grown in the Pukanec surroundings. The medium fruitage weight determined in the selected collection ranged from 7.26 g (MN-1 to 1.42 g (MN-14, fruitage length in a range of 13.51 mm (MN-14 to 29.20 mm (MN-12 and the medium fruitage width  11.88 mm (MN-14 – 21.12 mm (MN-2. The variability of the evaluated traits varried from low to high degree. Juice yield from matured fruitage achieved 62.40 %. From black mulberry fruitages 16 food products were prepared – juice mixed with cream, yoghurt and/or curd (in several proportions and 3 confectionery products. Sensorial analyses showed significant differences among tested products. In the group of confectionery products was generally preferred the cream-mulberry cake. High values of antioxidative activity has been measured in the chocolate cake with a mulberry jam (36.90 – 28.43 %, followed by the cream-mulberry cake (29.78 – 12.71 % and the fresh mulberry juice (30.97 – 20.17 %. The antioxidation activities exerted generally higher values with the samples tested in water, when compared with those prepared in ethanol extract. Based on the gained results 4 genotypes were selected and recommended for the use in practice, as these provided relative high values of tested traits.doi:10.5219/234

  1. The effect of Sambucus nigra L. extract and phytosinthesized gold nanoparticles on diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opris, Razvan; Tatomir, Corina; Olteanu, Diana; Moldovan, Remus; Moldovan, Bianca; David, Luminita; Nagy, Andras; Decea, Nicoleta; Kiss, Mihai Ludovic; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated with natural products have shown good results in lowering the glycated hemoglobin and have an anti-inflamatory effect. The aim of our study is to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of NPs functionalized with Sambucus nigra L. (SN) extract on experimental model of diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced to 18 Wistar male rats (n=6) by a single intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (30mg/kg body weight - b.w.). SN extract (15mg/kg b.w.), NPs (0.3mg/kg b.w.) and vehicle (normal saline) were administered by gavage once a day, every morning, for 2 weeks. Other 18 animals were used as control groups and were treated with the same compounds, at the same time. Afterwards, blood, liver and muscle samples were taken to assess the oxidant/antioxidant status and the liver for the evaluation of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9 activities, COX-2 and NFKB expressions and for immunohistochemistry. Serum glycemia, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) were also measured. The administration of NPs extract increased the muscle and systemic GSH/GSSG ratio in the diabetic group vs. diabetic (p<0.03) or non-diabetic groups treated with vehicle (p<0.05) and decreased MDA levels compared to non-diabetic group (p<0.05). COX-2 expression (p<0.0001) and proMMP-2 activity (p<0.05) decreased after pretreatment with NPs in parallel with the reduction of Kupffer cells percent (<0.001). No morphological abnormalities were detected in histopathology. NPs present a great potential for further usage as adjuvants in the diabetic therapy due to the increase of antioxidant defence and reduction of MMPs activity and inflammation in liver tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect-directed analysis of fresh and dried elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) via hyphenated planar chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, S; Mirgos, M; Morlock, G E

    2015-12-24

    A healthy diet is an important factor in a healthy lifestyle that is becoming increasingly important in today's society. The fruits of European elder (Sambucus nigra L.) are a rich source of bioactive compounds like anthocyanins. In this study, dried and fresh fruits of four cultivated and six wild growing plants were investigated for their anthocyanin pattern and content as well as their bioactive compounds. After separation on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 F254 with a mixture of ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, formic acid and water, the plates were quantitatively evaluated by densitometry and also subjected to various (bio)assays to investigate the samples for compounds acting as radical-scavengers, antimicrobials, estrogens, and acetylcholinesterase or tyrosinase inhibitors. The mean contents for the two most abundant anthocyanins in European elderberries, confirmed by HPTLC-ESI-MS, ranged from 159 to 647mg/100g in fresh and from 166 to 2764mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and from 112 to 521mg/100g in fresh and 95 to 226mg/100g in dried fruits for cyanidin-3-glucoside. Additionally, the anthocyanin content was higher in berries of cultivars than of wild growing plants. The anthocyanins' radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial effect against Aliivibrio fischeri were confirmed. Further, a radical scavenging compound affecting A. fischeri and acting as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor was tentatively assigned by its protonated molecule at m/z 456 as either ursolic or oleanolic acid by HPTLC-ESI-MS. HPTLC hyphenated with bioassays and mass spectrometry was selected as method of choice for fingerprinting, pattern recognition, and bioprofiling of elderberry samples as well as quantitation and confirmation of bioactive compounds therein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Geochemical peculiarities of black poplar leaves (Populus nigra L.) in the sites with heavy metals intensive fallouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaltdinova, Albina; Baranovskaya, Natalya; Rikhvanov, Leonid; Matveenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with the content of 28 chemical elements in the leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) growing in Ust-Kamenogorsk city area. It is the major industrial center of Kazakhstan Republic on the territory where the industrial giants of non-ferrous metallurgy and nuclear energy are situated. Comparative analysis with the similar data obtained from leaves ash of Populus nigra L. in Tomsk, Ekibastuz, and Pavlodar cities has revealed that in comparison with other urban areas, leaves ash of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) from Ust-Kamenogorsk city is characterized by elevated concentration rates of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, As, Sb, Br, Sr and Na. Within the city, the sites and areas with abnormal contents of typomorphic pollutants have been revealed. In the central part of the city, in the vicinity of lead-zinc plant and Ulba metallurgical plant, the highest concentrations of Ta, U, Zn, Ag, Au, As, Sb, Cr and Fe were marked. In the northeast, where the titanium-magnesium plant is located, elevated concentrations of Br and Sr were stated. Thus, the impact of major city enterprises which are the main sources of heavy metals is reflected in the element composition. Zn, As, Sb, Ag and Au comes from lead-zinc plant and its refinery plants, while Ulba metallurgical plant can be considered source of Ta and U in the environment, producing tantalum and fuel pellets for nuclear power plants. These companies, due to the current objective circumstances, are located in the central part of the city, have a significant negative effect on the environment and form the risk factors for human health.

  4. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

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    Maurizio Marchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees, were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. Keywords: Species Distribution Models; Mediterranean forests; Abruzzo; climate change; altitudinal shift.

  5. Future scenarios and conservation strategies for a rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra Arnold in Italian central Apennines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, M.; Nocentini, S.; Ducci, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To forecast the effects of climate change on the spatial distribution of Black pine of Villetta Barrea in its natural range and to define a possible conservation strategy for the species. Area of study: A rear-edge marginal population of Pinus nigra spp. nigra in Abruzzo region, central Italian Apennines. Matherials and Methods: For its adaptive and genetic traits this population is considered endemic of the Italian peninsula and represents a rear-edge marginal population of nigra subspecies. The spatial distribution of the tree in the administrative Region (Abruzzo) was used to define the ecological traits while three modelling techniques (GLM, GAM, Random Forest) were used to build a Species distribution model according to two climatic scenarios. Main results: The marginal population's range was predicted to shift at higher elevations as consequence of climatic adaptation. Many zones, represented by the higher part of the mountains surrounding the study area (currently bare and inhospitable for trees), were identified as suitable in future for the species. However, in the case of a rapid climate change, this marginal population may not be able to move as fast as necessary. An in-situ adaptive management integrated with an assisted migration protocol might be considered to enforce the natural regeneration and improve the richness and variability of the genetic pool. Research highlights: Most of the genetic richness is held in small populations at the borders of natural distribution of forest species. Monitoring this MAP could be useful to understand the adaptive processes of the species and could support the future management of many other within-core populations. (Author)

  6. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity.

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    Marcela Medeiros de Freitas

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL. The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65. High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source

  7. Correlation between cortical beta power and gait speed is suppressed in a parkinsonian model, but restored by therapeutic deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polar, Christian A; Gupta, Rahul; Lehmkuhle, Mark J; Dorval, Alan D

    2018-05-30

    The motor cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit abnormally high levels of electrophysiological oscillations in the ~12-35 Hz beta-frequency range. Recent studies have shown that beta is partly carried forward to regulate future motor states in the healthy condition, suggesting that steady state beta power is lower when a sequence of movements occurs in a short period of time, such as during fast gait. However, whether this relationship between beta power and motor states persists upon parkinsonian onset or in response to effective therapy is unclear. Using a 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD and a custom-built behavioral and neurophysiological recording system, we aimed to elucidate a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cortical beta power and PD symptoms. In addition to elevated levels of beta oscillations, we show that parkinsonian onset was accompanied by a decoupling of movement intensity - quantified as gait speed - from cortical beta power. Although subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) reduced general levels of beta oscillations in the cortex of all PD animals, the brain's capacity to regulate steady state levels of beta power as a function of movement intensity was only restored in animals with therapeutic DBS. We propose that, in addition to lowering general levels of cortical beta power, restoring the brain's ability to maintain this inverse relationship is critical for effective symptom suppression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Essential oils of Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold subsp. laricio Maire: Chemical composition and study of their herbicidal potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Amri; Mohsen Hanana; Bassem Jamoussi; Lamia Hamrouni

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the needles of Tunisian Pinus nigra L. subsp. laricio was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. 27 compounds were identified, representing 97.9% of total oil, which was found to be rich in oxygenated diterpenes (38.5%) particularly manool oxide (38%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (41.4%) that included germacrene D (16.7%), δ-cadinene (9%) and (E)-caryophyllene (8.9%). Results of the herbicidal effects of the oil when tested on...

  9. Fruit of Morus nigra and Morus alba as environmental biomonitor. An elemental analysis by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Wasim; Sajid Iqbal; Sohaila Rahman

    2016-01-01

    In this study, potential of fruit of Morus nigra and Morus alba was evaluated as short-term biomonitor. Each variety of the fruits was collected from 13 different locations of Islamabad with different level of pollution. Both fruits were quantified by k 0 -instrumental neutron activation analysis. Pollution level was assessed by the application of enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA). EF revealed a source of (As, Hg, I and Se) and PCA showed the areas of high dust level. The overall analysis suggested that both fruits could be used as short-term biomonitor. (author)

  10. Polyphenolic content, antiradical activity, stability and microbiological quality of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliszka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The pharmaceutical and food industries expect detailed knowledge on the physicochemical properties of elderberry fruit extracts, their stability and microbiological quality, as well as the polyphenol content in elderberry cultivars. The characteristics of the extracts might be additionally modified by citric acid, which improves the stability of anthocyanins and protects processed fruits and syrups from pathogenic microorganisms. The choice of the method with citric acid was a consequence of the physicochemical charac teristics of elderberry pigments, which are not stable under the effect of light in alcoholic solutions. The aim of study was to analyze the properties of elderberry fruit extracts regarding polyphenol content and antiradical activity, as well as their stability and microbiological quality. The plant material consisted of fruit from four cultivars (Alleso, Korsor, Sampo, Samyl) of black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.). The following were determined in fruit extracts: polyphe- nolic content (HPLC), antiradical activity (ABTS and DPPH) and stability and microbiological quality. The HPLC analysis of polyphenols demonstrated that the extracts from fruits collected from cv. Samyl had the highest 3-sambubioside cyanidin content and those from cv. Korsor contained the highest quantity of 3-glucoside cyanidin. The extracts from cv. Sampo fruit had a dominant 3-sambubioside-5-gluco- side cyanidin and 3,5-diglucoside cyanidin content. The highest quercetin (5.92 mg 100 mg-1 of extract) and caffeic acid (1.21 mg 100 mg-1 of extract) content was found in fruit extracts from cv. Alleso. The cultivars Samyl and Korsor had a higher level of anthocyanins and higher antiradical activity (ABTS) in fruit extracts than cv. Alleso and Sampo. The antiradical activity (DPPH) of fruit extracts from elderberry cultivars as- sessed in this research was similar. The degradation index for all fruit extracts was similar (DI = 1.035). The microbiological species detected in

  11. Expression and molecular evolution of two DREB1 genes in black poplar (Populus nigra.

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    Yanguang Chu

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses such as low temperature, drought, and high salinity significantly affect plant growth and yield. As selective forces, these adverse factors play essential roles in shaping phenotypic variation in plant populations. Black poplar (Populus nigra is an economically and ecologically important forest tree species with widely distributed populations and is thus suitable for experiments detecting evolutionary footprints left by stress. Here, we performed expression and evolutionary analysis of two duplicated DREB A1-subgroup (DREB1 genes, PnDREB68 and PnDREB69, encoding transcription factors that are involved in stress responses. The two genes showed partially overlapping but distinct expression patterns in response to stresses. These genes were strongly and rapidly induced by cold stress in leaves, stems, and roots. In leaf tissue, dehydration stress induced the expression of PnDREB68 but not PnDREB69. PnDREB69 displayed more rapid responses and longer expression durations than PnDREB68 under salt and ABA stress, respectively. Based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis, we found significant population genetic differentiation, with a greater FST value (0.09189 for PnDREB69 than for PnDREB68 (0.07743. Nucleotide diversity analysis revealed a two-fold higher πT for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69 (0.00563 vs. 0.00243, reflecting strong purifying selection acting on the former. The results suggest that positive selection acted on PnDREB69, as evidenced by neutral testing using Tajima's D statistic. The distinct selective forces to which each of the genes was subjected may be associated with expression divergence. Linkage disequilibrium (LD was low for the sequenced region, with a higher level for PnDREB68 than for PnDREB69. Additionally, analysis of the relationship among carbon isotope ratios, SNP classes and gene expression, together with motif and domain analysis, suggested that 14 polymorphisms within the two genes may be

  12. Caracterización fármaco-toxicológica de la planta medicinal Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli Pharmaceutical-toxicological characterization of medicinal plant Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oneyda Clapé Laffita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la monografía consistió en la caracterización fármaco-toxicológica de Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L. R. Bolli, planta tradicional cubana con actividad antiinflamatoria, entre otras. Se presentan aspectos farmacológicos como composición fitoquímica, propiedades atribuidas popularmente y comprobadas científicamente, posología, reacciones adversas, advertencias, interacciones, toxicidad, precauciones y contraindicaciones. Se concluye que con la monografía fármaco-toxicológica de esta planta medicinal, se dispone de una completa información, como documentación indispensable para actualizar las bases de datos nacionales e internacionales al respecto, con vistas a desarrollar nuevos fitofármacos, en especial antiinflamatorios con bajo potencial de efectos adversos.The objective of the monograph was the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of Sambucus nigra subspecies canadensis(L. R. Bolli, a Cuban traditional plant with anti-inflammatory action, among others. Several pharmacological aspects such as phytochemical composition; scientifically tested properties attributed by the population; posology; adverse reactions; warnings; interactions; toxicity; precautions and counterindications were presented. It was concluded that the pharmaceutical and toxicological monograph of this plant provides full information as indispensable documentation to update national and international databases, with a view to developing new pharmaceuticals, particularly anti-inflammatory drugs with low adverse effect potential.

  13. Impact mortality of black storks (Ciconia nigra) on medium-voltage overhead power lines in Rheinland-Pfalz; Anflugverluste von Schwarzstoerchen (Ciconia nigra) an Mittelspannungsfreileitungen in Rheinland-Pfalz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormann, M.; Richarz, K. [Staatliche Vogelschutzwarte fuer Hessen, Rheinland-Pfalz und Saarland, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The small breeding population of black storks (Ciconia nigra), which had been growing steadily since first nesting in Rhineland-Palantinate in 1982, has been observably decreasing again since 1993, particularly in its main territories. The high mortality of, for the most part, juvenile black storks resulting from collision with a overhead power line (OHL) is described (30 collision victims since the mid-1980s). The energy utilities are called upon to install underground cables on the relevant sections of the power lines in addition to modifying hazardous types of towers in order to reduce the high bird mortality rate. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer den seit einer Erstbrut 1982 in Rheinland-Pfalz stetig angestiegenen kleinen Brutbestand des Schwarzstorchs (Ciconia nigra) sind vor allem in seinen Kerngebieten seit 1993 wieder Bestandsrueckgaenge zu verzeichnen. Die hohen Verluste ueberwiegend junger Schwarzstoerche durch Anflug an Mittel- und Niederspannungsfreileitungen (seit Mitte der 80er Jahre 30 Schwarzstoerche als Anflugopfer) werden beschrieben. Neben der Entschaerfung gefaehrlicher Masttypen wird zur Vermeidung der hohen Anflugverluste eine Erdverkabelung der kritischen Leitungsabschnitte gefordert. (orig.)

