WorldWideScience

Sample records for parking lot asphalt

  1. Thermal behavior of an asphalt pavement in the laboratory and in the parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkauppi, J B; Mäkiranta, A; Kiijärvi, J; Hiltunen, E

    2015-01-01

    The urban, constructed areas are full of buildings and different kinds of pavements and have a noticeable lack of trees and flora. These areas are accumulating the heat from the Sun, people, vehicles, and constructions. One interesting heat collector is the asphalt pavement. How does the heat transfer to different layers under the pavement or does it? What are the temperatures under the pavement in Finland where the winter can be pretty hard? How can those temperatures be measured accurately? These are the main questions this paper gives the preliminary answers to. First the thermal behavior of asphalt and the layers beneath are researched in the laboratory and then the measurement field is bored and dug in the parking in the Western coast of Finland, 63°5'45'' N. Distributed temperature sensing method was found to be a good choice for temperature measurements. Thermal behavior of pavement has been monitored in different layers and the preliminary results have been published here. The goal of this research is to assess the applicability of asphalt pavements for heat energy collection.

  2. Thermal Behavior of an Asphalt Pavement in the Laboratory and in the Parking Lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Martinkauppi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban, constructed areas are full of buildings and different kinds of pavements and have a noticeable lack of trees and flora. These areas are accumulating the heat from the Sun, people, vehicles, and constructions. One interesting heat collector is the asphalt pavement. How does the heat transfer to different layers under the pavement or does it? What are the temperatures under the pavement in Finland where the winter can be pretty hard? How can those temperatures be measured accurately? These are the main questions this paper gives the preliminary answers to. First the thermal behavior of asphalt and the layers beneath are researched in the laboratory and then the measurement field is bored and dug in the parking in the Western coast of Finland, 63°5′45′′ N. Distributed temperature sensing method was found to be a good choice for temperature measurements. Thermal behavior of pavement has been monitored in different layers and the preliminary results have been published here. The goal of this research is to assess the applicability of asphalt pavements for heat energy collection.

  3. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  4. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals Associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  5. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. Metal concentrations from permeable pavement parking lot in Edison, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements...

  7. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  8. Improving aggregate behavior in parking lots with appropriate local maneuvers

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we study the ingress and egress of pedestrians and vehicles in a parking lot. We show how local maneuvers executed by agents permit them to create trajectories in constrained environments, and to resolve the deadlocks between them in mixed-flow scenarios. We utilize a roadmap-based approach which allows us to map complex environments and generate heuristic local paths that are feasible for both pedestrians and vehicles. Finally, we examine the effect that some agent-behavioral parameters have on parking lot ingress and egress. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. COAP BASED ACUTE PARKING LOT MONITORING SYSTEM USING SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aarthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle parking is the act of temporarily maneuvering a vehicle in to a certain location. To deal with parking monitoring system issue such as traffic, this paper proposes a vision of improvements in monitoring the vehicles in parking lots based on sensor networks. Most of the existing paper deals with that of the automated parking which is of cluster based and each has its own overheads like high power, less energy efficiency, incompatible size of lots, space. The novel idea in this work is usage of CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol which is recently created by IETF (draft-ietf-core-coap-18, June 28, 2013, CoRE group to develop RESTful application layer protocol for communications within embedded wireless networks. This paper deals with the enhanced CoAP protocol using multi hop flat topology, which makes the acuters feel soothe towards parking vehicles. We aim to minimize the time consumed for finding free parking lot as well as increase the energy efficiency

  10. 40 CFR 52.128 - Rule for unpaved parking lots, unpaved roads and vacant lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... six (6) percent for unpaved road surfaces or eight (8) percent for unpaved parking lot surfaces as... calculating percent cover.) (iii) Vegetative Density Factor. Cut a single, representative piece of vegetation... that are not covered by any piece of the vegetation. To calculate percent vegetative density, use...

  11. Activity Recognition and Localization on a Truck Parking Lot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, M.; Patino, L.; Burghouts, G.J.; Flizikowski, A.; Evans, M.; Gustafsson, D.; Petersson, H.; Schutte, K.; Ferryman, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of activity recognition and localization algorithms that together assemble a large amount of information about activities on a parking lot. The aim is to detect and recognize events that may pose a threat to truck drivers and trucks. The algorithms perform zone-based

  12. Record Dynamics and the Parking Lot Model for granular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibani, Paolo; Boettcher, Stefan

    Also known for its application to granular compaction (E. Ben-Naim et al., Physica D, 1998), the Parking Lot Model (PLM) describes the random parking of identical cars in a strip with no marked bays. In the thermally activated version considered, cars can be removed at an energy cost and, in thermal equilibrium, their average density increases as temperature decreases. However, equilibration at high density becomes exceedingly slow and the system enters an aging regime induced by a kinematic constraint, the fact that parked cars may not overlap. As parking an extra car reduces the available free space,the next parking event is even harder to achieve. Records in the number of parked cars mark the salient features of the dynamics and are shown to be well described by the log-Poisson statistics known from other glassy systems with record dynamics. Clusters of cars whose positions must be rearranged to make the next insertion possible have a length scale which grows logarithmically with age, while their life-time grows exponentially with size. The implications for a recent cluster model of colloidal dynamics,(S. Boettcher and P. Sibani, J. Phys.: Cond. Matter, 2011 N. Becker et al., J. Phys.: Cond. Matter, 2014) are discussed. Support rom the Villum Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Capacity Analysis Of Parking Lot And Volume Of Vehicle Toward Sustainable Parking Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sugiyanto; Guntur Octavianto, Andrew; Guntur Aritonang, Edison; Nova Imaduddin, Malya; Dedi; Rilaningrum, Magfira

    2017-10-01

    The development of human's population is having effect on the increase of facilities and transportation needs. One of the primary problems is the availability of parking area. This has occurred in Universitas Indonesia (UI), mainly in Salemba Campus. The availability of land is not as equal as the number of vehicles, which are to be parked, that is why the convenience of students, lecturers and employees at UI is unsatisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to know the level of parking convenience that is affected by the capacity of parking lots and the volume of vehicles in UI Salemba Campus. The results of this research indicate Salemba campus's parking index. The motor index is still in the category of medium (index 0.945) and the car parking index has less category with a parking index 0.485. While with the location of research object being behind the UI Salemba campus, the results obtained were both the motor and the car are still in the category of “enough” with the parking index of, that is 0.657 for the motor and 0.777 for the car. So theoretically, the parking management at Salemba Campus is in an unsustainable parking degree because, if there is no long-term solution, it will increase congestion in the surrounding area and intensify the dissatisfaction of existing parking users.

  14. Heritage plaza parking lots improvement project- Solar PV installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Palm Springs, CA (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI or the “Tribe”) installed a 79.95 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system to offset the energy usage costs of the Tribal Education and Family Services offices located at the Tribe's Heritage Plaza office building, 90I Tahquitz Way, Palm Springs, CA, 92262 (the "Project"). The installation of the Solar PV system was part of the larger Heritage Plaza Parking Lot Improvements Project and mounted on the two southern carport shade structures. The solar PV system will offset 99% of the approximately 115,000 kWh in electricity delivered annually by Southern California Edison (SCE) to the Tribal Education and Family Services offices at Heritage Plaza, reducing their annual energy costs from approximately $22,000 annually to approximately $200. The total cost of the proposed solar PV system is $240,000.

  15. Water in the Balance: A Parking Lot Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, N. A.; Vitousek, S.

    2017-12-01

    The greater Chicagoland region has seen a high degree of urbanization since 1970. For example, between 1970-1990 the region experienced 4% population growth, a 35% increase in urban land use, and approximately 454 square miles of agricultural land was mostly converted into urban uses. Transformation of land into urban uses in the Chicagoland region has altered the stream and catchment response to rainfall events, specifically an increase in stream flashiness and increase in urban flooding. Chicago has begun to address these changes through green infrastructure. To understand the impact of green infrastructure at local, city-wide, and watershed scales, individual projects need to be accurately and sufficiently modeled. A traditional parking lot conversion into a porous parking lot at the University of Illinois at Chicago was modeled using SWMM and scrutinized using field data to look at stormwater runoff and water balance prior and post reconstruction. SWMM modeling suggested an 87% reduction in peak flow as well as a 100% reduction in flooding for a 24 hour, 1.72-inch storm. For the same storm, field data suggest an 89% reduction in peak flow as well as a 100% reduction in flooding. Modeling suggested 100% reductions in flooding for longer duration storms (24 hour+) and a smaller reduction in peak flow ( 66%). The highly parameterized SWMM model agrees well with collected data and analysis. Further effort is being made to use data mining to create correlations within the collected datasets that can be integrated into a model that follows a standardized formation process and reduces parameterization.

  16. Design Schematics for a Sustainable Parking Lot: Building 2-2332, ENRD Classroom, Fort Bragg, NC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stumpf, Annette

    2003-01-01

    ...) was tasked with planning a sustainable design "charrette" to explore and develop alternative parking lot designs that would meet Fort Bragg's parking needs, as well as its need to meet sustainable...

  17. Evaluation of Radon Pollution in Underground Parking Lots by Discomfort Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Bu-Olayan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent studies of public underground parking lots showed the influence of radon concentration and the probable discomfort caused by parking cars. Materials and Methods Radon concentration was measured in semi-closed public parking lots in the six governorates of Kuwait, using Durridge RAD7radon detector (USA. Results The peak radon concentration in the parking lots of Kuwait governorates was relatively higher during winter (63.15Bq/m3 compared to summer (41.73 Bq/m3. Radon in the evaluated parking lots revealed a mean annual absorbed dose (DRn: 0.02mSv/y and annual effective dose (HE: 0.06mSv/y.  Conclusion This study validated the influence of relative humidity and temperature as the major components of discomfort index (DI. The mean annual absorbed and effective dose  of radon in the evaluated parking lots were found below the permissible limits. However, high radon DRn and HE were reported when the assessment included the parking lots, the surrounding residential apartments, and office premises. Furthermore, the time-series analysis indicated significant variations of the seasonal and site-wise distribution of radon concentrations in the indoor evaluated parking lots of the six Kuwait governorates

  18. Performance of engineered soil and trees in a parking lot bioswale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfu Xiao; Gregory McPherson

    2011-01-01

    A bioswale integrating an engineered soil and trees was installed in a parking lot to evaluate its ability to reduce storm runoff, pollutant loading, and support tree growth. The adjacent control and treatment sites each received runoff from eight parking spaces and were identical except that there was no bioswale for the control site. A tree was planted at both sites...

  19. In-situ infiltration performance of different permeable pavements in a employee used parking lot--A four-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldip; Kozak, Joseph; Hundal, Lakhwinder; Cox, Albert; Zhang, Heng; Granato, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Permeable pavements are being adopted as a green solution in many parts of the world to manage urban stormwater quantity and quality. This paper reports on the measured in-situ infiltration performance over a four-year period since construction and use of three permeable parking sections (permeable pavers, permeable concrete and permeable asphalt) of an employee car parking lot. There was only a marginal decline in infiltration rates of all three pavements after one year of use. However, between years two to four, the infiltration rates declined significantly due to clogging of pores either by dry deposition of particles and/or shear stress of vehicles driving and degrading the permeable surfaces; during the last two years, a greater decline was also observed in driving areas of the parking lots compared to parking slots, where minimal wear and tear are expected. Maintenance strategies were employed to reclaim some of the lost infiltration rate of the permeable pavements to limited success. Despite this decline, the infiltration rates were still four to five times higher than average rainstorm intensity in the region. Thus, these permeable pavement parking lots may have significant ecological importance due to their ability to infiltrate rainwater quickly, reduce the runoff in the catchment area, and also dampen runoff peak flows that could otherwise enter the collection system for treatment in a combined sewer area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation and Electric Vehicle Parking Lots Based on Probabilistic EV Model

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Amini; M. Parsa Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    High penetration of distributed generations and the increasing demand for using electric vehicles provide a lot of issues for the utilities. If these two effective elements of the future power system are used in an unscheduled manner, it may lead to the loss increment in distribution networks, dramatically. In this paper, the simultaneous allocation of distributed generations (DGs) and electric vehicles (EVs) parking lots has been studied in a radial distribution network. A distribution netwo...

  1. A DESIGN STUDY OF AN INNOVATIVE BARRIER SYSTEM FOR PERSONAL PARKING LOTS

    OpenAIRE

    BÖRKLÜ, Hüseyin; KALYON, Sadık

    2018-01-01

    The increase in the number of cars made it necessary to protectthe parking areas. This research includes a literature review aboutcommercially available barriers, which are arm barriers, rising bollards, chainbarriers, automatic and manual private barriers from the point of common andside-by-side parking lots. Their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.After the literature review work, a design requirements list for a car parkprotector, which includes important and strong properties of ...

  2. A user equilibrium, traffic assignment model of network route and parking lot choice, with search circuits and cruising flows

    OpenAIRE

    LEURENT, Fabien; BOUJNAH, Houda

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a novel network model of parking and route choice. Parking supply is represented by parking type, management strategy including the fare, capacity and occupancy rate of parking lot, and network location, in relation to access routes along the roadway network. Trip demand is segmented according to origin-destination pair, the disposal of private parking facilities and the individual preferences for parking quality of service. Each traveller is assumed to make a two stage cho...

  3. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot

    Science.gov (United States)

    In accordance with the need for full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  4. Flexible interaction of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots for efficient wind integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydarian-Forushani, E.; Golshan, M.E.H.; Shafie-khah, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactive incorporation of plug-in electric vehicle parking lots is investigated. • Flexible energy and reserve services are provided by electric vehicle parking lots. • Uncertain characterization of electric vehicle owners’ behavior is taken into account. • Coordinated operation of parking lots can facilitate wind power integration. - Abstract: The increasing share of uncertain wind generation has changed traditional operation scheduling of power systems. The challenges of this additional variability raise the need for an operational flexibility in providing both energy and reserve. One key solution is an effective incorporation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the power system operation process. To this end, this paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming market-clearing model considering the network constraints to achieve the optimal scheduling of conventional units as well as PEV parking lots (PLs) in providing both energy and reserve services. Different from existing works, the paper pays more attention to the uncertain characterization of PLs takes into account the arrival/departure time of PEVs to/from the PL, the initial state of charge (SOC) of PEVs, and their battery capacity through a set of scenarios in addition to wind generation scenarios. The results reveal that although the cost saving as a consequence of incorporating PL to the grid is below 1% of total system cost, however, flexible interactions of PL in the energy and reserve markets can promote the integration of wind power more than 13.5%.

  5. Precipitation and runoff water quality from an urban parking lot and implications for tree growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Pham; H. G. Halverson; G. M. Heisler

    1978-01-01

    The water quality of precipitation and runoff from a large parking lot in New Brunswick, New Jersey was studied during the early growing season, from March to June 1976. Precipitation and runoff from 10 storms were analyzed. The runoff was higher in all constituents considered except for P, Pb, and Cu. Compared with published values for natural waters, sewage effluent...

  6. An improved hierarchical A * algorithm in the optimization of parking lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wu, Junjuan; Wang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    In the parking lot parking path optimization, the traditional evaluation index is the shortest distance as the best index and it does not consider the actual road conditions. Now, the introduction of a more practical evaluation index can not only simplify the hardware design of the boot system but also save the software overhead. Firstly, we establish the parking lot network graph RPCDV mathematical model and all nodes in the network is divided into two layers which were constructed using different evaluation function base on the improved hierarchical A * algorithm which improves the time optimal path search efficiency and search precision of the evaluation index. The final results show that for different sections of the program attribute parameter algorithm always faster the time to find the optimal path.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Automobile License Plate Recognition System for Institutional Parking Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Dasilva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones have many applications and they are a current trend across many industries. They can be used for delivery, sports, surveillance, professional photography, cinematography, military combat, natural disaster assistance, security, and the list grows every day. Programming opens an avenue to automate many processes of daily life and with the drone as aerial programmable eyes, security and surveillance can become more efficient and cost effective. At Barry University, parking is becoming an issue as the number of people visiting the school greatly outnumbers the convenient parking locations. This has caused a multitude of hazards in parking lots due to people illegally parking, as well as unregistered vehicles parking in reserved areas. In this paper, we explain how automated drone surveillance is utilized to detect unauthorized parking at Barry University. The automated process is incorporated into Java application and completed in three steps: collecting visual data, processing data automatically, and sending automated responses and queues to the operator of the system.

  8. Tracking of Vehicle Movement on a Parking Lot Based on Video Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján HALGAŠ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with topic of transport vehicles identification for dynamic and static transport based on video detection. It explains some of the technologies and approaches necessary for processing of specific image information (transport situation. The paper also describes a design of algorithm for vehicle detection on parking lot and consecutive record of trajectory into virtual environment. It shows a new approach to moving object detection (vehicles, people, and handlers on an enclosed area with emphasis on secure parking. The created application enables automatic identification of trajectory of specific objects moving within the parking area. The application was created in program language C++ with using an open source library OpenCV.

  9. Where is my car? Examining wayfinding behavior in a parking lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mora

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines wayfinding behavior in an extended parking lot belonging to one of the largest shopping malls in Santiago, Chile. About 500 people were followed while going to the mall and returning from it, and their trajectories were mapped and analyzed. The results indicate that inbound paths were, in average, 10% shorter that outbound paths, and that people stopped three times more frequently when leaving the mall than when accessing it. It is argued that these results are in line with previous research on the subject, which stress the importance of environmental information in shaping people`s behavior.

  10. Use of Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications: Early Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael; Royer, Michael P.; Sullivan, Greg P.

    2012-11-07

    Occupancy sensor systems are gaining traction as an effective technological approach to reducing energy use in exterior commercial lighting applications. Done correctly, occupancy sensors can substantially enhance the savings from an already efficient lighting system. However, this technology is confronted by several potential challenges and pitfalls that can leave a significant amount of the prospective savings on the table. This report describes anecdotal experiences from field installations of occupancy sensor controlled light-emitting diode (LED) lighting at two parking structures and two parking lots. The relative levels of success at these installations reflect a marked range of potential outcomes: from an additional 76% in energy savings to virtually no additional savings. Several issues that influenced savings were encountered in these early stage installations and are detailed in the report. Ultimately, care must be taken in the design, selection, and commissioning of a sensor-controlled lighting installation, else the only guaranteed result may be its cost.

  11. Increase of child car seat temperature in cars parked in the outpatient parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Tetsu; Suzue, Junji; Kamada, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukiko; Tananari, Yoshifumi; Maeno, Yasuki; Ito, Shinichi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Noriko; Yamakawa, Rumi

    2011-12-01

    A guideline for the safe use of child car seats (CS) was published by the Japan Pediatric Society in 2008. There have been few studies of the increase of temperature of a CS in parked cars. The aim of this study was to determine the change in the temperature of the CS in cars parked in full sun. The temperature of CS was measured during summer (July and August) in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The CS used in this study (n= 50) were for children (≤ 6 years old) who were taken by car to Sugimura Children's Medical Clinic. Temperatures were only measured on sunny days. Measurements were performed from 09.00 to 17.00 hours. Thermochron (Thermochron i-Button: G type, Maxim Integrated Products, CA, USA) was used to measure the temperatures. The maximum temperatures of CS were compared in time at the clinic, taking into consideration seat colors, and car colors. Of the 50 cars, three cars were excluded due to being in the shade while the temperature was measured. A total of 47 cars were used for this study. The temperature of the CS ranged from 38.0 to 65.5°C (47.8 ± 5.8°C). Eighteen CS (38.3%) reached a temperature of 50°C or above. The maximum temperature of the 13.00-15.00-hours group was significantly higher than that of the 09.00-11.00-hours group (P= 0.035). The CS temperatures in the black car group were significantly higher than those of the white car group (P= 0.013). CS may become very hot while a car is parked in sun, especially if the car and the CS are black, so the CS should be cooled before a young child is placed in it. Guardians of small children should be aware of this risk. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Estimating the coordinates of pillars and posts in the parking lots for intelligent parking assist system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyung; Kuk, Jung Gap; Kim, Young Il; Cho, Nam Ik

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for the detection of pillars or posts in the video captured by a single camera implemented on the fore side of a room mirror in a car. The main purpose of this algorithm is to complement the weakness of current ultrasonic parking assist system, which does not well find the exact position of pillars or does not recognize narrow posts. The proposed algorithm is consisted of three steps: straight line detection, line tracking, and the estimation of 3D position of pillars. In the first step, the strong lines are found by the Hough transform. Second step is the combination of detection and tracking, and the third is the calculation of 3D position of the line by the analysis of trajectory of relative positions and the parameters of camera. Experiments on synthetic and real images show that the proposed method successfully locates and tracks the position of pillars, which helps the ultrasonic system to correctly locate the edges of pillars. It is believed that the proposed algorithm can also be employed as a basic element for vision based autonomous driving system.

  13. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting in Leavenworth, KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Curry, Ku' uipo

    2011-05-06

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a commercial parking lot lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting Technology GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The parking lot is for customers and employees of a Walmart Supercenter in Leavenworth, Kansas and this installation represents the first use of the LED Parking Lot Performance Specification developed by the DOE’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance. The application is a parking lot covering more than a half million square feet, lighted primarily by light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Metal halide wall packs were installed along the building facade. This site is new construction, so the installed baseline(s) were hypothetical designs. It was acknowledged early on that deviating from Walmart’s typical design would reduce the illuminance on the site. Walmart primarily uses 1000W pulse-start metal halide (PMH) lamps. In order to provide a comparison between both typical design and a design using conventional luminaires providing a lower illuminance, a 400W PMH design was also considered. As mentioned already, the illuminance would be reduced by shifting from the PMH system to the LED system. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) provides recommended minimum illuminance values for parking lots. All designs exceeded the recommended illuminance values in IES RP-20, some by a wider margin than others. Energy savings from installing the LED system compared to the different PMH systems varied. Compared to the 1000W PMH system, the LED system would save 63 percent of the energy. However, this corresponds to a 68 percent reduction in illuminance as well. In comparison to the 400W PMH system, the LED system would save 44 percent of the energy and provide similar minimum illuminance values at the time of relamping. The LED system cost more than either of the PMH systems when comparing initial costs

  14. Storm water runoff for the Y-12 Plant and selected parking lots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.T.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of storm water runoff from the Y-12 Plant and selected employee vehicle parking lots to various industry data is provided in this document. This work is an outgrowth of and part of the continuing Non-Point Source Pollution Elimination Project that was initiated in the late 1980s. This project seeks to identify area pollution sources and remediate these areas through the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process as managed by the Environmental Restoration Organization staff. This work is also driven by the Clean Water Act Section 402(p) which, in part, deals with establishing a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for storm water discharges. Storm water data from events occurring in 1988 through 1991 were analyzed in two reports: Feasibility Study for the Best Management Practices to Control Area Source Pollution Derived from Parking Lots at the DOE Y-12 Plant, September 1992, and Feasibility Study of Best Management Practices for Non-Point Source Pollution Control at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, February 1993. These data consisted of analysis of outfalls discharging to upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the confines of the Y-12 Plant (see Appendixes D and E). These reports identified the major characteristics of concern as copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate (as nitrogen), zinc, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform, and aluminum. Specific sources of these contaminants were not identifiable because flows upstream of outfalls were not sampled. In general, many of these contaminants were a concern in many outfalls. Therefore, separate sampling exercises were executed to assist in identifying (or eliminating) specific suspected sources as areas of concern

  15. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Shafique; Reeho Kim; Kwon Kyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale...

  16. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots in Edison Environmental Center, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed tha...

  17. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot - paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet the need for long-term, full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  18. Integrated scheduling of renewable generation and electric vehicles parking lot in a smart microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honarmand, Masoud; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated operation of renewable generation and electric vehicles is presented. • The capability of electric vehicles in providing reserve has been analyzed. • A new electric vehicles charging/discharging management system is proposed. • The technical features of electric vehicle’s batteries are considered. - Abstract: Integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) into the electric power system may bring up many technical issues. The power system may put at risk the security and reliability of operation due to intermittent nature of renewable generation and uncontrolled charging/discharging procedure of EVs. In this paper, an energy resources management model for a microgrid (MG) is proposed. The proposed method considers practical constraints, renewable power forecasting errors, spinning reserve requirements and EVs owner satisfaction. A case study with a typical MG including 200 EVs is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed energy resource scheduling method satisfies financial and technical goals of parking lot as well as the security and economic issues of MG. Moreover, EV owners could earn profit by discharging their vehicles’ batteries or providing the reserve capacity and finally have desired State Of Charge (SOC) in the departure time

  19. Organism Detection in Permeable Pavement Parking Lot Infiltrates at the Edison Environmental Center, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared t...

  20. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons below coal-tar-sealed parking lots and effects on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L.; Gosselink, L.; Bryer, P. [City Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Parking-lot pavement sealants recently have been recognized as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stream sediments in Austin, Texas. Laboratory and field studies have shown that PAHs in sediments can be toxic to aquatic organisms and can degrade aquatic communities. After identifying increases in concentrations of PAHs in sediments below seal-coated parking lots, we investigated whether the increases had significant effects on stream biota in 5 Austin streams. We sampled sediment chemistry and biological communities above and below the point at which stormwater runoff from the parking lots discharged into the streams, thus providing 5 upstream reference sites and 5 downstream treatment sites. Differences between upstream and downstream concentrations of total PAH ranged from 3.9 to 32 mg/kg. Analysis of the species occurrence data from pool and riffle habitats indicated a significant decrease in community health at the downstream sites, including decreases in richness, intolerant taxa, Diptera taxa, and density. In pool sediments, Chironomidae density was negatively correlated with PAH concentrations, whereas Oligochaeta density responded positively to PAH concentrations. In general, pool taxa responded more strongly than riffle taxa to PAHs, but riffle taxa responded more broadly than pool taxa. Increases in PAH sediment-toxicity units between upstream and downstream sites explained decreases in taxon richness and density in pools between upstream and downstream sites.

  1. The acoustic climate at the rest and service areas – parking lots by the Silesian section of A4 motorway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert WIESZAŁA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the state of the acoustic climate at the rest and service areas (MOPs situated by A4 motorway in Silesia The analysis includes the research results conducted at these parking lots from May till August 2010. The research was conducted with the digital noise meter, which was connected with the computer during measurement. The research results indicate the essential differences in the noise intensity between the particular rest and service area reaching up to 12 dB(A, in spite of the similar value of the traffic noise in all of the places where the research was conducted. It was assumed that the level of noise on each of the parking lots should be similar to standing norms for the recreation areas i.e. below 55 dB(A. The research conducted at 4 MOPs indicated that only at two of them, MOP Halemba and Wirek, these norms are fulfilled. The lack of the proper anti-noise protection in the form of the sound absorbing screens at the parking lots situated by the motorway causes the situation in which the level of noise at the places devoted to rest highly decreases the possibility to relax before the next stage of a journey.

  2. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff from Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Wilson, Jennifer T

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001-02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  3. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  4. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-03-16

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas.

  5. Evaluating the Capability of Grass Swale for the Rainfall Runoff Reduction from an Urban Parking Lot, Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho; Kyung-Ho, Kwon

    2018-01-01

    This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge. In this field study, various real storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to evaluate the performance of grass swale for managing rainfall runoff in an urban area. From the analysis of field experiments, grass swale showed the significant rainfall runoff retention in different rain events. Grass swale markedly reduced total rainfall runoff volume and peak flow during the small storm events of intensity about 30 mm/h. From the analysis, on average rainfall runoff retention from the grass swale was found around 40 to 75% during the various small rain events. From the results, we can say that grass swale is a stormwater mitigation practice which can help avoid flash flooding problems in urban areas. PMID:29547567

  6. Parking Lot Runoff Quality and Treatment Efficiency of a Stormwater-Filtration Device, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment efficiency of a stormwater-filtration device (SFD) for potential use at Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) park-and-ride facilities, a SFD was installed at an employee parking lot in downtown Madison, Wisconsin. This type of parking lot was chosen for the test site because the constituent concentrations and particle-size distributions (PSDs) were expected to be similar to those of a typical park-and-ride lot operated by WisDOT. The objective of this particular installation was to reduce loads of total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater runoff to Lake Monona. This study also was designed to provide a range of treatment efficiencies expected for a SFD. Samples from the inlet and outlet were analyzed for 33 organic and inorganic constituents, including 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples were also analyzed for physical properties, including PSD. Water-quality samples were collected for 51 runoff events from November 2005 to August 2007. Samples from all runoff events were analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment (SS). Samples from 31 runoff events were analyzed for 15 constituents, samples from 15 runoff events were analyzed for PAHs, and samples from 36 events were analyzed for PSD. The treatment efficiency of the SFD was calculated using the summation of loads (SOL) and the efficiency ratio methods. Constituents for which the concentrations and (or) loads were decreased by the SFD include TSS, SS, volatile suspended solids, total phosphorous (TP), total copper, total zinc, and PAHs. The efficiency ratios for these constituents are 45, 37, 38, 55, 22, 5, and 46 percent, respectively. The SOLs for these constituents are 32, 37, 28, 36, 23, 8, and 48 percent, respectively. The SOL for chloride was -21 and the efficiency ratio was -18. Six chemical constituents or properties-dissolved phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved zinc, total dissolved solids, dissolved chemical oxygen demand, and

  7. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting at T.J.Maxx in Manchester, NH Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.

    2010-06-29

    A report describing the process and results of replacing existing parking lot lighting, looking at a LED option with occupancy sensors, and conventional alternates. Criteria include payback, light levels, occupant satisfaction. This report is Phase I of II. Phase I deals with initial installation.

  8. Parking lot runoff quality and treatment efficiencies of a hydrodynamic-settling device in Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrodynamic-settling device was installed in 2004 to treat stormwater runoff from a roof and parking lot located at the Water Utility Administration Building in Madison, Wis. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the City of Madison, cities in the Waukesha Permit Group, Hydro International, Earth Tech, Inc., National Sanitation Foundation International, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, monitored the device from November 2005 through September 2006 to evaluate it as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Twenty-three runoff events monitored for flow volume and water quality at the device's inlet and outlet were used to calculate the percentage of pollutant reduction for the device. The geometric mean concentrations of suspended sediment (SS), "adjusted" total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved phosphorus (DP), total recoverable zinc (TZn), and total recoverable copper (TCu) measured at the inlet were 107 mg/L (milligrams per liter), 92 mg/L, 0.17 mg/L, 0.05 mg/L, 38 μg/L (micrograms per liter), and 12 μg/L, respectively, and these concentrations are in the range of values observed in stormwater runoff from other parking lots in Wisconsin and Michigan. Efficiency of the settling device was calculated using the efficiency ratio and summation of loads (SOL) methods. Using the efficiency ratio method, the device reduced concentrations of SS, and DP, by 19, and 15, percent, respectively. Using the efficiency ratio method, the device increased "adjusted" TSS and TZn concentrations by 5 and 19, respectively. Bypass occurred for 3 of the 23 runoff events used in this assessment, and the bypass flow and water-quality concentrations were used to determine the efficiency of the bypass system. Concentrations of SS, "adjusted" TSS, and DP were reduced for the system by 18, 5, and 18, respectively; however, TZn increased by 5

  9. Cultural resource survey report for construction of office building, driveway, and parking lot at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment and associated documentation is reported for the construction of an office building and parking lot in support of environmental management personnel activities. As part of the documentation process, the DOE determined that the proposed project constituted an undertaking as defined in Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. In accordance with the regulations implementing Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, a records and literature search and historic resource identification effort were carried out on behalf of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This report summarizes cultural resource literature and record searches and a historic resource identification effort

  10. Intelligent optimization to integrate a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle smart parking lot with renewable energy resources and enhance grid characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazelpour, Farivar; Vafaeipour, Majid; Rahbari, Omid; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The proposed algorithms handled design steps of an efficient parking lot of PHEVs. • Optimizations are performed with 1 h intervals to find optimum charging rates. • Multi-objective optimization is performed to find the optimum size and site of DG. • Optimal sizing of a PV–wind–diesel HRES is attained. • Charging rates are optimized intelligently during peak and off-peak times. - Abstract: Widespread application of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as an important part of smart grids requires drivers and power grid constraints to be satisfied simultaneously. We address these two challenges with the presence of renewable energy and charging rate optimization in the current paper. First optimal sizing and siting for installation of a distributed generation (DG) system is performed through the grid considering power loss minimization and voltage enhancement. Due to its benefits, the obtained optimum site is considered as the optimum location for constructing a movie theater complex equipped with a PHEV parking lot. To satisfy the obtained size of DG, an on-grid hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) is chosen. In the next set of optimizations, optimal sizing of the HRES is performed to minimize the energy cost and to find the best number of decision variables, which are the number of the system’s components. Eventually, considering demand uncertainties due to the unpredictability of the arrival and departure times of the vehicles, time-dependent charging rate optimizations of the PHEVs are performed in 1 h intervals for the 24-h of a day. All optimization problems are performed using genetic algorithms (GAs). The outcome of the proposed optimization sets can be considered as design steps of an efficient grid-friendly parking lot of PHEVs. The results indicate a reduction in real power losses and improvement in the voltage profile through the distribution line. They also show the competence of the utilized energy delivery method in

  11. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  12. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Proxy Waste Lot Profile 6.999 for Building K-25 West Wing, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby V.P.

