WorldWideScience

Sample records for parking area criteria

  1. Delineation of Suitable Cropland Areas Using a GIS Based Multi-Criteria Evaluation Approach in the Tam Dao National Park Region, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dang Khoi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is recognized as one of the major threats to the buffer zones of protected areas (PAs in Vietnam. In particular, the expansion of land degradation into the PAs is exerting pressure on biodiversity conservation efforts. This degradation is partially the result of mismanagement: the utilization of the land is often unmatched with the inherent suitability of the land. Identification of the spatial distribution of suitable areas for cropland is essential for sustainable land-use recommendation. This paper aims to delineate the areas suitable for cropland in the Tam Dao National Park (TDNP region using a GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation of biophysical factors and Landsat ETM+ imagery. GIS is used to generate the factors, while MCE is used to aggregate them into a land suitability index. The results indicate the location and extent of crop farming areas at different suitability levels, i.e., most suitable (28.10%, moderately suitable (23.96%, marginally suitable (28.77%, and least suitable (19.17%. The current cropland covers 46.5% of the study area, while most and moderately suitable areas are estimated to be 52.06% of the territory. The results can be used to identify priority areas for crop farming and sustainable land-use management. The GIS-MCE approach provides an effective assessment tool for land-use managers working in protected areas of Vietnam.

  2. Mathematical model of parking space unit for triangular parking area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrini, Intan; Sundari, Teti; Iskandar, Taufiq; Halfiani, Vera; Munzir, Said; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Parking space unit (PSU) is an effective measure for the area size of a vehicle, including the free space and the width of the door opening of the vehicle (car). This article discusses a mathematical model for parking space of vehicles in triangular shape area. An optimization model for triangular parking lot is developed. Integer Linear Programming (ILP) method is used to determine the maximum number of the PSU. The triangular parking lot is in isosceles and equilateral triangles shape and implements four possible rows and five possible angles for each field. The vehicles which are considered are cars and motorcycles. The results show that the isosceles triangular parking area has 218 units of optimal PSU, which are 84 units of PSU for cars and 134 units of PSU for motorcycles. Equilateral triangular parking area has 688 units of optimal PSU, which are 175 units of PSU for cars and 513 units of PSU for motorcycles.

  3. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  4. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  5. Smart Parking Management Pilot Project: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan; Rodier, Caroline; Eaken, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents early findings from an application of advanced parking technologies to maximize existing parking capacity at the Rockridge BART station, which was launched in December 2004 in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The smart parking system includes traffic sensors that count the number of vehicles entering and exiting the parking lots at the station. A reservation system allows travelers to reserve spaces by Internet, personal digital assistant (PDA), phone, and cell phone. The...

  6. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.55 Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General criteria for designation of...

  7. Measuring preferences for parking facilities in old residential areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.W.J.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Toll, L.M.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems in restructuring old residential areas in European cities is parking. The narrow streets and lack of open spaces challenge city planners to find solutions to this problem. Insight in preferences regarding possible parking solutions may facilitate the development of restructure

  8. Analysis of operating criteria: Multiple lakes at Voyageurs National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flug, M.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of lake and river regulation at Voyageurs National Park, which resides on the Minnesota-Ontario border, is given to demonstrate how water policy agreements can work. In 1905 the United States and Canada authorized private dams with turbines on the Rainy River. The International Joint Commission regulates these dams. The National Park Service is mandated to preserve the natural environment for future generations. State, private, and public sector interests are tourism, flood protection, the pulp and paper industry, native wild rice growth; etc. Rule curves for regulating reservoirs have changed and committee with broad representation is cooperating to better manage the waters of Namakan Reservoir and Rainy Lake

  9. Evaluation Criteria for Implementation of a Sustainable Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment System at Jiuzhaigou National Park, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulke, Linda S.; Weiyang, Xiao; Scanlon, Andrew; Henck, Amanda; Hinckley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The administration of Jiuzhaigou National Park in Sichuan Province, China, is in the process of considering a range of upgrades to their sanitation and wastewater treatment systems. Their case history involves an ongoing series of engineering design flaws and management failures. The administration of the Park identified sustainability, environmental protection, and education goals for their sanitation and wastewater treatment system. To meet the goal of sustainability, environmental and economic concerns of the Park’s administration had to be balanced with socio-cultural needs. An advanced reconnaissance method was developed that identified reasons for previous failures, conducted stakeholder analysis and interviews, determined evaluation criteria, and introduced innovative alternatives with records of successful global implementations. This evaluation also helped the Park to better define their goals . To prevent future failures, the administration of the Park must commit to a balanced and thorough evaluation process for selection of a final alternative and institute effective long-term management and monitoring of systems. In addition, to meet goals and achieve energy efficient, cost-effective use of resources, the Park must shift their thinking from one of waste disposal to resource recovery. The method and criteria developed for this case study provides a framework to aid in the successful implementation of sanitation projects in both underdeveloped and developed areas of the world, incorporating socio-cultural values and resource recovery for a complex group of stakeholders.

  10. Parking in cites : How essential is parking for healthy central shopping areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Koetse, Mark; Woudenberg, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    A reason of concern with restrictive parking policies is that the cities will become less attractive as a destination of various trips so that some activities will relocate to other places. This holds true for example for shopping. When central shopping areas are difficult to visit, customer

  11. ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER POLLUTION IN PARKING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of rain sewer is connected with dehydration of roads and coexisting objects. The paper presents a discussion upon the issue of groundwater contamination by petroleum compounds and other pollutants from transport based on studies of groundwater within the parking lots. The study included 9 parking areas, including 7 in Bialystok, 1 in a residential area outside of Bialystok in Ignatki, and one in Kleosin. The tested waters were subject to determination of COD, total suspension, and petroleum substances expressed as a mineral oil index. The studies have shown that the concentrations of determined parameters were in most cases proportional to the larger runoffs and concentration of petroleum compounds increased with the increase of suspension. It has been shown that from part of the parking lots, the meteoric water was discharged directly into watercourses and exceeds the permissible limits regulated by the Decree.

  12. Evaluating the effects of parking policy measures in nature areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunen, R.; Jaarsma, C.F.; Regnerus, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Parking policy measures are widely used to manage cars in nature areas. Only with data from long-term monitoring projects is it possible to separate ¿normal¿ fluctuation in the number of cars from fluctuation caused by trends or caused by the effects of these measures. An evaluation of measures

  13. Evaluation of parking management strategies for urban areas : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art of parking management in urban areas in the United States was established using an extensive review of the literature and a nationwide questionnaire survey that was distributed to 458 city officials, 173 of whom responded. Based ...

  14. Multi-criteria approval for evaluating landscape management strategies (Case study: Fruška Gora National Park)

    OpenAIRE

    Lakićević Milena D.; Srđević Bojan M.; Srđević Zorica B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of multi-criteria evaluation of four management strategies for Fruška Gora National Park. The criteria set was defined in ac­cordance with the IUCN guidelines for management of national parks. Four strategies were evaluated by testing preference intensities for each alternative with the respect to each cri­terion. Alternatives with preference above the approval threshold were approved, and a multi-criteria approval matrix w...

  15. An Intelligent Parking Management System for Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Gómez, Juan A; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; García, Carmelo R; Suárez Moreno, Raúl; Guerra Hernández, Fernando

    2016-06-21

    In this article we describe a low-cost, minimally-intrusive system for the efficient management of parking spaces on both public roads and controlled zones. This system is based on wireless networks of photoelectric sensors that are deployed on the access roads into and out of these areas. The sensors detect the passage of vehicles on these roads and communicate this information to a data centre, thus making it possible to know the number of vehicles in the controlled zone and the occupancy levels in real-time. This information may be communicated to drivers to facilitate their search for a parking space and to authorities so that they may take steps to control traffic when congestion is detected.

  16. 78 FR 72028 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Curecanti National Recreation Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...-substantive edits. The final rule revises the section heading for Sec. 7.51 from ``Curecanti Recreation Area... paragraph 7.51(e) to designate three groups of routes and areas where motor vehicles may be used off park...) and (f). The revisions and additions read as follows: Sec. 7.51 Curecanti National Recreation Area...

  17. Optimal site selection for sitting a solar park using multi-criteria decision analysis and geographical information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andreas; Skarlatos, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    region for sitting solar parks is appraised through the summation rule. Strict application of the framework depicts 3.0 % of the study region scoring a best-suitability index for solar resource exploitation, hence minimizing the risk in a potential investment. However, using different weighting schemes for criteria, suitable areas may reach up to 83 % of the study region. The suggested methodological framework applied can be easily utilized by potential investors and renewable energy developers, through a front end web-based application with proper GUI for personalized weighting schemes.

  18. 76 FR 77131 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Iobst, Deputy Superintendent, Yellowstone National Park, (307) 344-2002... material way the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or...

  19. Multi-criteria approval for evaluating landscape management strategies (Case study: Fruška Gora National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakićević Milena D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of multi-criteria evaluation of four management strategies for Fruška Gora National Park. The criteria set was defined in ac­cordance with the IUCN guidelines for management of national parks. Four strategies were evaluated by testing preference intensities for each alternative with the respect to each cri­terion. Alternatives with preference above the approval threshold were approved, and a multi-criteria approval matrix was generated. According to the matrix, the most suitable management strategy was identified. It implies an intense protection of natural resources and landscape diversity in the national park by applying bio-engineering measures. This illustrative example proved that multi-criteria approval can be considered as a good deci­sion support tool when there is no need for a deeper insight into cardinal values of criteria weights and alternatives, or if the decision maker has to select few from many of alterna­tives to reduce the decision problem. For a more precise analysis, it is recommended to combine multi-criteria approval with other decision support tools, and future studies might deal with this problem in order to define an alternative framework for decision making in landscape management. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174003: Theory and application of analytic hierarchy process (AHP in multi-criteria decision making under conditions of risk and uncer­tainty (individual and group context

  20. Public Parks and Wellbeing in Urban Areas of the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln R Larson

    Full Text Available Sustainable development efforts in urban areas often focus on understanding and managing factors that influence all aspects of health and wellbeing. Research has shown that public parks and green space provide a variety of physical, psychological, and social benefits to urban residents, but few studies have examined the influence of parks on comprehensive measures of subjective wellbeing at the city level. Using 2014 data from 44 U.S. cities, we evaluated the relationship between urban park quantity, quality, and accessibility and aggregate self-reported scores on the Gallup-Healthways Wellbeing Index (WBI, which considers five different domains of wellbeing (e.g., physical, community, social, financial, and purpose. In addition to park-related variables, our best-fitting OLS regression models selected using an information theory approach controlled for a variety of other typical geographic and socio-demographic correlates of wellbeing. Park quantity (measured as the percentage of city area covered by public parks was among the strongest predictors of overall wellbeing, and the strength of this relationship appeared to be driven by parks' contributions to physical and community wellbeing. Park quality (measured as per capita spending on parks and accessibility (measured as the overall percentage of a city's population within ½ mile of parks were also positively associated with wellbeing, though these relationships were not significant. Results suggest that expansive park networks are linked to multiple aspects of health and wellbeing in cities and positively impact urban quality of life.

  1. 75 FR 39168 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ...; Areas of the National Park System AGENCY: National Park Service. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: The... activities. We removed historic wallpaper from the dining room and upstairs bedroom areas for cleaning... comment on this rule would be unnecessary and contrary to the public interest, we find under the...

  2. 78 FR 22470 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ..., natural soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and park operations. Impacts associated with each of the... monitoring, including data regarding air quality, wildlife, soundscapes, and health and safety, were used in... impacts to wildlife, air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety, the NPS is...

  3. 76 FR 39048 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ..., natural soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and visitor accessibility. Impacts associated with each... oversnow vehicles on the park's soundscapes. NPS Approved Snowmobiles and Snowcoaches The Superintendent..., air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety, the NPS is proposing to continue...

  4. 78 FR 63069 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and park operations. Impacts associated with each of the alternatives..., soundscapes, and health and safety, were used in formulating the alternatives in the Plan/SEIS. Applies the... To mitigate impacts to wildlife, air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety...

  5. 14 CFR 151.93 - Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking....93 Buildings; utilities; sidewalks; parking areas; and landscaping. (a) Only buildings or parts of buildings intended to house facilities or activities directly related to the safety of persons at the...

  6. Governance assessment of a protected area : the case of the Alde Feanen National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lordkipanidze, Maia; Bressers, Hans; Lulofs, Kris

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of appropriate governance of complexity and diversity in the Dutch national park of Alde Feanen. The issue is how to enhance ecosystem resilience. Our focus relates to a navigable waterway within the park that affects the natural values of the area. The governance

  7. Reading the landscape: citywide social assessment of New York City parks and natural areas in 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Novem Auyeung; Lindsay K. Campbell; Michelle Johnson; Nancy Falxa Sonti; Erika Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) Natural Resources Group created the Forever Wild Program to protect nearly 9,000 acres of forests, wetlands, and meadows citywide. Although these areas were set aside over a decade ago, we have little systematic evidence about how park visitors view, use, and value parks with these...

  8. Application of analytic hierarchy process in landscape management: Case study area Košutnjak park-forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakićević Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper management is one of key elements of the natural landscape protection strategy. Park-forests with protected and conserved natural elements represent attractive eco-tourism urban zones. Košutnjak is the most visited park-forest in Serbian capitol Belgrade, unfortunately with increasing number of degraded and devastated areas as a consequence of negative human impacts in the past. In order to conserve natural values in this popular forested city area, and to improve its tourism potential, we found that in achieving that goal, it is meaningful to asses possible management practices and identify the most desired one by applying the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, scientifically sound multi-criteria decision making tool. Based on the obtained results, a recommended strategy is to renovate natural vegetation and to promote recreational and tourism offer in Košutnjak with respect of the sustainability principle.

  9. Diversity of Snakes in Rajegwesi Tourism Area, Meru Betiri National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Luchman; Raharjo, Aji Dharma

    2015-01-01

    Rajegwesi tourism area is one of the significant tourism areas in Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia. The area rich in term of biodiversity which are potential for developed as natural tourism attraction.  The aim of this study is to identify snakes species diversity and its distribution in Rajegwesi tourism area. Field survey was done in Rajegwesi area, namely swamps forest, residential area, rice fields, agriculture area (babatan), resort area, and Plengkang cliff. This study f...

  10. A Novel Approach to Site Selection: Collaborative Multi-Criteria Decision Making through Geo-Social Network (Case Study: Public Parking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Neisani Samani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many potential factors that are involved in the decision making process of site selection, which makes it a challenging issue. This paper addresses the collaborative decision making concept through a geo-social network to predict site selection for public parking in Tehran, Iran. The presented approach utilized the analytic hierarchy process (AHP as a multi-criteria decision method (MCDM for weighting the criteria, which was completed in two stages; once by 50 experts, and then by three different levels of users, including 50 experts, 25 urban managers, and 150 pubic citizens, with respect to the case study area. The fuzzy majority method aggregates the archived results of AHP to determine the preferred locations that are suitable for public parking. The proposed method was implemented using a telegram bot platform. Two main advantages of the collaborative decision making scenario for public urban site selection are the fair distribution of the selected locations and the high satisfaction of users, which increased from 65% to 85%. This study presents an application for site selection based on multi-criteria decision making in a geo-social network context.

  11. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H. [Office de la protection de l`environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  12. Parking strategy in the pollution control program of an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gygax, H [Office de la protection de l` environment, Fribourg (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Swiss legislation requires, in case of excessive air pollutant levels, the regions (cantons) to adopt a plan for the implementation of national air quality standards. Within the field of transport, if low emission technologies on motor vehicles are insufficient, measures to control and restrict motor vehicle traffic must be considered. Regarding parking measures, the Swiss Federal Court has accepted management and reduction of parking facilities as legally inforceable emission limitation for air pollutant abatement. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a parking policy in a city within a small urban area. (author)

  13. Gateways as a means of visitor management in national parks and protected areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunen, R.; Regnerus, H.D.; Jaarsma, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Managers of national parks and other protected areas need to balance visitor needs with conservation objectives. In Western Europe, these areas are often part of a "living landscape" where people live and work and where the area roads are used not only by visitors but also by utilitarian local bound

  14. Sustainability: criteria and indicators for the energy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Gubler, F.; Brodmann, U.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the concept of sustainability with reference to the energy area. The importance of energy topics in the fundamental ideas behind sustainability - ecological compatibility, economic efficiency and social fairness - is discussed. The methods used to define the criteria and indicators for sustainability are discussed on the basis of existing systems. >From these, criteria and indicators are proposed for the energy area, including indicators for the influence of energy on the environment, economy and society, activity-indicators and indicators for energy efficiency and politics. The system boundaries for the indicators are discussed, as are grey energy and other 'grey' effects in the environmental, economic and social areas. The various criteria, indicators and the effort needed to collect data on them are presented in table form. The report is completed with a discussion of recommendations on what is still to be done in the area, how the results of the study can be used and what actions are still to be taken

  15. Estimating Areas of Vulnerability: Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge Hazards in the National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, M.; Beavers, R. L.; Slayton, I. A.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Colorado Boulder in collaboration with the National Park Service has undertaken the task of compiling sea level change and storm surge data for 105 coastal parks. The aim of our research is to highlight areas of the park system that are at increased risk of rapid inundation as well as periodic flooding due to sea level rise and storms. This research will assist park managers and planners in adapting to climate change. The National Park Service incorporates climate change data into many of their planning documents and is willing to implement innovative coastal adaptation strategies. Events such as Hurricane Sandy highlight how impacts of coastal hazards will continue to challenge management of natural and cultural resources and infrastructure along our coastlines. This poster will discuss the current status of this project. We discuss the impacts of Hurricane Sandy as well as the latest sea level rise and storm surge modeling being employed in this project. In addition to evaluating various drivers of relative sea-level change, we discuss how park planners and managers also need to consider projected storm surge values added to sea-level rise magnitudes, which could further complicate the management of coastal lands. Storm surges occurring at coastal parks will continue to change the land and seascapes of these areas, with the potential to completely submerge them. The likelihood of increased storm intensity added to increasing rates of sea-level rise make predicting the reach of future storm surges essential for planning and adaptation purposes. The National Park Service plays a leading role in developing innovative strategies for coastal parks to adapt to sea-level rise and storm surge, whilst coastal storms are opportunities to apply highly focused responses.

  16. Public parks and wellbeing in urban areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Viniece Jennings; Scott A. Cloutier

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development efforts in urban areas often focus on understanding and managing factors that influence all aspects of health and wellbeing. Research has shown that public parks and green space provide a variety of physical, psychological, and social benefits to urban residents, but few studies have examined the influence of parks on comprehensive measures of...

  17. National parks and protected areas: Appoaches for balancing social, economic, and ecological values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2005-01-01

    The balance of nature in any strict sense has been upset long ago…The only option we have is to create a new balance objectively determined for each area in accordance with the intended use of that area.” --Aldo Leopold, 1927, in a letter to the Superintendent of Glacier National Park

  18. A Robust Method for Detecting Parking Areas in Both Indoor and Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Zong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an automatic parking system has been installed in many vehicles recently, it is still hard for the system to confirm by itself whether a vacant parking area truly exists or not. In this paper, we introduced a robust vision-based vacancy parking area detecting method for both indoor and outdoor environments. The main contribution of this paper is given as follows. First, an automatic image stitching method is proposed. Secondly, the problem of environment illuminating change and line color difference is considered and solved. Thirdly, the proposed algorithm is insensitive to the shadow and scene diversity, which means the detecting result satisfies most of the environment. Finally, a vehicle model is considered for tracking and reconfirming the detecting results to eliminate most of the false positives.

  19. Community Participation Of Coastal Area On Management Of National Park, Karimunjawa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Bambang A.; Aditomo, Aryo B.; Prihantoko, Kukuh E.

    2018-02-01

    Karimunjawa island located in Jepara Regacy, Central Java has potential marine and fishing resources. Since 1998, this area has been selected as conservation for its natural resources. National park of Karimunjawa is managed by Balai Taman Nasional Karimunjawa (Karimunjawa National Park Beuroue). Some activities involved community have been done in order to get effective management. Community participation is an important component for success in coastal area management. The level of community/people awareness anual on natural resource conservation can increate sustainable resource. However, it is necesssary to provide tools in resource utilization for the community, so that their economic life can be secured. This study observe the level of community participation in the effort of Karimunjawa National Park management. Descriptive method and purposive random sampling were used to carry out the study parameters observed in this study include community participation related to level of knowladge and obedience on the rule of area zonation, an its impact to community. The result show that community knowledge was quite high (40%) with obedience (56%) on the rule of area zonation. Impact area zonation rule was less significant to community. The level of community participation to Karimunjawa National Park management was performed will low to medium level.

  20. 77 FR 40547 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Chattahoochee River National Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... acres of park land, including riverside units and upland forested areas with hiking trails and other... final trail plan has 3 miles of hiking-only trails and 6.7 miles of multi-use trails allowing both... purposes. This certification is based on the cost-benefit and regulatory flexibility analysis found in the...

  1. The metropolitan park: searching for a new typology for intermediate green areas in urban fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.; Velde, van der R.; Graaf, de E.; Kruit, E.; Lodder, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing urbanization in metropolitan regions creates a wish for large green areas in the urban peripheries for recreational purposes. Agricultural landscapes are being replaced with woods, nature and water to provide citizens with space for outdoor recreation and other activities. Park-like settings

  2. Visitor constraints to physical activity in park and recreation areas: differences by race and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja A. Wilhelm Stanis; Ingrid E. Schneider; Deborah J Chavez; Kimberly J. Shinew

    2009-01-01

    Health benefits of physical activity are well recognized and documented, yet inactivity and obesity rates remain high in the U.S., particularly among racially and ethnically diverse populations. A greater understanding of factors that constrain physical activity in parks and recreation areas across various racial and ethnic groups may improve an agency’s ability to...

  3. Perception Environmental Awareness and Green Areas: The Case Botanical Garden City Park in Sinop / MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovia Cecilia Rauber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the environmental perception of a group of residents of two neighborhoods surrounding the Botanical Garden City Park in Sinop-MT, revealing their relationship with the area as well as their involvement in proposing alternatives for the conservation of the Park. With this aim a study on the Botanical Garden Municipal Park was carried out, using the following procedures: documentary research in public agencies; site visits for description of the area and semi-structured interviews with a group of residents of two neighborhoods in the vicinity, Celeste Garden and the Botanical Garden. The presence of fauna, flora and springs that form Ribeirão Nilza within the park indicates the need for its conservation, and the residents consider the area important for the local micro weather, tourism, biodiversity conservation and also to develop researches, contributing significantly to the population's quality of life. Taking into account the above considerations, it is important to consider a new scenario, which aims to mobilize social participation, propitiating the people the feeling of belonging to what they conceive as the environment, giving rise to a participatory management by means of Environmental Education.

  4. 77 FR 3123 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System, Cape Hatteras National Seashore-Off-Road...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ..., Areas of the National Park System, Cape Hatteras National Seashore--Off-Road Vehicle Management AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule designates off-road vehicle (ORV... operation of motor vehicles off of roads within areas [[Page 3124

  5. 77 FR 56117 - Special Regulations, Areas of the National Park System; Mammoth Cave National Park, Bicycle Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ...: Significant health benefits can be derived from bicycling and trail users at the park would benefit from..., foster mental and physical health, and promote learning and personal growth. The health benefits derived... Parks'' initiative of the NPS and the President's ``America's Great Outdoors'' initiative. White Oak...

  6. Evaluating the role of collaborative planning in BC's Parks and Protected Areas Management Planning process

    OpenAIRE

    Ronmark, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    BC's protected areas system has recently doubled in size as a result of land use planning across the province. Managing protected areas to meet many goals requires thoughtful planning that involves stakeholder participation and dispute resolution through the plan development and implementation stages. This research identifies the best practices for planning and evaluates protected areas management planning processes based on those criteria. Evaluative criteria were developed from a literature...

  7. 76 FR 61266 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Grand Teton National Park, Bicycle Routes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton is at the heart of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, and includes the... elk, moose, bison, pronghorn, grizzly and black bears, grey wolves, and coyotes. Other species such as...

  8. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  9. Water resources of the Park City area, Utah, with emphasis on ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Walter F.; Thompson, Kendall R.; Enright, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The Park City area is a rapidly growing residential and recreational area about 30 miles east of Sal t Lake City (fig. 1). The area of study is about 140 square miles in which the principle industries are agriculture, skiing, and other recreational activities. The area once was a major lead- and silver-mining district, but no mines were active in 1984. A resumption in mining activity, however, could take place with an increase in the price of metals.The population of the Park City area is expected to increase rapidly in the near future; and the provision of an adequate water supply for the growing population, while avoiding harmful affects of development, is a major concern for local municipalities, developers, and the Utah Division of Water Rights. In addition, agricultural interests in and below the area are concerned about the effects of increased ground-water withdrawals on streamflow, which is fully appropriated by downstream users. The area also contains the proposed site for the Jordanelle dam, a part of the Bonneville unit of the central Utah Project. The damsite is near an historic mining area; and mining companies are concerned that if mining is resumed, the reservoir may create some additional dewatering problems in the mines.

  10. A pedogeomorphic comparison of two granitic areas in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Munnik

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Two climatically different areas on granitic materials near Phalaborwa and Pretoriuskop in the Kruger National Park were pedogeomorphologically compared and the influence of climatic factors on soil and hillslope development in the two areas was assessed. The examination of 18 hillslopes and their soils showed that while the two areas have many broad similarities, there are specific soil and hillslope differences between them with the result that each area has its own distinctive pedogeomorphic character. While comparable parent material, situation and age appear to be responsible for similarities between the areas, the differences could in most cases be accounted for by the disparity in rainfall between the two areas. It was, however, also necessary to note the role of past (and possibly current cycles of erosion and deposition in the creation of the two types of simple hillslopes occurring in the areas.

  11. Protected Area Tourism in a Changing Climate: Will Visitation at US National Parks Warm Up or Overheat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A; Schuurman, Gregor W; Monahan, William B; Ziesler, Pamela S

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will affect not only natural and cultural resources within protected areas but also tourism and visitation patterns. The U.S. National Park Service systematically collects data regarding its 270+ million annual recreation visits, and therefore provides an opportunity to examine how human visitation may respond to climate change from the tropics to the polar regions. To assess the relationship between climate and park visitation, we evaluated historical monthly mean air temperature and visitation data (1979-2013) at 340 parks and projected potential future visitation (2041-2060) based on two warming-climate scenarios and two visitation-growth scenarios. For the entire park system a third-order polynomial temperature model explained 69% of the variation in historical visitation trends. Visitation generally increased with increasing average monthly temperature, but decreased strongly with temperatures > 25°C. Linear to polynomial monthly temperature models also explained historical visitation at individual parks (R2 0.12-0.99, mean = 0.79, median = 0.87). Future visitation at almost all parks (95%) may change based on historical temperature, historical visitation, and future temperature projections. Warming-mediated increases in potential visitation are projected for most months in most parks (67-77% of months; range across future scenarios), resulting in future increases in total annual visits across the park system (8-23%) and expansion of the visitation season at individual parks (13-31 days). Although very warm months at some parks may see decreases in future visitation, this potential change represents a relatively small proportion of visitation across the national park system. A changing climate is likely to have cascading and complex effects on protected area visitation, management, and local economies. Results suggest that protected areas and neighboring communities that develop adaptation strategies for these changes may be able to both

  12. Parks, people, and change: the importance of multistakeholder engagement in adaptation planning for conserved areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine N. Knapp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change challenges the traditional goals and conservation strategies of protected areas, necessitating adaptation to changing conditions. Denali National Park and Preserve (Denali in south central Alaska, USA, is a vast landscape that is responding to climate change in ways that will impact both ecological resources and local communities. Local observations help to inform understanding of climate change and adaptation planning, but whose knowledge is most important to consider? For this project we interviewed long-term Denali staff, scientists, subsistence community members, bus drivers, and business owners to assess what types of observations each can contribute, how climate change is impacting each, and what they think the National Park Service should do to adapt. The project shows that each type of long-term observer has different types of observations, but that those who depend more directly on natural resources for their livelihoods have more and different observations than those who do not. These findings suggest that engaging multiple groups of stakeholders who interact with the park in distinct ways adds substantially to the information provided by Denali staff and scientists and offers a broader foundation for adaptation planning. It also suggests that traditional protected area paradigms that fail to learn from and foster appropriate engagement of people may be maladaptive in the context of climate change.

  13. Lichens and allied fungi of two Regional Parks in Vilnius area (Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Regional Parks – Verkiai and Pavilniai are situated in Vilnius city area comprising territories both of the city itself and Vilnius district and are under strong anthropogenic influence. During the present study 172 species of lichens, lichenicolous and saprobic fungi were revealed in Verkiai RP and 92 species – in Pavilniai RP. Three lichen species – Absconditella pauxilla, Thelenella pertusariella (in Verkiai RP, Bacidia caligans (in Pavilniai RP and one saprobic fungus – Chaenothecopsis debilis (in Verkiai RP are reporded for the first time in Lithuania. Seven lichen species of Lithuanian Red Data Book were recorded, all of them only in Verkiai RP; this indicates less strong anthropogenic impact and better conditions for biodiversity in this Park.

  14. Hydrogeology of the Old Faithful area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and its relevance to natural resources and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Foley, Duncan; Fournier, Robert O.; Heasler, Henry P.; Hinckley, Bern; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Susong, David D.

    2014-01-01

    A panel of leading experts (The Old Faithful Science Review Panel) was convened by Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to review and summarize the geological and hydrological understanding that can inform National Park Service management of the Upper Geyser Basin area. We give an overview of present geological and hydrological knowledge of the Old Faithful hydrothermal (hot water) system and related thermal areas in the Upper Geyser Basin. We prioritize avenues for improving our understanding of key knowledge gaps that limit informed decision-making regarding human use in this fragile natural landscape. Lastly, we offer guidelines to minimize impacts to the hydrothermal system that could be used to aid decisions by park management.

  15. Water quality and quantity assessment of pervious pavements performance in experimental car park areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Andres-Valeri, Valerio C A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Pervious pavements have become one of the most used sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) techniques in car parks. This research paper presents the results of monitoring water quality from several experimental car park areas designed and constructed in Spain with bays made of interlocking concrete block pavement, porous asphalt, polymer-modified porous concrete and reinforced grass with plastic and concrete cells. Moreover, two different sub-base materials were used (limestone aggregates and basic oxygen furnace slag). This study therefore encompasses the majority of the materials used as permeable surfaces and sub-base layers all over the world. Effluent from the test bays was monitored for dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons in order to analyze the behaviour shown by each combination of surface and sub-base materials. In addition, permeability tests were undertaken in all car parks using the 'Laboratorio Caminos Santander' permeameter and the Cantabrian Portable Infiltrometer. All results are presented together with the influence of surface and sub-base materials on water quality indicators using bivariate correlation statistical analysis at a confidence level of 95%. The polymer-modified porous concrete surface course in combination with limestone aggregate sub-base presented the best performance.

  16. Use of alternative sources of energy: design study of photovoltaic based parking area lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraki, V.; Loucas, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes the lighting of the parking area and the surrounding streets of the north west part of the University Campus of Patras, using an alternative source of energy, the photovoltaic energy. The sizing of the proposed system results to a reliable, autonomous system which covers the total of the energy needs without any maintenance. Although the energy produced is more expensive compared to the grid electricity nowadays, such solutions seem necessary and well promising for the future as the fuel reserves are limited. (authors)

  17. Forecasting Areas Vulnerable to Forest Conversion in the Tam Dao National Park Region, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dang Khoi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tam Dao National Park (TDNP is a remaining primary forest that supports some of the highest levels of biodiversity in Vietnam. Forest conversion due to illegal logging and agricultural expansion is a major problem that is hampering biodiversity conservation efforts in the TDNP region. Yet, areas vulnerable to forest conversion are unknown. In this paper, we predicted areas vulnerable to forest changes in the TDNP region using multi-temporal remote sensing data and a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN with a Markov chain model (MLPNN-M. The MLPNN-M model predicted increasing pressure in the remaining primary forest within the park as well as on the secondary forest in the surrounding areas. The primary forest is predicted to decrease from 18.03% in 2007 to 15.10% in 2014 and 12.66% in 2021. Our results can be used to prioritize locations for future biodiversity conservation and forest management efforts. The combined use of remote sensing and spatial modeling techniques provides an effective tool for monitoring the remaining forests in the TDNP region.

  18. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  19. Defining Indicators and Standards for Tourism Impacts in Protected Areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan A.; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors’ perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors’ perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors’ quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors’ perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management.

  20. Defining indicators and standards for tourism impacts in protected areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan A; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors' perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors' perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors' quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors' perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management.

  1. Diversity of Snakes in Rajegwesi Tourism Area, Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Dharma Raharjo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rajegwesi tourism area is one of the significant tourism areas in Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia. The area rich in term of biodiversity which are potential for developed as natural tourism attraction.  The aim of this study is to identify snakes species diversity and its distribution in Rajegwesi tourism area. Field survey was done in Rajegwesi area, namely swamps forest, residential area, rice fields, agriculture area (babatan, resort area, and Plengkang cliff. This study found some snakes, encompasses Colubridae (10 species, Elapidae (four species, and Phytonidae (one species. There are Burmese Python (Python reticulatus, Red-necked Keelback (Rhabdophis subminiatus, Painted Bronzeback Snake (Dendrelaphis Pictus, Black Copper Rat Snake (Coelognathus flavolineatus, Radiated Rat Snake (C. radiatus, Striped Keelback (Xenochrophis vittatus, Checkered Keelback (X. piscator, Spotted Ground Snake (Gongyosoma balioderius, Gold-ringed Cat Snake (Boiga dendrophila, Common Wolf Snake (Lycodon capucinus, Banded Wolf snake (L. subcinctus, Cobra (Naja sputatrix, King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah, Malayan Krait (Bungarus candidus, and Banded Krait (B. fasciatus was found. These snake habitats distributes at 21 coordinate points. Keywords: conservation, ecotourism, snakes.

  2. intra-urban traffic and parking demand in uyo urban area

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In Nigeria, the dominant mode of intra-urban mobility is the automobile motor vehicle. However, ... models were employed to measure the relationship between parking demand and parking space ... The spatial organization of a city defines.

  3. Hydrology and snowmelt simulation of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas, Summit County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.; Susong, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing residential and commercial development is placing increased demands on the ground- and surface-water resources of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas in the southwestern corner of Summit County, Utah. Data collected during 1993-95 were used to assess the quantity and quality of the water resources in the study area.Ground water within the study area is present in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated valley fill. The complex geology makes it difficult to determine the degree of hydraulic connection between different blocks of consolidated rocks. Increased ground-water withdrawal during 1983- 95 generally has not affected ground-water levels. Ground-water withdrawal in some areas, however, caused seasonal fluctuations and a decline in ground-water levels from 1994 to 1995, despite greater-than-normal recharge in the spring of 1995.Ground water generally has a dissolved-solids concentration that ranges from 200 to 600 mg/L. Higher sulfate concentrations in water from wells and springs near Park City and in McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek than in other parts of the study area are the result of mixing with water that discharges from the Spiro Tunnel. The presence of chloride in water from wells and springs near Park City and in streams and wells near Interstate Highway 80 is probably caused by the dissolution of applied road salt. Chlorofluorocarbon analyses indicate that even though water levels rise within a few weeks of snowmelt, the water took 15 to 40 years to move from areas of recharge to areas of discharge.Water budgets for the entire study area and for six subbasins were developed to better understand the hydrologic system. Ground-water recharge from precipitation made up about 80 percent of the ground-water recharge in the study area. Ground-water discharge to streams made up about 40 percent of the surface water in the study area and ground-water discharge to springs and mine tunnels made up about 25 percent. Increasing use of

  4. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  5. 76 FR 53029 - Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... more than a century of defining urban areas, the Census Bureau has introduced conceptual and... patterns and with changes in theoretical and practical approaches to interpreting and understanding the... based on ground-truth samples, more current imagery, and/or projection models, and locally produced...

  6. Selection criteria for forested natural areas in New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Marie-Louise Smith; David T. Funk

    1994-01-01

    The selection of forested natural areas for research and educational purposes is discussed. Five factors are important: sufficient size; representation of typical communities and sites; documented disturbance histories; acceptable current condition in terms of age, tree size, and successional stage; and administrative feasibility.

  7. 75 FR 4102 - Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic Park General Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic Park General Plan/Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... review and comment a joint Final EIS/EIR for the Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House...

  8. Land-use evaluation for sustainable construction in a protected area: A case of Sara mountain national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Vladica; Maksin, Marija; Nenković-Riznić, Marina; Basarić, Jelena

    2018-01-15

    The process of making decisions on sustainable development and construction begins in spatial and urban planning when defining the suitability of using land for sustainable construction in a protected area (PA) and its immediate and regional surroundings. The aim of this research is to propose and assess a model for evaluating land-use suitability for sustainable construction in a PA and its surroundings. The methodological approach of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis was used in the formation of this model and adapted for the research; it was combined with the adapted Analytical hierarchy process and the Delphi process, and supported by a geographical information system (GIS) within the framework of ESRI ArcGIS software - Spatial analyst. The model is applied to the case study of Sara mountain National Park in Kosovo. The result of the model is a "map of integrated assessment of land-use suitability for sustainable construction in a PA for the natural factor". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metals concentration in soils from parks and green areas in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA D. MARJANOVIĆ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study included the investigation of several metals and their distribution in urban soils from parks and green areas in the city of Belgrade. The soils were sampled in January and February 2008. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn were measured, as well as the pH values and organic matter contents. The obtained results showed that there was a significant level of contamination in some samples, especially with lead, and that it was most probably caused by anthropogenic activities, mostly from traffic. The results were compared with the National legislation and Netherlands standards. Also, the recent results were compared with the data from previous work and it was concluded that there has been a certain increase of the Pb concentration in the past three years. The level of pollution in playground soil was very high and each analyzed sample exceeded the Dutch target value for Cd, Co and Pb.

  10. Development of international criteria for the cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Barraclough, I.; Meck, R.; Gnugnoli, G.; Stegnar, P.

    1999-01-01

    IAEA TECDOC-987, Application of radiation protection principles to the cleanup of contaminated areas, provides a coherent framework and consistent guidance needed for approaches to cleanup that encompass the entire range of contamination situations. A major goal of cleanup is usually to re-establish that the environment can acceptably support habitation and use. Difficult situations include chronic exposures due to radioactivity associated with the discovery of contamination from a previously discontinued practice and post-accident situations. and post-accident situations. The concepts of justification, optimization, and limitation can be applied to cleanup from 'trivial' to 'intolerable' situations by taking into account not only radiological risk, but the entire range of social values including the ability of the society to feed and shelter itself and to sustain a productive economy. TECDOC-987 proposes six ranges, or bands, of doses that correspond to trivial, acceptable, tolerable - clean-up unlikely (unless constrained), tolerable - clean-up likely, unacceptable, and intolerable risks. Remedial actions may vary from 'none' to elaborate decontamination or restricted or prohibited use. (author)

  11. Stakeholders analysis on criteria for protected areas management categories in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Z.; Abdullah, S. A.; Nor, S. Md.

    2017-10-01

    The establishment of protected areas has always been associated with a strategy to conserve biodiversity. A well-managed protected areas not only protect the ecosystem and threatened species but also provides benefits to the public. These indeed require sound management practices through the application of protected areas management categories which can be is seen as tools for planning, establishment and administration of protected areas as well as to regulate the activities in the protected areas. However, in Peninsular Malaysia the implementation of the protected areas management categories was carried out based on the ‘ad-hoc’ basis without realising the important of the criteria based on the local values. Thus, an investigation has been sought to establish the criteria used in application to the protected areas management categories in Peninsular Malaysia. The outcomes revealed the significant of social, environment and economic criteria in establishing the protected area management categories in Peninsular Malaysia.

  12. Characteristics of Nano Particles in the Atmosphere of Gyeongju National Park Area Using a Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Hur, H. J.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, H. S. [Gyeongju Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The physico-chemical characteristics of the categorized aerosol with soil-related mineral species, anthropogenic-related heavy metal species, and aerosol-acidity-related element were analyzed based on the air-mass pathways. The lowest value of 0.6 {+-} 0.1 g m-3 was observed during the intensive fall period of 2005. The mass concentration of sulfur (S) was the highest in the intensive spring period and the lowest in the intensive summer period. The frequencies of the EM, the WC, the SC, and the NC events were 6, 17, 3, and 7, respectively. The continental air-mass-pathway categories were calculated consisting of 85% of the total 40 events whereas the marine air-mass-pathway categories were of 15%. The nanoparticles observed at the national park area of Gyeongju were estimated to be affected by soil-related elements when the air mass came from the western area of the Asian continent and to be predominantly affected by anthropogenic-related elements when air mass came from the northern area of the Asian continent through Korean peninsula. Soil-related elements were mainly observed in particles with sizes greater than 560 nm. The average mass fraction of anthropogenic-related elements was relatively much higher in the particle size range less than 320 nm.

  13. Characteristics of Nano Particles in the Atmosphere of Gyeongju National Park Area Using a Proton Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Hur, H. J.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, H. S.