  14. Plasma biomarkers of decreased vesicular storage distinguish Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension from the parkinsonian form of multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S; Kopin, Irwin J; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Holmes, Courtney

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson disease with orthostatic hypotension (PD + OH) and the parkinsonian form of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) can be difficult to distinguish clinically. Recent studies indicate that PD entails a vesicular storage defect in catecholaminergic neurons. Although cardiac sympathetic neuroimaging by (18)F-dopamine positron emission tomography can identify decreased vesicular storage, this testing is not generally available. We assessed whether plasma biomarkers of a vesicular storage defect can separate PD + OH from MSA-P. We conceptualized that after F-dopamine injection, augmented production of F-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (F-DOPAC) indicates decreased vesicular storage, and we therefore predicted that arterial plasma F-DOPAC would be elevated in PD + OH but not in MSA-P. We measured arterial plasma F-DOPAC after (18)F-dopamine administration (infused i.v. over 3 min) in patients with PD + OH (N = 12) or MSA-P (N = 21) and in healthy control subjects (N = 26). Peak F-DOPAC:dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) was also calculated to adjust for effects of denervation on F-DOPAC production. Plasma F-DOPAC accumulated rapidly after initiation of (18)F-dopamine infusion. Peak F-DOPAC (5-10 min) in PD + OH averaged three times that in MSA-P (P 300 nCi-kg/cc-mCi, in contrast with 7 of 12 PD + OH patients (χ(2) = 16.6, P < 0.0001). DHPG was lower in PD + OH (3.83 ± 0.36 nmol/L) than in MSA-P (5.20 ± 0.29 nmol/L, P = 0.007). All MSA-P patients had peak F-DOPAC:DHPG < 60, in contrast with 9 of 12 PD + OH patients (χ(2) = 17.5, P < 0.0001). Adjustment of peak F-DOPAC for DHPG increased test sensitivity from 58 to 81% at similar high specificity. After F-dopamine injection, plasma F-DOPAC and F-DOPAC:DHPG distinguish PD + OH from MSA-P.

  15. Model-based analysis and control of a network of basal ganglia spiking neurons in the normal and Parkinsonian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Khalil, Hassan K.; Oweiss, Karim G.

    2011-08-01

    Controlling the spatiotemporal firing pattern of an intricately connected network of neurons through microstimulation is highly desirable in many applications. We investigated in this paper the feasibility of using a model-based approach to the analysis and control of a basal ganglia (BG) network model of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) spiking neurons through microstimulation. Detailed analysis of this network model suggests that it can reproduce the experimentally observed characteristics of BG neurons under a normal and a pathological Parkinsonian state. A simplified neuronal firing rate model, identified from the detailed HH network model, is shown to capture the essential network dynamics. Mathematical analysis of the simplified model reveals the presence of a systematic relationship between the network's structure and its dynamic response to spatiotemporally patterned microstimulation. We show that both the network synaptic organization and the local mechanism of microstimulation can impose tight constraints on the possible spatiotemporal firing patterns that can be generated by the microstimulated network, which may hinder the effectiveness of microstimulation to achieve a desired objective under certain conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that the feedback control design aided by the mathematical analysis of the simplified model is indeed effective in driving the BG network in the normal and Parskinsonian states to follow a prescribed spatiotemporal firing pattern. We further show that the rhythmic/oscillatory patterns that characterize a dopamine-depleted BG network can be suppressed as a direct consequence of controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of a subpopulation of the output Globus Pallidus internalis (GPi) neurons in the network. This work may provide plausible explanations for the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease and pave the way towards a model-based, network level analysis and closed

  16. Protection of dopaminergic neurons by 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kai-Hsiang; Liou, Horng-Hui; Hour, Mann-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2013-10-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are important factors that induce neurodegeneration in age-related neurological disorders. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is the enzyme responsible for catalysing the synthesis of leukotriene or 5-HETE from arachidonic acid. 5-LOX is expressed in the central nervous system and may cause neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of the pharmacological inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)/MPP(+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal death in midbrain neuron-glia co-cultures and in mice. It was found that 5-LOX was over-expressed in astrocytes after the injection of MPTP into C57BL6 mice. MK-886, a specific inhibitor of 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP), significantly increased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake, a functional indicator of the integrity of dopaminergic neurons, in midbrain cultures or the SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic cell line following MPP(+) treatment. In addition, LTB₄, one of 5-LOX's downstream products, was increased in the striatum and substantia nigra following MPTP injection in mice. LTB₄ but not LTD₄ and 5-HETE enhanced MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in primary midbrain cultures. MK-886 administration increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and the dopamine content in the striatum in MPTP-induced parkinsonian mice. Furthermore, the MPTP-induced upregulation of LTB₄ in the striatum and substantia nigra was antagonised by MK-886. These results suggest that 5-LOX inhibitors may be developed as novel neuroprotective agents and LTB₄ may play an important pathological role in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Germinação de sementes de dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae no armazenamento Germination of Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (jacarandá-da-bahia, espécie de alto valor econômico pela qualidade da madeira e potencial ornamental em razão da copa bem formada e à delicadeza da folhagem, está na lista de espécies ameaçadas de extinção. Em função disso, conduziu-se este trabalho, visando à avaliação da qualidade de suas sementes, submetidas a períodos crescentes de armazenamento. Os frutos foram coletados em outubro de 2003, e as sementes armazenadas em geladeira a 6º C ± 2, em sacos de plástico transparente fechados. Mensalmente, durante 690 dias, foram retiradas 200 sementes, sendo que 100 foram utilizadas nos ensaios de germinação (quatro repetições de 25 sementes e 100 para a determinação do teor de água. Os ensaios germinativos foram conduzidos em estufa tipo B.O.D., a 25º C e com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. As variáveis analisadas foram a porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e massa seca das plântulas originadas. Os resultados indicaram que, até 360 dias de armazenamento, as sementes apresentaram porcentagem de germinação próxima de 50%, com redução de cerca da metade do índice de velocidade de germinação, porém, com maior comprometimento do acúmulo da massa seca das plântulas. A porcentagem de germinação inicial e final foram de 87% e 36%, respectivamente. As sementes de D. nigra têm comportamento ortodoxo e podem ser armazenadas por um período de até dois anos em sacos de plástico a baixa temperatura, com redução em cerca de 50% de sua capacidadeDalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemao ex Benth. (Brazilian rosewood is a highly economically valuable species because of its wood quality and ornamental potential, mainly due to its well formed canopy and the delicacy of its foliage. Unfortunately, these features contributed to list it as an endangered Brazilian species (IBAMA Regulation number 06/92. This work had as its objective to study the quality of Dalbergia

  18. Laboratory-scale measurements of N2O and CH4 emissions from hybrid poplars (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, M C; Warland, J S; McBride, R A; Wagner-Riddle, C

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not young hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x Populus nigra) could transport landfill biogas internally from the root zone to the atmosphere, thereby acting as conduits for landfill gas release. Fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from the seedlings to the atmosphere were measured under controlled conditions using dynamic flux chambers and a tunable diode laser trace gas analyser (TDLTGA). Nitrous oxide was emitted from the seedlings, but only when extremely high soil N2O concentrations were applied to the root zone. In contrast, no detectable emissions of CH4 were measured in a similar experimental trial. Visible plant morphological responses, characteristic of flood-tolerant trees attempting to cope with the negative effects of soil hypoxia, were observed during the CH4 experiments. Leaf chlorosis, leaf abscission and adventitious roots were all visible plant responses. In addition, seedling survival was observed to be highest in the biogas 'hot spot' areas of a local municipal solid waste landfill involved in this study. Based on the available literature, these observations suggest that CH4 can be transported internally by Populus deltoides x Populus nigra seedlings in trace amounts, although future research is required to fully test this hypothesis.

  19. Soil Respiration Changes after Prescribed Fires in Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii Monospecific and Mixed Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Plaza-Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is a major carbon pathway sensitive to environmental changes. Using prescribed burnings to reduce fuel accumulation and lower risks of large-scale wildfires has recently become more important. Prescribed burning can significantly alter the soil environment, but its effect in practice on soil respiration is not sufficiently understood. We evaluated the effects of prescribed burning on soil respiration before and after burning (May–July 2016. Prescribed burning was conducted in two natural pine areas by comparing a mixed stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii with Pinus pinaster Ait. to a pure stand of Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. salzmannii in the central Iberian Peninsula. Soil respiration was measured by an EGM-4 (Environmental Gas Monitor infrared gas analyser in both burned and unburned (control plots. Burnings were low-intensity, and slightly more energetic in the pure stand given its larger litter volume. Post-burning soil respiration followed a similar evolution to that in the control plots, but was greater in the pure stand burned zone and slightly lower in the burned plots in the mixed stand. No significant differences were found in any stand. Soil respiration significantly changed in temporal evolution due to increasing temperatures when summer began. We conclude that prescribed fire induces no changes in SR immediately after fire. This study helps understand how prescribed burnings can affect soil respiration in pure and mixed Spanish black pine forest stands.

  20. Changes in photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance to CO2, and isoprenoid emissions in Populus nigra plants exposed to excess nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikova, Violeta; Tsonev, Tsonko; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Poplar (Populus nigra) plants were grown hydroponically with 30 and 200 μM Ni (Ni 30 and Ni 200 ). Photosynthesis limitations and isoprenoid emissions were investigated in two leaf types (mature and developing). Ni stress significantly decreased photosynthesis, and this effect depended on the leaf Ni content, which was lower in mature than in developing leaves. The main limitations to photosynthesis were attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. In Ni-stressed developing leaves, isoprene emission was significantly stimulated. We attribute such stimulation to the lower chloroplastic [CO 2 ] than in control leaves. However chloroplastic [CO 2 ] did not control isoprene emission in mature leaves. Ni stress induced the emission of cis-β-ocimene in mature leaves, and of linalool in both leaf types. Induced biosynthesis and emission of isoprenoids reveal the onset of antioxidant processes that may also contribute to reduce Ni stress, especially in mature poplar leaves. - Graphical abstract: Visible damage caused by Ni treatment. 1 - Ni 0 (control plants); 2 - Ni 200 ; M = mature and D = developing Populus nigra leaves. Display Omitted Highlights: → We study the effect of Ni pollution on photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions. → Ni stress significantly decreases photosynthesis. The main limitations are attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. → Constitutive isoprene emission was significantly stimulated in Ni-stressed leaves. Exposure to enhanced Ni concentration induces cis-beta-ocimene and linalool emissions. - The study reveals consequences of Ni stress on plant physiology, namely increasing diffusional limitation to photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions.

  1. RAPD markers and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold intraspecies taxonomy - Evidence from the study of nine populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Liber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although intraspecies researches within the black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold have a long tradition, the intraspecies taxonomy, classification and chorology are still unclear. Among the numerous reasons that have caused this situation the most important are: the absence of a study that would completely cover the whole range of this species, the impossibility of connection of results of the existing detailed studies of certain areas, and the high variability of traits which have been used so far. Since the characteristics of the molecular systematic techniques could make possible the research free of the mentioned shortages, the intention of this study was to determine the relationships among nine populations of black pine using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. The obtained results were compared to the recent results of the morphological and anatomical analysis of the leaves of the same populations. The RAPD results clearly divided the Croatian populations from populations of Austria (subsp. nigra and Turkey (subsp. pallasiana, while among Croatian populations, as in previous study, the existence of several groups (subsp. illyrica, subsp. dalmatica and transitional population between them was noticed. It is assumed that the optimisations conducted in this study will finally make possible estimating the relationships on the level of the whole range of the black pine and the classification based on molecular traits that are probably less dependent on environmental influences than it has been the case with the characteristics mostly used so far.

  2. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Brassica nigra seedlings and stem explants: growth dynamics and antioxidative response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira eZafar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have diverse properties in comparison to respective chemicals due to structure, surface area ratio, morphology, and reactivity. Toxicological effects of metallic NPs to organisms including plants have been reported. However, to the authors’ knowledge there is no report on the effect of NPs on in vitro culture of plant explants. In this study, ZnO NPs at 500-1500 mg/L badly affected Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth and raised antioxidative activities and antioxidants concentrations. On the other hand, culturing the stem explants of B. nigra on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in presence of low concentration of ZnO NPs (1-20 mg/L produced white thin roots with thick root hairs. At 10 mg/L ZnO NPs shoots emergence was also observed. The developed calli/roots showed 79% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity at 10 mg/L. While total antioxidant and reducing power potential were also significantly different in presence of ZnO NPs. Non enzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics (up to 0.15 µg GAE/mg FW and flavonoids (up to 0.22 µg QE/mg FW, also raised and found NPs concentration dependent. We state that ZnO NPs may induce roots from explants cultured on appropriate medium and can be cultured for production of valuable secondary metabolites.

  3. Antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. (Brassicaceae) seeds against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluye, Abrham Belachew; Melese, Eshetie; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint

    2015-10-15

    Resistances to currently available drugs and insecticides, significant drug toxicities and costs and lack of vaccines currently complicated the treatment of malaria. A continued search for safe, effective and affordable plant-based antimalarial agents thus becomes crucial and vital in the face of these difficulties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of 80 % methanolic extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain) was used to test the antimalarial activity of the extract. In suppressive and prophylactic models, Swiss albino male mice were randomly grouped into five groups of five mice each. Group I mice were treated with the vehicle, group II, III and IV were treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively and the last group (V) mice were treated with chloroquine (10 mg/kg). The level of parasitemia, survival time and variation in weight of mice were used to determine the antimalarial activity of the extract. Chemosuppressive activities produced by the extract of the seeds of Brassica nigra were 21.88, 50.00 (P activities were 17.42, 21.21 and 53.79 % (P activities and the plant may contain biologically active principles which are relevant in the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, thus supporting further studies of the plant for its active components.

  4. How specialized volatiles respond to chronic and short-term physiological and shock heat stress in Brassica nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, Kaia; Kännaste, Astrid; Talts, Eero; Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-09-01

    Brassicales release volatile glucosinolate breakdown products upon tissue mechanical damage, but it is unclear how the release of glucosinolate volatiles responds to abiotic stresses such as heat stress. We used three different heat treatments, simulating different dynamic temperature conditions in the field to gain insight into stress-dependent changes in volatile blends and photosynthetic characteristics in the annual herb Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Heat stress was applied by either heating leaves through temperature response curve measurements from 20 to 40 °C (mild stress), exposing plants for 4 h to temperatures 25-44 °C (long-term stress) or shock-heating leaves to 45-50 °C. Photosynthetic reduction through temperature response curves was associated with decreased stomatal conductance, while the reduction due to long-term stress and collapse of photosynthetic activity after heat shock stress were associated with non-stomatal processes. Mild stress decreased constitutive monoterpene emissions, while long-term stress and shock stress resulted in emissions of the lipoxygenase pathway and glucosinolate volatiles. Glucosinolate volatile release was more strongly elicited by long-term stress and lipoxygenase product released by heat shock. These results demonstrate that glucosinolate volatiles constitute a major part of emission blend in heat-stressed B. nigra plants, especially upon chronic stress that leads to induction responses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. HIV-1 gp120 neurotoxicity proximally and at a distance from the point of exposure: protection by rSV40 delivery of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Agrawal, Lokesh; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2009-06-01

    Toxicity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120) for substantia nigra (SN) neurons may contribute to the Parkinsonian manifestations often seen in HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). We studied the neurotoxicity of gp120 for dopaminergic neurons and potential neuroprotection by antioxidant gene delivery. Rats were injected stereotaxically into their caudate-putamen (CP); CP and (substantia nigra) SN neuron loss was quantified. The area of neuron loss extended several millimeters from the injection site, approximately 35% of the CP area. SN neurons, outside of this area of direct neurotoxicity, were also severely affected. Dopaminergic SN neurons (expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, TH, in the SN and dopamine transporter, DAT, in the CP) were mostly affected: intra-CP gp120 caused approximately 50% DAT+ SN neuron loss. Prior intra-CP gene delivery of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) protected SN neurons from intra-CP gp120. Thus, SN dopaminergic neurons are highly sensitive to HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity, and antioxidant gene delivery, even at a distance, is protective.

  6. Neuroprotective and Therapeutic Strategies against Parkinson’s Disease: Recent Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sarkar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinsonism is a progressive motor disease that affects 1.5 million Americans and is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s. Typical neuropathological features of Parkinson’s disease (PD include degeneration of dopaminergic neurons located in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra that project to the striatum (nigro-striatal pathway and depositions of cytoplasmic fibrillary inclusions (Lewy bodies which contain ubiquitin and α-synuclein. The cardinal motor signs of PD are tremors, rigidity, slow movement (bradykinesia, poor balance, and difficulty in walking (Parkinsonian gait. In addition to motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms that include autonomic and psychiatric as well as cognitive impairments are pressing issues that need to be addressed. Several different mechanisms play an important role in generation of Lewy bodies; endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress induced unfolded proteins, neuroinflammation and eventual loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of mid brain in PD. Moreover, these diverse processes that result in PD make modeling of the disease and evaluation of therapeutics against this devastating disease difficult. Here, we will discuss diverse mechanisms that are involved in PD, neuroprotective and therapeutic strategies currently in clinical trial or in preclinical stages, and impart views about strategies that are promising to mitigate PD pathology.