    2009-02-12

    In 1989, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) National Priorities List. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (DOE 1992), effective January 1, 1992, now governs environmental restoration activities conducted under CERCLA at the ORR. Following signing of the FFA, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the state of Tennessee signed the Oak Ridge Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement on June 18, 2002. The purpose of this agreement is to define a streamlined decision-making process to facilitate the accelerated implementation of cleanup, resolve ORR milestone issues, and establish future actions necessary to complete the accelerated cleanup plan by the end of fiscal year 2008. While the FFA continues to serve as the overall regulatory framework for remediation, the Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement supplements existing requirements to streamline the decision-making process. Decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities of Bldg. K-25, the original gaseous diffusion facility, is being conducted by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) on behalf of the DOE. The planned CERCLA action covering disposal of building structure and remaining components from the K-25 building is scheduled as a non-time-critical CERCLA action as part of DOE's continuous risk reduction strategy for ETTP. The K-25 building is proposed for D&D because of its poor physical condition and the expense of surveillance and maintenance activities. The K-25/K-27 D&D Project proposes to dispose of the commingled waste listed below from the K-25 west side building structure and remaining components and process gas equipment and piping at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) under waste disposal proxy lot (WPXL) 6.999: (1) Building structure (e.g. concrete floors [excluding basement

  13. Optimal energy management of the smart parking lot under demand response program in the presence of the electrolyser and fuel cell as hydrogen storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannati, Jamil; Nazarpour, Daryoosh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management of IPL is considered in the presence of wind turbine and PV system. • The optimal charge and discharge powers of EVs, dispatch power of LDG are determined. • Charging/discharging decisions of electrolyser and fuel cell are determined. • Demand response program is used to manage the peak load to reduce the operation cost. • Global optimal is guaranteed in proposed model by mixed-integer linear programming. - Abstract: Nowadays, utilization of distributed generation sources and electric vehicles (EVs) are increased to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Also, intelligent parking lots (IPL) are increased in response to the increase in the number of EVs. Therefore, optimal operation of distributed generation sources and IPL in the power market without technical scheduling will follow some economic problems for the owner of IPL and some technical problems for the operator of distribution network. Therefore, in this paper, an optimal energy management has been proposed for an IPL which includes renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic system) and local dispatchable generators (micro-turbines). Also, determination of optimal charge and discharge powers of hydrogen storage system (HSS) containing electrolyser, hydrogen storage tanks and fuel cell has been considered in the proposed model. Furthermore, the time-of-use rates of demand response program are proposed to flatten the load curve to reduce the operation cost of IPL. The objective function includes minimizing the operation costs of upstream grid and local dispatchable generators as well as charging and discharging cost of IPL subject to the technical and physical constraints under demand response program in the presence of HSS. The proposed model is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming and solved using GAMS optimization software under CPLEX solver. Four case studies are investigated to validate the proposed model to show the positive

  14. Permeable Asphalt: A New Tool to Reduce Road Salt Contamination of Groundwater in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Michael E; Angel, Derek R; Robbins, Gary A; McNaboe, Lukas A

    2017-03-01

    Chloride contamination of groundwater in urban areas due to deicing is a well-documented phenomenon in northern climates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of permeable pavement on degraded urban groundwater. Although low impact development practices have been shown to improve stormwater quality, no infiltration practice has been found to prevent road salt chlorides from entering groundwater. The few studies that have investigated chlorides in permeable asphalt have involved sampling directly beneath the asphalt; no research has looked more broadly at surrounding groundwater conditions. Monitoring wells were installed upgradient and downgradient of an 860 m 2 permeable asphalt parking lot at the University of Connecticut (Storrs, Connecticut). Water level and specific conductance were measured continuously, and biweekly samples were analyzed for chloride. Samples were also analyzed for sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). Analysis of variance analysis indicated a significantly (p monitoring revealed lower Cl concentrations downgradient than upgradient for the majority of the year. These results suggest that the use of permeable asphalt in impacted urban environments with high ambient chloride concentrations can be beneficial to shallow groundwater quality, although these results may not be generalizable to areas with low ambient chloride concentrations. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Introductory asphalt technology; Nyumon asphalt gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroga, G. [Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The type and applications, manufacturing method, characteristics, road pavement etc. of asphalt were introduced. Among the petroleum asphalts, straight asphalt is used for road pavement,industry, and combustion, while blown asphalt is mainly used for the waterproofness of a building. Also, the demand for modified asphalt where rubber or thermoplastic elastomer was mixed is increasing. Straight asphalt is obtained by allowing atmospheric distillation tower bottom oil to be subjected to reduced pressure distillation and drawing reduced pressure gas oil and lubrication oil cut. Blown asphalt is produced by the oxidation dehydrogeneration and condensation polymerization reaction of soft straight asphalt. Rheology characteristics of asphalt are expressed by stiffness, relaxation elastic modulus, complex elastic modulus, etc. Also, asphalt has high electrical dielectric properties. Asphalt pavement has functions for dispersing traffic load and then transferring it to a lower layer, for resisting wear and cracking, and for preventing penetration of rainwater. 30 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  17. Parking lots, store chains and spatial agglomeration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noguera, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2005), s. 145-158 ISSN 1056-8190 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : agglomeration * bid -rent * residential district Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.475, year: 2005

  18. Modified asphalt; Kairyo asphalt ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarabe, A. [Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    Modified asphalt in the area of road pavement in the relation of measures against flow on a road surface was introduced. The condition of road damage includes the print of a wheel, crack, and wear and semi-blown asphalt whose deformation is difficult even if temperature is increased to approximately 60 {degree}C and asphalt with rubber and resin are used to prevent these. The semi-blown asphalt is obtained by adding cut-back material to the normal asphalt, heating it, blowing air into it, and then oxidizing and polymerizing it, is harder and is more elastic than the normal asphalt, and has smaller viscosity change due to temperature change. The viscosity at 60 {degree}C was determined to be 10000{plus_minus}2000 poise according to the relationship between viscosity and crack using a large-scale execution experiment. The asphalt with rubber and resin is formed by adding modified material of styrene - butadiene copolymer and by adding thermoplastic elastomer and the former is used for preventing slide and the latter is used for preventing flow and wear. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Asphalt emulsion; Asphalt nyuzai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Toa Doro Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The emulsification, manufacture, type, applications, etc. of asphalt emulsion were introduced. The emulsification of asphalt is obtained by mixing heated asphalt into an emulsification liquid where emulsifier is added to water and then agitating it. The emulsifier has both hydrophilic and lipophilic parts in the same molecule, prevents collision between asphalt particles after being arranged properly on the surface of asphalt particles, and prevent separation into water and asphalt. The emulsion is available for penetration and for mixing depending on applications and can be classified into cation emulsion, anion emulsion, and nonionic emulsion according to the property. The emulsion is mainly applied to road pavement, reaching approximately 90 % of the total manufactured emulsion. It is also used for other areas such as the filler of a slab race of each bullet train of Sanyo, Tohoku, and Jyoetsu and is also applied to the formation of a water-proof layer by spraying a high-concentration emulsion with rubber, agricultural water channels using asphalt emulsion and nonwoven cloth, etc. in civil engineering and agricultural fields. 2 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    SAYANTI BANERJEE,; PALLAVI CHOUDEKAR,; M.K.MUJU

    2011-01-01

    Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and g...

  1. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  2. Green Lot-Sizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Retel Helmrich (Mathijn Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe lot-sizing problem concerns a manufacturer that needs to solve a production planning problem. The producer must decide at which points in time to set up a production process, and when he/she does, how much to produce. There is a trade-off between inventory costs and costs associated

  3. Asphalt chemical fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando P, Klever N.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt fractionation were carried out in the Esmeraldas Oil Refinery using n-pentane, SiO 2 and different mixture of benzene- methane. The fractions obtained were analyzed by Fourier's Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR)

  4. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Mei; Ye Tian; Dongping Li

    2012-01-01

    Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS) often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs). By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constru...

  5. Sustainable Performance of Iraqi Asphalt Base Course Using Recycled Glass as Aggregate Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Eedan Al-Jameel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a lot of waste glass produced through different sides of life. Applying sustainability has been widely used in different construction materials and flexible pavement was contained different recycled materials through different studies. Recycled glass, where it is nonmetallic and inorganic, it can neither be incinerated nor decomposed, so it may be difficult to reclaim, has been used as filler, fine and coarse aggregates in the asphalt base course. In this study, various standard asphalt tests, such as stability, flow, density and air voids, have been conducted on reference mix asphalt and mix asphalt with different percentages of recycled glass when it has been used as filler, fine and coarse aggregates in the base course. Generally, the results show good indication, especially when using 10% of the recycled glass instead of coarse aggregate with 40-50 asphalt grades. This percentage improves most characteristics such as strength retained index which indicates better performance than reference mix.  

  6. Warm mix asphalt : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The performance of pavements constructed using warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology were : compared to the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements placed on the : same project. Measurements of friction resistance, rutting/wear, ride ...

  7. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. - Highlights: • We compare PAH and azaarene concentrations in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealed pavement. • Concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff greatly exceeded those in asphalt-sealcoat runoff. • Decreases in azaarenes and LMW PAHs were offset by increases in HMW PAHs. • PAH concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff remained high for months after application. - Concentrations of PAHs in runoff from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat continue to be elevated for at least 3 months following sealcoat application

  8. Wireless based Smart Parking System using Zigbee

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Asyrani Bin Sulaiman; Mohd Fareez Bin Mohd Afif; Mohd Azlishah Bin Othman; Mohamad Harris Bin Misran; Maizatul Alice Binti Meor Said

    2013-01-01

    One of main issues of developing big parking space for shopping complexes, office complexes and other types of building that requires large parking space is to notify the visitors of occupied and nonoccupied parking space. Most of the visitors might spending up to 30 to 45 minutes just to find an empty parking space. In most recent technology, some parking lot system offered a system that could automatically count when the car entering the empty car space and blocking an infrared signal thus ...

  9. Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control system using up/down decade counters. ... leave(s) the parking lot through the exit gate the counter counts down, and the DC motor circuitry drives the entry gate open to allow access for the same number of automobiles that leave(s) the parking lot.

  10. THE PROBLEM OF INTERCEPTING PARKING SYSTEMS DESIGN IN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hetsovych

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Consistent determination of the main problems concerning the system of intercepting parkinglot design with the purpose of transport systems improvement downtown is grounded. The given approach allows to fully satisfy the demand for parking-lots of urban transport systems in combination with the system of downtown parkings and the capacity of the highway network.

  11. Mathematical model of parking space unit for triangular parking area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrini, Intan; Sundari, Teti; Iskandar, Taufiq; Halfiani, Vera; Munzir, Said; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Parking space unit (PSU) is an effective measure for the area size of a vehicle, including the free space and the width of the door opening of the vehicle (car). This article discusses a mathematical model for parking space of vehicles in triangular shape area. An optimization model for triangular parking lot is developed. Integer Linear Programming (ILP) method is used to determine the maximum number of the PSU. The triangular parking lot is in isosceles and equilateral triangles shape and implements four possible rows and five possible angles for each field. The vehicles which are considered are cars and motorcycles. The results show that the isosceles triangular parking area has 218 units of optimal PSU, which are 84 units of PSU for cars and 134 units of PSU for motorcycles. Equilateral triangular parking area has 688 units of optimal PSU, which are 175 units of PSU for cars and 513 units of PSU for motorcycles.

  12. Dismantling of asphalt and recycling road materials in asphalt layers

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, M. L.; Batista, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Este registo pertence ao Repositório Científico do LNEC The interest of recycling of asphalt and other road materials for pavement construction and rehabilitation has been generally growing in Portugal, for the last 15 years. After some occasional demonstration projects dealing with hot and cold in situ recycling of asphalt layers, the first significant experiences with cold in situ recycling and hot mix plant recycling of asphalt applied in full scale rehabilitation projects, ...

  13. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  14. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  15. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  16. Performance prediction of hot mix asphalt from asphalt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, I.; Kamal, M.A.; Shahzad, Q.; Bashir, N.; Ahadi, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt binder being a high weight hydrocarbon contains asphaltene and maltene and is widely used as cementing materials in the construction of flexible pavements. Its performance in hot mix asphalt also depends on combining with different proportions of aggregates. The main objective of this study was to characterize asphalt cement rheological behavior and to investigate the influence of asphalt on asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with virgin binders and using polymers. Binder rheology and mixtures stiffness were determined under a range of cyclic loadings and temperature conditions. Master curves were developed for the evaluation of relationship between parameters like complex modulus and phase angle at different frequencies. Horizontal shift factors were also computed to determine time and temperature response of binders and mixes. The results showed that the stiffness of both the binder and the mixes depends on temperature and frequency of load. Polymer modified binder is least susceptible to temperature variations as compared to other virgin asphalt cement. Performance of asphalt mixtures can be predicted from those of asphalt binders using the master curve technique. (author)

  17. National Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...

  18. Recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossinet, J

    1881-12-31

    A process is disclosed for the recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals, consisting in that the mineral is extracted with mineral oil, which is recovered by distilling the raw asphalt and distilling the solution to obtain on the one hand the liquid oil contained in the raw asphalt for use in the extraction and on the other hand distilled asphalt.

  19. parkITsmart: minimization of cruising for parking

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiaras, Christos; Hobi, Livio; Hofstetter, Fabian; Liniger, Samuel; Stiller, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Finding a parking space in urban areas is a daily challenge for drivers across the world, due to the increasing amount of vehicles and the limited amount of parking spaces. Drivers who are looking for a parking space in peak hours are often forced to drive around city blocks until they spot a free parking space. This process is termed in literature “cruising for parking” and is proven to (a) cost a lot of time and gas for drivers, (b) generate unnecessary traffic load, and (c) affect the envi...

  20. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  1. The Solutions to the Problem of Temporary Vehicle Parking in the City. The Analysis of Vehicle Parking Time and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ričardas Mockus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of solving the problems of temporary parking of vehicles in the city by using the automatic parking systems are considered. The investigation of vehicle parking is described and the comparison of the ramp-type and automated parking lots is presented.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Assessment of low temperature cracking in asphalt pavement mixes and rheological performance of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowah-Kuma, David

    Government spends a lot of money on the reconstruction and rehabilitation of road pavements in any given year due to various distresses and eventual failure. Low temperature (thermal) cracking, one of the main types of pavement distress, contributes partly to this economic loss, and comes about as a result of accumulated tensile strains exceeding the threshold tensile strain capacity of the pavement. This pavement distress leads to a drastic reduction of the pavement's service life and performance. In this study, the severity of low temperature (thermal) cracking on road pavements selected across the Province of Ontario and its predicted time to failure was assessed using the AASTHO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and AASHTOWARE(TM) software, with inputs such as creep compliance and tensile strength from laboratory test. Highway 400, K1, K2, Y1, Sasobit, Rediset LQ, and Rediset WMX were predicted to have a pavement in-service life above 15 years. Additionally, the rheological performance of the recovered asphalt binders was assessed using Superpave(TM) tests such as the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR). Further tests using modified standard protocols such as the extended bending beam rheometer (eBBR) (LS-308) test method and double-edge notched tension (DENT) test (LS-299) were employed to evaluate the failure properties associated with in service performance. The various rheological tests showed K1 to be the least susceptible to low temperature cracking compared to the remaining samples whiles Highway 24 will be highly susceptible to low temperature cracking. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was performed on the recovered asphalt binders to determine the presence of metals such as zinc (Zn) and molybdenum (Mo) believed to originate from waste engine oil, which is often added to asphalt binders. Finally, the severity of oxidative aging (hardening) of the recovered asphalt binders was also evaluated using the

  3. Improving aggregate behavior in parking lots with appropriate local maneuvers

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Giese, Andrew; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    in mixed-flow scenarios. We utilize a roadmap-based approach which allows us to map complex environments and generate heuristic local paths that are feasible for both pedestrians and vehicles. Finally, we examine the effect that some agent

  4. Learning Team Review 2016-0002 Parking Lot Event 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, Dianne Williams [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bitteker, Leo John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brooks, Melynda Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero-Trujillo, Natalie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Currie, Scott Allister [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martin, Joanne Skrivan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sondheim, Walter E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Young, Jennifer S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crespin, Thomas Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    The purpose of a Learning Team is to transfer and communicate the information into operational feedback and improvement. We want to pay attention to the small things that go wrong because they are often early warning signals and may provide insight into the health of the whole system. The incident involved the collision of a van with a forklift having raised tines in rainy, overcast weather.

  5. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of : pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 : deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was : nearly twice the national average. These deaths : occurred in all age groups, but compared to : other ...

  6. Aging driver and pedestrian safety : parking lot hazards study [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Florida reported the highest rate of pedestrian fatalities in the nation. At 2.51 deaths per 100,000 residents, Floridas rate was nearly twice the national average. These deaths occurred in all age groups, but compared to other age groups...

  7. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  8. Hydrogenizing oils, asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-03-14

    The hydrogenation of carbonaceous solids in presence of combined sulfur, e.g., sulfides as described in the parent specification is applied to the treatment of rock oils, shale oils, resins, ozokerite, asphalt, and the like, or fractions, residues, or acid sludge or other conversion products thereof, alone or mixed. Preferably the hydrogen or other reducing gas is in excess and under pressure, and is either circuited or led through a series of treatment vessels, hydrogen being added for that used. In an example, residues from American crude oil are passed continuously with hydrogen at 200 atmospheres and 450 to 500/sup 0/C over pressed precipitated cobalt sulfide, the issuing gases being cooled to condense the light oil produced.

  9. A City Parking Integration System Combined with Cloud Computing Technologies and Smart Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Her-Tyan; Chen, Bing-Chang; Wang, Bo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    The current study applied cloud computing technology and smart mobile devices combined with a streaming server for parking lots to plan a city parking integration system. It is also equipped with a parking search system, parking navigation system, parking reservation service, and car retrieval service. With this system, users can quickly find…

  10. Smart Parking Management Pilot Project: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan; Rodier, Caroline; Eaken, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents early findings from an application of advanced parking technologies to maximize existing parking capacity at the Rockridge BART station, which was launched in December 2004 in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The smart parking system includes traffic sensors that count the number of vehicles entering and exiting the parking lots at the station. A reservation system allows travelers to reserve spaces by Internet, personal digital assistant (PDA), phone, and cell phone. The...

  11. Investigation of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Technologies and Increased Percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The implementation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more widespread with a growing number of contractors utilizing various WMA technologies. Early research suggests WMA may be more susceptible to moisture damage than traditional hot-mix asphalt ...

  12. IoT-Based Car's Parking Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiputra Albertus Ega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet-of-things-based technologies have advanced so much and helped public necessities. The use of IoT at a parking lot will help vehicle users to know the availability of a parking location through smartphones. This IoT-based parking system is created by using controllers, sensors, servers and cloud. Controllers and sensors will be placed on the ceiling of each parking slots to detect the presence of a car. Server collect the results of the sensors and store them in Cloud. System test is conducted by installing three sensor circuits and server in a parking lot. The tests consist of measuring time that required for data transmission and the rate of success of data transmission from the parking lot to the Cloud. Based on above tests, it is observed that the sensor circuit and Radio Frequency Identification are able to transmit the parking lot data without error. This system require maximum 1 min to update parking lot data. The process of obtaining data until the data being stored in Cloud takes 12 s and the process of acquiring parking condition data from Cloud to smartphone takes 30 s. The accuracy level of parking lot data transfer is 100 %.

  13. Arrangement for the measurement of the quantity of asphalt in an asphaltic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, I.; Taniguchi, K.

    1978-01-01

    The arrangement for the measurement of the quantity of asphalt in an asphaltic compound in an apparatus for the mixture of asphalt components and an aggregate for the formation of an asphaltic compound characterized by the inclusion of a member for the transmission of a neutron beam which reacts with the hydrogen atoms in the asphaltic compound in such a way that the energy of a neutron beam is adsorbed; a continuous transport device feeds a continuous supply of the asphalt compound past the neutron beam; a member responds to an automatic detector for the quantity of asphaltic components in the asphaltic compound and provides an adjustment so that the quantity [of asphaltic components in asphaltic compound] may be held at a constant value. (G.C.)

  14. A review of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  15. Controlling conductivity of asphalt concrete with graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has a huge potential for various multifunctional applications such as : self-healing, self-sensing, and deicing. In order to utilize the full spectrum of applications of electrically conductive : asphalt compo...

  16. Constructing better roads with asphalt rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.

  17. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  19. VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.

  20. The crack growth mechanism in asphaltic mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.M.J.; Hopman, P.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The crack growth mechanism in asphalt concrete (Ac) mixes is studied. In cyclic tests on several asphaltic mixes crack growth is measured, both with crack foils and with cOD-gauges. It is found that crack growth in asphaltic mixes is described by three processes which are parallel in time: cohesive

  1. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  2. Evaluation of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a project in which approximately 6,200 tons (5,630 Mg) of asphaltic concrete were recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant. During the construction of the project, a buildup of asphalt-coated fines occurred in the dry...

  3. Characterization of asphalt treated base course material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Asphalt-treated bases are often used in new pavements; the materials are available and low-cost, but there is little data on how these materials perform in cold regions. : This study investigated four ATB types (hot asphalt, emulsion, foamed asphalt,...

  4. Initiative assessment of asphalt works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikheim, Bente; Kjerschow, Einar

    2003-01-01

    Several asphalt works are utilizing heat from combustion of used oil for drying and heating of rock material in the production of asphalt. According to new regulations on combustion of waste, used oil is to be regarded as waste and subject to emission requirements according to the combustion regulations. Measurements show that emissions of CO, dust, dioxins, TOC and SO 2 exceed the limits set by the regulations. To conform to the regulations these asphalt works must improve their combustion technique. However, such measures may lead to increased formation of NOx. It is recommended that a combustion chamber for drying of rock material should be used in order to reduce the emissions of CO and TOC concentrations. The concentration of SO 2 may be reduced by dry cleaning by means of injection of lime. In the same way, active carbon is injected to remove dioxins. The asphalt works must be outfitted with measuring equipment that monitors and records certain operation and control parameters and some emission to air parameters. Periodic measurements are to be done of heavy metals and dioxins. It is estimated that the measures necessary to make the asphalt works comply with the regulations will cost about NOK 4 530 000 in investment per plant and that the operation expenses will increase by NOK 700 000 per year per plant. This includes maintenance, control etc

  5. Waterproofing improvement of radioactive waste asphalt solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikeoka, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the waterproofing of asphalt solid by adding an alkaline earth metal salt and, further, paraffin, into radioactive liquid waste when processing asphalt solidification of the radioactive liquid waste. Method: Before processing molten asphalt solidification of radioactive liquid waste, soluble salts of alkaline earth metal such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or the like is added to the radioactive liquid waste. Paraffin having a melting point of higher than 60 0 C, for example, is added to the asphalt, and waterproofing can be remarkably improved. The waste asphalt solid thus fabricated can prevent the swelling thereof, and can improve its waterproofing. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Thermal behavior of asphalt cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudy, P.M.; Letoffe, J.M.; Martin, D.; Planche, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt cements are highly complex mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules whose thermal behavior is of prime importance for petroleum and road industry. From DSC, the determination of several thermal properties of asphalts is given, e.g. glass-transition temperature and crystallized fraction content.The dissolution of a pure n-paraffin C n H 2n+2 in an asphalt, as seen by DSC, should be a single peak. For 20 g of these glasses change with time and temperature. The formation of the crystallized phases is superposed to the enthalpic relaxation of the glasses, making a kinetic study very difficult. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Analysis of the usage of rubberized asphalt in hot mix asphalt using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwidarma Nataadmadja, Adelia; Prahara, Eduardi; Sumbung, Pierre Christian

    2017-12-01

    There has been an increasing demand in using more environmentally friendly materials in pavement construction. One of the alternative materials that have been widely used is the Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) aggregates. The RAP aggregates are derived from the crushed and screened pavement materials that contain asphalt and aggregates. This material is usually combined with natural aggregates and virgin asphalt binder to construct a new pavement. There have been numerous positive feedbacks in using this material although RAP aggregates also have certain weaknesses, such as questionable interaction between virgin and recycled materials and increased stiffness of RAP binder. Moreover, there has been a push on using rubber as an additive to asphalt binder to improve the welfare of rubber farmers. This research combines the usage of both latex and RAP as the ingredients to design hot mix asphalt (HMA) as latex could help in improving the flexibility of HMA and the interaction between the virgin and recycled materials. The main objective of this research is to find a suitable percentage of RAP aggregates to be used in HMA with certain percentage of latex as the binder additive.

  8. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... fleet. Also, the location of the current maintenance shop impedes traffic flow and removes potential... new Sunrise Vehicle Maintenance Shop on the north side of the Sunrise parking lot. DATES: Comments... increasing parking capacity and improving traffic flow in at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. Parking capacity...

  9. Asphalt Mixture for the First Asphalt Concrete Directly Fastened Track in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has been initiated to develop the asphalt mixtures which are suitable for the surface of asphalt concrete directly fastened track (ADFT system and evaluate the performance of the asphalt mixture. Three aggregate gradations which are upper (finer, medium, and below (coarser. The nominal maximum aggregate size of asphalt mixture was 10 mm. Asphalt mixture design was conducted at 3 percent air voids using Marshall mix design method. To make impermeable asphalt mixture surface, the laboratory permeability test was conducted for asphalt mixtures of three different aggregate gradations using asphalt mixture permeability tester. Moisture susceptibility test was conducted based on AASHTO T 283. The stripping percentage of asphalt mixtures was measured using a digital camera and analyzed based on image analysis techniques. Based on the limited research results, the finer aggregate gradation is the most suitable for asphalt mixture for ADFT system with the high TSR value and the low stripping percentage and permeable coefficient. Flow number and beam fatigue tests for finer aggregate asphalt mixture were conducted to characterize the performance of asphalt mixtures containing two modified asphalt binders: STE-10 which is styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer and ARMA which is Crum rubber modified asphalt. The performance tests indicate that the STE-10 shows the higher rutting life and fatigue life.

  10. Effect of using of reclaimed asphalt and/or lower temperature asphalt on the availability of the road network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, C.; Wayman, M.; Mollenhauer, K.; McNally, C.; Tabakovic, A.; Varveri, A.; Cassidy, S.; Shahmohammadi, R.; Taylor, R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt, secondary component materials and/or additives and lower temperature asphalt are being increasingly used in order to improve the sustainability of asphalt production. The use of reclaimed asphalt reduces the need for virgin materials whilst lower temperature asphalts

  11. Results of the radiological survey at Route 17(S) and Becker Avenue, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Carrier, R.F.

    1989-11-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232 Th, derived from the MCW site. The surveys typically include direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this commercial property at Route 17(S) and Becker Avenue, Rochelle Park, New Jersey (RJ001), was conducted in 1986. Measurements taken at the commercial property located at Route 17(S) and Becker Avenue indicate slightly elevated gamma exposure rates in three areas of the parking lot. Although results of analysis of the asphalt disclosed radionuclide concentrations in excess of the applicable criterion, their presence is due to naturally radioactive substances in asphalt patching materials and is not associated with material from the MCW site. Therefore, it is recommended that this site be eliminated from consideration for inclusion in the DOE remedial action program. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycled : concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt binder to produce a : partially stabilized base material. The objectives of this study...

  13. Implementation of ergonomics in the management of parking increasing the quality of living parking park in mall Robinson Denpasar city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutapa, I. K.; Sudiarsa, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    The problems that often arise in the area of Denpasar City mostly caused by parking problems at the centers of activities such as shopping centers. The problems that occur not only because of the large number of vehicles that parked but also the result of the condition of parking officers who have not received attention, there is no concern about the physical condition of parking attendants because doing night guard duty. To improve the quality of parking officer, ergonomic parking lot is improved through the application of appropriate technology with systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory approach. The general objective of the research is to know the implementation of ergonomics in parking management on the improvement of the quality of parking officer in Robinson shopping center. The indicator of the quality of the parking officer work is the decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue, workload, boredom and increasing work motivation. The study was conducted using the same subject design, involving 10 subjects as a simple random sample. Intervention is done by arrangement of ergonomic basement motorcycle parking. Measurements done before and after repair. Washing out (WO) for 14 days. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively, tested normality (shapirowilk) and homogeneity (Levene Test). For normal and homogeneous distribution data, different test with One Way Anova, different test between Period with Post Hoc. Normally distributed and non-homogeneous data, different test with Friedman Test, different test between periods using Wilcoxon test. Data were analyzed with significance level of 5%. The results showed that the implementation of ergonomic in the management of parking area of the court decreased musculoskeletal complaints by 15.10% (p management of the parking lot improves the quality of the parking officer work from: (1) decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, (2) decrease of melting rate, (3) decrease of parking workload

  14. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a name given to a group of technologies that have the common purpose of reducing the viscosity : of the asphalt binders. This reduction in viscosity offers the advantage of producing asphalt-aggregate mixtures at lower mixin...

  15. Process of preparing asphalt bodies, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klever, H W

    1924-05-03

    A process for the preparation of asphaltic bodies is characterized in that bituminous minerals such as oil-shale, coal, etc. are submitted to a heating process, with or without pressure, which is so mild that asphaltic bodies result and petroleum and tar oils are formed only in small amounts, and that the asphaltic bodies are used either together with the mineral constituents or after filtration from the latter.

  16. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich; Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III) and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physica...

  17. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  18. Experimental investigation of basic oxygen furnace slag used as aggregate in asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongjie; Wu, Shaopeng; Hou, Haobo; Zha, Jin

    2006-11-16

    Chinese researchers have commenced a great deal of researches on the development of application fields of basic oxygen steel making furnace slag (BOF slag) for many years. Lots of new applications and properties have been found, but few of them in asphalt mixture of road construction engineering. This paper discussed the feasibility of BOF steel slag used as aggregate in asphalt pavement by two points of view including BOF steel slag's physical and micro-properties as well as steel slag asphalt materials and pavement performances. For the former part, this paper mainly concerned the mechanochemistry and physical changes of the steel slag and studied it by performing XRD, SEM, TG and mercury porosimeter analysis and testing method. In the second part, this paper intended to use BOF steel slag as raw material, and design steel slag SMA mixture. By using traditional rutting test, soak wheel track and modified Lottman test, the high temperature stability and water resistance ability were tested. Single axes compression test and indirect tensile test were performed to evaluate the low temperature crack resistance performance and fatigue characteristic. Simultaneously, by observing steel slag SMA pavement which was paved successfully. A follow-up study to evaluate the performance of the experimental pavement confirmed that the experimental pavement was comparable with conventional asphalt pavement, even superior to the later in some aspects. All of above test results and analysis had only one main purpose that this paper validated the opinion that using BOF slag in asphalt concrete is feasible. So this paper suggested that treated and tested steel slag should be used in a more extensive range, especially in asphalt mixture paving projects in such an abundant steel slag resource region.

  19. Modified asphalt for pavements; Hosoyo kaishitsu asufuaruto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, T. [Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Modified asphalt has been used widely in such applications as countermeasure against rutting, countermeasure against wear caused by tire chains in snowy and cold areas, or bridge deck pavement. Features of various kinds of modified asphalt, standards, and standard properties are introduced. Modified asphalt containing natural asphalt is used for steel plate deck pavement. Semi-blown asphalt is used when emphasis must be given to the countermeasure for flowing resistance of asphalt pavement. Features and standards of asphalt containing rubber, thermoplastic elastomer, and thermoplastic resin are described. Asphalt containing heat-setting resin shows excellent characteristics, which other types of modified asphalt do not possess, in the laboratory resistance test for fatigue, flowing, and wear. Change in the history of modified asphalt in Japan from the initial stage to the present are explained and shown in a table together with time and phenomena, and the change in the production of modified asphalt is shown. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Process of coagulating asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, J A; Pfersch, G

    1931-03-28

    The present invention has for its object a process of deasphaltizing and deparaffining applicable to mixtures of hydrocarbons such as crude mineral oils and tars obtained under the influence of heat from shales, lignites, peats, and similar products, to natural bitumens and those obtained by extraction with organic solvents and also all those derived from the substances, the process in question having the following characteristics: the coagulation or the precipitation of the asphaltic material, the resinous material, and the asphaltic and resinous material, which is found in the colloidal state or any other state in the substances given above, is obtained by the addition of a small amount of solvent and of acids or mixtures of acids.