    2007-04-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of the categorized aerosol with soil-related mineral species, anthropogenic-related heavy metal species, and aerosol-acidity-related element were analyzed based on the air-mass pathways. The lowest value of 0.6 ± 0.1 g m-3 was observed during the intensive fall period of 2005. The mass concentration of sulfur (S) was the highest in the intensive spring period and the lowest in the intensive summer period. The frequencies of the EM, the WC, the SC, and the NC events were 6, 17, 3, and 7, respectively. The continental air-mass-pathway categories were calculated consisting of 85% of the total 40 events whereas the marine air-mass-pathway categories were of 15%. The nanoparticles observed at the national park area of Gyeongju were estimated to be affected by soil-related elements when the air mass came from the western area of the Asian continent and to be predominantly affected by anthropogenic-related elements when air mass came from the northern area of the Asian continent through Korean peninsula. Soil-related elements were mainly observed in particles with sizes greater than 560 nm. The average mass fraction of anthropogenic-related elements was relatively much higher in the particle size range less than 320 nm

  14. Preliminary Map of Landslide Deposits in the Mesa Verde National Park Area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map of landslide deposits in the Mesa Verde National Park area (see map sheet) at a compilation scale of 1:50,000. Landslide is a general term for landforms produced by a wide variety of gravity-driven mass movements, including various types of flows, slides, topples and falls, and combinations thereof produced by the slow to rapid downslope transport of surficial materials or bedrock. The map depicts more than 200 landslides ranging in size from small (0.01 square miles) earthflows and rock slumps to large (greater than 0.50 square miles) translational slides and complex landslides (Varnes, 1978). This map has been prepared to provide a regional overview of the distribution of landslide deposits in the Mesa Verde area, and as such constitutes an inventory of landslides in the area. The map is suitable for regional planning to identify broad areas where landslide deposits and processes are concentrated. It should not be used as a substitute for detailed site investigations. Specific areas thought to be subject to landslide hazards should be carefully studied before development. Many of the landslides depicted on this map are probably stable as they date to the Pleistocene (approximately 1.8-0.011 Ma) and hence formed under a different climate regime. However, the recognition of these landslides is important because natural and human-induced factors can alter stability. Reduction of lateral support (by excavations or roadcuts), removal of vegetation (by fire or development), or an increase in pore pressure (by heavy rains) may result in the reactivation of landslides or parts of landslides.

  15. Stories, shrines, and symbols: Recognizing psycho-social-spiritual benefits of urban parks and natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Heather L. McMillen

    2016-01-01

    Urban parklands are biological and social resources. While there is a growing recognition that park users interact with these resources to promote well-being, the diversity of these practices and benefits is not fully appreciated. Here we draw upon data from a social assessment of 40 New York City (NYC) parks spanning 11,200 acres and we focus on psycho-social-...

  16. Proximity to Parks in the Durham, NC EnviroAtlas Community Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    People use parks to socialize, exercise, recreate, and enjoy nature. Having a park within walking distance creates opportunities for individuals to experience the benefits of trees and other green space on health and well-being. These maps are part of the US Environmental Protect...

  17. Prevalence of brucellosis in the human, livestock and wildlife interface areas of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Shirima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2006, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in domestic ruminants in agropastoral communities of Serengeti district, Tanzania to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in domestic–wildlife interface villages. Both the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and Competitive Enzyme Linked-immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA were used to analyse 82 human and 413 livestock sera from four randomly selected villages located along game reserve areas of Serengeti National Park. Although both cattle (288 and small ruminants (125 were screened, seropositivity was detected only in cattle. The overall seroprevalence based on c-ELISA as a confirmatory test was 5.6%. In cattle both age and sex were not statistically associated with brucellosis seropositivity (P = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.8 and 0.33; 95% CI = 0.6, 3.7, respectively. Overall herd level seropositivity was 46.7% (n = 7, ranging from 25% to 66.7% (n = 4–10. Each village had at least one brucellosis seropositive herd. None of the 82 humans tested with both RBPT and c-ELISA were seropositive. Detecting Brucella infection in cattle in such areas warrants further investigation to establish the circulating strains for eventual appropriate control interventions in domestic animals.

  18. A meteorological study of parks and timbered areas in the western yellow-pine forests of Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. A. Pearson

    1913-01-01

    The object of the study, the results of which are presented here, was to determine the influence of the forest cover upon climate locally in the Southwest, in so far as this influence might be of importance in the management of timberlands and the possible afforestation of parks and denuded areas. Since the bearing upon forestry rather than upon meteorology is the...

  19. 76 FR 55711 - Confirmatory Order Modifying License No. SNM-2001 for the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Parks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-8907; NRC-2011-0193] Confirmatory Order Modifying License No. SNM-2001 for the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Parks Township, Armstrong County, PA; Notice of... (SNM), pursuant to the terms and conditions of the aforementioned License, at the Shallow Land Disposal...

  20. Modeled Oil and Gas Atmospheric Impacts in National Parks and Wilderness Areas in the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. M.; Barna, M. G.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Moore, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas production in the Western United States has increased considerably over the past 10 years. While many of the still limited oil and gas impact assessments have focused on potential human health impacts, the typically remote locations of production in the Intermountain West suggests that the impacts of oil and gas production on national parks and wilderness areas (class 1&2 areas) could also be important. To evaluate this, we utilize the Comprehensive Air quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) with two year-long modeling episodes representing 2008 and 2011, meteorology and emissions. The model inputs for the 2008 and 2011 episodes were generated as part of the West-wide Jump-start Air Quality Modeling Study (WestJumpAQMS) and Three State Air Quality Study (3SAQS) respectively. Both studies included a detailed assessment of oil and gas (O&G) emissions in Western States for the respective years. Each year-long modeling episode was run both with and without emissions from O&G production. The difference between these two runs provides an estimate of the contribution of the O&G production to air quality. These data were used to assess the contribution of O&G to the 8 hour average ozone concentrations, daily and annual fine particulate concentrations, annual nitrogen deposition totals and visibility in the modeling domain. We present the results for the class 1&2 areas in the Western US. We also present temporal trends of O&G impacts, differentiating between trends in urban and rural areas.

  1. Using integrated research and interdisciplinary science: Potential benefits and challenges to managers of parks and protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Powell, Robert B.; Machlis, Gary; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; van Riper, Carena J.; von Ruschkowski, Eick; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Galipeau, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to build a case for utilizing interdisciplinary science to enhance the management of parks and protected areas. We suggest that interdisciplinary science is necessary for dealing with the complex issues of contemporary resource management, and that using the best available integrated scientific information be embraced and supported at all levels of agencies that manage parks and protected areas. It will take the commitment of park managers, scientists, and agency leaders to achieve the goal of implementing the results of interdisciplinary science into park management. Although such calls go back at least several decades, today interdisciplinary science is sporadically being promoted as necessary for supporting effective protected area management(e.g., Machlis et al. 1981; Kelleher and Kenchington 1991). Despite this history, rarely has "interdisciplinary science" been defined, its importance explained, or guidance provided on how to translate and then implement the associated research results into management actions (Tress et al. 2006; Margles et al. 2010). With the extremely complex issues that now confront protected areas (e.g., climate change influences, extinctions and loss of biodiversity, human and wildlife demographic changes, and unprecedented human population growth) information from more than one scientific discipline will need to be brought to bear in order to achieve sustained management solutions that resonate with stakeholders (Ostrom 2009). Although interdisciplinary science is not the solution to all problems, we argue that interdisciplinary research is an evolving and widely supported best practice. In the case of park and protected area management, interdisciplinary science is being driven by the increasing recognition of the complexity and interconnectedness of human and natural systems, and the notion that addressing many problems can be more rapidly advanced through interdisciplinary study and analysis.

  2. The occurrence of alien species in the settlement areas of the Kampinos National Park and its vicinity (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirpluk Izabella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies aimed at the identification of the range and method of spread of alien plant species in settlement areas in Kampinos National Park (KNP and its immediate vicinity were carried out in years 2012-2014. Special emphasis was put on surveying the sites of invasive alien species (IAS, and diagnosing potential threats posed to the natural and semi-natural vegetation of the national park by the IAS present in rural areas. We found 53 alien vascular plant species, including 40 invasive taxa which may potentially pose a threat to the ecosystems of KNP. Species encroaching from settlement areas to semi-natural and natural communities included: Bidens frondosa, Echinocystis lobata, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Lupinus polyphyllus, Reunoutria japonica and Solidago gigantea. Most of them were species from the highest invasiveness (IV and III classes in Poland. Similarity analysis carried out for all investigated localities with regard to all alien species, and only for invasive ones showed a clear division into separate groups: villages within the boundaries of the national park and villages outside the park.

  3. The Institutional Sustainability in Protected Area Tourism-Case Studies of Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area, China and New Forest National Park, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Feifei; Fox, Dorothy; Zhang, J.; Cheng, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers sustainable tourism development in two protected areas, Jiuzhaigou National Scenic Area in China and the New Forest National Park in the United Kingdom. An inductive approach is used to explore the "fourth component" of sustainable tourism development that is institutional sustainability. Primary data from in-depth interviews, together with a range of secondary data sources, are analyzed to understand the governance and management of each area. These reveal that whilst ...

  4. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Caballero-Gil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces.

  5. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces. PMID:27854282

  6. Cellular Automata-Based Application for Driver Assistance in Indoor Parking Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Molina-Gil, Jezabel

    2016-11-15

    This work proposes an adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking that takes advantage of the popularity of smartphones and the rise of the Internet of Things. The proposal includes a centralized system to forecast available indoor parking spaces, and a low-cost mobile application to obtain data of actual and predicted parking occupancy. The described scheme uses data from both sources bidirectionally so that the centralized forecast system is fed with data obtained with the distributed system based on smartphones, and vice versa. The mobile application uses different wireless technologies to provide the forecast system with actual parking data and receive from the system useful recommendations about where to park. Thus, the proposal can be used by any driver to easily find available parking spaces in indoor facilities. The client software developed for smartphones is a lightweight Android application that supplies precise indoor positioning systems based on Quick Response codes or Near Field Communication tags, and semi-precise indoor positioning systems based on Bluetooth Low Energy beacons. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated by conducting computer simulations and real experimentation with a preliminary implementation. The results have shown the strengths of the proposal in the reduction of the time and energy costs to find available parking spaces.

  7. GPS-corrected and GIS-based remapping of the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park and the adjacent area in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. du P. Bothma

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available GPS-equipment was used to map the interior roads, major pans and the location of all windmills and solar-equipped boreholes in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park and the adjacent areas of Botswana. The final map was generated with GIS-equipment, and supplies managers and planners with the first error-free map of the area. The major errors of previous maps are indicated.

  8. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Protected Areas Management in Iran: Case Study in Khojir National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.; Koyama, Lina

    2013-08-01

    The requirement to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas (PAs) is increasing around the world to help improve management and accountability. An evaluation of ME for Khojir National Park (KNP), one of the Iran's oldest PAs, was conducted using a multi-method approach that consisted of structured interviews, open interviews, and site visits. This was the first ME evaluation in Iran. The structured interview was based on the management effectiveness tracking tool methodology. KNP received an average score of 43 %, which is lower than the global average, illustrating that its general management was in the low-intermediate level. The indices of legal status, resource inventory, planning for land and water use, regulations, and objectives received the highest average scores, whereas education and awareness, community co-management, regular work plan, boundary demarcation, visitor facilities, budget sources, staff training, protection systems, and management plan received the lowest ones. The management system of KNP was generally established, but many problems of the management still need to be resolved. To improve ME, some countermeasures should be taken, such as increasing funding, strengthening capacity building, planning, and adaptive management, and implementing community participation.

  9. Analysis of the urban green areas of Nicosia: the case study of Linear Park of Pedieos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanos, Pavlos; Georgi, Julia

    2017-09-01

    At present, the need for creating outdoor green areas is unquestionable. Their value is shown through their use for recreation, sports, cultural and socioeconomic purposes, the ecology and especially biodiversity, which has always been considered as one of the most important factors in recent years, as well as in the future. With the creation of new parks and open green spaces, the legacy will be continued for the next generations, with designs that will be pleasantly utilized through the years. In the first part of this study, we examined the way the largest urban green spaces in Nicosia affect and contribute to the lifestyle of the inhabitants of the city, as well as the reasons why the citizens of Cyprus embraced urban parks in their everyday life, making them so popular. The present paper, therefore, analyses both the effect and the changes in the urban structure while urban green spaces in the city of Nicosia are being created, as well as which areas are affected, how they are affected and to what extent. We have conducted a field-based survey, providing the urban parks' visitors with questionnaires. This enabled us to draw a wealth of essential conclusions concerning the visitors' preferences. We have also listed both the positive and negative impacts of urban green spaces on both the economic and urban design sectors, as well as on Cypriots' recreation time. The green areas of Nicosia, along with their detailed analysis, are extensively presented in this study. Moreover, in the second part of this study, the G.I.S program was used to create a space presentation of the urban linear park of Pedieos, where the area was mapped and the positive and negative elements of the park were analysed. In this part, ways to address the emerging issues are also proposed.

  10. Parks & benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...

  11. 78 FR 14673 - Special Regulation; Areas of the National Park System, National Capital Region, Demonstrations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... permit. (The ACLU defined buskers as ``individuals who play music or entertain in public parks, streets... more. b. Will not cause a major increase in costs or prices for consumers, individual industries...

  12. Water quality and quantity of selected springs and seeps along the Colorado River corridor, Utah and Arizona: Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Spence, John R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Berghoff, Kevin; Plowman, Terry I.; Peart, Dale B.; Roth, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted an intensive assessment of selected springs along the Colorado River Corridor in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park in 1997 and 1998, for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the water quality and quantity of the resource. This study was conducted to establish baseline data for the future evaluation of possible effects from recreational use and climate change. Selected springs and seeps were visited over a study period from 1997 to 1998, during which, discharge and on-site chemical measurements were made at selected springs and seeps, and samples were collected for subsequent chemical laboratory analysis. This interdisciplinary study also includes simultaneous studies of flora and fauna, measured and sampled coincidently at the same sites. Samples collected during this study were transported to U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where analyses were performed using state-of-the-art laboratory technology. The location of the selected springs and seeps, elevation, geology, aspect, and onsite measurements including temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance, were recorded. Laboratory analyses include determinations for alkalinity, aluminum, ammonium (nitrogen), antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromide, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, holmium, iodine, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nitrate (nitrogen), nitrite (nitrogen), phosphate, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, rhenium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, silica, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfate, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, tungsten

  13. Coastal dune facies, Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone), Capitol Reef National Park area, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamola, Diane L.; Chan, Marjorie A.

    1988-04-01

    The Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone) in the Capitol Reef National Park area in southern Utah is an excellent example of a coastal dune complex subjected to periodic flooding by marine waters. Wind-ripple, grainfall and grainflow laminae compose the cross-sets deposited by eolian dunes. However, wave-reworked structures such as oscillation ripples, the occurrence of the characteristically marine trace fossils Thalassinoides and Chondrites, and interfingering marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation collectively indicate marine interaction with the eolian environment. Four facies are distinguished: cross-stratified sandstone, burrowed to bioturbated sandstone, brecciated and deformed sandstone, and ripple-laminated sandstone and thin carbonate beds. One unusual aspect of the cross-stratified sandstone facies is the abundance of coarse-grained sand. Coarse-grained sand is atypical in many ancient eolian slipface deposits, but occurs here in large slipface foresets as both grainflow and wind-ripple deposits. No water-laid structures are found in these slipface deposits. Coarse-grained sand was probably transported to the Cutler shoreline by fluvial systems draining the Uncompahgre Uplift to the east, and then concentrated as coarse-grained ripples in interdune areas. Some of these coarse-grained ripples migrated up the stoss side of the dunes and accumulations of coarse-grained sand avalanched down the crest to form grainflow deposits. An extensive amount of soft-sediment deformation is indicated by the presence of convolute bedding and brecciation. These features occur near the zone of interfingering with marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation. The water-saturated and moist conditions required for extensive deformation may have been controlled by the proximity of these sandstones to the shoreline, and fluctuations in the associated groundwater table.

  14. The utilization of orbital images as an adequate form of control of preserved areas. [Araguaia National Park, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The synoptic view and the repetitive acquisition of LANDSAT imagery provide precise information, in real-time, for monitoring preserved areas based on spectral, temporal and spatial properties. The purpose of this study was to monitor, with the use of multispectral imagery, the systematic annual burning, which causes the degradation of ecosystems in the National Park of Araguaia. LANDSAT imagery of channel 5 (0.6 a 0.7 microns) and 7 (0.8 a 1.1 microns), at the scale of 1:250.000, were used to identify and delimit vegetation units and burned area, based on photointerpretation parameter of tonality. The results show that the gallery forest can be discriminated from the seasonally flooded 'campo cerrado', and that 4,14% of the study area was burned. Conclusions point out that the LANDSAT images can be used for the implementation of environmental protection in national parks.

  15. GIS-based analysis of tourist impact in mid-mountain protected natural area, Gorce National Park, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Many of the middle mountain areas are especially valuable due to high bio- and geo-diversity. Therefore, this areas are often protected by law in form of National or Landscape Park, as well as Natura 2000 Network. Moreover, mountain areas usually attract significant amount of tourist. Hence, environment is subject to combination of different forces including human impact (tourism, forest management, pasture) as well as natural processes. Usually areas with low environmental resiliency are, simultaneously, very valuable from ecological point of view and attractive as tourist regions. Hiking, biking and horse riding on the tourist trails are one of the basic forms of exploration of protected areas. Apart from a tourist function, trails have a significant ecological role - they limit walking to prepared paths and prevent dispersing of visitors. Thus the terrains, which for ecological reasons have to be excluded from direct human impact, are isolated. On the other hand using of tourist trials can have negative effect on the environment. The most important manifestation of this type of impacts is destroying of plant cover by trampling and running over. It leads to expose of a bare soil and, in consequence, to initialize and accelerate of natural erosion process. Improperly using of tourist trails and forest roads may lead to develop of gullies and significant degradation of environment. Hence, reasonable management of tourist activities, forestry and pasture is necessary for sustainable development in the mid-mountain areas. Study of tourist impact together with the assessment of susceptibility of the environment to degradation can be very helpful for planning and conservation activities. Analysis of spatial data within geographic information system (GIS) supply a very useful tool for estimating, modeling and establishing the relationships between tourist impact and environmental resiliency. This study presents implementation of the GIS analysis within one of the Polish

  16. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  17. The evaluation of the establishment and growth of indigenous trees to restore deforested riparian areas in the Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa / Theo Scholtz

    OpenAIRE

    Scholtz, Theo

    2007-01-01

    The deforestation of riparian areas is a major concern in southern Africa. These areas are characterized as fragile ecosystems which contribute largely to the regional and global biodiversity of the world. It is therefore important to restore these degraded areas along the natural rivers of South Africa to ensure the sustainability and biodiversity of riparian corridors. Riparian areas inside the National Parks of South Africa, and especially in Mapungubwe National Park, have a high esthetica...

  18. Multi-criteria model to support decision-making for the remediation of urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, Christiano; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: christiano_luca@hotmail.com, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Rochedo, Pedro R.R., E-mail: rochedopedro@gmail.com [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de de Planejamento Energetico; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Under the environmental modeling Project of radioecology research area of IRD (CNEN), several tools have been developed to support post-emergency activities. Currently, a multi-criteria model is in development with the aim of supporting decision-making processes under the radiological protection point of view. At this stage, we are focusing on the decontamination of urban areas. The model includes five calculation modules: (1) averted doses to the public due to remediation procedures; (2) occupational exposure of remediation workers; (3) properties of the wastes generated by a remediation procedure; (4) classification of each procedure for a specific urban scenario based on previously calculated quantities; and, (5) multi-criteria rank calculation. The classification of procedures is based on two types of criteria previously defined, both also included as input data of the model. The first type, called Subjective Criteria, is based on experts' opinions collected through questionnaires. The second type, called Technical Criteria, is calculated according to the outputs of the three first modules of the program. The output of the model is a rank order list indicating the priority of procedures to use for each different type of urban environment. The use of results based on criteria and methods developed previously to the occurrence of a contamination event intends not only to provide an input to decision-making processes but also to improve public confidence on authorities responsible for the remediation decisions. (author)

  19. Multi-criteria model to support decision-making for the remediation of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, Christiano; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.

    2015-01-01

    Under the environmental modeling Project of radioecology research area of IRD (CNEN), several tools have been developed to support post-emergency activities. Currently, a multi-criteria model is in development with the aim of supporting decision-making processes under the radiological protection point of view. At this stage, we are focusing on the decontamination of urban areas. The model includes five calculation modules: (1) averted doses to the public due to remediation procedures; (2) occupational exposure of remediation workers; (3) properties of the wastes generated by a remediation procedure; (4) classification of each procedure for a specific urban scenario based on previously calculated quantities; and, (5) multi-criteria rank calculation. The classification of procedures is based on two types of criteria previously defined, both also included as input data of the model. The first type, called Subjective Criteria, is based on experts' opinions collected through questionnaires. The second type, called Technical Criteria, is calculated according to the outputs of the three first modules of the program. The output of the model is a rank order list indicating the priority of procedures to use for each different type of urban environment. The use of results based on criteria and methods developed previously to the occurrence of a contamination event intends not only to provide an input to decision-making processes but also to improve public confidence on authorities responsible for the remediation decisions. (author)

  20. The acoustic climate at the rest and service areasparking lots by the Silesian section of A4 motorway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert WIESZAŁA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the state of the acoustic climate at the rest and service areas (MOPs situated by A4 motorway in Silesia The analysis includes the research results conducted at these parking lots from May till August 2010. The research was conducted with the digital noise meter, which was connected with the computer during measurement. The research results indicate the essential differences in the noise intensity between the particular rest and service area reaching up to 12 dB(A, in spite of the similar value of the traffic noise in all of the places where the research was conducted. It was assumed that the level of noise on each of the parking lots should be similar to standing norms for the recreation areas i.e. below 55 dB(A. The research conducted at 4 MOPs indicated that only at two of them, MOP Halemba and Wirek, these norms are fulfilled. The lack of the proper anti-noise protection in the form of the sound absorbing screens at the parking lots situated by the motorway causes the situation in which the level of noise at the places devoted to rest highly decreases the possibility to relax before the next stage of a journey.

  1. Descriptions and preliminary report on sediment cores from the southwest coastal area, Everglades National Park, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, G. Lynn; Cronin, Thomas M.; Holmes, Charles W.; Willard, Debra A.; Budet, Carlos A.; Ortiz, Ruth E.

    2005-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from five locations in the southwest coastal area of Everglades National Park, Florida, in May 2004 for the purpose of determining the ecosystem history of the area and the impacts of changes in flow through the Shark River Slough. An understanding of natural cycles of change prior to significant human disturbance allows land managers to set realistic performance measures and targets for salinity and other water quality and quantity quality measures. Preliminary examination of the cores indicates significant changes have taken place over the last 1000-2000 years. The cores collected from the inner bays - the most landward bays - are distinctly different from other estuarine sediment cores examined in Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay. Peats in the inner-bay cores from Big Lostmans Bay, Broad River Bay, and Tarpon Bay were deposited at least 1000 years before present (BP) based on radiocarbon analyses. The peats are overlain by poorly sorted organic muds and sands containing species indicative of deposition in a freshwater to very low salinity environment. The Alligator Bay core, the most northern inner-bay core, is almost entirely sand; no detailed faunal analyses or radiometric dating has been completed on this core. The Roberts River core, taken from the mouth of the River where it empties into Whitewater Bay, is lithologically and faunally similar to previously examined cores from Biscayne and Florida Bays; however, the basal unit was deposited ~2000 years before the present based on radiocarbon analyses. A definite trend of increasing salinity over time is seen in the Roberts River core, from sediments representing a terrestrially dominated freshwater environment at the bottom of the core to those representing an estuarine environment with a strong freshwater influence at the top. The changes seen at Roberts River could represent a combination of factors including rising sea-level and changes in freshwater supply, but the timing and

  2. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying

  3. Adrenal activity in maned wolves is higher on farmlands and park boundaries than within protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spercoski, Katherinne M; Morais, Rosana N; Morato, Ronaldo G; de Paula, Rogério C; Azevedo, Fernanda C; May-Júnior, Joares A; Santos, Jean P; Reghelin, Angela L; Wildt, David E; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2012-11-01

    In this study we measured excreted fecal corticoid metabolites (FCM) in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) living within a protected reserve, on farmlands or in a boundary zone between the two habitats, and determined the impacts of season and reproductive status on adrenal activity. Feces were collected within a national park (n=191 samples), a park boundary zone (n=39) and on nearby farmlands (n=27), processed and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. FCM amounts from samples collected on farmlands were higher (Pwolf pairs were raising young. We then divided the samples collected during breeding season (March-August) into cycling females and male/non-cycling females based on fecal progesterone: fecal testosterone ratio. FCM concentrations of the former collected inside the park were higher than (P<0.05) than the latter group. However, there were no differences in FCM levels between the two groups for samples collected in the boundary zone and on farmlands. Furthermore, FCM concentrations of male/non-cycling females samples collected on farmlands were 2- to 5-fold higher (P<0.05) than in counterparts collected inside the park. The consistently high FCM concentrations in samples collected on farmlands indicate that, in addition to seasonality, gender and reproductive status, anthropogenic pressures also contribute to elevating adrenal steroid for individuals living in altered habitat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Publishing for the Protected Area Community: A vision for PARKS from its editorial board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amend, T.; Brooks, T.; Choudhury, B.C.; Verschuuren, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial essay, members of the Editorial Board of PARKS review the status of conservation literature. Three problems are identified: 1) the growing gap between the formal conservation literature and the so-called ‘grey literature’ of project reports, studies and working papers; 2) the

  5. LEGIBILITY OF NEIGHBORHOOD PARKS AND ITS IMPACT ON SOCIAL INTERACTION IN A PLANNED RESIDENTIAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Moulay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhood parks are designed to provide opportunities for leisure and communal activities for the residents. However, studies have indicated that social interactions in these spaces are not at a satisfactory level. In the urban design context, a good public space should be legible to the observers. Legibility refers to the apparent clarity of the cityscape that directs people’s movement, pattern of activities and form of interaction in public spaces. This paper discusses park’s legibility and its impact on social interaction within a neighbourhood. The results presented are based on a questionnaire survey and a mental mapping exercise conducted with residents in the city of Putrajaya, Malaysia. The results demonstrate a strong relationship between the park’s legibility and the social interactions among the park users. A clear structure of the setting and fewer sight obstacles found within the parks influence residents’ pattern and the Intensity of outdoor activities. The findings contribute to the development of legible environments in neighbourhood park design, its positive impact on social interaction, and social bonding among the residents.

  6. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores... -managed. Note: Possible actions to minimize adverse impacts regarding site or material characteristics can...

  7. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.

  8. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  9. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  10. [Characteristics of the distribution of Ixodes persulcatus in the forest-park area of Novosibirsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapegina, V F; Dorontsova, V A; Telegin, V I; Ibleva, N G; Dobrotvorskiĭ, A K

    1985-01-01

    Only one species of ixodid ticks Ixodes persulcatus occurs in the forest-park zone. Conditions of foliage forests with high grass, where occur hosts of all developmental phases of ticks (elks, hares, rodents, insectivores), are most favourable for I. persulcatus. Preimaginal phases of I. persulcatus feed, in general, on dominant species (common shrew, redbacked and narrow-skulled voles, field mouse and northern birch mouse).

  11. Thinking outside the lines: Parks and the quality of life in area communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.G.; Burkardt, N.; Caughlan, L.; Lamb, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Many national parks, national forests, and other public land units exist in highly changeable regional environments. Often the parks and forests themselves serve as important catalysts of change in the levels of tourism, outdoor recreation participation, and contribution of traveling publics to local and regional economies. Resource managers are called upon to protect lands in their jurisdictions while juggling a variety of inputs and expectations. In each agency, resource decisions are bound by law and agency policy. In this context, the decision space of the national park manager is quite different from that of those in multiple-use land management agencies. Management actions must stand up, not only to law and policy and to scientific scrutiny, but they must also be sensitive to the needs of residents in surrounding communities, to county and state governing bodies, and to visitors from across the nation and around the world. Balancing these needs while protecting resources in an ongoing challenge made more difficult as the mix of stakeholders growsa?|

  12. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  13. Sustainability: criteria and indicators for the energy area; Nachhaltigkeit: Kriterien und Indikatoren fuer den Energiebereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F.; Gubler, F. [Ecoplan, Berne (Switzerland); Brodmann, U. [Factor Consulting und Management AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the concept of sustainability with reference to the energy area. The importance of energy topics in the fundamental ideas behind sustainability - ecological compatibility, economic efficiency and social fairness - is discussed. The methods used to define the criteria and indicators for sustainability are discussed on the basis of existing systems. >From these, criteria and indicators are proposed for the energy area, including indicators for the influence of energy on the environment, economy and society, activity-indicators and indicators for energy efficiency and politics. The system boundaries for the indicators are discussed, as are grey energy and other 'grey' effects in the environmental, economic and social areas. The various criteria, indicators and the effort needed to collect data on them are presented in table form. The report is completed with a discussion of recommendations on what is still to be done in the area, how the results of the study can be used and what actions are still to be taken.

  14. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area...

  15. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) Part I—Geographic Areas A. Criteria for Food Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will...

  16. Geomorphological criteria applied to the study of the neotectonic of the internal areas of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Elorza, M.; Pena, J.L.; Rodriguez Vidal, J.; Simon Gomez, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Some geomorphological criteria, based on the study of erosion surfaces, glacis, terraces and slopes, after a brief discussion of the geomorphological methodology, are here applied in several internal areas of NE. Spain, specially in the Iberian Cordillera. Several episodes of neotectonic activity are recognised within this Cordillera: a more intense one at the base of Villafranchian times, a second one at the Pliocene/Pleistocene transitional levels, and a latent, more sporadic, intraquaternary activity. (author)

  17. Calculation of climate factors as an additional criteria to determine agriculturally less favoured areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša POGAČAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate factors that are proposed to determine agriculturally less favoured areas (LFA in Slovenia were analyzed for the period 1981–2010. Following the instructions of European Commission prepared by Joint Research Centre (JRC 30-years averages of low air temperatures criteria (the vegetation period duration and sums of effective air temperatures and aridity criteria (aridity index AI have to be calculated. Calculations were additionally done using Slovenian Environment Agency (ARSO method, which is slightly different when determining temperature thresholds. Only hilly areas are below the LFA low air temperatures threshold with the lowest located meteorological station in Rateče. According to aridity criteria no area in Slovenia is below the threshold, so meteorological water balance was also examined. Average water balance in the period 1981–2010 was in most of locations lower than in the period 1971–2000. Climate change impacts are already expressed as trend presence in time series of studied variables, so it is recommended to calculate trends and take them into account or to perform regular iterations of calculations.

  18. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  19. Remotely-sensed active fire data for protected area management: eight-year patterns in the Manas National Park, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Chihiro; Amin, Rajan; Sarma, Pranjit; Banerjee, Gitanjali; Oliver, William; Fa, John E

    2010-02-01

    The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands, which once extended along most of the Himalayan foothills, now only remain in a number of protected areas. Within these localities, grassland burning is a major issue, but data on frequency and distribution of fires are limited. Here, we analysed the incidence of active fires, which only occur during the dry season (Nov.-Mar.), within a significant area of Terai grasslands: the Manas National Park (MNP), India. We obtained locations of 781 fires during the 2000-2008 dry seasons, from the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) that delivers global MODIS hotspot/fire locations using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Annual number of fires rose significantly from around 20 at the start of the study period to over 90 after 2002, with most (85%) detected between December and January. Over half of the fires occurred in tall grasslands, but fire density was highest in wetland and riverine vegetation, dry at the time. Most burning took place near rivers, roads and the park boundary, suggesting anthropogenic origins. A kernel density map of all recorded fires indicated three heavily burnt areas in the MNP, all within the tall grasslands. Our study demonstrates, despite some technical caveats linked to fire detection technology, which is improving, that remote fire data can be a practical tool in understanding fire concentration and burning temporal patterns in highly vulnerable habitats, useful in guiding management.

  20. Uranium favorability of tertiary rocks in the Badger Flats, Elkhorn Thrust Area, Park and Teller Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.; Mickle, D.G.

    1976-10-01

    Uranium potential of Tertiary rocks in the Badger Flats--Elkhorn Thrust area of central Colorado is closely related to a widespread late Eocene erosion surface. Most uranium deposits in the area are in the Eocene Echo Park Alluvium and Oligocene Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate, which were deposited in paleodrainage channels on or above this surface. Arkosic detritus within the channels and overlying tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of the Antero and Florissant Formations of Oligocene age and silicic tuffs within the volcanic units provide abundant sources of uranium that could be concentrated in the channels where carbonaceous debris facilitates a reducing environment. Anomalous soil, water, and stream-sediment samples near the Elkhorn Thrust and in Antero basin overlie buried channels or are offset from them along structural trends; therefore, uranium-bearing ground water may have moved upward from buried uranium deposits along faults. The area covered by rocks younger than the late Eocene erosion surface, specifically the trends of mapped or inferred paleochannels filled with Echo Park Alluvium and Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate, and the Antero Formation are favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits

  1. National Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...

  2. Assessment of flood susceptible areas using spatially explicit, probabilistic multi-criteria decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongqian; Zhang, Hua; Yi, Shanzhen; Xiao, Yangfan

    2018-03-01

    GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is increasingly used to support flood risk assessment. However, conventional GIS-MCDA methods fail to adequately represent spatial variability and are accompanied with considerable uncertainty. It is, thus, important to incorporate spatial variability and uncertainty into GIS-based decision analysis procedures. This research develops a spatially explicit, probabilistic GIS-MCDA approach for the delineation of potentially flood susceptible areas. The approach integrates the probabilistic and the local ordered weighted averaging (OWA) methods via Monte Carlo simulation, to take into account the uncertainty related to criteria weights, spatial heterogeneity of preferences and the risk attitude of the analyst. The approach is applied to a pilot study for the Gucheng County, central China, heavily affected by the hazardous 2012 flood. A GIS database of six geomorphological and hydrometeorological factors for the evaluation of susceptibility was created. Moreover, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were performed to investigate the robustness of the model. The results indicate that the ensemble method improves the robustness of the model outcomes with respect to variation in criteria weights and identifies which criteria weights are most responsible for the variability of model outcomes. Therefore, the proposed approach is an improvement over the conventional deterministic method and can provides a more rational, objective and unbiased tool for flood susceptibility evaluation.

  3. Impact of Nano Particles on Cultural Properties in the Atmosphere of Gyeongju National Park Area Using a Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Do, J. Y.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, T. K.; Ha, J. K. [Gyeongju University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    The objective of this research is to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of atmospheric nanoparticles observed at the National Park area of Gyeongju. The elemental compositions of the submicron aerosols were analyzed using a PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) method with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. In addition, submicron aerosols were prepared for a determination of ions using ion chromatography. Aerosol monitoring was conducted for airborne particles less than 1.0 and 2.5 micron. They were collected on nuclepore filters using PM1.0 and PM2.5 cyclone samplers. The impact of air-mass pathway on the characteristics of particulate matter was analyzed at an end point of Gyeongju with backward trajectory results obtained from the HYSPLIT model. The ratio of submicron aerosol to fine particles in the mass concentration was 40 - 50% in the urban area of Seoul and the national park area of Gyeongju. During the monitoring period, Asian Dust storm events occurred at each monitoring site. The contributions of elements to the submicron aerosols were 8% lower in the urban area than in the national park area. However, the contributions of aged ions to submicron aerosols were relatively higher by 42% in the urban area of Seoul. The elementals of the submicron aerosols were categorized as soil-related, anthropogenic-related, and aerosol-acidity-related species based on an enrichment factor analysis. The average mass fraction of soil-related elements was approximately 20% for Seoul and 75% for Gyeongju. That of the aerosol-acidity-related specie was higher in Seoul and showed a big difference among Asian Dust storm events, non-Asian Dust storm events, and clear atmospheric conditions due to precipitation. Anthropogenic-related elements accounted for 11.7% in Seoul and 5.7% in Gyeongju. S, SO42- and the anthropogenic related elements like Cr, Cd, Pb, which can not be derived from stone materials themselves, were detected both on the stone surface and in

  4. Impact of Nano Particles on Cultural Properties in the Atmosphere of Gyeongju National Park Area Using a Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Do, J. Y.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, T. K.; Ha, J. K.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of atmospheric nanoparticles observed at the National Park area of Gyeongju. The elemental compositions of the submicron aerosols were analyzed using a PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) method with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. In addition, submicron aerosols were prepared for a determination of ions using ion chromatography. Aerosol monitoring was conducted for airborne particles less than 1.0 and 2.5 micron. They were collected on nuclepore filters using PM1.0 and PM2.5 cyclone samplers. The impact of air-mass pathway on the characteristics of particulate matter was analyzed at an end point of Gyeongju with backward trajectory results obtained from the HYSPLIT model. The ratio of submicron aerosol to fine particles in the mass concentration was 40 - 50% in the urban area of Seoul and the national park area of Gyeongju. During the monitoring period, Asian Dust storm events occurred at each monitoring site. The contributions of elements to the submicron aerosols were 8% lower in the urban area than in the national park area. However, the contributions of aged ions to submicron aerosols were relatively higher by 42% in the urban area of Seoul. The elementals of the submicron aerosols were categorized as soil-related, anthropogenic-related, and aerosol-acidity-related species based on an enrichment factor analysis. The average mass fraction of soil-related elements was approximately 20% for Seoul and 75% for Gyeongju. That of the aerosol-acidity-related specie was higher in Seoul and showed a big difference among Asian Dust storm events, non-Asian Dust storm events, and clear atmospheric conditions due to precipitation. Anthropogenic-related elements accounted for 11.7% in Seoul and 5.7% in Gyeongju. S, SO42- and the anthropogenic related elements like Cr, Cd, Pb, which can not be derived from stone materials themselves, were detected both on the stone surface and in

  5. Evaluating post-fire forest resilience using GIS and multi-criteria analysis: an example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Koukoulas, Sotirios; Kazanis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance in the mediterranean climate ecosystems of the world. Despite the fact that a lot of resources have been invested in fire prevention and suppression, the number of fires occurring in the Mediterranean Basin in the recent decades has continued to markedly increase. The understanding of the relationship between landscape and fire lies, among others, in the identification of the system's post-fire resilience. In our study, ecological and landscape data are integrated with decision-support techniques in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework to evaluate the risk of losing post-fire resilience in Pinus halepensis forests, using Cape Sounion National Park, Central Greece, as a pilot case. The multi-criteria decision support approach has been used to synthesize both bio-indicators (woody cover, pine density, legume cover and relative species richness and annual colonizers) and geo-indicators (fire history, parent material, and slope inclination) in order to rank the landscape components. Judgments related to the significance of each factor were incorporated within the weights coefficients and then integrated into the multicriteria rule to map the risk index. Sensitivity analysis was very critical for assessing the contribution of each factor and the sensitivity to subjective weight judgments to the final output. The results of this study include a final ranking map of the risk of losing resilience, which is very useful in identifying the "risk hotspots", where post-fire management measures should be applied in priority.

  6. Evaluating Post-Fire Forest Resilience Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis: An Example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Koukoulas, Sotirios; Kazanis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance in the mediterranean climate ecosystems of the world. Despite the fact that a lot of resources have been invested in fire prevention and suppression, the number of fires occurring in the Mediterranean Basin in the recent decades has continued to markedly increase. The understanding of the relationship between landscape and fire lies, among others, in the identification of the system's post-fire resilience. In our study, ecological and landscape data are integrated with decision-support techniques in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework to evaluate the risk of losing post-fire resilience in Pinus halepensis forests, using Cape Sounion National Park, Central Greece, as a pilot case. The multi-criteria decision support approach has been used to synthesize both bio-indicators (woody cover, pine density, legume cover and relative species richness and annual colonizers) and geo-indicators (fire history, parent material, and slope inclination) in order to rank the landscape components. Judgments related to the significance of each factor were incorporated within the weights coefficients and then integrated into the multicriteria rule to map the risk index. Sensitivity analysis was very critical for assessing the contribution of each factor and the sensitivity to subjective weight judgments to the final output. The results of this study include a final ranking map of the risk of losing resilience, which is very useful in identifying the "risk hotspots", where post-fire management measures should be applied in priority.