  7. Synergistic effects of influenza and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) can be eliminated by the use of influenza therapeutics: experimental evidence for the multi-hit hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, Shankar; Sharp, Bridgett; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2017-01-01

    Central Nervous System inflammation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (Ransohoff, Science 353: 777-783, 2016; Kannarkat et al. J. Parkinsons Dis. 3: 493-514, 2013). Here, we examined if the H1N1 influenza virus (Studahl et al. Drugs 73: 131-158, 2013) could synergize with the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (Jackson-Lewis et al. in Mark LeDoux (ed) Movement Disorders: Genetics and Models : 287-306, Elsevier, 2015) to induce a greater microglial activation and loss of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons than either insult alone. H1N1-infected animals administered 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine exhibit a 20% greater loss of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons than occurs from the additive effects of H1N1 or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine alone ( p  effects were found in microglial activation. The synergistic dopaminergic neuron loss is eliminated by influenza vaccination or treatment with oseltamivir carboxylate. This work shows that multiple insults can induce synergistic effects; and even these small changes can be significant as it might allow one to cross a phenotypic disease threshold that would not occur from individual non-interacting exposures. Our observations also have important implications for public health, providing impetus for influenza vaccination or prompt treatment with anti-viral medications upon influenza diagnosis.

  8. Autoradiography of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): Uptake in the monoaminergic pathways and in melanin containing tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyden, A; Lindquist, N G; Bondesson, U; Larsson, B S; Olsson, L -I

    1985-01-01

    A recently discovered neurotoxic compound, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, has been found to cause a parkinsonian-like syndrome in man and monkey, but not in laboratory animals such as rat, mouse and guinea pig. MPTP seems to selectively destroy the melanin containing dopaminergic cells in pars compacta of substantia nigra. Lower mammalian species do not have melanin in these cells, which indicates that the presence of neuromelanin may be of importance for the development of MPTP-induced lesions. By means of whole-body autoradiography of TH-MPTP in mice, accumulation and retention was observed in the dopaminergic pathways, in locus ceruleus and in structures in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. A high uptake was also seen in melanin-containing tissues such as in the eyes of pigmented mice. MPTP has earlier been found to have high affinity in vitro for dopamine melanin, which is similar to the pigment in substantia nigra. The typical features of the MPTP-induced neurotoxicity with destruction of pigmented nerve cells and development of parkinsonism may be due to accumulation adn retention of MPTP and its metabolites in these cells. In species with pigmented nerve cells, such as man and monkey, the accumulation may be much more pronounced because of the melanin affinity of MPTP and its metabolites. (author).

  9. Presymptomatic detection of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, P

    1993-01-01

    Presymptomatic detection of Parkinson's disease is necessary if neuroprotective therapies are to be utilized in its treatment. Various methods (PET, electrophysiology, enzyme assays, olfactory function) may be applicable but none has been rigorously evaluated. Other possible approaches are now considered. Plasma HVA levels (pHVA) in the presence of debrisoquine may reflect cerebral dopamine function. However, there are no detectable differences in pHVA between newly diagnosed and untreated parkinsonian patients and control subjects. Compensatory increases in dopamine turnover may mask a decrease in pHVA in the early stages of the disease. So, at present this technique could not be used as a diagnostic tool. Post-mortem studies of brain in Parkinson's disease may provide clues to biochemical markers indicative of nigral pathology. Mitochondrial complex I activity is reduced in substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease and it was reported also to be markedly reduced in blood platelets. However, subsequent studies suggest that the difference in platelet complex I activity is too small to be diagnostic of Parkinson's disease. There are also selective reductions in brain glutathione levels in Parkinson's disease restricted to substantia nigra, which do not occur in other neurodegenerative disorders and are not due to drug treatment. Importantly, in incidental Lewy body disease (preclinical Parkinson's disease) nigral glutathione levels are reduced to the same degree as in advanced Parkinson's disease. So, some peripheral index of altered glutathione function may be valuable in the early detection of the disease process.

  10. On the use of information theory for detecting upper limb motor dysfunction: An application to Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, M. Elias; Menegaldo, L. L.; Lucarelli, P.; Andrade, B. L. B.; Büchler, P.

    2011-11-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, decreased striatal dopamine levels, and consequent extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions. Several potential early diagnostic markers of PD have been proposed. Since they have not been validated in presymptomatic PD, the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease is based on subjective clinical assessment of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this study, we investigated interjoint coordination synergies in the upper limb of healthy and parkinsonian subjects during the performance of unconstrained linear-periodic movements in a horizontal plane using the mutual information (MI). We found that the MI is a sensitive metric in detecting upper limb motor dysfunction, thus suggesting that this method might be applicable to quantitatively evaluating the effects of the antiparkinsonian medication and to monitor the disease progression.

  11. Multiple sclerosis exceptionally presenting as parkinsonism responds to intravenous methylprednisolone.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saidha, S

    2012-01-31

    Parkinsonism due to multiple sclerosis (MS) is rare. In previously reported patients with MS-induced parkinsonism, MS manifested first, followed a typical clinical course, and parkinsonism developed later in the course of the illness. We report a 52-year-old male presenting with parkinsonism as the initial manifestation of MS, in whom a subsequent MS relapse consisted of marked deterioration in parkinsonism, a clinical pattern not previously described in MS. A brain MRI demonstrated involvement of the substantia nigra and basal ganglia. This patient illustrates that the clinical presentation and progression of MS may rarely be characterised by predominating parkinsonian features which are reversible by treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone and interferon beta1a.

  12. Multiple sclerosis exceptionally presenting as parkinsonism responds to intravenous methylprednisolone.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saidha, S

    2010-05-01

    Parkinsonism due to multiple sclerosis (MS) is rare. In previously reported patients with MS-induced parkinsonism, MS manifested first, followed a typical clinical course, and parkinsonism developed later in the course of the illness. We report a 52-year-old male presenting with parkinsonism as the initial manifestation of MS, in whom a subsequent MS relapse consisted of marked deterioration in parkinsonism, a clinical pattern not previously described in MS. A brain MRI demonstrated involvement of the substantia nigra and basal ganglia. This patient illustrates that the clinical presentation and progression of MS may rarely be characterised by predominating parkinsonian features which are reversible by treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone and interferon beta1a.

  13. In vivo tomographic study of cerebral blood perfusion with SPECT in hemiparkinsonian monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengdi; Xu Delong

    1994-01-01

    The authors present data on the utility of functional brain imaging with 99m Tc-ECD and SPECT in the study of MPTP induced hemiparkinsonism in monkeys. Injection of MPTP into the right common carotid artery of 10 rhesus monkeys produced hemiparkinsonism in the contralateral limbs which responded to antiparkinsonian medication. The unilateral neurotoxicity of the MPTP treated side was confirmed biochemically by marked reduction of DA contents in the nigrostriatum and histologically by selective neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. These monkeys with hemiparkinsonism were studied with SPECT using 99m Tc-ECD as perfusion marker. The results of brain scanning showed that the cerebral blood perfusion of MPTP treated side was significantly depleted 20∼90 days after MPTP intoxication, and returned to normal 8 months after perfusion. The experiment indicates that abnormal cerebral blood perfusion is involved in the course of parkinsonian pathophysiology

  14. Dopaminergic-like neurons derived from oral mucosa stem cells by developmental cues improve symptoms in the hemi-parkinsonian rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ganz

    Full Text Available Achieving safe and readily accessible sources for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD is still a challenging unresolved issue. Recently, a primitive neural crest stem cell population (hOMSC was isolated from the adult human oral mucosa and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In this study we assessed hOMSC ability to differentiate into dopamine-secreting cells with a neuronal-dopaminergic phenotype in vitro in response to dopaminergic developmental cues and tested their therapeutic potential in the hemi-Parkinsonian rat model. We found that hOMSC express constitutively a repertoire of neuronal and dopaminergic markers and pivotal transcription factors. Soluble developmental factors induced a reproducible neuronal-like morphology in the majority of hOMSC, downregulated stem cells markers, upregulated the expression of the neuronal and dopaminergic markers that resulted in dopamine release capabilities. Transplantation of these dopaminergic-induced hOMSC into the striatum of hemi-Parkinsonian rats improved their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotational behavior, motor asymmetry and motor coordination tests. Human TH expressing cells and increased levels of dopamine in the transplanted hemispheres were observed 10 weeks after transplantation. These results demonstrate for the first time that soluble factors involved in the development of DA neurons, induced a DA phenotype in hOMSC in vitro that significantly improved the motor function of hemiparkinsonian rats. Based on their neural-related origin, their niche accessibility by minimal-invasive procedures and their propensity for DA differentiation, hOMSC emerge as an attractive tool for autologous cell replacement therapy in PD.

  15. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP has a neuroprotective function in dopamine-based neurodegeneration in rat and snail parkinsonian models

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    Gabor Maasz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP rescues dopaminergic neurons from neurodegeneration and improves motor changes induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA in rat parkinsonian models. Recently, we investigated the molecular background of the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in dopamine (DA-based neurodegeneration using rotenone-induced snail and 6-OHDA-induced rat models of Parkinson's disease. Behavioural activity, monoamine (DA and serotonin, metabolic enzyme (S-COMT, MB-COMT and MAO-B and PARK7 protein concentrations were measured before and after PACAP treatment in both models. Locomotion and feeding activity were decreased in rotenone-treated snails, which corresponded well to findings obtained in 6-OHDA-induced rat experiments. PACAP was able to prevent the behavioural malfunctions caused by the toxins. Monoamine levels decreased in both models and the decreased DA level induced by toxins was attenuated by ∼50% in the PACAP-treated animals. In contrast, PACAP had no effect on the decreased serotonin (5HT levels. S-COMT metabolic enzyme was also reduced but a protective effect of PACAP was not observed in either of the models. Following toxin treatment, a significant increase in MB-COMT was observed in both models and was restored to normal levels by PACAP. A decrease in PARK7 was also observed in both toxin-induced models; however, PACAP had a beneficial effect only on 6-OHDA-treated animals. The neuroprotective effect of PACAP in different animal models of Parkinson's disease is thus well correlated with neurotransmitter, enzyme and protein levels. The models successfully mimic several, but not all etiological properties of the disease, allowing us to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration as well as testing new drugs. The rotenone and 6-OHDA rat and snail in vivo parkinsonian models offer an alternative method for investigation of the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective agents, including PACAP.

  16. The network of causal interactions for beta oscillations in the pedunculopontine nucleus, primary motor cortex, and subthalamic nucleus of walking parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhou, Ming; Wen, Peng; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Yong; Xiao, Hu; Xie, Zhengyuan; Li, Xing; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jinyan; Luo, Fei; Chang, Jingyu; Zhang, Wangming

    2016-08-01

    Oscillatory activity has been well-studied in many structures within cortico-basal ganglia circuits, but it is not well understood within the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), which was recently introduced as a potential target for the treatment of gait and postural impairments in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). To investigate oscillatory activity in the PPN and its relationship with oscillatory activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials in the PPN, primary motor cortex (M1), and subthalamic nucleus (STN) of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rats during resting and walking. After analysis of power spectral density, coherence, and partial Granger causality, three major findings emerged: 1) after 6-OHDA lesions, beta band oscillations were enhanced in all three regions during walking; 2) the direction of information flow for beta oscillations among the three structures was STN→M1, STN→PPN, and PPN→M1; 3) after the treatment of levodopa, beta activity in the three regions was reduced significantly and the flow of beta band was also abrogated. Our results suggest that beta activity in the PPN is transmitted from the basal ganglia and probably comes from the STN, and the STN plays a dominant role in the network of causal interactions for beta activity. Thus, the STN may be a potential source of aberrant beta band oscillations in PD. Levodopa can inhibit beta activity in the PPN of parkinsonian rats but cannot relieve parkinsonian patients' axial symptoms clinically. Therefore, beta oscillations may not be the major cause of axial symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pressurized hot water extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of polyphenols in Sambucus nigra L. branches in dependence on vegetative period of the plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hohnová, Barbora; Šalplachta, Jiří; Karásek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2017), s. 299-303 ISSN 1336-8672 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : PHWE * polyphenols * Sambucus nigra L. branches Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2016

  18. Overstory treatment and planting season affect survival of replacement tree species in emerald ash borer threatened Fraxinus nigra forests in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak

    2015-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, are threatened by the invasive insect, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)). A potential management option is promoting regeneration of tree species that are not EAB hosts to maintain ecosystem functions. Using an operational-scale...

  19. The ethylene-inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine restores normal nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae on Vicia sativa subsp. nigra by suppressing the 'Thick and short roots' phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaat, S. A.; van Brussel, A. A.; Tak, T.; Lugtenberg, B. J.; KIJNE, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra L. by Rhizobium bacteria is coupled to the development of thick and short roots (Tsr). This root phenotype as well as root-hair induction (Hai) and root-hair deformation (Had) are caused by a factor(s) produced by the bacteria in response to plant flavonoids.

  20. Species delimitation in asexual insects of economic importance: The case of black scale (Parasaissetia nigra, a cosmopolitan parthenogenetic pest scale insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Po Lin

    Full Text Available Asexual lineages provide a challenge to species delimitation because species concepts either have little biological meaning for them or are arbitrary, since every individual is monophyletic and reproductively isolated from all other individuals. However, recognition and naming of asexual species is important to conservation and economic applications. Some scale insects are widespread and polyphagous pests of plants, and several species have been found to comprise cryptic species complexes. Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861 (Hemiptera: Coccidae is a parthenogenetic, cosmopolitan and polyphagous pest that feeds on plant species from more than 80 families. Here, we implement multiple approaches to assess the species status of P. nigra, including coalescence-based analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and ecological niche modelling. Our results indicate that the sampled specimens of P. nigra should be considered to comprise at least two ecotypes (or "species" that are ecologically differentiated, particularly in relation to temperature and moisture. The presence of more than one ecotype under the current concept of P. nigra has implications for biosecurity because the geographic extent of each type is not fully known: some countries may currently have only one of the biotypes. Introduction of additional lineages could expand the geographic extent of damage by the pest in some countries.

  1. Bee Venom Alleviates Motor Deficits and Modulates the Transfer of Cortical Information through the Basal Ganglia in Rat Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, Nicolas; Deltheil, Thierry; Melon, Christophe; Degos, Bertrand; Mourre, Christiane; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence points to a neuroprotective action of bee venom on nigral dopamine neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we examined whether bee venom also displays a symptomatic action by acting on the pathological functioning of the basal ganglia in rat PD models. Bee venom effects were assessed by combining motor behavior analyses and in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr, basal ganglia output structure) in pharmacological (neuroleptic treatment) and lesional (unilateral intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine injection) PD models. In the hemi-parkinsonian 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model, subchronic bee venom treatment significantly alleviates contralateral forelimb akinesia and apomorphine-induced rotations. Moreover, a single injection of bee venom reverses haloperidol-induced catalepsy, a pharmacological model reminiscent of parkinsonian akinetic deficit. This effect is mimicked by apamin, a blocker of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels, and blocked by CyPPA, a positive modulator of these channels, suggesting the involvement of SK channels in the bee venom antiparkinsonian action. In vivo electrophysiological recordings in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (basal ganglia output structure) showed no significant effect of BV on the mean neuronal discharge frequency or pathological bursting activity. In contrast, analyses of the neuronal responses evoked by motor cortex stimulation show that bee venom reverses the 6-OHDA- and neuroleptic-induced biases in the influence exerted by the direct inhibitory and indirect excitatory striatonigral circuits. These data provide the first evidence for a beneficial action of bee venom on the pathological functioning of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying motor PD symptoms with potential relevance to the symptomatic treatment of this disease.

  2. Essential oils of Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold subsp. laricio Maire: Chemical composition and study of their herbicidal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the needles of Tunisian Pinus nigra L. subsp. laricio was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. 27 compounds were identified, representing 97.9% of total oil, which was found to be rich in oxygenated diterpenes (38.5% particularly manool oxide (38% and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (41.4% that included germacrene D (16.7%, δ-cadinene (9% and (E-caryophyllene (8.9%. Results of the herbicidal effects of the oil when tested on Phalaris canariensis L., Trifolium campestre Schreb. and Sinapis arvensis L., indicated that the oil completely inhibited germination and seedling growth at a high concentration (5 μL/mL−1, while at low doses the oil acted by decreasing germination and partially inhibiting seedling growth of all tested weeds.