  1. Aging of Rejuvenated Asphalt Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadafzali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important concern that limits the RAP content in asphalt mixtures is the fact that the aged binder that is present in the RAP can cause premature cracking. Rejuvenators are frequently added to high RAP mixtures to enhance the properties of the binder. There is no existing method to predict the longevity of a rejuvenated asphalt. This study investigated the aging of rejuvenated binders and compared their durability with that of virgin asphalt. Various samples with different types and proportions of RAP, virgin binder, and rejuvenator were aged by RTFO and three cycles of PAV. DSR and BBR tests were conducted to examine the high-temperature and low-temperature rheological properties of binders. Results indicated that the type and dosage of the rejuvenator have a great influence on the aging rate and durability of the binder. Some rejuvenators make the binder age slower, while others accelerate aging. These observations confirm the importance of evaluating the long-term aging of recycled binders. For this purpose, critical PAV time was proposed as a measure of binder’s longevity.

  2. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  3. Using Cellular Automata for Parking Recommendations in Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Gwo-Jiun

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space. PMID:25153671

  4. Regional implementation of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Asphalt is used in over 94 percent of all paved roadways in the United States. The ability to reduce its cost and emissions : while improving its performance has benefits that could potentially change the direction the asphalt industry moves toward i...

  5. Laboratory evaluation of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    "Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) has been traditionally produced at a discharge temperature of between : 280F (138C) and 320 F (160C), resulting in high energy (fuel) costs and generation of greenhouse : gases. The goal for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is to...

  6. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling : Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a

  7. Mix Proportion Design of Asphalt Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianhu; Gao, Lingling; Du, Shoujun

    2017-12-01

    Based on the gradation of AC and SMA, this paper designs a new type of anti slide mixture with two types of advantages. Chapter introduces the material selection, ratio of ore mixture ratio design calculation, and determine the optimal asphalt content test and proportioning design of asphalt concrete mix. This paper introduces the new technology of mix proportion.

  8. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs. By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constructed. A mathematical program was formulated to determine the guiding parking reliability of VMS. The procedures were applied to a numerical example, and the factors that affect guiding reliability were analyzed. The quantitative changes of the parking berths and the display conditions of VMS were found to be the most important factors influencing guiding reliability. The parking guiding VMS achieved the best benefit when the parking supply was close to or was less than the demand. The combination of a guiding parking reliability model and parking choice behavior offers potential for PGIS operators to reduce traffic congestion in central city areas.

  9. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  10. Advanced evaluation of asphalt mortar for induction healing purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, Athanasios; Kasbergen, C.; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    Induction heating technique is an innovative asphalt pavement maintenance method that is applied to inductive asphalt concrete mixes in order to prevent the formation of macro-cracks by increasing locally the temperature of asphalt. The development of asphalt mixes with improved electrical and

  11. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  12. Rubber modification of asphalt binders and mixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The physical properties of asphalt binders and concrete, modified with waste rubber tire, were examined. In an experiment designed to address the concern of waste disposal of scrap rubber, a control asphalt, devulcanized rubber modified asphalt and a crumb rubber modified asphalt were used to make asphalt concrete mixes. The three mixes were subjected to a thermal stress test to determine their low temperature fracture temperatures and strengths. Results were discussed in terms of the binder material used. At high service temperatures, the addition of 10% devulcanized rubber was found to have no beneficial effect, whereas the addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber produced a modest improvement in performance. At low temperatures, the addition of devulcanized rubber produced increased resistance to cracking up to 90%. The addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber increased fracture toughness by a factor of 3.3 times. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Park It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  14. Parks & benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...

  15. 7 CFR 46.20 - Lot numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and entered on all sales tickets identifying and segregating the sales from the various shipments on hand. The lot number shall be entered on the sales tickets by the salesmen at the time of sale or by the produce dispatcher, and not by bookkeepers or others after the sales have been made. No lot number...

  16. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  17. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  18. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  19. Electrical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Yang, Jun; Liao, Hui; Chen, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has the potential to satisfy multifunctional applications. Designing such asphalt concrete needs to balance the electrical and mechanical performance of asphalt concrete. The objective of this study is to design electrically conductive asphalt concrete

  20. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  1. 7 CFR 989.104 - Lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... inspection after reconditioning (such as sorting or drying) and whose original lot identity is no longer...

  2. Reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2017-02-01

    As it is standardly conceived, Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) is a form of ampliative inference in which one infers a hypothesis because it provides a better potential explanation of one's evidence than any other available, competing explanatory hypothesis. Bas van Fraassen famously objected to IBE thus formulated that we may have no reason to think that any of the available, competing explanatory hypotheses are true. While revisionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection concede that IBE needs to be reformulated in light of this problem, reactionary responses argue that the Bad Lot Objection is fallacious, incoherent, or misguided. This paper shows that the most influential reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection do nothing to undermine the original objection. This strongly suggests that proponents of IBE should focus their efforts on revisionary responses, i.e. on finding a more sophisticated characterization of IBE for which the Bad Lot Objection loses its bite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOAMING BEHAVIOR AND SURFACE ENERGY OF ASPHALT BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of insufficiency in microscopic performance of foamed asphalt binder, surface energy theory was utilized to analyze the foaming behavior and wettability of asphalt binder. Based on the surface energy theory, the Wilhelmy plate method and universal sorption device method were employed to measure the surface energy components of asphalt binders and aggregates, respectively. Combined with the traditional evaluation indictor for foamed asphalt, the relationship between the foaming property and surface energy of asphalt binder was analyzed. According to the surface energy components, the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregate was calculated to verify the performance of foamed asphalt mixture. Results indicate that the foaming behavior of asphalt will be influenced by surface energy, which will increase with the decline of surface energy. In addition, the surface energy of asphalt binder significantly influences the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregates. Meanwhile, there is an inversely proportional relationship between surface energy of asphalt binder and wettability. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that surface energy is a good indictor which can be used to evaluate the foaming behavior of the asphalt binder. And it is suggested to choose the asphalt binder with lower surface energy in the process of design of foamed asphalt mixture.

  4. Method of reprocessing radioactive asphalt solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain heat-stable solidification products and decrease the total volume thereof by modifying the solidified form by the reprocessing of existent radioactive asphalt solidification products. Method: Radioactive asphalt solidification products are heated into a fluidized state. Then, incombustible solvents such as perchloroethylene or trichloroethylene are added to a dissolving tank to gradually dissolve the radioactive asphalt solidification products. Thus, organic materials such as asphalts are transferred into the solvent layer, while inorganic materials containing radioactive materials remain as they are in the separation tank. Then, the inorganic materials containing the radioactive materials are taken out and then solidified, for example, by converting them into a rock or glass form. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Evaluation of asphalt treated permeable base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    III : Tec : hnical : Report Documentation Page : 1. Report No. : 2. Government Accession : No. : 3. Recipient's Catalog No : . : 201 : 3 : - : 09 : - : - : - : - : - : - : 4. Title and Subtitle : 5. Report Date : Evaluation of Asphalt Treated Permeab...

  6. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  7. Low temperature rheological properties of asphalt mixtures containing different recycled asphalt materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hoon Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS are valuable materials commonly reused in asphalt mixtures due to their economic and environmental benefits. However, the aged binder contained in these materials may negatively affect the low temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper, the effect of RAP and RAS on low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigated through Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR tests and rheological modeling. First, a set of fourteen asphalt mixtures containing RAP and RAS is prepared and creep stiffness and m-value are experimentally measured. Then, thermal stress is calculated and graphically and statistically compared. The Huet model and the Shift-Homothety-Shift in time-Shift (SHStS transformation, developed at the École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État (ENTPE, are used to back calculate the asphalt binder creep stiffness from mixture experimental data. Finally, the model predictions are compared to the creep stiffness of the asphalt binders extracted from each mixture, and the results are analyzed and discussed. It is found that an addition of RAP and RAS beyond 15% and 3%, respectively, significantly change the low temperature properties of asphalt mixture. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest that blending between new and old binder occurs only partially. Based on the recent finding on diffusion studies, this effect may be associated to mixing and blending processes, to the effective contact between virgin and recycled materials and to the variation of the total virgin-recycled thickness of the binder film which may significantly influence the diffusion process. Keywords: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS, Thermal stress, Statistical comparison, Back-calculation, Binder blending

  8. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  9. Fatigue Behavior of Modified Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saad I. Sarsam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is the most common distress in road pavement. It is mainly due to the increase in the number of load repetition of vehicles, particularly those with high axle loads, and to the environmental conditions. In this study, four-point bending beam fatigue testing has been used for control and modified mixture under various micro strain levels of (250 μƐ, 400 μƐ, and 750 μƐ and 5HZ. The main objective of the study is to provide a comparative evaluation of pavement resistance to the phenomenon of fatigue cracking between modified asphalt concrete and conventional asphalt concrete mixes (under the influence of three percentage of Silica fumes 1%, 2%, 3% by the weight of asphalt content, and (changing in the percentage of asphalt content by (0.5% ± from the optimum. The results show that when Silica fumes content was 1%, the fatigue life increases by 17%, and it increases by 46% when Silica fumes content increases to 2%, and that fatigue life increases to 34 % when Silica fumes content increases to 3% as compared with control mixture at (250 μƐ, 20°C and optimum asphalt content. From the results above, we can conclude the optimum Silica fumes content was 2%. When the asphalt content was 4.4%, the fatigue life has increased with the use of silica fumes by (50%, when asphalt content was 5.4%, the additives had led to increasing the fatigue life by (69%, as compared with the conventional asphalt concrete pavement.

  10. Observation of asphalt binder microstructure with ESEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, P; Kadhim, H; Baaj, H; Tighe, S

    2017-09-01

    The observation of asphalt binder with the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has shown the potential to observe asphalt binder microstructure and its evolution with binder aging. A procedure for the induction and identification of the microstructure in asphalt binder was established in this study and included sample preparation and observation parameters. A suitable heat-sampling asphalt binder sample preparation method was determined for the test and several stainless steel and Teflon sample moulds developed, finding that stainless steel was the preferable material. The magnification and ESEM settings conducive to observing the 3D microstructure were determined through a number of observations to be 1000×, although other magnifications could be considered. Both straight run binder (PG 58-28) and an air blown oxidised binder were analysed; their structures being compared for their relative size, abundance and other characteristics, showing a clear evolution in the fibril microstructure. The microstructure took longer to appear for the oxidised binder. It was confirmed that the fibril microstructure corresponded to actual characteristics in the asphalt binder. Additionally, a 'bee' micelle structure was found as a transitional structure in ESEM observation. The test methods in this study will be used for more comprehensive analysis of asphalt binder microstructure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  12. Use of Adhesion Promoters in Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihlářová Denisa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of asphalt binder as a significant binder in road constructions is to permanently bind aggregates of different compositions and grain sizes. The asphalt binder itself does not have suitable adhesiveness, so after a period of time, bare grains can appear. This results in a gradual separation of the grains from an asphalt layer and the presence of potholes in a pavement. Adhesion promoters or adhesive agents are important and proven promoters in practice. They are substances mainly based on the fatty acids of polyamides which should increase the reliability of the asphalt’s binder adhesion to the aggregates, thus increasing the lifetime period of the asphalt mixture as well as its resistance to mechanical strain. The amount of a promoter or agent added to the asphalt mixture is negligible and constitutes about 0.3% of the asphalt’s binder weight. Nevertheless, even this quantity significantly increases the adhesive qualities of an asphalt binder. The article was created in cooperatation with the Slovak University of Technology, in Bratislava, Slovakia, and focuses on proving the new AD2 adhesive additive and comparing it with the Addibit and Wetfix BE promoters used on aggregates from the Skuteč - Litická and Bystřec quarries.

  13. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  14. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  15. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  16. Durability of European Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt and Warm-Mix Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Avgerinopoulos, S.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the moisture susceptibility of European asphalt mixtures (SMA) containing reclaimed asphalt (RA) and warm mix (WMA) additives. Test sections of a typical SMA mixture have been laid, from which cylindrical samples were cored and utilized for laboratory testing. Four variants

  17. Maryon Park

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, Giasco

    2018-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Maryon Park is the place Michelangelo Antonioni chose, in 1966, to shoot the scenes that would become cult images from his film "Blow Up", and deservedly so. The park is located in Charlton, southeast of London, a place that's hardly changed since Antonioni shot there. I first went there to shoot a series of photos on March 7 and 8, 2007. I returned again on March 7, 2014. I called the series “Maryon Park”. I used a medium format, six by seven inch col...

  18. How do New York City’s Recent Rezonings Align With its Goals for Park Accessibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Been

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, New York City adopted a long-term sustainability plan that announced a goal of ensuring that almost every New Yorker lives within a ten minute walk of a park of substantial size. At the same time, policymakers are rewriting the City’s land use map through an unprecedented series of neighborhood level rezonings that involve changing the use type and residential capacity of affected lots or groups of lots. Despite the confluence of these interventions, no research has analyzed how the rezonings interact with the City’s park infrastructure, and specifically, whether residential capacity changes in areas close to parks differ from those in areas further away. In this research, we employ a database of every tax lot in New York City to investigate how well the City-initiated rezonings correlate with the goal of providing New Yorkers with good access to the City’s parks. Our results indicate a mixed picture; while most ‘upzoned’ lots (lots where residential capacity was added were near parks, we also find that the majority of ‘downzoned’ lots (lots where residential capacity was reduced were also close to parks. The net impact of these rezonings was a modest increase in residential capacity for the City as a whole, but the increases were disproportionately focused in areas further from parks.

  19. Experimental studies of biodegradation of asphalt by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Tatsuya; Mihara, Morihiro; Ooi, Takao; Lin, Kong-hua; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2000-04-01

    On the geological disposal system of the radioactive wastes, the activities of the microorganisms that could degrade the asphalt might be significant for the assessment of the system performance. As the main effects of the biodegradation of the asphalt, the fluctuation of leaching behavior of the nuclides included in asphalt waste has been indicated. In this study, the asphalt biodegradation test was carried out. The microorganism of which asphalt degradation ability was comparatively higher under aerobic condition and anaerobic condition was used. The asphalt biodegradation rate was calculated and it was evaluated whether the asphalt biodegradation in this system could occur. The results show that the asphalt biodegradation rate under anaerobic and high alkali condition will be 300 times lower than under aerobic and neutral pH. (author)

  20. Preparation and rheological behavior of polymer-modified asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Ali Akbar

    1999-09-01

    Different materials and methods were used to prepare and stabilize polymer-modified asphalts. Addition of thermoplastic elastomers improved some technically important properties of asphalt. Due to inherent factors like large density difference between asphalt and polyethylene, many physical methods in which the structure of asphalt is unchanged, failed to stabilize this system. The effect of addition of copolymers and a pyrolytic oil residue derived from used tire rubber were also studied and found to be ineffective on the storage stability of the polymer-asphalt emulsions while high and moderate temperature properties of the asphalt were found to be improved. Finally, the technique of catalytic grafting of polymer on the surface of high-density particles (e.g. carbon black) was used to balance the large density difference between asphalt and polymer. The resulting polymer-asphalts were stable at high temperatures and showed enhanced properties at low and high temperatures.

  1. Investigating the creep properties of asphaltic concrete containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... A three-stage model, developed was fitted to the dynamic ... This indicates that the rutting resistance of such asphalt ... drug delivery [23]. .... Different mathematical ... viour of asphaltic materials and prediction of flow number. A.

  2. Determination of usable residual asphalt binder in RAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For current recycled mix designs, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) assumes 100% contribution of : working binder from Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) materials when added to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). However, it is : unclear if this assu...

  3. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  4. Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... An environmental radiation survey in asphalt processing plants in Rivers State was been carried out ... Therefore the results show significant radiological risk.

  5. Appropriate models for estimating stresses and strains in asphalt layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective is to make recommendations for appropriate modelling procedures to be used in the structural design of asphalt layers. Findings of this investigation are intended to be used in refining and validating existing asphalt pavement...

  6. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  7. Performance assessment of warm mix asphalt (WMA) pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is a new technology that was introduced in Europe in 1995. WMA offers several advantages over : conventional asphalt concrete mixtures, including: reduced energy consumption, reduced emissions, improved or more uniform : binder...

  8. Investigation of warm-mix asphalt using Iowa aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The implementation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more widespread with a growing number of contractors utilizing various WMA technologies. Early research suggests WMA may be more susceptible to moisture damage than traditional hot-mix asphalt ...

  9. Utilizing Lab Tests to Predict Asphalt Concrete Overlay Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    A series of five experimental projects and three demonstration projects were constructed to better understand the performance of pavement overlays using various levels of asphalt binder replacement (ABR) from reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycle...

  10. Disaster forming reasons on fire explosion at an asphalt solidification processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kazutoshi; Li Yongfu; Sun Jinhua

    2002-01-01

    Disaster forming reasons on fire explosion accident at an asphalt solidification processing facility of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation formed on 1997 was elucidated. Mixture of salts composing of nitrates, nitrites, and so on with asphalt was filled into a drum at about 180 centigrade, and generated disaster during its natural cooling after about 20 hours. Its reason consisted in change of production condition to make liquid wastes of batches 29 and 30 producing the mixture to contain about 7.7 g/L of salts and liquid wastes supplying rate to reduce to about 160 mL/h. The liquid wastes were mixed with asphalt heated to temperature of about 250 centigrade, when it contained a lot of NaHCO 3 into the salts particles on filling the mixture because moisture was evaporated more rapidly under pressure of phosphates based on the change of production condition. NaHCO 3 directly decomposed to make the salts particles porous and to form a weak redox reaction based on boundary reaction appearing at temperature range from 160 to 200 centigrades. By this reaction, the mixture filled into drum generated thermal accumulation to fire the mixture. (G.K.)

  11. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  12. Field Control and Performance of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Greater than 25 Percent Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement : Draft Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) and other highway agencies are interested in utilization of higher percentages of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in asphalt mixtures. There are a number of research studies at both state and national...

  13. State of the art: Asphalt for airport pavement surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport runways and taxiways are commonly comprised of a flexible pavement with an asphalt surface. Marshall-designed asphalt with sawn grooves is the most frequent airport asphalt surface material. However, some airports have adopted alternate asphalt mixtures for improved resistance to shear stress and for increased surface texture, allowing grooving to be avoided. Of the alternate asphalt mixtures, stone mastic asphalt is the most commonly reported. Resistance to shear stress is a critical performance requirement for airport surface asphalt. Shear stress resistance minimises the risk of rutting, shoving and groove closure. However, fracture resistance must not be ignored when developing even more shear resistance asphalt mixtures. Significant distress in airport asphalt surfaces, compliant with the traditional prescriptive specification, has increased interest in a performance-based airport asphalt specification. Commonly reported distresses include groove closure in slow moving aircraft areas and shearing in heavy aircraft braking zones. Development of reliable performance-indicative test methods is expected in the future and will enable warranted performance-based asphalt mixture design for airport surfaces. Keywords: Airport, Pavement, Asphalt, Surface

  14. Intelligent Parking Assistant - A Showcase of the MOBiNET Platform Functionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Møller; Toledo, Raphael; Agerholm, Niels

    availability, location and pricing schemes. The intelligence of the IPA system consists of automatically fetching parking lot information from the relevant service, automatically registering when the vehicle is stopped, evaluating whether the vehicle is stopped inside a payed parking lot, and automatically......The Intelligent Parking Assistant (IPA) system is developed based on work done in the Danish ITS Platform project. The IPA system includes an Android app that helps the user chose, find and pay for parkings. The app uses information about parking lots fetched from a web service, including live...... initiating the payment for the parking. The IPA app and the back end services, are published via the MOBiNET platform which is a European-wide platform supporting ITS services, and offering functionalities enabling easy migration of services. The migration is enabled by defining a common methodology...

  15. The economic lot size and relevant costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbeij, M.H.; Jansen, R.A.; Grübström, R.W.; Hinterhuber, H.H.; Lundquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    In many accounting textbooks it is strongly argued that decisions should always be evaluated on relevant costs; that is variable costs and opportunity costs. Surprisingly, when it comes to Economic Order Quantities or Lot Sizes, some textbooks appear to be less straightforward. The question whether

  16. 7 CFR 993.104 - Lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... means any quantity of prunes delivered by one producer or one dehydrator to a handler on which... purposes of §§ 993.50 and 993.150 means: (1) With respect to in-line inspection either (i) the aggregate... identification (e.g., brand) if in consumer packages, and offered for inspection as a lot; or (ii) prunes...

  17. Assessment of The Asphalt Produced in Some Factories of Asphalt in Al-Hilla City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Karem Abd

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an evaluation of  the properties and characteristics of asphalt concrete of several hot mix asphalt (HMA from five factories in Al-Hilla city. The research is divided into two parts. The first part included the laboratory analysis of samples. The second part is evaluation of results according to standard specifications.      The test results included (Asphalt content percent, stability, creep compliance, voids ratio, density, flow, crushed aggregate percent, Loss Angless abrasion and SO3 percent.The results of laboratorial tests indicated that all properties of asphalt mixes were susceptible and possible to be used in the asphaltic roads. The mixes types prepared and tested according to Marshall method. The values of Marshall stability, creep and density are (9.4, 5.4, 9.8, 9, 8.6, (2.5, 2.7, 2.7, 2.6, 2.3 and (2.334, 2.336, 2.337, 2.333, 2.338 with asphalt content between (4.2 to 4.6 % for all asphalt mixes of different factories.

  18. Design And Implementation Of Smart Parking System Using Peripheral Interface Controllers And Infrared Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    May Thaw Htet; Chaw Myat New; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in world population and vehicle production parking spaces and facilities are required. As the numbers of vehicles on the road are increasing day by day parking problems which are increasing at an alarming rate in every major city cause drivers frustration traffic congestion and time wasting especially during the peak business hours. Lot of researches was being done all over the world to implement better parking management system which reduces parking problems. SPARK Smart Pa...

  19. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  20. Influence of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on properties of different asphalts for a wearing course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komačka, J.; Remišová, E.; Liu, G.; Leegwater, G.; Nielsen, E.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was performed to study the effect of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on the properties describing asphalt performance. Three types of asphalts used for wearing courses in Europe (SMA 11, AC 11 and PA 8) were investigated. Five combinations of reclaimed

  1. IoT-Based Car's Parking Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiputra Albertus Ega; Khoswanto Handry; Sutjiadi Raymond; Lim Resmana

    2018-01-01

    Internet-of-things-based technologies have advanced so much and helped public necessities. The use of IoT at a parking lot will help vehicle users to know the availability of a parking location through smartphones. This IoT-based parking system is created by using controllers, sensors, servers and cloud. Controllers and sensors will be placed on the ceiling of each parking slots to detect the presence of a car. Server collect the results of the sensors and store them in Cloud. System test is ...

  2. Natural asphalt modified binders used for high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Marcin; Słowik, Mieczysław

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a set of test results supporting the possibility of replacing, in Polish climate conditions, hard road 20/30 penetration grade bitumen used in the binder course and/or base course made of high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete with binders comprising of 35/50 or 50/70 penetration grade bitumens and additives in the form of natural Gilsonite or Trinidad Epuré asphalts. For the purpose of comparing the properties of the discussed asphalt binders, values of the Performance Grade have been determined according to the American Superpave system criteria.

  3. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  4. Evaluation of rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Ontario Government's medium-term scrap tire management strategy, 11 rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects were funded or completed, with 13 additional projects from small to large (1,500-65,000 passenger tire equivalents) approved for the 1993 paving season. This report presents the results of an August to November 1993 study of the 11 demonstration projects. The evaluation included a description of the technology; technical review of the projects; economic analysis; review of the environmental literature; environmental review of the projects; comparison of the projects with similar ones in other jurisdictions; and recommendations. Detailed information on asphalt technology is included in an appendix.

  5. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a high RA content are produced in a batch plant to which a parallel drum is attached. In this drum RA is pre-heated to approximately 130°C. Since 2007 another hot mix recycling techniques became availa...

  6. Practical experiences with new types of highly modified asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špaček, Petr; Hegr, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    As a result of steadily increasing traffic load on the roads in the Czech Republic, we should be focused on the innovative technical solutions, which will lead to extending the life time of asphalt pavements. One of these ways could be the future use of bitumen with a higher degree of polymer modification. This paper discusses experience with comparison of new highly polymer modified asphalt binder type with conventional polymer modified asphalt binder and unmodified binder with penetration grade 50/70. There are compared the results of various types laboratory tests of asphalt binders, as well as the results of asphalt mixtures laboratory tests. The paper also mentions the experience with workability and compactability of asphalt mixture with highly polymer modified asphalt binder during the realization of the experimental reference road section by the Skanska company in the Czech Republic.

  7. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rodríguez-Alloza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability.

  8. Investigation of the use of recycled polymer-modified asphalt in asphaltic concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-30

    This report presents issues associated with recycling polymer modified asphalt cements (PMACs), particularly blending aged PMAC with new PMAC. A styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) PMAC was selected and graded using the Superpave Performance Grading (PG)...

  9. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Alloza, A.M.; Gallego, J.

    2017-01-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR) mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability. [es

  10. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA and hot mix asphalt (HMA mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of the RCA particular sizes, the use of RCA to replace virgin aggregates increased the needed binder content in the asphalt mixtures. Moreover, it was found that even though the volumetric and mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures are highly affected by the sizes and percentages of the RCA but, based on the demands of the project and traffic volume, utilizing specific amounts of RCA in both types of mixtures could easily satisfy the standard requirements.

  11. Rheological characterization of asphalt binders used in strain relief asphalt mixtures (SRAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Kamilla L.; Bariani Bernucci, Liedi Legi; Midori Takahashi, Marcia; Castelo-Branco, Verônica T. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of ´interlayers´ that tolerate high tensile and shear strain that exists above cracks in deteriorated pavements is becoming an interesting solution to prevent reflective cracking. Recent advances in polymer technology have led to binders that can be used to produce interlayer mixtures with good mechanical properties. In this study, two polymer-modified asphalt binders were evaluated, both from the production of strain relief asphalt mixtures used as interlayers in the field. ...

  12. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  13. Understanding asphalt compaction: An action research strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Doree, Andries G.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi

    2007-01-01

    In Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) construction, rollers provide the compaction energy required to produce a specified density. However, little is known about the heuristics used by the roller operators. This study forms part of a larger action research project focussing on the improvement of the HMA paving

  14. Interfacial debonding of ice-asphalt concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazawa, E.; Mizoue, Y. (Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)); Kojima, T. (Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-09-20

    Series of experimental investigations were carried out to clarify the bonding mechanism between ice and asphalt and to develop a new technique to reduce bonding resistance. The surface bonding resistance was measured by three methods and the main variables taken into consideration have been surface energy, surface roughness and stiffness of asphalt. Surface energy was varied by using various water repellents and the stiffness of the concrete was varied by mixing rubber particles. Correlations of the three variables were studied and the following results have been obtained. Decreasing of surface energy and increasing of deformability of asphalt concrete has been the effective method to decrease the bonding between ice and asphalt. For the case of water repellent coated surface, shear debonding strength has been linearly related to the energy required for debonding by dynamic tension and the shear debonding strength has decreased with the decrease in roughness of pavement. In the case of surface without using repellent, shear debonding strength has not been influenced by surface energy and roughness of pavement. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Extending the Lifespan of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Porous Asphalt (PA) concrete is widely used as a surfacing layer on highways in the Netherlands. The service life of PA wearing courses is limited because of the fact that it is vulnerable to raveling. The possibilities of applying preventive maintenance to PA wearing courses by means of spraying

  16. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  17. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  18. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  19. Study of Antiultraviolet Asphalt Modifiers and Their Antiageing Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxuan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation causes serious ageing problems on pavement surface. In recent years, different UV blocking materials have been used as modifiers to prevent asphalt ageing during the service life of the pavement. In this study, three different materials have been used as modifiers in base asphalt to test their UV blocking effects: layered double hydroxides (LDHs, organomontmorillonite (OMMT, and carbon black (CB. UV ageing was applied to simulate the ageing process and softening point, penetration, ductility, DSR (Dynamic Shear Rheometer test, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR test were conducted to evaluate the anti-UV ageing effects of the three UV blocking modifiers. Physical property tests show that base asphalt was influenced more seriously by UV radiation compared to the modified asphalt. DSR test results indicate that the complex modulus of asphalt before UV ageing is increased because of modifiers, while the complex modulus of base asphalt after UV ageing is higher than that of the modified asphalt, which shows that the UV blocking modifiers promote the antiageing effects of asphalt. FTIR test reveals that the increment of carbonyl groups and sulfoxide groups of modified asphalt is less than that in base asphalt. Tests indicate the best UV blocking effect results for samples with LDHs and the worst UV blocking effect results for samples with CB.

  20. A Novel Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Parking Space Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary approach of parking space guidance based upon a novel Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm is proposed. In the newly proposed CPSO algorithm, the chaotic dynamics is combined into the position updating rules of Particle Swarm Optimization to improve the diversity of solutions and to avoid being trapped in the local optima. This novel approach, that combines the strengths of Particle Swarm Optimization and chaotic dynamics, is then applied into the route optimization (RO problem of parking lots, which is an important issue in the management systems of large-scale parking lots. It is used to find out the optimized paths between any source and destination nodes in the route network. Route optimization problems based on real parking lots are introduced for analyzing and the effectiveness and practicability of this novel optimization algorithm for parking space guidance have been verified through the application results.

  1. Fundamental evaluation of the interaction between RAS/RAP and virgin asphalt binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted in this research project to examine the blending between reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)/recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) and virgin asphalt binders and to evaluate the factors that may affect ...

  2. Exploring lot-to-lot variation in spoilage bacterial communities on commercial modified atmosphere packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Penttinen, Katri; Björkroth, Johanna; Hultman, Jenni

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the factors influencing meat bacterial communities is important as these communities are largely responsible for meat spoilage. The composition and structure of a bacterial community on a high-O 2 modified-atmosphere packaged beef product were examined after packaging, on the use-by date and two days after, to determine whether the communities at each stage were similar to those in samples taken from different production lots. Furthermore, we examined whether the taxa associated with product spoilage were distributed across production lots. Results from 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing showed that while the early samples harbored distinct bacterial communities, after 8-12 days storage at 6 °C the communities were similar to those in samples from different lots, comprising mainly of common meat spoilage bacteria Carnobacterium spp., Brochothrix spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus spp. Interestingly, abundant operational taxonomic units associated with product spoilage were shared between the production lots, suggesting that the bacteria enable to spoil the product were constant contaminants in the production chain. A characteristic succession pattern and the distribution of common spoilage bacteria between lots suggest that both the packaging type and the initial community structure influenced the development of the spoilage bacterial community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  4. Rheo-mechanical model for self-healing asphalt pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gömze, A L; Gömze, L N

    2017-01-01

    Examining the rheological properties of different asphalt mixtures at different temperatures, pressures and deformation conditions on the combined rheo-tribometers the authors have found that the generally used Burgers-model doesn’t explain the deformation properties of asphalt mixtures and pavements under loading forces and loading pressures. To understand better the rheological and deformation properties of such complex materials like asphalt mixtures and pavements the authors used Malvern Mastersizer X laser granulometer, Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer, Hitachi TM 1000 Scanning Elektronmicroscope, Tristar 3000 specific surface tester and the combined rheo-tribometer developed and patented by the authors. After the complex investigation of different asphalt mixtures the authors have found a new, more complex rheological model for the asphalts including self-healing asphalt pavements. (paper)

  5. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  6. Brive-la-Gaillarde (Corrèze). Îlot Massénat

    OpenAIRE

    Ollivier, Julien

    2018-01-01

    La fouille archéologique de l’îlot Massénat a été entreprise à l’été 2016, en préalable à la construction de logements et de locaux à vocation commerciale avec parking semi-enterré. Elle a porté sur une surface d’environ 900 m2 et a duré 2 mois avec une équipe de 5 archéologues. Le site, diagnostiqué en 2004 (dir. J. Roger, Inrap), est localisé au sud du Puy Saint-Pierre, où ont été découverts tous les vestiges de l’occupation antique de Brive, encore mal caractérisée. L’îlot est par ailleurs...

  7. Data Analytics for Smart Parking Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Nicola; Turi, Leo; Toigo, Enrico; Martinez, Borja; Rossi, Michele

    2016-09-23

    We consider real-life smart parking systems where parking lot occupancy data are collected from field sensor devices and sent to backend servers for further processing and usage for applications. Our objective is to make these data useful to end users, such as parking managers, and, ultimately, to citizens. To this end, we concoct and validate an automated classification algorithm having two objectives: (1) outlier detection: to detect sensors with anomalous behavioral patterns, i.e., outliers; and (2) clustering: to group the parking sensors exhibiting similar patterns into distinct clusters. We first analyze the statistics of real parking data, obtaining suitable simulation models for parking traces. We then consider a simple classification algorithm based on the empirical complementary distribution function of occupancy times and show its limitations. Hence, we design a more sophisticated algorithm exploiting unsupervised learning techniques (self-organizing maps). These are tuned following a supervised approach using our trace generator and are compared against other clustering schemes, namely expectation maximization, k-means clustering and DBSCAN, considering six months of data from a real sensor deployment. Our approach is found to be superior in terms of classification accuracy, while also being capable of identifying all of the outliers in the dataset.