  7. Municipal community gardens in the metropolitan area of Milano. Assessment and planning criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Senes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A community garden (CG can generally be defined as a piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people that grow their produce on shared lots that have been divided into smaller plots. Some gardens are grown collectively, are divided into different plots for individual and family use; CGs are usually located in urban or peri-urban areas. As a growing portion of the urban open space network, CGs are contributing to land preservation, access to open space, and sustainable re-use of vacant land. They promote healthy communities and provide food security for many. In this context, the object of the study are the municipal community gardens (MCGs, a specific typology of CGs provided for land-use planning legislation and practice as an urban service with social function, made available to the community by the municipalities and assigned to be cultivated to citizens (usually seniors/retired people. In particular, the study aimed: i to evaluate the presence of MCGs in the città metropolitana di Milano (the former province of Milano; and ii to define criteria for new MCGs settlement, using existing geo-database and geographical information system to make it replicable in other settings. For the first topic the 133 municipalities of the former province of Milano (excluded the city of Milano were analysed. Only 59 municipalities had presence of MCGs. The average area per capita of MCGs is 0.68 sq.m/inhab. (if we exclude Rodano, an outlier with 35 sq.m/inhab.. An overlay with land use map has permitted to define the relationships between the MCGs and their surrounding territory. The major part of MCGs are included in urban or suburban areas. For the second goal, the land area to be allocated for new MCGs was assessed for each municipality, comparing area of existing MCGs and a minimum required area (calculated on the basis of the inhabitants number. Finally a method was proposed to locate the new MCGs areas. Criteria used to identify suitable areas

  8. Evaluation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2015 final annual progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kay, Thomas J.; Pilgrim, Kristie; Schwartz, Michael K; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers (Pekania pennanti) from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008–2010, the National Park Service (NPS) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to determine the current status of fishers on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula 3–8 years after the releases and evaluate the short-term success of the restoration program. Objectives of the study are to determine the current distribution of fishers and proportion of the recovery area that is currently occupied by fishers, determine several genetic characteristics of the reintroduced population, and determine reproductive success of the founding animals through genetic studies. During 2015, we continued working with a broad coalition of cooperating agencies, tribes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to collect data on fisher distribution and genetics using noninvasive sampling methods. The primary sampling frame consisted of 157 24-km2 hexagons (hexes) distributed across all major land ownerships within the Olympic Peninsula target survey area. In 2014 we expanded the study by adding 58 more hexes to an expanded study area in response to incidental fisher observations outside of the target area obtained in 2013; 49 hexes were added south and 9 to the east of the target area. During 2015, Federal, State, Tribal and NGO biologists and volunteers established three Distributioned motion-sensing camera stations, paired with hair snaring devices, in 87 hexes; 75 in the targeted area and 12 in the expansion areas. Each paired camera/hair station was left in place for approximately 6 weeks, with three checks on 2-week intervals. We documented fisher presence in 7 of the 87 hexagons. Four fishers were identified through microsatellite DNA analyses. The 4 identified fishers included 1 of the original founding population of 90

  9. Stakeholders of Nature Tourism Management in SPTN Area II Majalengka, Gunung Ciremai National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Anindisa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism management in Gunung Ciremai National Park is fully managed by third party which are community organizations, state-owned enterprises, and non-governmental organizations. The aims of this research is to identify stakeholders, categorize stakeholders based on interests and influences, also to identify space and determine the level of stakeholder participation. The data obtained using questionnaire, interview, and direct observation were analyzed with stakeholder analysis matrix and the level of stakeholder participation. Fourteen stakeholders involved within the programs based on interests and influences are governmental institutions, cooperations, non-governmental organizations, and community organization with two classifications (key player and crowd. In this management there is no subject and context setter. Most of the stakeholders participate to control level in level of participation. Keywords: ecotourism, interest and influence, level of participation, stakeholder

  10. Evaluation of fisher (Pekania pennanti) restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2014 annual progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Kay, Thomas J.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2015-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers (Pekania pennanti) from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008–2010, the National Park Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to determine the current status of fishers on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula 3–5 years after the releases and evaluate the short-term success of the restoration program. Objectives of the study are to determine the current distribution of fishers and proportion of the recovery area that is currently occupied by fishers, determine several genetic characteristics of the reintroduced population, and determine reproductive success of the founding animals through genetic studies. During 2014, we continued working with a broad coalition of cooperating agencies, tribes, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to collect data on fisher distribution and genetics using noninvasive sampling methods. The primary sampling frame consisted of 157 24-square-kilometer hexagons (hexes) distributed across all major land ownerships within the Olympic Peninsula target survey area. In 2014 we expanded the study by adding 58 more hexes to an expanded study area in response to incidental fisher observations outside of the target area obtained in 2013; 49 hexes were added south and 9 to the east of the target area. During 2014, federal, state, tribal and NGO biologists and volunteers established three baited motion-sensing camera stations, paired with hair snaring devices, in 80 hexes; 69 in the targeted area 11 in the expansion areas. Each paired camera/hair station was left in place for approximately 6 weeks, with three checks on 2-week intervals. We documented fisher presence in 5 of the 80 hexagons, and identified 5 different fishers through a combination of microsatellite DNA analyses and camera detections. All fisher detections were in the target area

  11. Study of Plant Species Richness in Habitats with Different Grazing Intensities at Golestan National Park and Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bagheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of plant diversity and to evaluate the effect of grazing pressure on species richness and structure of plant communities, this experiment was conducted at Golestan National Park and its surrounding areas in the north east of Iran. Sampling was conducted in intact and abandoned habitats and habitats under seasonal and heavy grazing, using Modified Whitaker Plot in 1, 10,100 and 1000 m2 spatial scales. Results showed that the composition of plant species from different habitats was different. In addition the increasing intensity of grazing increased the importance of therophytes and decreased the role of hemicryptophytes and phanerophytes and also decreasd the amount of species richness. Mean species richness of studied habitat showed a significant difference in all four sampling spatial scales. The results showed that plant species richness decreased in the areas affected by heavy grazing and conservation against grazing plays an important role in maintaining species richness.

  12. Noise level arrangement in determined zones of homogenous development of green areas on the example of the spa park in Inowrocław

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztubecka, Małgorzata; Skiba, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Noise measurements are usually carried out in developed areas as well as in the surroundings of traffic routes providing basis for actions in order to limit its influence on the neighboring areas. Noise measurements in park areas are rare due to belief that these areas are silent zones. Such attitude cannot be justified. This article aims to the assessment of noise appearing in determined subzones of the spa park in Inowrocław. From the research carried out it can be noticed that traffic noise does not have any important meaning for the acoustic climate of the park. It is the people who stay there who generate more noise. Comparative analysis proves the appearance and penetration of noise from the zones with greater level of noise to the ones with lower amount.

  13. Assessment of the BTEX concentrations and reactivity in a confined parking area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Barbara Prestes; de Souza Machado, Gladson; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favila; Nunes Fortes, Julio Domingos; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the contribution of evaporative emissions from light passenger vehicles to the degradation of the air quality was investigated on the basis of the indoor quantification of the monoaromatic volatile compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX), specifically, a confined shopping mall parking area in the northern zone of Rio de Janeiro, a site that represents the reality of the vehicular fleet of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. In order to evaluate the concentration of the BTEX compounds, samples were collected, by an active sampling system using charcoal cartridge as adsorbent. The samples were extracted with organic solvent and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The average results were 54.14 μg m-3 (benzene), 209.24 μg m-3 (toluene), 45.87 μg m-3 (ethylbenzene) and 118.93 μg m-3 (xylenes). These results are compared with results from the literature of vehicular emissions in confined spaces such as garages and tunnels. Possible correlations with emissions from moving vehicles, obtained from previous studies in a tunnel of large circulation and emissions obtained in other underground parkings, are also investigated. The results suggest different emission sources.

  14. Assessment of the effect of a windmill park at Overgaard on the existence of birds in the EU bird protection area no. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, P.; Kyed Larsen, J.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the plans to establish a windmill park at Overgaard, Denmark, an assessment has been performed of the consequences for the occurrence of water birds in the EU bird protection area no. 15 which will be very close to the park. The report concludes that for all assessed species, apart from whooper swan and golden plover, none of the proposed windmill parks are expected to have any negative influence on the species' future occurrence and status in the EU bird protection area no. 15. For the golden plover the same conclusion is reached regarding its use of the area as resting-place during daytime. It is not possible to assess the effects, if any, on the plover's use of the area as forage area during the nights. For the whooper swan the area they have been using at Overgaard will be lost. Depending on the type of windmill park the lost area amounts to about 1-2,5 % of the bird protection area. It is expected, however, that the swans will move to other fields in the protection area for foraging. (ln)

  15. Heat‐tolerant Flowering Plants of Active Geothermal Areas in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOUT, RICHARD G.; AL‐NIEMI, THAMIR S.

    2002-01-01

    A broad survey of most of the major geyser basins within Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) was conducted to identify the flowering plants which tolerate high rhizosphere temperatures (≥40 °C) in geothermally heated environments. Under such conditions, five species of monocots and four species of dicots were repeatedly found. The predominant flowering plants in hot soils (>40 °C at 2–5 cm depth) were grasses, primarily Dichanthelium lanuginosum. Long‐term (weeks to months) rhizosphere temperatures of individual D. lanuginosum above 40 °C were recorded at several different locations, both in the summer and winter. The potential role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the apparent adaptation of these plants to chronically high rhizosphere temperatures was examined. Antibodies to cytoplasmic class I small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and to HSP101 were used in Western immunoblot analyses of protein extracts from plants collected from geothermally heated soils. Relatively high levels of proteins reacting with anti‐sHSP antibodies were consistently detected in root extracts from plants experiencing rhizosphere temperatures above 40 °C, though these proteins were usually not highly expressed in leaf extracts from the same plants. Proteins reacting with antibodies to HSP101 were also present both in leaf and root extracts from plants collected from geothermal soils, but their levels of expression were not as closely related to the degree of heat exposure as those of sHSPs. PMID:12197524

  16. Serviceability criteria for buildings in mine subsidence area -- Adjustment to Eurocodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawulok, M.; Sulimowski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Due to ground deformations caused by underground mining, building structures in mining areas are frequently subjected to considerable deformations and damage to the finishing and structural elements. As a consequence, serviceable values of such structures are distinctly diminished, and in extreme cases, seriously damaged structures may be exempted from further service. These problems are not duly represented in the existing building standard codes. It is also important to determine relationship between damage stage and value of the building, and hence the strategy for reconstruction or renovation works. The paper presents proposals concerning serviceability criteria of building structures in mining areas, in terms of basic standard requirements valid in building in Poland, as well as proposals of Eurocodes. Building structures under consideration have been divided into structures designed to resist mining influences and existing structures, not adapted to conform to these influences at the design and erection stages

  17. Wavefront coherence area for predicting visual acuity of post-PRK and post-PARK refractive surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Daniel D.; van de Pol, Corina; Barsky, Brian A.; Klein, Stanley A.

    1999-06-01

    Many current corneal topography instruments (called videokeratographs) provide an `acuity index' based on corneal smoothness to analyze expected visual acuity. However, post-refractive surgery patients often exhibit better acuity than is predicted by such indices. One reason for this is that visual acuity may not necessarily be determined by overall corneal smoothness but rather by having some part of the cornea able to focus light coherently onto the fovea. We present a new method of representing visual acuity by measuring the wavefront aberration, using principles from both ray and wave optics. For each point P on the cornea, we measure the size of the associated coherence area whose optical path length (OPL), from a reference plane to P's focus, is within a certain tolerance of the OPL for P. We measured the topographies and vision of 62 eyes of patients who had undergone the corneal refractive surgery procedures of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and photorefractive astigmatic keratectomy (PARK). In addition to high contrast visual acuity, our vision tests included low contrast and low luminance to test the contribution of the PRK transition zone. We found our metric for visual acuity to be better than all other metrics at predicting the acuity of low contrast and low luminance. However, high contrast visual acuity was poorly predicted by all of the indices we studied, including our own. The indices provided by current videokeratographs sometimes fail for corneas whose shape differs from simple ellipsoidal models. This is the case with post-PRK and post-PARK refractive surgery patients. Our alternative representation that displays the coherence area of the wavefront has considerable advantages, and promises to be a better predictor of low contrast and low luminance visual acuity than current shape measures.

  18. GIS coupled Multiple Criteria based Decision Support for Classification of Urban Coastal Areas in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, R.; Kalbar, P.; Inamdar, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal area classification in India is a challenge for federal and state government agencies due to fragile institutional framework, unclear directions in implementation of costal regulations and violations happening at private and government level. This work is an attempt to improvise the objectivity of existing classification methods to synergies the ecological systems and socioeconomic development in coastal cities. We developed a Geographic information system coupled Multi-criteria Decision Making (GIS-MCDM) approach to classify urban coastal areas where utility functions are used to transform the costal features into quantitative membership values after assessing the sensitivity of urban coastal ecosystem. Furthermore, these membership values for costal features are applied in different weighting schemes to derive Coastal Area Index (CAI) which classifies the coastal areas in four distinct categories viz. 1) No Development Zone, 2) Highly Sensitive Zone, 3) Moderately Sensitive Zone and 4) Low Sensitive Zone based on the sensitivity of urban coastal ecosystem. Mumbai, a coastal megacity in India is used as case study for demonstration of proposed method. Finally, uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo approach to validate the sensitivity of CAI under specific multiple scenarios is carried out. Results of CAI method shows the clear demarcation of coastal areas in GIS environment based on the ecological sensitivity. CAI provides better decision support for federal and state level agencies to classify urban coastal areas according to the regional requirement of coastal resources considering resilience and sustainable development. CAI method will strengthen the existing institutional framework for decision making in classification of urban coastal areas where most effective coastal management options can be proposed.

  19. Dynamic factor modeling of ground and surface water levels in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, A.; Muñoz-Carpena, R.

    2006-02-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the interaction between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component for fine-tuning the process. The Frog Pond is an intensively instrumented agricultural 2023 ha area adjacent to ENP. The interactions among 21 multivariate daily time series (ground and surface water elevations, rainfall and evapotranspiration) available from this area were studied by means of dynamic factor analysis, a novel technique in the field of hydrology. This method is designed to determine latent or background effects governing variability or fluctuations in non-stationary time series. Water levels in 16 wells and two drainage ditch locations inside the area were selected as response variables, and canal levels and net recharge as explanatory variables. Elevations in the two canals delimiting the Frog Pond area were found to be the main factors explaining the response variables. This influence of canal elevations on water levels inside the area was complementary and inversely related to the distance between the observation point and each canal. Rainfall events do not affect daily water levels significantly but are responsible for instantaneous or localized groundwater responses that in some cases can be directly associated with the risk of flooding. This close coupling between surface and groundwater levels, that corroborates that found by other authors using different methods, could hinder on-going environmental restoration efforts in the area by bypassing the function of wetlands and other surface features. An empirical model with a reduced set of parameters was successfully developed and validated in the area by interpolating the results from the dynamic factor analysis across the spatial domain (coefficient of efficiency across the domain: 0.66-0.99). Although

  20. Avifaunal diversity in the peripheral areas of the Maduruoya National Park in Sri Lanka: With conservation and management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh E. Gabadage

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey was randomly conducted in the marginal areas of Maduruoya National Park, Sri Lanka for a period of > 7 years. These study sites are located within the dry zone and the intermediate zone. The main vegetation type of the area is dry mixed evergreen forest. We recorded 196 bird species belonging to 66 families, and they included 161 breeding residents, 25 purely migrants, nine both resident and migrants, one vagrant, 14 nationally threatened, three globally threatened, and 10 endemic species. We also report the first-ever records of Chestnut-backed Owlet, Red-faced Malkoha, and Spot-winged Thrush from this dry area. However, these precious habitats and its species are threatened because of irresponsible human activities such as forest fires, land filings, hunting, road kills, encroachments, garbage dumping, agrochemicals, granite-rock blasting, logging, and road constructions. Therefore, we recommend that relevant authorities take immediate conservation action to increase the protection of these marginal areas or buffer zone in the near future.

  1. Expanding mandate and corporate social responsibility in the management of National Parks and protected areas in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Oshuo Ewak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Park’s objectives in Nigeria have evolved and been added over time. Four main phases are evident: Establishment of reserves to protect game, fauna; preservation of spectacular landscapes including cultural and scientific sites for the benefit, enjoyment and education of the public (Roosevolt 1929; Conservation of biological diversity from genes to ecosystem and evolutionary processes (Decree 11 (1985 and decree 35 (1991. The last and most recent phase places increasing emphasis on the challenges of land and resource alienation on indigenous populations that answers to protected areas. The first three phases have been largely achieved through establishment of fortress conservation called National parks, reserves and Protected areas. The State’s seeming failure to meet the challenges of the fourth and recent phase has exposed the poverty of fortress conservation and threatened the integrity of protected areas. This paper posits that to sustain conservation in Nigeria and beyond, the State should establish Conservation Agency that will collaborate with conservation partners, encourage community participation and seek partnership with other stakeholders to promote rural development and capacity building amongst indigenous populations within protected areas.

  2. Development of a precipitation-area curve for warning criteria of short-duration flash flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Deg-Hyo; Lee, Moon-Hwan; Moon, Sung-Keun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative criteria for flash flood warning that can be used to rapidly assess flash flood occurrence based on only rainfall estimates. This study was conducted for 200 small mountainous sub-catchments of the Han River basin in South Korea because South Korea has recently suffered many flash flood events. The quantitative criteria are calculated based on flash flood guidance (FFG), which is defined as the depth of rainfall of a given duration required to cause frequent flooding (1-2-year return period) at the outlet of a small stream basin and is estimated using threshold runoff (TR) and antecedent soil moisture conditions in all sub-basins. The soil moisture conditions were estimated during the flooding season, i.e., July, August and September, over 7 years (2002-2009) using the Sejong University Rainfall Runoff (SURR) model. A ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis was used to obtain optimum rainfall values and a generalized precipitation-area (P-A) curve was developed for flash flood warning thresholds. The threshold function was derived as a P-A curve because the precipitation threshold with a short duration is more closely related to basin area than any other variables. For a brief description of the P-A curve, generalized thresholds for flash flood warnings can be suggested for rainfall rates of 42, 32 and 20 mm h-1 in sub-basins with areas of 22-40, 40-100 and > 100 km2, respectively. The proposed P-A curve was validated based on observed flash flood events in different sub-basins. Flash flood occurrences were captured for 9 out of 12 events. This result can be used instead of FFG to identify brief flash flood (less than 1 h), and it can provide warning information to decision-makers or citizens that is relatively simple, clear and immediate.

  3. Analysis of the arboreal diversity in restorated after-fire areas in the ecological park Chipinque, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis Rodriguez, Eduardo; Jimenez Perez, Javier; Pando Moreno, Marisela; Aguirre Calderon, Oscar A; Trevino Garza, Eduardo J; Canizales Velazquez, Pamela A

    2010-01-01

    This research assessed the diversity of the arboreal component of areas, with and without ecological restoration, after being impacted by a wildfire in the Ecological Park Chipinque (PECh), in Northeastern Mexico. Two areas were analyzed, one facing northeast and the other Northwest in the Sierra Madre Oriental, in each facing were assessed two areas, one of them where there were not practices of ecological restoration (control) and other one in which these practices were carried out. Within each area, four sites were selected. Plots were 10 m x 10 m, in a mixed ecosystem pine-oak, ranging in height from 1000 to 1150 m above sea level; all trees with a diameter equal to 0.10 m ≥1.5 cm were assessed, and were obtained parameters of height (h) and diameter (d0.10). The diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H') and Margalef (Da) and an analysis of Bray-Curtis was used to determine the diversity according to the similarity-dissimilarity between the ecosystems of both exposures. To evaluate the vertical distribution of species Pretzsch index was estimated, and species were distributed in different zones of altitude. The family Fagaceae was the predominant group in both areas. According to the analysis of diversity, sampled areas showed a decrease on richness and diversity. The species with the highest ecological weight in both aspects (NE and NO) and in both treatments (with and without restoration) was Quercus rysophylla; while Pinus pseudostrobus was the second specie in the restored areas due to the re-vegetation practices.

  4. Changing perceptions of protected area benefits and problems around Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Catrina A; Salerno, Jonathan; Hartter, Joel; Chapman, Colin A; Reyna, Rafael; Tumusiime, David Mwesigye; Drake, Michael

    2017-09-15

    Local residents' changing perceptions of benefits and problems from living next to a protected area in western Uganda are assessed by comparing household survey data from 2006, 2009, and 2012. Findings are contextualized and supported by long-term data sources for tourism, protected area-based employment, tourism revenue sharing, resource access agreements, and problem animal abundance. We found decreasing perceived benefit and increasing perceived problems associated with the protected area over time, with both trends dominated by increased human-wildlife conflict due to recovering elephant numbers. Proportions of households claiming benefit from specific conservation strategies were increasing, but not enough to offset crop raiding. Ecosystem services mitigated perceptions of problems. As human and animal populations rise, wildlife authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa will be challenged to balance perceptions and adapt policies to ensure the continued existence of protected areas. Understanding the dynamic nature of local people's perceptions provides a tool to adapt protected area management plans, prioritize conservation resources, and engage local communities to support protected areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH FOR DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE DRAINAGE IN MALANG RESIDENTIAL AREA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPSARI Ratih Indri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally sound approach for sustainable urban drainage could promote infiltration and lower the risk of flooding. This study presents the framework to evaluate the drainage alternatives considering multiple aspects including water quantity, life cycle cost and amenity. This approach is verified through application at a residential area in Malang city Indonesia. Different combinations of drainage components comprising of drainage channels, infiltration wells and biopore absorption holes are assessed regarding runoff reduction, present value of life cycle cost, and willingness to pay for the convenience. The first part describes the effective designs of sustainable drainage components in the houses as well as in the public spaces of the housing. The second part of this study describes the use of analytic hierarchy process for weight assignment of sustainability criteria and multiple benefit calculation. The study recommends infiltration wells and biopore absorption holes together with drainage channels as the best management practice of sustainable drainage system based on its overall sustainability index.

  6. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  7. Mapping Infected Area after a Flash-Flooding Storm Using Multi Criteria Analysis and Spectral Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Akad, S.; Akensous, Y.; Hakdaoui, M.

    2017-11-01

    This research article is summarize the applications of remote sensing and GIS to study the urban floods risk in Al Mukalla. Satellite acquisition of a flood event on October 2015 in Al Mukalla (Yemen) by using flood risk mapping techniques illustrate the potential risk present in this city. Satellite images (The Landsat and DEM images data were atmospherically corrected, radiometric corrected, and geometric and topographic distortions rectified.) are used for flood risk mapping to afford a hazard (vulnerability) map. This map is provided by applying image-processing techniques and using geographic information system (GIS) environment also the application of NDVI, NDWI index, and a method to estimate the flood-hazard areas. Four factors were considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of the hazardous areas: flow accumulation, slope, land use, geology and elevation. The multi-criteria analysis, allowing to deal with vulnerability to flooding, as well as mapping areas at the risk of flooding of the city Al Mukalla. The main object of this research is to provide a simple and rapid method to reduce and manage the risks caused by flood in Yemen by take as example the city of Al Mukalla.

  8. Insights into Near-Surface Structural Control of Hydrothermal Fluid Movement at Rabbit Creek Thermal Area, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, B.; Elliot, M.; Sims, K. W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Recent geophysical imaging efforts at Yellowstone National Park have generated questions about the geologic controls of hydrothermal fluid movement within the parks thermal areas. Currently, faults and lava flow contacts are assumed to be the primary permeability pathways for deeper fluid migration to the surface. Although intuition dictates that these structures are responsible, few studies have definitively shown that this is true. Earlier geophysical imaging efforts of phase separation in Norris Geyser Basin have shown strong evidence for fractures and faulting conducting hydrothermal waters. However, no geologically mapped faults are at the surface to confirm these interpretations. Therefore, during the summer of 2017, UW surface geophysical data acquisition focused on understanding the geologic controls for a thermal area within the well-mapped Rabbit Creek Fault Zone (RCFZ). The RCFZ strikes N-S along the eastern edge of Midway Geyser Basin (i.e. the western edge of the Mallard Lake Dome) about 2.8 Km SE of Grand Prismatic spring. The section of the fault zone within the Rabbit Creek thermal area is exposed on the eastern valley wall and dips steeply to the west. Regardless at our site, this puts the two of the plateau rhyolites (i.e. the Biscuit Basin Flow and Mallard Lake flow) next to each other ( 100 m apart) with a small amount of overlying alluvial, glacial and hydrothermal deposits covering the actual fault trace. Interestingly, at least two mapped reverse faults from the Mallard Lake Dome trend NW-SE into the site and are interpreted to intersect to the RCFZ. At RCFZ, DC resistivity and seismic refraction profiling combined with Self-Potential, Magnetics, and Transient Electromagnetic soundings were acquired to provide images and in situ geophysical properties. These data highlight the variable fracturing and surface expressions of the hydrothermal fluids associated with the RCFZ and the NW trending fault zone associated with the Mallard Lake Dome

  9. Utilizing Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry with Airborne Visual and Thermal Images to Monitor Thermal Areas in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, B. B.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) are constantly changing. Persistent monitoring of these areas is necessary to better understand the behavior and potential hazards of both the thermal features and the deeper hydrothermal system driving the observed surface activity. As part of the Park's monitoring program, thousands of visual and thermal infrared (TIR) images have been acquired from a variety of airborne platforms over the past decade. We have used structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry techniques to generate a variety of data products from these images, including orthomosaics, temperature maps, and digital elevation models (DEMs). Temperature maps were generated for Upper Geyser Basin and Norris Geyser Basin for the years 2009-2015, by applying SfM to nighttime TIR images collected from an aircraft-mounted forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera. Temperature data were preserved through the SfM processing by applying a uniform linear stretch over the entire image set to convert between temperature and a 16-bit digital number. Mosaicked temperature maps were compared to the original FLIR image frames and to ground-based temperature data to constrain the accuracy of the method. Due to pixel averaging and resampling, among other issues, the derived temperature values are typically within 5-10 ° of the values of the un-resampled image frame. We also created sub-meter resolution DEMs from airborne daytime visual images of individual thermal areas. These DEMs can be used for resource and hazard management, and in cases where multiple DEMs exist from different times, for measuring topographic change, including change due to thermal activity. For example, we examined the sensitivity of the DEMs to topographic change by comparing DEMs of the travertine terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs, which can grow at > 1 m per year. These methods are generally applicable to images from airborne platforms, including planes, helicopters, and unmanned aerial

  10. Estimation of Leaf Area Index (LAI) Through the Acquisition of Ground Truth Data in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, G.; Hawk, A.; Lue, E.; Ottman, D.; Schiffman, B.; Ghosh, M.; Melton, F.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important indicator of ecosystem health. Remote sensing offers the only feasible method of estimating LAI at global and regional scales. Land managers can efficiently monitor changes in vegetation by using NASA data products such as the MODIS LAI 1km product. To increase confidence in use of the MODIS LAI product in Yosemite National Park, we investigated the accuracy of remotely sensed LAI data and created LAI maps using three optical in-situ instruments: the LAI-2000 instrument, digital hemispheric photography (DHP), and the Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies (TRAC) instrument. We compared our in-situ data with three spectral vegetation indices derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery: Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), Simple Ratio (SR), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to produce models which created LAI maps at 30m and 1km resolution. The strongest correlations occurred between DHP LAI values and RSR. Pixel values from the 1km LAI map were then compared to pixel values from a MODIS LAI map. A strong correlation exists between our in-situ data and MODIS LAI values which confirms its accuracy for use by the National Park Service as a decision support tool in Yosemite. The MODIS LAI product is particularly useful because of its high temporal resolution of 1-2 days and can be used to monitor current and future vegetation changes. The model created using the in-situ data can also be applied to Landsat data to provide thirty years of historical LAI values.

  11. 78 FR 27132 - Special Regulations of the National Park Service, Curecanti National Recreation Area, Snowmobiles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... designated for travel by snowmobiles from the access points to the frozen surface of Blue Mesa Reservoir... History of Curecanti National Recreation Area The Blue Mesa Dam and Reservoir, Morrow Point Dam and... as Blue Mesa Lake). The high-water mark is defined as the point at which the reservoir is at maximum...

  12. Brokerage and SME Innovation: An Analysis of the Technology Transfer Service at Area Science Park, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Paolo; Passarelli, Mariacarmela; Petrone, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on innovation brokerage by analysing the effects of brokerage activities on the innovation and growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The authors provide a detailed description of the Technology Transfer Service (TTS), credited as a European best-practice innovation broker, at Area Science…

  13. Drugs and Protected Areas: Coca Cultivation and Social Acceptance of Bahuaja-Sonene National Park in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Garcia-Yi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is extracted from coca: a native bush from the Amazon rainforest. Coca is mostly grown in remote areas to avoid government intervention, and it has been increasingly cultivated inside protected areas (PAs. The effects of coca cultivation on the preservation of PAs are largely unknown. This research uses panel data (2006–2008 from a total of 684 farmers to evaluate the influence of coca growing on the acceptance of PAs, using as case study a farmer community located within the buffer zone of Bahuaja-Sonene National Park (Peru. All farmers are coffee growers and some complement their income with coca production. The area has not been subject of forced coca eradication activities. The data were analyzed using probit models with covariance matrix correction for cluster errors by year, with and without interaction effects. The results suggest that coca growers are more likely to state a positive opinion about the PA than non-coca growers. This may reflect the fact that non-coca growers need extensive areas of land for coffee cultivation in order to approach the economic benefits obtained by farmers who also grow coca. However the likelihood of stating a positive opinion by coca growers decreases the higher the perception that coca cultivation has increased in the region. Coca growers may be afraid that large coca areas would lead to the implementation of forced eradication activities. In such a case, the BSNP would restrict the access to remote land resources, which in turn decreases the support for this PA.

  14. Good governance and tourism development in protected areas: The case of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hübner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are increasingly expected to serve as a natural income-producing resource via the exploitation of recreational and touristic activities. Whilst tourism is often considered a viable option for generating income which benefits the conservation of a protected area, there are many cases in which insufficient and opaque planning hinder sustainable development, thereby reducing local benefit sharing and, ultimately, nature conservation. This article delineated and examined factors in governance which may underlie tourism development in protected areas. Based on Graham, Amos and Plumptre’s five good governance principles, a specific analysis was made of the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park in central Vietnam, which highlighted challenges in the practical implementation of governing principles arising for nature conservation, sustainable tourism development and complex stakeholder environments. Despite the limited opportunity of this study to examine the wider national and international context, the discussion facilitated an overview of the factors necessary to understand governance principles and tourism development. This article could serve as a basis for future research, especially with respect to comparative analyses of different management structures existing in Vietnam and in other contested centrally steered protected area spaces. Conservation implications: This research has shown that tourism and its development, despite a more market-oriented and decentralised policymaking, is a fragmented concept impacted by bureaucratic burden, lack of institutional capacities, top-down processes and little benefit-sharing. There is urgent need for stakeholders – public and private – to reconcile the means of protected areas for the ends (conservation by clarifying responsibilities as well as structures and processes which determine decision-making.

  15. Multi-method, multi-scale geophysical observations in the Obsidian Pool Thermal Area, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B.; Pasquet, S.; Sims, K. W. W.; Dickey, K.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the prominence of Yellowstone as the world's most active hydrothermal province, relatively little is known about the plumbing systems that link deeper hydrothermal fluids to the charismatic hot springs, geysers and mud pots at the surface. We present the results of a multi-method, multi-scale geophysical investigation of the Obsidian Pool Thermal Area (OPTA) in Yellowstone National Park. OPTA hosts acid-sulfate hot springs and mud pots with relatively low pH. We present the results of seismic refraction, electrical resistivity, time-domain EM (TEM), soil conductivity meter (EMI), and GPR data acquired in July 2016. There is a strong contrast in physical properties in the upper 50 m of the subsurface between the low-lying hydrothermal area and surrounding hills: the hydrothermal area has much lower seismic velocities ( 1 km/s vs 3 km/s) and electrical resistivity ( 20 ohm-m vs 300 ohm-m). A prominent zone of very low resistivity (<10 ohm-m) exists at about 20 m depth beneath all hydrothermal features. Poisson's ratio, calculated from P-wave refraction tomography and surface wave inversions, shows low values beneath the "frying pan," where gas is emerging in small fumaroles, suggesting that Poisson's ratio is an effective "gas detector" in hydrothermal areas. Near-surface resistivity mapped from EMI shows a strong correlation with hydrothermal areas previously mapped by heat flow, with areas of high heat flow generally having low resistivity near the surface. Two exceptions are (1) the "frying pan," which shows a central area of high resistivity (corresponding to escaping gas) surrounding by a halo of low resistivity, and (2) a broad area of low resistivity connecting the hydrothermal centers to the lake, which may be clay deposits. TEM data penetrate up to 200 m in depth and suggest that a reservoir of hydrothermal fluids may underlie the entire area, including beneath the forested hills, at depths greater than 100 m, but that they rise toward the surface in

  16. Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

    2013-08-01

    Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. “Chlorophyll ideology” and Protected Areas. The Social Discourses on the Reserve Area “Tancat de la Pipa” in the Albufera Natural Park (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Requena i Mora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the last century, the empirical evidence that the natural limits to growth were being overstepped (García, 2004 supposed an increase in environmental awareness and led to a search for answers of different kinds. Most of these answers are part of the neoliberal politics that reconcile economic development with environmental sustainability. One of these solutions is the creation of protected areas. In this paper we analyse, firstly, the growth of protected areas in Europe and how we should perceive that growth. Then, we pay special attention to the theoretical implications of the concept of a “Natural Park”, one of the most common kinds of protected area in Spain. Subsequently, based on our research in the Albufera Natural Park (Spain and one of the reserve areas, “El Tancat de la Pipa”, we present the limitations and possibilities of these spaces. The analysis of the discourses, produced through interviews and discussion groups, contextualizes the social representations of this habitat according to their connection with the different social sectors and unravels the meaning given to this area. For the traditional sectors, “El Tancat de la Pipa” is perceived as an expropriation of their land. For environmental technicians, the area represents an object of environmental, educational and scientific consumption. For the ecology movements, it is a “renaturalized” area that is in keeping with developmentalism. And finally, for modernization consumers, this zone means a place for consumption that should receive “more marketing” and be transformed into a “theme park” for family leisure.

  18. Evaluation of fisher restoration in Olympic National Park and the Olympic Recovery Area: 2013 Annual Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia J. Happe; Kurt J. Jenkins; Michael K. Schwartz; Jeffrey C. Lewis; Keith B. Aubry

    2014-01-01

    With the translocation and release of 90 fishers [Pekania pennanti (formerly Martes pennanti)] from British Columbia to Olympic National Park during 2008-2010, the National Park Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife accomplished the first phase of fisher restoration in Washington State. Beginning in 2013, we initiated a new research project to...

  19. High-resolution gravity and seismic-refraction surveys of the Smoke Tree Wash area, Joshua Tree National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Goldman, Mark R.; Watt, Janet T.; Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.

    2016-03-02

    We describe high-resolution gravity and seismic refraction surveys acquired to determine the thickness of valley-fill deposits and to delineate geologic structures that might influence groundwater flow beneath the Smoke Tree Wash area in Joshua Tree National Park. These surveys identified a sedimentary basin that is fault-controlled. A profile across the Smoke Tree Wash fault zone reveals low gravity values and seismic velocities that coincide with a mapped strand of the Smoke Tree Wash fault. Modeling of the gravity data reveals a basin about 2–2.5 km long and 1 km wide that is roughly centered on this mapped strand, and bounded by inferred faults. According to the gravity model the deepest part of the basin is about 270 m, but this area coincides with low velocities that are not characteristic of typical basement complex rocks. Most likely, the density contrast assumed in the inversion is too high or the uncharacteristically low velocities represent highly fractured or weathered basement rocks, or both. A longer seismic profile extending onto basement outcrops would help differentiate which scenario is more accurate. The seismic velocities also determine the depth to water table along the profile to be about 40–60 m, consistent with water levels measured in water wells near the northern end of the profile.

  20. Landowner perceptions of three types of boating in the Saranac Lakes area of New York State׳s Adirondack Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Diane; Schuster, Rudy; Nordman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In order for natural resource managers to better understand conflicting landowner perspectives related to non-motorized, motorized, and personal watercraft use, this study examines the demographic and experiential characteristics, values, attitudes, and beliefs of landowners in the Saranac Lakes area of the Adirondack Park in New York State. A mixed-methods approach, composed of 20 in-depth interviews with land managers and a mail survey of 1000 landowners, was used. Three path analyses were completed, one for each type of boat use. Results indicate that resource-related values influence beliefs and attitudes related to boat use, supporting the cognitive hierarchy model of human behavior (Fulton, D. C., Manfredo, M. J., & Lipscomb, J. (1996). Wildlife value orientations: a conceptual and measurement approach. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 1, 24–47). In addition, length of residence in the area, past participation in non-motorized and motorized boating, age, and education were found to influence attitudes towards certain types of boating. The results of this study can be used by natural resource managers to identify management strategies that better address the values and recreational interests of landowners.

  1. Tools for forming strategies for remediation of forests and park areas in northern Europe after radioactive contamination: background and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, L.; Rantavaara, A.; Andersson, K.; Roed, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report compiles background information that can be used in planning appropriate countermeasures for forest and park areas in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, in case a nuclear accident results in large-scale contamination of forests. The information is formulated to inform the forestry sector and radiation protection experts about the practicality of both forest management techniques and mechanical cleanup methods, for use in their planning of specific strategies that can lead to an optimal use of contaminated forests. Decisions will depend on the site and the actual situation after radioactive deposition to forested areas, but the report provides background information from investigations performed before an accident occurs that will make the process more effective. The report also discusses the radiological consequences of producing energy from biomass contaminated by a major nuclear accident, both in the context of normal bio-fuel energy production and as a means of reducing potentially severe environmental problems in the forest by firing power plants with highly contaminated forest biomass. (au)

  2. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    charging events could occur at the vehicle home base, high-use work areas, or intermediately along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in significant reductions in the emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The San Francisco Bay Area is a leader in the adoption of PEVs in the United States. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the GGNRA facility would be a benefit for both GGNRA fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned PEVs benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the GGNRA site to identify the optimal placement of the electric vehicle supply equipment station. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and GGNRA for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and GGNRA personnel.

  3. Ethnobotanical and phytomedicinal knowledge in a long-history protected area, the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Italian Apennines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idolo, Marisa; Motti, Riccardo; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2010-02-03

    This study reports on the ethnobotanical and phytomedical knowledge in one of the oldest European Parks, the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Central Italy). We selected this area because we judged the long history of nature preservation as an added value potentially encouraging the survival of uses possibly lost elsewhere. In all, we interviewed 60 key informants (30 men and 30 women) selected among those who, for their current or past occupation or specific interests, were most likely to report accurately on traditional use of plants. The average age of informants was 65 years (range 27-102 years). The ethnobotanical inventory we obtained included 145 taxa from 57 families, corresponding to 435 use-reports: 257 referred to medical applications, 112 to food, 29 to craft plants for domestic uses, 25 to veterinary applications, 6 to harvesting for trade and another 6 to animal food. The most common therapeutic uses in the folk tradition are those that are more easily prepared and/or administered such as external applications of fresh or dried plants, and decoctions. Of 90 species used for medical applications, key informants reported on 181 different uses, 136 of which known to have actual pharmacological properties. Of the uses recorded, 76 (42%) concern external applications, especially to treat wounds. Medical applications accounted for most current uses. Only 24% of the uses we recorded still occur in people's everyday life. Species no longer used include dye plants (Fraxinus ornus, Rubia tinctorum, Scabiosa purpurea, Rhus coriaria and Isatis tinctoria) and plants once employed during pregnancy, for parturition, nursing, abortion (Asplenium trichomanes, Ecballium elaterium, Juniperus sabina and Taxus baccata) or old magical practices (Rosa canina). Our study remarked the relationship existing between the high plant diversity recorded in this biodiversity hotspot of central Apennines and the rich ethnobotanical knowledge. The presence of some very

  4. Vegetation Diversity Quality in Mountainous Forest of Ranu Regulo Lake Area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Hariyati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study vegetation diversity quality in mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo Lake area in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS, East Java. Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using sampling plots of 25x25 m2 for trees, 5x5 m2 for poles, 1x1 m2 for ground surface plants. Community structure of each lake side was determined by calculating vegetation's density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species. While vegetations diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Each lake side forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel 2007. The result showed that based on existed vegetation, mountainous forest surrounding Ranu Regulo Lake consisted of four ecosystems, i.e. heterogenic mountainous forest, pine forest, acacia forest and bushes. Bushes Area has two types of population, edelweiss and Eupatorium odoratum invaded area. Vegetation diversity quality in heterogenic mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo TNBTS was the highest, indicated by its multi-stratification to B stratum trees of 20-30m high. Heterogenic mountainous forest’s formation was Acer laurinum and Acmena accuminatissima for trees, Chyatea for poles. Taxa richness was found 59 species and 30 families, while the others were found below 28 species and 17 families. Diversity Index of heterogenic mountainous forest is the highest among others for trees is 2.31 and 3.24 for poles and second in bushes (H=3.10 after edelweiss ecosystem (H=3.39. Highest rate of endemism reached 100% for trees in heterogenic mountainous forest, 87% for poles in edelweiss area and 89% for bushes also in heterogenic mountainous forest. Trees, poles and herbs most similarity community showed by pine and acacia forest. Based on those five characters, vegetation diversity quality in Ranu Regulo Lake area was medium for heterogenic mountainous

  5. Heavy metals concentration in the soil from flower beds, parks and green areas of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, D.R.; Khan, F.A.; Shareef, A.; Abbasi, F.A.; Ahmed, I.; Munshi, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental pollution of heavy metals from automobiles has attained much attention in recent past. The present research was conducted to study the heavy metal contamination in road side soils of Karachi. Road side soil samples were collected from 29 sites and analyzed for heavy metals like Lead, Copper, Manganese and Zinc respectively. Lead concentration was the highest in the soil and ranged from 70 to 361 mg/kg, copper from 42 to 144 mg/kg, manganese from 43 to 128 mg/kg and zinc concentration from 51 to 213 mg/kg respectively. The gravitational sedimentation and impact on vegetation of coarse fraction is responsible for the high lead contamination of vegetation and soils. The data collected shows that almost all the pollution is being generated by automobile exhaust in urban areas of Karachi. Soil act as important sink for pollutants released through different activities. (author)

  6. Intraspecific variation of the Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas (Cheloniidae), in the foraging area of Gorgona Natural National Park (Colombian Pacific)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, Laura; Payan, Luis Fernando; Amorocho, Diego Fernando; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Giraldo, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The size distribution and body condition of the two morphotypes of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) foraging in Gorgona Natural National Park (GNNP) in the Colombian Pacific was assessed from 2003 to 2012. Measurements of straight carapace length (SCL), curved carapace length (CCL), weight, and body condition of 1,023 turtles captured on the GNNP reefs were recorded. More black turtles (n = 747) than yellow turtles (n = 276) were captured, all of them juveniles. Black turtles were significantly larger and heavier than yellow turtles. The size of recruitment to the neritic zone was 40.0-49.9 cm SCL for both morphotypes, but there were more yellow than black turtles in this size class, indicating a difference in the recruitment pattern. The body condition index of yellow turtles was significantly higher than that of black turtles, which could indicate differences in resource use. Based on our results, we suggest that GNNP might function as a recruitment area for yellow turtles, which arrive at smaller sizes and as part of a coastal migratory route for black turtles, which arrive at larger sizes and maintain residence at this location for an unknown period of time.

  7. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  8. Seasonal functioning and dynamics of Caulerpa prolifera meadows in shallow areas: An integrated approach in Cadiz Bay Natural Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Juan J.; García-Sánchez, M. Paz; Olivé, Irene; García-Marín, Patricia; Brun, Fernando G.; Pérez-Lloréns, J. Lucas; Hernández, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    The rhizophyte alga Caulerpa prolifera thrives in dense monospecific stands in the vicinity of meadows of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa in Cadiz Bay Natural Park. The seasonal cycle of demographic and biometric properties, photosynthesis, and elemental composition (C:N:P) of this species were monitored bimonthly from March 2004 to March 2005. The number of primary assimilators peaked in spring as consequence of the new recruitment, reaching densities up to 104 assimilators·m-2. A second peak was recorded in late summer, with a further decrease towards autumn and winter. Despite this summer maximum, aboveground biomass followed a unimodal pattern, with a spring peak about 400 g dry weight·m-2. In conjunction to demographic properties of the population, a detailed biometric analysis showed that the percentage of assimilators bearing proliferations and the number of proliferations per assimilator were maximal in spring (100% and c.a. 17, respectively), and decreased towards summer and autumn. The size of the primary assimilators was minimal in spring (May) as a result of the new recruitments. However, the frond area per metre of stolon peaked in early spring and decreased towards the remainder of the year. The thallus area index (TAI) was computed from two different, independent approaches which both produced similar results, with a maximum TAI recorded in spring (transient values up to 18 m2·m-2). The relative contribution of primary assimilators and proliferations to TAI was also assessed. Whereas the number of proliferations accounted for most of the TAI peak in spring, its contribution decreased during the year, to a minimum in winter, where primary assimilators were the main contributors to TAI. The present study represents the first report of the seasonal dynamics of C. prolifera in south Atlantic Spanish coasts, and indicates the important contribution of this primary producer in shallow coastal ecosystems.