  3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politeo, Olivera; Skocibusic, Mirjana; Maravic, Ana; Ruscic, Mirko; Milos, Mladen

    2011-03-01

    The chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil isolated from the needles of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. dalmatica) from Croatia were investigated. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC and GC/MS analyses, and the main compounds identified were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, and β-caryophyllene. Disc-diffusion and broth-microdilution assays were used for the in vitro antimicrobial screening. The Dalmatian black pine essential oil exhibited a great potential of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=0.03-0.50% (v/v)) and a less pronounced activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MIC=0.12-3.2% (v/v)). The volatile compounds also inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including yeast. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as an alternative indicator of urban air pollution by chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric air pollution by chemical elements were tested against epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) and Physcia adscendens (Fr.). Concentrations of 40 macro and trace elements were determined using epicadmium and instrumental NAA. The data obtained were processed using non-parametric tests. A good correlation was found between concentrations of majority of elements in bark and lichens. On the accumulation capability bark turned out to be competitive with both lichens examined. The main inorganic components of black poplar-tree bark were revealed. A substrate influence on the concentrations of some elements in epiphytic lichens was established. An optimized procedure of bark pre-irradiation treatment was suggested. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves� propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves� propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves� propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves� propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  6. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  7. Effectiveness of mechanical thinning and prescribed burning on fire behavior in Pinus nigra forests in NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Míriam; Domènech, Rut

    2018-03-15

    Fuel treatments can mitigate present and future impacts of climate change by reducing fire intensity and severity. In recent years, Pinus nigra forests in the Mediterranean basin have been dramatically affected by the new risk of highly intense and extreme fires and its distribution area has been reduced. New tools are necessary for assessing the management of these forests so they can adapt to the challenges to come. Our main goal was to evaluate the effects of different fuel treatments on Mediterranean Pinus nigra forests. We assessed the forest response, in terms of forest structure and fire behavior, to different intensities of low thinning treatments followed by different slash prescriptions (resulting in: light thinning and lop and scatter; light thinning and burn; heavy thinning and lop and scatter; heavy thinning and burn; and, untreated control). Treatments that used fire to decrease the resulting slash were the most effective for reducing active crown fires decreasing the rate of spread and flame length more than 89%. Low thinning had an effect on torching potential, but there was no difference between intensities of thinning. Only an outcoming crown fire could spread actively if it was sustained by a high-enough constant wind speed and enough surface fuel load. Overall, treatments reduce fire intensity and treated areas have a more homogenous fire behavior response than untreated areas. This provides opportunities to extinguish the fire and reduce the probability of trees dying from the fire. It would be helpful to include ecological principles and fire behavior criteria in silvicultural treatment guidelines in order to perform more efficient management techniques in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

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    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  9. The Role of Primary Motor Cortex (M1) Glutamate and GABA Signaling in l-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinsonian Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenbach, David; Conti, Melissa M; Ostock, Corinne Y; George, Jessica A; Goldenberg, Adam A; Melikhov-Sosin, Mitchell; Nuss, Emily E; Bishop, Christopher

    2016-09-21

    Long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease with l-DOPA almost always leads to the development of involuntary movements termed l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Whereas hyperdopaminergic signaling in the basal ganglia is thought to cause dyskinesia, alterations in primary motor cortex (M1) activity are also prominent during dyskinesia, suggesting that the cortex may represent a therapeutic target. The present study used the rat unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model of Parkinson's disease to characterize in vivo changes in GABA and glutamate neurotransmission within M1 and determine their contribution to behavioral output. 6-Hydroxydopamine lesion led to parkinsonian motor impairment that was partially reversed by l-DOPA. Among sham-lesioned rats, l-DOPA did not change glutamate or GABA efflux. Likewise, 6-hydroxydopamine lesion did not impact GABA or glutamate among rats chronically treated with saline. However, we observed an interaction of lesion and treatment whereby, among lesioned rats, l-DOPA given acutely (1 d) or chronically (14-16 d) reduced glutamate efflux and enhanced GABA efflux. Site-specific microinjections into M1 demonstrated that l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia was reduced by M1 infusion of a D1 antagonist, an AMPA antagonist, or a GABAA agonist. Overall, the present study demonstrates that l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is associated with increased M1 inhibition and that exogenously enhancing M1 inhibition may attenuate dyskinesia, findings that are in agreement with functional imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies in human Parkinson's disease patients. Together, our study suggests that increasing M1 inhibitory tone is an endogenous compensatory response designed to limit dyskinesia severity and that potentiating this response is a viable therapeutic strategy. Most Parkinson's disease patients will receive l-DOPA and eventually develop hyperkinetic involuntary movements termed dyskinesia. Such symptoms can be as debilitating as the disease

  10. Analysis of the Substantia Innominata Volume in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Soo Jeong; Sohn, Young Ho; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose The substantia innominata (SI) contains the nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is the major source of cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex. We hypothesized that degeneration of the SI and its relationship to general cognitive performance differs in amyloidopathy and synucleinopathy. Methods We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based volumetric analysis to evaluate the SI volume in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), PD with dementia (PDD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and healthy elderly controls. The correlation between SI volume and general cognitive performance, measured using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), was examined. Results Compared to control subjects, the mean normalized SI volume was significantly decreased in all of the other groups. The normalized SI volume did not differ between the subjects with PDD and DLB, whereas it was significantly smaller in subjects with PDD (p = 0.029) and DLB (p = 0.011) compared with AD. In subjects with PD-related cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, PDD, or DLB), there was a significant positive correlation between the SI volume and K-MMSE score (r = 0.366, p < 0.001), whereas no correlation was seen in subjects with AD-related cognitive impairment (aMCI or AD). Conclusions Our data suggest that the SI loss is greater in synucleinopathy-related dementia (PDD or DLB) than in AD and that the contribution of the SI to cognitive performance is greater in synucleinopathy than in amyloidopathy. PMID:24868398

  11. Analysis of the Substantia Innominata Volume in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose The substantia innominata (SI contains the nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is the major source of cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex. We hypothesized that degeneration of the SI and its relationship to general cognitive performance differs in amyloidopathy and synucleinopathy. Methods We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based volumetric analysis to evaluate the SI volume in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, Parkinson’s disease-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, PD with dementia (PDD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, and healthy elderly controls. The correlation between SI volume and general cognitive performance, measured using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE, was examined. Results Compared to control subjects, the mean normalized SI volume was significantly decreased in all of the other groups. The normalized SI volume did not differ between the subjects with PDD and DLB, whereas it was significantly smaller in subjects with PDD (p = 0.029 and DLB (p = 0.011 compared with AD. In subjects with PD-related cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, PDD, or DLB, there was a significant positive correlation between the SI volume and K-MMSE score (r = 0.366, p < 0.001, whereas no correlation was seen in subjects with AD-related cognitive impairment (aMCI or AD. Conclusions Our data suggest that the SI loss is greater in synucleinopathy-related dementia (PDD or DLB than in AD and that the contribution of the SI to cognitive performance is greater in synucleinopathy than in amyloidopathy.

  12. Examination of correlation between histidine and nickel absorption by Morus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Populus nigra L. using HPLC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Sukran Akkus; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-08-02

    In this study, HPLC-MS and ICP-MS methods were used for the determination of histidine and nickel in Morus L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Populus nigra L. leaves taken from industrial areas including Gaziantep and Bursa cities. In the determination of histidine by HPLC-MS, all of the system parameters such as flow rate of mobile phase, fragmentor potential, injection volume and column temperature were optimized and found to be 0.2 mL min(-1), 70 V, 15 µL, and 20°C, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, histidine was extracted from plant sample by distilled water at 90°C for 30 min. Concentrations of histidine as mg kg(-1) were found to be between 2-9 for Morus L., 6-13 for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 2-10 for Populus nigra L. Concentrations of nickel were in the ranges of 5-10 mg kg(-1) for Morus L., 3-10 mg kg(-1) for Robinia pseudoacacia L., and 0.6-4 mg kg(-1) for Populus nigra L. A significant linear correlation (r = 0.78) between histidine and Ni was observed for Populus nigra L., whereas insignificant linear correlation for Robinia pseudoacacia L. (r = 0.22) were seen. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.025 mg Ni L(-1) and 0.075 mg Ni L(-1), respectively.

  13. Black Ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.): Local ecological knowledge of site characteristics and morphology associated with basket-grade specimens in New England (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire K. Diamond; Marla R. Emery

    2011-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. is a small, relatively uncommon tree with large social significance. Known as black ash or brown ash, it rarely exceeds 18 meters (60 feet) in height or 30-50 centimeters (12-20 inches) in diameter. In the U.S. states where the species occurs, its percentage of forest composition ranges from 0.01% in Kentucky to 6.00% in...

  14. Conserved microstructure of the Brassica B Genome of Brassica nigra in relation to homologous regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa and B. oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Brassica B genome is known to carry several important traits, yet there has been limited analyses of its underlying genome structure, especially in comparison to the closely related A and C genomes. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Brassica nigra was developed and screened with 17 genes from a 222 kb region of A. thaliana that had been well characterised in both the Brassica A and C genomes. Results Fingerprinting of 483 apparently non-redundant clones defined physical contigs for the corresponding regions in B. nigra. The target region is duplicated in A. thaliana and six homologous contigs were found in B. nigra resulting from the whole genome triplication event shared by the Brassiceae tribe. BACs representative of each region were sequenced to elucidate the level of microscale rearrangements across the Brassica species divide. Conclusions Although the B genome species separated from the A/C lineage some 6 Mya, comparisons between the three paleopolyploid Brassica genomes revealed extensive conservation of gene content and sequence identity. The level of fractionation or gene loss varied across genomes and genomic regions; however, the greatest loss of genes was observed to be common to all three genomes. One large-scale chromosomal rearrangement differentiated the B genome suggesting such events could contribute to the lack of recombination observed between B genome species and those of the closely related A/C lineage. PMID:23586706

  15. Dense genetic linkage maps of three Populus species (Populus deltoides, P. nigra and P. trichocarpa) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M T; Storme, V; Ivens, B; Gusmão, J; Liu, B H; Hostyn, V; Van Slycken, J; Van Montagu, M; Boerjan, W

    2001-06-01

    Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and P. trichocarpa are the most important species for poplar breeding programs worldwide. In addition, Populus has become a model for fundamental research on trees. Linkage maps were constructed for these three species by analyzing progeny of two controlled crosses sharing the same female parent, Populus deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. nigra cv. Ghoy and P. deltoides cv. S9-2 x P. trichocarpa cv. V24. The two-way pseudotestcross mapping strategy was used to construct the maps. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers that segregated 1:1 were used to form the four parental maps. Microsatellites and sequence-tagged sites were used to align homoeologous groups between the maps and to merge linkage groups within the individual maps. Linkage analysis and alignment of the homoeologous groups resulted in 566 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. deltoides covering 86% of the genome, 339 markers distributed over 19 groups for P. trichocarpa covering 73%, and 369 markers distributed over 28 groups for P. nigra covering 61%. Several tests for randomness showed that the AFLP markers were randomly distributed over the genome.

  16. Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L. ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils - The Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Jovanović, Olga P; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Large-Scale Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra Subsp. salzmannii: Poor Evidence of Increasing Facilitation Across a Drought Gradient

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    Pedro Antonio Tíscar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree recruitment is a key process underlying stand dynamics and sustainability in managed forests. Woody plant cover is known to affect the regeneration success of Pinus nigra, suggesting the existence of facilitative plant-plant interactions. The regeneration patterns of this Mediterranean pine were analyzed across its distribution area, using data from 3226 plots of the Spanish National Forest Inventory. We aimed to test the hypothesis that seedlings establishment occurs under higher values of either canopy or shrub cover in the driest populations, as predicted by the stress-gradient hypothesis. Data were analyzed by means of Generalized Linear Models and multivariate methods. Results revealed that regeneration failure occurs on a regional scale, and that regeneration is facilitated by tree canopy cover of 55%–80%. A non-linear pattern of interaction along an aridity gradient was identified, with competition at the wettest site, high facilitation at the mid-dry sites, and low facilitation at the driest site. Evidence suggests that some shrub species may facilitate recruitment in the harsher areas. Collectively, our results reduce the possibilities of adapting forest management to drying climates by the application of alternative silvicultural prescriptions involving canopy cover.

  18. Effect on Shear Strength of Machining Methods in Pinus nigra Arnold Bonded with Polyurethane and Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesives

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    Murat Kılıç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens taken from Pinus nigra Arnold were subject to surfacing techniques by being cut with a circular saw, planed with a thickness machine, and sanded with a calibrating sanding machine (with P80 grit sandpaper. First, their surface roughness values were measured; then, the specimens were processed in the machines in a radial and tangential process. Afterwards, the change in shear strength (adhesiveness resistance was analyzed as a result of bonding with various adhesive types (PVAc, PU and pressure applications (0.45 N/mm² or 0.9 N/mm². Approximately 600 specimens were prepared with the purpose of identifying the effect of variables on the bonding performance, and they were subjected to shear testing. The greatest shear strength achieved for both the tangential and radial surfaces in terms of cutting was observed in specimens processed in the thickness machine, on which polyvinyl acetate adhesive and 0.9 N/mm². pressure were applied. Specimens bonded with polyvinyl acetate adhesive displayed higher shear strength in general in comparison to those bonded with polyurethane for both tangential and radial surfaces.

  19. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of a TaLEA-Introduced Transgenic Populus simonii × Populus nigra Dwarf Mutant

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    Jing Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf mutant (dwf1 was obtained among 15 transgenic lines, when TaLEA (Tamarix androssowii late embryogenesis abundant gene was introduced into Populus simonii × Populus nigra by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Under the same growth conditions, dwf1 height was significantly reduced compared with the wild type and the other transgenic lines. Because only one transgenic line (dwf1 displayed the dwarf phenotype, we considered that T-DNA insertion sites may play a role in the mutant formation. The mechanisms underlying this effect were investigated using TAIL-PCR (thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR and microarrays methods. According to the TAIL-PCR results, two flanking sequences located on chromosome IV and VIII respectively, were cloned. The results indicated the integration of two independent T-DNA copies. We searched for the potential genes near to the T-DNA insertions. The nearest gene was a putative poplar AP2 transcription factor (GI: 224073210. Expression analysis showed that AP2 was up-regulated in dwf1 compared with the wild type and the other transgenic lines. According to the microarrays results, a total of 537 genes involved in hydrolase, kinase and transcription factor activities, as well as protein and nucleotide binding, showed significant alterations in gene expression. These genes were expressed in more than 60 metabolic pathways, including starch, sucrose, galactose and glycerolipid metabolism and phenylpropanoids and flavonoid biosyntheses. Our transcriptome and T-DNA insertion sites analyses might provide some useful insights into the dwarf mutant formation.

  1. Expression Patterns of ERF Genes Underlying Abiotic Stresses in Di-Haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengji Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 176 ERF genes from Populus were identified by bioinformatics analysis, 13 of these in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra were investigate by real-time RT-PCR, the results demonstrated that 13 ERF genes were highly responsive to salt stress, drought stress and ABA treatment, and all were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, whereas their expression levels were markedly different in the various tissues. In roots, PthERF99, 110, 119, and 168 were primarily downregulated under drought and ABA treatment but were specifically upregulated under high salt condition. Interestingly, in poplar stems, all ERF genes showed the similar trends in expression in response to NaCl stress, drought stress, and ABA treatment, indicating that they may not play either specific or unique roles in stems in abiotic stress responses. In poplar leaves, PthERF168 was highly induced by ABA treatment, but was suppressed by high salinity and drought stresses, implying that PthERF168 participated in the ABA signaling pathway. The results of this study indicated that ERF genes could play essential but distinct roles in various plant tissues in response to different environment cues and hormonal treatment.

  2. RUPTURA DE LA DORMICIÓN Y EXIGENCIAS DE LUZ PARA LA GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE Juglans nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. FLORES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron métodos para superar la dormición y determinar las necesidades de luz en la germinación de Juglans nigra. Para superar la latencia y dureza del endocarpio se realizó Estratificación en caliente (T1, Inmersión en ácido giberélico (T2 y Estratifi cación en frío húmedo (T3. Para la necesidad de luz se evaluó alternancia de oscuridad/luz y oscuridad permanente. Se analizó el Porcentaje Germinación (% de G, Índice Velocidad de Germinación (IVG, Tiempo Medio Germinación Máxima (TMG, % Plántulas Normales, % Semillas sin germinar, Peso Seco Medio de plántulas (PSM y el Índice de Germinación Relativo a la luz (GRL. En T1 no hubo germinación y en T2 irrelevante. T3 produjo diferencias altamente significativas en todas las variables analizadas, siendo el período de 4 meses de estratifi cación el mejor para romper la dormición. Al no ser la luz un factor determinante en la germinación, esta especie se clasifi caría como fotoblástica neutra.