  8. Data Analytics for Smart Parking Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Piovesan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider real-life smart parking systems where parking lot occupancy data are collected from field sensor devices and sent to backend servers for further processing and usage for applications. Our objective is to make these data useful to end users, such as parking managers, and, ultimately, to citizens. To this end, we concoct and validate an automated classification algorithm having two objectives: (1 outlier detection: to detect sensors with anomalous behavioral patterns, i.e., outliers; and (2 clustering: to group the parking sensors exhibiting similar patterns into distinct clusters. We first analyze the statistics of real parking data, obtaining suitable simulation models for parking traces. We then consider a simple classification algorithm based on the empirical complementary distribution function of occupancy times and show its limitations. Hence, we design a more sophisticated algorithm exploiting unsupervised learning techniques (self-organizing maps. These are tuned following a supervised approach using our trace generator and are compared against other clustering schemes, namely expectation maximization, k-means clustering and DBSCAN, considering six months of data from a real sensor deployment. Our approach is found to be superior in terms of classification accuracy, while also being capable of identifying all of the outliers in the dataset.

  9. Contributory Factors Related to Permanent Deformation of Hot Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Husein Abd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent deformation (Rutting of asphalt pavements which appears in many roads in Iraq, have caused a major impact on pavement performance by reducing the useful service life of pavement and creating services hazards for highway users. The main objective of this research is investigating the effect of some contributory factors related to permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixture. To meet the objectives of this research, available local materials are used including asphalt binder, aggregates, mineral filler and modified asphalt binder. The Superpave mix design system was adopted with varying volumetric compositions. The Superpave Gyratory Compactor was used to compact 24 asphalt concrete cylindrical specimens. To collect the required data and investigate the development of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete under repeated loadings, Wheel-Tracking apparatus has been used in a factorial testing program during which 44 slab samples; with dimensions of 400×300×50 mm; were tested to simulate . actual pavement. Based on wheel-tracking test results, it has been concluded that increasing the compaction temperature from 110 to 150ºC caused a decreasing in permanent deformation by 20.5 and 15.6 percent for coarse and fine gradation control asphalt mixtures respectively. While the permanent deformation decreased about 21.3 percent when the compaction temperature is increased from 110 to 150ºC for coarse gradation asphalt mixtures modified with styrene butadiene styrene SBS with 3 percent by asphalt binder weight.

  10. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.

    1981-09-01

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10 -6 cm 2 /s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  11. Physical and rheological properties of Titanium Dioxide modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhari, Rosnawati; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Chong, Ai Ling; Haini, Rosli; Khatijah Abu Bakar, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) has been known as a useful photocatalytic material that is attributed to the several characteristics includes high photocatalytic activity compared with other metal oxide photocatalysts, compatible with traditional construction materials without changing any original performance. This study investigates the physical and rheological properties of modified asphalt with TiO2. Five samples of asphalt with different concentration of TiO2 were studied, namely asphalt 2%, 4%, 6% 8% and 10% TiO2. The tests includes are penetration, softening point, ductility, rotational viscosity and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test. From the results of this study, it is noted that addition of TiO2 has significant effect on the physical properties of asphalt. The viscosity tests revealed that asphalt 10% TiO2 has good workability among with reducing approximately 15°C compared to base asphalt. Based on the results from DSR measurements, asphalt 10% TiO2 has reduced temperature susceptibility and increase stiffness and elastic behaviour in comparison to base asphalt. As a result, TiO2 can be considered to be an additive to modify the properties of asphalt.

  12. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.52 Section 983.52..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.52 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Substandard pistachios... committee may establish, with the Secretary's approval, appropriate rework procedures. (b) Failed lot...

  13. New methodology for dynamic lot dispatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Herng; Wang, Jiann-Kwang; Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Chin

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a new dynamic dispatching rule to improve delivery. The dynamic dispatching rule named `SLACK and OTD (on time delivery)' is developed for focusing on due date and target cycle time under the environment of IC manufacturing. This idea uses traditional SLACK policy to control long term due date and new OTD policy to reflect the short term stage queue time. Through the fuzzy theory, these two policies are combined as the dispatching controller to define the lot priority in the entire production line. Besides, the system would automatically update the lot priority according to the current line situation. Since the wafer dispatching used to be controlled by critical ratio that indicates the low customer satisfaction. And the overall slack time in the front end of the process is greater compared to that in the rear end of the process which reveals that the machines in the rear end are overloaded by rush orders. When SLACK and OTD are used the due date control has been gradually improved. The wafer with either a long stage queue time or urgent due date will be pushed through the overall production line instead of jammed in the front end. A demand pull system is also developed to satisfy not only due date but also the quantity of monthly demand. The SLACK and OTD rule has been implemented in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company for eight months with beneficial results. In order to clearly monitor the SLACK and OTD policy, a method called box chart is generated to simulate the entire production system. From the box chart, we can not only monitor the result of decision policy but display the production situation on the density figure. The production cycle time and delivery situation can also be investigated.

  14. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  15. Characteristics Buton Natural Asphalt-Rubber (BNA-R on the Performance Improvement of Warm Mix Asphalt Using Natural Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahjuningsih Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in the ability of service of pavement can be caused by the durability factor in the pavement layer in receiving heavy traffic load and the temperature of the pavement. Permanent deformation is one of the criteria of failure of asphalt mixture. Performance assessment of the asphalt mixture can be observed from the rheological properties of asphalt binder. The use of BNA-R in this study is intended to modify the characteristics of bitumen penetration grade 60 / 70 used in warm mix asphalt. Warm mix asphalt with lower temperatures of mixing and compaction than conventional asphalt mixtures was chosen because it is more environmentally friendly. To reduce the temperature in this warm asphalt technology is achieved by using natural zeolite. Both of these materials are local materials that are widely available in Indonesia. The rheology of asphalt 60/70 modified with BNA-R indicates that the addition of BNA-R in the base asphalt increase the complex modulus value and decrease the phase angle value. These values were related to the performance of mixture in the permanent deformation criteria. Reducing the temperature of mixing and compaction should be balanced with modifying the asphalt binder used. Rutting due to permanent deformation can resulted in inconvenience to the passengers and can lead to high costs of road maintenance. To determine the permanent deformation of asphalt mix with material combinations was performed through the wheel tracking test machine with 3,780 cycles for 3 hours. The results shows that after test track over 7 thousand passes have seen permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt concrete mixture with a variation of the characteristics of bitumen.

  16. Characteristics Buton Natural Asphalt-Rubber (BNA-R) on the Performance Improvement of Warm Mix Asphalt Using Natural Zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahjuningsih, Nurul; Pranowo Hadiwardoyo, Sigit; Jachrizal Sumabrata, R.

    2018-03-01

    The decrease in the ability of service of pavement can be caused by the durability factor in the pavement layer in receiving heavy traffic load and the temperature of the pavement. Permanent deformation is one of the criteria of failure of asphalt mixture. Performance assessment of the asphalt mixture can be observed from the rheological properties of asphalt binder. The use of BNA-R in this study is intended to modify the characteristics of bitumen penetration grade 60 / 70 used in warm mix asphalt. Warm mix asphalt with lower temperatures of mixing and compaction than conventional asphalt mixtures was chosen because it is more environmentally friendly. To reduce the temperature in this warm asphalt technology is achieved by using natural zeolite. Both of these materials are local materials that are widely available in Indonesia. The rheology of asphalt 60/70 modified with BNA-R indicates that the addition of BNA-R in the base asphalt increase the complex modulus value and decrease the phase angle value. These values were related to the performance of mixture in the permanent deformation criteria. Reducing the temperature of mixing and compaction should be balanced with modifying the asphalt binder used. Rutting due to permanent deformation can resulted in inconvenience to the passengers and can lead to high costs of road maintenance. To determine the permanent deformation of asphalt mix with material combinations was performed through the wheel tracking test machine with 3,780 cycles for 3 hours. The results shows that after test track over 7 thousand passes have seen permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt concrete mixture with a variation of the characteristics of bitumen.

  17. Optical microtopographic inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Freitas, E. F.; Torres, H.; Cerezo, V.

    2017-08-01

    Microtopographic and rugometric characterization of surfaces is routinely and effectively performed non-invasively by a number of different optical methods. Rough surfaces are also inspected using optical profilometers and microtopographer. The characterization of road asphalt pavement surfaces produced in different ways and compositions is fundamental for economical and safety reasons. Having complex structures, including topographically with different ranges of form error and roughness, the inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces is difficult to perform non-invasively. In this communication we will report on the optical non-contact rugometric characterization of the surface of different types of road pavements performed at the Microtopography Laboratory of the Physics Department of the University of Minho.

  18. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The traditional interpretation of fatigue tests on asphalt mixes has been in terms of a logarithmic linear relationship between the constant stress or strain amplitude and the number of load repetitions to cause failure, often defined as a decrease in modulus to half the initial value...... damage mechanics.The paper describes how continuum damage mechanics may be used with a finite element program to explain the progressive deterioration of asphalt mixes under laboratory fatigue testing. Both constant stress and constant strain testing are simulated, and compared to the actual results from...... three point and four point fatigue test on different mixes. It is shown that the same damage law, based on energy density, may be used to explain the gradual deterioration under constant stress as well as under constant strain testing.Some of the advantages of using this method for interpreting fatigue...

  19. Ageing evolution of foamed warm mix asphalt combined with reclaimed asphalt pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Marsac, P.; Gabet, T.; Pouget, S.; Hammoum, F.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of high rates of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies is still ambiguous in terms of durability. With the aim of clarifying this issue, a study comparing a hot mix asphalt with a WMA prepared using the foaming process technology. Both mixes contain 50% of RAP and are submitted to a laboratory ageing procedure. The long term related performance of the mixtures is compared by means of complex modulus and fatigue testing. Penetration and ring and ball tests are undertaken on the recovered bitumens, as well as the ageing evolution, characterised by the Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. Finally, the Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution (AMWD) of the binders is calculated from rheological measurements using the δ-method. Results show a relation between ageing evolution and mechanical performance. After ageing, the overall tendencies are similar for both processes. [es

  20. Present status and future of various rubber materials. ; Asphalt. Kakushu gomu zairyo no genjo to kongo. ; Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, S. (Toa Doro Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-15

    Asphalt is obtained at a rate of about 25 Kg per 1 Kl of oil and is produced at about 5 million tons per annum in Japan, 80 % of which is now used for the pavement of road. The purpose of this study is to examine the possibilities of developing new applications of asphalt to the anti-vibration, vibration-control and anti-noise materials, though its uses have already been diversified in fields other than for road paving, due to excellent performance regardless of cheap cost. In the paper, firstly, under a title of what is asphalt, the history, the composition and internal structure of asphalt were considered. Secondly, the dynamic characteristics of asphalt were considered. And lastly, under a title of the application of asphalt, examples of the application of asphalt to anti-noise materials were examined in the field of architecture, automobile and civil engineering respectively. Especially, in the field of civil engineering, improvements of flexibility and vibration-control by using the cement asphalt mortar (CAM) in the anti-vibration A-type slab track for railway, and also anti-noise and anti-vibration technologies applied to the road pavement body by using the ferrite asphalt were reviewed. 11 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Dynamic modulus of nanosilica modified porous asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. K.; Masri, K. A.; Ahmad, J.; Samsudin, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) is a flexible pavement layer with high interconnected air void contents and constructed using open-graded aggregates. Due to high temperature environment and increased traffic volume in Malaysia, PA may have deficiencies particularly in rutting and stiffness of the mix. A possible way to improve these deficiencies is to improve the asphalt binder used. Binder is normally modified using polymer materials to improve its properties. However, nanotechnology presently is being gradually used for asphalt modification. Nanosilica (NS), a byproduct of rice husk and palm oil fuel ash is used as additive in this study. The aim of this study is to enhance the rutting resistance and stiffness performance of PA using NS. This study focused on the performance of PA in terms of dynamic modulus with the addition of NS modified binder to produce better and more durable PA. From the result of Dynamic SPT Test, it shows that the addition of NS was capable in enhancing the stiffness and rutting resistance of PA. The addition of NS also increase the dynamic modulus value of PA by 50%.

  2. Active carbon production from modified asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhi, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    A granular activated carbons (GACs) have been prepared from some local raw materials such as Qiayarah asphalt (QA) after some modification treatments of this asphalt by various ratios of its original constituents (asphaltenes and maltens) at 180 degree C. Thermal carbonization method by sulfur and steam physical activation have been used for AC preparation. The carbons thus prepared were characterized in the term of iodine, methylene blue (MB), P-nitro phenol (PNP) and CCl4 adsorption. The BET surface area of the prepared ACs has been estimated via a calibration curve between iodine numbers and surface area determined from N2 adsorption isotherm from previous studies, also, the surface area of the prepared ACs were determined through another methods such as retention method by ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME), adsorption from vapor phase using acetone vapor and adsorption from solution method using PNP and MB as solutes. The results referred to the success of modification method for preparing ACs of good micro porosity as compared with the AC from the untreated asphalt as well as the commercial sample. (author)

  3. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  4. A Data-Driven Approach to Manage Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles in Parking Lots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Babic (Jurica); A. Carvalho (Arthur); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); V. Podobnik (Vedran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe ever-increasing number of electric vehicles (EV) on the road is in line with many governments' efforts to tackle urgent environmental challenges. This inherently means that there is a growing need for charging infrastructure as well. A potential solution to address the need for

  5. The flags of CERN's member states in the parking lot next to the main entrance.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1960-01-01

    CERN has always had a global mission. Its twelve founding Member States may well have been European, but the setting-up of the Laboratory owed much to the United States, for example, which wished to see the re-emergence of a strong European scientific community after the Second World War. There were thus exchanges with the American scientific community from the very start, particularly for the design of the PS. Similarly, CERN rapidly engaged in exchanges with Soviet institutes, even at the height of the Cold War. The twelve founding Member States, Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Yugoslavia (which left CERN in 1961), were joined by Austria (1959), Spain (1961, and again in 1983 having left in 1969), Portugal (1985), Finland and Poland (1991), Hungary (1992), the Czech and Slovak Republics (1993) and Bulgaria (1999)

  6. From the Stadium Parking Lot to the Information Superhighway: How To Protect Your Trademarks from Infringement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearby, Scott; Siegal, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of collegiate trademark cases; discusses several forms of infringement, including traditional infringement on commercial products, ambush marketing, and Internet infringement; addresses available remedies; and offers practical tips for dealing effectively with trademark protection. (EV)

  7. Consuming Web Services on Android Mobile Platform for Finding Parking Lots

    OpenAIRE

    Isak Shabani; Besmir Sejdiu; Fatushe Jasharaj

    2015-01-01

    Many web applications over the last decade are built using Web services based on Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), because these Web services are the best choice for web applications and mobile applications in general. Researches and the results of them show how architectures and the systems primarily designed for use on desktop such as Web services calls with SOAP messaging, now are possible to be used on mobile platforms such as Android. The purpose of this paper is the study of Android...

  8. Effects of conductive fillers on temperature distribution of asphalt pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingyu; Wu Shaopeng; Zhang Yuan; Wang Hong

    2010-01-01

    The sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy. Solar cells have been used to capture this energy and generate electricity. A more useful form of the solar cell would be asphalt pavements, which get heated up by solar radiation. Graphite powders are utilized as thermal conductive fillers to make an asphalt collector conductive so as to improve the efficiency of the asphalt collector. Accounting for the important application conditions and evaluating the effects of the heat conductive materials and the solar energy absorbability of the conductive asphalt collector, a finite element model has been developed to predict temperature distributions in the conductive asphalt solar collector. In this study, an experimental validation exercise was conducted using the measured data taken from full-depth asphalt slabs. Validation results showed that the model can satisfactorily predict the temperature distributions in asphalt concrete slabs. The optimal depth is 25-50 mm for placing pipes that serve as the heat exchanger. Meanwhile, the effect of the surroundings on the solar energy potential of the asphalt collector was noticeable.

  9. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  10. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  11. Estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes using simple tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medani, T.O.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified procedure for estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes is presented. The procedure requires the determination of the so-called master curve (Le. the relationship between the mix stiffness, the loading time and the temperature), the asphalt properties and the mix

  12. 7 CFR 2902.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 2902.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete or...

  13. Including asphalt cooling and rolling regimes in laboratory compaction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Doree, Andries G.; Kim,

    2014-01-01

    Given the various changes occurring in the asphalt construction industry, improved process and quality control is becoming essential. The significance of appropriate rolling and compaction for the quality of asphalt is widely acknowledged and vital for improved process control. But what constitutes

  14. Application of waste tires to asphalt pavement. Improvement of adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles; Haitaiya no asphalt hoso eno tekiyo. Asphalt to gomu ryushi no fuchakusei no kairyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaoka, I. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-10-10

    With an objective to apply waste tires to asphalt pavement, an experiment was carried out to improve adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles by using polymers. The state of interface on rubber particle and asphalt mixture was observed by a scanning electron microscope. As a result, it was found that the surface of untreated rubber particles is not bonded with the asphalt, but polymer treated mixture was found to have the affinity of rubber particles with asphalt improved. Tensile bonding strength was tested on rubber plates and asphalt. The result revealed that the polymer-reformed mixture has two times as large tensile bonding strength as that of the untreated mixture. With regard to the characters of asphalt mixture mixed with rubber particles, the stability shows a decreasing trend as compared with the standard asphalt concrete, but presents an excellent performance in wear. The fluidity resistance value is inferior to the standard, but not as great as presenting a problem under normal using environment, where its applicability as a road paving material was verified. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt's potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions

  16. Regional implementation of warm mix asphalt : [tech summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Asphalt is used in over 94 percent of all paved roadways in the United States. The ability to reduce its cost and : emissions while improving its performance has bene ts that could potentially change the direction the asphalt : industry moves in t...

  17. Induction healing of asphalt mixes with steel slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Wang, H.; van de Ven, M.F.C.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    Asphaltic mixes are self-healing materials since they have the capacity to close internal microcracks at higher temperatures or under external force. To trigger their self-healing, asphalt mixes modified with inductive agents can be heated and in that way healed through applying alternating magnetic

  18. Impact of Modificated Asphalt Mixtures on Paving Functioning and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gribulis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution began to increase in the beginning of 19th century, when the global economy and industrial development started the signal grow. The current problem of global warming is partly related with emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 to environment, which one of the sources are industrial production companies. Warm asphalt mix is usually used in the practice of Lithuania and the world for equipment of road paving. These mixes are produced in specialized asphalt mixers where stone dosing, drying and its mixing with bituminous binders are performed. The temperature of produced hot asphalt mix in mixer reach 150–180 °C and 120–160 °C of mixture laying on the road. Various pollutants, carbon dioxide, formaldehydes, and other are spread to the environment. The carried out researches in Lithuania and the world have showed that while using special additives it is possible to reduce the temperatures of warm asphalt production and laying on the road. Such reduction of temperature helps not to worsen the quality of asphalt layer, to lower the emission of pollutants to environment, to improve the conditions of road workers and to economically use the gas for production of asphalt mixes. Production technologies of different asphalt mixes, their advantages and disadvantages, and results of laboratory tests are analyzed in this article. Equipment samples of experimental road sections, using the warm mixing asphalt mixtures are given.

  19. Advanced Experimental Evaluation of Asphalt Mortar for Induction Healing Purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, Athanasios; van Bochove, G; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the induction heating and healing capacity of asphalt mortar by adding electrically conductive additives (e.g. iron powder and steel fibers), and examined the influence of different combinations of them on the mechanical response of asphalt mortars. Induction heating technique is

  20. A lot to look forward to

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN moves from momentous year to momentous year, and although 2013 will be very different for us than 2012, there is still a lot to look forward to. As I write, the proton-lead run is just getting under way, giving the LHC experiments a new kind of data to investigate. But the run will be short, and our main activity this year will be the start of the LHC’s first long shutdown.   This is the first year I can remember in which all of CERN’s accelerators will be off. The reason is that there is much to be done: the older machines need maintenance, and the LHC has to be prepared for higher energy running. That involves opening up the interconnections between each of the machine’s 1,695 main magnet cryostats, consolidating all of the 10,170 splices carrying current to the main dipole and quadrupole windings, and a range of other work to improve the machine. The CERN accelerator complex will start to come back to life in 2014, and it’s fair to say that when...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN PARKING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of rain sewer is connected with dehydration of roads and coexisting objects. The paper presents a discussion upon the issue of groundwater contamination by petroleum compounds and other pollutants from transport based on studies of groundwater within the parking lots. The study included 9 parking areas, including 7 in Bialystok, 1 in a residential area outside of Bialystok in Ignatki, and one in Kleosin. The tested waters were subject to determination of COD, total suspension, and petroleum substances expressed as a mineral oil index. The studies have shown that the concentrations of determined parameters were in most cases proportional to the larger runoffs and concentration of petroleum compounds increased with the increase of suspension. It has been shown that from part of the parking lots, the meteoric water was discharged directly into watercourses and exceeds the permissible limits regulated by the Decree.

  2. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  3. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  4. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julide Oner

    Full Text Available The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  5. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  6. THE FATIGUE DURABILITY OF THE MODIFIED ASPHALT CONCRETE UNDER THE EFFECT OF INTENSIVE TRAFFIC LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri KALGIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of prediction of the service life of asphalt concrete surface constructed with modified asphalt concrete application onto a traffic lane is examined. Asphalt concrete behaviour in road surface under the traffic loads was analysed. There were shown The results of experiments and their mathematical analysis of the assessment of standard and modified cold asphalt concrete fatigue life on road surface were shown. The service life of an asphalt concrete surface covered with standard and modified cold asphalt concrete is examined. The prediction has been received with an account of stress relaxation processes in asphalt concrete pavement and unevenness of traffic load application.

  7. Performance evaluation of stone matrix asphalt using indonesian natural rock asphalt as stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suaryana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One type of road pavement material which is developed to be more resistant to permanent deformation is the SMA (Stone Matrix Asphalt. Utilization of the SMA mix in Indonesia has constraints in gain stabilizer and also difficulty to comply the gradations, mainly because it needs a relatively large amount of filler. Alternative of local materials that can be used is asbuton (natural rock asphalt from Buton Island. Asbuton is expected to act as a stabilizer and simultaneously provides an additional filler. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of the SMA that uses the asbuton. The methodology used in this research is the experimental method, its starts from material testing, design mix and performance testing that includes dynamic modulus, permanent deformation and fatigue resistance. The results obtained showed asbuton can prevent asphalt draindown as well as increase the proportion of filler. Draindown asphalt can be prevented by using binder absorbers with fiber cellulose and viscosity boosters with asbuton. Asbuton (LGA 50/25 can behave as a stabilizer as well as cellulose fiber. Addition of asbuton also improves the performance of the SMA mix, as shown with increase in the value of dynamic stability. In terms of resistance to fatigue, SMA with cellulosa as stabilizer and SMA with asbuton as stabilizer, relatively have the same performance. Master curve of dynamic modulus indicates SMA with asbuton as stabilizer is relatively stiffer at high temperatures (more than 4.4 °C, but relatively less stiff (less brittle at low temperatures. Keywords: Stone matrix asphalt, Asbuton, Draindown, Dynamic modulus, Permanent deformation

  8. Performance of asphalt mixture incorporating recycled waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Baizura; Abdullah, Mohd Ezree; Sanik, Mohd Erwan; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kaamin, Masiri; Raduan, Rasyidah; Ramli, Mohd Zakwan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the amount of premix waste was increased every year, especially at the batching plants. Normally, the waste materials will be discarded without doing any innovative and effective research about those materials. This situation has become one of the global concerns due to the increasing number of premix waste produced every year. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using premix waste on improving asphalt mixture fatigue behaviour. The method used in this study was Superpave mix design method. The sample conducted in this study were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% of premix waste respectively. For a binder test, the laboratory test conducted were penetration test, softening test and thin film oven test while for the performance test were resilient modulus test and indirect tensile fatigue test. From the laboratory test, the resilient modulus test was conducted with two different temperature which was 25°C and 40°C. The result from that test was 20% of premix waste had higher resilient modulus at that two different temperatures compared to another samples. From that test also shown that the sample at the lower temperature which was 25°C has higher resilient modulus compared to the temperature of 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test showed that the 30% of premix waste sample was suitable for the modified asphalt mixture with referring to the maximum deformation and strain for comparison control, 10%,20%, and 100% of premix waste samples. So, it can be concluded that premix waste inhibits great potential as road construction material and suitable for repeated traffic loading.

  9. Design And Implementation Of Smart Parking System Using Peripheral Interface Controllers And Infrared Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Thaw Htet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in world population and vehicle production parking spaces and facilities are required. As the numbers of vehicles on the road are increasing day by day parking problems which are increasing at an alarming rate in every major city cause drivers frustration traffic congestion and time wasting especially during the peak business hours. Lot of researches was being done all over the world to implement better parking management system which reduces parking problems. SPARK Smart Parking is parking garage system that utilizes various technologies to implement best parking system. The proposed system is aimed to inform drivers about the number of available parking spaces without any parking difficulties. This system is designed for two- level parking slots with twenty six parking spaces and one aisle on each floor. The condition of parking slots is detected by IR sensors and is reported periodically to main controller via floor controllers and self controllers. PIC 18F4550 is chosen to be used as controllers because it is suitable for the proposed system. Each floor contains LCD display which will show available parking spaces of that floor. LCD display at the entrance gate will show overall available parking slots of two floors. In this paper a new parking system called Smart Parking system is proposed to help drivers getting the real-time parking information and to find vacant spaces in a car park in a shorter time. This kind of system minimizes not only traffic congestion problems but also staff requirements to control the traffic in the car park.

  10. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  11. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  12. Characterisation of Asphalt Concrete Using Nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbhuiya, Salim; Caracciolo, Benjamin

    2017-07-18

    In this study, nanoindentation was conducted to extract the load-displacement behaviour and the nanomechanical properties of asphalt concrete across the mastic, matrix, and aggregate phases. Further, the performance of hydrated lime as an additive was assessed across the three phases. The hydrated lime containing samples have greater resistance to deformation in the mastic and matrix phases, in particular, the mastic. There is strong evidence suggesting that hydrated lime has the most potent effect on the mastic phase, with significant increase in hardness and stiffness.

  13. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  14. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.

  15. REAL-TIME NAVIGATION SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN THE SCOPE OF 3D GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR MULTI STOREY CAR PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yenigun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, a large increase in the number of vehicles in traffic with population growth and economic development are observed. This increase brings with it many problems. One of these problems is the parking problem as a result of the need to park the vehicle. Impractical and inadequate parking areas have a negative impact on drivers. To minimize these drawbacks, car parking is intended to develop a system to come to the aid of users. This system is planned to be developed which can be applied to indoor and multi-storey parking structure. Considered in this study, in the garage, drivers are intended to be directed as soon as possible in place of the convenient parking. However, the amount of fuel spent looking for parking tool that are caused by air and noise pollution, and to search for a parking lot when looking for a place to park the lost time, the resulting stress is minimized, it is expected that.

  16. Real-Time Navigation System Implementation Within the Scope of 3d Geographic Information Systems for Multi Storey CAR Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, B.; Karas, I. R.; Demiral, E.

    2016-10-01

    Today, a large increase in the number of vehicles in traffic with population growth and economic development are observed. This increase brings with it many problems. One of these problems is the parking problem as a result of the need to park the vehicle. Impractical and inadequate parking areas have a negative impact on drivers. To minimize these drawbacks, car parking is intended to develop a system to come to the aid of users. This system is planned to be developed which can be applied to indoor and multi-storey parking structure. Considered in this study, in the garage, drivers are intended to be directed as soon as possible in place of the convenient parking. However, the amount of fuel spent looking for parking tool that are caused by air and noise pollution, and to search for a parking lot when looking for a place to park the lost time, the resulting stress is minimized, it is expected that.

  17. Interview with Steve Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…

  18. Performance Modification of Asphalt Binders using Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to improve the performance of asphalt binders to minimize stress cracking that occurs at low temperatures and plastic deformation at high temperatures. Importation of used asphalt-polymers from abroad, leads to an increase in the total construction cost as compared to the cost if the used polymers were of local origin. The main objective of this research was to modify locally produced asphalt. Ten polymers were identified as potential asphalt modifiers based on their physical properties and chemical composition. After preliminary laboratory evaluation for the melting point of these polymers, five polymers were selected for local asphalt modification. In the initial stage, required mixing time was decided based on the relation between shear loss modulus and mixing time .The optimum polymer content was selected based on Superpave binder performance grade specifications.The suitability of improvement was verified through the evaluation of permanent deformation and fatigue behavior of laboratory prepared asphalt concrete mixes. The results indicated that the rheological properties of the modified binders improved significantly with sufficient polymer content (3%. The aging properties of the modified binders were found to be dependent on the type of polymer.The fatigue life and resistance to permanent deformation were significantly improved due to enhanced binder rheological properties.  Thus, local asphalts can be modified using thermoplastic polymers.

  19. Qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkus, A.; Andriejauskas, T.; Gražulytė, J.; Šernas, O.; Vorobjovas, V.; Kleizienė, R.

    2018-05-01

    Low noise asphalt pavements are cost efficient and cost effective alternative for road traffic noise mitigation comparing with noise barriers, façade insulation and other known noise mitigation measures. However, design of low noise asphalt mixtures strongly depends on climate and traffic peculiarities of different regions. Severe climate regions face problems related with short durability of low noise asphalt mixtures in terms of considerable negative impact of harsh climate conditions (frost-thaw, large temperature fluctuations, hydrological behaviour, etc.) and traffic (traffic loads, traffic volumes, studded tyres, etc.). Thus there is a need to find balance between mechanical and acoustical durability as well as to ensure adequate pavement skid resistance for road safety purposes. Paper presents analysis of the qualitative criteria and design parameters thresholds of low noise asphalt mixtures. Different asphalt mixture composition materials (grading, aggregate, binder, additives, etc.) and relevant asphalt layer properties (air void content, texture, evenness, degree of compaction, etc.) were investigated and assessed according their suitability for durable and effective low noise pavements. Paper concluded with the overview of requirements, qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design for severe climate regions.

  20. Evaluation of warm mix technologies for use in asphalt rubber - asphaltic concrete friction courses (AR\\0x2010ACFC) : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research project was to determine whether warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies can be : used by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) for the production of an asphalt rubberasphaltic : concrete friction course (AR...

  1. Nanoscale study on water damage for different warm mix asphalt binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the water damage to different warm mix asphalt binders from the micro scale, five kinds of asphalt binders, 70#A base asphalt, sasobit warm mix asphalt, energy champion 120 °C (EC120 warm mix asphalt, aspha-min warm mix asphalt, sulfur-extended asphalt modifier (SEAM warm mix asphalt, under different conditions (dry/wet, original/aging are prepared for laboratory tests. The atomic force microscope (AFM is used to observe the surface properties and measure the adhesion force between the asphalt and the mineral aggregate. The obtained results show that under the dry condition aspha-min warm mix asphalt and SEAM warm mix asphalt show stronger adhesive ability with the mineral aggregate compared with other asphalt binders, but also have relatively large dispersion and fluctuation in the tested results; under the wet condition, aspha-min warm mix asphalt and SEAM warm mix asphalt show stronger water damage resistance ability. The EC120 warm mix asphalt and aspha-min warm mix asphalt are less sensitive to moist, and their corresponding adhesion force is less susceptible to the change of external moisture conditions, leading to a better ability to resist water erosion. The aging process significantly lowers the moisture erosion resistance ability, which further impairs the water damage resistance ability. The base asphalt is more sensitive to moisture and more vulnerable to water damage, no matter whether it is under original or aging conditions. The aging aspha-min warm mix asphalt has the least loss of adhesion force, the smallest dispersion of the tested adhesion force, the strongest water damage resistance ability, no matter it is dry or wet. Keywords: Road engineering, Warm mix asphalt, Moisture damage, Atomic force microscope, Microcosmic

  2. Exploration of Science Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Huibing; Sun Nengli

    2005-01-01

    Science parks have developed gready in the world, whereas empirical researches have showed that science parks based on linear model cannot guarantee the creation of innovation. Hi-tech innovation is derived from flow and management of information. The commercial and social interactions between in-parks and off-park firms and research institutions act as the key determinant for innovation.Industrial clustering is the rational choice for further developing Chinese science parks and solving some problems such as the lack of dear major industries and strong innovation sense, etc.

  3. 7 CFR 983.152 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failed lots/rework procedure. 983.152 Section 983.152..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.152 Failed lots/rework procedure. (a) Inshell rework procedure for aflatoxin. If inshell rework is selected as a remedy to meet the aflatoxin regulations of this...

  4. 7 CFR 33.7 - Less than carload lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.7 Less than carload lot. Less than carload lot means a quantity of apples in packages not exceeding 20,000 pounds gross weight or 400...

  5. Tactical Production and Lot Size Planning with Lifetime Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raiconi, Andrea; Pahl, Julia; Gentili, Monica

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we face a variant of the capacitated lot sizing problem. This is a classical problem addressing the issue of aggregating lot sizes for a finite number of discrete periodic demands that need to be satisfied, thus setting up production resources and eventually creating inventories...