  9. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels

    2018-01-01

    system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...

  10. Seasonal variation of nutrients and hydrological conditions in the State Marine Park of Laje de Santos (SMPLS and adjacent continental shelf areas (South Atlantic Ocean - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete de Santis Braga

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine parks constitute important areas for the conservation of marine life and the genetic heritage around the world. The creation of such marine parks must be accompanied by careful measures to guarantee the coexistence of natural biota and human activities in these systems. The State Marine Park of Laje de Santos (SMPLS is so close to an industrial pole and urban area that its creation and maintenance is an example for humanity. However, no program has yet been installed for the monitoring of its biotic and abiotic water parameters. Thus, the objective of this study is to provide hydrological and hydrochemical parameters with emphasis on dissolved nutrients to establish a starting point for the monitoring of these waters. The presence of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW in the marine park during the spring and summer sampling periods was evidenced by the observation of low temperatures ( 7.00 µmol L-1, while the concentration of N-ammonium (maximum 9.86 µmol L-1 demonstrated a rapid regeneration of the organic matter, mainly in the euphotic zone. Analysis of the data from summer periods revealed an annual difference, showing January 2014 to be drier than January 2015, which influenced the availability of some nutrients and the standard distribution of hydrochemical parameters in this region. The results of the distribution of hydrochemical parameters in the marine park confirms the preserved conditions of the seawater around the Laje de Santos, demonstrated by the excellent water quality, concluding the need to implant monitoring actions based on these reference data to preserve this important reserve of marine life.

  11. Exploring en-route parking type and parking-search route choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Sholomo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of an on-going research investigating the joint choice of parking type, parking facility and cruising-for-parking route. The importance of this issue derives from the significant share of cruising-for-parking traffic in urban areas, the relevance of parking po...

  12. The protected areas system in Brazil as a baseline condition for wetlands management and fish conservancy: the example of the Pantanal National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Carla N. M. Polaz; Fabio C. Ferreira; Miguel Petrere Júnior

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Considering the need for the Brazilian government to develop tools for environmental monitoring for biodiversity conservancy purposes in the national protected areas system, this paper focuses on determining reference site metrics (or baselines) for adapting the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on the fish assemblages in the Pantanal National Park (PNP). The habitats in the PNP were grouped into four categories: main rivers, corixos (channels connecting the floodplain), permanen...

  13. Design Criteria in Revitalizing Old Warehouse District on the Kalimas Riverbank Area of Surabaya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Titi Sunarti Darjosanjoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neglected warehouse buildings along the Kalimas River have created a poor urban façade in terms of visual quality. However the city government is planning to encourage tourism activities that take advantage of Kalimas River and its surrounding environment. If there is no good plan in accordance with the concept of local identity for old city of Surabaya, it will reduce it as a tourist attraction. In reference to the issue above, design criteria needs to be compiled for revitalizing the old warehouse district, which is expected to revive the identity of this district and be able to support the city’s tourism. This study was conducted by recording field observations, and the data was analyzed using the character appraisal method. The character appraisal analysis method is presented in the form of street picture data, which is divided into determined segments. The results show that there are five components including place attachment, sustainable urban design, green open space design, ecological riverfront design, and activity support that should be considered in the revitalization of the warehouse district. Those components are divided into two parts: building and open space at the riverbank. There are 13 design criteria for building at the riverbank, while there are 14 design criteria for open space at the riverbank. These design criteria can enrich the warehouse district’s revitalization by improving the visual quality of the urban environment.Keywords: design criteria; warehouse district; riverbank; Surabaya; revitalization.

  14. Interrelationships between soil biota and soil physical properties in forest areas of the Pieniny National Park (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Sokołowska, Justyna; Dzierwa, Agata

    2017-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park (PNP) in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). Investigated soil belonged to Eutric Cambisols and had silt or silt loam texture. The purpose of this research was to investigated relationship between soil biota, such as microbial activity, soil Oligochaeta (Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae) and soil physical properties, such as water retention or aggregates stability. This research was conducted at six forest monitoring areas of the PNP. Sampling was collected in the September 2016. For each of the 6 places, undisturbed and disturbed soil samples were taken from the 0-15-cm and 15-30-cm layer in 3 to 5 replicates. Undisturbed soil was taken: i) into Kopecky cylinders to determined soil physical properties; ii) a soil cores to determined enchytraeids and fine roots biomass (RB). Disturbed soil was collected in 3 reps and homogenized. Next such soil samples were divided into three parts: i) fresh one to determined dehydrogenase activity (ADh), microbial carbon biomass (MC) and labile carbon (LC); ii) air-dried, passed through a sieve (2-mm mesh size) and used for analysis: pH, organic carbon and bulk density; iii) last part air dried was used to determined stability of different size aggregates. In field, earthworms were collected in 3 reps using hand sorting method. Investigated soils were strongly acidic to neutral (pH 4.8-6.8). Organic carbon (Corg) content was varied from 0.8% to 4.5% and was higher in 0-15-cm layers than in 15-30-cm layers. Higher Corgcontent was connected with lower bulk density. Enchytraeids density was ranged from 1807 ind. m-2 to 88855 ind. m-2 and was correlated with microbial activity (ADh and MB) and RB. Earthworms density (ED) was ranged from 7 ind. m-2to 507 ind. m-2. In investigated soil was 6 genus and 7 species (Octolasion lacteum, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea jassyensis, Lumbricus rubellus, Eisenia lucens, and Fitzingeria platyura depressa). ED was

  15. Establishment of criteria for classification of area remediation measures contaminated after an eventual radiation accident in Angra dos Reis, RJ, nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diogo Neves Gomes da

    2016-01-01

    When a radiological or nuclear accident that leads to the release of radioactive material to the environment occurs, it is important to implement protective and remediation measures in order to reduce human exposure to radionuclides. Therefore, it is necessary that the procedures to be chosen by the affected country authorities are the most efficient ones, which can only be defined based on previously established criteria. In Brazil, since the radiological accident in Goiania, in 1987, the development of tools to support decision-making in emergencies of this nature was started. The main objective of this work was to establish an acting basis for contaminated areas, in order to protect the individuals of public in case of any accident related to Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant, in the municipality of Angra dos Reis (RJ), which leads to contamination to the environment and the consequent exposure of local population or from more distant regions to ionizing radiation. Initially, the high-risk areas near the location of the nuclear power plant were defined. Typical urban environments found in the main cities of these municipalities were surveyed, including homes, streets and recreation areas. The main characteristics of the study area were evaluated using images from Google Earth® and web pages of the municipalities. After the types of areas to be simulated were selected, these were quantified in terms of the number of residents, the size of the streets, and the number of trees, among others, per unit area. Considering the different housing characteristics for the selected municipalities, six main standard scenarios were developed for urban areas, including homes with different shielding, buildings and parks. The simulation of the procedures for each scenario was made with SIEM model, developed by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), formed by the integration of various models including CORAL, focusing on agricultural areas

  16. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P J; Ingram, Ben R

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs.

  17. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  18. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...

  19. Preliminary evaluation of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Marc F.; Schoenberg, Michael E.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant from 1918 to 1972 in St. Louis Park, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minn., resulted in ground-water contamination. This preliminary evaluation presents an overview of the problem based on the results of the first year (1979) of an ongoing study.

  20. Designing protected areas to conserve riverine biodiversity: Lessons from a hypothetical redesign of the Kruger National Park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available that are largely contained within this park. Physical river types, fish species and invertebrate families or genera were used as surrogates of riverine biodiversity. Conservation planning software was used to select an optimal set of planning units to represent...

  1. 77 FR 51733 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... important segment of the New River in West Virginia for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future... multiple uses, including hiking and bicycling. Both of these plans can be viewed by going to the NERI park... for ``Environmental Assessment: Design and Build Two Stacked Loop Hiking and Biking Trail Systems...

  2. Multi-criteria analysis for municipal solid waste management in a Brazilian metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Simone Machado; Silva, Maisa Mendonça; Melo, Renata Maciel; Gavazza, Savia; Florencio, Lourdinha; Kato, Mario T

    2017-10-15

    The decision-making process involved in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) must consider more than just financial aspects, which makes it a difficult task in developing countries. The Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR) in the Northeast of Brazil faces a MSWM problem that has been ongoing since the 1970s, with no common solution. In order to direct short-term solutions, three MSWM alternatives were outlined for the RMR, considering the current and future situations, the time and cost involved and social/environmental criteria. A multi-criteria approach, based on the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), was proposed to rank these alternatives. The alternative that included two private landfill sites and seven transfer, sorting and composting stations was confirmed as the most suitable and stable option for short-term MSWM, considering the two scenarios for the criteria weights. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to support the robustness of the results. The implementation of separate collections would minimize the amount of waste buried, while maximizing the useful life of landfill sites and increasing the timeframe of the alternative. Overall, the multi-criteria analysis was helpful and accurate during the alternative selection process, considering the similarities and restrictions of each option, which can lead to difficulties during the decision-making process.

  3. Aboveground Net Primary Production of tree cover at the post-disturbance area in the Tatra National Park, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale disturbances under the conditions of Slovakia, caused especially by storm and bark beetle, bring dramatic decline in carbon budget of the country, besides other negative consequences. The largest disturbance in modern history of the Slovak forestry was the storm damage that occurred in November 2004. The Tatra National Park (TNP was one of the most affected regions. Thus, in this territory, two transects (T1 – the Danielov dom site and T2 – near the Horný Smokovec village were established to survey basic dendrometric properties of trees in young stands established after the disaster. The standing stock of aboveground biomass in tree cover for the spring and autumn 2014 was calculated using the recorded variables, i.e. tree height and diameter measured at the stem base, together with the region-specific allometric relations. Then, the Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP in tree cover was estimated with respect to its components (stem, branches and foliage. ANPP was 315 g m−2 per year (Transect T1, and 391 g m−2 per year (Transect T2. The differences in the structure of ANPP, i.e. contribution of tree components, were found between transects T1 and T2. They were caused by the contrasting tree species composition, specifically the ratios between Norway spruce and broadleaved species. Broadleaves allocated more biomass production to foliage than spruce. This phenomenon together with higher turnover (once a year of foliage caused that broadleaves manifest higher share of fast-cycling carbon in comparison to the amount of carbon sequestrated in woody parts (stem and branches. High variability of ANPP was found within the transects, i.e. among the plots (microsites. As for the representative estimation of the standing stock of aboveground part of tree cover as well as ANPP at the post-disturbance area in the TNP territory, the survey should be performed on a net of research plots. Only this approach enables reliable estimates

  4. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  5. Wind energy in industrial areas optional, but not obvious. A study on the chances and constraints for the use of wind energy in industrial parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoolderman, J.A.; Verbeet, E.; Jochems, A.; Versteeg, K.

    2000-06-01

    The feasibility of installing wind turbines in industrial parks in the Netherlands has been investigated. An overview is given of possibilities and constraints to fit in wind turbines in industrial areas, based on the results of a literature study, a market consultation of sectoral organizations, representatives of local industrial circles and industrial experts in the field of renewable energy. Also a telephone survey was carried out among 130 entrepreneurs in the Netherlands to determine their attitudes towards the use of sustainable energy and wind energy in industrial parks. The results of the attitude study are published in a separate report for which a separate abstract has been prepared. The intermediate results were discussed at a meeting (23 February 2000), in which representatives from the industry, provinces, municipalities and the government participated

  6. Can Naturbanization Promote Environmentally Friendly Built-Up Areas? A Comparison Between Cadí-Moixeró (Catalonia, Spain and Comana (Romania Natural Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulla Antoni-Francesc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the on-going naturbanization processes in and around two Natural Parks under the impact of newcomers, but also tourists from Barcelona and Bucharest and their metropolitan areas. The landscape value of these areas attracts the urban population, which contributes to local sustainable development process but also promotes construction. New businesses associated with rural multifunctionality and value-added activities related to environmental quality were identified. New residents have contributed introducing responsible patterns of consumer, ecoentrepreneurship by women, recovery of abandoned buildings and intensification of rural-urban relationships. Negative impacts such as intensive construction of second homes, with a lower use, in some areas around Cadí-Moixeró threaten biodiversity and habitat connectivity. Insufficient integration of environmental policies, particularly in the Comana wetlands, reduces the potential for rural renewal. Research methods included a review of the counterurbanization literature and the statistical data related to processes of naturbanization in both areas, along with the conduct of 30 structured interviews with key local actors in each area. Naturbanization still offers the potential to enhance local development; however, it is urgent to assess social perspectives in natural parks management in order to achieve environmentally friendly built-up areas.

  7. Parking taxes : evaluating options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Definition of design criteria of mechanical transfer: an interaction between engineering and health areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Taciana Ramos; Echternacht, Eliza Helena de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the factors that justify the low use of a mechanical transfer in the context of a long-term institution. It is a device intended for internal transportation of individuals who have mobility problems. The analysis involves researchers from the fields of health and engineering in order to generate design criteria that consider the needs of caregivers and patients of this institution. To understand the reality of this site and their specificities, was used Ergonomic Work Analysis.

  9. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Tennessee Natural Areas Registry under Tennessee Code Annotated (TCA) section 11-14-112, Natural Areas designated by the Tennessee General Assembly under TCA 11-14-108, areas adjoining Tennessee Scenic Rivers designated under TCA 11-13-101, and Scenic Trails designated under TCA 11-11-101. ...

  10. 5 CFR 532.211 - Criteria for establishing appropriated fund wage areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum of 100 wage employees of one agency subject to the regular schedule and the agency involved... rates in each of the potential survey areas. (e) Appropriated fund wage and survey area definitions are... fund wage areas. 532.211 Section 532.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  11. Park Land and Nature Preserves, This layer shows the geographic area of public lands along with their amenties in the County of Polk, Wisconsin., Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Park Land and Nature Preserves dataset current as of 2007. This layer shows the geographic area of public lands along with their amenties in the County of Polk,...

  12. Are TODs Over-Parked?

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Adkins, Arlie; Sullivan, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the proposition that TOD, and specifically housing near suburban rail stops, is “over-parked†in the U.S. This is done by comparing parking generation rates for 31 housing complexes near rail stops in the San Francisco Bay Area and Portland, Oregon with on-site parking supplies and with ITE parking generation rates. Factors that explain parking demand for transit-oriented housing are also investigated, both statistically and through case analyses. The re...

  13. Plastic litter in sediments from the Croatian marine protected area of the natural park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blašković, Andrea; Fastelli, Paolo; Čižmek, Hrvoje; Guerranti, Cristiana; Renzi, Monia

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports baseline levels of litter (macro, meso and microplastics) in sediments collected from different areas of the Croatian MPA of the Natural Park of Telaščica bay (Adriatic Sea, GSA n. 17). The distribution of total abundance according to size, for all analysed locations evidences that microplastics are the dominant fraction concerning item's numbers. In all analysed samples no macroplastics were found, while microplastics are 88.71% and mesoplastics are 11.29% of the total. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustainability assessment of alternative end-uses for disused areas based on multi-criteria decision-making method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; De Vita, Sabato; Notarnicola, Michele

    2018-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to define and apply a multidisciplinary and multi-criteria approach to sustainability in evaluating alternative end-uses for disused areas. Taking into account the three pillars of sustainability (social, economic and environmental dimension) as well as the need for stakeholders to have new practical instruments, the innovative approach consists of four modules stated (i) sociological, (ii) economic, (iii) environmental and (iv) multi-criteria assessment. By means of a case study on a small Municipality in Southern Italy, three end-uses alternatives, representing three essential services for citizens, were selected: Municipal gym; Market area; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) separate collection centre. The sociological module was useful to select the most socially sound alternative by means of a consultative referendum, simulated with the use of a structured questionnaire administered to a sample of the population. The economic evaluation was conducted defining the bill of quantities with regarding to six main items (soil handling, landfill disposal tax, public services, structure and services, completion work, equipment and furnishings). The environmental evaluation was performed applying the Delphi method with local technicians who were involved in a qualitative-quantitative evaluation of the three alternatives with regarding to eight possible environmental impacts (landscape impact, soil handling, odour, traffic, noise, atmospheric pollution, wastewater, waste). Finally, the Simple Additive Weighting was used as multi-criteria technique to define alternatives priorities. The obtained results showed how the multi-criteria analysis is a useful decision support tool able to identify transparently and efficiently the most sustainable solutions to a complex social problem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Park It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  16. 75 FR 52173 - Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... avoid confusion with the Census Bureau's official urban- rural classifications. I. History Over the... been possible previously. Rather than delineating urban areas in an interactive and manual fashion, the... consistent fashion. For example, the Census Bureau split large agglomerations for Census 2000 by using...

  17. A Holistic Approach Including Biological and Geological Criteria for Integrative Management in Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Lorena; Monge-Ganuzas, Manu; Onaindia, Miren; De Manuel, Beatriz Fernández; Mendia, Miren

    2017-02-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and geosites are indivisible parts of natural heritage. Therefore, an adequate spatial delimitation and understanding of both and their linkages are necessary in order to be able to establish conservation policies. Normally, biodiversity hotspots are a typical target for those policies but, generally, geosites are not taken into account. Thus, this paper aims to fill this gap by providing an easily replicable method for the identification and integration of the geosites and the biodiversity hotspots in a Network for Integrative Nature Conservation that highlights their linkages. The method here presented has been applied to Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve situated in southeastern of the Bay of Biscay. The obtained results indicate that some geosites that are not directly related with biodiversity hotspots remain unprotected. Thus, from the study carried out, it can be stated that we conserving just the biodiversity hotspots is not enough to conserve the whole natural heritage of a protected area, as some plots interesting due to their relevant geoheritage remain unprotected. Therefore, it is necessary to fully integrate geosites into the planning documents of protected areas as a part of an ecosystem approach. The ecosystem approach recognizes the integrity of abiotic and biotic elements in nature conservation policies. Moreover, the proposed framework and the innovative methodology can be used as an easy input to identify priority areas for conservation, to improve the protected areas conservation planning, and to demonstrate the linkages between biodiversity hotspots and geosites.

  18. A Holistic Approach Including Biological and Geological Criteria for Integrative Management in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Lorena; Monge-Ganuzas, Manu; Onaindia, Miren; De Manuel, Beatriz Fernández; Mendia, Miren

    2017-02-01

    Biodiversity hotspots and geosites are indivisible parts of natural heritage. Therefore, an adequate spatial delimitation and understanding of both and their linkages are necessary in order to be able to establish conservation policies. Normally, biodiversity hotspots are a typical target for those policies but, generally, geosites are not taken into account. Thus, this paper aims to fill this gap by providing an easily replicable method for the identification and integration of the geosites and the biodiversity hotspots in a Network for Integrative Nature Conservation that highlights their linkages. The method here presented has been applied to Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve situated in southeastern of the Bay of Biscay. The obtained results indicate that some geosites that are not directly related with biodiversity hotspots remain unprotected. Thus, from the study carried out, it can be stated that we conserving just the biodiversity hotspots is not enough to conserve the whole natural heritage of a protected area, as some plots interesting due to their relevant geoheritage remain unprotected. Therefore, it is necessary to fully integrate geosites into the planning documents of protected areas as a part of an ecosystem approach. The ecosystem approach recognizes the integrity of abiotic and biotic elements in nature conservation policies. Moreover, the proposed framework and the innovative methodology can be used as an easy input to identify priority areas for conservation, to improve the protected areas conservation planning, and to demonstrate the linkages between biodiversity hotspots and geosites.

  19. Hydrogeology, geochemistry, and quality of water of The Basin and Oak Spring areas of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Buszka, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Test drilling near two sewage lagoons in The Basin area of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas, has shown that the alluvium and colluvium on which the lagoons are located is not saturated in the immediate vicinity of the lagoons. A shallow aquifer, therefore, does not exist in this critical area at and near the lagoons. Should seepage outflow from the lagoons occur, the effluent from the lagoons might eventually be incorporated into shallow ground water moving westward in the direction of Oak Spring. Under these conditions such water could reach the spring. Test borings that bottomed in bedrock below the alluvial and colluvial fill material are dry, indicating that no substantial leakage from the lagoons was detected. Therefore, no contaminant plume was identified. Fill material in The Basin does not contain water everywhere in its extensive outcropping area and supplies only a small quantity of ground water to Window Pouroff, which is the only natural surface outlet of The Basin.

  20. Tropical Forest Fire Susceptibility Mapping at the Cat Ba National Park Area, Hai Phong City, Vietnam, Using GIS-Based Kernel Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu Tien Bui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cat Ba National Park area (Vietnam with its tropical forest is recognized as being part of the world biodiversity conservation by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and is a well-known destination for tourists, with around 500,000 travelers per year. This area has been the site for many research projects; however, no project has been carried out for forest fire susceptibility assessment. Thus, protection of the forest including fire prevention is one of the main concerns of the local authorities. This work aims to produce a tropical forest fire susceptibility map for the Cat Ba National Park area, which may be helpful for the local authorities in forest fire protection management. To obtain this purpose, first, historical forest fires and related factors were collected from various sources to construct a GIS database. Then, a forest fire susceptibility model was developed using Kernel logistic regression. The quality of the model was assessed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC, and five statistical evaluation measures. The usability of the resulting model is further compared with a benchmark model, the support vector machine (SVM. The results show that the Kernel logistic regression model has a high level of performance in both the training and validation dataset, with a prediction capability of 92.2%. Since the Kernel logistic regression model outperforms the benchmark model, we conclude that the proposed model is a promising alternative tool that should also be considered for forest fire susceptibility mapping in other areas. The results of this study are useful for the local authorities in forest planning and management.

  1. Communicating a Marine Protected Area Through the Local Press: The Case of the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikou, Angela; Dionysopoulou, Niki

    2011-05-01

    Local distrust for Marine Protected Area (MPA) managers is emerging as an important factor obstructing the fulfillment of MPA objectives, and, thus, there is a need to develop a means of enhancing relationship building between MPA managers and local people. We used the National Marine Park of Alonissos, Northern Sporades (NMPANS), Greece, as a relevant case-study to investigate whether the local print media's framing of the marine park and its management affected locals' attitudes. We conducted a longitudinal review of local newspaper articles pertaining to the NMPANS during 1980-2008, and we conducted telephone interviews with local people. We found that salience of the NMPANS in the local print media remained limited and sporadic, the main stakeholder remained the centralized public sector, and the regional print media was rather detached, moderate, and largely supportive of the NMPANS throughout 1980-2008. The progression of the management periods of the NMPANS, however, was accompanied by increased importance of the NMPANS, increased deviance from conservation as the chief objective of the NMPANS's establishment, a shift from presenting facts to presenting reactions, and a shift from a positive to a mixed image of the NMPANS. Locals who relied on newspapers for local news were better informed about the NMPANS, more likely to accept the NMPANS, and more likely to participate in meetings regarding the NMPANS regardless of gender, age, and occupation than those who did not rely on newspapers. The local print media may be utilized as a free-choice learning vehicle to enhance the value of an MPA among local people and to enhance the development of trust between park managers and locals through a proactive, empowering, and cognitive media strategy.

  2. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  3. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting of... the admission of commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in § 5.4 of...

  4. Onion Park Research Natural Area: Botanical and ecological resources inventory, mapping and analysis with recommendations towards the development of a long-term monitoring and research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle F. Layser

    1992-01-01

    Onion Park is a floristically rich naturally occurring mountain meadow and wetland complex which is surrounded by subalpine forest. The grass- and wetlands comprising the Park contribute biological diversity to an otherwise predominantly lodgepole pine-forested, subalpine setting. Onion Park is located at 7400' elevation in the Little Belt Mountains, five miles...

  5. Demographic monitoring of wild muriqui populations: Criteria for defining priority areas and monitoring intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Karen B; Possamai, Carla B; Tabacow, Fernanda P; Pissinatti, Alcides; Lanna, Andre M; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Moreira, Leandro; Talebi, Maurício; Breves, Paula; Mendes, Sérgio L; Jerusalinsky, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    Demographic data are essential to assessments of the status of endangered species. However, establishing an integrated monitoring program to obtain useful data on contemporary and future population trends requires both the identification of priority areas and populations and realistic evaluations of the kinds of data that can be obtained under different monitoring regimes. We analyzed all known populations of a critically endangered primate, the muriqui (genus: Brachyteles) using population size, genetic uniqueness, geographic importance (including potential importance in corridor programs) and implementability scores to define monitoring priorities. Our analyses revealed nine priority populations for the northern muriqui (B. hypoxanthus) and nine for the southern muriqui (B. arachnoides). In addition, we employed knowledge of muriqui developmental and life history characteristics to define the minimum monitoring intensity needed to evaluate demographic trends along a continuum ranging from simple descriptive changes in population size to predictions of population changes derived from individual based life histories. Our study, stimulated by the Brazilian government's National Action Plan for the Conservation of Muriquis, is fundamental to meeting the conservation goals for this genus, and also provides a model for defining priorities and methods for the implementation of integrated demographic monitoring programs for other endangered and critically endangered species of primates.

  6. Demographic monitoring of wild muriqui populations: Criteria for defining priority areas and monitoring intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B Strier

    Full Text Available Demographic data are essential to assessments of the status of endangered species. However, establishing an integrated monitoring program to obtain useful data on contemporary and future population trends requires both the identification of priority areas and populations and realistic evaluations of the kinds of data that can be obtained under different monitoring regimes. We analyzed all known populations of a critically endangered primate, the muriqui (genus: Brachyteles using population size, genetic uniqueness, geographic importance (including potential importance in corridor programs and implementability scores to define monitoring priorities. Our analyses revealed nine priority populations for the northern muriqui (B. hypoxanthus and nine for the southern muriqui (B. arachnoides. In addition, we employed knowledge of muriqui developmental and life history characteristics to define the minimum monitoring intensity needed to evaluate demographic trends along a continuum ranging from simple descriptive changes in population size to predictions of population changes derived from individual based life histories. Our study, stimulated by the Brazilian government's National Action Plan for the Conservation of Muriquis, is fundamental to meeting the conservation goals for this genus, and also provides a model for defining priorities and methods for the implementation of integrated demographic monitoring programs for other endangered and critically endangered species of primates.

  7. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  8. Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. II - Habitat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Érico Guimarães

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.

  9. Characteristics of wild boar (Sus scrofa habituation to urban areas in the Collserola Natural Park (Barcelona and comparison with other locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel growth of urban areas and wild boar populations in recent years has increased the presence of this species around cities and in suburban areas, often leading to conflict with local people. In the Collserola Natural Park, situated within the metropolitan area of Barcelona, wild boar have become habituated to humans and urban settings because of direct feeding by local residents. Their attraction to these areas due to an abundance of anthropogenic food sources is especially strong during the warmer summer season when foraging conditions are poorer in their natural woodland habitat; the number of captures of habituated wild boar in peri–urban areas is significantly correlated with mean monthly temperatures. Habituated boar are primarily matriarchal groups, whereas adult and sub–adult (>1 year males are significantly less represented than in non–habituated boars. In Collserola, habituated sub–adult and adult females are significantly heavier than their non–habituated counterparts and these weight differences increase with age; in the > 3 year–old age class they may be 35% heavier. Conflicts generated by the presence of wild boar in peri–urban areas are complex, and the responses by authorities are similarly diverse and often exacerbated by ambivalent public attitudes, both towards wild boar presence and applied mitigation measures. By 2010, at least 44 cities in 15 countries had reported problems of some kind relating to the presence of wild boar or feral pigs.

  10. parkITsmart: minimization of cruising for parking

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiaras, Christos; Hobi, Livio; Hofstetter, Fabian; Liniger, Samuel; Stiller, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Finding a parking space in urban areas is a daily challenge for drivers across the world, due to the increasing amount of vehicles and the limited amount of parking spaces. Drivers who are looking for a parking space in peak hours are often forced to drive around city blocks until they spot a free parking space. This process is termed in literature “cruising for parking” and is proven to (a) cost a lot of time and gas for drivers, (b) generate unnecessary traffic load, and (c) affect the envi...

  11. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  12. STRUCTURE OF MAIN ARBOREAL SPECIES IN CRUCE CABALLERO PARK AND ITS FLORISTIC SIMILARITY WITH AREAS FROM ARGENTINE AND BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Carlos Ríos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to study the fitossociologic structure and floristic similarity among seasonal and mixed forests of Argentina and Brazil. Cruce Caballero Park with 522 hectares where the method of multiple plots was adopted with (20 x 10 m. In each plot all individual tree of size equal or heigher than 5 cm diameter were registered, being measured the stem diameter and height into three environmental compartments, Haplorthox, Ustorthent and Udorthent. In Haplorthox, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze prevail at higher stratum and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. W.C.Burger, Lanj. & Boer, Cabralea canjerana (Vell. Mart., Ocotea lancifolia Mez and Apuleia leiocarpa J.F.Macbr. follow it. In Ustorthent araucaria is absent and Gymnanthes concolor Müll.Arg., Trichilia claussenii C.DC., Apuleia leiocarpa, Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem. and Sorocea bonplandii prevail. Aracuaria is scarce in Udorthent where Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan, Alchornea triplinervia Müll.Arg., Luehea divaricata Mart., Erythrina falcata Benth. and Myrsine gardneriana A.DC. prevail. A comparative analysis shown Cruce Caballero more similar to seasonal forests than mixed araucaria forest from Brazil.

  13. Orlice Nature Park - environmental themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this abstract is to outline the main characteristics of Orlice Nature Park and of the procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and to evaluate public interest in the nature park and in nature protection in general. Orlice Nature Park was instituted in 1996. The function of the park is to protect the character of the area of landscape around the River Orlice. Orlice Natural Park covers an area of 115 sq. km. The main environmental risks to the park are: intensive agriculture, forest mono-culture, industry, transport, channel improvement, the building of holiday cottages, sport, and recreation. Among the conflicts of interest in the park are: nature protection, water management, building constrictions, business, fishery, water sports and recreation. During the process of Environmental Impact Assessment in Hradec Kralove, the public voiced its opinion against the building of a supermarket within the grounds of of the nature park. In this case the public showed its interest in the value of nature and landscape, the value of human health and the value of plant species. In general, the public and the local media show an interest in the park only in exceptional circumstances. (author)

  14. Criteria of waist circumference according to computed tomography-measured visceral fat area and the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Hidetoshi; Tamura, Masaki; Lee, J.S.; Akabayashi, Akira; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the discriminate gender-specific cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for detecting the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (CCRF), which reflects the intra-abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) using a large Japanese population. The study population consisted of 6,736 men and women who underwent a periodic health check-up and had a computed tomography scan for VFA measurement at the PL Tokyo Health Care Center in Tokyo, Japan. The CCRF was defined according to the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome. The discriminate values for detecting the CCRF were tested using receiver operating characteristics analysis. The discriminate values of VFA were 103.0 cm 2 with 68.7% sensitivity and 61.8% specificity for men and 69.0 cm 2 with 80.8% sensitivity and 70.0% specificity for women. The WC values corresponding to the VFA were 89.1 cm for men and 86.3 cm for women. The discriminate values of VFA and WC were not substantially different between people with or without raised blood pressure. For the early detection and management of the CCRF and VFA in the primary screening setting, the discriminate and convenient gender-specific WC criteria would be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women. (author)

  15. Simulation of ground-water flow in the St. Peter aquifer in an area contaminated by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A model constructed to simulate ground-water flow in part of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and St. Peter aquifers, St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was used to test hypotheses about the movement of ground water contaminated with coal-tar derivatives and to simulate alternatives for reducing the downgradient movement of contamination in the St. Peter aquifer. The model, constructed for a previous study, was applied to simulate the effects of current ground-water withdrawals on the potentiometric surface of the St. Peter aquifer. Model simulations predict that the multiaquifer wells have the potential to limit downgradient migration of contaminants in the St. Peter aquifer caused by cones of depression created around the multiaquifer wells. Differences in vertical leakage to the St. Peter aquifer may exist in areas of bedrock valleys. Model simulations indicate that these differences are not likely to affect significantly the general patterns of ground-water flow

  16. Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmacharya Dibesh B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA in the east. Nineteen (27% scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53% of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females and five (2 males and 3 females in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.

  17. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle and selected wildlife species at selected livestock/wildlife interface areas of the Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndengu, Masimba; Matope, Gift; de Garine-Wichatitsky, Michel; Tivapasi, Musavengana; Scacchia, Massimo; Bonfini, Barbara; Pfukenyi, Davis Mubika

    2017-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and risk factors for Brucella species infection in cattle and some wildlife species in communities living at the periphery of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area in south eastern Zimbabwe. Three study sites were selected based on the type of livestock-wildlife interface: porous livestock-wildlife interface (unrestricted); non-porous livestock-wildlife interface (restricted by fencing); and livestock-wildlife non-interface (totally absent or control). Sera were collected from cattle aged≥2years representing both female and intact male animals. Sera were also collected from selected wild ungulates from Mabalauta (porous interface) and Chipinda (non-interface) areas of the Gonarezhou National Park. Samples were screened for Brucellaantibodies using the Rose Bengal plate test and confirmed by the complement fixation test. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression modelling. In cattle, brucellosis seroprevalence from all areas was 16.7% (169/1011; 95% CI: 14.5-19.2%). The porous interface recorded a significantly (p=0.03) higher seroprevalence (19.5%; 95% CI: 16.1-23.4%) compared to the non-interface area (13.0%; 95% CI: 9.2-19.9%).The odds of Brucellaseropositivity increased progressively with parity of animals and were also three times higher (OR=3.0, 2.0wildlife and livestock. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  19. Visitation in island parks: indicators as a tool for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginessa Corrêa Lemos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Park visitation has been increasing every year; however, the majority of the protected areas have no satisfactory and qualified administrative structure to control visitation, especially when island ecosystems are considered. The State Park of Ilhabela (PEIb is a good example of this, and was therefore selected for this study, which hoped to identify indicators for better management of park visitation. In order to select indicators to be used as a reference for this purpose, this study employed the Bountîle – Base of observation for nautical and terrestrial purposes within islands - developed by French researchers for the National Park of Port-Cros, and complemented this with guidelines from the Brazilian Ministry of Environment and other authors. These led to the selection of the following indicators: a opportunities of recreation for a diverse public; b visitation security; c satisfaction with the experience; d minimal environmental impact; e spinoff of socioeconomic development of the surrounding community. Based on the PEIb analyses, 20 management indicators were identified using the following criteria: uses and users; climatic conditions; well-being of the residents; security; profile of the visitor; well-being of the visitors; behavior of the visitors; certification, management, and institutional integration. The criteria of the indicators is greatly diversified, as it is believed that such diversity is essential to encompass the varied aspects that must be considered by a visitation management system in a conservation area. The indicators are flexible, and can be changed anytime, so that they will always be in harmony with the goals of the park management plan. In order to be efficient, they should be feasible economically, technically, and operationally. It is essential that indicators and protocols be discussed and tested with park workers and local actors, ensuring active management and continuous monitoring.

  20. Maryon Park

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, Giasco

    2018-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Maryon Park is the place Michelangelo Antonioni chose, in 1966, to shoot the scenes that would become cult images from his film "Blow Up", and deservedly so. The park is located in Charlton, southeast of London, a place that's hardly changed since Antonioni shot there. I first went there to shoot a series of photos on March 7 and 8, 2007. I returned again on March 7, 2014. I called the series “Maryon Park”. I used a medium format, six by seven inch col...

  1. TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS: THE CASE OF THE NATIONAL MARINE PARK OF ALONISSOS-NORTHERN SPORADES IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanos Paraskevopoulos

    2017-01-01

    The tourist development of Greece began in the '50s to become one of the main sources of income, both nationally and locally, since many areas are the main source of tourism revenue. The concepts of sustainability and viability of this product and its operation, is being strongly marked recent decades in many conferences, notices, and scientific research. Greece established 30 Management Bodies to integrated management of protected areas belonging to this network. One of the main problems fac...

  2. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  3. Planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria for sustainable spatial development in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Meiţă

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve represents a complex of ecosystems embedding a biome that had been included on UNESCO World Heritage list due to its global environmental importance. The outstanding natural diversity, including ecosystems, habitats and species situated at the top of European and International conservation lists, is mixed with an equally rich and important cultural (ethnic and religious diversity of the human communities inhabiting the area. According to the guidelines of the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO, the biosphere reserves including human settlements should be managed such that they could constitute an example for what sustainable development means. Starting from the spatial dimension added to the traditional socioeconomic, ecological and cultural pillars of sustainable development, the paper examines planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria that could substantiate a sustainable development model applicable to the Danube Delta, and counter the effects of clime change in the area. The results suggest that the traditional practices of the inhabitants could offer sustainable solutions and help preserving the natural and cultural diversity of the region.

  4. Making parks make a difference: poor alignment of policy, planning and management with protected-area impact, and ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressey, Robert L; Visconti, Piero; Ferraro, Paul J

    2015-11-05

    Policy and practice around protected areas are poorly aligned with the basic purpose of protection, which is to make a difference. The difference made by protected areas is their impact, defined in program evaluation as the outcomes arising from protection relative to the counterfactual of no protection or a different form of protection. Although impact evaluation of programs is well established in fields such as medicine, education and development aid, it is rare in nature conservation. We show that the present weak alignment with impact of policy targets and operational objectives for protected areas involves a great risk: targets and objectives can be achieved while making little difference to the conservation of biodiversity. We also review potential ways of increasing the difference made by protected areas, finding a poor evidence base for the use of planning and management 'levers' to better achieve impact. We propose a dual strategy for making protected areas more effective in their basic role of saving nature, outlining ways of developing targets and objectives focused on impact while also improving the evidence for effective planning and management. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Agricultural Economic Development In The Conservation Area And The Buffer Zone Of The National Park West End Banten Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Forest ecosystem as a whole form of landscape biological resources dominated by trees in their natural forms with the environment that one can not be separated have many benefits for human life either directly or indirectly. Forest is a unique and complex ecosystem also has the economic potential value in it if utilized properly. Indonesia has a Natural Resources SDA were abundant but on the other hand the economic level of the people is still low. It is certainly in the spotlight especially that forest communities are on average less capable in economic terms. In various regions in Indonesia forest use that is not merely become agro-industry has actually been ogled as a way to make forest that is specifically intended to be developed and maintained for the purpose of tourism or the new tour. Data Director General of PHPA Forest Conservation and Nature Protection until year 98 has been designated a conservation area as much as 374 units with an area of 21.3 million hectares consists of 16.8 million hectares of land and 4.5 million hectares in the waters. Vast natural spaces altogether 5.9 million hectares were reached broad nature conservation area of 15.4 million hectares. Target conservation area on the mainland can reach 10 or about 20 million hectares. The waters are still expected for the target area of 10 million hectares.

  6. Effects of low intensity prescribed fires on ponderosa pine forests in wilderness areas of Zion National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry V. Bastian

    2001-01-01

    Vegetation and fuel loading plots were monitored and sampled in wilderness areas treated with prescribed fire. Changes in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest structure tree species and fuel loading are presented. Plots were randomly stratified and established in burn units in 1995. Preliminary analysis of nine plots 2 years after burning show litter was reduced 54....

  7. From little known area to the extinction race: A survey of herpetofauna in Prevab, Kutai National Park (KNP), Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Nia; Roziah, Noviati; Fauzi, Muhammad Alif; Kurnianto, Agung Sih

    2017-11-01

    We develop research focused on the environmental quality through a survey of herpetofauna in a threatened area with minimum data. The collected data supported by literature was used to predict the highest threat in the Prevab forest and to recommend a conservation area according to priority. The survey was conducted on three main sites: Senadam lake, camp area, and Buntu river. Each location was surveyed using a Visual Encounter Survey in a 1 km transect, from 7 to 11 p.m. for 3 days (21-23 October 2016). This study has identified 25 species herpetofauna from 76 individuals, consisting of 3 orders: Squamata, Anura, and Crocodilia. The highest number of individuals found were Chalcorana raniceps (n:18), Hemidactylus frenatus (n:7), Hemidactylus platyurus (n:10), Eutropis sp. (n:5), Cyrtodactylus yoshii (n:4), Crocodylus porosus (n:4), Hylarana erythraea (n:3), Varanus salvator (n:3). Two species were categorized as `Threatened' species in the IUCN Red List, and one (Ptychozoon horsfieldii) was categorized as `Data Deficient.' One species, Limnonectes paramacrodon, was categorized as `Near Threatened'. There were 2 species categorized as Appendix II CITES: Varanus salvator and Crocodylus porosus. Only one species, Crocodylus porosus, was protected by Indonesia's regulation. Chalcorana raniceps and Limnonectes paramacrodon were found in high numbers in Buntu river, while the camp area was mostly visited by Hemidactylus platyurus, Hemidactylus frenatus, and Ptychozoon horsfieldii. Senadam lake was found to be the habitat for Crocodylus porosus.

  8. Uranium favorability of precambrian rocks in the Badger Flats - Elkhorn Thrust Area, Park and Teller Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, G.L.

    1976-10-01

    The area is approximately 1,800 square miles and extends from Cripple Creek northward to Fairplay and Bailey. The Precambrian rocks include the metamorphic sequences of the Idaho Springs Formation and the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, Silver Plume Granite, Pikes Peak Granite, and Redskin Granite. The known uranium deposits in the area include six vein deposits, three pegmatite occurrences, and one zone of probable secondary enrichment; they have not yielded any significant production. The vein deposits are probably the result of downward percolation of ground water. The zone of secondary uranium enrichment may have formed above a volcanic pipe, vein, or tuffaceous lake bed. Favorability in the area is considered good for both vein and large, disseminated, low-grade uranium deposits. On the bases of known uranium occurrences, favorable structures and host rocks, and a water-sampling program, recommendations are given for exploration. The occurrences in the area have substantial similarities with the Rossing deposit in South-West Africa and the Wheeler Basin uranium occurrence in Grand County, Colorado. 6 figures, 9 tables

  9. 36 CFR 3.9 - May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... watercraft (PWC) in park waters? 3.9 Section 3.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE...) in park waters? (a) A person may operate a PWC only in park areas where authorized by special... on park waters is subject to the following conditions: (1) No person may operate a PWC unless each...