  3. Discovery of Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, Associated with Forested Black Walnut, Juglans nigra, in the Eastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Wiggins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thousand cankers disease (TCD is an insect-mediated disease of walnut trees (Juglans spp. involving walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis and a fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida. Although first documented on walnut species in the western U.S., TCD is now found on black walnut (J. nigra in five states in the eastern U.S. Most collections of P. juglandis or G. morbida are from trees in agriculturally- or residentially-developed landscapes. In 2013, 16 pheromone-baited funnel traps were deployed in or near black walnuts in forested conditions to assess the risk of infestation of forested trees by P. juglandis. Four of the 16 funnel traps collected adult P. juglandis from three forested areas (one in North Carolina and two in Tennessee. These collections, while in forested settings, may still be strongly influenced by human activities. The greatest number of P. juglandis (n = 338 was collected from a forested location in an urbanized area near a known TCD-positive tree. The other two forested locations where P. juglandis (n = 3 was collected were in areas where camping is common, and infested firewood may have introduced P. juglandis unintentionally into the area. Future studies to assess P. juglandis on more isolated forested walnuts are planned.

  4. Are the Economically Optimal Harvesting Strategies of Uneven-Aged Pinus nigra Stands Always Sustainable and Stabilizing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fullana-Belda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional uneven-aged forest management seeks a balance between equilibrium stand structure and economic profitability, which often leads to harvesting strategies concentrated in the larger diameter classes. The sustainability (i.e., population persistence over time and influence of such economically optimal strategies on the equilibrium position of a stand (given by the stable diameter distribution have not been sufficiently investigated in prior forest literature. This article therefore proposes a discrete optimal control model to analyze the sustainability and stability of the economically optimal harvesting strategies of uneven-aged Pinus nigra stands. For this model, we rely on an objective function that integrates financial data of harvesting operations with a projection matrix model that can describe the population dynamics. The model solution reveals the optimal management schedules for a wide variety of scenarios. To measure the distance between the stable diameter distribution and the economically optimal harvesting strategy distribution, the model uses Keyfitz’s delta, which returns high values for all the scenarios and, thus, suggests that those economically optimal harvesting strategies have an unstabilizing influence on the equilibrium positions. Moreover, the economically optimal harvesting strategies were unsustainable for all the scenarios.

  5. Performance of Salix viminalis and Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii in short rotation intensive culture under high irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillion, Maud; Brisson, Jacques [Departement de Sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, 4101 Sherbrooke East, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Teodorescu, Traian I.; Labrecque, Michel [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, 4101 Sherbrooke East, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sauve, Sebastien [Departement de chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    On a plantation established in 2004 from stem cuttings at a density of 20,000 trees per hectare, we investigated growth and nutritional plant response to a high hydraulic regime for two species (Salix viminalis and Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii), using a comparative approach with measurements from irrigated and control plots. The plantation was irrigated from June to September 2005 with about 140 mm per day. The equivalent of 120 Kg NO{sub 3}-N, 40 Kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-P and 85 Kg K{sub 2}O-K per hectare per year was applied by means of irrigation with wastewater. No mortality occurred and stem biomass production of both poplar and willow species were not statistically different on irrigated and control areas. However, S. viminalis revealed to be more tolerant to flooded conditions since these corresponded more closely to its nutritional requirements (foliar concentration of 20 mgN g{sup -1}). The capacity of S. viminalis to withstand waterlogged conditions could play an important role in the sustainability of a plantation for the filtration of effluent at low pollutant concentration. (author)

  6. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism analysis in parkinsonian disorders; Pathologie extrapyramidale. Apport de l'imagerie de perfusion et du metabolisme (TEP, TEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defebvre, L. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Neurologie, 59 - Lille (France)

    1999-12-01

    Main metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities detected by single photon emission computerized tomography and positron emission tomography in extra-pyramidal disorders are reported. In the first stage of Parkinson's disease, cortical metabolism and perfusion can be in normal range or moderately and uniformly reduced. A significant decrease may appear with the disease evolution. Marked abnormalities are observed in parkinsonian patients with dementia (subcortical dementia), involving especially the frontal cortex. A marked diffuse cortical hypo-metabolism (temporal, parietal, occipital and frontal cortex) may suggest the diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies, especially in case of fluctuating cognitive decline with recurrent visual hallucinations. In progressive supra-nuclear palsy, a frontal cortex hypo-metabolism is reported precociously, preceding sometimes the cognitive impairment. Metabolic pattern find in multiple system atrophy reflects dysfunction of both nigrostriatal pathways and striatum, with a decrease glucose uptake in putamen and caudate nucleus which also involves cerebellum for the patients with cerebellar syndrome. In cortico-basal degeneration, asymmetric fronto-parietal and striatal hypo-metabolism observed in the controlateral hemisphere to the clinically most affected side, constitute the main characteristic well correlated with apraxia. (author)

  7. Callus induction of leaf explant Piper betle L. Var Nigra with combination of plant growth regulators indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), benzyl amino purin (BAP) and kinetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junairiah, Zuraidassanaaz, Nabilah Istighfari; Izdihar, Fairuz Nabil; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the combination of plant growth regulators IAA, BAP and kinetin towards callus induction and growth of leaf explants Piper betle L. VarNigra. Explants from leaf of Piper betle L. VarNigra was cultured on MS medium with 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and BAP and 24 treatment combinations of plant growth regulators IAA and kinetin with 0.0;0.5;1.0;1.5;2.0 mg/L concentration respectively, the observed variable were the length of time the formation of callus, callus morphology, fresh and dry weight of callus. The results of this research showed that the combination of growth regulators IAA with BAP and kinetin had effects on leaf growth of Piper betle L. VarNigra. During 8 weeks observation, it indicated that the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 2.0 mg/L showed fastest callus formation at 8.5 days. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and BAP 1.5 mg/L showed the highest of fresh weight at 0.6596 grams, and the highest dry weight was obtained from the combination of concentration IAA 0.5 mg/L and BAP 0.5 mg/L at 0.0727 grams. Combination of concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and kinetin 1.5 mg/L had the highest of fresh weight at 0.2972 grams and the highest dry weight at 0.1660 grams. Callus of Piper betle L. VarNigra had two textures, that were compact and friable, and also showed various kind of colors, like white, greenish white, yellowish white, tanned white, brown and black. Based on this research, that concentration IAA 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L kinetin was the best combination for induction of callus from leaf of Piper betle L. Var Nigra.

  8. Enhanced GABA action on the substantia gelatinosa neurons of the medullary dorsal horn in the offspring of streptozotocin-injected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Thi Thanh; Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Lee, Jeong Chae; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus and a common symptom of neuropathic pain, the mechanism of which is complex and involves both peripheral and central components of the sensory system. The lamina II of the medullary dorsal horn, called the substantia gelatinosa (SG), is well known to be a critical site for processing of orofacial nociceptive information. Although there have been a number of studies done on diabetic neuropathy related to the orofacial region, the action of neurotransmitter receptors on SG neurons in the diabetic state is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to investigate this alteration on SG neurons in both streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and offspring from diabetic female mice. STZ (200 mg/kg)-injected mice showed a small decrease in body weight and a significant increase in blood glucose level when compared with their respective control group. However, application of different concentrations of glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate on SG neurons from STZ-injected mice did not induce any significant differences in inward currents when compared to their control counterparts. On the other hand, the offspring of diabetic female mice (induced by multiple injections of STZ (40 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days) led to a significant decrease in both body weight and blood glucose level compared to the control offspring. Glycine and glutamate responses in the SG neurons of the offspring from diabetic female mice were similar to those of control offspring. However, the GABA response in SG neurons of offspring from diabetic female mice was greater than that of control offspring. Furthermore, the GABA-mediated responses in offspring from diabetic and control mice were examined at different concentrations ranging from 3 to 1,000 μM. At each concentration, the GABA-induced mean inward currents in the SG neurons of offspring from diabetic female mice were

  9. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M.; Beira, J.; Suarez, J.; Xenakis, G.; Sánchez-Salguero, R.; Hernández-Clemente, R.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería). Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm), basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1) and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2) in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1), age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB) included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99) between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68). Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. (Author)

  10. A 323-year long reconstruction of drought for SW Romania based on black pine (Pinus Nigra) tree-ring widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanič, Tom; Popa, Ionel; Poljanšek, Simon; Nechita, Constantin

    2013-09-01

    Increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation pose a major future challenge for sustainable ecosystem management in Romania. To understand ecosystem response and the wider social consequences of environmental change, we constructed a 396-year long (1615-2010) drought sensitive tree-ring width chronology (TRW) of Pinus nigra var. banatica (Georg. et Ion.) growing on steep slopes and shallow organic soil. We established a statistical relationship between TRW and two meteorological parameters-monthly sum of precipitation (PP) and standardised precipitation index (SPI). PP and SPI correlate significantly with TRW (r = 0.54 and 0.58) and are stable in time. Rigorous statistical tests, which measure the accuracy and prediction ability of the model, were all significant. SPI was eventually reconstructed back to 1688, with extreme dry and wet years identified using the percentile method. By means of reconstruction, we identified two so far unknown extremely dry years in Romania--1725 and 1782. Those 2 years are almost as dry as 1946, which was known as the "year of great famine." Since no historical documents for these 2 years were available in local archives, we compared the results with those from neighbouring countries and discovered that both years were extremely dry in the wider region (Slovakia, Hungary, Anatolia, Syria, and Turkey). While the 1800-1900 period was relatively mild, with only two moderately extreme years as far as weather is concerned, the 1900-2009 period was highly salient owing to the very high number of wet and dry extremes--five extremely wet and three extremely dry events (one of them in 1946) were identified.

  11. Growth decline assessment in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra Arnold. forest by using 3-PG model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Navarro-Cerrillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: We assessed the ability of the 3-PG process-based model to accurately predict growth of Pinus sylvestris and P. nigra plantations across a range of sites, showing declining growth trends, in southern Spain. Area of study: The study area is located in “Sierra de Los Filabres” (Almería. Material and methods: The model was modified in fifteen parameters to predict diameter (DBH, cm, basal area increment (BAI, cm2 yr-1 and leaf area index (LAI, m2 m-2 in healthy trees and trees showing declining growth. We assumed that a set of specific physiological parameters (stem partitioning ratio-pFS20, maximum litterfall rate-γFx, maximum canopy conductance-gCx, specific leaf area for mature aged stands-σ1, age at which specific leaf area = ½ (σ0 + σ1, age at full canopy cover-tc, and canopy boundary layer conductance-gB included in 3-PG would be suitable for predicting growth decline related to climate conditions. The calibrated model was evaluated using dendrochronological and LAI data obtained from plots. Main results: Observed and simulated DBH showed a high correlation (R2 > 0.99 between modelled and measured values for both species. In contrast, modelled and observed BAI showed lower correlation (R2 < 0.68. Sensitivity analysis on 3-PG outputs showed that the foliage parameters - maximum litterfall rate, maximum canopy conductance, specific leaf area for mature aged stands, age at which specific leaf area, and age at full canopy cover - were important for DBH and BAI predictions under drought stress. Research highlights: Our overall results indicated that the 3-PG model could predict growth response of pine plantations to climatic stress with desirable accuracy in southern Spain by using readily available soil and climatic data with physiological parameters derived from experiments. Keywords: Hybrid process model; forest management models; growth prediction; Pinus spp, Parameterization; forest decline.

  12. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2007-01-01

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm 2 ) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00±51.56 or 663.20±62.58 per mm 2 of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm 2 were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm 2 )-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB

  13. The effect of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) leaf extract on ultraviolet B-induced skin damages in mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Se Lim; Lee, Hae June; Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The effects of bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra var. henenis Strapf) Leaf Extract (BLE) on the changes of UltraViolet (UV) light B radiation-induced apoptotic SunBurn Cell (SBC) and epidermal ATPase-positive Dendritic Cell (DC) in SKHI-hr or ICR mouse were investigated. The mice were treated with UVB (200 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and were sacrificed 24 hours later. BLE (50 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle (saline) was given i.p. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation, and 30 minutes after irradiation. BLE cream (0.2%) or cream base (vehicle) was also topically treated at 24 hours and 15 minutes before irradiation, and immediately after irradiation. The skin of SKH1-hr mouse prepared from the back of untreated mice exhibited about 0.3 SBC/cm length of epidermis, and 24 hours after UV irradiation, the applied areas show an increased number of SBCs. But the frequency of UVB-induced SBC formation was significantly reduced by intraperitoneal injection (59.0%) and topical application (31.8%) of BLE extract. The numbers of DC in normal ICR mouse were 628.00{+-}51.56 or 663.20{+-}62.58 per mm{sup 2} of ear epidermis. By 1 day after UVB treatment, the number of ATPase-positive cells/mm{sup 2} were decreased by 39.0% or 27.1% in i.p. or topical application group with vehicle. The frequency of UVB(200 mJ/cm{sup 2})-induced DC decrease was reduced by treatment of BLE as 25.7% in i.p. group and 3.2% in topical application group compared with the irradiation control group. The results presented herein that BLE administration could reduce the extent of skin damages produced by UVB.

  14. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Blum, O.B.; Filby, R.H.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

  15. Seasonal N changes in alnus orientalis and populus nigra and N2 fixation by exotic alder species in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted.The first was to study nodulation and N 2 fixation of several introduced alder species (Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, A. rubra and A. viridis) grown in soil from beneath Alnus orientalis. The second was to determine pattern of N changes in leaves and bark of Alnus orientalis and populus nigra natural stands during two successive years. Results showed that frankia in soil from underneath Alnus orientalis nodulated and fixed nitrogen on roots of local alder as well as on roots of introduced alder species from distant and ecologically diverse localities. However, differences were found among species in the number of nodules formed and amount of nitrogen fixed. Percentages of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa) ranged from 5% in A.viridis to 66% in A. orientalis. Microscopic study of Alnus orientalis nodules showed the presence of vesicles, and frankia belonging to Sp-type. Foliar N concentration was higher in alder than in poplar. Total N concentration in alder leaves remained relatively constant at about 3% during summer, whereas N concentration in poplar decreased sharply in leaves and increased in bark. No substantial increase in N concentration was found in alder bark, and the fallen leaves were rich in nitrogen. During autumn, leaf N concentration in poplar decreased by 43% and 51% for the first and the second year, respectively, whereas N concentrations in bark increased by 71% and 100%. Total N concentrations in alder leaves decreased only by 8-16% while, values in the adjacent bark remained stable. In contrast to poplar, it seems that Alnus orientalis does not exhibit net leaf retranslocation to bark tissues.(author)

  16. Soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed burning in young Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Altun, Lokman

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important tool in the management of forest ecosystems. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in Turkey, few studies have addressed the influence of such disturbances on soil properties and root biomass dynamics. In this study, soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-year-old corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Kastamonu, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2003. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (0-2 mm diameter) and small root (2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using sequential coring method. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.65 to 2.19 g Cm(-2) d(-1) among all sites. Soil respiration rates were significantly higher in burned sites than in controls. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine root biomass was significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 4940 kg ha(-1) for burned and 5450 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Soil pH was significantly higher in burned sites than in control sites in 15-35 cm soil depth. Soil organic matter content did not differ significantly between control and burned sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of forest stands in the study area.