  6. Asphalt Concrete for Cold Regions, A Comparative Laboratory Study and Analysis of Mixtures Containing Soft and Hard Grades of Asphalt Cement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Justification January 1980 BY Distribution Availabilit CodesIAvail an~d/or Dist special Prepa red for DIRECTORATE OF MILITARY PROGRAMS OFFICE, CHIEF OF...of water on the resilient modulus of asphalt treated mixes. Proecedinfp 4. Asphalt concrete mixes using the Tilton aggregates Association of Asphalt

  7. Mathematical and experimental investigations of modeling, simulation and experiment to promote the life-cycle of polymer modified asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formulation of constitutive equations for asphaltic pavement is based on rheological models which include the asphalt mixture, additives, and the bitumen. In terms of the asphalt, the rheology addresses the flow and permanent deformation in time,...

  8. Temperature rise and Heat build up inside a parked Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Rose; Maheswaranathan, Ponn

    2001-11-01

    We have studied the heat build up inside a parked car under the hot summer Sun. Inside and outside temperatures were monitored every ten seconds from 9 AM to about 4 PM for a 2000 Toyota Camry parked in a Winthrop University parking lot without any shades or trees. Two PASCO temperature sensors, one inside the car and the other outside the car, are used along with PASCO-750 interface to collect the data. Data were collected under the following conditions while keeping track of the outside weather: fully closed windows, slightly open windows, half way open windows, fully open windows, and with window shades inside and outside. Inside temperatures reached as high as 150 degrees Fahrenheit on a sunny day with outside high temperature of about 100 degrees Fahrenheit. These results will be presented along with results from car cover and window tint manufacturers and suggestions to keep your car cool next time you park it under the Sun.

  9. Parking Navigation for Alleviating Congestion in Multilevel Parking Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kenmotsu, Masahiro; Sun, Weihua; Shibata, Naoki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Ito, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Finding a vacant parking space in a large crowded parking facility takes long time. In this paper, we propose a navigation method that minimizes the parking time based on collected real-time positional information of cars. In the proposed method, a central server in the parking facility collects the information and estimates the occupancy of each parking zone. Then, the server broadcasts the occupancy data to the cars in the parking facility. Each car then computes a parking route with the sh...

  10. La vallée du Lot en Lot-et-Garonne : inventaire topographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Mousset

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La remise en navigation du Lot est à l’origine du projet d’inventaire du patrimoine de la vallée dans sa partie lot-et-garonnaise1. L’ampleur du territoire - 12 cantons riverains2 - et de la perspective historique - du Moyen Age à nos jours - imposaient d’emblée rigueur et objectifs clairs : méthode raisonnée de l’inventaire topographique pour un bilan homogène du patrimoine, fondée sur une enquête systématique du paysage bâti et du mobilier public, sans a priori. Le premier résultat est un catalogue patrimonial sous forme de bases de données3. Mais ce corpus documentaire hétérogène et touffu n’est pas une addition de monographies : il peut et doit être interrogé et exploité comme un ensemble apportant une connaissance renouvelée du territoire. Sans prétendre réaliser une synthèse de la totalité des données pour l’ensemble de la vallée4, les exemples qui vont suivre illustreront la façon dont le travail d’inventaire apporte réponses et nouvelles interrogations, concernant notamment l’occupation du sol, les paysages et l’architecture de cette partie de l’Agenais. Recherche de l’empreinte d’une époque déterminée, examen de la permanence des paysages bâtis sur la longue durée et observation des traces de mutations et flexions historiques, sont un triple niveau d’analyse attendu dans le cadre d’un inventaire sur un vaste territoire rural.The plan to reintroduce navigation on the Lot in the part of the river that flows through the Lot-et-Garonne department was at the origins of a survey of the heritage along the course of the river. The geographical scope of the survey was large (12 cantons along the river and the period covered by the heritage extends from the Middle ages up to the present day. The variety of buildings to be covered required a rigorous approach and clear objectives. The method of the topographical inventory was tailored to the production of a homogenous heritage audit

  11. Storm Water General Permit 3 for Rock and Asphalt

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #3 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Asphalt Plants, Concrete Batch Plants, Rock Crushing Plants and Construction...

  12. Occupational Renal Dysfunction Among Asphalt Workers In Sharkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : An Epidemiological Study. ... Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety ... Abstract. Background: Occupational exposure to bitumen fumes emitted during hot application of asphalt carries the risk of exposure to significant amount of ...

  13. Quality control of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    This study examined the variations found in recycled asphaltic concrete mix based upon plant quality control data and verification testing. The data was collected from four recycled hot-mix projects constructed in 1981. All plant control and acceptan...

  14. Characteristic Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (ACWC) Using Variation Lime Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, R. A.; Pramesti, F. P.; Setyawan, A.

    2018-03-01

    This research use of lime filler Sukaraja expected add durability layers of concrete pavement is asphalt damage caused by the weather and load traffic. This study attempts to know how much value characteristic Marshall on a mixture of concrete asphalt using lime filler. This research uses experimental methods that is with a pilot to get results, thus will look filler utilization lime on construction concrete asphalt variation in filler levels 2 %, 3 %, 4 %.The results showed that the use of lime filler will affect characteristic a mixture of concrete asphalt. The more filler chalk used to increase the value of stability. On the cretaceous filler 2 % value of stability is 1067,04 kg. When lime filler levels added to the levels of filler 4 %, the value of stability increased to 1213,92 kg. The flexibility increased the number of filler as levels lime 2 % to 4 % suggests that are conducted more stiff mix.

  15. Density measurement verification for hot mix asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  16. Density measurement verification for hot mixed asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  17. Improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt - final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA) mixtures have been produced and placed for several decades using : specification requirements currently listed under DMS 9210. Several districts have had placement issues : and premature failures at the beginning of 2010....

  18. Connecticut warm mix asphalt (WMA) pilot projects 2010 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    WMA overlays were placed in several pilot projects in Connecticut during the 2010 and 2011 construction : seasons. These technologies included Sasobit, Evotherm, Advera, Double-Barrel Green foamed : asphalt as well as SonneWarmix. The res...

  19. Implementation of warm-mix asphalt mixtures in Nebraska pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of several WMA mixtures as potential asphalt paving : mixtures for Nebraska pavements. To that end, three well-known WMA additives (i.e., Sasobit, Evotherm, and Advera : synthetic ...

  20. Performance of Virginia's warm-mix asphalt trial sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Three trial sections using two warm-mix asphalt (WMA) technologies were constructed in various locations in Virginia in 2006, and experiences with these trial sections were used in the development of the Virginia Department of Transportation's specia...

  1. Investigation of warm-mix asphalt for Iowa roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Phase II of this study further evaluated the performance of plant-produced warm-mix asphalt (WMA) mixes by conducting : additional mixture performance tests at a broader range of temperatures, adding additional pavements to the study, comparing : vir...

  2. Assessment of Quality of Asphalt Concrete used in Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    subjected to bitumen extraction and sieve analysis, hot mix Marshall Stability and flow tests, penetration and ... asphalt concrete as well as other structures of the flexible pavement. ... High-quality road networks are very important to the.

  3. Development of bio-based polymers for use in asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Asphalt binder is typically modified with poly type (styrene-butadiene-styrene or SBS) polymers to improve its rheological properties and performance grade. The elastic and principal component of SBS polymers is butadiene. For the last decade, butadi...

  4. Risk management of low air void asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Various forms of asphalt pavement distress, such as rutting, shoving and bleeding, can be attributed, in many cases, to low air voids in : the mixtures during production and placement. The occurrence of low air void contents during plant production m...

  5. Towards analytical mix design for large-stone asphalt mixes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of an analytically based design procedure for large-aggregate asphalt and its application in thirteen trial sections. The physical and engineering properties of the various materials are discussed and related...

  6. Building Asphalt Pavement with SBS-based Compound Added Using a Dry Process in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hosin; Kim, Yongjoo; Geisler, Nivi

    2009-01-01

    PMA where it is formulated to melt and blend with asphalt quickly during a batch mixing process. The main objectives of this study are to (1) build asphalt pavement using asphalt mixtures with SBS-based compound added using a “dry” process at the batch plant and (2) evaluate its performance under......-based compound seemed to affect the asphalt mix to become more flexible under the heavy loads. By adding SBS-based compound to asphalt mixtures using a “dry” process, it is expected that the pavement would become more resistant to rutting than a typical asphalt mixture used in Greenland while enduring its arctic...

  7. Production and performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt rubber binder typically exhibits disadvantages like segregation and high viscosity; however, this can be improved by the incorporation of desulfurized rubber powder. This study examined the swelling principle of desulfurized rubber asphalt (DRA. In addition, it evaluated the performance of DRA fabricated with various rubber powder contents under different shear conditions and development time. Superpave binders tests, including Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests, were applied on three control binders (i.e., neat, 20 mesh asphalt rubber binder, 40 mesh asphalt rubber binder and a DRA binder. Binder testing results indicated that rubber powder swelled into the base binder and resulted in enhanced stability. Optimum performance of the DRA binder was achieved by adding 20% (by weight of rubber powder into the base binder at shear rate, shear temperature, shear time and development time of 7000 r/min, 170 °C, 60 min and 45 min, respectively. Modified ranges of production conditions were also provided to widen the application of DRA in field construction. It appeared that DRA binder benefited from the recovered plasticity and viscosity of the rubber and consequently, exhibited superior performance over the neat and conventional asphalt rubber binders. Preliminary mixture evaluation was also conducted and the DRA binder was found to significantly improve the mixture resistance to permanent deformation and water damage. Overall, the DAR binder is encouraged to be used as a modified binder for flexible pavements. Keywords: Desulfurized rubber asphalt, Swelling model, Production process, Asphalt performance, Rubber asphalt

  8. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    successfully used as interlayers include asphalt rubber and geotextiles, and the applica- tion of recycling techniques to rework the upper 2–4 in. of the...from a set of weights dropped from increasingly greater predetermined heights onto a rubber buffer system connected to a 12 in. diameter segmented...pavement temperature at depth, IR = the infrared pavement surface temperature (°C), D = the asphalt depth to estimate the temperature (mm), 1

  9. DURABILITY OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES USING DOLOMITE AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Al-Shalout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the durability of asphalt concrete, including the effects of different gradations, compaction temperatures and immersion time on the durability potential of mixtures. The specific objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of compaction temperature on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures; investigate the effect of bitumen content and different aggregate gradations on the durability potential of bituminous mixtures.

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  11. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  12. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  13. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  14. Competition under capacitated dynamic lot-sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Lot-sizing and capacity planning are important supply chain decisions, and competition and cooperation affect the performance of these decisions. In this paper, we look into the dynamic lot-sizing and resource competition problem of an industry consisting of multiple firms. A capacity competition...... production setup, along with inventory carrying costs. The individual production lots of each firm are limited by a constant capacity restriction, which is purchased up front for the planning horizon. The capacity can be purchased from a spot market, and the capacity acquisition cost fluctuates...

  15. Resenha de: Recueil des travaux historiques de Ferdinand Lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Simões de Paula

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available RECUEIL DES TRAVAUX HISTORIQUES DE FERDINAND LOT. Tome premier. Coleção "Hautes Études Médievales et Modernes". Centre de Recherches d'Histoire et de Philologie de la IVe Section de l'École Pratique des Hautes Études. Prefácio de Ch. Samaran e biografia por I. Vildé-Lot e M. Mahn-Lot. Publicado com o concurso do Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Genebra, Librairie Droz e Paris, Librairie Minard. In-89, XVIII -I- 780 pp

  16. Adjusting Asphalt Mixes for Increased Durability and Implementation of a Performance Tester to Evaluate Fatigue Cracking of Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Cracking is a common failure mechanism in asphalt concrete pavement structures. It is one of the main reasons for large road maintenance and rehabilitation expenditures, as well as reduced user comfort and increased fuel consumption due to high road ...

  17. Rutting based evaluation of asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Pavement rutting is one of the most common and destructive pavement distresses being observed in flexible pavements, which is primarily due to a-x-le loads that exceed legal limit and high ambient temperatures, and also poor mix design is one of the cause of rutting. The drastic increase in traffic volume during last few decades has resulted in premature pavement fillers of almost the whole road structure in Pakistan. In this scenario it is the time to investigate this problem and propose appropriate solution. Physical properties of aggregates and bitumen were evaluated in the laboratory. Mechanical Properties of three mixes. i.e., Marshall, Super pave and Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were evaluated by performing creep test. indirect tensile test and dynamic modulus in order to compare the performance of mixes under prevailing load and environmental conditions of Pakistan. The study revealed that Super pave mixes performed better than Marshall and SMA. (author)

  18. Pulsars at Parkes

    OpenAIRE

    Manchester, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The first pulsar observations were made at Parkes on March 8, 1968, just 13 days after the publication of the discovery paper by Hewish and Bell. Since then, Parkes has become the world's most successful pulsar search machine, discovering nearly two thirds of the known pulsars, among them many highly significant objects. It has also led the world in pulsar polarisation and timing studies. In this talk I will review the highlights of pulsar work at Parkes from those 1968 observations to about ...

  19. Assumptions of acceptance sampling and the implications for lot contamination: Escherichia coli O157 in lots of Australian manufacturing beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiermeier, Andreas; Mellor, Glen; Barlow, Robert; Jenson, Ian

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this work were to determine the distribution and concentration of Escherichia coli O157 in lots of beef destined for grinding (manufacturing beef) that failed to meet Australian requirements for export, to use these data to better understand the performance of sampling plans based on the binomial distribution, and to consider alternative approaches for evaluating sampling plans. For each of five lots from which E. coli O157 had been detected, 900 samples from the external carcass surface were tested. E. coli O157 was not detected in three lots, whereas in two lots E. coli O157 was detected in 2 and 74 samples. For lots in which E. coli O157 was not detected in the present study, the E. coli O157 level was estimated to be contaminated carton, the total number of E. coli O157 cells was estimated to be 813. In the two lots in which E. coli O157 was detected, the pathogen was detected in 1 of 12 and 2 of 12 cartons. The use of acceptance sampling plans based on a binomial distribution can provide a falsely optimistic view of the value of sampling as a control measure when applied to assessment of E. coli O157 contamination in manufacturing beef. Alternative approaches to understanding sampling plans, which do not assume homogeneous contamination throughout the lot, appear more realistic. These results indicate that despite the application of stringent sampling plans, sampling and testing approaches are inefficient for controlling microbiological quality.

  20. Investigation on performances of asphalt mixtures made with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: Effects of interaction between virgin and RAP bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Noferini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tonnes of asphalt for road applications in 2014. In the same year, the amount of available RAP was more than 50 mil tonnes. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. Despite the economic and environmental benefits, road authorities tend to limit the use of RAP in asphalt mixes due to uncertainty about field performances. The present study focuses on the interaction between neat and RAP bitumen in asphalt mixes made with different RAP content. The effects of RAP on physical and rheological properties of the final bituminous blend were investigated. This study is part of a wider research, where a specific type of asphalt mixture was produced with different RAP contents being 10%, 20% and 30% by mass of the mix. Bitumen was extracted and recovered from asphalt mixes, then it was subjected to the following laboratory tests: standard characterization, dynamic viscosity and rheological analysis with DSR. Findings showed that the effects of RAP bitumen on the final blend varied in proportion to RAP content. A threshold value of RAP content was found, below which bitumen was not subjected to significant changes in physical and rheological properties. Practical implications on production methods and paving of RAP mixes are also proposed. Keywords: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, Recycling, Bitumen blending, Bitumen rheology

  1. Cellular Manufacturing System with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khannan, M. S. A.; Maruf, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Sutrisno, S.; Wibawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Material Handling take as important role in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design. In several study at CMS design material handling was assumed per pieces or with constant lot size. In real industrial practice, lot size may change during rolling period to cope with demand changes. This study develops CMS Model with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling. Integer Linear Programming is used to solve the problem. Objective function of this model is minimizing total expected cost consisting machinery depreciation cost, operating costs, inter-cell material handling cost, intra-cell material handling cost, machine relocation costs, setup costs, and production planning cost. This model determines optimum cell formation and optimum lot size. Numerical examples are elaborated in the paper to ilustrate the characterictic of the model.

  2. Optimal Multi-Level Lot Sizing for Requirements Planning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Earle Steinberg; H. Albert Napier

    1980-01-01

    The wide spread use of advanced information systems such as Material Requirements Planning (MRP) has significantly altered the practice of dependent demand inventory management. Recent research has focused on development of multi-level lot sizing heuristics for such systems. In this paper, we develop an optimal procedure for the multi-period, multi-product, multi-level lot sizing problem by modeling the system as a constrained generalized network with fixed charge arcs and side constraints. T...

  3. Mechanical characterization of porous asphalt mixes modified with fatty acid amides -FAA-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Senior Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt mixes (PAM, form a special road surface for asphalt pavement structures, have a special particle size distribution that lets infiltrate to the runoff storm water through of it because of its voids content about 20 %. Many researchers conducted studies and have concluded that the use of modified asphalts is completely necessary to design PAM. Organic and chemical additives and special procedures as foamed asphalt have enhanced the performance of PAM, during their service life. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of PAM and how the asphalt modified with fatty acid amides, influenced on their behavior and performance. Based on an experimental methodology with laboratory tests aimed at establishing a comparison between porous asphalt mixes, using for its design and production a penetration 60-70 pure asphalt and another one asphalt modified with fatty acid amides.

  4. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Higher traffic coupled with heavier loads led the asphalt industry to introduce polymer-modified binders to enhance the durability and strength of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. When the Superpave Performance Graded (PG) binder specification (AASHT...

  5. Assessment of asphalt concrete reinforcement grid in flexible pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report investigated the application of accepted methods of pavement structural evaluation to independently assess the potential structural benefit of asphalt geogrid reinforcement of an operational flexible highway pavement. The asphalt interlay...

  6. Quantifying Asphalt Emulsion-Based Chip Seal Curing Times Using Electrical Resistance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Chip sealing typically consists of covering a pavement surface with asphalt emulsion into which aggregate chips are embedded. The asphalt emulsion cures through the evaporation of water, thus providing mechanical strength to adhere to the pavement wh...

  7. 0-6686 : improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Limestone rock asphalt (LRA) mixtures have : been produced and placed for several decades : using specification requirements currently listed : under DMS 9210, Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA). : Several Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) distr...

  8. Performance Assessment of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Pavements : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is a new technology which was : introduced in 1995 in Europe. WMA is gaining attention all : over the world because it offers several advantages over : conventional asphalt concrete mixes. The benefits include: : (1) Reduced en...

  9. Performance Measures of Warm Asphalt Mixtures for Safe and Reliable Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is an emerging technology that can allow asphalt to flow at a lower temperature for mixing, placing and compaction. The advantages of WMA include reduced fuel consumption, less carbon dioxide emission, longer paving season, lon...

  10. Pavement service life extension due to asphalt surface treatment interlayer : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) has been : using asphalt surface treatment (AST) interlayers over soil cement base courses : as a means to mitigate shrinkage cracks from reflecting through the asphaltic : concrete (A...

  11. Fatigue and fracture properties of aged binders in the context of reclaimed asphalt mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Evidence in the literature indicates that the stiffness of the asphalt binder increases and ductility of the binder decreases : with oxidative aging. Typically for unmodified asphalt binders, increase in stiffness or decrease in ductility is regarded...

  12. In-Place Recycling and Reclamation of Asphaltic Concrete Pavements in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Full-depth reclamation has been defined by the Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association as a rehabilitation technique in which the full thickness of the asphalt pavement and a predetermined portion of the underlying material (base, subbase, an...

  13. Improving Quality Control of Asphalt Pavement with RAP Using a Portable Infrared Spectroscopy Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This project has investigated the effectiveness of a Portable Infrared Spectrometer (PIRS) device in estimating percent of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and its contribution into oxidative aging of a new asphalt mixture immediately after productio...

  14. The road that's taken : Alberta's bitumen and the world of asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one third of the bitumen produced by the oil sands industry in Canada is used as asphalt in roads and roofing materials. Crude oils used for asphalt production require very little refining. The asphalt market has become a key profit centre for some Cold Lake operators. Imperial Oil has established a research centre devoted to asphalt production at its Sarnia-based refinery. A decline in heavy oil supplies from Mexico and Venezuela has left Canada with a larger margin of the asphalt market. Industry leaders predict that demand for asphalt products will grow by 2.6 per cent per year. A sharp increase in asphalt prices led to many construction delays in 2007. Trials are now being conducted on a new warm mix paving technology that allows users to lower the temperature of asphalt by 20 to 30 degrees C when paving. 2 figs

  15. Evaluation of cement and fly ash treated recycled asphalt pavement and aggregates for base construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Many entities currently use recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and other aggregates as base material, temporary haul roads, : and, in the case of RAP, hot mix asphalt construction. Several states currently allow the use of RAP combined with cement : for...

  16. A Review of the Application of Zeolite Materials in Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woszuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among warm mix asphalt (WMA technologies, asphalt foaming techniques offer high potential in terms of decreasing production temperature. Reluctance of manufacturers to introduce this technology is connected with the concerns of a large investment costs. However, there are known additives which, through asphalt foaming, allow a decrease in temperatures by approximately 30 °C; the use of these additives do not involve expensive investment in order to change the asphalt mix production method. These additives are zeolites, that is, minerals of the aluminosilicate group, the crystalline structure of which contains water bound in a specific way. Its release, at mix asphalt production temperatures, causes asphalt foaming. It is currently known that zeolites can be used in WMA, including natural and synthetic zeolites obtained using chemical reagents and waste. This review presents the results of studies of WMA technology, including the effects of zeolite addition on asphalt properties and mix asphalt, as well as related environmental, economic, and technological benefits.

  17. Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture Incorporating Kenaf Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainin, M. R.; Idham, M. K.; Yaro, N. S. A.; Hussein, S. O. A. E.; Warid, M. N. M.; Mohamed, A.; Naqibah, S. N.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.

    2018-04-01

    Kenaf fibre has been recognised to increase the strength of concrete, but its application in asphalt concrete is still unanswered. This research investigated the performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) incorporated with different percentages of kenaf fibre (0.1 %, 0.2% and 0.3% by weight of dry aggregate) in term of resilient modulus, rutting performance using Asphalt Pavement analyser (APA) and moisture damage using the Modified Lottman test (AASHTO-T283). The fibre was interweaved to a diameter of about 5-10 mm and length of 30 mm which is three times the nominal maximum aggregate size used in the mix. Asphaltic mixtures of asphalt concrete (AC) 10 were prepared and compacted using Marshall compactor which were subsequently tested to evaluate the resilient modulus and moisture susceptibility. Twelve cylindrical specimens (150mm diameter) from AC10, two control samples with two modified ones for each percentage of kenaf fibres compacted using Gyratory compactor were used for rutting test using APA. The laboratory results reveal that the addition of kenaf fibres slightly reduce the resilient modulus of the mixes and that asphaltic mix with 0.3% kenaf fibre can mitigate both rutting and moisture damage which makes the pavement more sustain to the loads applied even in the presence of water. 0.3% kenaf fibre content is considered to be the optimal content which had the least rut depth and the highest TSR of 81.07%. Based on grid analysis, addition of 0.3% kenaf fibre in asphaltic concrete was recommended in modifying the samples.

  18. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  19. iPark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Fantini, Ernesto Nicolas; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    where the geo-spatial aspect is not just a tag on other content, but is the primary content, e.g., a city street map with up-to-date road construction data. Along these lines, the iPark system aims to turn volumes of GPS data obtained from vehicles into information about the locations of parking spaces...

  20. THE SCHOOL PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FISCHER, JOHN H.

    TO ASSIST IN DESEGREGATION, VARIOUS MODELS FOR THE SCHOOL PARK ARE PROPOSED--(1) ASSEMBLING ALL STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS OF A SMALL OR MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY ON A SINGLE CAMPUS, (2) SERVING ONE SECTION OF A LARGE CITY, (3) CENTERING ALL SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR A SINGLE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON A SINGLE SITE, AND (4) ESTABLISHING RINGS OF SCHOOL PARKS ABOUT…

  1. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels

    2018-01-01

    system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...

  2. Bicycle Parking and Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    . This article contributes with new insights into parking and locking - ‘moorings’ - to cycling literature. It presents an ethnography of ‘design moorings’ and practices associated with parking and locking bikes. The main case study is the very pro-cycling city of Copenhagen. Yet to explore what is unique about...

  3. A Novel Location-Centric IoT-Cloud Based On-Street Car Parking Violation Management System in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thanh; Kim, Younghan

    2016-06-02

    Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver's side and the city government's side. From the driver's side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government's side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver's side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably.

  4. A Novel Location-Centric IoT-Cloud Based On-Street Car Parking Violation Management System in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thanh; Kim, Younghan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver’s side and the city government’s side. From the driver’s side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government’s side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver’s side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably. PMID:27271620

  5. A Novel Location-Centric IoT-Cloud Based On-Street Car Parking Violation Management System in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Dinh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver’s side and the city government’s side. From the driver’s side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government’s side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-street parking lot is also a considerable concern. However, existing studies of smart parking management focus only on assisting the driver’s side to find available parking spaces. This study aims to raise a new perspective on such smart parking management and to propose a novel location-centric IoT-cloud-based parking violation management system. The system is designed to assist authoritative officers in finding parking violations easily and recommends the least cost path for officers so that officers can achieve their highest productivity in finding parking violations and issuing parking tickets. Experimental results show that the system not only improves the productivity of officers in finding parking violations and issuing tickets, but also helps reduce the traveling cost of officers and to reduce the average violation period of violating cars considerably.

  6. Design of demand side response model in energy internet demonstration park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, D. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of demand side response can bring a lot of benefits to the power system, users and society, but there are still many problems in the actual operation. Firstly, this paper analyses the current situation and problems of demand side response. On this basis, this paper analyses the advantages of implementing demand side response in the energy Internet demonstration park. Finally, the paper designs three kinds of feasible demand side response modes in the energy Internet demonstration park.

  7. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  8. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

  9. Survey of microbial degradation of asphalts with notes on relationship to nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZoBell, C.E.; Molecke, M.A.

    1978-12-01

    A survey has been made of the microbial degradation of asphalts. Topics covered include chemical and physical properties of asphalts, their chemical stability, methods of demonstrating their microbial degradation, and environmental extremes for microbial activity based on existing literature. Specific concerns for the use of asphalt in nuclear waste management, plus potential effects and consequences thereof are discussed. 82 references

  10. Visualizing asphalt roller trajectories in context: acquiring, processing, and representing sensor readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt compaction process relies heavily on the skills and knowledge of roller operators who act alongside other stakeholders involved in asphalt paving. It is essential that these construction specialists: (1) are adequately informed about the initial temperature distribution of the asphalt

  11. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road : How is it performing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  12. On the representative volume element of asphalt concrete at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasteanu, Mihai; Cannone Falchetto, Augusto; Velasquez, Raul; Le, Jia-Liang

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of characterizing asphalt mixtures' rheological and failure properties at low temperatures by means of the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) is investigated in this paper. The main issue is the use of thin beams of asphalt mixture in experimental procedures that may not capture the true behavior of the material used to construct an asphalt pavement.

  13. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  14. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  15. The mechanical behavior of two warm-mix asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Rondón-Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results stemming from a comparative experimental analysis of two warm-mix asphalts (WMA and a dense-graded hot-mix asphalt (HMA. In order to evaluate asphalt mixture behavior, physical and rheological tests were conducted, including tests on resilient modulus, resistance to moisture-induced damage, resistance to fatigue and resistance to permanent deformation. Samples studied were subjected to short (STOA and long-term (LTOA aging. As far as asphalt mixture composition is concerned, the same particle size distribution and coarse aggregate were employed for both mixture types. The control HMA mixture was produced with AC 60-70, and the WMAs used the same asphalt cement modified with two chemical additives (Rediset WMX® and Cecabase RT®. The modified mixtures exhibited better resistance to permanent deformation, aging and moisture-induced damage (versus the control mixture. Likewise, WMAs generally saw increased fatigue resistance under controlled-stress loading, which rheological characterization showed is mainly attributable to binder additives and their concomitant modifications.

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Aging Behaviour of SBS Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of aging SBS modified asphalt on the performance of asphalt pavement, aging at various times and temperatures was conducted with thin film oven, and then tests were made about the penetration, softening point, ductility, viscosity, toughness, and fluorescence microscopy of modified asphalt with different aging levels. The results show that, with the increasing of aging time, the penetration and ductility of modified asphalt decrease while its softening point and viscosity increase, and the variation trend of the toughness and tenacity is related to the aging temperature; the aging dynamic model with viscosity as parameter can well characterize the aging process of modified asphalt; at microlevel, with the decreasing of SBS particle size, the uniformity of particle size is better. Analysis of macroscopic properties, microscopic characteristics, and significance shows that the SBS particle area ratio has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging temperature changes. When the aging temperature is 163°C, the SBS particle area ratio still has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging time changes.

  17. Significance of Fines in Hot Mix Asphalt Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaitzaki Elvira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to their size, aggregates are classified in coarse grained, fine grained, and fines. The determination of fines content in aggregate materials is very simple and is performed through the aggregate washing during the sieving procedure to define the gradation curve. The very fine material consists of grains having a size lower than 63 μm. The presence of fines directly influences the composition and performance of concrete and asphalt mixtures (e.g. asphalt content, elasticity, fracture. The strength and load carrying capacity of hot mix asphalt (HMA results from the aggregate framework created through particle-particle contact and interlock. Fines or mineral filler have a role in HMA. The coarse aggregate framework is filled by the sand-sized material and finally by the mineral filler. At some point, the smallest particles lose contact becoming suspended in the binder not having the particle-particle contact that is created by the larger particles. The overall effect of mineral filler in hot mix asphalt specimens has been investigated through a series of laboratory tests. It is clear that a behaviour influenced by the adherence of fines to asphalt film has been developed. The optimum bitumen content requirement in case of stone filler is almost the same as that for fly ash. It has been found that the percentage of fly ash filler is crucial if it exceeds approximately a value of 4%.

  18. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  19. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  20. Aging test results of an asphalt membrane liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Barnes, S.M.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of the asphalt aging study described in this report was to determine the expected performance lifetime of a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane as a seepage barrier for inactive uranium mill tailings. The study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, showed through chemical compatibility tests that the asphalt membrane is well suited for this purpose. The chemical compatibility tests were designed to accelerate the aging reactions in the asphalt and to determine the accelerated aging effect. Higher temperatures and oxygen concentrations proved to be effective acceleration parameters. By infrared spectral analysis, the asphalt was determined to have undergone 7 years of equivalent aging in a 3-month period when exposed to 40 0 C and 1.7 atm oxygen pressure. However, the extent of aging was limited to a maximum penetration of 0.5% of the total liner thickness. It was concluded that the liner could be expected to be effective as a seepage barrier for at least 1000 years before the entire thickness of the liner would be degraded

  1. Partial substitution of asphalt pavement with modified sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of sulfur in pavement laying was developed in 1980 but it was restricted in the late 19th century due to its environmental problems and its high reactivity toward oxidation processes which give sulfuric acid products that are capable of destroying the asphalt mixture. The study involved the conversion of elemental sulfur to a more stable modified one using a combination of byproducts of olefin hydrocarbons that were obtained from petroleum fractional distillates and cyclic hydrocarbon bituminous residue at 145 °C. The changes in the structural characteristics and morphology of prepared modified sulfur were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. Also DSC curves help us to elucidate the changes in sulfur phases from α-orthorhombic to β-mono clinic structure. The technique of nanoindentation helps us to compare the mechanical properties of modified and pure sulfur including modulus of elasticity and hardness. The hot mixture asphalt designs were prepared according to the Marshall Method in which the asphalt binder content was partially substituted with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% modified sulfur. The mechanical properties were measured including Marshall Stability, flow, air voids, and Marshall Stiffness. From the overall study, the results indicated that asphalt could partially be substituted with modified sulfur with no significant deleterious effect on performance and durability of hot mixed asphalt.

  2. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  3. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  4. Performance of Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (AC-WC) Utilizing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement from Cold Milling Bound with 80/100 Pen Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanya, I. N. A.; Suweda, I. W.; Putra, G. K.

    2018-03-01

    Demands on natural aggregate materials for road pavement can be reduced by utilizing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This research was aimed at evaluating the performance of AC-WC mixture using RAP materials from cold milling, bound with 80/100 pen asphalt. The RAP aggregate gradation was adjusted by adding the required amount of natural aggregates to meet the specification in Indonesia. The RAP and added aggregates were hotmixed and compacted with Marshall hummer at 2×75 blows. The asphalt content were varied. It was found that the optimum asphalt content was 6.05 % with the following Marshall characteristics: stability 1237.08 kg; flow 3.36 mm; Marshall quotient 324,73kg/mm; void in mix (VIM) 3,360%; void in mineral aggregate (VMA) 15.103; and void filled with bitumen (VFB) 77.759% and residual stability 91.04; all met the Indonesian specification. The cantabro abration loss (CAL) at 30°C was 9,02%. The indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM) at 20 °C was 7961.4 MPa; dynamic creep with 100 kPa pressure at 40°C gave slope 0.0112 microsstrain/pulse which is suitable for heavy load traffic. The fatigue test results was obtained at increased stress level, i.e. at 900, 1100, and 1300 kPa. Based on the equation derived from the fatigue strain and repeated loading relationship, at 100 microstrain (με) the repeated load was 434,661.58 times, and at one million (106) repeated loading, the samples could withstand strain of 92,38 microstrain. The performance of the samples were overall better than AC-WC mixture using virgin aggregates bound with 60/70 pen asphalt.