  10. Evaluating Tourist Perception of Environmental Changes as a Contribution to Managing Natural Resources in Glacierized Areas: A Case Study of the Forni Glacier (Stelvio National Park, Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Valentina; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; Pasquale, Vera; Pelfini, Manuela

    2012-12-01

    Climate change effects are noticeably evident above the timberline where glacier and permafrost processes and mass movements drive the surface evolution. In particular, the cryosphere shrinkage is deeply changing the features and characteristics of several glacierized mountain areas of the world, and these modifications can also affect the landscape perception of tourists and mountaineers. On the one hand glacier retreat is increasing the interest of tourists and visitors in areas witnessing clear climate change impacts; on the other hand cryosphere shrinkage can impact the touristic appeal of mountain territories which, diminishing their ice and snow coverage, are also losing part of their aesthetic value. Then, to promote glacierized areas in a changing climate and to prepare exhaustive and actual proposals for sustainable tourism, it is important to deepen our knowledge about landscape perception of tourists and mountaineers and their awareness of the ongoing environmental modifications. Here we present the results from a pilot study we performed in summer 2009 on a representative glacierized area of the Alps, the Forni Valley (Stelvio National Park, Lombardy, Italy), a valley shaped by Forni, the largest Italian valley glacier. During the 2009 summer season we asked tourists visiting the Forni Valley to complete a questionnaire. This study was aimed at both describing the features and characteristics of tourists and mountaineers visiting this Alpine zone in summer and evaluating their landscape perception and their ability to recognize climate change impacts and evidence. Our results suggest that the dissemination strategies in a natural protected area have to take into account not only the main landscape features but also the sites where the information will be given. In particular considering the peculiarities of the huts located in the area, such as their different accessibility and the fact that they are included or not in a mountaineering network like that

  11. Episodic Late Holocene dune movements on the sand-sheet area, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, S. L.; Spaeth, M.; Marín, L.; Pierson, J.; Gómez, J.; Bunch, F.; Valdez, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GSDNPP) in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, contains a variety of eolian landforms that reflect Holocene drought variability. The most spectacular is a dune mass banked against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, which is fronted by an extensive sand sheet with stabilized parabolic dunes. Stratigraphic exposures of parabolic dunes and associated luminescence dating of quartz grains by single-aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocols indicate eolian deposition of unknown magnitude occurred ca. 1290-940, 715 ± 80, 320 ± 30, and 200-120 yr ago and in the 20th century. There are 11 drought intervals inferred from the tree-ring record in the past 1300 yr at GSDNPP potentially associated with dune movement, though only five eolian depositional events are currently recognized in the stratigraphic record. There is evidence for eolian transport associated with dune movement in the 13th century, which may coincide with the "Great Drought", a 26-yr-long dry interval identified in the tree ring record, and associated with migration of Anasazi people from the Four Corners areas to wetter areas in southern New Mexico. This nascent chronology indicates that the transport of eolian sand across San Luis Valley was episodic in the late Holocene with appreciable dune migration in the 8th, 10-13th, and 19th centuries, which ultimately nourished the dune mass against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.

  12. Evaluation of Law no. 6306 on Transformation of Areas under Disaster Risk from Perspective of Public Spaces – Gezi Park Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Tarakçı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, cities have offered a place for freedom and accommodated differences. Ideological and social developments have taken place in urban spaces where differences, different cultures and ideologies gathered together. Therefore, significant attention should be paid to public-oriented planning and design of urban spaces in the face of social segregation and disintegration experienced in cities. However, cities inTurkeyare mostly transformed under the pressure of international and national capital. The most recent legal instrument governing urban redevelopment, the Law no. 6306 on Transformation of Areas under Disaster Risk contains quite controversial provisions relating to many paradigms. Its uncertainty over public property and public spaces, and the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning as the sole authority in this field leave all the public spaces at “risk”.GeziPark, a ‘saved’ public space in the backdrop of protests, is still exposed to risks of being stripped off its public nature. This study browses through the literature on public spaces and urban redevelopment, while evaluating the Law no. 6306 on Transformation of Areas under Disaster Risk. It goes on to evaluateGeziParkevents, from the perspective of these experiences and the interviews conducted thereafter. The study concludes how actually the aforementioned Law may itself pose risks for our public spaces.

  13. The leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in the Cantareira State Park – São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Soliva Ribeiro

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work surveys the leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in Cantareira State Park – SP, Brazil as a complement to the project “Richness and diversity of Hymenoptera and Isoptera along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Forest – the eastern Brazilian rain forest” that forms part of the BIOTA-FAPESP program. The general protocol of the project was to collect 50 leaf litter samples of 1 m2 which were then sifted and submitted to Winkler extractors for 48 hours. Sixty-two species of 25 genera in eight ant subfamilies were collected. Myrmicinae was the richest with 39 species, followed by Ponerinae (14, Ectatomminae, Heteroponerinae and Formicinae (two species each, Amblyoponinae, Proceratiinae and Dolichoderinae (one species each. The richest genera were Solenopsis and Hypoponera (12 morph-species each, and Pheidole (eight. Richness estimators indicated that the total number of species in the area should be between 68 and 85, in a confidence interval of 95%. In comparison, other locations of the evergreen Atlantic Forest have shown a significantly higher richness. Our hypothesis is that the proximity of regions of great urban concentration, allied to the factors that act on a local scale, modifies the structure of the local community of leaf litter ants.

  14. Multi area and multistage expansion-planning of electricity supply with sustainable energy development criteria: a multi objective model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsihuay-Vila, Clodomiro; Marangon-Lima, J.W.; Souza, A.C Zambroni de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], emails: clodomirounsihuayvila @gmail.com, marangon@unifei.edu.br, zambroni@unifei.edu.br; Perez-Arriaga, I.J. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain)], email: ipa@mit.edu

    2010-07-01

    A novel multi objective, multi area and multistage model to long-term expansion-planning of integrated generation and transmission corridors incorporating sustainable energy developing is presented in this paper. The proposed MESEDES model is a multi-regional multi-objective and 'bottom-up' energy model which considers the electricity generation/transmission value-chain, i.e., power generation alternatives including renewable, nuclear and traditional thermal generation along with transmission corridors. The model decides the optimal location and timing of the electricity generation/transmission abroad the multistage planning horizon. The MESEDES model considers three objectives belonging to sustainable energy development criteria such as: a) the minimization of investments and operation costs of : power generation, transmission corridors, energy efficiency (demand side management (DSM) programs) considering CO2 capture technologies; b) minimization of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions (LC GHG); c) maximization of the diversification of electricity generation mix. The proposed model consider aspects of the carbon abatement policy under the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism or European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed framework. (author)

  15. Identification of suitable areas for the occurrence of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that may produce a considerable impact on the economy in affected countries. In the last decades, the geographic distribution of RVF virus has increased including most of the countries in Africa, Arabia Saudi and Yemen. This situation has raised the concerns regarding its potential introduction in the European Union (EU) countries where the high number of susceptible species and competent vectors may contribute to the spread of the disease and challenge its rapid control. Thus, the identification of the areas and time periods with highest suitability for RVF outbreak occurrence would be useful for improving the early detection and rapid response of the disease into free countries. The objective of this study was to identify suitable areas for the occurrence of RVF outbreaks in Spain using a multiple criteria decision making model based on weighted linear combination of factors in geographical information systems (GIS). To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first comprehensive GIS-based framework that provides risk maps for RVF suitability in an EU country. Spanish zones with the highest suitability for RVF were concentrated in the regions of Extremadura, south-western Castile and Leon, eastern Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, Basque Country, northern-central and southern region of Andalusia and in the Balearic Islands. October and May were the most suitable months for RVF outbreak occurrence. Methods and results presented here may be useful to target risk-based surveillance strategies and to more cost-effectively control potential RVFV incursions into Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  17. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  18. AERIAL IMAGES FROM AN UAV SYSTEM: 3D MODELING AND TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION IN A PARK AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of aerial imagery acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs is scheduled within the FoGLIE project (Fruition of Goods Landscape in Interactive Environment: it starts from the need to enhance the natural, artistic and cultural heritage, to produce a better usability of it by employing audiovisual movable systems of 3D reconstruction and to improve monitoring procedures, by using new media for integrating the fruition phase with the preservation ones. The pilot project focus on a test area, Parco Adda Nord, which encloses various goods' types (small buildings, agricultural fields and different tree species and bushes. Multispectral high resolution images were taken by two digital compact cameras: a Pentax Optio A40 for RGB photos and a Sigma DP1 modified to acquire the NIR band. Then, some tests were performed in order to analyze the UAV images' quality with both photogrammetric and photo-interpretation purposes, to validate the vector-sensor system, the image block geometry and to study the feasibility of tree species classification. Many pre-signalized Control Points were surveyed through GPS to allow accuracy analysis. Aerial Triangulations (ATs were carried out with photogrammetric commercial software, Leica Photogrammetry Suite (LPS and PhotoModeler, with manual or automatic selection of Tie Points, to pick out pros and cons of each package in managing non conventional aerial imagery as well as the differences in the modeling approach. Further analysis were done on the differences between the EO parameters and the corresponding data coming from the on board UAV navigation system.

  19. Vesuvium national park; Il Parco Nazionale del Vesuvio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iozzolino, I. [Naples Univ. (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The presented paper deal with the future of Vesuvium National Park. A brief history of the park institution is stated together with geo-physical, floristical, and faunistical aspects. Some considerations are reported about human activities and economic aspects in park area. Furthermore, future problems in park management are pointed out.

  20. The protected areas system in Brazil as a baseline condition for wetlands management and fish conservancy: the example of the Pantanal National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla N. M. Polaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering the need for the Brazilian government to develop tools for environmental monitoring for biodiversity conservancy purposes in the national protected areas system, this paper focuses on determining reference site metrics (or baselines for adapting the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI based on the fish assemblages in the Pantanal National Park (PNP. The habitats in the PNP were grouped into four categories: main rivers, corixos (channels connecting the floodplain, permanent bays, and temporary bays. Fish samplings were performed at 12 points during the dry season (Oct-Nov 2010 and 2011. 146 fish species were identified from the total 18,954 individuals collected with standardized fishing gear. There was no association between the structure of the fish assemblage and categories, suggesting a theory on homogeneity of habitats. The final IBIPNP consists of nine metrics, most of them were framed in excellent class, some in fair, and none in poor. There was no significant difference in IBIPNP scores between the two sampled years. This approach provides a direct application for wetland management purposes.

  1. VOC amounts in ambient areas of a high-technology science park in Taiwan: their reciprocal correlations and impact on inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsin-Wang; Wu, Bei-Zen; Nian, Hung-Chi; Chen, Hsing-Jung; Lo, Jiunn-Guang; Chiu, Kong-Hwa

    2012-02-01

    This study presents bihourly, seasonal, and yearly concentration changes in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the inlet and effluent water of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a high-technology science park (HTIP) in Taiwan, with the VOC amounts at different sites correlated geologically. This research adopted a combination of two systems, solid-phase microextraction with a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector and an assembly of purge and trap coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, to monitor polar and nonpolar VOCs in wastewater. This paper investigated the total VOCs, acetone, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations in real water samples collected in the ambient area of the HTIP. The major contents of VOCs measured in the effluent of the WWTP in the HTIP and the surrounding river region were DMS (14-176 ppb), acetone (5-95 ppb), and IPA (15-316 ppb). In comparison with the total VOCs in the inlet wastewater of the WWTP, no corresponding relationship for total VOC concentration in the wastewater was observed between the inlet water and effluent water of the WWTP. The peak VOC concentrations appeared in the third season, and the correlation of different VOC amounts reflects the production situation of the factories. In addition, VOC concentrations at different sites indicate that the Ke-Ya River is seemingly an effective channel for transporting wastewater to its final destination. The data are good indications for the management of environmental pollution near the HTIP.

  2. Geologic map and upper Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Marble Canyon area, Cottonwood Canyon quadrangle, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Belasky, Paul; Montañez, Isabel P.; Martin, Lauren G.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Sandberg, Charles A.; Wan, Elmira; Olson, Holly A.; Priest, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This geologic map and pamphlet focus on the stratigraphy, depositional history, and paleogeographic significance of upper Paleozoic rocks exposed in the Marble Canyon area in Death Valley National Park, California. Bedrock exposed in this area is composed of Mississippian to lower Permian (Cisuralian) marine sedimentary rocks and the Jurassic Hunter Mountain Quartz Monzonite. These units are overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary nonmarine sedimentary deposits that include a previously unrecognized tuff to which we tentatively assign an age of late middle Miocene (~12 Ma) based on tephrochronologic analysis, in addition to the previously recognized Pliocene tuff of Mesquite Spring. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks in the Marble Canyon area represent deposition on the western continental shelf of North America. Mississippian limestone units in the area (Tin Mountain, Stone Canyon, and Santa Rosa Hills Limestones) accumulated on the outer part of a broad carbonate platform that extended southwest across Nevada into east-central California. Carbonate sedimentation was interrupted by a major eustatic sea-level fall that has been interpreted to record the onset of late Paleozoic glaciation in southern Gondwana. Following a brief period of Late Mississippian clastic sedimentation (Indian Springs Formation), a rise in eustatic sea level led to establishment of a new carbonate platform that covered most of the area previously occupied by the Mississippian platform. The Pennsylvanian Bird Spring Formation at Marble Canyon makes up the outer platform component of ten third-order (1 to 5 m.y. duration) stratigraphic sequences recently defined for the regional platform succession. The regional paleogeography was fundamentally changed by major tectonic activity along the continental margin beginning in middle early Permian time. As a result, the Pennsylvanian carbonate shelf at Marble Canyon subsided and was disconformably overlain by lower Permian units (Osborne Canyon and

  3. The application of design criteria for locating a hub configured supply chain for a restaurant cluster in the Stellenbosch area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia B. Struwig

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Restaurants, in general, utilise numerous suppliers. Normally they deliver on different days in the week and at different times during the day, logistically not an optimum approach. Not only does the current practice cause frequent interruptions, but by segregating the food supply chain unnecessary traffic is generated. This article investigated the need for developing a third party supplier hub, the best positioning of that hub and the most economical routes to the customers. With the aim of providing non-franchised restaurants with the necessary leverage to become market leaders, the hub is planned to only service the restaurants within the vicinity of the Stellenbosch area. In such a hub-configured supply chain, the suppliers would be delivering to the proposed hub, from where once-off deliveries to all the restaurants may be made on days and/or times determined by them. In order to investigate the benefits of providing such a hub structure, a systematic implementation approach was used. The first step was to do market research in order to establish the need for such a hub. That is, the viability of the hub from a restaurant’s perspective was established. The next step entailed the investigation of the design criteria needed in determining a favourable hub location. Four possible hub locations were identified. The Clark and Wright’s savings algorithm was then used to determine the optimal hub location and the feasibility of the results was verified with the aid of a global positioning system (GPS device. The last steps followed involved the determination of an effective hub floor plan that may be utilised, possible products that can be supplied to the restaurants and the necessary assets needed to provide the hub’s service. Finally, by incorporating all these facets, a cost analysis was done to determine the hub’s profitability.

  4. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intersection north to the gate at Penobscot Mountain Parking Area) and connecting roads as follows: Paradise... from the parking area at the north end of Eagle Lake down the east side of the lake to connection with...

  5. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel on park roads and... THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes. (a) Operating a motor vehicle is prohibited except on park roads, in parking areas and on routes and areas...

  6. Development of a multi-criteria tool to support decision-making process on decontamination of urban areas after a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Luca, Christiano de [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Pc. Gen. Tiburcio, 80, Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro, 22290-270 RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902 RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-906, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work describes the main efforts to derive criteria for classifying technical aspects related to decontamination procedures to feed a multi-criteria tool to support decisions on remediation of urban areas after nuclear accidents. After listing procedures already tested or used in previous accident, technical aspects to be considered were derived. The relevance of each aspect was determined based on questionnaires answered by experts with experience on remediation after an accident. The questionnaire included 12 aspects and for each of them one or more technical criteria where developed to allow the classification of remediation procedures for urban areas. The criteria described in this work relate to the effects of each procedure on doses to the public, doses to remediation workers, waste generation and infrastructure needed. The aim of this project was to increase public concerns by turning the decision making process more reliable and transparent. In this work, the list of criteria and associated values are described. This list is now being included in a previously developed dose assessment computer program to allow the optimization of actions to be used considering all justifiable procedures based on the current experience on dealing with urban areas contamination after a nuclear or radiological accident. (authors)

  7. Changes in compliance rates of evaluation criteria after health care accreditation: Mainly on radiologic technologists working at University Hospitals in Daejeon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Ju; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jin Yong; Bae, Seok Hwan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the changes in compliance rates of evaluation criteria after healthcare accreditation among radiologic technologists working at four university hospitals which had acquired healthcare accreditation in Daejeon metropolitan area. In this study, the evaluation criteria of healthcare accreditation were reclassified and reevaluated to three areas which include patient safety, staff safety, and environmental safety. Each area has eight, three, and five questions, respectively. Each compliance rate was quantitatively measured on a scale of 0 to 10 before and after in this study. The result shows that the overall compliance rates were decreased on all areas compared to the time healthcare accreditation was obtained. The compliance rate of hand hygiene was drastically reduced. To maintain the compliance rates, not only individuals but healthcare organizations should simultaneously endeavor. In particular, healthcare organizations should make an effort to provide continuous education opportunity to their workers and supervise the compliance regularly

  8. Problems of Sustainable Tourism Development in Strandzha Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana ASSENOVA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strandzha Nature Park is the largest protected natural area in Bulgaria, established to preserve unique ecosystems and biodiversity, as well as the cultural heritage of the mountain. Strandzha Mountain is entirely on Bulgarian territory, being included in the five priority conservation areas in Central and Eastern Europe. It is situated on the second largest migratory path of birds in Europe - Via Pontica. The total number of species habitats is 121 and in this indicator the park is foremost among the protected areas in Europe.During the last 15 years, many people in the area started to look for alternative sources of income and at present there are hundreds of tourism establishments that offer accommodation, food and sightseeing in the area. A regional trade mark has been developed and launched to distinguish those accommodation providers and other tourism services suppliers that cover certain requirements for sustainability, developed in a system of principles and concrete criteria, based on the concept of sustainable tourism development. The current status of tourism development in the park includes tourism supply and tourism demand, the potential and carrying capacity of resources, and some data on resource efficiency. Problems discussed are those of territorial development conflicts in territorial planning and management.

  9. Implementation of ergonomics in the management of parking increasing the quality of living parking park in mall Robinson Denpasar city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutapa, I. K.; Sudiarsa, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    The problems that often arise in the area of Denpasar City mostly caused by parking problems at the centers of activities such as shopping centers. The problems that occur not only because of the large number of vehicles that parked but also the result of the condition of parking officers who have not received attention, there is no concern about the physical condition of parking attendants because doing night guard duty. To improve the quality of parking officer, ergonomic parking lot is improved through the application of appropriate technology with systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory approach. The general objective of the research is to know the implementation of ergonomics in parking management on the improvement of the quality of parking officer in Robinson shopping center. The indicator of the quality of the parking officer work is the decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue, workload, boredom and increasing work motivation. The study was conducted using the same subject design, involving 10 subjects as a simple random sample. Intervention is done by arrangement of ergonomic basement motorcycle parking. Measurements done before and after repair. Washing out (WO) for 14 days. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively, tested normality (shapirowilk) and homogeneity (Levene Test). For normal and homogeneous distribution data, different test with One Way Anova, different test between Period with Post Hoc. Normally distributed and non-homogeneous data, different test with Friedman Test, different test between periods using Wilcoxon test. Data were analyzed with significance level of 5%. The results showed that the implementation of ergonomic in the management of parking area of the court decreased musculoskeletal complaints by 15.10% (p management of the parking lot improves the quality of the parking officer work from: (1) decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, (2) decrease of melting rate, (3) decrease of parking workload

  10. A Brief History of Kafue National Park, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Mwima

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.

  11. The effect of minimum impact education on visitor spatial behavior in parks and protected areas: An experimental investigation using GPS-based tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Abigail M; Monz, Christopher; D'Antonio, Ashley; Manning, Robert E; Reigner, Nathan; Goonan, Kelly A; Jacobi, Charles

    2015-10-01

    The unmanaged impacts of recreation and tourism can often result in unacceptable changes in resource conditions and quality of the visitor experience. Minimum impact visitor education programs aim to reduce the impacts of recreation by altering visitor behaviors. Specifically, education seeks to reduce impacts resulting from lack of knowledge both about the consequences of one's actions and impact-minimizing best practices. In this study, three different on-site minimum impact education strategies ("treatments") and a control condition were applied on the trails and summit area of Sargent Mountain in Acadia National Park, Maine. Treatment conditions were designed to encourage visitors to stay on marked trails and minimize off-trail travel. Treatments included a message delivered via personal contact, and both an ecological-based message and an amenity-based message posted on signs located alongside the trail. A control condition of current trail markings and directional signs was also assessed. The efficacy of the messaging was evaluated through the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking of visitor spatial behavior on/off trails. Spatial analysis of GPS tracks revealed statistically significant differences among treatments, with the personal contact treatment yielding significantly less dispersion of visitors on the mountain summit. Results also indicate that the signs deployed in the study were ineffective at limiting off-trail use beyond what can be accomplished with trail markers and directional signs. These findings suggest that personal contact by a uniformed ranger or volunteer may be the most effective means of message delivery for on-site minimum impact education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs. By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constructed. A mathematical program was formulated to determine the guiding parking reliability of VMS. The procedures were applied to a numerical example, and the factors that affect guiding reliability were analyzed. The quantitative changes of the parking berths and the display conditions of VMS were found to be the most important factors influencing guiding reliability. The parking guiding VMS achieved the best benefit when the parking supply was close to or was less than the demand. The combination of a guiding parking reliability model and parking choice behavior offers potential for PGIS operators to reduce traffic congestion in central city areas.

  13. The life cycle cost of a building from the point of view of environmental criteria of selecting the most beneficial offer in the area of competitive tendering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzyl Beata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses environmental and ecological criteria of selecting the most beneficial offer in the aspect of LCC. Construction works contracts and the potential method of defining the above criteria, among others, is pondered on (for example by the recommendation of a material, which is supposed to be used, a ban on substances that are harmful for human health as well for the environment. In the relation to the above, it is necessary to define technical parameters that have an impact on the environment, for example the level of pollution and noise emission, electricity and water consumption, or stating the minimal involvement of a processed ingredient. In addition the article presents also an account of the life cycle cost of a building from the point of view of environmental criteria constituting an element of selecting the most beneficial offer in the area of competitive tendering.

  14. Cross-sectional survey of brucellosis and associated risk factors in the livestock-wildlife interface area of Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, Hassen; Aboset, Gezahegn; Garoma, Abebe; Gumi, Balako; Thys, Eric

    2018-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of ovine and bovine brucellosis in the livestock-wildlife interface area of Nechisar National Park, Ethiopia. Furthermore, producer's knowledge about brucellosis and its zoonotic potential was assessed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 268 cattle and 246 goat sera were collected from 50 herds and 46 flocks and subjected to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in parallel to detect anti-Brucella species antibodies. Positive reactions were further confirmed with compliment fixation test (CFT). Flock and herd level seroprevalence rate was 12.8% (95% CI 4.8-25.7) and 32.0% (95% CI 19.5-46.7) in goats and cattle, respectively. An overall animal-level seroprevalence of 4.5% (95% CI 2.25-7.86) and 9.7% (95% CI 6.44-13.89) was recorded for goats and cattle, respectively. Seroprevalence showed an increasing trend with age, where adult cattle > 2 years. Goats (> 1 year) recorded relatively higher seroprevalence, but the differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, female cattle and goats recorded a relatively higher seroprevalence, 11 and 5.6%, respectively, compared to males but the difference was not significant. However, a significant (P < 0.01) variation of seroprevalence was noted for parity (bovine), higher in animals in second parity, and abortion history, in both species, higher in animals that experienced abortion. Interviews revealed lack of awareness about brucellosis and food safety related to the zoonotic potential from consuming raw animal products (milk and meat). Ninety-eight percent of respondents did not consider handling abortion material is risky, and only a very low proportion (8%, n = 50) was able to mention limited zoonotic diseases (anthrax and Taenia cysticercosis) could be transmissible to people. The study indicated that brucellosis is endemic in domestic animals in the interface area and calls for further

  15. Current situation and countermeasures of port logistics park information construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Improve work efficiency of logistics park department, and drive the economy of the park and its surrounding areas. Design/methodology/approach: Analyze the information development situation and existent questions of current national logistics park, and design proper scheme to meet the demand of port logistics park. Findings: Proposed an information construction implementation plan using technology of the Internet of things which can be applied to port logistics park. Designed a scheme for the park information construction and explained the system's implementation strategy and implementation steps. Practical implications: The proposed construction program is particularly suitable for the northwest port logistics parks in China, and also has reference function to other logistics park construction. Originality/value: Group the information construction of the logistics park into four levels, three types of users, and two requirements. The scheme is innovative and comprehensive, which can ensure the development of port logistics park.

  16. Empirical evaluation of an on-street parking pricing scheme in the city center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Zhang, C.; Nissan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Parking pricing policies can be used as a policy instrument to steer the parking market and reduce the externalities caused by traffic in general and parking in particular. A more efficient management of parking demand can improve the utilization of the limited parking capacity at high-demand areas.

  17. Influence of Parking Price on Parking Garage Users’ Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Simićević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parking charge is a powerful tool for solving parking and traffic congestion problems. In order to achieve the expected effects without any adverse impact it is necessary to understand well the users’ responses to this policy. This paper, based on a sample of interviewed parking garage users, has developed binary logit model for identification and quantification of characteristics of users and trips, on which the acceptance of parking price is dependent. In addition, multinomial logit model has been made in order to predict what the users will opt for when faced with an increase in parking price. For the first time the parameter “shorten duration” has been introduced which has shown to be the most significant in making behaviour-related decisions. The results show that the users with the purpose work are the most sensitive to an increase in parking charge, what can be deemed positive for policy makers. However, great sensitivity of the users with the purpose shopping should cause their concern. The results of the multinomial model show that they would not discontinue coming into the area after all.

  18. THE SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS IN WATERS OF RIVERS IN THE WETLAND AREAS OF NAREW NATIONAL PARK IN NORTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the attempt to identify and to evaluate the interaction intensity, and to classify the sources of river waters nutrients in the catchment of upper river Narew within Narew National Park (north-eastern Poland. The studies were carried out on Narew river within borders of Narew National Park, where 5 measurement-control points were localized as well as one near estuaries of its 5 tributaries (Awissa, Czaplinianka, Horodnianka, Turośnianka and Supraśl. Factor analysis (FA from multi-dimensional group was applied for statistical processing of study results, because it is commonly used to describe and explore a large number of data. concentrations of analyzed chemicals depended on a water sampling point that was under anthropopression and geogenic conditions. Studies and results from analyses (FA and CA allowed for identifying the main sources of river Narew nutrients within Narew National Park. These are: tributaries of river Narew, point and distributed runoffs, as well as shallow ground waters that transport components having anthropogenic and partially geogenic-lithologic origin. River Turośnianka supplies the largest loads of studied parameters to river Narew within Narew National Park boundaries. River Supraśl is the most contaminated tributary of river Narew.

  19. Mount Rainier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  20. Growth parameters and density variation of a queen conch, Strombus gigas (Neotaenioglossa: Strombidae), population from Xel-Ha park, a marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqueiro Cárdenas, Erick; Aldana Aranda, Dalila

    2014-03-01

    The queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a gastropod of commercial importance in the Caribbean. Population studies are based on size frequency analysis, using either length or weight parameters for the whole live organism. This contribution used mark-recapture data to estimate the Von Bertalanffy equation parameters and population number variation within a non harvest population from a protected area, to clarify the biometric parameters that better suit for the whole population, or for the juvenile and adult fractions. Conchs from Xel-Ha Park were monthly sampled from November 2001 to August 2005. Every conch found was measured and marked with a numbered tag that identified month and locality; and monthly abundance was estimated with Jolly's method. Length, lip thickness and weight increments were used to estimate the Von Bertalanffy growth equation parameters with Appeldoorn's subroutine of FISAT program. The population number varied through the study, with a minimum of 49 in April 2003 and maximum of 9 848 during June 2005. Conchs make only temporary use of Xel-Ha cove. Shell length gave the best fit for the juvenile fraction: L(infinity)=251, K=0.3, C=0.8 Wp=0.3; and lip thickness for adults: L(infinity)=47.78, K=0.17, C=0.1, Wp=0.86, while, the whole population was better represented by weight: L(infinity)=3850, K=0.36, C=0.8, Wp=0.3. A maximum age of 19 years was estimated from the population. Natural mortality was 0.49/year for juveniles and 0.29/year for adults. There were two pulses of recruitment: fall-winter and summer. It is concluded that population studies from length frequency data, should be analyzed independently in two groups, shell for the juvenile fraction and lip thickness for the adult fraction, or if it is not possible to analyze the population fractions separately, weight should be used to avoid miss calculation of the age structure.

  1. 77 FR 48535 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...: Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, P.O. Box 42650, Olympia, WA 98504-2650... it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Alicia Woods, Washington State Parks...

  2. Impacts of national parks on tourism: a case study from a prominent alpine national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzner, M.

    2008-01-01

    National parks and other categories of protected areas are often assumed to enhance regional economic development due to park tourism. The current study attempts to estimate the impact of the Hohe Tauern national park (Austria) on tourism by exploring whether and to what extent the national park may have had an influence on tourism development. For most national park communities, the results suggest that the establishment of the national park had some impact by enforcing an already positive trend or by weakening or reversing a negative trend of tourism. However, breakpoint tests exhibit turning points up to several years after the establishment of the park, indicating that taking a national park as the basis for tourism development is a medium to long term development strategy. In the short term, the impact of a national park on tourism is not measurable. Tourism increased by 1 to 3% annually after the breakpoint, indicating that the establishment of a national park has to be incorporated into the tourism and development strategy of a region right from the start. The causal relationship between the establishment of the national park and tourism development may be weak, in particular in communities where the difference between the actual and the forecast numbers of overnight stays is small. Marketing national park tourism and building up a brand or distinctive label may therefore contribute to regional development particularly in the long term. [it

  3. JUSTIFICATION FOR THE RADIOLOGICAL CRITERIA FOR THE USE OF AREAS WITH RESIDUAL RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION BASED ON THE DOSE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Golikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a methodology for assessing the radiological criteria for the use of the territory (a land plot with buildings with residual radioactive contamination from the so-called “green area”, i.e., complete release from radiation control until a number of restrictions are imposed on the use of the territory. In accordance with the further use of the territory, a range of scenarios and pathways for the exposure of the population was considered. A set of models and their parameters, corresponding to the number of the considered pathways of exposure, was defined. Assuming a uniform distribution of a radionuclide with a unit concentration in the source zone, the distribution of effective doses for the population living in the territory with the residual radioactive contamination for different irradiation scenarios was calculated by stochastic modeling, 95% of the quantile of which was attributed to the dose in the representatives of the critical population group. Next, the value of radiological criteria, depending on the implemented scenario, was determined as the ratio of the dose constraint EL = 0,3 mSv/yr and 95% quantile in the distribution of the effective dose from a unit contamination. The numerical values of radiological criteria for the presence of radionuclides in the soil are presented, both for the radiation scenarios that correspond to the permanent residence of the population in the contaminated territory and for recreational use. A further consideration is given to the so-called worker scenario, which corresponds to the limited time spent on the contaminated territory and the simultaneous effects of radionuclides contained both in the soil and in the construction of the buildings. A comparison of the results of the own calculations with the data of other authors was carried out.

  4. Domestic parking estimation using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.

  5. Capacity Analysis Of Parking Lot And Volume Of Vehicle Toward Sustainable Parking Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sugiyanto; Guntur Octavianto, Andrew; Guntur Aritonang, Edison; Nova Imaduddin, Malya; Dedi; Rilaningrum, Magfira

    2017-10-01

    The development of human's population is having effect on the increase of facilities and transportation needs. One of the primary problems is the availability of parking area. This has occurred in Universitas Indonesia (UI), mainly in Salemba Campus. The availability of land is not as equal as the number of vehicles, which are to be parked, that is why the convenience of students, lecturers and employees at UI is unsatisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to know the level of parking convenience that is affected by the capacity of parking lots and the volume of vehicles in UI Salemba Campus. The results of this research indicate Salemba campus's parking index. The motor index is still in the category of medium (index 0.945) and the car parking index has less category with a parking index 0.485. While with the location of research object being behind the UI Salemba campus, the results obtained were both the motor and the car are still in the category of “enough” with the parking index of, that is 0.657 for the motor and 0.777 for the car. So theoretically, the parking management at Salemba Campus is in an unsustainable parking degree because, if there is no long-term solution, it will increase congestion in the surrounding area and intensify the dissatisfaction of existing parking users.

  6. PALESTINE AUTOMOTIVE LICENSE IDENTITY RECOGNITION FOR INTELLIGENT PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    ANEES ABU SNEINEH; WAEL A. SALAH

    2017-01-01

    Providing employees with protection and security is one of the key concerns of any organization. This goal can be implemented mainly by managing and protecting employees’ cars in the parking area. Therefore, a parking area must be managed and organized with smart technologies and tools that can be applied and integrated in an intelligent parking system. This paper presents the tools based on image recognition technology that can be used to effectively control various parts of a parking sys...

  7. Multi-criteria Analysis of Air Pollution with SO(2) and PM(10) in Urban Area Around the Copper Smelter in Bor, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Djordje; Milošević, Novica; Mihajlović, Ivan; Zivković, Zivan; Tasić, Viša; Kovačević, Renata; Petrović, Nevenka

    2010-02-01

    This work presents the results of 4 years long monitoring of concentrations of SO(2) gas and PM(10) in the urban area around the copper smelter in Bor. The contents of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and As in PM(10) were determined and obtained values were compared to the limit values provided in EU Directives. Manifold excess concentrations of all the components in the atmosphere of the urban area of the townsite Bor were registered. Through application of a multi-criteria analysis by using PROMETHEE/GAIA method, the zones were ranked according to the level of pollution.

  8. 42 CFR Appendix B to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Dental Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... socioeconomic or demographic structure and/or a traditional of interaction or intradependency), have limited... area. (b) Migratory workers and their families may be included in an area's population using the... and socioeconomic characteristics of the population) do not prevent the population from receiving care...

  9. Denali Park wolf studies: Implications for Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Meier, Thomas J.; Burch, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1987) recommends re-establishment of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park. Bills proposing wolf re-establishment in the Park have been introduced into the U.S. House and Senate. However, several questions have been raised about the possible effects of wolf re-establishment on other Yellowstone Park fauna, on human use of the Park and on human use of surrounding areas. Thus the proposed wolf re-establishment remains controversial.Information pertinent to some of the above questions is available from a current study of wolf ecology in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, which we began in 1986. Although Denali Park differs from Yellowstone in several ways, it is also similar enough in important respects to provide insight into questions raised about wolf re-establishment in Yellowstone.

  10. PENGGUNAAN METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM PEMILIHAN LOKASI MANGROVE PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustika Mustika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demak district is a district that has quite a lot of mangrove forests, beautiful expanse of mangrove is a natural potential that can be developed as a regional tourism assets. Mangrove Park is one of the utilization of conservation area into tourism areas of education and recreation The Selection of Planning site locations required an appropriate location in the terms of land use, The appropriate land is a land that has a Mangrove area which still leafy, natural (unprocessed and intended as a tourism area, an easy accessibility, the network infrastructure is also needed in the election of location in order to support the available facilities in the building. In addition, the view of the inside and outside of the site that will be a tourism place attraction. Decision Support System can be used as a tool to help the site selection process that involves many criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP can be used to analyze which support the decision to choose a location. Phases of AHP used in this research is the identification of causes, preparation of hierarchy, prioritization, consistency, and the priority weight. From the Implementation of the method on the study case successfully find the best location for mangrove park, it is in the village Bedono it has the highest total global priorities 1.2349. Keywords: Site Location, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Mangrove Park Kabupaten Demak adalah kabupaten yang memiliki hutan mangrove yang cukup banyak, hamparan mangrove yang indah merupakan potensi alam yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai aset pariwisata daerah. Mangrove Park adalah salah satu bentuk pemanfaatan kawasan konservasi menjadi kawasan wisata edukasi dan rekreasi. Pemilihan lokasi tapak perencanaan diperlukan sebuah lokasi yang tepat dari segi peruntukan lahan, lahan yang tepat adalah lahan yang memiliki area Mangrove yang masih rimbun, alami (belum diolah dan diperuntukkan sebagai kawasan wisata, aksebilitas yang mudah dijangkau, jaringan

  11. Vascular plant and vertebrate species richness in national parks of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay

    2013-01-01

    species richness. Plant species richness should be included with other variables such as area and climate when considering strategies to manage and conserve species in US National Parks. It is not always appropriate to draw conclusions about analyses of taxonomic surrogates from one area to another. Two patterns evident from the linear regressions were the increase in species richness with the increase of park area and with increase of vascular plant species richness. To test whether there were differences in these patterns among networks, we used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Differences among networks were detected only in bird species richness versus plant species richness and for all taxa except mammals for vertebrate species richness versus park area. Some of these results may be due to small sample size among networks, and therefore, low statistical power. Other factors that could have contributed to these results were differences in average park area and habitat heterogeneity among networks, latitudinal gradients, low variation in mean annual precipitation, and different use of vegetation by migratory species. Based on these results we recommend that management of biodiversity be approached from local and site specific criteria rather than applying management directives derived from other regions of the US. It is also recommended that analyses similar to those presented here be conducted for all national parks, once data become available for all networks in the US, to gain a better understanding of how vascular plant species richness, area, and vertebrate species richness are related in the US.

  12. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-10-31

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.

  13. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.

  14. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  15. Renovated Parks Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.

  16. Solid Waste Management in Greater Shillong Planning Area (GSPA) Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Site Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipun, B. S.; Hazarika, R.; Mondal, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2015-04-01

    In Shillong city the existing solid waste management system is mobile waste bins (72%). About 12 percent burn the waste generated by them. Door to door collection is about 5 percent. Over 2 percent households throw the wastes in the open space. Another 9 percent households throw their wastes into the waste bins located in the neighbourhood. The local headman takes care about half of the household's wastes, while Municipality takes care about 34 percent households. About 10 percent households are ignorant about the collection and disposal of wastes. Some NGO's takes care about 5 percent household's wastes. Awareness about segregation of waste into organic and non-bio degradable waste is 64 percent and a significant numbers do the segregation. In Shillong Municipality Board (SMB) area collects 45.91% (78.42 MT) waste, outside SMB area collection is 32.61% (45.99 MT) and entire GSPA the percentage of garbage collected is 41percent. The only dumping ground in GSPA is Marten, Mawiong, and the capacity to hold garbage is decreasing due to limited landfill. The sanitary landfill site is 5.0 acres that it is not enough to meet the demand. Out of he total area 170.69 sq. km. (GSPA) only 25.67% is most suitable and 18.58% is unsuitable to set up a new landfill area. Eastern part of the GSPA, is most suitable, which fulfils the entire criterion adopted in this study. In this the best-stated criterion are land cover (vacant space), slope (2000m) and elevation (1300-1500m). The eastern part of the GSPA is most suitable landfill location.

  17. Common planning of operations of and extensions to a nuclear park and a high-voltage network of a service area with the aid of a modified optimization method of dynamic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieselt, R.

    1974-01-01

    While making extensive use of the possibilities dynamic programming as an optimization method has to offer, a planning method for the common operation and the extension of a nuclear park and a high-voltage network for a service area of a large size is worked out in a system-analytical manner in this thesis. With the aid of the computer programmes developed, those decisions concerning construction and operation of power plant and network are looked for which result within appr. 10 years of planning in a minimum of overall generating and transmission costs. (orig./LN) [de

  18. Establishment of criteria for classification of area remediation measures contaminated after an eventual radiation accident in Angra dos Reis, RJ, nuclear power plant; Estabelecimento de criterios para a classificacao de medidas de remediacao de areas contaminadas apos um eventual acidente nuclear na usina de Angra dos Reis (RJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo Neves Gomes da

    2016-07-01

    When a radiological or nuclear accident that leads to the release of radioactive material to the environment occurs, it is important to implement protective and remediation measures in order to reduce human exposure to radionuclides. Therefore, it is necessary that the procedures to be chosen by the affected country authorities are the most efficient ones, which can only be defined based on previously established criteria. In Brazil, since the radiological accident in Goiania, in 1987, the development of tools to support decision-making in emergencies of this nature was started. The main objective of this work was to establish an acting basis for contaminated areas, in order to protect the individuals of public in case of any accident related to Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant, in the municipality of Angra dos Reis (RJ), which leads to contamination to the environment and the consequent exposure of local population or from more distant regions to ionizing radiation. Initially, the high-risk areas near the location of the nuclear power plant were defined. Typical urban environments found in the main cities of these municipalities were surveyed, including homes, streets and recreation areas. The main characteristics of the study area were evaluated using images from Google Earth® and web pages of the municipalities. After the types of areas to be simulated were selected, these were quantified in terms of the number of residents, the size of the streets, and the number of trees, among others, per unit area. Considering the different housing characteristics for the selected municipalities, six main standard scenarios were developed for urban areas, including homes with different shielding, buildings and parks. The simulation of the procedures for each scenario was made with SIEM model, developed by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), formed by the integration of various models including CORAL, focusing on agricultural areas

  19. Tourism package preferences of West Virginia state park visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gravley; John Dengler; Roy Ramthun; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the activity and spending behavior of visitors to Pipestem State Park in West Virginia. This state park is being used as a case study area to determine whether a new fish stocking program accompanied by appropriate marketing activities can increase park visitation by anglers and other sports-oriented people. The research was...

  20. Air quality effects of urban trees and parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak; Gordon Heisler

    2010-01-01

    Parks are significant parts of the urban landscape and comprise about 6% of city and town areas in the conterminous United States. These urban parks are estimated to contain about 370 million trees with a structural value of approximately $300 billion. The number of park trees varies by region of the country, but they can produce significant air quality effects in and...