  17. Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations of Brassica nigra Introgression Lines from Somatic Hybridization: A Resource for Cauliflower Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Xiang; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Han, Shuo; Zong, Mei; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Xing-Ying; Zhang, Yue-Yun; Wang, You-Ping; Liu, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower "Korso" (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome) and black mustard "G1/1" (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome). However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs) were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits) and physiological (black rot/club root resistance) characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from "Korso." Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms) analysis identified the presence of "G1/1" DNA segments (average 7.5%). Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1%) was higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%), and the presence of fragments specific to Brassica carinata (BBCC 2n = 34) were common (average 15.5%). Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4%) was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%). Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  18. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of Brassica nigra introgression lines from somatic hybridization: a resource for cauliflower improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixiang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Broad phenotypic variations were obtained previously in derivatives from the asymmetric somatic hybridization of cauliflower ‘Korso’ (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, 2n = 18, CC genome and black mustard ‘G1/1’ (Brassica nigra, 2n = 16, BB genome. However, the mechanisms underlying these variations were unknown. In this study, 28 putative introgression lines (ILs were pre-selected according to a series of morphological (leaf shape and color, plant height and branching, curd features, and flower traits and physiological (black rot/club root resistance characters. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that these plants contained 18 chromosomes derived from ‘Korso’. Molecular marker (65 simple sequence repeats and 77 amplified fragment length polymorphisms analysis identified the presence of ‘G1/1’ DNA segments (average 7.5%. Additionally, DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences among the ILs, including sequence alterations, deletions, and variation in patterns of cytosine methylation. The frequency of fragments lost (5.1% was significantly higher than presence of novel bands (1.4%, and the presence of fragments specific to B. carinata (BBCC 2n = 34 were common (average 15.5%. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis indicated that methylation changes were common and that hypermethylation (12.4% was more frequent than hypomethylation (4.8%. Our results suggested that asymmetric somatic hybridization and alien DNA introgression induced genetic and epigenetic alterations. Thus, these ILs represent an important, novel germplasm resource for cauliflower improvement that can be mined for diverse traits of interest to breeders and researchers.

  19. Familial diffuse Lewy body disease, eye movement abnormalities, and distribution of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Francesca M; Henson, Craig; Staunton, Hugh

    2002-03-01

    Familial diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) is rare and not yet associated with a defect in the synuclein gene. In the differential diagnosis of the parkinsonian syndromes, defects in vertical gaze tend to be identified with progressive supranuclear palsy. False-positive diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy can occur, and defects in vertical gaze have been reported in DLBD, although so far a pure vertical gaze palsy associated with pathological abnormalities in the substrate for vertical gaze has not been described. To report the clinical and pathological findings in 2 siblings with DLBD, and to relate the distribution of the pathological abnormalities in the brainstem to centers for vertical gaze. For several years, 2 Irish siblings experienced a progressive parkinsonism-dementia complex associated in one with a defect in vertical gaze and in both with visual hallucinations. In both patients, results of pathological examination revealed (1) Lewy bodies positive for ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein together with cell loss and gliosis in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and neocortex; and (2) similar findings in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, the posterior commissure, and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (substrates for vertical gaze). Familial DLBD (not shown to be genetically as distinct from environmentally transmitted) has been shown to exist in an Irish family. Caution should be enjoined in the interpretation of defects in vertical gaze in the differential diagnosis of the parkinsonian syndromes.

  20. Involvement of dopamine loss in extrastriatal basal ganglia nuclei in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid eBenazzouz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder characterized by the manifestation of motor symptoms, such as akinesia, muscle rigidity and tremor at rest. These symptoms are classically attributed to the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the pars compacta of substantia nigra (SNc, which results in a marked dopamine depletion in the striatum. It is well established that dopamine neurons in the SNc innervate not only the striatum, which is the main target, but also other basal ganglia nuclei including the two segments of globus pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus. The role of dopamine and its depletion in the striatum is well known, however, the role of dopamine depletion in the pallidal complex and the subthalamic nucleus in the genesis of their abnormal neuronal activity and in parkinsonian motor deficits is still not clearly determined. Based on recent experimental data from animal models of Parkinson's disease in rodents and non-human primates and also from parkinsonian patients, this review summarizes current knowledge on the role of dopamine in the modulation of basal ganglia neuronal activity and also the role of dopamine depletion in these nuclei in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Patterns of Cell Activity in the Subthalamic Region Associated with the Neuroprotective Action of Near-Infrared Light Treatment in MPTP-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria E. Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have shown previously that near-infrared light (NIr treatment or photobiomodulation neuroprotects dopaminergic cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc from degeneration induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP in mice. The present study explores whether NIr treatment changes the patterns of Fos expression in the subthalamic region, namely, the subthalamic nucleus (STN and zona incerta (ZI; both cell groups have abnormally overactive cells in parkinsonian cases. BALB/c mice were treated with MPTP (100–250 mg/kg or saline either over 30 hours followed by either a two-hour or six-day survival period (acute model or over five weeks followed by a three-week survival period (chronic model. NIr and MPTP were applied simultaneously. Brains were processed for Fos immunochemistry, and cell number was estimated using stereology. Our major finding was that NIr treatment reduced (30–45% the increase in Fos+ cell number evident in the STN and ZI after MPTP insult. This reduction was concurrent with the neuroprotection of dopaminergic SNc cells shown previously and was evident in both MPTP models (except for the 2 hours survival period which showed no changes in cell number. In summary, our results indicated that NIr had long lasting effects on the activity of cells located deep in the brain and had repaired partially the abnormal activity generated by the parkinsonian toxin.

  2. Distribuição espacial de compostos orgânicos de estanho em sedimentos costeiros e em Phallusia nigra da Baía de Todos os Santos e litoral norte da Bahia - Brasil Spatial distribution of organic tin compounds in coastal sediment and Phallusia nigra of the Todos os Santos Bay and northern coast of Bahia - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Lowe Pletsch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic tin compounds were investigated in the sediment of twenty-four stations located in the Todos os Santos Bay and the north coast of Bahia - Brazil. The concentration of these organic tin was also determined in a ascidium species of Phallusia nigra. The speciation and quantification was performed by GC-MS/MS. The highest concentrations were: tributyltin (TBT 438 ng g-1, dibutyltin (DBT 207 ng g-1, monobutyltin (MBT 423 ng g-1, diphenyltin (DPT 25.8 ng g-1 and monophenyltin (MPT 55.0 ng g-1. DBT and MBT were found in Phallusia nigra, with highest concentrations of 294.1 and 148.5 ng g-1, respectively.

  3. Effective population size estimation in seed orchards: A case study of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./ F. angustifolia VAHL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machanská Eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective population size as a parameter closely correlating with the genetic and genotypic diversity of the seed orchard output is an important indicator of seed orchard functioning. It is determined by the variation of male and female gametic contributions of parental genotypes (including those outside the seed orchard, influenced by the variation in male and female gamete production, reproductive phenology, pollen dispersal within seed orchard and other factors. We assessed male and female fecundity, as well as temporal course of male and female flowering in two seed orchards of Pinus nigra ARNOLD and Fraxinus excelsior L./F. angustifolia VAHL. in Slovakia. In both cases, male and female gametic contributions of plus-tree clones were modeled on the basis of fecundity and flowering phenology, and were used to calculate status number as an estimator of effective population size. In the seed orchard of Pinus nigra, marker-aided verification of clonal fidelity revealed unexpectedly high proportion of misplaced ramets (29.9% and alien genotypes (44.4%. Monitoring of reproductive processes in 2002 and 2003 showed high variation in both male and female fecundity, and pollen shedding preceding female receptivity in Pinus nigra. All these factors contributed to a very low relative status effective number, representing 8.6% to 38.6% of the population census (depending from the management option in relation to misplaced and alien genotypes. In the mixed seed orchard of Fraxinus excelsior and F. angustifolia, the proportion of misplaced and alien genotypes was much lower (22.4% and 12.3%, respectively. However, a high fecundity variation and protogyny resulted in a low relative status number (18.8% to 29.5% of the census number of clones also in this seed orchard. Practical implications of these findings are shortly discussed and practical management options are proposed.

  4. Temperature as an ecological factor in the distribution of two closely related freshwater Triclads: an experimental study. [Polycelis tenuis, polycelis nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascombe, C.; Pattee, E.; Bornard, C.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the ecophysiology of two closely related limnophilic Triclads, Polycelis tenuis and P. nigra, in the Lyons region was investigated. Both species have the same physiological rate in the middle zone of the temperature range, but P. tenuis prevails at both ends of the range. It tolerates higher temperatures and its reproduction rate is greater in the cold. Also, because of the existence of physiological races, it seems adapted to a greater diversity of situations. It appears as a real eurytherm. These different points contribute to the explanation of the habitat of both species in the region.

  5. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L. over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina CORBU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L. over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.. We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter. The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments, especialy over the leaves collected in spring.

  6. Genetic variation of the riparian pioneer tree species populus nigra. II. Variation In susceptibility to the foliar rust melampsora larici-populina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legionnet; Muranty; Lefevre

    1999-04-01

    Partial resistance of Populus nigra L. to three races of the foliar rust Melampsora larici-populina Kleb. was studied in a field trial and in laboratory tests, using a collection of P. nigra originating from different places throughout France. No total resistance was found. The partial resistance was split into epidemiological components, which proved to be under genetic control. Various patterns of association of epidemiological components values were found. Principal components analysis revealed their relationships. Only 24% of the variance of the field susceptibility could be explained by the variation of the epidemiological components of susceptibility. This variable was significantly correlated with susceptibility to the most ancient and widespread race of the pathogen, and with the variables related to the size of the lesions of the different races. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in susceptibility between regions and between stands within one region. Up to 20% of variation was between regions, and up to 22% between stands, so that these genetic factors appeared to be more differentiated than the neutral diversity (up to 3.5% Legionnet & Lefevre, 1996). However, no clear pattern of geographical distribution of diversity was detected.

  7. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Koch, Walter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, L. Oezlem A. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Tuebingen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Even though [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS with previously inconclusive findings can be improved by the use of iterative reconstruction algorithms and an improved semiquantitative evaluation which additionally implemented a correction algorithm for patient age and gamma camera dependency (EARL-BRASS; Hermes Medical Solutions, Sweden). We identified 101 patients with inconclusive findings who underwent an [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT between 2003 and 2010 as part of the diagnostic process of suspected PS at the University of Munich, and re-evaluated these scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms and the new corrected EARL-BRASS. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 62 out of the 101 patients and constituted the gold standard for the re-evaluation to assess the possible improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Clinical follow-up confirmed the diagnosis of PS in 11 of the 62 patients. In patients in whom both visual and semiquantitative analysis showed concordant findings (48 patients), a high negative predictive value (93 %), positive predictive value (100 %) and accuracy (94 %) were found, and thus a correct diagnosis was obtained in 45 of the 48 patients. Among the 14 patients with discordant findings, the additional semiquantitative analysis correctly identified all five of nine patients patients without PS by nonpathological semiquantitative findings in visually pathological or inconclusive scans. In contrast, four of the remaining five patients with decreased semiquantitative values but visually normal scans did not show a PS during follow-up. The age-corrected and camera-corrected mode of evaluation using EARL-BRASS provided a notable improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in PS patients with

  8. Implementation of the European multicentre database of healthy controls for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT increases diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain parkinsonian syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Koch, Walter; Diemling, Markus; Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C.; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Kapucu, L. Oezlem A.; Kluge, Andreas; Ziebell, Morten; Darcourt, Jacques; Nobili, Flavio; Pagani, Marco; Sabri, Osama; Hesse, Swen; Borght, Thierry vander; Laere, Koen van; Tatsch, Klaus; La Fougere, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Even though [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT provides high accuracy in detecting nigrostriatal cell loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes (PS), some patients with an inconclusive diagnosis remain. We investigated whether the diagnostic accuracy in patients with clinically uncertain PS with previously inconclusive findings can be improved by the use of iterative reconstruction algorithms and an improved semiquantitative evaluation which additionally implemented a correction algorithm for patient age and gamma camera dependency (EARL-BRASS; Hermes Medical Solutions, Sweden). We identified 101 patients with inconclusive findings who underwent an [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT between 2003 and 2010 as part of the diagnostic process of suspected PS at the University of Munich, and re-evaluated these scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms and the new corrected EARL-BRASS. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 62 out of the 101 patients and constituted the gold standard for the re-evaluation to assess the possible improvement in diagnostic accuracy. Clinical follow-up confirmed the diagnosis of PS in 11 of the 62 patients. In patients in whom both visual and semiquantitative analysis showed concordant findings (48 patients), a high negative predictive value (93 %), positive predictive value (100 %) and accuracy (94 %) were found, and thus a correct diagnosis was obtained in 45 of the 48 patients. Among the 14 patients with discordant findings, the additional semiquantitative analysis correctly identified all five of nine patients patients without PS by nonpathological semiquantitative findings in visually pathological or inconclusive scans. In contrast, four of the remaining five patients with decreased semiquantitative values but visually normal scans did not show a PS during follow-up. The age-corrected and camera-corrected mode of evaluation using EARL-BRASS provided a notable improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT in PS patients with previously

  9. Effects of glutamate and α2-noradrenergic receptor antagonists on the development of neurotoxicity produced by chronic rotenone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Mesbah; Danysz, Wojciech; Schmidt, Werner Juergen; Dekundy, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inhibition of complex I by rotenone in rats represents a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether neramexane (NMDA, nicotinic α9/α10 and 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist), idazoxan (α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist) or 2-methyl-6-(phenyl-ethyl)-pyrimidine (MPEP, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist) prevents rotenone-induced parkinsonian-like behaviours and neurochemical changes in rats. Rotenone (2.5 mg/kg i.p. daily) was administered over 60 days together with saline, neramexane (5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.), idazoxan (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.) or MPEP (2.5 mg/kg i.p., b.i.d.). The same doses of neramexane, idazoxan and MPEP were administered to rats treated with vehicle instead of rotenone. Treatment-related effects on parkinsonian-like behaviours, such as hypokinesia/rigidity and locomotor activity, were evaluated. Moreover, concentrations of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in rats from each experimental group. Over the 60-day treatment period, the rotenone + saline treated animals developed hypokinesia, expressed as an increase in the bar and grid descent latencies in the catalepsy test, and a decrease in locomotor activity. Neramexane and idazoxan partially prevented the development of catalepsy in rotenone-treated rats. Co-administration of MPEP with rotenone resulted only in a decrease in descent latency in the grid test on day 60. Chronic rotenone treatment reduced concentrations of dopamine and serotonin in the anterior striatum, which was blocked by co-treatment with neramexane or idazoxan but not with MPEP. Only neramexane treatment blocked the rotenone-induced decrease in dopamine levels in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In conclusion, neramexane and idazoxan counteracted to some extent the development of parkinsonian symptoms and neurochemical alterations in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Canale, Angelo; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Conti, Fabio; Nicoletti, Marcello; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold var. italica (Pinaceae), Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Lamiaceae), Satureja montana L. subsp. montana (Lamiaceae), Aloysia citriodora Palau (Verbenaceae) and Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér (Geraniaceae), was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, it was evaluated their acute toxicity on larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. Then, the most effective oils were selected, in order to focus on the potential synergistic and antagonistic effects, testing them in binary mixtures on C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Results showed that the higher effectiveness was obtained by S. montana subsp. montana essential oil (LC 50 =25.6μL·L -1 ), followed by P. nigra var. italica (LC 50 =49.8μL·L -1 ) and A. citriodora (LC 50 =65.6μL·L -1 ), while the other essential oils showed LC 50 values higher than 90μL·L -1 . The larvicidal effectiveness can be enhanced by preparing simple binary mixtures of essential oils, such as S. montana+A. citriodora (ratio 1:1), which showed higher larvicidal toxicity (LC 50 =18.3μL·L -1 ). On the other hand, testing S. montana+P. nigra (1:1) an antagonistic effect was detected, leading to a LC 50 (72.5μL·L -1 ) higher than the LC 50 values calculated for the two oils tested separately. Overall, our results add useful knowledge to allow the employ of synergistic essential oil blends as effective, cheap and eco-friendly mosquito

  11. Comparison of 226Ra nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Tykva, Richard; Vankova, Radomira; Vanek, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The uptake of 226 Ra from the contaminated soil was compared in three woody species: alder (Alnus glutinosa), birch (Betula pendula) and elder (Sambucus nigra). The 226 Ra activities increased during the vegetation periods (in 2003, 2004 and 2005) both in the leaves and flowers + seeds. The highest accumulation was found in birch, reaching 0.41 Bq/g DW in the leaves (at the end of the vegetation period in 2003). The lowest 226 Ra accumulation was determined in alder. The extent of 226 Ra accumulation in the leaves of woody species demonstrates that these pioneer woody species can be used as remediation alternative to the use of herbs, provided that the removal of fallen leaves could be achieved in the end of vegetation period

  12. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E.; Conner, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount of solar UV-B reaching the earth's surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Foraging behavior of honey bees (hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S.A.; Robinson, G.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Conner, J.K. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Two species of mustard, Brassica nigra and B. rapa, were grown under simulated ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and exposed to pollinators, Apis mellifera L. Observations were made to determine whether UV-B-induced changes in these plants affected pollinator behavior. Total duration of the foraging trip, number of flowers visited, foraging time per flower, search time per flower, total amount of pollen collected, and pollen collected per flower were measured. There were no significant differences between UV-B treatments in any of the behaviors measured or in any of the pollen measurements. These results suggest that increases in the amount of solar UV-B reaching the earth`s surface may not have a negative effect on the relationship between these members of the genus Brassica and their honey bee pollinators. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The Sea Empress oil spill (Wales, UK): effects on Common Scoter Melanitta nigra in Carmarthen Bay and status ten years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, A N; Sanderson, W G; Hughes, B; Cranswick, P A; Smith, L E; Whitehead, S; Musgrove, A J; Haycock, B; Fairney, N P

    2008-05-01

    Carmarthen Bay, UK, regularly supports internationally important numbers (>16,000) of non-breeding Common Scoters Melanitta nigra. The spill of 72,000 tonnes of crude oil from the Sea Empress in 1996 affected birds both through direct mortality and likely pollution of key food resources. Numbers were greatly reduced following the spill, whilst changes in the distribution of birds within Carmarthen Bay suggested that potentially sub-optimal foraging zones were used. However, ten years after the incident, numbers of Common Scoter were no different to those recorded immediately before the spill. Compared to some other spills, rapid revival is evident. Numbers increased to pre-spill levels within three winters and distributional changes suggested a concurrent return to previously contaminated feeding areas, implying that the ecosystem had regenerated sufficiently to support its top predator. The importance of prolonged, standardised monitoring of bird numbers and distribution as indicators of ecological recovery from environmental damage is emphasised.