  5. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  6. Detection of semi-volatile organic compounds in permeable pavement infiltrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The Edison Environmental Center (EEC) performs research on green infrastructure (GI) treatment options. One such treatment option is the use of permeable pavements. EEC constructed a parking lot comprised of three different permeable systems: permeable asphalt, porous ...

  7. Lot Sizing Based on Stochastic Demand and Service Level Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hajar shirneshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering its application, stochastic lot sizing is a significant subject in production planning. Also the concept of service level is more applicable than shortage cost from managers' viewpoint. In this paper, the stochastic multi period multi item capacitated lot sizing problem has been investigated considering service level constraint. First, the single item model has been developed considering service level and with no capacity constraint and then, it has been solved using dynamic programming algorithm and the optimal solution has been derived. Then the model has been generalized to multi item problem with capacity constraint. The stochastic multi period multi item capacitated lot sizing problem is NP-Hard, hence the model could not be solved by exact optimization approaches. Therefore, simulated annealing method has been applied for solving the problem. Finally, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the model, low level criterion has been used .

  8. Laboratorium Study of Asphalt Starbit E-55 Polymer Modified Application on Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (Ac-Wc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianus Kans Pangaraya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conventional asphalt road has almost been considered fail to serve the transportation needs. It is indicated by the occurrence of premature damage which is caused by vehicle load and climate. Starbit E-55, the polymer modified bitumen, is formulated to meet the requirement of transport development. Considering those needs, it is important to investigate the feasibility level of that modified bitumen as alternate asphalt instead of the conventional one. This research began with the measurement of the properties of hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55, then comparing the result to 60/70 penetration of Pertamina asphalt. The next step is then, to determine the converted value so as to be close to that of Pertamina (60/70 penetration. This step is conducted by applying durability and ITS tests on the mixture. Result of the tests showed that hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55 has better characteristic at 5.7% optimum level asphalt and 6.4% of Pertamina asphalt (60/70 penetration. Starbit E-55 converted level within hard-layered ACWC is 5.6%. The performance test result on immersion with variance of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days shows that durability value of Starbit E-55 AC-WC has better performance. During the process, Starbit E-55 required 15.38% higher energy consumption.

  9. Parks and their users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with urban parks and their use(rs. It focuses on usage-spatial relationships from two different angles. Firstly, it discusses the actual uses mapped in places, using repeated observation on different days, times and weather conditions. Secondly, it addresses designers’ views and beliefs about usage and design of urban parks. However, the paper shows that designers’ beliefs and awareness about uses in places, in some aspects, differ from actual use. It stresses the use of empirical knowledge about usage-spatial relationships, which can be gained by using observation and behavioural mapping, in decision-making processes for parks design.

  10. Investigation of Asphalt Mixture Creep Behavior Using Thin Beam Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zofka, Adam; Marasteanu, Mihai; Turos, Mugur

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt pavement layer consists of two or more lifts of compacted asphalt mixture; the top of the layer is also exposed to aging, a factor that significantly affects the mixture properties. The current testing specifications use rather thick specimens that cannot be used to investigate the gradual change in properties with pavement depth. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the 3-point bending test with thin asphalt mixture beams (127x12.7x6.35 mm) to determine the low-temperature creep compliance of the mixtures. Several theoretical and semi-empirical models, from the theory of composites, are reviewed and evaluated using numerical and experimental data. Preliminary results show that this method can be used for low-temperature mixture characterization but several crucial factors need further inspection and interpretation

  11. Effect of ageing on porosity of hot mix asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.F.A.S. [Dept. de Estradas de Rodagem de Minas Gerais (DER/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lins, V.F.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: vlins@deq.ufmg.br; Pasa, V.M.D. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-01-15

    Asphalt ageing due to the action of solar radiation must be considered in the study of the performance of asphalt pavement, especially in Brazil because of its geographical characteristics. The aim of this work is to study asphalt ageing caused by the effect of xenon radiation, by using weathering tests. Sample degradation was evaluated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of FTIR indicated an oxidation process of the material, which occurred during exposure in the xenon arc chamber. The area ratio related to the bands of the aliphatic CH/OH and CH/C=O groups and those of the Si-O-Si/OH groups of bitumen decreased after exposure to xenon radiation. The samples were analyzed by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity of the samples before and after ageing was measured by using the SEM micrographs and the image software Quantikov. (author)

  12. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation

  13. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt

  14. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers

  15. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  16. Stability and Volumetric Properties of Asphalt Mixture Containing Waste Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kader Siti Aminah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to determine the optimum bitumen content (OBC for every percentage added of waste plastics in asphalt mixtures and to investigate the stability properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic. Marshall stability and flow values along with density, air voids in total mix, voids in mineral aggregate, and voids filled with bitumen were determined to obtain OBC at different percentages of waste plastic, i.e., 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen as additive. Results showed that the OBC for the plastic-modified asphalt mixtures at 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% are 4.98, 5.44, 5.48, and 5.14, respectively. On the other hand, the controlled specimen’s shows better volumetric properties compared to plastic mixes. However, 4% additional of waste plastic indicated better stability than controlled specimen.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  18. Deformation Parameters and Fatigue of the Recycled Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šrámek Juraj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The deformational properties of asphalt mixtures measured by dynamic methods and fatigue allow a design the road to suit the expected traffic load. Quality of mixtures is also expressed by the resistance to permanent deformation. Complex modulus of stiffness and fatigue can reliably characterize the proposed mixture of asphalt pavement. The complex modulus (E* measurement of asphalt mixtures are carried out in laboratory of Department of Construction Management at University of Žilina by two-point bending test method on trapezoid-shaped samples. Today, the fatigue is verified on trapezoid-shaped samples and is assessed by proportional strain at 1 million cycles (ε6. The test equipment and software is used to evaluate fatigue and deformation characteristics.

  19. Optimization of Parking Public Transport Vehicles in Ostrava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Teichmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical trait of public transport is a spatially scattered demand. A route net that is operated by a carrier (or several carriers has to be adapted to the demand. Public transport vehicles that are not used during a period of a day are usually parked in defined parking lots that have a given capacity. When the vehicle goes from the place where its schedule ends (usually a terminus of the last connection served by the vehicle to the place where the vehicle should be parked, a non-productive journey occurs. The same occurs at the beginning of the vehicle schedule as well. The main goal of the paper is to present a mathematical model that enables minimization of the total length of all the non-productive journeys. Functionality of the proposed mathematical model was tested in the conditions of a real bus public transport network.

  20. Shelf life extension for the lot AAE nozzle severance LSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf life extension tests for the remaining lot AAE linear shaped charges for redesigned solid rocket motor nozzle aft exit cone severance were completed in the small motor conditioning and firing bay, T-11. Five linear shaped charge test articles were thermally conditioned and detonated, demonstrating proper end-to-end charge propagation. Penetration depth requirements were exceeded. Results indicate that there was no degradation in performance due to aging or the linear shaped charge curving process. It is recommended that the shelf life of the lot AAE nozzle severance linear shaped charges be extended through January 1992.

  1. Rutting Prediction in Asphalt Pavement Based on Viscoelastic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahi Mohammed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutting is one of the most disturbing failures on the asphalt roads due to the interrupting it is caused to the drivers. Predicting of asphalt pavement rutting is essential tool leads to better asphalt mixture design. This work describes a method of predicting the behaviour of various asphalt pavement mixes and linking these to an accelerated performance testing. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT for rutting. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C3 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at a frequency of 1 Hz and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’ s ratio determined at the same temperature. Viscoelastic model (creep model is adopted using a FE simulator (ANSYS in order to calculate the rutting for various mixes under a uniform loading pressure of 500 kPa. An eight-node with a three Degrees of Freedom (UX, UY, and UZ Element is used for the simulation. The creep model developed for HWRT tester was verified by comparing the predicted rut depths with the measured one and by comparing the rut depth with ABAQUS result from literature. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1 and C3 have a strong relationship with rutting. It was clear that the parameter C1 strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally, it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tool to analyse rutting of asphalt pavements.

  2. Cooperative Multiagent System for Parking Availability Prediction Based on Time Varying Dynamic Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surafel Luleseged Tilahun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the main issues in the study of transportation planning and management. It creates different problems including environmental pollution and health problem and incurs a cost which is increasing through years. One-third of this congestion is created by cars searching for parking places. Drivers may be aware that parking places are fully occupied but will drive around hoping that a parking place may become vacant. Opportunistic services, involving learning, predicting, and exploiting Internet of Things scenarios, are able to adapt to dynamic unforeseen situations and have the potential to ease parking search issues. Hence, in this paper, a cooperative dynamic prediction mechanism between multiple agents for parking space availability in the neighborhood, integrating foreseen and unforeseen events and adapting for long-term changes, is proposed. An agent in each parking place will use a dynamic and time varying Markov chain to predict the parking availability and these agents will communicate to produce the parking availability prediction in the whole neighborhood. Furthermore, a learning approach is proposed where the system can adapt to different changes in the parking demand including long-term changes. Simulation results, using synthesized data based on an actual parking lot data from a shopping mall in Geneva, show that the proposed model is promising based on the learning accuracy with service adaptation and performance in different cases.

  3. State of the Art Study on Aging of Asphalt Mixtures and Use of Antioxidant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Sirin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of hardening in asphalt pavements were first recognized by pioneering pavement engineers in the 1900s and have been studied extensively during the last 70 years. This hardening process, referred to as asphalt aging, is generally defined as change in the rheological properties of asphalt binders/mixtures due to changes in chemical composition during construction and its service life period. Aging causes the asphalt material to stiffen and embrittle, which affects the durability and leads to a high potential for cracking. This paper presents the state of the art on asphalt and asphalt mixture aging and use of antioxidant additives to retard the aging. A picture of complex molecular structure of asphalt and its changes due to atmospheric condition and various protocols used to simulate aging in laboratory environment are also discussed. Emphasis is given on recent studies on simulation of aging of asphalt mixtures as there has been limited research on mixtures compared to the asphalt binder. Finally, this paper presents the application of antiaging techniques and its mechanism, use of various types of antioxidant additives to retard aging of asphalt and, hence, improve the performance of asphalt pavements.

  4. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC. This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  5. Final environmental and regulatory assessment of using asphalt as a sealant in mine shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses the properties of asphalt, the current regulatory status governing asphalt and future regulatory implications which may be pertinent in using asphalt as a waterproof shaft sealant. An understanding of the inherent organic composition of asphalt, an increase in the number of health and environmental research publications conducted on asphalt and an examination of the apparent trend of regulatory agencies toward more stringent environmental regulation governing the use of organic materials suggests asphalt could become regulated at a future time. This would only occur, however, if asphalt was found to conform to the present regulatory definitions of pollutants, contaminants or hazardous substances or if asphalt was included on a regulated substance list. In this regard, the study points out that asphalt contains very low levels of hazardous poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's). These levels are significantly lower than the levels present in coal tars, a substance known to contain high levels of hazardous PNA's. Asphalt, however, has the inherent potential of producing higher concentrations of PNA's if the adverse condition of cracking should occur during the refinery production stage or on-site preparation of the asphalt. Also, unless existing control technology is applied, emission levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and volatile organic carbons from the on-site preparation facilities could approach the permissible health standard levels of EPA. The study indicates, however, that available literature is limited on these issues

  6. Adhesion Evaluation of Asphalt-Aggregate Interface Using Surface Free Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of organic additives (Sasobit and RH and water on the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface was studied according to the surface free energy theory. Two asphalt binders (SK-70 and SK-90, and two aggregate types (limestone and basalt were used in this study. The sessile drop method was employed to test surface free energy components of asphalt, organic additives and aggregates. The adhesion models of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry and wet conditions were established, and the adhesion work was calculated subsequently. The energy ratios were built to evaluate the effect of organic additives and water on the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface. The results indicate that the addition of organic additives can enhance the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry conditions, because organic additives reduced the surface free energy of asphalt. However, the organic additives have hydrophobic characteristics and are sensitive to water. As a result, the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface of the asphalt containing organic additives in wet conditions sharply decreased due to water damage to asphalt and organic additives. Furthermore, the compatibility of asphalt, aggregate with organic additive was noted and discussed.

  7. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Adam T [Cheyenne, WY; Robertson, Raymond E [Laramie, WY; Branthaver, Jan F [Chatham, IL; Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY

    2012-08-07

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  8. An investigation of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakis, Recep; Koyuncu, Hakan; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory study regarding the reuse of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete production by replacing a certain portion of aggregate with WFS was undertaken. The results showed that replacement of 10% aggregates with waste foundry sand was found to be the most suitable for asphalt concrete mixtures. Furthermore, the chemical and physical properties of waste foundry sand were analysed in the laboratory to determine the potential effect on the environment. The results indicated that the investigated waste foundry sand did not significantly affect the environment around the deposition

  9. SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING ELECTRIC DRIVE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXING PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Surmak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to evaluate quality of asphalt concrete mixture through definition of current component variable of a drive motor and measurement of its derivative sign. In order to carry out final determination of mixture uniformity a transducer on the basis of a nuclear magnetic resonance is applied. Block diagram of the system is presented and algorithm of its operation is given in the paper. In addition to improvement of the finished product quality the application of the system makes it possible to reduce bitumen consumption used for production of asphalt concrete.

  10. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  11. Asphalt concrete modified by rubber crumbs in transport construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhovny, G. S.; Karpenko, AV

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature and low-temperature characteristics of the rubber-bitumen binder and rubber asphalt concrete based on it are researched. The determination method of binder’s low-temperature characteristics is offered. The estimation of binder’s and pavement’s stability against technological and operational aging is evaluated. Estimation of environmental and economic aspects of using rubber crumbs is made. The possibility of using rubber crumbs as modifier of organic binder for production of asphalt concrete on its base is justified.

  12. Versailles' park taasavatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Osa Pariisi lähedase Versailles' lossi pargist avati jaanuari alguses uuesti publikule. 17.-18. sajandi prantsuse stiilis park suleti avalikkusele detsembris 1999 pärast parki laastanud hiigeltormi, mis murdis ligemale 10000 puud.

  13. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  14. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  15. Allegheny County Parks Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size and shape of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  16. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  17. Numerical simulation on the thermal response of heat-conducting asphalt pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Wu Shaopeng; Chen Mingyu; Zhang Yuan, E-mail: wusp@whut.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-05-01

    Using asphalt pavements as a solar collector is a subject of current interest all over the world because the sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy, which can be captured by black asphalt pavements. A heat-conducting device is designed to absorb energy from the sun. In order to validate what parameters are critical in the asphalt collector, a finite element model is developed to predict the thermal response of the heat-conducting device compared to the conventional asphalt mixture. Some factors that may affect the asphalt pavement collector are considered, including the coefficient of heat conductivity of the asphalt pavement, the distance between pipes with the medium, water, and the pipe's diameter. Ultimately, the finite element model can provide pavement engineers with an efficient computational tool that can be a guide to the conductive asphalt solar collector's experiment in the laboratory.

  18. Numerical simulation on the thermal response of heat-conducting asphalt pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hong; Wu Shaopeng; Chen Mingyu; Zhang Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Using asphalt pavements as a solar collector is a subject of current interest all over the world because the sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy, which can be captured by black asphalt pavements. A heat-conducting device is designed to absorb energy from the sun. In order to validate what parameters are critical in the asphalt collector, a finite element model is developed to predict the thermal response of the heat-conducting device compared to the conventional asphalt mixture. Some factors that may affect the asphalt pavement collector are considered, including the coefficient of heat conductivity of the asphalt pavement, the distance between pipes with the medium, water, and the pipe's diameter. Ultimately, the finite element model can provide pavement engineers with an efficient computational tool that can be a guide to the conductive asphalt solar collector's experiment in the laboratory.

  19. Effect of moisture and freeze-thaw on mechanical properties of CRM asphalt mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Seok; Cho, Kee-Ju [Kyonggi University, Suwon(Korea)

    2000-06-30

    This paper presents the experimental test results on moisture and freeze-thaw resistance of hot mix crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt concrete mixture. To compare the differences in mechanical properties of conventional and CRM asphalt concretes, various tests were conducted under different moisture conditions and freeze-thaw cycles. Marshall mix design was also performed to determine the optimum asphalt contents for the both asphalt concrete mixtures. Test results revealed that the moisture and freeze-thaw resistance of CRM asphalt mixture was superior to the conventional asphalt concrete. As a result, it is considered that the utilization of waste tires in asphalt pavements has the potential of minimizing the damage due to the moisture and freeze-thaw. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  1. Permission to park: A statewide study of high school parking permits to determine compliance with graduated driver licensing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apanovitch, Audrey; Champany, Victoria; Wilson, Meghan; Emam, Hadeer; Ruiz, Kelly; Borrup, Kevin; Lapidus, Garry

    2015-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of fatality among teens in the United States. Beginning in the 1990s, many states enacted graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems to delay full licensure while allowing beginners to obtain experience under lower-risk conditions. Many high schools require parent and guardians of newly licensed teen drivers to complete a student parking pass application (PPA) for their son/daughter to drive, park, and transport themselves to and from school activities. The objective of this study was to describe the content of these PPAs for compliance with Connecticut's GDL law. PPAs were requested via e-mail, fax, or telephone from all Connecticut's high schools (n = 233). PPA variables included school demographics, parking rules, prohibitions and sanctions for violations, as well as reference to GDL law. Seventy-four schools were excluded because students were not allowed to park and schools did not require PPAs or declined to send us a copy of their PPAs. Of the remaining 159 schools, 122 (76.7%) sent us their PPAs. Responding schools were more likely to be suburban or rural. Most PPAs included a section on prohibitions and sanctions for driving misbehavior. Forty-three percent prohibited students from going to car during school hours, and 34% prohibited driving off campus/parking lot. Seventy percent warned of consequences for dangerous driving in parking lot, and 88% included the possibility of revocation for infractions. Only 14% had any reference to Connecticut's GDL law on their PPAs. A small percentage of Connecticut high schools include information about GDL laws on their PPAs. All states should examine their PPA content and adopt a uniform high school PPA that includes key provisions of their state's GDL laws in an effort to promote teen driving safety. Therapeutic study, level V.

  2. The Lot Sizing and Scheduling of Sand Casting Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, Steef

    2011-01-01

    We describe a real world case study that involves the monthly planning and scheduling of the sand-casting department in a metal foundry. The problem can be characterised as a single-level multi-item capacitated lot-sizing model with a variety of additional process-specific constraints. The main

  3. Effects of asphalt rejuvenator on thermal and mechanical properties on oxidized hot mixed asphalt pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Nicholas A.; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of asphalt rejuvenator, and its effectiveness for restoring thermal and mechanical properties was investigated via Disk-shaped Compact Tension (DC(T)) and acoustic emission (AE) testing for determining mechanical properties and embrittlement temperatures of the mixtures. During the DC(T) testing the fracture energies and peak loads were used to measure the resistance of the rejuvenated asphalt to low temperature cracking. The AE testing monitored the acoustic emission activity while the specimens were cooled from room temperature to -40 °C to estimate the temperature at which thermal cracking began (i.e. the embrittlement temperature). First, a baseline response was obtained by obtaining the mechanical and thermal response of virgin HMA samples and HMA samples that had been exposed to oxidative aging for 36 hours at 135°C. The results showed the virgin samples had much higher peak loads and fracture energies than the 36 hours aged samples. Acoustic Emission showed similar results with the virgin samples having embrittlement temperatures 10 °C cooler than the 36 hours aged specimens. Then, overaged for 36 hours specimens were treated different amounts of rejuvenator (10%, 15%, and 20% by weight of binder content) and left to dwell for increased amount of time periods varying from one to eight weeks. It was observed that the AE results showed an improvement of embrittlement temperature with increasing with the dwell times. The 8 weeks specimens had cooler embrittlement temperatures than the virgin specimens. Finally, the low temperature effects on fracture energy and peak load of the rejuvenated asphalt was investigated. Rejuvenator was applied (10% by weight of binder) to specimens aged 36 hours at 135 °C, and the dwell time was varied from 1 to 4 weeks. The results showed that the peak loads were restored to levels of the virgin specimens, and the fracture energies improved to levels beyond that of the virgin specimens. The results also showed a

  4. Progresses in irradiating SBS for road asphalt applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linfan; Xie Leidong; Fu Haiying; Li Yintao; Yu Min; Sheng Kanglong; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    Technical developments at SINAP to improve properties of SBS, a styrene-butadiene- styrene copolymer, for road asphalt applications are reviewed. In an attempt to better solve problems related to undesirable compatibility of SBS to asphalt components, we proposed a new method to modify the SBS molecular chains with ionizing radiations through radiation graft copolymerization and radiation crosslinking. Grafting a monomer with polar functional groups onto SBS molecules improves compatibility of SBS to polar components of asphalt, hence enhanced storage stability of the polymer modified asphalt (PMA), while crosslinks of SBS molecular chains endues increased physical properties to the PMA. Mechanisms of the radiation effects were studied with a series of SBS samples irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays or electron beams. The PMA and macadam-blended PMA samples showed higher performance than the control, i.e. SBS-modified asphalt by conventional approaches. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. The grafted SBS enhances thermostability of saturates and aromatics, the two asphalt components that exhibit the biggest SBS-swelling effect. The resins of asphalt, however, can hardly be absorbed by SBS, and the SBS is in a phase-separation status with the resins. Therefore, it is crucial to strengthen reactions between SBS and the resins to obtain stable and high quality PMA. 2. SBS molecular chains can be crosslinked with irradiation of a few tens of kGy. The crosslinking effect was evidenced by increased molecular weight of SBS and wider distribution of the molecular weight in GPC measurement of the irradiated SBS samples, and by decreased activation energy of viscosity in rheological measurement, in which the storage modulus G' increased and the loss modulus G' declined with increasing doses, indicating a larger elastic component and smaller viscous component in the irradiated SBS. Correspondingly, temperature sensitivity of the irradiated SBS reduced. Blended with SBS

  5. Bus transit operational efficiency resulting from passenger boardings at park-and-ride facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In order to save time and money by not driving to an ultimate destination, some urban commuters drive themselves a few miles to specially designated parking lots built for transit customers and located where trains or buses stop. The focus of this pa...

  6. Harmony Park: A Decision Case on Gardening on a Brownfield Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Ashley Marie Raes; Presley, DeAnn Ricks; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Attanayake, Chammi; Martin, Sabine; Thien, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    In March of 2009, Mr. John Holloway and his neighbors in the Harmony Park district of Kansas City, MO, were excited to begin gardening on a vacant city lot in their neighborhood. The neighborhood, like many in urban areas, had once been residential interspersed with small establishments including restaurants, shops, and businesses such as auto…

  7. Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghomashlooyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the contamination rate of the public parks of Isfahan city with Toxocara spp. eggs. Methods: A total of 140 soil samples were collected from 28 public parks of Isfahan City, Central Iran, during the summer of 2014. Soil samples were investigated for the presence of Toxocara eggs by flotation method using sucrose solution. The prepared wet mount slides were examined under light microscope using 10 × and 40 × objectives. Results: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 21 (75% out of 28 studied public parks. Also Toxocara spp. eggs were observed in 40 (28.6% out of 140 collected soil samples. Conclusions: Contamination rate with Toxocara spp. eggs in Isfahan is fairly high. Isfahan is a city that has lots of parks and gardens. The stray dogs and cats that roam around the parks contaminate the soil. Therefore preventive measures, especially for children, should be implemented.

  8. Performances of Metal Concentrations from Three Permeable Pavement Infiltrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency designed and constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements: permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. Water sampling was con...

  9. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena I. Souliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR- gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture.

  10. Effect of Particulates Generated from Asphalt Production on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    in air, including dust, soot, dirt, smoke and liquid droplets. Particulate matter is of localized importance near roads, cement works, and other industrial areas. Apart from screening out sunlight, dust on leaf blocks stomata and lowers their conductants to Carbon iv oxide (Jitin and Manish, 2014). Asphalt, which is also referred ...

  11. The adoption of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, M.J.M.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; van der Sijde, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the adoption process of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction and how the level of knowledge as characterised by the level of education in the companies affects this process. The emphasis is on equipment used for transporting

  12. Steel slag in hot mix asphalt concrete : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In September 1994, steel slag test and control sections were constructed in Oregon to evaluate the use of steel slag in hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC). This report covers the construction and five-year performance of a pavement constructed with 30% ...

  13. Using waste plastic bottles as additive for stone mastic asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Zargar, Majid; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez; Shafigh, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PET increased the stiffness level of the mixture improving its resistance level against permanent deformation. → The effects of waste PET on Marshall Stability, air void and bulk specific gravity of the mixture are significant. → The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. -- Abstract: Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions and rendering them more convenient is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of PET (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. The outcomes were statistically analysed and the determination of the significance at certain confidence limits was performed with the two factor variance analysis (ANOVA). Moreover, some studies conducted on polyethylene modified asphalt mixture have also been taken into consideration in this paper. The results show that the addition of PET has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

  14. Aggregate packing characteristics of good and poor performing asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aggregate structure of the compacted mix is a determining factor for the performance of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA). In this paper, the grading characteristics of good and poor performing HMA mixes are explored using the concepts of the Bailey method...

  15. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF COMPACTABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF WARM MIX ASPHALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex Eduardo Álvarez Lugo

    Full Text Available Warm mix asphalt (WMA is the term used to describe the set of technologies that allow fabrication of asphalt mixtures at lower temperatures than those specified for conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA. This temperature reduction leads to advantages, compared to construction of HMA, that include energy savings, reduced emissions, and safer working conditions. However, WMA is a relatively new technology and several aspects are still under evaluation. This paper assesses some of these aspects including laboratory compactability and its relation to mixture design, and performance of WMA (i.e., permanent deformation and cracking resistance fabricated with three WMA additives, namely Advera®, Sasobit®, and Evotherm®. Corresponding results showed better or equivalent laboratory compactability for the WMA, as compared to that of the HMA used as reference (or control-HMA, leading to smaller optimum asphalt contents selected based on a specific target density (i.e., 96%. In terms of performance, inclusion of the WMA additives led to decrease the mixture resistance to permanent deformation, although the mixture resistance to cracking can remain similar or even improve as compared to that of the control-HMA.

  16. Characterization of Brazilian asphalt using X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Edson R.; Pinto, Nivia G.V.; Almeida, Ana P.G.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.; Motta, Laura M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is presented in most crude petroleum and in some natural deposits. The X ray diffraction can give valuable information over the characteristics of a material. Thus, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was employed to investigate parameters that characterize and differentiate asphalt groups (Boscan, CAP20, CAP40, CAP50/60, CAP50/70 and CAP85/100). The scattering measurements were carried out in θ-2θ reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD-6000 at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Brazil. Scans were typically done from 8 deg to 28 deg every 0.05. The parameters analyzed were: FWHM, peak area, peak center, peak height, left half width and right half width. Thus, in this study, scattering profiles from different asphalt groups were carefully measured in order to establish characteristic signatures of these materials. The results indicate that by using three parameters (peak centroid, peak area and peak intensity) it is possible to characterize and differentiate the asphalt. (author)

  17. Field and laboratory investigation of warm mix asphalt in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    During the first half of this research study, TxDOT had only placed 1000 tons of warm mix asphalt : (WMA) as part of a demonstration project. By the end of this three year study, TxDOT had placed more : than 1,000,000 tons of WMA and allowed its use ...

  18. Asphalt Concrete Mixtures: Requirements with regard to Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of asphalt concrete, required properties of constituent materials and their mixing ratios, is of tremendous significance and should be implemented with consideration given to the whole life cycle of those materials and the final construction. Conformity with requirements for long term performance of embedded materials is the general objective of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Therefore, within the assessment, material properties need to be evaluated with consideration given to the whole service life—from the point of embedding in the construction until their disposal or recycling. The evaluation focuses on verification of conformity with criteria set for these materials and should guarantee serviceability and performance during their whole service life. Recycling and reuse of asphalt concrete should be preferred over disposal of the material. This paper presents methodology for LCA of asphalt concrete. It was created to ensure not only applicability of the materials in the initial stage, at the point of their embedding, but their suitability in terms of normatively prescribed service performance of the final construction. Methods described and results are presented in a case study for asphalt mixture AC 11; I design.

  19. Nondestructive evaluation of warm mix asphalt through resonant column testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Non-destructive testing has been used for decades to characterize engineering properties of hot-mix asphalt. Among such tests is the resonant column (RC) test, which is commonly used to characterize soil materials. The resonant column device at Penn ...

  20. The Acoustical Durability of Thin Noise Reducing Asphalt Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Vuye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the European Noise Directive, traffic noise action plans have been established. One of those actions is to deepen the knowledge about low noise roads, as they are considered the most cost-efficient measure for traffic noise abatement. Therefore, ten test sections were installed in May 2012 in Belgium, with the objective of integrating Thin noise-reducing Asphalt Layers (TAL in the Flemish road surface policy in a later stage. Eight test sections are paved with TAL with a thickness of a maximum of 30 mm and a maximum content of accessible voids of 18%. The other two sections consist of a Double-layer Porous Asphalt Concrete (DPAC and a Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA-10 as a reference section. The acoustical quality of the asphalt surfaces has been monitored in time using Statistical Pass-By (SPB and Close-ProXimity (CPX measurements up to 34 months after construction. Texture measurements performed with a laser profilometer are linked to the noise measurement results. Very promising initial noise reductions were found, up to 6 dB(A, but higher than expected acoustic deterioration rates and the presence of raveling led to noise reductions of a max. of 1 dB(A after almost three years. It is shown that the construction process itself has a large influence on the acoustical quality over time.

  1. Effect of Waste Plastic as Bitumen Modified in Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Ezree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the engineering properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic at different percentages i.e. 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen. The experimental tests performed in the study were stability, tensile strength, resilient modulus and dynamic creep test. Results showed that the mixture with 4% plastic has the highest stability (184kN. However, the stability slightly decreases with the increase of plastic additive. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength among the modified asphaltic concrete is 1049kPa (8% plastic added. The modified asphalt mixture with 8% plastic has the highest resilient modulus, which is 3422 MPa (25°C and 494Mpa (40°C. Where the highest creep modulus recorded is 73.30Mpa at 8% plastic added. It can be concluded that the addition of 8% plastic gave the highest value properties of asphalt mixture. Finally, it can be said that 8% plastic is the optimum value adding.

  2. Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arthur

    This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

  3. Thermal segregation of asphalt material in road repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Byzyka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field study of asphaltic pavement patching operations performed by three different contractors working in a total of ten sites. It forms part of an ongoing research programme towards improving the performance of pothole repairs. Thermal imaging technology was used to record temperatures of the patching material throughout the entire exercise, from the stage of material collection, through transportation to repair site, patch forming, and compaction. Practical complications occurring during patch repairs were also identified. It was found that depending on the weather conditions, duration of the travel and poor insulation of the transported hot asphalt mix, its temperature can drop as high as 116.6 °C over the period that the reinstatement team travel to the site and prepare the patch. This impacting is on the durability and performance of the executed repairs. Cold spots on the asphalt mat and temperature differentials between the new hot-fill asphalt mix and existing pavement were also identified as poorly compacted areas that were prone to premature failure. For example, over the five-minute period, the temperature at one point reduced by 33% whereas the temperatures of nearby areas decreased by 65% and 71%. A return visit to the repair sites, three months later, revealed that locations where thermal segregation was noted, during the patching operation, had failed prematurely.

  4. Design tool for the thermal energy potential of asphalt pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Oversloot, H.P.; Bondt, A. de; Jansen, R.; Rij, H. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a design tool for the calculation of the thermal energy potential of a so-called asphalt collector. Two types of numerical models have been developed and validated against experimental results from a full-scale test-site. The validation showed to be a tedious

  5. Direct Tensile Test to Assess Healing in Asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, G.A.; Scarpas, Athanasios; Erkens, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Asphalt concrete has the advantageous ability to heal. During rest
    periods, damage present In the material is restored to a certain extent.
    Healing of the material can be observed in iis regaining of strength
    and stiffness after rest periods. In this paper, a new test method is

  6. Direct tensile test to assess healing in asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, G.A.; Scarpas, T.; Erkens, S.