  1. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless otherwise... intersection with the Black Bay to Moose Bay portage, across Locator, War Club, Quill, Loiten, and Shoepack... management, weather, and park management objectives. (4) Maps showing the designated routes are available at...

  2. Learning from Millennium Park, Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guen, T. [American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Terry Guen Design Associates, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper identified the value of creating green space for public use in an urban area in support of a sustainable environment. The inauguration of Chicago's Millennium Park in July 2004 marked a landmark civic achievement in greening an industrial urban centre. The Park was constructed on a 25-acre, previously vacant 100 year old rail property. In 2001, the first phase of the Park opened with the construction of the garages, train bridge, and infrastructure for future sculptural pieces. The green roof landscaping involved soil and drainage pathways, planting 11 acres of lawn and trees, and building a skating rink and restaurants. Phase 2 included new construction of donor enhancements. Among many benefits, this project stimulated investment in adjacent private development. This paper outlined the historic motivation for the park as a cultural and aesthetic benefit for the public. It reviewed the construction costs, the multiple sources of funding, and the multidisciplinary effort involving public agencies and private supporters. The landscape team included experts in soil, irrigation, planting, design and plant selection. Millennium Park has proven that current design and construction industries have the technical and physical ability to create cultural spaces of interest. 6 figs.

  3. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  4. Electronic prescribing: criteria for evaluating handheld prescribing systems and an evaluation of a new, handheld, wireless wide area network (WWAN) prescribing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblum, O M

    2001-02-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to establish criteria for evaluating handheld computerized prescribing systems; and 2) to evaluate out-of-box performance and features of a new, Palm Operating System (OS)-based, handheld, wireless wide area network (WWAN) prescribing system. The system consisted of a Palm Vx handheld organizer, a Novatel Minstrel V wireless modem, OmniSky wireless internet access and ePhysician ePad 1.1, the Palm OS electronic prescribing software program. A dermatologist familiar with healthcare information technology conducted an evaluation of the performance and features of a new, handheld, WWAN electronic prescribing system in an office practice during a three-month period in 2000. System performance, defined as transmission success rate, was determined from data collected during the three-month trial. Evaluation criteria consisted of an analysis of features found in electronic prescribing systems. All prescriptions written for all patients seen during a three-month period (August - November, 2000) were eligible for inclusion. Prescriptions written for patients who intended to fill them at pharmacies without known facsimile receiving capabilities were excluded from the study. The performance of the system was evaluated using data collected during the study. Criteria for evaluating features of electronic prescribing systems were developed and used to analyze the system employed in this study. During this three-month trial, 200 electronic prescriptions were generated for 132 patients included in the study. Of these prescriptions, 92.5 percent were successfully transmitted to pharmacies. Transmission failures resulted from incorrect facsimile numbers and non-functioning facsimile machines. Criteria established for evaluation of electronic prescribing systems included System (Hardware & Software), Costs, System Features, Printing & Transmission, Formulary & Insurance, Customization, Drug Safety and Security. This study is the first effort to

  5. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades K-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  6. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 2-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  7. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  8. Full-Automatic Parking registration and payment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry; Jørgensen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    As part of ITS Platform North Denmark, a full-automatic GNSS-based parking payment (PP) system was developed (PP app). On the basis of the parking position and parking time, the PP app can determine the price of parking and collect the amount from the car owner’s bank account. The driver...... is informed about any initiation of PP via SMS message. If the driver finds the payment erroneous, it can be cancelled via SMS message. Parking attendants can check if the car in question has an ongoing payment for parking. To handle the problems with GNSS-based positioning in densely built-up areas......, an advanced map matching algorithm was integrated in the PP app. 24 of the participating vehicles used the PP app, and 58 parking payments were carried out without errors. In a few cases, the wrong parking area was selected. This was due to lack of information in the map rather than errors in the map matching...

  9. Interview with Steve Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…

  10. Minnesota State Park Trails and Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile covers the trails in the State of Minnesota Parks, Recreation Areas, and Waysides as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department...

  11. Exploration of Science Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Huibing; Sun Nengli

    2005-01-01

    Science parks have developed gready in the world, whereas empirical researches have showed that science parks based on linear model cannot guarantee the creation of innovation. Hi-tech innovation is derived from flow and management of information. The commercial and social interactions between in-parks and off-park firms and research institutions act as the key determinant for innovation.Industrial clustering is the rational choice for further developing Chinese science parks and solving some problems such as the lack of dear major industries and strong innovation sense, etc.

  12. [Occurrence of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in leishmaniasis foci in an ecotourism area around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Assunção Júnior, Antonildes Nascimento; Silva, Orleans; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and relative abundance of sand fly species were studied in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão State, Brazil, around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, from January to June 2005, August 2004, July 2005, and September/2008. A total of 6,658 specimens were captured. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia whitmani (46.6%), L. longipalpis (29.9%), L. evandroi (17.1%), and L. lenti (4.8%), while L. termitophila, L. flaviscutellata, L. migonei, L. infraspinosa, L. sordellii, L. wellcomei, L. antunesi, and L. trinidadensis represented 1.6%. The presence of Leishmania vector species explains the high detection rate for tegumentary leishmaniasis in 2000 (308.2), 2001 (310.9), 2002 (338.2), and 2005 (313.6) and active foci of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Barreirinhas.

  13. More Effective Use of Urban Space by Autonomous Double Parking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Estepa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new capabilities of autonomous cars can be used to mitigate to a large extent safety concerns and nuisance traditionally associated with double parking. In this paper double parking for autonomous cars is proposed as a new approach to temporarily increase parking capacity in locations in clear need for extra provision when best alternatives cannot be found. The basic requirements, operation, and procedures of the proposed solution are outlined. A curbside parking has been simulated implementing the suggested double parking operation and important advantages have been identified for drivers, the environment, and the city. Double parking can increase over 50% the parking capacity of a given area. Autonomous car owners would (at least double their probabilities of finding parking compared to traditional drivers, saving cruising time and emissions. However, significant work and technological advances are still needed in order to make this feasible in the near future.

  14. GIS-based Spatial Multi-criteria Analysis: A vulnerability Assessment Model for the Protected Areas of Vietnam. GI_Forum|GI_Forum 2015 – Geospatial Minds for Society|

    OpenAIRE

    Nghiem, Quynh Huong

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and management of protected areas has become a universally accepted way to conserve biodiversity, and the wide range of goods and services they offer. Using the environmental vulnerability index (EVI), devised by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) as the theoretical framework, a vulnerability assessment model was developed and used to assess the vulnerability of Bach Ma National Park. The model utilizes s...

  15. Parking Navigation for Alleviating Congestion in Multilevel Parking Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kenmotsu, Masahiro; Sun, Weihua; Shibata, Naoki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Ito, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Finding a vacant parking space in a large crowded parking facility takes long time. In this paper, we propose a navigation method that minimizes the parking time based on collected real-time positional information of cars. In the proposed method, a central server in the parking facility collects the information and estimates the occupancy of each parking zone. Then, the server broadcasts the occupancy data to the cars in the parking facility. Each car then computes a parking route with the sh...

  16. Parking regulations on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2010-01-01

    The site surveillance service is also responsible for supervising compliance with the parking regulations on the CERN site. In that context, it ensures that the following rules are complied with on the CERN car park: Vehicles may not be left on a CERN car park for longer than 5 consecutive working days. However, CERN users are entitled to leave their vehicles parked at CERN for a longer period in the car park near Building 588 , subject to completing the application form "Demande d'autorisation pour un stationnement de longue durée" (application for a long-term parking permit) and sending it to the Reception and Access Control Service (access.surveillance@cern.ch) prior to departure.   Parking spaces, which are in short supply in many crowded areas of the CERN site, must not be occupied by abandoned vehicles/wrecks. The service organizes the disposal of such vehicles. Any CERN users wishing to get rid of a private vehicle parked on one of the CERN car pa...

  17. Yellowcake National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagget, D.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration for and mining of uranium ore is going on within 10 miles of the Grand Canyon National Park. The current rush started in 1980, when a Denver-based company, Energy Fuels Nuclear, took over a claim in Hack Canyon and uncovered a very rich deposit of uranium ore. Recent explorations have resulted in some 1300 claims in the area around the Grand Canyon, many of them in the Arizona Strip, the land between the Canyon and Utah. The center of current controversy is the 1872 Mining Law. Replacement of the law with a leasing system similar to that used for leasable minerals such as coal, oil shale, oil and gas, potash, and phosphate is advocated. 1 figure

  18. The verification of wilderness area boundaries as part of a buffer zone demarcation process: A case study from the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja C. Kruger; Ian A. Rusworth; Kirsten Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Wilderness areas are by definition free from the sights and sounds of modern man. The boundaries of wilderness areas have traditionally been defined based on the management authorities' perceptions of which areas have wilderness quality. Experience shows that many areas classified as wilderness do not actually have wilderness qualities and do not provide a true...

  19. Property values, parks, and crime: a hedonic analysis in Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Troy; J. Morgan Grove

    2008-01-01

    While urban parks are generally considered to be a positive amenity, past research suggests that some parks are perceived as a neighborhood liability. Using hedonic analysis of property data in Baltimore, MD, we attempted to determine whether crime rate mediates how parks are valued by the housing market. Transacted price was regressed against park proximity, area-...

  20. Protecting resources: Assessing visitor harvesting of wild morel mushrooms in two national capital region parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth S. Barron; Marla R. Emery

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have sparked concerns that morel mushroom populations may be declining at National Park sites in the greater Washington, D.C. area. The research reported here focuses on two of these parks, Catoctin Mountain Park (CATO) and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (CHOH). Oral histories conducted with 41 harvesters in 2005 and 2007 had...

  1. PALESTINE AUTOMOTIVE LICENSE IDENTITY RECOGNITION FOR INTELLIGENT PARKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANEES ABU SNEINEH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing employees with protection and security is one of the key concerns of any organization. This goal can be implemented mainly by managing and protecting employees’ cars in the parking area. Therefore, a parking area must be managed and organized with smart technologies and tools that can be applied and integrated in an intelligent parking system. This paper presents the tools based on image recognition technology that can be used to effectively control various parts of a parking system. An intelligent automotive parking system is effectively implemented by integrating image processing technologies and an Arduino controller. Results show that intelligent parking is successfully implemented based on car ID image capture to meet the need for managing and organizing car parking systems.

  2. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3A. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: South Boulder Creek Park Project, Sand and Gravel Operations, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L R; Perry, A O; LaFevers, J R

    1977-02-01

    This case study details reclamation planning for the Flatiron Companies' South Boulder Creek Park Project in Boulder, Colorado. The site contains a deposit of high-quality sand and gravel considered to be one of the best and largest known deposits of aggregate materials in the Front Range area. The aggregate deposit is located in a highly visible site just off the Denver-Boulder Turnpike at the entrance to the city from Denver, and adjacent to a residential portion of the city. In order to make maximum use of pre-mining planning, as a tool for resolving a conflict over the company's proposed operation, an extensive cooperative planning effort was initiated. This included the preparation of an environmental impact assessment, numerous public hearings, operating and reclamation plan review by city authorities, annexation of the site to the city, and the granting of a scenic easement on the property to the city for the development of a regional recreation park. A suite of contractual agreements was worked out among Flatiron Companies, the City of Boulder, the Colorado Open Lands Foundation, and the Federal Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The purpose of this case study is to allow the planner to gain insight into the procedures, possibilities, and constraints involved in premining planning in a cooperative situation.

  3. Application of multi-criteria decision analysis in prediction of groundwater resources potential: A case of Oke-Ana, Ilesa Area Southwestern, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Akinlalu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater Potential of Oke-Ana area southwestern Nigeria have been evaluated using the integration of electrical resistivity method, remote sensing and geographic information systems. The effect of five hydrogeological indices, namely lineament density, drainage density, lithology, overburden thickness and aquifer layer resistivity on groundwater occurrence was established. Multi-criteria decision analysis technique was employed to assign weight to each of the index using the concept of analytical hierarchy process. The assigned weight was normalized and consistency ratio was established. In order to evaluate the groundwater potential of Oke-Ana, sixty-seven (67 vertical electrical sounding points were occupied. Ten curve types were delineated in the study area. The curve types vary from simple three layer A and H-type curves to the more complex four, five and six layer AA, HA, KH, QH, AKH, HKH, KHA and KHKH curves. Four subsurface geo-electric sequences of top soil, weathered layer, partially weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement were delineated in the area. The analytical process assisted in classifying Oke-Ana into, low, medium and high groundwater potential zones. Validation of the model from well information and two aborted boreholes suggest 70% agreement.

  4. 36 CFR 1280.89 - How will NARA handle my request to use public areas in the National Archives at College Park?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the room you have requested is available on the date and time you have requested; and (3) Determine... FACILITIES What Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? National Archives at...

  5. Analysis and distributional patterns of the invasive flora in a protected mountain area - a case study of Medvednica Nature Park (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vuković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have analysed invasive flora of Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia with respect to their origins, life forms, systematic positions, types of seed dispersal, Ellenberg indicator values and spatial distributions using MTB 1/64 grid units for analyses. A total of 27 invasive plant species, belonging to 14 families, were recorded with Asteraceae being the most frequently occurring family. Therophytes were the most common life form, as is generally true of Croatian invasive plants; however, hemicryptophytes and geophytes were more frequent in Medvednica. Here, invasive plants originated mainly from both Americas with slightly lower portion in comparison to all Croatian invasive plants, while contrary was the case when comparing those originated from Asia. The most widespread species was Erigeron annuus (L. Pers., and the species with the lowest occurrence were Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh. Rydb and Datura innoxia Mill. A multiple regression model explains 44% of the spatial variability in the invasive plants data per MTB 1/64 unit, using the number of all recorded plant species, the average elevation and the lengths of paths and roads as estimators. The latter two variables also had the most influence on the ordination axes in analyses of the spatial distribution of seed dispersal types present in each MTB 1/64 unit. Anemochory was the most frequent type of seed dispersal.

  6. NURE and the National Park Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Under the National Resource Evaluation (NURE), massive amounts of geological, geochemical, and geophysical data, covering the entire conterminous 48 states and Alaska, are being collected and made public. In addition to NURE goals, these data are applicable to various other researches on and in the vicinity of lands controlled by the National Park Service. Airborne geophysical and hydrogeochemical survey NURE data have been made public for the majority of the area in the combined Mt. McKinley National Park and Denali National Monument. Besides indicating potential raw material deposits, these data are also useful for geologic mapping, water quality, pollution and othe geological, biological, and environmental studies in the park

  7. Pulsars at Parkes

    OpenAIRE

    Manchester, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The first pulsar observations were made at Parkes on March 8, 1968, just 13 days after the publication of the discovery paper by Hewish and Bell. Since then, Parkes has become the world's most successful pulsar search machine, discovering nearly two thirds of the known pulsars, among them many highly significant objects. It has also led the world in pulsar polarisation and timing studies. In this talk I will review the highlights of pulsar work at Parkes from those 1968 observations to about ...

  8. Multi-temporal image analysis of historical aerial photographs and recent satellite imagery reveals evolution of water body surface area and polygonal terrain morphology in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necsoiu, Marius; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L; Walter, Gary R; Stothoff, Stuart A; Larsen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Multi-temporal image analysis of very-high-resolution historical aerial and recent satellite imagery of the Ahnewetut Wetlands in Kobuk Valley National Park, Alaska, revealed the nature of thaw lake and polygonal terrain evolution over a 54-year period of record comprising two 27-year intervals (1951–1978, 1978–2005). Using active-contouring-based change detection, high-precision orthorectification and co-registration and the normalized difference index, surface area expansion and contraction of 22 shallow water bodies, ranging in size from 0.09 to 179 ha, and the transition of ice-wedge polygons from a low- to a high-centered morphology were quantified. Total surface area decreased by only 0.4% during the first time interval, but decreased by 5.5% during the second time interval. Twelve water bodies (ten lakes and two ponds) were relatively stable with net surface area decreases of ≤10%, including four lakes that gained area during both time intervals, whereas ten water bodies (five lakes and five ponds) had surface area losses in excess of 10%, including two ponds that drained completely. Polygonal terrain remained relatively stable during the first time interval, but transformation of polygons from low- to high-centered was significant during the second time interval. (letter)

  9. Similarities and life cycle distributions of floras of 22 national parks in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-two midwestern U.S. national parks were studied to examine the similarities of their floras and analyses of the floras in each national park were used to construct groupings of these smaller sample areas at various similarity levels in order to classify larger floristic areas. The parks were not on average very similar based on Jaccard's similarity index. The maximum average park similarity was 21% (St. Croix National Scenic Riverway), and the maximum park pair similarity was just over 55% for Isle Royale National Park and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. The average similarity of parks increased with park area and numbers of native species, and weakly decreased with the percentage of non-native species. Weak trends were observed with latitude and negative trends with longitude. Four park groups were partitioned by cluster analysis of species relative abundance data: 7 prairie parks, 6 northern parks, 4 intermediate parks and 5 southern parks. The average percentage of non-native species was ~33% in the prairie and southern park clusters, while percentage of evergreen perennials was 2 to 4 times greater in the northern parks (8%) compared with other clusters. Deciduous perennials approached 80% in the northern and intermediate park clusters, compared with about 70% for the prairie and southern clusters. Percentage of annuals was almost double in the prairie and southern clusters (average 24%) compared with the northern and intermediate clusters (average 13%).

  10. Simultaneous use of several monitoring techniques to measure visitor load, spatio-temporal distribution and social characteristics of tourists - a case study of a cable car area in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowska, Karolina; Zięba, Antoni; Brandenburg, Christiane; Muhar, Andreas; Preisel, Hemma; Hibner, Joanna; Latosinska, Barbara; Benítez, Rafael; Bolós, Vicente; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Ziobrowski, Szymon

    2017-04-01

    Visitor monitoring is an integrate part of the effective management of recreational and protected areas. Comprehensive information concerning volume of tourist traffic, spatial-temporal distribution of visitors in a leisure setting as well as visitor socio-demographic characteristics may support understanding human behaviour and the ongoing natural processes (trail deterioration, erosion, impact on flora and fauna). Especially, vulnerable areas that in the same time serve as tourist attractions need to be carefully investigated. One of such areas is Kasprowy Wierch (1987 m.a.s.l.) - a popular cable car destination located in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park, Poland / Slovakia. The aim of this study was to define the overall visitor load and to understand visitor behaviour in the proximity of the upper cable car station at Kasprowy Wierch. The main focus of this presentation is the comparison of the used monitoring techniques and exposing the benefit of their simultaneous application. Visitor monitoring campaign was carried out in the study area in the summer season 2014. The following data collection techniques were simultaneously applied: 1) automatic counting (Eco-Counter pyroelectric sensors), 2) manual counting; 3) on-site interviews combined with trip diaries and visitor observation 4) GPS-tracking 5) registry of cable car tickets 6) registry of entries to the national park (TPN). Between 26.06.2014 and 30.09.2014 at 7 locations a continuous automatic counting of visitors was done using pyroelectric sensors (Eco-Counter). Additionally, on 18 sampling days at 12 locations direct observations (manual counting) of visitor flows was carried out. During the sampling days tourists were interviewed in the field using structured questionnaires (PAPI survey technique, N = 2639). Survey was combined with a documentation of visitors' trip itineraries via GPS-loggers and map sketches. Totally 1250 GPS-tracks of visitors and 1351 map sketches have been

  11. Discussion about decision support systems using continuous multi-criteria methods for planning in areas with hydro-basins, agriculture and forests, from examples in Argentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors were involved last years in projects considering diverse decision problems on the use of some regions in Argentine, and also related to rivers or rural services in them. They used sets of multi-criteria decision methods, first discrete when the problem included few distinct alternatives, such as e.g. forestry, traditional or intensive agriculture. For attributes they were different effects, classified then in environmental, economic and social criteria. Extending to other gentler areas, such as at South of the Province of Córdoba, Arg., they have balanced more delicately effects of continuous levels of actions, with a combination of Goal Programming linked methods, and they adopted compromises to have precise solutions. That has shown, and in part open, a line of research, as the setting of such models require various kinds of definitions and valuations, including optimizations, goals with penalties in deviations and restrictions. That can be in diverse detail level and horizon, in presence of various technical and human horizons, and that can influence politics of use of terrain and production that will require public and private agents. The research will consider consideration of use and conservation of soils, human systems and agro productions, and hence models for optimization, preferably in such Goal Programming ways. That will require considering various systems of models, first in theory to be reliable, and then in different areas to evaluate the quality of conclusions, and maybe that successively if results are found advantageous. The Bayesian ways will be considered, but they would require a prospective of sets of precise future states of nature or markets with elicited probabilities, which are neither evident nor decisive for the moment, as changes may occur in years but will be very unexpected or uncertain. The results will be lines of models to aid to establish policies of use of territories, by public agencies setting frames for private

  12. Correspondence of perceived vs. objective proximity to parks and their relationship to park-based physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczynski Andrew T

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parks are key environmental resources for encouraging population-level physical activity (PA. In measuring availability of parks, studies have employed both self-reported and objective indicators of proximity, with little correspondence observed between these two types of measures. However, little research has examined how the degree of correspondence between self-reported and objectively-measured distance to parks is influenced by individual, neighborhood, and park-related variables, or which type of measure is more strongly related to physical activity outcomes. Methods We used data from 574 respondents who reported the distance to their closest park and compared this with objective measurements of proximity to the closest park. Both indicators were dichotomized as having or not having a park within 750 m. Audits of all park features within this distance were also conducted and other personal characteristics and neighborhood context variables (safety, connectedness, aesthetics were gleaned from participants' survey responses. Participants also completed detailed seven-day PA log booklets from which measures of neighborhood-based and park-based PA were derived. Results Agreement was poor in that only 18% of respondents achieved a match between perceived and objective proximity to the closest park (kappa = 0.01. Agreement was higher among certain subgroups, especially those who reported engaging in at least some park-based PA. As well, respondents with a greater number of parks nearby, whose closest park had more features, and whose closest park contained a playground or wooded area were more likely to achieve a match. Having a ball diamond or soccer field in the closest park was negatively related to achieving a match between perceived and objective proximity. Finally, engaging in at least some park-based PA was not related to either perceived or objective proximity to a park, but was more likely when a match between and

  13. Ecological planning proposal for Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet, W. F.; Cooks, J.

    1990-05-01

    This article discusses an application of the ecological planning model proposed by Van Riet and Cooks. The various steps outlined in this model have been applied to Kruger National Park in South Africa. The natural features of Kruger National Park, which form the basis of such an ecological planning exercise and from which the various land use categories, values, and zoning classes can be determined, are discussed in detail. The suitability of each of the various features is analyzed and a final zoning proposal for Kruger National Park is suggested. Furthermore a method for selecting a site for a new camp is illustrated by referring to the site for the new Mopane rest camp which is now under construction in the Kruger National Park. The conclusion is reached that the proposed ecological planning model can be used successfully in planning conservation areas such as Kruger National Park and for the selection of the most desirable sites for the establishment of new rest camps. Its suitability as a practical model in such planning exercises is proven by the fact that the siting proposals of two new camps based on this model have been accepted by the National Parks Board, the controlling body of Kruger National Park.

  14. iPark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Fantini, Ernesto Nicolas; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    where the geo-spatial aspect is not just a tag on other content, but is the primary content, e.g., a city street map with up-to-date road construction data. Along these lines, the iPark system aims to turn volumes of GPS data obtained from vehicles into information about the locations of parking spaces...

  15. THE SCHOOL PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FISCHER, JOHN H.

    TO ASSIST IN DESEGREGATION, VARIOUS MODELS FOR THE SCHOOL PARK ARE PROPOSED--(1) ASSEMBLING ALL STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS OF A SMALL OR MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY ON A SINGLE CAMPUS, (2) SERVING ONE SECTION OF A LARGE CITY, (3) CENTERING ALL SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR A SINGLE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON A SINGLE SITE, AND (4) ESTABLISHING RINGS OF SCHOOL PARKS ABOUT…

  16. Bicycle Parking and Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    . This article contributes with new insights into parking and locking - ‘moorings’ - to cycling literature. It presents an ethnography of ‘design moorings’ and practices associated with parking and locking bikes. The main case study is the very pro-cycling city of Copenhagen. Yet to explore what is unique about...

  17. Tourism and recreation system planning in Alberta provincial parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F.J. Eagles; Angela M. Gilmore; Luis X. Huang; Denise A. Keltie; Kimberley Rae; Hong Sun; Amy K. Thede; Meagan L. Wilson; Jennifer A. Woronuk; Ge Yujin

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, system planning in parks and protected areas concentrated on biogeographical concepts, while neglecting tourism and recreation. The existing system plan for parks and protected areas in Alberta, Canada, divides the province into six natural regions based on a geographic classifi cation system (Grassland, Parkland, Foothills, Rocky Mountains, Boreal...

  18. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial purposes is prohibited in the following areas: (i) Anacapa Island. Northside to exterior boundary of the monument between east end of Arch Rock 119°21′-34°01′ and west end of island, 119°27′-34°01... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.84 Channel Islands National Park. (a...

  19. Long-term patterns in Iberian hare population dynamics in a protected area (Doñana National Park) in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula: Effects of weather conditions and plant cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is a widely distributed endemic species in the Iberian Peninsula. To improve our knowledge of its population dynamics, the relative abundance and population trends of the Iberian hare were studied in the autumns of 1995-2012 in a protected area (Doñana National Park) by spotlighting in 2 different habitats: marshland and ecotones. The average relative abundance was 0.38 hare/km (SD = 0.63) in the marshland and 3.6 hares/km (SD = 4.09) in ecotones. The Iberian hare population exhibited local interannual fluctuations and a negative population trend during the study period (1995-2012). The results suggest that its populations are in decline. The flooding of parts of the marshland in June, July and October favor hare abundance in the ecotone. Hare abundance in the marshland increases as the flooded surface area increases in October. These effects are more pronounced if the rains are early (October) and partially flood the marsh. By contrast, when marsh grasses and graminoids are very high and thick (as measured using the aerial herbaceous biomass [biomass marshland] as a proxy), the abundance of hares decreases dramatically as does the area of the marsh that is flooded (in November). © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Spatial analysis related to the location characteristics of park supply. Case study: Music Park and Pendawa Park, Bandung City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Akbar, R.; Maryati, S.; Natalivan, P.

    2018-05-01

    Public space plays a role in defining the character of a city and is a valuable asset for a city and one of the indicators in assessing whether a city is considered successful or not. In the context of urban sociology, high-quality public spaces with well-maintained environments can improve the quality of the heterogeneous life of urban social communities by creating economic, social, or environmental value-added. Urban societies tend to be heterogeneous, individualistic, and characterized by high competition that often causes conflicts. Another reason for conflicts is the relatively high social differentiation because of the level of religious differences, customs, languages, and sociocultural aspects brought by immigrants from various regions. In the context of space, the city is a system that does not stand alone because internally the city is a unified system of functional activities in it. Meanwhile, externally, the city is influenced by its surrounding environment. As part of the public space, park has an important role in the environmental, aesthetic, recreational, psychological, social, educational, and economic aspects of the city. Public space can be understood as open spaces in urban areas, where everyone regardless their interests and backgrounds can be intersectional and have social contact and serve as an “urban regenerator” including educational functions through innovation and technological intervention. Moreover, park can also absorb carbon dioxide emissions, produce oxygen, improve air and water quality, regulate the microclimate, reduce noise, protect soil and water, and maintain biodiversity. However, many things cause the function of parks to decrease. One reason relates to the distribution of parks related to the characteristics of their location. Research has not seen many studies on the characteristics of locations in the planning of public space. The provision of public space should consider these location characteristics. This study

  1. Environmental Assessment Supplement: Proposed Military Construction Project, Deployable Medical System Training Area and Military Equipment Parking, Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    banks, from the sagebrush plains into the lower mountains, often in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) forest. In Washington, the species occurs with...area and within a designated conservation area. The community type, pinus ponderosa/symphocarpus albus is listed as a rare community type by the state...Formaldehyde 8.51 13.2 108-38-3; 106-42-3 M & p-xylene 0.89 1.38 78-93-3 Methyl ethyl ketone (2- butanone) 2.86 4.44 91-20-3 Naphthalene 0.24 0.365 95-47-6 O

  2. Geological and Geochemical Criteria for the Estimation of the Area of The Lesser Hinggan for the Endogenous Gold Mineralization (The Far East, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Yuriy

    2015-04-01

    The Area of the Lesser Hinggan in the middle of the XIX century has been known as one of the Gold areas of the Far East. Exploration of gold in different years were engaged by P.K. Yavorovskiy (1904), E.E. Anert (1928), G.V. Itsikson (1961), V.A. Buryak (1999, 2002, 2003), A.M. Zhirnov (1998, 2000, 2008), L.V. Eyrish (1960, 1964, 1995, 1999, 2002, 2008) and many others. But despite the abundance of factual materials in the problem of the gold metallogeny of the Lesser Hinggan are more aspects that still have not received a answer. Among them is the key issue about indigenous sources of the gold. First for the Lesser Hinggan area, structural-geochemical zoning at 1:200 000 scale was carried out based on the results of the precise analyses of over 2,600 soil and sediment stream samples. Three anomalous geochemical zones and nine anomalous geochemical clusters in their contours specialized for gold mineralization were revealed. Regional clarkes (fersms) for 19 chemical elements were calculated. Geological formations geochemically specialized for gold and their role in endogenous ore-forming processes were defined. Geochemical criteria for endogenous gold mineralization and its ore-formational affiliation were defined as well. Thus, from the geological and geochemical data, are the following signs of the gold mineralization of the Lesser Hinggan: 1. Some geological formations are geochemical specialized by the gold (carbon ("black") schists and ferruginous quartzite Vendian-Cambrian Hinggan series). They're considered as a source of the gold, involved in younger epigenetic processes of mobilization and redistribution of this element; 2. Contrasting geochemical anomalies of the gold and elements satellites in the secondary halos and stream sediments displayed in the contours of the geological formations of a wide age range - terrigenous-carbonate rocks of the Hinggan series, the Paleozoic granitoid massives, the Cretaceous volcanic fields ; 3. Samples of the native gold

  3. Risk analysis and risk acceptance criteria in the planning processes of hazardous facilities-A case of an LNG plant in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnem, Jan Erik

    2010-01-01

    Planning of hazardous facilities is usually carried out on the basis of a risk-informed decision-making and planning process making use of risk analysis. This practice is well established in Norway under petroleum legislation but less so for onshore facilities under non-petroleum legislation. The present paper focuses on the use of risk analysis studies for risk evaluation against risk acceptance criteria, risk communication and derivation of technical and operational requirements in these circumstances. This is demonstrated through reference to a case study involving an LNG plant currently under construction in an urban area in Norway. The main finding is that risk-informed legislation is a fragile legislative system which is dependent on conscientious and open-minded use by the industrial developer. In the opposite case, the authorities may well be unable to correct the situation and the legislation may fail to protect the neighbourhood from unreasonable exposure to risk. Reference is also made to the international perspective where authorities define what is deemed tolerable risk, which would appear to be a more robust and defensible approach.

  4. PRIME: research project on radioecological sensitivity indicators and on multi-criteria methods applied to the environment of an industrial area. Scientific report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Successive studies conducted on the management of nuclear post-accidental circumstances have shown that it must be based on an anticipated characterisation of the radiological vulnerability of the environment, using an overall approach and according ta a strategy that takes inhabitants and their living conditions into account. The PRIME project has investigated and implemented a pilot method for characterising contaminated areas and usable by risk managers dealing with industrial accidents - notably involving radioactive substances - in relationship with a panel of stakeholders: experts, decision-makers and local elected officials, citizens. The method is based on Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA). It aims at modelling the different and sometimes contradicting opinions and at ranking the radio-ecological and socio-economical sensitivity factors of a region towards radioactive pollution, in the order of assisting decision making, These factors are defined by the environmental and anthropic parameters that may aggravate or limit the consequences of radioactive pollution. As the PRIME project was a partnership between scientific laboratories, representatives of public institutions and of civil society, it led to explore innovative forms of cooperation and to develop a tool combining MCA and GIS mapping. (authors)

  5. Integrating Spatial Multi Criteria Decision Making (SMCDM) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for delineation of the most suitable areas for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahani Amineh, Zainab Banoo; Hashemian, Seyyed Jamal Al-Din; Magholi, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Hamoon-Jazmoorian plain is located in southeast of Iran. Overexploitation of groundwater in this plain has led to water level decline and caused serious problems such as land subsidence, aquifer destruction and water quality degradation. The increasing population and agricultural development along with drought and climate change, have further increased the pressure on water resources in this region over the last years. In order to overcome such crisis, introduction of surface water into an aquifer at particular locations can be a suitable solution. A wide variety of methods have been developed to recharge groundwater, one of which is aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). One of the fundamental principles of making such systems is delineation of suitable areas based on scientific and natural facts in order to achieve relevant objectives. To that end, the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was applied in this study. More specifically, nine main parameters including depth of runoff as the considered source of water, morphology of the earth surface features such as geology, geomorphology, land use and land cover, drainage and aquifer characteristics along with quality of water in the aquifer were considered as the main layers in GIS. The runoff water available for artificial recharge in the basin was estimated through Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method. The weighted curve number for each watershed was derived through spatial intersection of land use and hydrological soil group layers. Other thematic layers were extracted from satellite images, topographical map, and other collateral data sources, then weighed according to their influence in locating process. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was then used to calculate weights of individual parameters. The normalized weighted layers were then overlaid to build up the recharge potential map. The results revealed that 34% of the

  6. An ecological study of the plant communities in the proposed Highveld National Park, in the peri-urban area of Potchefstroom, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2010-04-01

    Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened and least conserved vegetation biomes in South Africa, with less than 1.3% currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly threatened Highveld vegetation types.

  7. My cattle and your park: codesigning a role-playing game with rural communities to promote multistakeholder dialogue at the edge of protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Perrotton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are often burdened with conflicts between environmental managers and neighboring rural communities. Unsuccessful top-down approaches for conservation may be replaced by alternative forms of systemic management involving local actors in the design and implementation of conservation management. Although theoretically sound and appealing, the involvement of local residents in the management of protected areas is often impaired in practice by scale mismatches, conflicting values and interests, power imbalance, and a lack of trust among actors. In this paper, we describe a process initiated in Zimbabwe to create a fair and balanced locally designed arena where local communities and protected area managers may collaborate to produce effective management plans. Adopting the Companion Modeling approach, we conducted a participatory modeling experiment to codesign a role-playing game that simulates the interactions between farming activities, livestock herding practices, and wildlife in a virtual landscape reproducing local social-ecological dynamics. After 18 months of intensive ethnographical fieldwork to gain knowledge and legitimacy, we spent one year codesigning the first version of the game with a group of volunteer villagers. The game, called Kulayijana (teaching each other, was tested and validated by other members of the rural communities and subsequently presented to protected area managers. We show how this approach allowed the negotiation of uncertainties and their inclusion in a model that constitutes a shared representation of farmers' interactions with the protected area. We emphasize the fact that working with marginalized actors first increased participation, appropriation, and confidence of rural communities to engage in a multistakeholder debate, thus reducing power imbalance among actors. We conclude by discussing the next phase of our work: the necessary involvement of conservation actors in the Kulayijana team, and

  8. Active Use of Parks in Flanders (Belgium: An Exploratory Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Van Hecke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parks have the potential to increase physical activity at the community level by providing opportunities to be active. In order to inform interventions to promote physical activity in parks, insight is needed concerning park user characteristics, the activity level of park users, the types of activities performed and associations between park areas and temporal variables with observed physical activity levels. Park user characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity and activity level were recorded within pre-defined park areas in two parks in Ghent (Belgium using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. Most park users were male, adult, and engaged in vigorous-intensity physical activity (48%. Most popular activities were biking (38%, sitting (23% and walking (15%; accordingly, trails were used most and had the highest levels of physical activity compared to other park areas. Parks were used least frequently in the morning, during the weekend and by seniors. Therefore, active park use during morning periods, on weekend days and by seniors should be promoted and urban planners should consider that different park areas can possibly elicit varying activity levels among park users.

  9. Parks and their users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with urban parks and their use(rs. It focuses on usage-spatial relationships from two different angles. Firstly, it discusses the actual uses mapped in places, using repeated observation on different days, times and weather conditions. Secondly, it addresses designers’ views and beliefs about usage and design of urban parks. However, the paper shows that designers’ beliefs and awareness about uses in places, in some aspects, differ from actual use. It stresses the use of empirical knowledge about usage-spatial relationships, which can be gained by using observation and behavioural mapping, in decision-making processes for parks design.

  10. Analysis of Pregnancy Outcomes Using the New IADPSG Recommendation Compared with the Carpenter and Coustan Criteria in an Area with a Low Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Benhalima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This paper aims to evaluate characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in women prior classified normal by Carpenter and Coustan criteria (old criteria and now gestational diabetes (GDM by the IADPSG criteria. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 6727 pregnancies is used. Using the old criteria, 222 had GDM (old GDM. Using the IADPSG criteria, 382 had GDM of which 160 had a normal glucose tolerance with the old criteria (new GDM. We compared the new GDM group with the old GDM group and women with normal glucose tolerance with both criteria (NGT group, 6345. Results. New GDM women were younger (31.6 ± 4.7 versus 33.3 ± 7.2 years, than old GDM women. Caesarean section was performed in 30.5% of new GDM, in 32.4% of old GDM (, and in 23.3% of NGT women (. Large for gestational age occurred in 10.8% of new GDM, in 13.8% of old GDM (, and in 9.0% of NGT women (. Shoulder dystocia occurred in 3.9% of new GDM, in 3.2% of old GDM (, and in 1.4% of NGT women (. Conclusion. Using the IADPSG criteria, more women are identified as having GDM, and these women carry an increased risk for adverse gestational outcome compared to women without GDM.

  11. Story of the Name of Restinga Jurubatiba National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Soffiati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This text recovers the story of an Integral Protection Conservation Unit situated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The Jurubatiba Shoal National Park (Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, the best preserved shoal area in the world. Responsible for proposing the park’s name, the author discourses about name options taken into consideration when the National Park was created and also briefly reports on the importance of this regional ecosystem.

  12. Envisioning Parking Strategies for the Post-Automobile City

    OpenAIRE

    Circella, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned). This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, ...

  13. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Circella

    2010-01-01

    Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned). This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, ...

  14. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Dell; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  15. Criteria CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, V.; Zateyshikova, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the theoretical aspects regarding criteria for assessing CSR proposed by A. Carroll, including: economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic. Based on this, it is proposed to characterize these criteria with respect to the interested parties (stakeholders), including: investors, shareholders suppliers, customers, employees, society and the state. This will make a qualitative assessment of the presence and depth using social responsibility in the company, as well as determine the ext...

  16. Analysis of the Touristic Valorization of Maksimir Park in Zagreb (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Dolenc

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The modern pace of life imposes new needs and demands of the tourist market as well as the need for rest and recreation in areas of preserved nature. Maksimir Park dates from the 19th century, and since 1964, it has been protected as a monument of park architecture. Today, the park is the space for recreation and relaxation with cultural monuments and natural heritage. They make a strong and attractive potential factor that has been underused in the tourist offer of the City of Zagreb. The paper examines the attractiveness of the park for visitors, whilst also making the comparison with some of the parks of London (Hyde Park, Regent’s Park, Kew Gardens. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the existing resources of the park and to identify their weaknesses in order to complement and enhance the offer of the park as a tourist attraction. The methodology is based on the analysis of material of the origin and the development of Maksimir Park, the evaluation survey conducted in 2009 and 2010 in the park area (case study and SWOT analysis of the significant resource for tourism development of the park. The results show that Maksimir Park contains many resources, but they are not recognized as a tourist attraction of Zagreb. Tourist services in the park are not harmonized with visitors’ needs and should be complemented with traditional and cultural events, better cuisine, education about resources of the park and improved range of activities throughout the year.

  17. Conservation Effort of Natural Enemies Animal by Creating The Green Park and Play Ground in Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Ahmed Abo Al-Qassem Shahub

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The play grounds and green parks in Malang was developed until nowadays in the effort of enhancement the environment in Malang. With improving of the quality of services of that public area, it will increase the achievement of visitor satisfaction and their perception about its function.  The research was conducted to evaluate the existing condition in Malang City Park, to analyze the  perception of the visitors to the utilization play grounds in the city and to formulate the recommendations in improving the play ground for the conservation of natural enemies. For these purposes, questionnaires were developed and it was interviewed to the visitors of the play ground as respondents. Data collected were analyzed using Gap Analysis compared to the ideal of green park as play ground according to the governance criteria. Based on research results, most of the visitors were satisfy with the play ground, but their perception to its function were no so clear. By implementing some suggestion of the stakeholders (University and Non-Governmental Organization almost all of the criteria of ideal green open space were already similar with its from the government. The improvement in the educational characters of the play ground and be considered for the ideal multifunction play ground in Malang City. Keywords: multi function, play ground, visitor perception

  18. 36 CFR 7.15 - Shenandoah National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., restaurant, visitor center, picnic area, ranger station, administrative or maintenance area, or other park...) yard radius of that campsite. (b) Powerless flight. The use of devices designed to carry persons...

  19. Versailles' park taasavatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Osa Pariisi lähedase Versailles' lossi pargist avati jaanuari alguses uuesti publikule. 17.-18. sajandi prantsuse stiilis park suleti avalikkusele detsembris 1999 pärast parki laastanud hiigeltormi, mis murdis ligemale 10000 puud.

  20. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  1. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  2. Allegheny County Parks Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size and shape of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  3. The Effects of Demand-Responsive Parking on Transit Usage and Congestion: Evidence From Sfpark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Parking is a serious issue in many urban areas, especially those experiencing rapid population growth. To address this problem, some cities have implemented demand-responsive pricing programs, where parking prices vary depending on the occupancy rate...