  15. Antioxidative and Anti-Melanogenic Activities of Bamboo Stems (Phyllostachys nigra variety henosis) via PKA/CREB-Mediated MITF Downregulation in B16F10 Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moon-Hee; Jo, Han-Gyo; Yang, Ji Hye; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2018-01-30

    Phyllostachys nigra var. henosis, a domestic bamboo species, has been attracting much attention; its bioactive compounds (especially in the leaf) show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Little information is available on the antioxidative and anti-melanogenetic activities of the bioactive compounds in bamboo stems. The anti-melanogenic and antioxidative activities of the EtOAc fraction (PN3) of a P. nigra stem extract were investigated in a cell-free system and in B16F10 melanoma cells. PN3 consisted of a mixture of flavonoids, such as catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p -coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging) was evaluated, as well as the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Fenton reaction. PN3 showed in vitro tyrosinase inhibition activity with the half maximal inbihitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of 240 μg/mL, and in vivo cytotoxic concentration ranges > 100 μg/mL. The protein expression levels and mRNA transcription levels of TYR , TRP-1 , and MITF were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by the treatment with PN3. PN3 interfered with the phosphorylation of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), demonstrating potent anti-melanogenic effects. PN3 could inhibit PKA/CREB and the subsequent degradation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), resulting in the suppression of melanogenic enzymes and melanin production, probably because of the presence of flavonoid compounds. These properties make it a candidate as an additive to whitening cosmetics.

  16. Changes in photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance to CO{sub 2}, and isoprenoid emissions in Populus nigra plants exposed to excess nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikova, Violeta, E-mail: violet@obzor.bio21.bas.bg [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. M. Popov Institute of Plant Physiology, Acad. G. Bonchev, Bl. 21, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tsonev, Tsonko [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. M. Popov Institute of Plant Physiology, Acad. G. Bonchev, Bl. 21, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Loreto, Francesco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Centritto, Mauro [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM) (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Poplar (Populus nigra) plants were grown hydroponically with 30 and 200 {mu}M Ni (Ni{sub 30} and Ni{sub 200}). Photosynthesis limitations and isoprenoid emissions were investigated in two leaf types (mature and developing). Ni stress significantly decreased photosynthesis, and this effect depended on the leaf Ni content, which was lower in mature than in developing leaves. The main limitations to photosynthesis were attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. In Ni-stressed developing leaves, isoprene emission was significantly stimulated. We attribute such stimulation to the lower chloroplastic [CO{sub 2}] than in control leaves. However chloroplastic [CO{sub 2}] did not control isoprene emission in mature leaves. Ni stress induced the emission of cis-{beta}-ocimene in mature leaves, and of linalool in both leaf types. Induced biosynthesis and emission of isoprenoids reveal the onset of antioxidant processes that may also contribute to reduce Ni stress, especially in mature poplar leaves. - Graphical abstract: Visible damage caused by Ni treatment. 1 - Ni{sub 0} (control plants); 2 - Ni{sub 200}; M = mature and D = developing Populus nigra leaves. Display Omitted Highlights: > We study the effect of Ni pollution on photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions. > Ni stress significantly decreases photosynthesis. The main limitations are attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. > Constitutive isoprene emission was significantly stimulated in Ni-stressed leaves. Exposure to enhanced Ni concentration induces cis-beta-ocimene and linalool emissions. - The study reveals consequences of Ni stress on plant physiology, namely increasing diffusional limitation to photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions.

  17. Genetic Diversity of Pinus nigra Arn. Populations in Southern Spain and Northern Morocco Revealed By Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Ahrazem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eight Pinus nigra Arn. populations from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco were examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers to characterize the genetic variability amongst populations. Pair-wise population genetic distance ranged from 0.031 to 0.283, with a mean of 0.150 between populations. The highest inter-population average distance was between PaCU from Cuenca and YeCA from Cazorla, while the lowest distance was between TaMO from Morocco and MA Sierra Mágina populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and Nei’s genetic diversity analyses revealed higher genetic variation within the same population than among different populations. Genetic differentiation (Gst was 0.233. Cuenca showed the highest Nei’s genetic diversity followed by the Moroccan region, Sierra Mágina, and Cazorla region. However, clustering of populations was not in accordance with their geographical locations. Principal component analysis showed the presence of two major groups—Group 1 contained all populations from Cuenca while Group 2 contained populations from Cazorla, Sierra Mágina and Morocco—while Bayesian analysis revealed the presence of three clusters. The low genetic diversity observed in PaCU and YeCA is probably a consequence of inappropriate management since no estimation of genetic variability was performed before the silvicultural treatments. Data indicates that the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR method is sufficiently informative and powerful to assess genetic variability among populations of P. nigra.

  18. High-Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus Activates Motor Cortex Pyramidal Tract Neurons by a Process Involving Local Glutamate, GABA and Dopamine Receptors in Hemi-Parkinsonian Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chi-Fen; Wu, Chen-Wei; Weng, Ying; Hu, Pei-San; Yeh, Shin-Rung; Chang, Yen-Chung

    2018-04-30

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used to treat advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we investigated how DBS applied on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) influenced the neural activity in the motor cortex. Rats, which had the midbrain dopaminergic neurons partially depleted unilaterally, called the hemi-Parkinsonian rats, were used as a study model. c-Fos expression in the neurons was used as an indicator of neural activity. Application of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) upon the STN was used to mimic the DBS treatment. The motor cortices in the two hemispheres of hemi-Parkinsonian rats were found to contain unequal densities of c-Fos-positive (Fos+) cells, and STN-HFS rectified this bilateral imbalance. In addition, STN-HFS led to the intense c-Fos expression in a group of motor cortical neurons which exhibited biochemical and anatomical characteristics resembling those of the pyramidal tract (PT) neurons sending efferent projections to the STN. The number of PT neurons expressing high levels of c-Fos was significantly reduced by local application of the antagonists of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (non-NMDA) glutamate receptors, gammaaminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors and dopamine receptors in the upper layers of the motor cortex. The results indicate that the coincident activations of synapses and dopamine receptors in the motor cortex during STN-HFS trigger the intense expression of c-Fos of the PT neurons. The implications of the results on the cellular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of STN-DBS on the movement disorders of PD are also discussed.

  19. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fuzhong; Yang Wanqin; Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 ± 19.22 and 576.75 ± 40.55 μg cadmium per plant with 110.77 ± 12.68 and 202.54 ± 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  20. Xylem anatomy correlates with gas exchange, water-use efficiency and growth performance under contrasting water regimes: evidence from Populus deltoides x Populus nigra hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Régis; Laurans, Françoise; Monclus, Romain; Moreau, Alain; Pilate, Gilles; Brignolas, Franck

    2009-12-01

    Six Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. x P. nigra L. genotypes were selected to investigate whether stem xylem anatomy correlated with gas exchange rates, water-use efficiency (WUE) and growth performance. Clonal copies of the genotypes were grown in a two-plot common garden test under contrasting water regimes, with one plot maintained irrigated and the other one subjected to moderate summer water deficit. The six genotypes displayed a large range of xylem anatomy, mean vessel and fibre diameter varying from about 40 to 60 microm and from 7.5 to 10.5 microm, respectively. Decreased water availability resulted in a reduced cell size and an important rise in vessel density, but the extent of xylem plasticity was both genotype and trait dependent. Vessel diameter and theoretical xylem-specific hydraulic conductivity correlated positively with stomatal conductance, carbon isotope discrimination and growth performance-related traits and negatively with intrinsic WUE, especially under water deficit conditions. Vessel diameter and vessel density measured under water deficit conditions correlated with the relative losses in biomass production in response to water deprivation; this resulted from the fact that a more plastic xylem structure was generally accompanied by a larger loss in biomass production.

  1. The ethylene-inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine restores normal nodulation by Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. viciae on Vicia sativa subsp. nigra by suppressing the 'Thick and short roots' phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaat, S A; Van Brussel, A A; Tak, T; Lugtenberg, B J; Kijne, J W

    1989-02-01

    Nodulation of Vicia sativa subsp. nigra L. by Rhizobium bacteria is coupled to the development of thick and short roots (Tsr). This root phenotype as well as root-hair induction (Hai) and root-hair deformation (Had) are caused by a factor(s) produced by the bacteria in response to plant flavonoids. When very low inoculum concentrations (0.5-5 bacteria·ml(-1)) were used, V. sativa plants did not develop the Tsr phenotype and became nodulated earlier than plants with Tsr roots. Furthermore, the nodules of these plants were located on the primary root in contrast to nodules on Tsr roots, which were all located at sites of lateral-root emergence. The average numbers of nodules per plant were not significantly different for these two types of nodulation. Root-growth inhibition and Hai, but not Had, could be mimicked by ethephon, and inhibited by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). Addition of AVG to co-cultures of Vicia sativa and the standard inoculum concentration of 5·10(5) bacteria·ml(-1) suppressed the development of the Tsr phenotype and restored nodulation to the pattern that was observed with very low concentrations of bacteria (0.5-5 bacteria·ml(-1)). The delay in nodulation on Tsr roots appeared to be caused by the fact that nodule meristems did not develop on the primary root, but only on the emerging laterals. The relationship between Tsr, Hai, Had, and nodulation is discussed.

  2. Statistical interpretation of chromatic indicators in correlation to phytochemical profile of a sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchabo, William; Ma, Yongkun; Kwaw, Emmanuel; Zhang, Haining; Xiao, Lulu; Apaliya, Maurice T

    2018-01-15

    The four different methods of color measurement of wine proposed by Boulton, Giusti, Glories and Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) were applied to assess the statistical relationship between the phytochemical profile and chromatic characteristics of sulfur dioxide-free mulberry (Morus nigra) wine submitted to non-thermal maturation processes. The alteration in chromatic properties and phenolic composition of non-thermal aged mulberry wine were examined, aided by the used of Pearson correlation, cluster and principal component analysis. The results revealed a positive effect of non-thermal processes on phytochemical families of wines. From Pearson correlation analysis relationships between chromatic indexes and flavonols as well as anthocyanins were established. Cluster analysis highlighted similarities between Boulton and Giusti parameters, as well as Glories and CIE parameters in the assessment of chromatic properties of wines. Finally, principal component analysis was able to discriminate wines subjected to different maturation techniques on the basis of their chromatic and phenolics characteristics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Fuzhong [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Yang Wanqin, E-mail: scyangwq@163.com [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China); Zhang Jian; Zhou Liqiang [Faculty of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, 625014, Ya' an (China)

    2010-05-15

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoids x Populus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98 {+-} 19.22 and 576.75 {+-} 40.55 {mu}g cadmium per plant with 110.77 {+-} 12.68 and 202.54 {+-} 19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil.

  4. Characterisation of some exotic fruits (Morus nigra, Morus alba, Salvadora persica and Carissa opaca) used as herbal medicines by neutron activation analysis and estimation of their nutritional value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Wasim; Muhammad Daud; Mohammad Arif; Sajid Iqbal; Yasir Anwar

    2012-01-01

    In the under developed countries, the people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon herbal medicines. At the foundation of usage of herbal medicine is the experience of thousands of years. The present paper deals with the characterisation of exotic fruits for essential and toxic elements. The samples include Morus nigra, Morus alba, Salvadora persica and Carissa opaca (from low and high altitude). Two standardizations of neutron activation analysis, that is, semi-absolute k 0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA) and epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) were employed for the quantification of elements. The analysis methodologies were validated by analyzing the IAEA-336 (lichen) and NIST-SRM-1572 (citrus leaves). Sixteen elements including Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc Sr, and Zn were determined in all samples. Daily intakes of various elements from the samples were measured and compared with the dietary reference intakes. Additionally, principal component analysis was performed to extract information regarding samples and elements. (author)

  5. A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuhlemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448–2007 AD reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480–1520 and 1950–2007 AD and cool summers during 1580–1620 and 1820–1890 AD.

  6. Life history data on the fly parasitoids Aleochara nigra Kraatz and A. asiatica Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and their potential application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2013-10-10

    Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A survey of poplar (populus nigra rust and identification of fungal agent species with conventional and molecular approaches in Maragheh area of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Damadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a survey for rust diseases in Maragheh area rust symptoms were observed on poplars (Populus nigra in Maragheh city parks and orchards near the city. Uredinia and urediniospores typical of Melampsora were present on the underside of leaves. Paraphyses were clavate with walls evenly thick and Telia, formed on the leaves early in the autumn, were epiphyllous and subepidermal. DNA was extracted from urediniospores and the primers ITS1 and ITS4 were used to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Based on the key provided by Bagyanarayana and the species description by Pei and Shang, and the result of sequencing, the causal agent was identified as Melampsora allii-populina Kelb. Melampsora species are mainly determined based on their morphology, alternate hosts and telial host range. However, in most cases, only one or two spore stages could be found at the time of observation and there is no information of the alternate hosts. This is the first study of poplar rust disease to the species level in the area. Rust disease is likely to be the most important disease on poplar in this area. As poplar rust can cause severe damages to nursery plants and young trees, there must be further research to understand the epidemiology of the rust disease. A key question to be answered is whether the rust goes through a full life-cycle, possible via known alternate host Allium spp. or only uredinial and telial stages are present in the studied area.

  8. Comparison of the nature of interactions of two sialic acid specific lectins Saraca indica and Sambucus nigra with N-acetylneuraminic acid by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, Shuvendu [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India); Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bose, Partha P. [Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hajipur 844101 (India); Ganguly, Tapan [School of Laser Science and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Campana, Patricia T. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, 03828-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Ghosh, Rina [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chatterjee, Bishnu P., E-mail: cbishnup@gmail.com [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-04-15

    The present paper deals with the isolation and purification of a new sialic acid binding lectin from the seed integument of Saraca indica (Ashok) and the purified lectin was designated Saracin II. Comparative studies on the interactions of saracin II and another sialic acid specific lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) were made using UV–vis absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence along with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to reveal the nature and mechanisms of binding of these two lectins with NANA. The experimental observations obtained from UV–vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements demonstrated that SNA–NANA system formed relatively stronger ground state complex than saracin II–NANA pair. CD measurements further substantiated the propositions made from steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations. It was inferred that during interaction of SNA with NANA, the lectin adopted a relatively looser conformation with the extended polypeptide structures leading to the exposure of the hydrophobic cavities which favoured stronger binding with NANA. - Highlights: • Of the two lectins, stronger binding of SNA with NANA is observed. • Full exposure of the hydrophobic cavities of SNA favors the stronger interactions. • Saracin II can be used for the new generation of lectin based-therapeutics.

  9. Human neuromelanin: an endogenous microglial activator for dopaminergic neuron death

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Zecca, Luigi; Wilson, Belinda; Ren, RW; Wang, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiao-min; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that neuroinflammation caused by over-activation of microglial in the substantia nigra is critical in the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increasing data demonstrates that environmental factors such as rotenone, paraquat play pivotal roles in the death of dopaminergic neurons. Here, potential role and mechanism of neuromelanin (NM), a major endogenous component in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, on microg...