    2016-01-01

    Asphalt concrete has the advantageous ability to heal. During rest periods, damage present in the material is restored to a certain extent. Healing of the material can be observed in its regaining of strength and stiffness after rest periods. In this paper, a new test method is presented. It was

  7. Improvement of the asphalt-waste products in leachability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Fojiri, Shigeru; Moriyama, Noboru

    1980-05-01

    To improve in leachability of the asphalt products containing evaporator residue from BWR, a method of reducing the swelling of asphalt products, which is a major cause for increasing the leachability, has been developed. Leachability of the resultant asphalt products was examined by IAEA's method. The reduction of swelling is achieved successfully by addition of an equivalent quantity of calcium chloride to the sodium sulfate contained in the residue; the sodium sulfate is converted to calcium sulfate and sodium chloride. The specimen (Asphalt/Na 2 SO 4 : 0.5) prepared by this improved method shows little swelling when immersed in water. The specimen without addition of calcium chloride gives a cumulative leaching fraction of about 0.65 for 137 Cs and 0.20 for 60 Co in 30 days. On the contrary, the corresponding values in about 100 days of the specimen with calcium chloride added are 5 x 10 -4 and 1 x 10 -4 for 137 Cs and 60 Co, respectively. These results indicate that the method is promising for reducing the leachability. Coating of the specimen surface with a fresh bitumen further reduces the leachability to a negligibly small value. (author)

  8. Investigation of Induction Heating in Asphalt Mortar: Numerical Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, Athanasios; van de Ven, M.F.C.; van Bochove, G

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this paper focuses on utilization of advanced finite-element analyses (COMSOL) for the design and assessment of the induction heating capacity of asphalt mortar by adding electrically conductive additives (e.g., steel fibers), and to understand the factors that influence the

  9. Investigation of asphalt core-plinth connection in embankment dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibiao Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The asphalt core itself is a no-joint water barrier in embankment dams and is connected to the concrete plinth on the bottom of the core. A reliable asphalt core-plinth connection is crucial and must remain watertight when the core deforms due to deformations in the embankment and foundation and due to reservoir water pressure. A large number of tension tests were conducted to determine the best ratios, joint thickness and suitable additives for the sandy asphalt mastic (SAM mix used for the connection. With the ratios of bitumen to filler to sand of 20%:35%:45% and by adding 4% SBS in the bitumen, one got a very suitable composition for the asphalt core-plinth connection in tensile conditions. Model tests were conducted to study the connection behavior when subjected to large shear displacements and high water pressure. The joint model test results indicate that the plane-surface plinth, curved-surface plinth, and plinth with or without copper water-stop showed no significant difference for the connection in the joint shear behavior. However, plinth with copper water-stop is suggested to enhance its tensile and shear behavior.

  10. Leaching of organic contaminants from storage of reclaimed asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, Malin; Strömvall, A M

    2004-03-01

    Recycling of asphalt has been promoted by rapid increases in both the use and price of petroleum-based bitumen. Semi-volatile organic compounds in leachates from reclaimed asphalt pavement, measured in field samples and in laboratory column test, were analysed through a GC/MS screen-test methodology. Sixteen PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) were also analysed in leachates from the column study. The highest concentrations of semi-volatile compounds, approximately 400 microg l(-1), were measured in field samples from the scarified stockpile. Naphthalene, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most dominant of the identified semi-volatiles. The occurrence of these compounds in urban groundwater, also indicate high emission rates and persistent structures of the compounds, making them potentially hazardous. Car exhausts, rubber tires and the asphalt material itself are all probable emission sources, determined from the organic contaminants released from the stockpiles. The major leaching mechanism indicated was dissolution of organic contaminants from the surface of the asphalt gravels. In the laboratory column test, the release of high-molecular weight and more toxic PAH was higher in the leachates after two years than at the commencement of storage. The concentrations of semi-volatiles in leachates, were also several times lower than those from the field stockpile. These results demonstrate the need to follow up laboratory column test with real field measurements.

  11. Effect of the weather in the aging of asphalts by XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Edson da R.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ecardoso@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Motta, Laura M.G. da, E-mail: Laura@coc.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Construcao Civil/Geotecnia; Barroso, Regina C., E-mail: cely@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is presented in most crude petroleum and in some natural deposits. As is well known, asphalt has been the preferential choice in pavement construction since excellent utility of pavement, however, as other organic substances, it is also subjected to aging phenomena evolving with time. Asphalt aging is one of the principal factors causing deterioration of asphalt pavements. The photodegradation of asphalts must be considered in the study of the performance of asphalt pavement, especially in geographical regions where high solar radiation intensity occurs. It has an important influence in asphalt aging in tropical places as Brazil. Many methods have been applied to simulate aging of bitumen. It was just a simulation but not real aging asphalt. In this study we submitted the asphalt to the weather as sun and rain. Periodically, during 430 days, the XRD profiles were done and the results analyzed. The scattering measurements were carried out in 0-20 reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD-6000. Scans were typically done from 8 deg to 28 deg every 0.05 deg. The parameters FWHM and peak centroid were analyzed. From 0 until 180 days the aging was faster. The peaks were marked and analyzed with the pass of time. The crystallinity of asphalt increase with weather exposition. Some angles of profiles changed the position indicating change of atomics plans. (author)

  12. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  13. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt with Different Proportions of RAP Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Arshad Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is old asphalt pavement that has been removed from a road by milling or full depth removal. The use of RAP in hot mix asphalt (HMA eliminates the need to dispose old asphalt pavements and conserves asphalt binders and aggregates, resulting in significant cost savings and benefits to society. This paper presents a study on HMA with different RAP proportions carried out to evaluate the volumetric properties and performance of asphalt mixes containing different proportions of RAP. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP and asphalt mixes containing 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia for AC14 dense graded asphalt gradation. Volumetric analysis was performed to ensure that the result is compliance with specification requirements. The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while the Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The Hamburg wheel tracking test was used to evaluate the rutting performance of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility, resilient modulus and rutting resistance between asphalt mixes with RAP and the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% RAP material.

  15. Effect of the weather in the aging of asphalts by XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Edson da R.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Motta, Laura M.G. da; Barroso, Regina C.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is presented in most crude petroleum and in some natural deposits. As is well known, asphalt has been the preferential choice in pavement construction since excellent utility of pavement, however, as other organic substances, it is also subjected to aging phenomena evolving with time. Asphalt aging is one of the principal factors causing deterioration of asphalt pavements. The photodegradation of asphalts must be considered in the study of the performance of asphalt pavement, especially in geographical regions where high solar radiation intensity occurs. It has an important influence in asphalt aging in tropical places as Brazil. Many methods have been applied to simulate aging of bitumen. It was just a simulation but not real aging asphalt. In this study we submitted the asphalt to the weather as sun and rain. Periodically, during 430 days, the XRD profiles were done and the results analyzed. The scattering measurements were carried out in 0-20 reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD-6000. Scans were typically done from 8 deg to 28 deg every 0.05 deg. The parameters FWHM and peak centroid were analyzed. From 0 until 180 days the aging was faster. The peaks were marked and analyzed with the pass of time. The crystallinity of asphalt increase with weather exposition. Some angles of profiles changed the position indicating change of atomics plans. (author)

  16. Performance Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt with Different Proportions of RAP Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil Arshad, Ahmad; Awang, Haryati; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2018-03-01

    Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is old asphalt pavement that has been removed from a road by milling or full depth removal. The use of RAP in hot mix asphalt (HMA) eliminates the need to dispose old asphalt pavements and conserves asphalt binders and aggregates, resulting in significant cost savings and benefits to society. This paper presents a study on HMA with different RAP proportions carried out to evaluate the volumetric properties and performance of asphalt mixes containing different proportions of RAP. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP) and asphalt mixes containing 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia for AC14 dense graded asphalt gradation. Volumetric analysis was performed to ensure that the result is compliance with specification requirements. The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while the Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The Hamburg wheel tracking test was used to evaluate the rutting performance of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility, resilient modulus and rutting resistance between asphalt mixes with RAP and the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% RAP material.

  17. Evaluation of permanent deformation and durability of epoxidized natural rubber modified asphalt mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Nazri Borhan, Muhamad; Alsharef, Jamal M. A.; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Rehan Karim, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The road distresses have caused too much in maintenance cost. However, better understandings of the behaviours and properties of asphalt, couples with greater development in technology, have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, modifiers such as polymers are the most popular modifiers used to improve the performance of asphalt mix. This study was conducted to investigate the use of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) to be mixed with asphalt mix. Tests were conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of ENR-asphalt mixes, where the mixes were prepared according to the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes have demonstrated that the asphalt mix permanent deformation performance at high temperature was found to be improved compared to the base mixes. However, the durability studies have indicated that ENR-asphalt mixes are slightly susceptible with the presence of moisture. The durability of the ENR-asphalt mixes were found to be enhanced in term of permanent deformation at high and intermediate temperatures compared to the base asphalt mixes. As conclusion, asphalt pavement performance can be enhanced by using ENR as modifier to face the major road distresses.

  18. Design and Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Renewable Bioasphalt Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Irfansyah, P. A.; Shidiq, A. M.; Wibisono, I. S.; Fauzy, M. N.; Hadi, F. N.

    2017-02-01

    The needs of petroleum asphalt as materials for pavement is very large, while the petroleum classified as natural resources that cannot be renewable. As a result of petroleum dwindling and prices tend to be more expensive. So that requiring other alternative materials as a substitute for conventional asphalt derived from biomass or often called bioasphalt. This study aims to know the volumetric and Marshall characteristics on Asphalt Cement ( AC ) using the Damar asphalt modification to substitute 60/70 penetration asphalt as a binder. The volumetric and Marshall characteristic are porosity, density, flow, stability, and Marshall quotient. The characteristic of asphalt concrete at optimum bitumen content are compared to the conditions from highway agency 1987 and the general specification of asphalt concrete Bina Marga 2010 the third revision. The research uses experimental method in the laboratory with the samples made using the dasphalt modification as binder and incorporating the aggregate gradation no. VII SNI 03-1737-1989. The research is using 15 samples divided into 5 contents of damar asphalt, they are 5%, 5,5%, 6%, 6,5%, dan 7%. Tests carried out using Marshall test equipment to get the value of flow and stability and then be searched the value of optimum damar asphalt content. The result of asphalt concrete analysis using dasphalt modification as binder gives the value of optimum dasphalt content at 5,242%. The most characteristics already met the requirements and specifications.

  19. Influence of the Microwave Heating Time on the Self-Healing Properties of Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Norambuena-Contreras

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the microwave heating time on the self-healing properties of fibre-reinforced asphalt mixtures. To this purpose, self-healing properties of dense asphalt mixtures with four different percentages of steel wool fibres were evaluated as the three-point bending strength before and after healing via microwave heating at four different heating times. Furthermore, the thermal behaviour of asphalt mixtures during microwave heating was also evaluated. With the aim of quantifying the efficiency of the repair process, ten damage-healing cycles were done in the test samples. In addition, self-healing results were compared with the fibre spatial distribution inside asphalt samples evaluated by CT-scans. Crack-size change on asphalt samples during healing cycles was also evaluated through optical microscopy. It was found that the heating time is the most influential variable on the healing level reached by the asphalt mixtures tested by microwave radiation. CT-Scans results proved that fibre spatial distribution into the asphalt mixtures play an important role in the asphalt healing level. Finally, it was concluded that 40 s was the optimum heating time to reach the highest healing levels with the lowest damage on the asphalt samples, and that heating times over 30 s can seal the cracks, thus achieving the self-healing of asphalt mixtures via microwave heating.

  20. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  1. Can “Cleaned and Greened” Lots Take on the Role of Public Greenspace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan Heckert; Michelle Kondo

    2018-01-01

    Cities are increasingly greening vacant lots to reduce blight. Such programs could reduce inequities in urban greenspace access, but whether and how greened lots are used remains unclear. We surveyed three hundred greened lots in Philadelphia for signs of use and compared characteristics of used and nonused lots. We found physical signs of use that might be found in...

  2. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  3. Autonomous Car Parking System through a Cooperative Vehicular Positioning Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro; Boquet, Guillem; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose

    2017-04-13

    The increasing development of the automotive industry towards a fully autonomous car has motivated the design of new value-added services in Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs). Within the context of VSNs, the autonomous car, with an increasing number of on-board sensors, is a mobile node that exchanges sensed and state information within the VSN. Among all the value added services for VSNs, the design of new intelligent parking management architectures where the autonomous car will coexist with traditional cars is mandatory in order to profit from all the opportunities associated with the increasing intelligence of the new generation of cars. In this work, we design a new smart parking system on top of a VSN that takes into account the heterogeneity of cars and provides guidance to the best parking place for the autonomous car based on a collaborative approach that searches for the common good of all of them measured by the accessibility rate, which is the ratio of the free parking places accessible for an autonomous car. Then, we simulate a real parking lot and the results show that the performance of our system is close to the optimum considering different communication ranges and penetration rates for the autonomous car.

  4. Autonomous Car Parking System through a Cooperative Vehicular Positioning Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alejandro; Boquet, Guillem; Morell, Antoni; Lopez Vicario, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The increasing development of the automotive industry towards a fully autonomous car has motivated the design of new value-added services in Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs). Within the context of VSNs, the autonomous car, with an increasing number of on-board sensors, is a mobile node that exchanges sensed and state information within the VSN. Among all the value added services for VSNs, the design of new intelligent parking management architectures where the autonomous car will coexist with traditional cars is mandatory in order to profit from all the opportunities associated with the increasing intelligence of the new generation of cars. In this work, we design a new smart parking system on top of a VSN that takes into account the heterogeneity of cars and provides guidance to the best parking place for the autonomous car based on a collaborative approach that searches for the common good of all of them measured by the accessibility rate, which is the ratio of the free parking places accessible for an autonomous car. Then, we simulate a real parking lot and the results show that the performance of our system is close to the optimum considering different communication ranges and penetration rates for the autonomous car. PMID:28406426

  5. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  6. Extending cluster Lot Quality Assurance Sampling designs for surveillance programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance based on the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than ...

  7. A Study on The Accessibility of Parks: The Case Study of the Kızılelma Park, Nigde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Olgun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility and availability of a space has a significant importance during the participation of individual to the social life. Consequently, in order to keep their life barrier-free as the others, all spaces should be planned, designed and applied for handicapped people. The perception that handicapped individuals are helpless and devour causes a social isolation from the community and this situation makes them hopeless and aimless. For this reason, designers should be sensitive to create and manage barrier-free design process in order to achieve equal life for everyone. Thus handicaped people can access social life fully and easly and these solutions let them free from physcial barriers which keep them out of public spaces. In this study Kızılelma Park, one of the biggest park in Niğde, is investigated in terms of accessibility. Suitability of several park components such as parking lots, pedestrain paths, planting design and urban furnitures, and the accessibility problems in the park are revealled. Collected data are compared to standarts, appropriate designs are determined and some design solutions are improved for unappropriate designs.

  8. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer, E-mail: mchester@cal.berkeley.edu, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.edu, E-mail: madanat@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM{sub 10} (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO{sub 2}e by 6-23 g CO{sub 2}e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  9. Research on the characteristics of temperature field of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Jiangang; Liu, Weizheng

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of climate in seasonal frozen area are low temperature and a large range of temperature variation between day and night in winter. These characteristics often lead to problems of asphalt pavement, especially transverse cracks. To reduce the problems of asphalt pavement, it is necessary to examine the distribution of the temperature range of asphalt pavement. A three-dimensional finite element model was used, taking the SMA asphalt pavement as an example with solid70 and plane55 unit features of ANSYS software. It can obtain the relationship between temperature gradient and time and the relationship between temperature gradient and depth. In addition, a function relation model of stress and time was also established. It can provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of problems of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen area. Moreover, it has an important significance for improving asphalt pavement design

  10. Decision of National and Provincial Highway Asphalt Pavement Structure Based on Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important that decision of asphalt pavement structure requires overall considerations of the performance and financial investment. To have asphalt pavement structure fulfilling good reliability, the asphalt pavement structure decision was researched based on value engineering theory. According to the national and provincial highway investigation data in Shandong Province during the last decade, the asphalt pavement performance attenuation rules of traffic levels and asphalt layer thicknesses were developed, and then the road performance evaluation method was presented. In addition, the initial investments, the costs of road maintenance, and middle-scale repair in a period were analyzed. For the light traffic and medium traffic example, using the value engineering method, the pavement performance and costs of which thickness varies from 6 cm to 10 cm were calculated and compared. It was concluded that value engineering was an effective method in deciding the asphalt pavement structure.

  11. The effect of long-term oxidation on the rheological properties of polymer modified asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonghong Ruan; Richard R. Davison; Charles J. Glover [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-10-01

    The effect of long-term aging on rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders was studied. Modifiers included diblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene) rubber, triblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene), and tire rubber. Asphalt aging was carried out either at 60{sup o}C in a controlled environmental room or at 100{sup o}C in a pressure aging vessel (AASHTO Provisional Standards, 1993). Both dynamic shear properties and extensional properties were investigated. Polymer modification resulted in increased asphalt complex modulus at high temperatures, decreased asphalt complex modulus at low temperatures, broadened relaxation spectra, and improved ductility. Oxidative aging decreased asphalt temperature susceptibility, damaged the polymer network in binders, further broadened the relaxation spectrum, and diminished polymer effectiveness in improving asphalt ductility. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Mechanical Property and Analysis of Asphalt Components Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The asphalt-aggregate interface interaction plays a significant role in the overall performances of asphalt mixture. In order to analyze the chemical constitution of asphalt effects on the asphalt-aggregate interaction, the average structure C64H52S2 is selected to represent the asphalt, and the colloid, saturated phenol, and asphaltene are selected to represent the major constitutions in asphalt. The molecular models are established for the three compositions, respectively, and the Molecular Dynamics (MD simulation was conducted for the three kinds of asphaltene-aggregate system at different presses. Comparing the E value of Young modulus of these three polymers, the maximum modulus value of asphaltene was 2.80 GPa, the modulus value of colloid was secondary, and the minimum modulus of saturated phenol was 0.52 GPa. This result corresponds to conventional understanding.

  13. Leachability of Cr(VI) and other metals from asphalt composites with addition of filter dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahcic, Mitja; Milacic, Radmila; Mladenovic, Ana; Murko, Simona; Zuliani, Tea; Zupancic, Marija; Scancar, Janez

    2008-12-01

    The potential use of filter dust in asphalt composites for road construction was investigated. Filter dust contains high concentrations of metals, of which Cr(VI) and Pb are leached with water. Compact and ground asphalt composites with addition of 2% of filter dust by mass were studied. In order to evaluate their environmental impact, leachability tests were performed using water and salt water as leaching agents. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and Pb were determined in leachates over a time period of 182 days. The results indicated that Pb was not leached with leaching agents from asphalt composites. Cr(VI) was also not leached with leaching agents from compact asphalt composites. However, in ground asphalt composites, Cr(VI) was leached with water in concentrations up to 220 microg L(-1) and in salt water up to 150 microg L(-1). From the physico-mechanical and environmental aspects, filter dust can be used as a component in asphalt mixtures.

  14. Hanford protective barriers program: Status of asphalt barrier studies - FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1989-11-01

    The Hanford Protective Barrier Program is evaluating alternate barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternate barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick. Evaluations of these barriers were initiated in FY 1988, and, based on laboratory studies, two asphalt formulations were selected for further testing in small-tube lysimeters: a hot rubberized asphalt and an admixture of cationic asphalt emulsion and concrete sand containing 24 wt% residual asphalt. Eight lysimeters containing asphalt seals were installed as part of the Small Tube Lysimeter Test Facility on the Hanford Site. Two control lysimeters containing Hanford sand with a surface gravel treatment were also installed for comparison. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  15. Performance Evaluation and Improving Mechanisms of Diatomite-Modified Asphalt Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Xie, Jun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Liu, Quantao; Pang, Ling

    2018-04-27

    Diatomite is an inorganic natural resource in large reserve. This study consists of two phases to evaluate the effects of diatomite on asphalt mixtures. In the first phase, we characterized the diatomite in terms of mineralogical properties, chemical compositions, particle size distribution, mesoporous distribution, morphology, and IR spectra. In the second phase, road performances, referring to the permanent deformation, crack, fatigue, and moisture resistance, of asphalt mixtures with diatomite were investigated. The characterization of diatomite exhibits that it is a porous material with high SiO₂ content and large specific surface area. It contributes to asphalt absorption and therefore leads to bonding enhancement between asphalt and aggregate. However, physical absorption instead of chemical reaction occurs according to the results of FTIR. The resistance of asphalt mixtures with diatomite to permanent deformation and moisture are superior to those of the control mixtures. But, the addition of diatomite does not help to improve the crack and fatigue resistance of asphalt mixture.

  16. SGC Tests for Influence of Material Composition on Compaction Characteristic of Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes.

  17. Using ESEM to analyze the microscopic property of basalt fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Gao

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The basalt fiber staggered distribution in the asphalt concrete matrix and the bonding situation between asphalt are analyzed by images collected using field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM test equipment. The results show that bonding of the fiber and the asphalt binder is very good and there is a strong binding force of chemical bonding connections between the two; the lipophilicity of basalt fiber is very good, the wrapped cover ability of asphalt for fiber is very strong; basalt fiber forms the local space network structure in the asphalt concrete matrix, effectively overcome the relative slip between the particles, connect the damaged parts into a whole; basalt fiber across internal micropores, and the internal defects in material can be remedied. At the same time, crack resistance mechanism of the fiber to internal micro cracks is qualitatively explained according to the magnitude of the stress intensity factor Kf. Keywords: Road engineering, Asphalt concrete, Basalt fiber, Microscopic analysis

  18. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  19. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  20. Rutting Performance of Cold-Applied Asphalt Repair Materials for Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-23

    this study. Cold mix asphalt materials, further denoted cold mixes , were selected to reasonably represent available products on the market and were...pavement repair, primarily because of the small quantities involved and/or the unavailability of hot- mixed asphalt. These cold-applied mixtures have...poorer rutting resistance than hot mix asphalt because additives, often solvent, are required to provide adequate workability for them to be placed

  1. Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Concrete Using Waste Tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak Seok; Lee, Woo Yeol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-06-30

    Wheel tracking and ravelling tests were conducted on the hot mix crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete using waste tire to evaluate the mechanical properties in comparison with conventional asphalt concrete. According to the test results, the modified product was superior to the conventional one by 50% in the resistance of permanent deformation and by 15% in the resistance of durability. The experimental results should recommend that the waste tire is positively recycled for asphalt concrete. (author). 11 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Evaluation of factors that affect rutting resistance of asphalt mixes by orthogonal experiment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Zou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutting has been one of the major distresses observed on asphalt pavement in China, due to increasing traffic volume, heavy axle load, continuous hot weather, etc., especially in long-steep-slope section, bus stops, etc. Many factors would affect rutting resistance of asphalt pavement, including material properties, climatic condition, traffic volumes, speed, and axle types, and construction quality.The orthogonal experimental design method was used in this study to reduce the number of tests required, without comprising the validity of the test results. The testing variables and their levels were selected according to investigations and field test results. Effects of various factors on asphalt pavement rutting performance were evaluated, including the asphalt binders, mixture type (aggregate gradation, axle load, vehicle speed and temperature.In this study, the wheel tracking test was used to evaluate rutting performance, as represented by the parameter Dynamic Stability (DS, of the various asphalt mixes. Test results were analyzed using range analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA. All four factors evaluated in this study had significant effects on pavement rutting performance. The ranking of the significance was asphalt mixture type, temperature, loading frequency, and tire-pavement contact pressure. Asphalt mixture type was the most important factor that affects rutting resistance. Within the asphalt mixtures, asphalt binder had significant effects on rutting performance of mixes more than aggregate gradation. Rutting resistance of SBS modified asphalt mixes was significantly better than neat asphalt mixes, and skeleton dense structure mixes were better than suspended dense structure mixes. Keywords: Asphalt mixes, Rutting resistance, Effect factor, Orthogonal experiment design

  3. Design Method for Proportion of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junxiao; Fu Wei; Zang Hechao

    2018-01-01

    Through foaming experiment of Zhongtai AH-70 asphalt, the best foaming temperature water consumption and influence factors of foamed asphalt’s foaming features are determined; By designing the proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, for this mixture the best foamed asphalt addition is 3%, and proportion of the mixture is RAP: fine aggregate: cement=75:23:2. Using SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of f...

  4. Performance on Water Stability of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junxiao; Fu Wei; Zang Hechao

    2018-01-01

    Through designing the mixture proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, it shows that the addition of cement can obviously improve foamed asphalt mixture’s water stability and the best cement admixture is between 1% ~ 2%; Using digital imaging microscope and SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by adding cement was analyzed. It revealed that the cement hydration products ...

  5. Removal of contaminated asphalt layers by using heat generating powder metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.S.; Karlina, O.K.; Ojovan, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    Heat generating systems on the base of powder metallic fuel were used for the removal of contaminated asphalt layers. Decontamination of spots which had complex geometric form was performed. Asphalt layers with deep contamination were removed essentially all radionuclides being retained in asphalt residue. Only a small part (1 - 2 %) of radionuclides could pass to combustion slag. No radionuclides were detected in aerosol-gas phase during decontamination process

  6. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Station, a dry deciduous forest within Ankarafantsika National. Park. We set Sherman ... dry deciduous forests compared to research in the eastern rainforests (Goodman et al. .... the ground, this rat was observed on both the ground and trees. We tentatively .... Conservation International, Washington DC. Carleton, M. D. ...

  7. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We often observed domestic mammals such as cattle, cats and dogs in the forest at Ampijoroa. Although the primary forest in Ampijoroa is managed by Madagascar National Parks, local people leave these domestic animals in the forest. Introduced animals may be a threat to endemic animals. Cattle can be transmitters of ...

  8. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  9. Development of asphaltic mix with waste products use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trend of high growth of the vehicle fleet in Russia along with the positive impact on the socio-economic development of the country has a number of adverse consequences, one of which is the high accident rate on the roads. The paper considers modern way to provide the safe vehicles flow with the use of colored asphalt, which is a kind of hot asphalt and can have a variety of colors, which consists of coloring pigments. The conventional method of coloring the asphalt mix is produced by adding color rubble or pigmenting additives. The task, which was put forward, was the establishment of such road concrete mix, from which, without the use of primary materials and without increasing the consumption of bitumen, asphalt concrete road surfaces of acceptable strength could be obtained. As a pigment the dust of gas purification system of electrical furnace DSP - 60 of «Kamastal» plant, Perm, was used. The composition of the dust waste from the furnace consists of metal oxides and silicates. Dust-gas-cleaning is a fine powder with a high specific surface (1.2…2.5 thousand cm /g and bulk density of 3.7…4.2 g/cm . The powder color is dark brown. The density of the ready colored asphalt samples is 2.47...2.49 g/cm , and water saturation is 3.50…3.55 %. As a result of the research the diagrams of the dependence of road concrete mix’s water saturation from dust percentage and a diagram of dependence of concrete mixes’ durability from dust percentage at t = 20° and 50° C were built. After analyzing the obtained curves it can be concluded that the increase of the percentage of dust leads to increase of water saturation of road concrete mix and reduced strength. Thus, the developed asphalt concrete mix allows visually separating the lanes on the road, it has the relevant regulatory requirements durability and water resistance. This mixture corresponds to the type B mark III and can be used in regions I, II, and partly III of road-climatic zones

  10. Impact of the Superpave hot mix asphalt properties on its permanent deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iraq, the severity of rutting has increased in asphalt pavements possibly due to the increase in truck axle loads, tyre pressure, and high pavement temperature in summer. As of late, Superpave has been accounted as an enhanced system for performance based design, analysis of asphalt pavement performance prediction for asphalt concrete mixes. In this research the development of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete under repeated loadings was investigated, Wheel-Tracking apparatus has been used in a factorial testing program during which 44 slab samples were tested to simulate actual pavement. The objectives of the present research include; investigating the main factors affecting rutting in asphalt concrete mixture, quantifying the effect of SBS polymer and steel reinforcement on asphalt concrete mixtures in addition to studying the effect of variables on the asphalt concrete mixes against moisture sensitivity. It has been determined that that increasing of compaction temperature from 110 to 150°C will decrease the permanent deformation by 20.5 and 15.6 percent for coarse and fine gradation control asphalt mixtures, respectively. While the permanent deformation decreases by 21.3 percent when the compaction temperature is increased from 110 to 150°C for coarse gradation SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  11. Investigation of the Physical and Molecular Properties of Asphalt Binders Processed with Used Motor Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohyeldin Ragab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the performance aspects of addition of used motor oils (UMO to neat and crumb rubber modified asphalts (CRMA and related that to the change of molecular size distribution of modified asphalt’s fractions; asphaltenes, saturates, naphthene aromatics, and polar aromatics. Based on the results of temperature sweep viscoelastic tests, addition of crumb rubber modifier (CRM alone or with UMO results in the formation of internal network within the modified asphalt. Based on the results of short and long term aged asphalts, the utilization of combination of UMO and CRM enhanced the aging behavior of asphalt. Bending beam rheometer was utilized to investigate the low temperature behavior of UMO modified asphalts. Based on those tests, the utilization of the UMO and CRM enhanced the low temperature properties of asphalts. Based on the results of the asphalt separation tests and the Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC analysis, it was found that saturates and naphthene aromatics are the two asphalt fractions that have similar molecular size fractions as those of UMO. However, UMO only shifts the molecular sizes of saturates after interaction with asphalt. Results also show that polar aromatics pose higher molecular size structures than UMO.

  12. The Variation Test and Extraction Equipment to Optimum Asphalt by Using Gasoline Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardi, Fitridawati

    2017-12-01

    Based on the Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision, the extraction test should be carried out using the specimen from the loose asphalt mixture extracted from the back of the finisher bitumen machine. The purpose of this research is to find out the result of pretest and posttest extraction asphalt content. The Extraction test using two equipment, they are Soklet and Centrifuge. The specimens was used AMP, Asphalt Finisher and Core, which involved gasoline solvent. Based on the asphalt level extraction test results, the appropriate equipment was used centrifuge with the level accuracy as requirement of Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision and the level of ease used as equipment in the field study. The asphalt content obtained for AMP 5,51%, Asphalt Finisher5,46% and Core 5.34%. As for the socket asphalt content obtained is AMP 5.55%, Asphalt Finisher 5.50% and Core core 5. 41%. The extract test value of asphalt content decreased, so it can be formulated KA JMF value of Job mix used was 5.56% with the tolerance given according to Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision is ± 0.30%. In accordance with the results obtained then the results of a centrifuge tool that matches and meets the requirements of time, accuracy of results and economic value.

  13. Application of minerals residues in the asphalt composition; Aplicacao de residuos minerais na composicao do asfalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roberto Carlos da C.; Seidl, Peter Rudolf [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Correia, Julio Cesar Guedes [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral - CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of asphalt pavements depends mainly on the properties of their constituents: mineral aggregates and asphalt cement. The mineral aggregate represents about 95% in weight of asphalt mixtures having a significant influence on the properties and performance of these mixtures. Asphalt cement (CAP) corresponds to the smaller fraction but it is mainly responsible for adsorption on the mineral aggregates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between different CAPs with residues from granite saw wills in place of mineral aggregates that run up costs with extraction and processing in asphalt production. This way asphalt production costs as well as the environmental problems that are caused by mineral residue are reduced. Five different asphalt cements, referred to as A, B, C, D and E, and a granite residue were used in this work. The results indicated that the residue strongly absorbs all the CAPs that were studied; particularly CAP A, which is considered the most adequate for the production of asphalt from this residue. Preliminary tests this indicate that asphalt production can use mineral residues instead of mineral aggregates in its composition. (author)

  14. Investigation on the temperature of the asphalt-concrete facing of embankment dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt concrete is a traditional material used for the constructions of upstream sealing of reservoir dams, particularly in upper reservoirs of pumped storage hydroelectric plants. The asphalt layer is often exposed to significant fluctuations of temperature caused, for example, by heating the facing from the sun and by its subsequent rapid cooling by water during reservoir periodical filling. To better understand the physical phenomena and behaviour of the facing in terms of vapour diffusion, the state of stress, etc., it is necessary to know temperature phenomena in the asphalt facing. This paper describes the measurement of temperature in the asphalt facing of the Dlouhe Strane pumped storage hydroelectric plant and its evaluation using 1D numerical model of heat flow in the asphalt concrete facing. Numerical simulation for selected load scenarios enabled the temperature phenomena that take place in the construction of the asphalt-concrete facing to be quantified. The analysis shows that during insolation, the asphalt facing is exposed to the significant temperature rise on its surface and also over its whole thickness. Similarly during frost weather the facing becomes frozen in its entire thickness. During the day cycle the temperature in the asphalt layers changes significantly. However, the temperature in the underlying rockfill dam body becomes steady approximately at the depth of 1.0 m. Keywords: Asphalt concrete facing, Temperature distribution analysis, Embankment dam

  15. Laboratory Study on the Fatigue Resistance of Asphaltic Concrete Containing Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhari Rosnawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the fatigue performance of modified asphalt mixture using Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 powder in a form of rutile was used for producing asphalt concrete with lower mixing and compaction temperature compared to conventional hot mix asphalt without reducing its physical and mechanical also resistance to fatigue. The characteristic of the asphalt and modified asphalt was evaluated using penetration test, softening test and rotational viscosity test. Titanium dioxide of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of asphalt has been incorporated into unaged 80/100 asphalt mix in order to improvise its performance and to fulfill the objectives of this experimental study. As a result, TiO2 as an additive is potential to decrease the penetration and increasing the softening point of the asphalt. In terms of fatigue performance testing, addition TiO2 additive does help in improving the fatigue properties as it shows greater result than the control asphalt. In conclusion, TiO2 is great in improving fatigue properties.