  4. Analysis of the natural repair in areas of botanical recuperation, in the Abadia de Goias State Park, according to the status of soil degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Erides Campos; Motta, Max Lima e; Benvenutti, Romeu Davi; Ferreira, Gislene Auxiliadora; Braga, Marcio

    1997-01-01

    Several plant species exhibit aggressive behaviour. They act in a pioneer fashion, repopulating inhospitable soils, those with a low concentration of organic matter, with excess acidity as well as those soils which are deficient in terms of chemical and physical structures. Such species would develop with the onset of the occupation, in an unprotected environment, but in many cases, they thwart the growth of trees which make up the original vegetable cover. In the process of botanical recuperation in the area which surrounds the deposit of radioactive waste, the native species which occupied the degraded soils were analysed, as well as those introduced in the region and which today, act in a pioneer fashion. They mainly protect the soil against erosion and supply organic matter. Through phyto-sociological studies carried out in the area whose soils have exposed for 9 years, it was possible to observe which were the species with greater ability to populate rustic terrain with the original cerrado cover. (author)

  5. Nursery area and size structure of the lemon shark population, Negaprion brevirostris (Poey, 1868, in Los Roques Archipelago National Park, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The protection of the habitats used by juvenile sharks is a management strategy that has recently caught the attention of fishery biologists. In the present study, we evaluated the population of the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris from Los Roques Archipelago in order to identify the nursery area, describe the size composition, and examine the variation in nocturnal activity of the juvenile individuals. The data analysed came from three different sources: commercial shark fishery, tag-recapture sampling, and visual records. A total of 375 lemon sharks with total lengths between 55 and 281 cm were recorded during the study period. Overall data showed that the area occupied by juvenile lemon sharks was clearly partitioned into primary and secondary nurseries. Additionally, nighttime activity seemed to change according to the size of sharks in the primary nursery, suggesting a reduction of time activity overlapping among juveniles of distinct size/age. Results suggest that the strategy of utilization of the primary nurseries by the lemon shark may lead to important ecological benefits by reducing the competition, predation and natural mortality.

  6. Hortobágy National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Gyarmathy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available National parks and protected areas have an important role in protecting starry sky and the undisturbed nighttime environment. Hortobágy which is one of the darkest areas in Hungary, became an International Dark Sky Parks recently. Its significance is mostly related to the protection of the high biodiversity which is endangered by the effects of light pollution. A special monitoring program has been started to survey the nocturnal species and also to monitor the quality of the night sky using   digital cameras. Stargazing night walks are frequently organized. There is a high interest by the general public to attend these night adventures.

  7. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  8. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  9. Waverly, Virginia : community park, downtown revitalization, and entryway enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Gilboy, Elizabeth Truex; Marshall, Ashleigh; Proctor, Nick; Talley, Stephen; Howell, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Waverly is a small town of approximately 2,300 residents, located in Southside Virginia’s Sussex County. Waverly has a history of pine tree and peanut farms, with several former mills in the area as well as a local Carver Peanut Museum. Land was donated for a town park – the Allen W. Gibson Jr. Community Park – and the town of Waverly and its Parks and Recreation Commission approached the Community Design Assistance Center (CDAC) at Virginia Tech for conceptual design assistance for the park ...

  10. New challenges for grizzly bear management in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2016-01-01

    A key factor contributing to the success of grizzly bear Ursus arctos conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem has been the existence of a large protected area, Yellowstone National Park. We provide an overview of recovery efforts, how demographic parameters changed as the population increased, and how the bear management program in Yellowstone National Park has evolved to address new management challenges over time. Finally, using the management experiences in Yellowstone National Park, we present comparisons and perspectives regarding brown bear management in Shiretoko National Park.

  11. Statistical analysis and mapping of water levels in the Biscayne aquifer, water conservation areas, and Everglades National Park, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2000–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinos, Scott T.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2016-02-25

    Statistical analyses and maps representing mean, high, and low water-level conditions in the surface water and groundwater of Miami-Dade County were made by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade County Department of Regulatory and Economic Resources, to help inform decisions necessary for urban planning and development. Sixteen maps were created that show contours of (1) the mean of daily water levels at each site during October and May for the 2000–2009 water years; (2) the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the daily water levels at each site during October and May and for all months during 2000–2009; and (3) the differences between mean October and May water levels, as well as the differences in the percentiles of water levels for all months, between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009. The 80th, 90th, and 96th percentiles of the annual maximums of daily groundwater levels during 1974–2009 (a 35-year period) were computed to provide an indication of unusually high groundwater-level conditions. These maps and statistics provide a generalized understanding of the variations of water levels in the aquifer, rather than a survey of concurrent water levels. Water-level measurements from 473 sites in Miami-Dade County and surrounding counties were analyzed to generate statistical analyses. The monitored water levels included surface-water levels in canals and wetland areas and groundwater levels in the Biscayne aquifer.

  12. IMPORTANT INFORMATION - Flagstaff Car-Park and Park-and-Ride (P+R)

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    As part of the new arrangements following the arrival of the tram-line at CERN, an Automatic Number-Plate Recognition (ANPR) system has been installed restricting access to the Flagstaff Car-park and the Park-and-Ride (P+R) zone according to the conditions set out below: Holders of a valid P+R user card may enter the car-park at all hours but may only park in the area specifically designated as the P+R zone. P+R user cards can be purchased from the Fondation des Parkings de Genève (http://www.ge.ch/parkings/abonnements.html)   Members of CERN personnel and of contractors' personnel, whatever their status, may freely access the Flagstaff Car-Park at all hours, as long as their vehicle is duly registered with CERN, but they may not use the P+R zone, which is reserved for holders of P+R user cards. Please check that your vehicle number-plates are properly registered via AdaMS (http://cern.ch/adams). If this is not the case, the following action must be taken: - for private or co...

  13. The Open Space Sculptures Used in the Gençlik Park towards Visual Perception of Park Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Polat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks are the most important areas that allow recreational activities in our towns. Increasing the visual quality of urban parks provides positive impacts on urban quality. Besides the artistic and technical features of open space sculptures which are used for urban park designs are the visual perceptions and preferences of park users are also important. In the context of this study, six sculptures in Gençlik Park which is in the boundaries Ankara have been considered. The aim of the study, to measure the visual quality of the sculptures in the urban parks through park users and to reveal the relationship between visual landscape indicators (of being interesting, coherence, complexity, meaningfulness, and mystery and the visual quality. For this purpose, the six pieces in Ankara Youth Park of sculpture were evaluated the scope of research. According to the results of the study; it was realized that park users like sculptures visually. A statistically significant relationship was found between the visual quality of the sculptures and some landscape indicators (to be interesting, mystery and harmony. In addition to these, some suggestions were made regarding the use of sculptures in urban parks.

  14. Dependence of Parking Pricing on Land Use and Time of Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A key strategy of sustainable transportation, parking pricing can directly contribute to decreased greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. This paper describes an optimal structure of parking rates in terms of parking locations and time of day. A two-level parking model based on game theory is established using parking survey data collected in Beijing in 2014. The model was estimated based on Stackelberg game and the Nash equilibrium. Using the two-level parking model, the optimal structure of parking rates for inside/outside business zones and during peak/off-peak hours was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the government (which represents the public benefit and car users, as well as the relationships among car users in the parking system were investigated. The results indicate that equilibrium among all of the agents in the parking system can be obtained using the proposed parking rate structure. The findings provide a better understanding of parking behavior, and the two-level parking model presented in the paper can be used to determine the optimal parking rate to balance the temporal and spatial distribution of parking demand in urban areas. This research helps reduce car use and the parking-related cruising time and thus contributes to the reduction of carbon emissions and air pollution.

  15. New plant records for Tankwa Karoo National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffel P. Bester

    2012-11-01

    Conservation implications: Although the Tankwa Karoo National Park falls within the Succulent Karoo Biome (a biodiversity hotspot of international importance, information on its plant diversity is insufficient because it is an under-collected area. Results of this study will guide conservation and supply occurrence and distribution data required to compile management plans for the park.

  16. 36 CFR 7.45 - Everglades National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.45 Everglades National Park. (a) Information...-edible form of fresh or salt water aquatic life for the purpose of sale or barter. (4) Dipnet means a... outboard motor, water-jet or an enclosed propeller or impeller system, where persons ride standing, sitting...

  17. El Parque Agrario: Preservación de la actividad agraria en espacios periurbanos (El caso del Bajo Llobregat / The agrarian Park: Agrarian activity preservation in periurban areas (The case of the Baix Llobregat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zazo Moratalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl interés por la problemática contemporánea de los espacios agrarios periurbanos ha despertado una nueva conciencia urbana que afianza la importancia de la preservación de estos espacios agrarios por sus valores ambientales, culturales y productivos, y que comienza a reaprender las posibles ventajas de su proximidad urbana. Entre ellas, la calidad alimentaria. En el análisis de las respuestas a esta problemática, aparece un uso recurrente del término ‘Parque Agrario’ materializado en diversas propuestas con dispares objetivos, escalas y dimensiones. Para aclarar la confusión del término, se estudia el Parque Agrario del Bajo Llobregat. De este caso se induce la estructura organizativa básica de su figura, analizándola de manera poliédrica y multiescalar. El objeto último del trabajo es valorar la sostenibilidad de la figura en función del resultado de su aplicación a un espacio agrario periurbano, tipológico y predispuesto. Su aplicación y fusión con el espacio agrario periurbano dará lugar a otro ‘concepto aplicado’ de parque, que creará y fortalecerá sus propias redes productivas para introducirse en el ciclo alimentario de la ciudad próxima, bloqueando la base territorial frente al proceso urbano.Palabras clavePreservación, gobernanza, proteccionismo, dinamización agraria, multifuncionalidad, multidimensionalidad territorial.AbstractThe interest in contemporary issues of suburban farmland has awakened a new urban consciousness that reinforces the importance of preserving these agrarian areas because of their environmental, cultural and productive values, and starts to re-learn the potential benefits of its proximity to urban areas. Among this potentials, food quality can be found. In the analysis of responses to this problem has found a widespread use of the term 'Agrarian Park' embodied in proposals for different purposes, scales and dimensions. To clarify the confusion of the term, the

  18. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  19. Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey JOSEPH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence is a vision in which various devices come together and process information from multiple sources in order to exert control on the physical environment. In addition to computation and control, communication plays a crucial role in the overall functionality of such a system. Wireless Sensor Networks are one such class of networks, which meet these criteria. These networks consist of spatially distributed sensor motes which work in a co-operative manner to sense and control the environment. In this work, an implementation of an energy-efficient and cost-effective, wireless sensor networks based vehicle parking system for a multi-floor indoor parking facility has been introduced. The system monitors the availability of free parking slots and guides the vehicle to the nearest free slot. The amount of time the vehicle has been parked is monitored for billing purposes. The status of the motes (dead/alive is also recorded. Information like slot allocated, directions to the slot and billing data is sent as a message to customer’s mobile phones. This paper extends our previous work 1 with the development of a low cost sensor mote, about one tenth the cost of a commercially available mote, keeping in mind the price sensitive markets of the developing countries.

  20. Bodie State Historic Park. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers in organizing and preparing a field trip to Bodie State Historic Park (California). Although it is intended to assist in the trip to Bodie, it also provides information for organizing group tours or family outings to other areas. Activities include before, during, and after visit exercises focusing on the…

  1. Noise from cooling towers of power parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, J.; Moore, F.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study is presented of the noise pollution problem for large power parks proposed for the future. Such parks might have an area of about 75 sq. miles, and a generating capacity up to 48000 MW. A comparative analysis has been done for natural and mechanical-draft wet towers as the major sources of acoustic power. Noise radiation from single isolated towers as well as from a dispersed array of towers has been considered for both types of cooling systems. Major noise attenuation effects considered are due to the atmospheric absorption and A-weighting. Conditions of 60F and 70 percent relative humidity in a still atmosphere have been assumed

  2. USGS considers moving Menlo Park programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt has instructed the U.S. Geological Survey to examine options to relocate staff and programs at the agency's 16-acre Menlo Park Facilities within 5 years. The agency was directed on August 21 to submit a preliminary action plan by September 25.A memo from USGS Director Gordon Eaton states that Babbitt is concerned about high real estate costs in the Menlo Park area and the need for the agency to locate near other Interior and federal offices.

  3. Publication Criteria and Recommended Areas of Improvement within School Psychology Journals as Reported by Editors, Journal Board Members, and Manuscript Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Craig A.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fuhrmann, Melanie J.; Martinez, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be…

  4. Diachronic Analysis of Parking Usage: The Case Study of Brescia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bonotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a methodology for the investigation of the space-time relations between public services and individual mobility, by checking the space-time efficiency of the allocation of public and private parking areas. The methodology has been applied to the case study of Brescia, in northern Italy. The spatial distribution of car parking has been assessed as well as the usage variations during the day. First of all, the location and the density of parking areas within the city has been taken into account, and represented to show the spatial coverage of car parking supply. Then, the temporal issue has been considered, since the degree of use of each parking area varies within the time of the day. Therefore, the degree of use of each parking area has been mapped at three significant instant of the day (10.00 a.m.; 01.00 p.m. and 04.00 p.m.. This kind of analysis is particularly helpful to highlight the availability of parking areas during the day. The results of the analysis, even if referred to a case study, can be extended to similar situations as the methodology of the analysis has a broaden sound meaning. The aim of the paper is to illustrate a method to develop mobility policies and plans.

  5. 36 CFR 7.8 - Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Parks. (a) Dogs and cats. Dogs and cats are prohibited on any park land or trail except within one-fourth mile of developed areas which are accessible by a designated public automobile road. (b) Fishing. (1) Fishing restrictions, based on management objectives described in the parks' Resources Management...

  6. Attitude of Local Dwellers towards Ecotourism in the Okomu National Park, Edo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digun-Aweto Oghenetejiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring local community support for national parks is viewed as a paramount ingredient for conservation and sustainability. This is advocated for the park to meet its conservation goals. The Okomu National Park (ONP, Edo State, Nigeria, is one of such protected areas of lush green rain forest requiring conservation.

  7. Evaluating social-ecological aspects of buffer zones at the borders of Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelani M. Mannetti; Ulrich Zeller; Karen J. Esler

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the premise that the implementation of a buffer zone around a national park provides opportunities for local communities to become active in the management of such areas. The study focuses on the Etosha National Park in Namibia, where the implementation of a buffer zone has been proposed, since the park fence is a potential barrier for...

  8. Physical activity of youth in non-urban parks: an observation-based assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J.M. Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Public parks play an important role in healthy, active living, but the extent to which parks influence the physical activity (PA) of diverse youth outside of urban areas has not been adequately explored. This study used systematic behavioural observations to examine demographic factors and environmental attributes associated with youth PA in non-urban state parks of...

  9. Another reptile translocation to a national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Branch

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available On 4 May 1988 a sub-adult (50 mm snout-vent length, 42 mm tail Jones' girdled lizard Cordylus tropidosternum jonesi was collected in a pile of wood being off-loaded at the new restcamp in the Karoo National Park, Beaufort West. The wood had been transported by lorry from the Kruger National Park. The specimen is deposited in the herpetological collection of the Port Elizabeth Museum (PEM R 4584. Jones' girdled lizard is a small, arboreal cordylid that shelters under tree bark and in hollow logs. It is common and widely-distributed in the Kruger National Park (Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983, The Reptiles of the Kruger National Park, 3rd edition. Pretoria: National Parks Board and adjacent lowveld, being replaced in northern Zimbabwe and East Africa by the nominate race. Hewitt & Power (1913, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3: 147-176, 1913 reported a similar translocation of the species to Kimberley in association with timber brought to the diamond mining camps. One of us noted recently the ease and danger of the unwitting spread of commensal reptile species into conservation areas (Branch 1978, Koedoe 30: 165, and this is confirmed by this additional example. We recommend that should similar shipments of wood be considered essential, then they be fumigated to prevent the translocation of other alien organisms that may potentially have more dangerous consequences.

  10. National parks, ecological integrity and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopoukhine, N.

    1990-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on the national parks of Canada are discussed. There is a requirement to protect and manage national parks to maintain a functioning ecosystem with all its parts and processes. An active management regime is necessary, with objectives of ecological diversity/integrity clearly stated. The national parks located in the Canadian Prairie provinces are on or near transitions from forest to tundra and grasslands, and are likely to exhibit the most dramatic changes. The change in vegetation of such parks and in others will not manifest itself simply as a shift of zones but will be accompanied by a flora with new dominants. The boreal forest within the Prairie provinces is fire dependent and has the potential of being transformed into remnant units should post-fire germination be hampered by climatic change. A rapid change in climate would render national parks unable to provide protection of representative elements of Canada's landscapes as presently known. A threefold increase in the area dedicated to protection is a basic component of the sustainable development prescription. All government and private lands dedicated to protection should be forged into a network, to provide core protection for immigrating and emigrating communities and individual species displaced by a changing climate. 20 refs., 2 figs

  11. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  12. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  13. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Station, a dry deciduous forest within Ankarafantsika National. Park. We set Sherman ... dry deciduous forests compared to research in the eastern rainforests (Goodman et al. .... the ground, this rat was observed on both the ground and trees. We tentatively .... Conservation International, Washington DC. Carleton, M. D. ...

  14. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We often observed domestic mammals such as cattle, cats and dogs in the forest at Ampijoroa. Although the primary forest in Ampijoroa is managed by Madagascar National Parks, local people leave these domestic animals in the forest. Introduced animals may be a threat to endemic animals. Cattle can be transmitters of ...

  15. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  16. Parks, Place and Pedagogy - Education Partnerships with the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.; Nash, B.; Klawiter, M.; Huntoon, J. E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Gochis, E. E.; MiTEP

    2011-12-01

    The Michigan Teaching Excellence Program (MITEP) is a multi-year program of teacher leadership development that empowers science teachers in Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Jackson to lead their schools and districts through the process of improving science teaching and learning. A component of this program is facilitated through partnership between academia, K-12 educators, and the National Park Service (NPS) that aims to develop place-based education strategies that improve diversity and Earth Science literacy. This tangible education method draws upon both the sense of place that National Parks offer and the art of interpretation employed by the park service. Combined, these deepen cognitive process and provide a more diverse reflection of what place means and the processes behind shaping what we see. Our partnerships present participants the opportunity to intern in a Midwest national park for 3-8 weeks during their third year in the program. In summer 2011, eleven teachers from the Grand Rapids school district participated in this innovative way of learning and teaching Earth Science. One goal was to develop geological interpretive materials desired and needed for the parks. Secondly, and important to place-based educational methodologies, these deliverables will be used as a way of bringing the parks to urban classrooms. Participants lived in the parks and worked directly with both national park and Michigan Tech staff to create lesson plans, podcasts, media clips, video, and photographic documentation of their experiences. These lesson plans will be hosted in the Views of the National Park website in an effort to provide innovative teaching resources nationally for teachers or free-choice learners wishing to access information on Midwest national parks. To the benefit of park staff, working with teachers from urban areas offered an opportunity for park staff to access diverse learners in urban settings unable to visit the park. The foundation has been laid for

  17. iTRAQ analysis of hepatic proteins in free-living Mus spretus mice to assess the contamination status of areas surrounding Doñana National Park (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Nieves; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Michán, Carmen; Pueyo, Carmen; López-Barea, Juan, E-mail: bb1lobaj@uco.es

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to develop and integrate new -omics tools that would be applicable to different ecosystem types for a technological updating of environmental evaluations. We used a 2nd-generation (iTRAQ-8plex) proteomic approach to identify/quantify proteins differentially expressed in the liver of free-living Mus spretus mice from Doñana National Park or its proximities. Mass spectrometry was performed in an LTQ Orbitrap system for iTRAQ reporter ion quantitation and protein identification using a Mus musculus database as reference. A prior IEF step improved the separation of the complex peptide mixture. Over 2000 identified proteins were altered, of which 118 changed by ≥ 2.5-fold in mice from at least two problem sites. Part of the results obtained with the iTRAQ analysis was confirmed by Western blot. Over 75% of the 118 proteins were upregulated in animals captured at polluted sites and only 16 proteins were downregulated. Upregulated proteins were involved in stress response; cell proliferation and apoptosis; signal transduction; metastasis or tumour suppression; xenobiotic export or vesicular trafficking; and metabolism. The downregulated proteins, all potentially harmful, were classified as oncoproteins and proteins favouring genome instability. The iTRAQ results presented here demonstrated that the survival of hepatic cells is compromised in animals living at polluted sites, which showed deep alterations in metabolism and the signalling pathways. The identified proteins may be useful as biomarkers of environmental pollution and provide insight about the metabolic pathways and/or physiological processes affected by pollutants in DNP and its surrounding areas. - Highlights: • iTRAQ quantitation was used for the first time to monitor a wildlife reserve • Over 2,000 proteins with altered expression were identified in problem Doñana sites • Of them, 118 changed over 2.5-fold in, at least, two problem sites • Upregulation of protective proteins

  18. An observational study of defensible space in the neighbourhood park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzukhi, M. A.; Afiq, M. A.; Zaki, S. Ahmad; Ling, O. H. L.

    2018-02-01

    The planning of neighborhood park is important to provide space for interaction, leisure, and recreation among residents in any neighbourhood area. However, on an almost daily basis, newspapers report inappropriate incidents such as snatch theft, robbery and street attack that occurred in the neighborhood park. These cases reflect the significance of physical planning and design of neighborhood park that directly affect the safety and comfort of the users. Thus, this study attempts to engage with the defensible space concept in ensuring the security elements be applied in the planning of the recreational area. This study adopts a qualitative method form of research that is retrofitted to an observational study. The observational study is significant for revealing the condition of a neighbourhood park in the ‘real-world,’ in which direct observation is conducted on Taman Tasik Puchong Perdana. The observer focused on four elements or variables of defensible space concept including the provision of facilities in the neighborhood park, territoriality, surveillance, image and milieu. The findings revealed that the planning of Taman Tasik Puchong Perdana does not deliberate the defensible space elements, which may contribute to the crime activities in the park. In these circumstances, the planning of neighbourhood park needs to include proposals for the implementation of defensible space in response to the challenges underpinned by crime problems. Besides, the awareness among the residents needs to be emphasized with the support from local authorities and other organizations to manage and sustain the safety environment in the neighborhood park.

  19. Community conservation adjacent to Ruaha National Park, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Stolberger

    2007-01-01

    In the areas adjacent to Ruaha National Park where rural communities exist, much more work and education is required to enable them to benefit directly and indirectly from tourism and managing their own natural resources.

  20. Mall di Central Park Kuala Namu

    OpenAIRE

    Mauliza, Eny

    2016-01-01

    This shopping center is designed in the business district of Kuala Namu Central Park, where there is a hotel and an office in it. This shopping center was built in the area Kualanamu Aerotropolis plan, and the theme is recreation. Application of recreational theme in this shopping center in order to create a special attraction for tourists and people passing through the area this shopping center, causing a desire to visit. The increase in tourists coming to North Sumatra, the ...

  1. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Y. Sinev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cladocera of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam, and the surrounding agricultural area, were surveyed during the spring of 2009 (onset of the wet season and autumn 2010 (end of the wet season. The studied water bodies included two large lakes (Bau Sau and Bau Chim, small lakes and ponds, temporary pools, rivers and streams, as well as rice fields and ponds in an agricultural area beyond the boundaries of the National Park. Fifty three species of Cladocera were found, 18 of them new for Vietnam. Distribution and taxonomical status of the species are discussed. Of the recorded species, 58.5% (31 were found only in the National Park, 34% (18 both in the National Park and the agricultural area, and only 7.5% (4 exclusively in the agricultural area. Of the 20 species new for Vietnam, only one was found both in the National Park and the agricultural area, all others were found in the National Park only. Such a difference can be directly attributed to the loss of natural habitats (forest ponds and streams in agricultural areas and to the pollution by pesticides. Our study shows the importance of surveys in pristine and protected areas, for the full evaluation of regional microcrustacean richness.

  2. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

  3. Building-Based Analysis of the Spatial Provision of Urban Parks in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiu Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks provide important environmental, social, and economic benefits to people and urban areas. The literature demonstrates that proximity to urban parks is one of the key factors influencing people’s willingness to use them. Therefore, the provision of urban parks near residential areas and workplaces is one of the key factors influencing quality of life. This study designed a solution based on the spatial association between urban parks and buildings where people live or work to identify whether people in different buildings have nearby urban parks available for their daily lives. A building density map based on building floor area (BFA was used to illustrate the spatial distribution of urban parks and five indices were designed to measure the scales, service coverage and potential service loads of urban parks and reveal areas lacking urban park services in an acceptable walking distance. With such solution, we investigated the provision of urban parks in ten districts of Shenzhen in China, which has grown from several small villages to a megacity in only 30 years. The results indicate that the spatial provision of urban parks in Shenzhen is not sufficient since people in about 65% of the buildings cannot access urban parks by walking 10-min. The distribution and service coverage of the existing urban parks is not balanced at the district level. In some districts, the existing urban parks have good numbers of potential users and even have large service loads, while in some districts, the building densities surrounding the existing parks are quite low and at the same time there is no urban parks nearby some high-density areas.

  4. Building-Based Analysis of the Spatial Provision of Urban Parks in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenxiu; Lyu, Qiang; Fan, Xiang; Yang, Xiaochun; Liu, Jiangtao; Zhang, Xirui

    2017-12-06

    Urban parks provide important environmental, social, and economic benefits to people and urban areas. The literature demonstrates that proximity to urban parks is one of the key factors influencing people's willingness to use them. Therefore, the provision of urban parks near residential areas and workplaces is one of the key factors influencing quality of life. This study designed a solution based on the spatial association between urban parks and buildings where people live or work to identify whether people in different buildings have nearby urban parks available for their daily lives. A building density map based on building floor area (BFA) was used to illustrate the spatial distribution of urban parks and five indices were designed to measure the scales, service coverage and potential service loads of urban parks and reveal areas lacking urban park services in an acceptable walking distance. With such solution, we investigated the provision of urban parks in ten districts of Shenzhen in China, which has grown from several small villages to a megacity in only 30 years. The results indicate that the spatial provision of urban parks in Shenzhen is not sufficient since people in about 65% of the buildings cannot access urban parks by walking 10-min. The distribution and service coverage of the existing urban parks is not balanced at the district level. In some districts, the existing urban parks have good numbers of potential users and even have large service loads, while in some districts, the building densities surrounding the existing parks are quite low and at the same time there is no urban parks nearby some high-density areas.

  5. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  6. The perceived implications of an outsourcing model on governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles (P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  7. Urban Park: an Integral Part of Welfare for Citizens — A Case Study of Shangzhi and Qinbin Parks in Harbin Metropolis, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Binzhang; Zhao, Chunli

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: As a key part of the urban green spaces, urban park plays important role in city citizens’ life. The significances of park treating as a green lung in urban area demonstrate its unique contribution to people’s life not only in physical and tangible aspects such as environment, ecology a...... management and service have been contributed by this study. Specifically, the awareness for treating the urban park as an integral part of citizens’ welfare should be arose and educated in entire society. Key words: Harbin Metropolis, urban park, activity, public life...... in their daily life, second one tries to learn what problems they meet during their visit and using, third one focuses on what problems and challenges of urban park need to be resolved by administrative officers and park managers. The research samples, Shanzhi Park and Qingbin Park, were selected in two...... spaces in both numbers and sizes as the form of park. It also showed some problems and challenges faced in park design and management had to be enhanced. Finally, some suggestions aimed to improve the situation of urban spaces included constructing new urban parks and promoting the quality of park...

  8. Recreatieve betekenis van het nationale park De Hoge Veluwe 1986 [Recreational importance of the national park "De Hoge Veluwe" 1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloeze, te J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Recreational importance of the national park "de Hoge Veluwe". R's nationality, residence / distance from ( temporary ) residence / frequency of visiting "de Hoge Veluwe" and in which season / duration of stay / visited areas and facilities, recreational activities / means of transport / reason for

  9. Parking information systems. [Case study Lyngby, Denmark]. Parkeringsinformationssystemer; Konsekvenser for energiforbrug og luftforurening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, O.; Krawack, S.; Thordrup, J.

    1989-08-15

    Larger parking information system are evaluated in relation to their possible influence with regard to energy conservation and air pollution abatement. As a case in point, an analysis of the current parking situation in Lyngby was based on a detailed registration of the activities of each vehicle parked within the area during a certain period of time. The possible effect of a parking information system on the parking situation in this area was investigated. It is suggested that the utilization of such a system could result in a 10% reduction of air pollution in areas of towns where parking places are most in demand. However a parking information system's contribution to energy conservation was found to be negligable. (AB).

  10. The perception of visitors towards the level of satisfaction on park (Case study: Singha Merjosari Park Malang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priadaniswari, R.

    2017-06-01

    Park is one of the public spaces which is used by people to get happiness and comfort. Singha Merjosari Park is one of the parks in Malang that is functioned as a recreational and educational park for the citizen. In weekends and national holidays Singha Merjosari park get visited by so many visitors. But if we see the reality, there are still some problems regarding visitor satisfaction. Also, there are attributes that has performance levels decrease that will become another new problem. The purpose of this study is to analyze the perception of visitors about the level of visitor satisfaction and what attributes that need to be improved and developed by managers in the future. The approach method in this research is descriptive quantitative. Primary data is based on measurement and observation. The number of samples used is 100 respondents referring to the number of samples determination by Slovin formula with the sample selection used is accidental sampling technique. The analysis technique used is Importance Performance Analysis (IPA) and Costumer Satisfaction Index (CSI). Based on the results of IPA analysis, the things that should get important attention and should be improved is the aesthetics of lighting, cleanliness of parking area and toilet, shade in park area, and availability of clean water. While the result of CSI value analysis is 65,30%. This means visitors are satisfied, but visitors are still not satisfied overall. Implications or changes that should be given is the aesthetics of lighting should be more creative and become the identity of the park (for example, lamp lanterns should be suitable with the concept of the park). Also, the change of toilet look so that visitors can enjoy the look and it can be iconic (toilet concept according to local culture of Malang) and the prevalence of lighting in the park area at night.

  11. Radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Andersen, B.V.; Carter, L.A.; Waite, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Many new nuclear facilities are unsatisfactory from a radiation protection point of view, particularly when striving to maintain occupational exposure as low as practicable 'ALAP'. Radiation protection is achieved through physical protective features supplemented by administrative controls. Adequate physical protective feature should be achieved during construction so that supplemental administrative controls may be kept simple and workable. Many nuclear facilities fall short of adequate physical protective features, thus, remedial and sometimes awkward administrative procedures are required to safely conduct work. In reviewing the various handbooks, reports and regulations which deal with radiation protection, it may be noted that there is minimal radiological design guidance for application to nuclear facilities. A set of criteria or codes covering functional areas rather than specific nuclear facility types is badly needed. The following are suggested as functional areas to be considered: characterization of the Facility; siting and access; design exposure limits; layout (people and materials flow); ventilation and effluent control; radiation protection facilities and systems. The application of such radiological design criteria early in the design process would provide some assurance that nuclear facilities will be safe, flexible, and efficient with a minimum of costly retrofitting or administrative restrictions. Criteria which we have found helpful in these functional areas is discussed together with justification for adoption of such criteria and identification of problems which still require solution

  12. Modelling parking behaviour considering heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, G.A.; Ibeas Portilla, A.; Alonso Oreña, B.; Olio, L. del

    2016-07-01

    Most of motorized trips in cities of middle and small size are made in public transport and mainly in private vehicle, this has caused a saturation in parking systems of the cities, causing important problems to society, one of the most important problems is high occupancy of public space by parking systems. Thus, is required the estimation of models that reproduce users’ behaviour when they are choosing for parking in cities, to carry out transport policies to improve transport efficiency and parking systems in the cities. The aim of this paper is the specification and estimation of models that simulate users’ behaviour when they are choosing among alternatives of parking that there are in the city: free on street parking, paid on street parking, paid on underground parking and Park and Ride (now there isn´t). For this purpose, is proposed a multinomial logit model that consider systematic and random variations in tastes. Data of users’ behaviour from the different alternatives of parking have been obtained with a stated preference surveys campaign which have been done in May 2015 in the principal parking zones of the city of Santander. In this paper, we provide a number of improvements to previously developed methodologies because of we consider much more realism to create the scenarios stated preference survey, obtaining better adjustments. (Author)

  13. Regulating on-street parking - evidence from Danish data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Edith; Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette

    to prices for parking in the area of interest. In this paper the focus is on the demand elasticity for parking. Although the parking issues are treated in the literature the subject still deserves attention and is underresearched and there is hardly any empirical work. One exception is van Ommeren et al......) and these are increasing in the occupancy rate. Taking these two effects into account implies that the demand for parking will be more price elastic when the occupancy rate is relatively low (the search cost are low) whereas it will be less price elastic when the occupancy rate is relatively high (increasing the price...... in Copenhagen only react slightly to increases in parking fee (DKK/hour)....

  14. National park development in China: conservation or commercialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyu; Innes, John L; Wu, Sara W; Krzyzanowski, Judi; Yin, Yongyuan; Dai, Shuanyou; Zhang, Xiaoping; Liu, Sihui

    2012-05-01

    The rapid development of parks and ecotourism in China has attracted worldwide attention, not only for the beauty of the landscape that the parks are protecting but also for their abundant and often unique biodiversity. However, in some areas, the development of ecotourism has actually led to the degradation of local ecological, economic, and social systems. Using National Forest Parks for demonstration, this article analyzes the current political, institutional, legal, environmental, and economic issues concerning National Parks in China, and examines their potential future development. Although the intention of National Park systems in China is to raise environmental quality, and to protect biodiversity and social livelihoods, their success has varied. Future success will be measured by their capacity to reduce poverty, to promote long-term rehabilitation of wildlife habitats, and to simultaneously protect Chinese culture and biodiversity.

  15. Prototype Design and Application of a Semi-circular Automatic Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Atacak, Ismail; Erdogdu, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, with the increasing population in urban areas, the number of vehicles used in traffic has also increased in these areas. This has brought with it major problems that are caused by insufficient parking areas, in terms of traffic congestion, drivers and environment. In this study, in order to overcome these problems, a multi-storey automatic parking system that automatically performs vehicle recognition, vehicle parking, vehicle delivery and pricing processes has been designed and the...

  16. New plant records for Tankwa Karoo National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffel P. Bester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tankwa Karoo National Park has been enlarged from 27 064 ha to 143 600 ha. This whole area is severely under-collected for plants in general and therefore it was an obvious target for the South African National Parks (SANParks Programme, a component of the Pretoria National Herbarium (PRE Plant Collecting Programme. This programme not only aims to survey national parks that have been poorly surveyed, but also inadequately known taxa, unique habitats, remote and inaccessible areas and plant species flowering at irregular times, especially after events such as fire or unusual timing of, or high, rainfall. General collecting in the Tankwa Karoo National Park has already led to the description of two new taxa, from two families. It furthermore resulted in new distribution records for the park and for the Northern Cape Province. These are reported on here.Conservation implications: Although the Tankwa Karoo National Park falls within the Succulent Karoo Biome (a biodiversity hotspot of international importance, information on its plant diversity is insufficient because it is an under-collected area. Results of this study will guide conservation and supply occurrence and distribution data required to compile management plans for the park.

  17. Managing contested greenspace: neighborhood commons and the rise of dog parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matisoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dog parks present an emerging class or urban environmental amenities. In order to develop a better understanding of dog parks, this article applies existing literature regarding urban parks and common pool resource (CPR management to off-leash recreation areas. We develop a typology dog-park management and build upon a survey of 298 dog park users of a major dog park. We test the relationship between the perception of the park as a successfully governed CPR, and behaviour which contributes to collective action, such as contributing time, money, or to the upkeep of the park and developing a sense of community. We see strong relationships between these indicators of overcoming collective action problems and the four variables corresponding to design principles. Across all models, feeling involved in rule-making positively and significantly predicts more collective action or stronger sense of community.

  18. Livermore Big Trees Park Soil Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConachie, W.A.; Failor, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will sample and analyze soil in the Big Trees Park area in Livermore, California, to determine if the initial level of plutonium (Pu) in a soil sample taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in September 1993 can be confirmed. Nineteen samples will be collected and analyzed: 4 in the area where the initial EPA sample was taken, 2 in the nearby Arroyo Seco, 12 in scattered uncovered soil areas in the park and nearby school, and 1 from the sandbox of a nearby apartment complex. Two quality control (QC) samples (field duplicates of the preceding samples) win also be collected and analyzed. This document briefly describes the purpose behind the sampling, the sampling rationale, and the methodology

  19. Redesign of Denggung Park as Sleman Urban Park based on Local Wisdom in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, I.; Fatimah, IS

    2017-10-01

    Sleman Regency is one of the administrative area in Special Region of Yogyakarta Province which has increased the pace of infrastructure development activities that undertaken by the central government affects another surrounding area. The pace of infrastructure development impacts such problems in Sleman Regency such as, increasingly limited public spaces and changes in understanding the value of local wisdom. Sleman Regency has a park located in central government which is Denggung Park. This park has low visitors and less of aesthetic value which require re-design to improve the quality as public space for cultural identity space. The base concept of Urban Park adopted the philosophy that connects to four components in Javanese mythology. The four components in Javanese mythology symbolize the journey of human life in the Javanese cosmological theory, there are Mount Merapi, Keraton, Krapyak Stage, and South seas. The design concept inspired from pattern of Yogyakarta traditional clothing namely, Batik Kawung which describe of Philosophy “Four of Brotherhood and Five of Central itself” by means synergize four items creating world nature and human as life catalyzer. This study uses descriptive and spatial analysis method. The result of this research is expected to be a design recommendation for Sleman Regency governance in the urban park development.

  20. Contents of heavy metals in urban parks and university campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Because the city park has become an important place for people's daily leisure, and the university campus is one of the most densely populated areas of the city, their environmental pollution is critical for the health and safety of the residents. In this paper, two kinds of evaluation methods were used to evaluate the content of Cu, Zn, As and Pb in soils of city parks and university campus in Xiangtan. The results showed that only Juhuatang Park was a non-polluted area, and the other 7 sampling sites were lightly polluted; Analysis shows the heavy metal contents of soil in city parks are closely related to vehicle emissions, agriculture and irrigation, combustion of household waste, living area and commercial shops, the use of fossil fuels, industrial waste gas and waste residue and other human activities.

  1. Sustainable urban spaces: Ecological parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçak Erdoğan Onur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly depleted resources with technological and economic developments which increased in recent years has led to deterioration of the natural balance in the world. Urban ecosystems is considerably changed, especially with population growth and intensive construction in the city. This situation, as such in all other areas, urban ecosystems are also increasing their sustainability concerns. More compatible solution with the natural process in landscape design and management have to be brought. This article describes the conceptual structure of ecological park that has become a tool for sustainable urban target in community that matured of environmental awareness. Also planning, design and management principles are explained by supporting with application examples. The obtained results within the framework, it is aimed to create a source for similar applications that will lead to spread in our country. In addition, it is put forward suggestions for dissemination of such practices.

  2. The Upper Danube Nature Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosedla, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    When in 1980 the Upper Danube Nature Park was founded as one of 65 nature sanctuaries in Germany there was great diversity of opinions concerning its intended character. The protected region consisting of a geologically outstanding landscape within central Europe is covering the first 80 km the upper Danube where the young river shortly after it's source in the Black Forest is breaking through the narrow canyons of the Jurassic rock plateau of the so-called Suebian Alps and also locates the subterranean passage where the stream is submerging from the surface for nearly ten miles. Since the purpose of nature preservation according to German las is closely combined with the rather contradicting aim of offering an attractive recreation area thus facing the immense impacts of modern mass tourism there are numerous problems which in the course of years have resulted in an intricate patterns of subtle management methods coping with the growing awareness of the ecological balance. (author)

  3. Soil Properties in Natural Forest Destruction and Conversion to Agricultural Land,in Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Wasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Destruction of the Gunung Leuser National Park area of North Sumatera Province through land clearing and land cover change from natural forest to agricultural land. Less attention to land use and ecosystem carrying capacity of the soil can cause soil degradation and destruction of flora, fauna, and wildlife habitat destruction. Environmental damage will result in a national park wild life will come out of the conservation area and would damage the agricultural community. Soil sampling conducted in purposive sampling in natural forest and agricultural areas.  Observation suggest that damage to the natural forest vegetation has caused the soil is not protected so that erosion has occurred. Destruction of natural forest into agricultural are as has caused damage to soil physical properties, soil chemical properties, and biological soil properties significantly. Forms of soil degradation caused by the destruction of natural forests, which is an increase in soil density (density Limbak by 103%, a decrease of 93% organic C and soil nitrogen decreased by 81%. The main factors causing soil degradation is the reduction of organic matter and soil erosion due to loss of natural forest vegetation.  Criteria for soil degradation in Governance Regulation Number 150/2000 can be used to determine the extent of soil degradation in natural forest ecosystems.Keywords: Gunung Leuser National Park, natural forest, agricultural land, land damage, soil properties

  4. Some aspects of identity, meaning and park sustainability research, with special reference to Kamenički park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Luka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of urban planning by principles of sustainable development is the pursuit of diversity in structure, form and function in planning and design of urban public space. It is therefore necessary to redefine the concept and function of urban green areas and city parks, with the recommendation of identity preservation and promotion of social cohesion of this type of public space. In a theoretical sense, there is a problem of planning and designing urban parks in Serbia. This is due to failure to recognize the complexity underlying the possible role of urban public parks as an engine of urban renewal in the city or of any of his districts. Example of Kamenički park was chosen because of its complexity - in addition to being the largest green space in the city, this park also has high natural and cultural values (the park is protected as a cultural and natural heritage. The results indicate the reduced use of urban space. Based on existing theory and insights into the local planning process, general recommendations for improving its quality is the improvement of form/design of the park and it is necessary to define and promote the identity of space through the spatial analysis. The ultimate goal is to successfully respond to existing and potential customers' needs and thus define environmental, economic, cultural and social sustainability, which are key factors in managing the park.

  5. A Survey of Intelligent Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Faheem; S.A. Mahmud; G.M. Khan; M. Rahman; H. Zafar

    2013-01-01

    The industrialization of the world, increase in population, slow paced city development and mismanagement of the available parking space has resulted in parking related problems. There is a dire need for a secure, intelligent, efficient and reliable system which can be used for searching the unoccupied parking facility, guidance towards the parking facility, negotiation of the parking fee, along with the proper management of the parking facility. Intelligent Parking Service is a part of Intel...