  10. Prediction of Neurocognitive Deficits by Parkinsonian Motor Impairment in Schizophrenia: A Study in Neuroleptic-Naïve Subjects, Unaffected First-Degree Relatives and Healthy Controls From an Indigenous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan L; González Alemán, Gabriela; Florenzano, Néstor; Padilla, Eduardo; Calvó, María; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Toranzo, Juan; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Hernández Cuervo, Helena; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Sedó, Manuel; Strejilevich, Sergio; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Escobar, Javier I; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2016-11-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are among the most debilitating and pervasive symptoms of schizophrenia, and are present also in unaffected first-degree relatives. Also, multiple reports reveal parkisonian motor deficits in untreated subjects with schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of affected subjects. Yet, the relation between motor and cognitive impairment and its value as a classifier of endophenotypes has not been studied. To test the efficacy of midbrain hyperechogenicity (MHE) and parkinsonian motor impairment (PKM) as predictors of neurocognitive impairment in subjects with or at risk for schizophrenia, that could be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Seventy-six subjects with chronic schizophrenia never exposed to antipsychotic medication, 106 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 62 healthy controls were blindly assessed for cognitive and motor function, and transcranial ultrasound. Executive function, fluid intelligence, motor planning, and hand coordination showed group differences. PKM and MHE were significantly higher in untreated schizophrenia and unaffected relatives. Unaffected relatives showed milder impairment, but were different from controls. PKM and MHE predict cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives and may be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Microstructural Changes within the Basal Ganglia Differ between Parkinson Disease Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, Lidia M; Honce, Justin M; Tanabe, Jody; Shelton, Erika; Sillau, Stefan H; Berman, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the substantia nigra has shown promise in detecting and quantifying neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease (PD). It remains unknown, however, whether differences in microstructural changes within the basal ganglia underlie PD motor subtypes. We investigated microstructural changes within the basal ganglia of mild to moderately affected PD patients using DTI and sought to determine if microstructural changes differ between the tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD) subtypes. Fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial, and axial diffusivity were obtained from bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra of 21 PD patients (12 TD and 9 PIGD) and 20 age-matched healthy controls. T-tests and ANOVA methods were used to compare PD patients, subtypes, and controls, and Spearman correlations tested for relationships between DTI and clinical measures. We found our cohort of PD patients had reduced fractional anisotropy within the substantia nigra and increased mean and radial diffusivity within the substantia nigra and globus pallidus compared to controls, and that changes within those structures were largely driven by the PIGD subtype. Across all PD patients fractional anisotropy within the substantia nigra correlated with disease stage, while in PIGD patients increased diffusivity within the globus pallidus correlated with disease stage and motor severity. We conclude that PIGD patients have more severely affected microstructural changes within the substantia nigra compared to TD, and that microstructural changes within the globus pallidus may be particularly relevant for the manifestation of the PIGD subtype.

  12. Isotope signals and anatomical features in tree rings suggest a role for hydraulic strategies in diffuse drought-induced die-back of Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucco, Laura; Nardini, Andrea; von Arx, Georg; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The 2003 and 2012 summer seasons were among the warmest and driest of the last 200 years over southeastern Europe, and in particular in the Karst region (northeastern Italy). Starting from winter-spring 2013, several black pines (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold) suffered crown die-back. Declining trees occurred nearby individuals with no signs of die-back, raising hypotheses about the occurrence of individual-specific hydraulic strategies underlying different responses to extreme drought. We investigated possible processes driving black pine decline by dendrochronological and wood anatomical measurements, coupled with analysis of tree-ring carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopic composition in healthy trees (H) and trees suffering die-back (D). Die-back trees showed higher growth rates than H trees at the beginning of the last century, but suffered important growth reduction following the dry summers in 2003 and 2012. After the 2012 drought, D trees produced tracheids with larger diameter and greater vulnerability to implosion than H ones. Healthy trees had significantly higher wood δ13C than D trees, reflecting higher water-use efficiency for the surviving trees, i.e., less water transpired per unit carbon gain, which could be related to lower stomatal conductance and a more conservative use of water. Relatively high δ18O for D trees indicates that they were strongly dependent on shallow water sources, or that they sustained higher transpiration rates than H trees. Our results suggest that H trees adopted a more conservative water-use strategy under drought stress compared with D trees. We speculate that this diversity might have a genotypic basis, but other possible explanations, like different rooting depth, cannot be ruled out. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The effects of gamma irradiation on growth and expression of genes encoding DNA repair-related proteins in Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Mitsuru; Nanjo, Tokihiko; Yoshida, Kazumasa

    2012-07-01

    In this study, to elucidate the mechanisms of adaptation and tolerance to ionizing radiation in woody plants, we investigated the various biological effects of γ-rays on the Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra L. var. italica Du Roi). We detected abnormal leaf shape and color, fusion, distorted venation, shortened internode, fasciation and increased axillary shoots in γ-irradiated poplar plants. Acute γ-irradiation with a dose of 100Gy greatly reduced the height, stem diameter and biomass of poplar plantlets. After receiving doses of 200 and 300Gy, all the plantlets stopped growing, and then most of them withered after 4-10 weeks of γ-irradiation. Comet assays showed that nuclear DNA in suspension-cultured poplar cells had been damaged by γ-rays. To determine whether DNA repair-related proteins are involved in the response to γ-rays in Lombardy poplars, we cloned the PnRAD51, PnLIG4, PnKU70, PnXRCC4, PnPCNA and PnOGG1 cDNAs and investigated their mRNA expression. The PnRAD51, PnLIG4, PnKU70, PnXRCC4 and PnPCNA mRNAs were increased by γ-rays, but the PnOGG1 mRNA was decreased. Moreover, the expression of PnLIG4, PnKU70 and PnRAD51 was also up-regulated by Zeocin known as a DNA cleavage agent. These observations suggest that the morphogenesis, growth and protective gene expression in Lombardy poplars are severely affected by the DNA damage and unknown cellular events caused by γ-irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos das flores de Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae

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    A.K. MATTE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a triagem fitoquímica e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana de extratos das flores de Sambucus nigraL. Os extratos; aquoso (10 %, etanólico (5 % e Acetato de etila (5 % foram submetidos a testes colorimétricos para triagem fitoquímica e a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada pelo método de disco-difusão em ágar. Os resultados mostraram que nas concentrações de 6 e 12 mg o extrato aquoso apresentou halos significativos de inibição para Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Streptococcus pyogenes, porém, quando comparado aos medicamentos usados como referência a atividade não foi satisfatória, e, ainda, evidenciou a ausência de inibição para todas as cepas testadas com o aumento da concentração para 18 e 24 mg. A análise da triagem fitoquímica evidenciou a presença de flavonoides com intensa reação de cor no extrato aquoso e etanólico, e de fraca intensidade no extrato acetato de etila. Nos mesmos extratos, pelos testes realizados, não foram detectados taninos, saponinas, antraquinonas e alcaloides. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso apresentou melhor efeito inibitório para Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Streptococcus pyogenes, porém insuficiente para promover a inativação eficiente quando comparado aos controles.

  15. Overexpression of TaLEA gene from Tamarix androssowii improves salt and drought tolerance in transgenic poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra.

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    Weidong Gao

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarixandrossowii (named TaLEA was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populussimonii × P. nigra via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ribonucleic acid (RNA gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11 showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars.

  16. Overexpression of TaLEA gene from Tamarix androssowii improves salt and drought tolerance in transgenic poplar (Populus simonii × P. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weidong; Bai, Shuang; Li, Qingmei; Gao, Caiqiu; Liu, Guifeng; Li, Guangde; Tan, Feili

    2013-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes were confirmed to confer resistance to drought and water deficiency. An LEA gene from Tamarixandrossowii (named TaLEA) was transformed into Xiaohei poplar (Populussimonii × P. nigra) via Agrobacterium. Twenty-five independent transgenic lines were obtained that were resistant to kanamycin, and 11 transgenic lines were randomly selected for further analysis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) gel blot indicated that the TaLEA gene had been integrated into the poplar genome. The height growth rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrolyte leakage and damages due to salt or drought to transgenic and non-transgenic plants were compared under salt and drought stress conditions. The results showed that the constitutive expression of the TaLEA gene in transgenic poplars could induce an increase in height growth rate and a decrease in number and severity of wilted leaves under the salt and drought stresses. The MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage in transgenic lines under salt and drought stresses were significantly lower compared to those in non-transgenic plants, indicating that the TaLEA gene may enhance salt and drought tolerance by protecting cell membranes from damage. Moreover, amongst the lines analyzed for stress tolerance, the transgenic line 11 (T11) showed the highest tolerance levels under both salinity and drought stress conditions. These results indicated that the TaLEA gene could be a salt and drought tolerance candidate gene and could confer a broad spectrum of tolerance under abiotic stresses in poplars.

  17. Sapflow of hybrid poplar (Populus nigra L.xP. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') during phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalesny, Ronald S.; Wiese, Adam H.; Bauer, Edmund O.; Riemenschneider, Don E. [USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, 5985 Highway K, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Poplars are ideal for phytoremediation because of their high water usage, fast growth, and deep root systems. We measured in 2002 and 2003 the sapflow of hybrid poplars (Populus nigra L.xP. maximowiczii A. Henry 'NM6') planted in 1999 for phytoremediation of a landfill in Rhinelander, WI, USA (45.6{sup o}N, 89.4{sup o}W). Mean sap velocity per tree was 100+/-10 and 120+/-10{mu}ms{sup -1} for 2002 and 2003, respectively. Mean sapflow per tree was 1.4000+/-0.1698 and 5.6760+/-0.2997kgh{sup -1} for 2002 and 2003, respectively. Sapflow was negatively correlated with temperature, wind speed, precipitation, and vapor pressure deficit for both years (0.002

  18. Caracterización de los efectos de la administración de la lectina antinutricional nigrina de corteza de Sambucus nigra L. y efecto sinérgico con los polifenoles del té verde

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Lobato, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Las proteínas inactivadoras de ribosomas (RIPs) son enzimas con actividad N-glicosidasa del ARN ribosómico. Algunas poseen dos cadenas una con actividad enzimática y otra con actividad lectina (RIPs de tipo dos). Entre estas RIPs se encuentra la nigrina b presente en la corteza de Sambucus nigra L. La nigrina b presenta toxicidad selectiva en función de la dosis y la vía de administración. El blanco son las células de las criptas del intestino delgado. Nuestra hipótesis es que los efectos tóx...

  19. Can a Positive Allosteric Modulation of GABAergic Receptors Improve Motor Symptoms in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease? The Potential Role of Zolpidem in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

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    Antonio Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD are unsatisfactorily controlled by currently used anti-Parkinsonian dopaminergic drugs. Various studies suggest that therapeutic strategies based on nondopaminergic drugs might be helpful in PD. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine widely used as sleep inducer, shows high affinity only for GABAA receptors containing the α-1 subunit and facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission through a positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. Various observations, although preliminary, consistently suggest that in PD patients zolpidem may induce beneficial (and sometimes remarkable effects on motor symptoms even after single doses and may also improve dyskinesias. Since a high density of zolpidem binding sites is in the two main output structures of the basal ganglia which are abnormally overactive in PD (internal globus pallidus, GPi, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, SNr, it was hypothesized that in PD patients zolpidem may induce through GABAA receptors an inhibition of GPi and SNr (and, possibly, of the subthalamic nucleus also, resulting in an increased activity of motor cortical areas (such as supplementary motor area, which may give rise to improvement of motor symptoms of PD. Randomized clinical trials are needed in order to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of zolpidem in treating motor symptoms of PD.

  20. Aging and Parkinson's disease: Different sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Timothy J; Kanaan, Nicholas M; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Despite abundant epidemiological evidence in support of aging as the primary risk factor for PD, biological correlates of a connection have been elusive. In this article, we address the following question: does aging represent biology accurately characterized as pre-PD? We present evidence from our work on midbrain dopamine neurons of aging nonhuman primates that demonstrates that markers of known correlates of dopamine neuron degeneration in PD, including impaired proteasome/lysosome function, oxidative/nitrative damage, and inflammation, all increase with advancing age and are exaggerated in the ventral tier substantia nigra dopamine neurons most vulnerable to degeneration in PD. Our findings support the view that aging-related changes in the dopamine system approach the biological threshold for parkinsonism, actively producing a vulnerable pre-parkinsonian state. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Investigating Irregularly Patterned Deep Brain Stimulation Signal Design Using Biophysical Models

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    Samantha Rose Summerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder which follows from cell loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc, a nucleus in the basal ganglia (BG. Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an electrical therapy that modulates the pathological activity to treat the motor symptoms of PD. Although this therapy is currently used in clinical practice, the sufficient conditions for therapeutic efficacy are unknown. In this work we develop a model of critical motor circuit structures in the brain using biophysical cell models as the base components and then evaluate performance of different DBS signals in this model to perform comparative studies of their efficacy. Biological models are an important tool for gaining insights into neural function and, in this case, serve as effective tools for investigating innovative new DBS paradigms. Experiments were performed using the hemi-parkinsonian rodent model to test the same set of signals, verifying the obedience of the model to physiological trends. We show that antidromic spiking from DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN has a significant impact on cortical neural activity, which is frequency dependent and additionally modulated by the regularity of the stimulus pulse train used. Irregular spacing between stimulus pulses, where the amount of variability added is bounded, is shown to increase diversification of response of basal ganglia neurons and reduce entropic noise in cortical neurons, which may be fundamentally important to restoration of information flow in the motor circuit.

  2. Transcranial sonography as a diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease: a pilot study in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Rita de Cássia Leite Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil there is no systematic study on Transcranial Sonography (TCS, a neuroimaging method that depicts echogenic deep brain structures using ultrasound. OBJECTIVE: To establish the percentage of subjects with permissive temporal windows and to address the ability of TCS of the substantia nigra (SN to distinguish parkinsonian patients in a Brazilian sample. METHOD: We performed TCS using the Acuson X300 (Siemens, Germany in 37 individuals: 23 with Parkinson's disease (PD and 14 healthy controls. RESULTS: 10.8% of subjects had insufficient temporal acoustic bone windows. SN echogenic areas were larger in patients (mean±SD, 0.31±0.08cm² compared to controls (mean±SD, 0.17±0.02cm². TCS accurately identified 88.2% of PD patients. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of Brazilians seem to be eligible for TCS. An expressive number of PD patients could be diagnosed by TCS based on an expanded SN echogenic area. However, the current data is preliminary and must be corroborated by larger studies.

  3. Cell-Permeable Parkin Proteins Suppress Parkinson Disease-Associated Phenotypes in Cultured Cells and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tam; Kim, Jaetaek; Ruley, H. Earl; Jo, Daewoong

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of complex etiology characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. Parkin, a tightly regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in both PD and Parkinsonian syndromes induced by acute exposures to neurotoxic agents. The present study assessed the potential of cell-permeable parkin (CP-Parkin) as a neuroprotective agent. Cellular uptake and tissue penetration of recombinant, enzymatically active parkin was markedly enhanced by the addition of a hydrophobic macromolecule transduction domain (MTD). The resulting CP-Parkin proteins (HPM13 and PM10) suppressed dopaminergic neuronal toxicity in cells and mice exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDH) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These included enhanced survival and dopamine expression in cultured CATH.a and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells; and protection against MPTP-induced damage in mice, notably preservation of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells with enhanced dopamine expression in the striatum and midbrain, and preservation of gross motor function. These results demonstrate that CP-Parkin proteins can compensate for intrinsic limitations in the parkin response and provide a therapeutic strategy to augment parkin activity in vivo. PMID:25019626

  4. A Review of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus in Parkinson's Disease

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    Isobel T. French

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN is situated in the upper pons in the dorsolateral portion of the ponto-mesencephalic tegmentum. Its main mass is positioned at the trochlear nucleus level, and is part of the mesenphalic locomotor region (MLR in the upper brainstem. The human PPN is divided into two subnuclei, the pars compacta (PPNc and pars dissipatus (PPNd, and constitutes both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons with afferent and efferent projections to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia (BG, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The BG controls locomotion and posture via GABAergic output of the substantia nigra pars reticulate (SNr. In PD patients, GABAergic BG output levels are abnormally increased, and gait disturbances are produced via abnormal increases in SNr-induced inhibition of the MLR. Since the PPN is vastly connected with the BG and the brainstem, dysfunction within these systems lead to advanced symptomatic progression in Parkinson's disease (PD, including sleep and cognitive issues. To date, the best treatment is to perform deep brain stimulation (DBS on PD patients as outcomes have shown positive effects in ameliorating the debilitating symptoms of this disease by treating pathological circuitries within the parkinsonian brain. It is therefore important to address the challenges and develop this procedure to improve the quality of life of PD patients.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging markers for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Marino; Rosella Ciurleo; Giuseppe Di Lorenzo