  16. Laboratory Study on the Fatigue Resistance of Asphaltic Concrete Containing Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhari, Rosnawati; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Azhar Tajudin, Saiful; Khatijah Abu Bakar, Siti

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the fatigue performance of modified asphalt mixture using Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) powder in a form of rutile was used for producing asphalt concrete with lower mixing and compaction temperature compared to conventional hot mix asphalt without reducing its physical and mechanical also resistance to fatigue. The characteristic of the asphalt and modified asphalt was evaluated using penetration test, softening test and rotational viscosity test. Titanium dioxide of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of asphalt has been incorporated into unaged 80/100 asphalt mix in order to improvise its performance and to fulfill the objectives of this experimental study. As a result, TiO2 as an additive is potential to decrease the penetration and increasing the softening point of the asphalt. In terms of fatigue performance testing, addition TiO2 additive does help in improving the fatigue properties as it shows greater result than the control asphalt. In conclusion, TiO2 is great in improving fatigue properties.

  17. The Effect of SBS Polymer on the Dynamic Properties of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ziari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer application for the improvement and modification of the bitumen used in roads surfaces has expanded in recent decades. The roads engineers and constructors, therefore, have used the modified bitumen in asphalts helping in this way to increase roads and pavements service life and improving the durability of the roads and asphalts. The bitumen used in asphalt mixture constitutes only a low percentage of the weight of this mixture (between 4% and 6%, but even this small amount has a significant effect on asphalt performance. The polymers that are mostly used in promoting the bitumen specifications are polymer modifiers including: styrenebutadiene- styrene (SBS, as well as similar polymers such as styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR, ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA and polyethylene (PE. Polymers as the most important family of bitumen modifiers are added to bitumen to improve bitumen performance and to increase its effectiveness. Among the existing polymers, SBS is considered as the best bitumen modifier. In this research, SBS as one of the elastomer-thermoplast modifiers was added in different weights (2%-5% to bitumen 60/70 in Isfahan Refinery and its effect on asphalt properties were investigated. Adding this polymer to bitumen improves the Marshall stability of sample asphalt, flow, module of rupture and asphalt content voids. However, it has a minor effect on asphalt special weight. Adding SBS would also lead to asphalt fatigue life.

  18. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvement of resistance of the crumb rubbery modification of the road asphalt mixtures is the very important ecological aspect of the future. The article presents the results of research on the fatigue life resistance of asphalt concretes AC16P and AC22P with asphalt-rubber binders. The above analyses have been based on the results of tests of fatigue life of mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes determined by the method of prismatic four-point bending (4PB-PR. Mineral-rubber -asphalt mixes have been diversified according to the amount of the additive of rubber fines in asphalt-rubber binder. On the basis of the test results have been proven improvements functional properties mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes compared with mineral-asphalt mixes with unmodified asphalt.

  19. Evaluation of rheological and thermic properties of neat and modified asphalt with a waste of LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Andrés Castro López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The asphalt technology and modified asphalt mixtures has been widely used and studied, worldwide. Adding polymers to asphalt modifies mechanical, chemical and rheological properties, trying to improve behavior of the mixtures subjected to different environmental and load conditions. The paper report results from rheological and thermal characterization on conventional 60-70 asphalt cement and 60-70 asphalt cement modified by introducing a waste of low density polyethylene (LDPE. Method: Modification of the asphalt was performed by wet way in a proportion of LDPE/CA=5% with respect to the mass. Rheological (using DSR, Thermogravimetry (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC techniques were performed. Results and Conclusions: The modified asphalt develops a remarkable increase in stiffness and improvement of the performance grade at high temperatures of service. Additionally, the modified asphalt is more resistant to oxidation and aging processes due to heat. However, the asphalt modified showed a decrease in crack resistance at low and intermediate temperatures of service.

  20. Modification of Iraqi Asphalt 40/50 Properties Using Saw Dust (SD and Natural Rubber Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusul l M. Darwesh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to enhance the fundamental properties for asphalt binder as those spec-ifications relate to performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper studied the effect of add (2, 4 % SD in different sizes and (3, 5 and 7% Natural rubber latex to the straight asphalt 40/50 produced from Al-Dura refinery at 160C, it was added each additive separately and then added together to asphalt in same temperature, then tested physically and mechanically according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, the result showed largely improvement.

  1. Experimental investigation of asphalt mixture containing Linz-Donawitz steel slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Groenniger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Standard asphalt mixtures for road infrastructures consist of natural aggregate and bitumen. A number of research efforts have successfully investigated the possibility of replacing the conventional aggregate skeleton with industrial by-products such as slag originating from steel production process. However, little is known on the effect of steel slag on the mixtures performance properties such as resistance to low-temperature cracking and to permanent deformation, stiffness and fatigue. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation on the fundamental performance properties of different types of asphalt mixtures prepared with 100% LD slag aggregate and a conventional asphalt mixture containing natural Gabbro aggregate. Sophisticated testing methods were used to evaluate the key performance parameters for the set of asphalt mixtures investigated. In this study, low temperature cracking was addressed through thermal stress restrained specimen tests. Penetration tests and cyclic compression tests were used to evaluate the response of asphalt binder and asphalt mixture to permanent deformation due repeated loading, respectively. The cyclic indirect tensile test was selected for investigating both stiffness properties and fatigue resistance. For this purpose the complex stiffness modulus was measured to quantify material stiffness under different temperature and loading conditions providing information on the visco-elasto-plastic material behavior. Fatigue tests were used to determine the progressive and localized material damage caused by cyclic loading. The experimental results indicate that asphalt mixtures prepared with LD slag are suitable for asphalt pavement construction and that in most cases they perform better than conventional asphalt mixtures prepared with Gabbro aggregate.

  2. The Effect of Aging on the Cracking Resistance of Recycled Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadafzali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is an important concern when a high percentage of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is used in an asphalt mixture. The aging of the asphalt binder reduces its ductility and makes the pavement more susceptible to cracking. Rejuvenators are often added to high-RAP mixtures to enhance their performance. The aging of a rejuvenated binder is different from virgin asphalt. Therefore, the effect of aging on a recycled asphalt mixture can be different from its effect on a new one. This study evaluated the cracking resistance of 100% recycled asphalt binders and mixtures and investigated the effect of aging on this performance parameter. The cracking resistance of the binder samples was tested by a Bending Beam Rheometer. An accelerated pavement weathering system was used to age the asphalt mixtures and their cracking resistance was evaluated by the Texas Overlay Test. The results from binder and mixture tests mutually indicated that rejuvenated asphalt has a significantly better cracking resistance than virgin asphalt. Rejuvenated mixtures generally aged more rapidly, and the rate of aging was different for different rejuvenators.

  3. Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Gayer, M. C.; Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil; T., Rodrigues D.; Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil; Denardin, E. L.G.; Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil; Roehrs, R.; Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil

    2014-01-01

    Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experimentGayer, M.C.1,2;Rodrigues, D.T.1,2; Escoto, D.F.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,21Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, BrazilIntroduction: How to tell if an egg is rotten? How to calculate the volume of an egg? Because the rotten egg float? Why has this...

  4. 10CFR61 waste form conformance program for asphalted radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobran, M.J.; Guarini, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    With the enactment of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulation, Part 61, ''Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste'' came the imposition of new requirements on licensees who dispose of radioactive waste via shallow land burial. Specifically, 10CFR61 both imposed a waste classification system requiring segregation of waste according to hazard and established waste performance characteristics required to enhance stability of the burial site. In order to provide licensees with guidance regarding implementation of applicable requirements of 10CFR61, the NRC low level Waste Licensing Branch issued two Technical Positions. To demonstrate compliance of asphalted radwaste produced with oxidized asphalt with 10CFR61 criteria and the NRC's Technical Position, five utilities combined resources. The five utilities sponsoring the program were Public Service Electric and Gas Company, Niagara Mohawk Power Company, Detroit Edison Company, New Hampshire Yankee, and Consumers Power Comany

  5. Decontamination by shotblasting of radioactivity deposited on an asphalt road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, L.

    1987-01-01

    Long-lived fission products may be deposited in the environment after a serious reactor accident. From previous experiments it is known that if firehosing is to be used for decontamination it has to be done soon after the deposition. It is therefore worthwhile to study another decontamination method. An experimental study has been conducted of how well shotblasting can remove contamination from an asphalt road. In shotblasting a thin layer of the surface is loosened by the impact of small steel balls, and in the same procedure the surface dust is vacuumed up and the steel balls recovered. The contaminant was 86 Rb, which behaves as caesium. As reference, the weathering of identical contamination on an asphalt road, a concrete road and a road covered with small concrete stones was studied concurrently. (author)

  6. Are TODs Over-Parked?

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Adkins, Arlie; Sullivan, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the proposition that TOD, and specifically housing near suburban rail stops, is “over-parked†in the U.S. This is done by comparing parking generation rates for 31 housing complexes near rail stops in the San Francisco Bay Area and Portland, Oregon with on-site parking supplies and with ITE parking generation rates. Factors that explain parking demand for transit-oriented housing are also investigated, both statistically and through case analyses. The re...

  7. Aggregate Toughness/Abrasion Resistance and Durability/Soundness Tests Related to Asphalt Concrete Performance in Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The properties of aggregates used in asphalt concretes are very important to the performance of the pavements in which the asphalt concretes are used. Often pavement distress, such as stripping and rutting, can be traced directly to the aggregates us...

  8. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  9. Effects of laboratory heating, cyclic pore pressure, and cyclic loading on fracture properties of asphalt mixture [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Asphalt pavement ages continuously, beginning with production and construction and thoughout its service life. "Aging" refers to many changes in asphalt properties over time that generally result in increased pavement damage. Because aging is often a...

  10. Quality of bitumens in asphalt hot-mixes with emphasis on the durability of constructed premix surfacings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Assen, EJ

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available time. Asphalt technologists' ultimate quest is for performance-related specifications that will ensure the procurement of quality bitumens which could produce asphalts with desirable performance during construction, and which will resist physical...

  11. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  12. Moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt mixtures: Experimental characterization and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Varveri, A.

    2017-01-01

    A well-functioning, long-lasting and safe highway infrastructure network ensures the mobility of people and facilitates the transport of goods, promoting thus environmental, economic, and social sustainability. The development of sustainable highway infrastructure requires, among other activities, the construction of pavement systems with enhanced durability. Moisture damage in asphalt pavements is associated with inferior performance, unexpected failures and reduced service life. All of thes...

  13. Recycling of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piggott, M.R.; Woodhams, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been known that the addition of rubber to asphalt used in paving will produced markedly superior road surfaces. Partly because of cost and because of the nonconventional paving techniques necessary, rubber has been largely ignored as a practical paving additive except in special cases. However, the large accumulation of old tires existing today provides a ready source for suitable rubber. If ground into a fine powder, this rubber can be mixed in a conventional pug mill along with sand, stone and asphalt to produce a hot mix which can be aplied in the normal manner without any special techniques. The extra cost of such modification is only 1% of a typical paving contract, whereas the advantages include lower maintenance cost, more durable road surface, and elimination of unwanted waste tires. This report has been prepared to assist civic and other authorities in the development of improved road surfacing formulations through the reuse of old tires. It includes the results of paving trials in Toronto and laboratory evaluations. These tests show that the addition of powdered rubber to asphalt paving materials markedly improves the durability and crack resistance, particularly at low temperatures. Additives in the rubber impart good strength retention in the presence of moisture. The toughness increases with age due to a slow interaction of the rubber with the asphalt which is accompanied by an increase in viscosity. As a result, performance is also enhanced at high temperatures and helps to minimize pavement distortions due to hot weather and traffic. 16 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of Different Mineral Filler Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Ignatiuk, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Mineral filler aggregates play an important role in asphalt mixtures because they fill voids in paving mix and improve the cohesion of asphalt binder. Limestone powder containing over 90% of CaCO3 is the most frequently used type of filler. Waste material from the production of coarse aggregate can be successfully used as a mineral filler aggregate for hot asphalt concrete mixtures as the limestone powder replacement. This paper presents the experimental results of selected properties of filler aggregates which were obtained from rocks with different mineral composition and origin. Five types of rocks were used as a source of the mineral filler aggregate: granite, gabbro, trachybasalt, quartz sandstone and rocks from postglacial deposits. Limestone filler was used in this study as the reference material. The following tests were performed: grading (air jet sieving), quality of fines according to methylene blue test, water content by drying in a ventilated oven, particle density using pyknometer method, Delta ring and ball test, Bitumen Number, fineness determined as Blaine specific surface area. Mineral filler aggregates showed significant differences when they were mixed with bitumen and stiffening effect in Delta ring and ball test was evaluated. The highest values were achieved when gabbro and granite fillers were used. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of grain shape and size was carried out. Significant differences in grain size and shape were observed. The highest non-homogeneity in size was determined for quartz sandstone, gabbro and granite filler. Their Blaine specific surface area was lower than 2800 cm2/g, while for limestone and postglacial fillers with regular and round grains it exceeded 3000 cm2/g. All examined mineral filler aggregates met requirements of Polish National Specification WT-1: 2014 and could be used in asphalt mixtures.

  15. Evaluation of nuclear asphalt-content gauges. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The study evaluated the accuracy and precision of the Troxler, Model 3241-C, and CPN, Model AC-2, Nuclear Asphalt Content Gauges. To achieve precisions at plus or minus 0.15% 95% of the time, it was necessary to establish special procedures for making test samples, controlling environment, and calibration. Both gauges provided acceptable results utilizing a 3-point calibration. Their use in the field would be acceptable when the proper procedures are followed

  16. Modelling parking behaviour considering heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, G.A.; Ibeas Portilla, A.; Alonso Oreña, B.; Olio, L. del

    2016-07-01

    Most of motorized trips in cities of middle and small size are made in public transport and mainly in private vehicle, this has caused a saturation in parking systems of the cities, causing important problems to society, one of the most important problems is high occupancy of public space by parking systems. Thus, is required the estimation of models that reproduce users’ behaviour when they are choosing for parking in cities, to carry out transport policies to improve transport efficiency and parking systems in the cities. The aim of this paper is the specification and estimation of models that simulate users’ behaviour when they are choosing among alternatives of parking that there are in the city: free on street parking, paid on street parking, paid on underground parking and Park and Ride (now there isn´t). For this purpose, is proposed a multinomial logit model that consider systematic and random variations in tastes. Data of users’ behaviour from the different alternatives of parking have been obtained with a stated preference surveys campaign which have been done in May 2015 in the principal parking zones of the city of Santander. In this paper, we provide a number of improvements to previously developed methodologies because of we consider much more realism to create the scenarios stated preference survey, obtaining better adjustments. (Author)

  17. Prediction of Asphalt Creep Compliance Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofka A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Creep compliance of the hot-mix asphalt (HMA is a primary input of the pavement thermal cracking prediction model in the recently developed Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (M-EPDG in the US. The HMA creep compliance is typically determined from the Indirect Tension (IDT tests and requires complex experimental setup. On the other hand, creep compliance of asphalt binders is determined from a relatively simple three- point bending test performed in the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR device. This paper discusses a process of training an Artificial Neural Network (ANN to correlate the creep compliance values obtained from the IDT with those from an innovative approach of testing HMA beams in the BBR. In addition, ANNs are also trained to predict HMA creep compliance from the creep compliance of asphalt binder and vice versa using the BBR setup. All trained ANNs exhibited a very high correlation of 97 to 99 percent between predicted and measured values. The binder creep compliance curves built on the ANN-predicted values also exhibited good correlation with those obtained from laboratory experiments. However, the simulation of trained ANNs on the independent dataset produced a significant deviation from the expected values which was most likely caused by the differences in material composition, such as aggregate type and gradation, presence of recycled additives, and binder type.

  18. Microstructural and rheological analysis of fillers and asphalt mastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber, R; Simon, A; Kocserha, I; Buzimov, A

    2017-01-01

    Pavements are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and organic binder. The aggregates are sorted in different sizes and different amount which are mixed together with bitumen. The finest mineral fraction (d<0.063 mm) is called filler. This component has an important role in asphalt mixture - it fills the gaps between the aggregates and if mixed with bitumen (which is called asphalt mastics) it sticks the larger particles together. Particle size, microstructure and surface properties of fillers highly affect the cohesion with bitumen, therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the microstructure of mineral fillers (limestone, dolomite) which are used in Hungarian road constructions with the use of different techniques (particle size distribution, scanning electronmicroscopy tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, BET specific surface tests, determination of hydrophobicity). After the tests of fillers, asphalt mastics were prepared and rheological examinations were obtained. These examinations served to observe the interaction and the effect of fillers. The stiffening effect of fillers and the causes of rutting were also investigated. Based on our results, it can be stated that particle size, hydrophobic properties and the amount of fillers highly affect the rheological properties of mastics. (paper)

  19. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  20. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  1. A Novel Location-Centric IoT-Cloud Based On-Street Car Parking Violation Management System in Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Thanh; Kim, Younghan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, in big cities, parking management is a critical issue from both the driver’s side and the city government’s side. From the driver’s side, how to find an available parking lot in a city is a considerable concern. As a result, smart parking systems recently have received great interest, both in academia and industry. From the city government’s side, how to manage and distribute such a limited public parking resource efficiently to give every visitor a fair chance of finding an on-stre...

  2. Mount Rainier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  3. On the Design of Smart Parking Networks in the Smart Cities: An Optimal Sensor Placement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagula, Antoine; Castelli, Lorenzo; Zennaro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Smart parking is a typical IoT application that can benefit from advances in sensor, actuator and RFID technologies to provide many services to its users and parking owners of a smart city. This paper considers a smart parking infrastructure where sensors are laid down on the parking spots to detect car presence and RFID readers are embedded into parking gates to identify cars and help in the billing of the smart parking. Both types of devices are endowed with wired and wireless communication capabilities for reporting to a gateway where the situation recognition is performed. The sensor devices are tasked to play one of the three roles: (1) slave sensor nodes located on the parking spot to detect car presence/absence; (2) master nodes located at one of the edges of a parking lot to detect presence and collect the sensor readings from the slave nodes; and (3) repeater sensor nodes, also called “anchor” nodes, located strategically at specific locations in the parking lot to increase the coverage and connectivity of the wireless sensor network. While slave and master nodes are placed based on geographic constraints, the optimal placement of the relay/anchor sensor nodes in smart parking is an important parameter upon which the cost and efficiency of the parking system depends. We formulate the optimal placement of sensors in smart parking as an integer linear programming multi-objective problem optimizing the sensor network engineering efficiency in terms of coverage and lifetime maximization, as well as its economic gain in terms of the number of sensors deployed for a specific coverage and lifetime. We propose an exact solution to the node placement problem using single-step and two-step solutions implemented in the Mosel language based on the Xpress-MPsuite of libraries. Experimental results reveal the relative efficiency of the single-step compared to the two-step model on different performance parameters. These results are consolidated by simulation results

  4. On the Design of Smart Parking Networks in the Smart Cities: An Optimal Sensor Placement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Bagula

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart parking is a typical IoT application that can benefit from advances in sensor, actuator and RFID technologies to provide many services to its users and parking owners of a smart city. This paper considers a smart parking infrastructure where sensors are laid down on the parking spots to detect car presence and RFID readers are embedded into parking gates to identify cars and help in the billing of the smart parking. Both types of devices are endowed with wired and wireless communication capabilities for reporting to a gateway where the situation recognition is performed. The sensor devices are tasked to play one of the three roles: (1 slave sensor nodes located on the parking spot to detect car presence/absence; (2 master nodes located at one of the edges of a parking lot to detect presence and collect the sensor readings from the slave nodes; and (3 repeater sensor nodes, also called “anchor” nodes, located strategically at specific locations in the parking lot to increase the coverage and connectivity of the wireless sensor network. While slave and master nodes are placed based on geographic constraints, the optimal placement of the relay/anchor sensor nodes in smart parking is an important parameter upon which the cost and efficiency of the parking system depends. We formulate the optimal placement of sensors in smart parking as an integer linear programming multi-objective problem optimizing the sensor network engineering efficiency in terms of coverage and lifetime maximization, as well as its economic gain in terms of the number of sensors deployed for a specific coverage and lifetime. We propose an exact solution to the node placement problem using single-step and two-step solutions implemented in the Mosel language based on the Xpress-MPsuite of libraries. Experimental results reveal the relative efficiency of the single-step compared to the two-step model on different performance parameters. These results are consolidated by

  5. On the Design of Smart Parking Networks in the Smart Cities: An Optimal Sensor Placement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagula, Antoine; Castelli, Lorenzo; Zennaro, Marco

    2015-06-30

    Smart parking is a typical IoT application that can benefit from advances in sensor, actuator and RFID technologies to provide many services to its users and parking owners of a smart city. This paper considers a smart parking infrastructure where sensors are laid down on the parking spots to detect car presence and RFID readers are embedded into parking gates to identify cars and help in the billing of the smart parking. Both types of devices are endowed with wired and wireless communication capabilities for reporting to a gateway where the situation recognition is performed. The sensor devices are tasked to play one of the three roles: (1) slave sensor nodes located on the parking spot to detect car presence/absence; (2) master nodes located at one of the edges of a parking lot to detect presence and collect the sensor readings from the slave nodes; and (3) repeater sensor nodes, also called "anchor" nodes, located strategically at specific locations in the parking lot to increase the coverage and connectivity of the wireless sensor network. While slave and master nodes are placed based on geographic constraints, the optimal placement of the relay/anchor sensor nodes in smart parking is an important parameter upon which the cost and efficiency of the parking system depends. We formulate the optimal placement of sensors in smart parking as an integer linear programming multi-objective problem optimizing the sensor network engineering efficiency in terms of coverage and lifetime maximization, as well as its economic gain in terms of the number of sensors deployed for a specific coverage and lifetime. We propose an exact solution to the node placement problem using single-step and two-step solutions implemented in the Mosel language based on the Xpress-MPsuite of libraries. Experimental results reveal the relative efficiency of the single-step compared to the two-step model on different performance parameters. These results are consolidated by simulation results

  6. Study of normal and shear material properties for viscoelastic model of asphalt mixture by discrete element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was studied by using discrete element method. The dynamic properties of asphalt mixture were captured by implementing Burger’s contact model. Different ways of taking into account of the normal and shear material properties of asphalt mi...

  7. A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Hot Mixes Asphalt Containing Bituminous Binder Modified with Waste and Virgin Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira dos Santos, Joao Miguel; Cerezo, Veronique; Soudani, Khedoudja; Bressi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment undertaken to compare the potential environmental impacts associated with the use of asphalt surface mixtures produced with polymer modified bitumen with those of a conventional asphalt surface mixture. Seven types of hot mix asphalt

  8. Determination of the most favorable experimental conditions for obtaining asphalt emulsions modified with discarded polymers in the reconstruction of pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coward Ugalde, Hector Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The most favorable experimental conditions are determined for the production of asphalt emulsions modified with tire scrap rubber, petroleum material and recycled asphalt in the reconstruction of flexible pavements in a slow breaking process. Asphalt emulsions are made with 65% V/V of fluidized asphalt at different conditions of operation and composition of soap solution. The equipment of a centrifugal pump and a colloidal mill are used. Two different compositions are employed to make soap solutions. The best conditions to prepare the asphalt emulsions in the pilot plant have been: a stirring speed of 2100 rpm in the centrifugal pump and a speed of 3300 rpm of the colloidal mill. Asphaltic grouts made with asphalt emulsion modified to 1% m/m of rubber have shown the best coverage in the stripping test, evidencing little asphalt release, high adhesion of the asphalt on the aggregate and good stability. Asphalt emulsions with rubber are recommended with a granulometry that passes the No. 200 mesh for rubber and use the indicated equipment to carry out the process of asphalt modification to obtain better results in the performance of asphalt emulsion [es

  9. Modelling of Asphalt Concrete Stiffness in the Linear Viscoelastic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Grzegorz; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Stiffness modulus is a fundamental parameter used in the modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of bituminous mixtures. On the basis of the master curve in the linear viscoelasticity range, the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete at different loading times and temperatures can be predicted. This paper discusses the construction of master curves under rheological mathematical models i.e. the sigmoidal function model (MEPDG), the fractional model, and Bahia and co-workers’ model in comparison to the results from mechanistic rheological models i.e. the generalized Huet-Sayegh model, the generalized Maxwell model and the Burgers model. For the purposes of this analysis, the reference asphalt concrete mix (denoted as AC16W) intended for the binder coarse layer and for traffic category KR3 (5×105 controlled strain mode. The fixed strain level was set at 25με to guarantee that the stiffness modulus of the asphalt concrete would be tested in a linear viscoelasticity range. The master curve was formed using the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). The stiffness modulus of asphalt concrete was determined at temperatures 10°C, 20°C and 40°C and at loading times (frequency) of 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 Hz. The model parameters were fitted to the rheological models using the original programs based on the nonlinear least squares sum method. All the rheological models under analysis were found to be capable of predicting changes in the stiffness modulus of the reference asphalt concrete to satisfactory accuracy. In the cases of the fractional model and the generalized Maxwell model, their accuracy depends on a number of elements in series. The best fit was registered for Bahia and co-workers model, generalized Maxwell model and fractional model. As for predicting the phase angle parameter, the largest discrepancies between experimental and modelled results were obtained using the fractional model. Except the Burgers model, the model matching quality was

  10. SCPR: Secure Crowdsourcing-Based Parking Reservation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crowdsourcing-based parking reservation system is a new computing paradigm, where private owners can rent their parking spots out. Security is the main concern for parking reservation systems. However, current schemes cannot provide user privacy protection for drivers and have no key agreement functions, resulting in a lot of security problems. Moreover, current schemes are typically based on the time-consuming bilinear pairing and not suitable for real-time applications. To solve these security and efficiency problems, we present a novel security protocol with user privacy called SCPR. Similar to protocols of this field, SCPR can authenticate drivers involved in the parking reservation system. However, different from other well-known approaches, SCPR uses pseudonyms instead of real identities for providing user privacy protection for drivers and designs a novel pseudonym-based key agreement protocol. Finally, to reduce the time cost, SCPR designs several novel cryptographic algorithms based on the algebraic signature technique. By doing so, SCPR can satisfy a number of security requirements and enjoy high efficiency. Experimental results show SCPR is feasible for real world applications.

  11. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  12. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers on combu...

  13. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez A Al-Mansob

    Full Text Available Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  14. Influence of superplasticizer on the rheology of fresh cement asphalt paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Peng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement asphalt (CA paste is an organic–inorganic composite material of cement and asphalt emulsion. Its complicated rheological behavior affects its site application in high speed railway. Superplasticizers (SPs are usually used to improve the construction properties of fresh CA mortar. However, the principle of SPs acting on the rheology of CA paste is seldom studied. In this paper, the effects of polycarboxylate (PCA and naphthalenesulfonate (PNS on the rheological properties of CA pastes, asphalt emulsions (both anionic and cationic and cement pastes were studied, respectively from the viewpoint of adsorption and zeta potential. Centrifugation method was used to determine the adsorption of asphalt onto cement particle, electroacoustic method was employed to study the zeta potential of cement particles of concentrated paste, and optical microscopy was used to observe the dispersion of particles. The results suggest that both PCA and PNS can decrease the yield stress and apparent viscosity of CA pastes. The effect of SPs on the rheology of CA paste can be explained by two reasons. First, PNS can adsorb on both asphalt and cement surface, change the zeta potential and then decrease their yield stress and viscosity, while PCA only adsorb on cement surface. Second, the competitive adsorption of SPs and asphalt prevents asphalt from adsorbing on cement surface and then more asphalt droplets are released into aqueous solution, thereby enhancing the particle dispersion.

  15. Laboratory investigation of the performances of cement and fly ash modified asphalt concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suched Likitlersuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of filler materials on volumetric and mechanical performances of asphalt concrete was investigated in this study. The AC60/70 asphalt binder incorporating with cement and fly ash as filler materials was mixed with limestone following the Marshall mix design method. The filler contents of cement and/or fly ash were varied. The non-filler asphalt concrete mixtures of the AC60/70 and the polymer modified asphalt were prepared for the purpose of comparison. The investigation programme includes the indirect tensile test, the resilient modulus test and the dynamic creep test. The tests are conducted under the humid temperate environments. All tests were then carried out under standard temperature (25 °C and high temperature (55 °C by using a controlled temperature chamber via the universal testing machine. The wet-conditioned samples were prepared to investigate the moisture susceptibility. Results show that cement and/or fly ash were beneficial in terms of improved strength, stiffness and stripping resistance of asphalt mixture. In addition, the combined use of cement and fly ash can enhance rutting resistance at wet and high temperature conditions. The results indicate that the strength, stiffness and moisture susceptibility performances of the asphalt concrete mixtures improved by filler are comparable to the performance of the polymer modified asphalt mixture. Keywords: Asphalt concrete, Filler, Resilient modulus, Dynamic creep test, Moisture susceptibility

  16. Volumetric Analysis and Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt with Variable Rap Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP to the asphalt concrete mixture for highway construction offer many benefits including energy consumption, conservation of natural resources and preservation of the environment to associated emissions. This paper presents a study on performance of Hot Mix Asphalt with variable RAP content. The study is carried out to evaluate the Marshall Properties and Performance of RAP-Asphalt mixes using conventional asphaltic concrete mix AC14. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP and RAP-Asphalt mixes samples which consist of 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia. The Marshall Properties analysis was performed to ensure compliance with Marshall Requirements, The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility and indirect tensile strength between RAP-Asphalt mixes with the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% of RAP material.

  17. On the combined effect of moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation in asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Scarpas, A.; Collop, A.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new moisture conditioning protocol which attempts to distinguish the contributions of long- and short-term moisture damage, i.e. moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation, in asphalt mixtures is presented. The capability of the proposed protocol to rank various asphalt

  18. Preparation and Properties of Asphalt Binders Modified by THFS Extracted From Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the preparation and viscoelastic properties of asphalt binder modified by tetrahydrofuran soluble fraction (THFS extracted from direct coal liquefaction residue. The modified asphalt binders, which blended with SK-90 (control asphalt binder and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% THFS (by weight of SK-90, were fabricated. The preparation process for asphalt binder was optimized in terms of the orthogonal array test strategy and gray correlation analysis results. The properties of asphalt binder were measured by applying Penetration performance grade and Superpave performance grade specifications. In addition, the temperature step and frequency sweep test in Dynamic Shear Rheometer were conducted to predict the rheological behavior, temperature and frequency susceptibility of asphalt binder. The test results suggested the optimal preparation process, such as 150 °C shearing temperature, 45 min shearing time and 4000 rpm shearing rate. Subsequently, the addition of THFS was beneficial in increasing the high-temperature properties but decreased the low-temperature properties and resistance to fatigue. The content analysis of THFS showed the percentage of 4~6% achieved a balance in the high-and-low temperature properties of asphalt binder. The asphalt binder with higher THFS content exhibited higher resistance to rutting and less sensitivity to frequency and temperature.

  19. Performance characterizations of asphalt binders and mixtures incorporating silane additive ZycoTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohd Rosli Mohd; Hamzah, Meor Othman; Yee, Teh Sek

    2017-10-01

    Experimental works were conducted to evaluate the properties of asphalt binders and mixtures produced using a relatively new silane additive, named ZycoTherm. In this study, 0.1wt% ZycoTherm was blended with asphalt binder to enable production of asphalt mixture at lower than normal temperatures, as well as improve mix workability and compactability. Asphalt mixture performances towards pavement distresses in tropical climate region were also investigated. The properties of control asphalt binders (60/70 and 80/10 penetration grade) and asphalt binders incorporating 0.1% ZycoTherm were reported based on the penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity, complex modulus and phase angle. Subsequently, to compare the performance of asphalt mixture incorporating ZycoTherm with the control asphalt mixture, cylindrical samples were prepared at recommended temperatures and air voids depending on the binder types and test requirements. The samples were tested for indirect tensile strength (ITS), resilient modulus, dynamic creep, Hamburg wheel tracking and moisture induced damage. From compaction data using the Servopak gyratory compactor, specimen prepared using ZycoTherm exhibit higher workability and compactability compared to the conventional mixture. From the mixture performance test results, mixtures prepared with ZycoTherm showed comparable if not better performance than the control sample in terms of the resistance to moisture damage, permanent deformation and cracking.

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * * 1...