  6. A NATURE CONSERVATION AREA TOURISM İN THE CLAMPS: DİLEK PENİNSULA-BÜYÜK MENDERES DELTA NATIONAL PARK TURİZMİN KISKACINDA BİR DOĞA KORUMA ALANI: DİLEK YARIMADASI-BÜYÜK MENDERES DELTASI MİLLİ PARKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal BEKDEMİR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dilek Peninsula- The National Park of Büyük Menderes Delta are among the areas of great importance in terms of flora and fauna diversity in our country. This area has increasingly been under the influence of tourism becuase of its natural, historical, and cultural touristic attractions and such places of high tourism potential as Kuşadası, Didim, and Selçuk, which are located nearby the area. This is a case that will cause a number of gradually-increasing adversities on the touristic sources of the National Park to arrise today and in future.In order for the the touristic potential of the National Park to gain a sustainable characteristic, what measures should be taken is of great importance with respect to any effort to decrease the number of issues which this area has faced today and will also certainly face in the future to a minimum level. This study aims to identify what should and/or can be done to conserve the National Park with its untouched characteristics for future generations. Dilek yarımadası-Büyük Menderes deltası milli parkı, Ülkemizin flora ve fauna çeşitliliği açısından önemli alanlarındandır. Bünyesindeki doğal, tarihi ve kültürel turistik çekicilikler ve yakın çevresinde yer alan Kuşadası, Didim ve Selçuk gibi turizm potansiyeli yüksek yerler nedeniyle gittikçe artan düzeyde turizmin etkisinde kalmaktadır. Bu durum milli parkın turistik kaynakları üzerinde günümüzde ve gelecekte aratarak devam eden olumsuz gelişmelerin ortaya çıkmasına neden olacaktır. Milli parkın turistik potansiyelinin sürdürülebilir nitelik kazanabilmesi için günümüzde karşılaştığı ve gelecekte ise kaçınılmaz olarak karşılaşacağı sorunların en aza indirilmesi çabasında yapılması gerekenler oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, milli parkın bozulmamış özellikleriyle geleceğe taşınması için neler yapılabileceğinin belirlenmesidir.

  7. Consistents of car’s parking in Lithuanian towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burinskienė

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Large towns of Lithuania should especially focus on the solution of the parked cars; and modern technologies should be employed for that. The research methods have been substantiated and the recommendations for the technical regulations of the short-term and long-term car parking near different objects of attraction have been worked out on the basis of selective natural research, which is significant when issuing technical specifications to investors on the way the surroundings of the objects being built should be arranged and on what rearrangement of the urban streets is necessary. With a high level of motorization, the organization of the car parking process is a complicated problem of urban planning. The accumulated experience and the carried out analysis show that car parking problems can be positively solved even with a high level of motorization by: making use of the urban area as reasonably as possible so that the spaces could take the greatest possible number of cars; limiting the duration of parking so that the greater number of cars could use the same parking space; promoting car sharing; differentiating the entrance possibilities for different vehicles with regard of time, space and fee size. Solutions related to the determination of the parking space should be achieved in the context of the strategy of total urban development, area and traffic planning, traffic safety improvement and preservation of unique environment.

  8. Virginia ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for management areas, national parks, state and local parks, and wildlife refuges in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  9. National parks and local development in Poland: A municipal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Zawilińska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressing the problem of local authorities seeing in national parks a stimulus or a barrier for local development in Poland. The results of surveys conducted among representatives of authorities of selected municipalities (n=61, in which there are national park areas show that the assessment of the role and impact of this type of protected areas varies. In most cases the presence of national parks is viewed positively. Emphasis is put on their importance to the local socio-economic development. The economic benefit is seen mainly in the tourism sector and the development of associated services. However, local communities experience many restrictions resulting from functioning of protected areas, especially in regard to the possibility of increasing revenues to the budgets of municipalities, production entrepreneurship development and intensification of agricultural production and fisheries. It is believed that in the future parks should stimulate local development to a larger extent. To achieve this, it is necessary to see a national park as a system linked to the socio-economic environment and to take planning actions based on a holistic look at natural, social and economic issues of a national park and its neighbourhood. The cooperation between local authorities, parks’ management, non-governmental organisations and local tourism business should be strengthened as well as steps should be taken in order to increase social participation in shaping the development of these areas.

  10. Enhancing Visitor Experiences Using Thematic Interpretation in Park Guiding Service in Sarawak National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Victor Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing visitor experiences is arguably the primary and most important goal for interpretation by many protected area managers and tourism business. However, little research has been conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia to directly quantify the effects of thematic interpretation has on tourist experiences. Drawing on the TORE-model of interpretation and through the inception of Park Guiding Training and Licensing System in Sarawak since 2007, this quantitative study examines the effectiveness of thematic interpretive guided tours delivered by park guides at Bako National Park, Sarawak, with the assumption that it will further enhance visitor experiences. A descriptive analysis and Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis of sub-indicators of the global evaluation of interpretation of site, and sub-indicators of elaboration surveyed from visitors of purposively sampled park guides revealed a strong measurement and correlation coefficients of visitors’ overall quality of thematic intepretive guided tours effecting visitor satisfaction and experiences. These findings provide empirical evidence that good thematic interpretive guided tour makes a positive impacts on visitor experiences, thus making training of tourism businesses' employees as park guides as a good investment. The suggestions for further research in influencing visitor attitude and shaping visitor behaviour are offered.

  11. An integrated multi-criteria scenario evaluation web tool for participatory land-use planning in urbanized areas: The Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiosa, Bill; Forney, William M.; Hearn,, Paul P.; Hogan, Dianna M.; Strong, David R.; Swain, Eric D.; Esnard, Ann-Margaret; Mitsova-Boneva, D.; Bernknopf, R.; Pearlstine, Leonard; Gladwin, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Land-use land-cover change is one of the most important and direct drivers of changes in ecosystem functions and services. Given the complexity of the decision-making, there is a need for Internet-based decision support systems with scenario evaluation capabilities to help planners, resource managers and communities visualize, compare and consider trade-offs among the many values at stake in land use planning. This article presents details on an Ecosystem Portfolio Model (EPM) prototype that integrates ecological, socio-economic information and associated values of relevance to decision-makers and stakeholders. The EPM uses a multi-criteria scenario evaluation framework, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis and spatially-explicit land-use/land-cover change-sensitive models to characterize changes in important land-cover related ecosystem values related to ecosystem services and functions, land parcel prices, and community quality-of-life (QoL) metrics. Parameters in the underlying models can be modified through the interface, allowing users in a facilitated group setting to explore simultaneously issues of scientific uncertainty and divergence in the preferences of stakeholders. One application of the South Florida EPM prototype reported in this article shows the modeled changes (which are significant) in aggregate ecological value, landscape patterns and fragmentation, biodiversity potential and ecological restoration potential for current land uses compared to the 2050 land-use scenario. Ongoing refinements to EPM, and future work especially in regard to modifiable sea level rise scenarios are also discussed.

  12. The Value of Urban Parks in Lodz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olbińska Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An awareness of the role of public space is growing among the inhabitants of cities. This space is an integral part of our daily lives. It consists of places outside the home where we spend free time, i.e. the streets we walk on, the squares and greeneries where we meet, as well as playgrounds, parks and green areas where we rest and do sports. The quality of such space affects many aspects of human life.

  13. The today nuclear park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.; Marignac, Y.; Tassart, J.

    2000-03-01

    This economic analysis of the nuclear industry, takes stock on the french nuclear park, the nuclear materials flux, the operating and in construction from 1970 to 1998 reactors, the storage and the wastes reprocessing. The second part proposes many scenario in function of the reactors lifetime and the industrial policy of fuel reprocessing. This analysis shows the interest of extending the power plants lifetime and evaluates the consequences of a reprocessing-recycling policy facing the stop of such a policy in 2010. (A.L.B.)

  14. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Primary Medical Care Professional(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... above.) 2. Determination of Degree of Shortage. Designated correctional institutions will be assigned to... metropolitan areas which display a strong self-identity (as indicated by a homogeneous socioeconomic or... population for the differing health service requirements of various age-sex population groups will be...

  15. Physical Activity in Public Parks of High and Low Socioeconomic Status in Colombia Using Observational Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diana Marina; Ramírez, Paula Camila; Quiroga, Vanesa; Ríos, Paola; Férmino, Rogério César; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2018-03-28

    Public parks are an important resource for the promotion of physical activity (PA). This is the first study in Colombia and the fourth in Latin America to describe the characteristics of park users and their levels of PA using objective measures. A systematic observation assessed sex, age, and the level of PA of users of 10 parks in an intermediate-size city in Colombia, classified in low (5 parks) and high (5 parks) socioeconomic status (SES). A total of 10 daily observations were conducted, in 5 days of the week during 3 periods: morning, afternoon, and evening. In total, 16,671 observations were completed, recording 46,047 users. A higher number of users per park, per day, were recorded in high SES (1195) versus low SES (647). More men were observed in low-SES than high-SES parks (70.1% vs 54.2%), as well as more children were observed in low-SES than high-SES parks (30.1% vs 15.9%). Older adults in high-SES parks were more frequent (9.5% vs 5.2%). Moderate to vigorous PA was higher in low-SES parks (71.7% vs 63.2%). Low-SES parks need more green spaces, walk/bike trails, and areas for PA. All parks need new programs to increase the number of users and their PA level, considering sex, age group, and period of the week.

  16. Comparison of the ability to flourish and the increment of native species of the cerrado region in different soils, aiming at recuperating the degraded soils in the Abadia de Goias State Park; Comparacao de pegamentos e incrementos de especies nativas do cerrado em diferentes solos para recuperacao de areas degradadas no Parque Estadual de Abadia de Goias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Max Lima e; Antunes, Erides Campos; Benvenutti, Romeu Davi [CONFLORA, Consultoria, Planejamento e Assessoria Florestal, GO (Brazil); Ferreira, Gislene Auxiliadora; Braga, Marcio

    1997-12-31

    The project of botanical recuperation was carried out in order to re vegetate the degraded soils of the areas which surround the radioactive deposit of Cesium 137, within the State Park of Abadia de Goias. An analysis of the park area reveals different stages of degradation, from an absolute stage of degradation, with the C horizon exposed, to other areas of well-preserved forest. On the occasion of the installation of the deposit of radioactive waste, the EIA-RIMA Report determined that the areas should be recuperated in order to re-establish the previous existing forests and cerrado vegetation. A plan for planting 199,366 native trees was then carried out. The present long term project, aims to monitoring the growth of the several species, in different substrates, with the general objective of determining which would better adapt to such substrates. The objective is to provide subsidies for developing appropriate methodology for recuperating degraded areas. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.; e-mail: conflora at netgo.com.br

  17. Questão fundiária em áreas protegidas: Uma experiência no Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca (PEPB, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Land tenure in protected areas: a case study in the State Park of Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Yu Iwama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The land tenure has been a challenge for the management of protected areas in Brazil, mainly those located in urban areas, such as the ‘Pedra Branca’ State Park (PEPB in the west of Rio de Janeiro city. To ensure an adequate management of UC, this paper presents a land tenure analysis for support the Management Plan of PEPB. Based on the secondary data and application of structured questionnaires (316 interviews, representing 29% of the total estimated housing on the land tenure in areas inside/around of PEPB boundaries, seeking for some key elements to support the management of PEPB. This survey identified six zones (Z with some types of occupation in the study area. The results showed that there are diversified occupations, such as residents with high, medium and low income, including ‘favelas’, subsistence agricultures and temporary residents. This work pointed out to a complexity related to the land tenure in protected areas and highlights the required elements: (i systematic data survey for the complete registration of properties in PEPB; (ii organization of a multi-interdisciplinary working groups to solve land tenure problems, (iii implementation of environmental education and communication programs, seeking explanation on the PEPB conservation as a factor of improving the quality of life, (iv agreements between the residents of the Park and policy makers to minimize the conflicts caused by the land tenure in PEPB.

  18. REAL-TIME NAVIGATION SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN THE SCOPE OF 3D GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR MULTI STOREY CAR PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yenigun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, a large increase in the number of vehicles in traffic with population growth and economic development are observed. This increase brings with it many problems. One of these problems is the parking problem as a result of the need to park the vehicle. Impractical and inadequate parking areas have a negative impact on drivers. To minimize these drawbacks, car parking is intended to develop a system to come to the aid of users. This system is planned to be developed which can be applied to indoor and multi-storey parking structure. Considered in this study, in the garage, drivers are intended to be directed as soon as possible in place of the convenient parking. However, the amount of fuel spent looking for parking tool that are caused by air and noise pollution, and to search for a parking lot when looking for a place to park the lost time, the resulting stress is minimized, it is expected that.

  19. Real-Time Navigation System Implementation Within the Scope of 3d Geographic Information Systems for Multi Storey CAR Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, B.; Karas, I. R.; Demiral, E.

    2016-10-01

    Today, a large increase in the number of vehicles in traffic with population growth and economic development are observed. This increase brings with it many problems. One of these problems is the parking problem as a result of the need to park the vehicle. Impractical and inadequate parking areas have a negative impact on drivers. To minimize these drawbacks, car parking is intended to develop a system to come to the aid of users. This system is planned to be developed which can be applied to indoor and multi-storey parking structure. Considered in this study, in the garage, drivers are intended to be directed as soon as possible in place of the convenient parking. However, the amount of fuel spent looking for parking tool that are caused by air and noise pollution, and to search for a parking lot when looking for a place to park the lost time, the resulting stress is minimized, it is expected that.

  20. Parking Spoorzone Delft : Addressing expected parking challenges 2015-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccot, C.; Groenendijk, L.; Rot, M.; Van der Meijs, P.; Rakers, T.; Negenborn, R.R.; Annema, J.A.; Pel, A.; Vleugel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This project is carried out on request of the BVOW, the interest group of the neighbourhoods Olofsbuurt and Westerkwartier in Delft, in order to propose solutions for the parking issue of Spoorzone Delft expected between 2015 and 2017. They are worried that parking disturbances will emerge in their

  1. Presenting a mapping method based on fuzzy Logic and TOPSIS multi criteria decision-making methods to detect promising porphyry copper mineralization areas in the east of the Sarcheshmeh copper metallogenic district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Riahi

    2017-11-01

    through applying the multi-criteria decision-making method. Finally, the selected favorable areas in the metallogenic strip located at the south to the south-east of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit are prioritized and introduced for further follow up ground exploration operations. Methodology In order to solve complex decision-making problems like the problem of mapping favorable porphyry copper mineralization zones under great uncertainties, the TOPSIS method is considered as an appropriate approach offering significant simplicity, flexibility and capability (Ataei., 2010. The TOPSIS method is considered to be an efficient method due to having very high accuracy, speed, sensitivity as well as being easy to implement and interpret the outputted results (Hwang and Yoon, 1981. It has found many applications in important areas of mining industry where there is a need to make decisions under risky conditions and data uncertainties. One basic issue in applying decision-making methods in the field of mineral exploration is to rank and propose the best possible candidates among all potentially favorable areas for the next stage of mineral exploration. In this regard, the best favorable areas are selected based on exploratory data layers including favorable lithologies, alterations, structures plus geochemical and geophysical anomalies (Pazand et al., 2012. Results and discussion In the first step, the area located south to the southeast of one the largest porphyry copper deposits in Iran known as Sarcheshmeh was investigated for favorable areas using all available exploratory data as mentioned in the previous section using fuzzy logic integration approach in the GIS environment. Evaluating the highly favorable areas presented by the fuzzy logic approach showed great consistency with the already known copper mineralization prospects. Next, the first 20 priorities obtained from the fuzzy logic approach were chosen as the best candidates to be ranked using the TOPSIS multi

  2. Mammalian fauna of the Temessos National Park, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Marinis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Park of Termessos, Southern Turkey, is one of the Turkey’s biggest national park not only with its archeological richness but also with its great natural wild life. We provided a checklist of the mammalian fauna of the park on the base of direct observations, interviews and a comparative analysis of the available literature. Sixteen species have been reported in the park. Hedgehogs, hares, porcupines and Persian squirrels and, among flying mammals, Egyptian rousette and Mouse-eared bat have been recorded. Carnivores are represented by Golden jackal, Wolf, Red fox, Stone marten, Badger, Otter and Wild cat. Very recently (2005 the presence of the Caracal in the park has been confirmed, whereas no signs of the presence of the Lynx were detected. The last Anatolian leopards seems to have definitively disappeared from the region. The occurrence in the area of striped hyaenas and brown bears is documented up to a few decades ago. The Park is regarded as the only geographical range in the whole world where the European or Common fallow deer has persisted as a native form. Other ungulates too, such as Wild goat and Wild boar are dispersed within the boundary of the park. Management implications are discussed.

  3. Identifying areas suitable for wine tourism through the use of multi-criteria and geographic information system: the method and its application in the countryside around Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards are among the crops that shape quality landscapes. Many places in the world are famous for their unique wine landscapes which play an important role in the development of tourism in the rural areas. Among these, the wine landscape surrounding mount Etna (Sicily emerges due to its undisputed value, as it is an important component of the territory recognised as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This work was conducted with that in mind, in order to identify the most suitable areas for wine tourism on the slopes of our volcano. The method used assigns a great importance to the quality of the landscape, an indispensable resource for encouraging wine tourism, and considers it to be of equal importance with the production of the wines themselves. The present work uses multi-criteria analysis in combination with geographic information system (GIS. Numerous indicators describing local resources were weighed and spatialized. The GIS analysis allowed for the development of various intermediate maps, which allowed to draw up the final suitability map for wine tourism, identifying areas larger than those of the actual vineyards. The value of these areas and the quality of their landscapes are closely connected to the production of the wines in the zone. It could be the target for specific plans and projects aimed at using the available resources, to develop wine tourism in rural areas. Although the study only covers a limited geographical area, the methodology used has general validity and could be used in other contexts.

  4. The situation of the wolf (Canis lupus in the area of the Regional Park of the Simbruini Mountains / La situazione del Lupo (Canis lupus nell'area del Parco Naturale Regionale dei Monti Simbruini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Verucci

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work presents the results of a field research on the species Canis lupus in the Regional Park of the Simbruini Mountains. In relation to Wolf conservation, an investigation on feral and free-roving dogs was carried out. The method of snowtracking was used for Wolves and Feral dogs, the method of sighting was used for free-roving dogs. The research underlines the importance of the Simbruini Mountains for the protection of Wolf in central Apennines and the factors, at present, threatening its survival. Riassunto Nel presente lavoro vengono illustrati i risultati di una ricerca sul campo sulla specie Canis lupus nel Parco Naturale Regionale dei Monti Simbruini. In relazione agli aspetti riguardanti la conservazione del Lupo, è stata compiuta un'indagine sul fenomeno del randagismo canino. Per i lupi e i cani inselvatichiti è stato usato il metodo dello snowtracking, per le altre categorie di Cani è stato utilizzato il metodo dell'avvistamento. La ricerca ha messo in luce l'importanza dell'area dei Simbruini per la salvaguardia del Lupo nell'Appennino centrale e i fattori che, attualmente, ne minacciano la sopravvivenza.

  5. Intraspecific variation of the Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas (Cheloniidae), in the foraging area of Gorgona Natural National Park (Colombian Pacific); Variacion intraespecifica de la Tortuga Verde Chelonia mydas (Cheloniidae) en el area de forrajeo del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacifico Colombiano)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Laura; Payan, Luis Fernando; Amorocho, Diego Fernando; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Giraldo, Alan

    2014-07-01

    The size distribution and body condition of the two morphotypes of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) foraging in Gorgona Natural National Park (GNNP) in the Colombian Pacific was assessed from 2003 to 2012. Measurements of straight carapace length (SCL), curved carapace length (CCL), weight, and body condition of 1,023 turtles captured on the GNNP reefs were recorded. More black turtles (n = 747) than yellow turtles (n = 276) were captured, all of them juveniles. Black turtles were significantly larger and heavier than yellow turtles. The size of recruitment to the neritic zone was 40.0-49.9 cm SCL for both morphotypes, but there were more yellow than black turtles in this size class, indicating a difference in the recruitment pattern. The body condition index of yellow turtles was significantly higher than that of black turtles, which could indicate differences in resource use. Based on our results, we suggest that GNNP might function as a recruitment area for yellow turtles, which arrive at smaller sizes and as part of a coastal migratory route for black turtles, which arrive at larger sizes and maintain residence at this location for an unknown period of time.

  6. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  7. Discussion about the use of the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) as criteria to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecloux, André J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU regulation, a material containing particles is considered as nano if, for 50 % or more of the particles in the number size distribution, one or more external dimensions is in the size range 1–100 nm. Due to the difficulty to measure in a reliable way the number particle size distribution, it is suggested to use the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) >60 m 2 /cm 3 as simple screening criterion to identify nanomaterials. This threshold corresponds to monodispersed spherical particles with a size of 100 nm. In this paper, a theoretical study is carried out to identify the effect of the particle shape, polydispersity, agglomeration and aggregation on the VSSA threshold. It appears that the VSSA approach is overprotective because a lot of samples are identified as nanomaterials even if less than 50 % of the particles have a size lower than 100 nm, this 50 % in number criterion being the main identification criterion in the EU definition. Even if the VSSA is leading to many false positive results, it can be used to identify non-nanomaterials as soon as its value is lower than the threshold at the condition to take into account the shape of the particles and their external surface area. This conclusion is true for monomodal distributions of particles but is subject to some restrictions for bimodal distributions

  8. Discussion about the use of the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) as criteria to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecloux, André J., E-mail: alecloux@nanocyl.com, E-mail: envicat@skynet.be [ENVICAT Consulting (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    In the EU regulation, a material containing particles is considered as nano if, for 50 % or more of the particles in the number size distribution, one or more external dimensions is in the size range 1–100 nm. Due to the difficulty to measure in a reliable way the number particle size distribution, it is suggested to use the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) >60 m{sup 2}/cm{sup 3} as simple screening criterion to identify nanomaterials. This threshold corresponds to monodispersed spherical particles with a size of 100 nm. In this paper, a theoretical study is carried out to identify the effect of the particle shape, polydispersity, agglomeration and aggregation on the VSSA threshold. It appears that the VSSA approach is overprotective because a lot of samples are identified as nanomaterials even if less than 50 % of the particles have a size lower than 100 nm, this 50 % in number criterion being the main identification criterion in the EU definition. Even if the VSSA is leading to many false positive results, it can be used to identify non-nanomaterials as soon as its value is lower than the threshold at the condition to take into account the shape of the particles and their external surface area. This conclusion is true for monomodal distributions of particles but is subject to some restrictions for bimodal distributions.

  9. Smart parking management and navigation system

    KAUST Repository

    Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space

  10. URBAN MUNICIPAL PARKS IN DOURADOS – MS – BRAZIL: THE STATE OF THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristiane Fernandes da Silva Lunas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban environmental conditions are an increasing concern in several segments of civil society and the urban parks are part of this context. However, discussions about urban parks are less emphatic when compared to the prominence given to other environmental problems. This study sought to report the real situation of the three main urban environmental parks in the municipality of Dourados/MS, presenting their current state of conservation and maintenance and the main management actions that have been taken since the creation of each park. The main goal of this study was to identify the situation of these parks to propose measures that will help their conservation. The methodology consisted of the bibliographical survey, which reinforced the importance of green areas in urban spaces, a detailed field survey in the parks, as well as the study of documents that broached these parks. It was possible to verify that the parks have grave environmental problems and they are at risk due to poor conservation. Furthermore, the population starts to feel the social impact of abandoned urban green areas, besides the environmental effects. It was noted that the punctual projects elaborated for the parks have not had the desired effects, given the difficulty of allocating resources and the existence of political barriers. To that end, the elaboration of management plans for the parks was recommended, besides a detailed study about the management model that has been developed in these areas.

  11. Metal assessment in urban park soils in Sao Paulo. 3. Aclimacao Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, Arthur C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Gumiero, Felipe C.; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2007-01-01

    As part of a project which aims metal assessment in urban park soils from Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Zn, Sb, Se, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Aclimacao park of Sao Paulo. Urban soils play an important role in maintaining the environmental quality as they can act as both source and sink for pollutants that can affect human health. Parks and playgrounds are where urban children spend most of their time outdoors and are also where children most frequently come in contact with soil. Aclimacao park is located at the central region of the city, in a residential area. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) were used for metal analysis. The results obtained for Zn were higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), but lower than the Prevention values. For Ba, Cr, and Sb, the results obtained showed concentration levels higher than Prevention value reported by CETESB. According to CETESB, metal concentration levels above the Prevention value can cause prejudicial alterations in soil and subterranean water quality. For As, in the 0-5 cm samples, the concentration levels were near or above the Intervention value for agricultural area reported by CETESB. (author)

  12. Balancing conservation management and tourism development with wilderness stewardship in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. J. (Freek) Venter

    2007-01-01

    The Kruger National Park (KNP) faces greatly amplified problems than was the case in the early 1900s when the KNP was established. Areas surrounding the park have experienced a human population explosion with a rapid expansion of farming areas and rural settlements. In the 1970s the KNP was fenced. Ecologically the KNP became an island and previous regional animal...

  13. CERN in the park

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN will be the centre of debate at a 'Café scientifique' on Monday 29 April. The aim of the Cafés scientifiques, which are organised by the association of Bancs Publics, is to kindle discussion between ordinary people and specialists in a scientific field. This Monday, Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council, Hans Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing at CERN, Gilbert Guignard, a physicist at CERN, and Ruhal Floris, who teaches mathematical didactics at the University of Geneva, will explain the usefulness and contributions to science of the world's biggest laboratory for particle physics. What is CERN for? Monday 29 April at 18.30 Musée d'histoire des sciences, Geneva (in the park Perle du Lac) Entry free Wine and buffet after the discussion

  14. Birds of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGI STOYANOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The work is based mainly on personal field studies of the authors during different periods of time from the beginning of the 1980s until present. As a result, the Park's species list is extended to 208 bird species, 131 of them nesting in the mountain. We report 23 species for the first time for the Park's area. Analyses of proportion of species distribution among 13 habitat types revealed several patterns: 1 forest habitats held more species than expected; 2 number of species that nested in 1, 2 or 3 habitats was higher than expected; 3 proportion of species, that nested in 1, 2 or 3 habitats was higher in rock habitats, mountain pastures and running waters, and lower in broadleaf plantations.

  15. Park Planning for Ageing Adults Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Dahl

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of understanding park planning issues and implementing planning strategies for ageing adults was the driving force for this study. Literature reviews have identified a variety of scholarly work from fields such as gerontology, psychology, sociology and economics, all of which provide valuable information regarding the special needs of ageing adults. Very few researchers, however, have investigated the leisure behaviours of older adults in outdoor recreation (Croskeys, Tinsley and Tinsley, 2002 and the use of grounded theory methodology has essentially been unexplored in this area. Ageing adults are projected to live more than 20 percent of their life in retirement (MRP, 1998, cited in Croskeys, Tinsley and Tinsley, 2002, allowing for an increased amount of discretionary time. This offers opportunities for ageing adults to participate in outdoor recreational activities and will undoubtedly increase their leisure time. However, with limited research in recreational needs and inclusion for older adults, it is difficult for park planners and administrators to meet the growing needs of this population. Therefore, this research is necessary in order to determine whether ageing adults are being accounted for in park and outdoor recreational planning. The objective of this study was to use grounded theory research methodology to identify and examine ageing adult needs in relation to outdoor leisure activities in a regional park setting. Ten Midwestern regional park visitors (aged 65-75 years old and four park employees were interviewed. Our research attempts to fill in the gaps between the perceptions of ageing park users and those of park planners, using a methodology that relies primarily on direct contact with park visitors.

  16. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  17. Work on the Building 4 car park and closure of Entrance A

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    From 6 July to 31 October 2015, the GS department will be carrying out renovation work on the car park next to Buildings 4 and 5. This work is aimed at improving safety on and around the car park for all users, particularly children attending the nursery school, pedestrians and cyclists.   Layout of the upcoming car park.   The work on the car park will be conducted in two stages so that half of the parking spaces will always be available, in order to limit the impact on users as much as possible (the closed-off areas will be clearly indicated). When the work is completed, the car park will have been completely renovated, with new surfacing and road markings, high-quality lighting and more parking spaces (+5%). During the work, part of the car park will be inaccessible, which is likely to make it more difficult to find a parking space. We therefore invite you to park in the Globe car park during this period. The renovation work will also affect Entrance A (Route Bell), which will be fitt...

  18. Volcanism in national parks: summary of the workshop convened by the U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service, 26-29 September 2000, Redding, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Brantley, Steven R.; McClelland, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Spectacular volcanic scenery and features were the inspiration for creating many of our national parks and monuments and continue to enhance the visitor experience today (Table 1). At the same time, several of these parks include active and potentially active volcanoes that could pose serious hazards - earthquakes, mudflows, and hydrothermal explosions, as well as eruptions - events that would profoundly affect park visitors, employees, and infrastructure. Although most parks are in relatively remote areas, those with high visitation have daily populations during the peak season equivalent to those of moderate-sized cities. For example, Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks can have a combined daily population of 80,000 during the summer, with total annual visitation of 7 million. Nearly 3 million people enter Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park every year, where the on-going (since 1983) eruption of Kilauea presents the challenge of keeping visitors out of harm's way while still allowing them to enjoy the volcano's spellbinding activity.

  19. Parks beyond parks : genuine community-based wildlife eco-tourism or just another loss of land for Maasai pastoralists in Kenya?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) embarked on a "Parks beyond Parks" programme, which aimed to bring some of the benefits of wildlife tourism to the local population. Under this programme, local people were allowed to start tented camps and other tourist activities in areas bordering

  20. Understanding parking habits at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    The SMB department is setting up a monitoring system in certain CERN car parks in order to evaluate their occupancy rates and subsequently make them easier to use.    Vehicle registration plate readers (red triangles) are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Le Cèdres car park (in orange) and of the Building 4 and 5 one (in blue). The 2 other car parks (Building 40 in violet and “high-voltage” in green) will be equipped at a later stage. Vehicle registration plate readers are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. The information collected by these readers will allow the occupancy levels of these car parks to be analysed throughout the day, establishing periods of peak usage and the pattern of vehicle movements. “We have been experiencing parking problems at CERN for several years n...

  1. Study on environmental friendly national park management plan: concentrated on the support plan for national park residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha; Byun, Byoung Seol; Chung, Hoe Seong; Kim, Mi Sook; Kim, Jeong Won; Joo, Yong Joon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    National parks in Korea have been selected for preserving beautiful sceneries of nature or diversity of organisms. Today as the increase of population and industrialization has caused the increase of natural resource demand, it is difficult to preserve all ecosystems equally. Therefore the national park system has established to prevent the damage to an ecosystem or to preserve a region that can be damaged by selecting a valuable area. The objective of this study is to recommend an efficient support plan for national park residents, to induce their activities to be environmental friendly and to preserve an ecosystem in a national park. To achieve this, the similar systems, laws and cases in the advanced countries have compared and reviewed and a support plan for residents appropriate for Korean situation has discussed. 41 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. Chronology of awareness about US National Park external threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Craig L

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to raise understanding of the history of protected area external threat awareness in the United States and at World Protected Area Congresses. The earliest concerns about external threats to US national parks began in the late nineteenth century: a potential railroad transgression of Yellowstone National Park in the 1880s. During the early and mid 1930s, George Wright and colleagues focused on outside boundary concerns like of hunting and trapping of furbearers, grazing, logging, disease and hybridization between species. In the 1960s, a worldwide recognition began about the role of outside habitat fragmentation/isolation on nature reserves and human generated stressors crossing their boundaries. The State of the Park Report 1980 added a plethora of threats: oil/gas and geothermal exploration and development, hydropower and reclamation projects, urban encroachment, roads, resorts, and recreational facilities. The early 1980s ushered in political interference with NPS threats abatement efforts as well as Congressional legislative initiatives to support the abatement challenges of the agency. By 1987, the Government Accounting Office issued its first report on National Park Service (NPS) progress in dealing with external threats. Climate change impacts on parks, especially in terms of animals adjusting their temperature and moisture requirements by latitude and altitude, surfaced in the technical literature by the mid-1980s. By 1992, the world parks community stressed the need to integrate protected areas into the surrounding landscape and human community. The importance of the matrix has gradually gained appreciation in the scientific community. This chronology represents one example of national park and protected areas' institutional history contributing to the breath of modern conservation science.

  3. INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF SPATIAL PATTERNS IN TABRIZ PARKS USING LANDSCAPE METRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Majnouni Toutakhane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the green spaces in cities and especially metropolises have adopted a variety of functions. In addition to improving the environmental conditions, they are suitable places for spending free times and mitigating nervous pressures of the machinery life based on their distribution and dispersion in the cities. In this research, in order to study the spatial distribution and composition of the parks and green spaces in Tabriz metropolis, the map of Parks prepared using the digital atlas of Tabriz parks and Arc Map and IDRISI softwares. Then, quantitative information of spatial patterns of Tabriz parks provided using Fragstats software and a selection of landscape metrics including: the area of class, patch density, percentage of landscape, average patch size, average patch area, largest patch index, landscape shape index, average Euclidean distance of the nearest neighborhood and average index of patch shape. Then the spatial distribution, composition, extent and continuity of the parks was evaluated. Overall, only 8.5 percent of the landscape is assigned to the parks, and they are studied in three classes of neighborhood, district and regional parks. Neighborhood parks and green spaces have a better spatial distribution pattern compared to the other classes and the studied metrics showed better results for this class. In contrast, the quantitative results of the metrics calculated for regional parks, showed the most unfavorable spatial status for this class of parks among the three classes studied in Tabriz city.

  4. E-VPMS 1.0: Enhanced Vehicle Parking Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian Lim Yeu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to lack of vehicle parking slot in front of Block Q, Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (FKEE, UTHM, the enhanced vehicle parking monitoring system (E-VPMS 1.0 is developed to identify parking slots available in the parking area as well as to detect double parking problem. Once this system is implemented, time consume for searching available parking slots as well as double parking problem that may cause unwanted accident can be reduced. In the development of E-VPMS 1.0 system, whole system are designed and developed in three different phases; which are video processing phase, login and registration phase, and webview development phase. In video processing phase, video sources are processed through few video processing function. In login and registration phase, series of webpage function have been created that accessible in both smartphone and laptop. While, in webview development phase, webview function have been developed and through this function, content of E-VPMS 1.0 system can be displayed directly via web browser for both smartphone and laptop. Through E-VPMS 1.0, availability parking slots can be checked by registered user through input recorded video before entering the specific parking area. Other than that, performance analysis in terms of numbers of registered user and parking slot availability at different situations such as during peak event or normal event can be managed and controlled by admin through visualisation data method.

  5. ECO-INDUSTRIAL PARK - A TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUGNAR NICOLETA GEORGETA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Local communities embracing the concept of Eco-industrial park are looking for some additional benefits for all the interested parties – both public and private: higher economic efficiency, the increase of competitivity by applying last minute technologies, generation of additional revenues through positive regulations at the community level, the creation of jobs, solving the conflict between economy and environment, diminishing the demand on the county infrastructure, decreasing the effects of pollution, using energy from regenerating sources and replacement materials. Communities and enterprises creating Eco-industrial parks will have common grounds for industrial development, which is much more competitive, more efficient and much cleaner than traditional industrial parks. Moreover, the new business niches will be open to recruitment or new incubators. Eco-industrial parks represent a special category compared to industrial parks, a category which is different from the classical ones due to the fact that they are designed in such a way so that they promote the collaboration between companies in order to reuse recyclable materials and green energy sources. A long-term vision must reflect the focus on the creation of collaboration networks between firms and the fact that an Eco-industrial park should be a business community, not only a mathematical sum of companies located in the same geographical area. The quality, continuity and interconnection of economic flows within the firms of an Eco-industrial park are important characteristics for the success of Eco-industrial networks. The following discussion tackles the way in which an Eco-industrial park is set-up: creating and implementing an Eco-industrial park in accordance with the principles of circular economy or transforming an already existing industrial park into an Eco- industrial park. The quality, the continuity, the number of interconnected firms, the flows of resources and the

  6. Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: a review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Rock, Melanie; Toohey, Ann M; Hignell, Danica

    2010-07-01

    Given that recent literature reviews on physical activity in urban parks deliberately excluded qualitative findings, we reviewed qualitative research on this topic informed by a published classification scheme based on quantitative research. Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria. These studies relied mainly on semi-structured interviews with individuals or in focus groups; only five studies involved in situ observation. Our synthesis aligns with previous quantitative research showing that attributes including safety, aesthetics, amenities, maintenance, and proximity are important for encouraging park use. Furthermore, our synthesis of qualitative research suggests that perceptions of the social environment entwine inextricably with perceptions of the physical environment. If so, physical attributes of parks as well as perceptions of these attributes (formed in relation to broader social contexts) may influence physical activity patterns. Both qualitative and quantitative methods provide useful information for interpreting such patterns, and in particular, when designing and assessing interventions intended to improve the amount and intensity of physical activity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Mei; Ye Tian; Dongping Li

    2012-01-01

    Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS) often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs). By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constru...

  8. Child safety in parks' playgrounds (a case study in Tehran’s sub-district parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Mirlouhi Falavarjani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsSafety is a complex concept and multidisciplinary science which is included some difference areas from industrial sectors to urban public arenas. Parks and playgrounds as important public places should be considered in terms of health and safety, especially for kids as prominent social vulnerable citizens. According to CPSC, 147 deaths havebeen reported for under 15 year old child during Jan 1990 to Aug 2000. Every 2.5 minute, kid suffers playground related accident. The main objective in this study is safety assessment ofplaygrounds among the selected parks.MethodsIn this case study, deductive approach and cross-sectional survey was followed, and some parks and playgrounds were selected among five urban counties in Tehran. Our volunteered samples were 160 parents. Playgrounds and related equipment were assessed in terms of safety, as well.ResultsOur findings show that more than 68% of playground equipment might create hazardous condition for kids. Lack of sustain maintenance for both of equipment and playground surface make some risky area for the mentioned group. Statistical analysis by SPSSWin 13 showed that more than 78 % of parents are worry about their child in terms of playground safetyproblems. Safety assessment of swings and slides showed that there are safety based problems in 89% of cases. Due to statistical reports of Tehran Emergency center, 10-12 and 8-10 year old kids suffer play based accident more than others. Reported traumas showed that face and skull and then feet suffered mechanical injury more than other limbs.ConclusionSurely, safety and health considerations are known as Municipality responsibilities, so for safety improvement in parks an integration safety system should be happened. HSE_MS seems a reliable approach for the mention goal. For improvement of exist parks and playground some related standard should be follows such as CPSC standards, EN 1176, and EN 1177. Also anthropometric data development

  9. Effects on birds of an offshore wind park at Horns Rev: Environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noer, H.; Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [DMU, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the technical background to the ornithological environmental impact assessment for the construction of an offshore windpark at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, Denmark. Construction of the park is planned to commence in 2001. The park will consist of c. 80 wind turbines, each of at least 1.8 MW, and cover an area of 27.5 km{sup 2} (including the 200 m exclusion zone around the park). (au)

  10. Analysing hiker movement patterns using GPS data: Implications for park management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijles, E.; de Bakker, M.; Groote, P.; Barske, R.

    In natural areas, park management organisations need to cater for economic, environmental, recreation and social demands and values. However, multifunctional land use also creates conflicts. Increased numbers of people using an area could exceed its ecological carrying capacity. The recreational

  11. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  12. Comunidade de aves de sub-bosque em uma área de entorno do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Understory bird community in a surrounded area of Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana R. Maia-Gouvêa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em mata secundária no Município de Itatiaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro (22º30'S e 44º30'W próximo ao Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, com o objeitvo de descrever a comunidade de aves ali presente. Foram amostrados três tipos vegetacionais distintos: reflorestamento, bosque e pomar, tendo sido realizadas 19 excursões entre 1984 e 1999. As aves foram amostradas através de capturas com redes de neblina e anilhamento, tendo sido utilizadas de 15 a 31 redes de 12 x 2 m e malha 36 mm. Foram também obtidas medidas morfométricas (comprimento total, asa, bico, cauda e tarso e dados biológicos (sexo, idade reprodução e muda. Depois de 5.621,79 horas-rede, foi registrado um total de 553 capturas, com 71 recapturas (12,84%; 417 indivíduos foram anilhados, e 65 beija-flores deixaram de ser marcados por falta de anilhas específicas. A comunidade estudada esteve representada por 77 espécies e 18 famílias, apresentando índice de diversidade H' = -1,594 e a curva do coletor com tendência à estabilização. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Emberizidae (n = 21; 27,27% e Tyrannidae (n = 15; 19,48%. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Turdus leucomelas (n = 40; 9,59% e Turdus rufiventris (n = 36; 8,63%. Seis das espécies amostradas (7,8% são endêmicas do bioma Mata Atlântica. Na estação chuvosa foram amostradas 68 espécies, e na estação seca, 42; e as capturas estiveram relacionadas com as chuvas (rs = -0,6778; p = 0,05. O período reprodutivo ocorreu de outubro a março estando correlacionado com o início da estação chuvosa (rs = -0,702; p = 0,052.This study was conduced in a second growth woodland close to Itatiaia National Park (22º30'S e 44º30'W, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and aimed to describe the understory bird community living in this area. We sampled three different vegetation types, reforestation, wood and orchard, through 19 field trips between 1984 and 1999. Birds

  13. Field guide to the geology of the Denali National Park Road and the Parks Highway from Cantwell to Healy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hults, Chad P.; Capps, Danny L.; Brease, Phil F.

    2013-01-01

    The Denali National Park & Preserve area provides one of the few opportunities in Alaska for road-side access to good rock outcrops. The rocks and surficial deposits exposed in the Denali area span from the Paleozoic to the Quaternary. It is a structurally complex area that contains a history of rifting, accretion, and orogeny. There is evidence of multiple metamorphic events in the Mesozoic, mountain building in the Tertiary, and faulting in the present day. The region is the site of active faulting along one of the largest intra-continental fault systems, the Denali Fault system, which was the locus of a 7.9 M earthquake in 2002. This guidebook describes the key outcrops viewable along the Denali Park Road from the entrance to the Eielson Visitor Center, and along the Parks Highway from Healy to Cantwell.

  14. Analysis and evaluation of soundscapes in public parks through interviews and measurement of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeremeta, Bani; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the sound environment of public parks using a soundscape study model that analyzes not only noise but also all the types of sound of a given area, as well as other environmental factors. To this end, acoustic measurements were made in the parks under study and interviews were held with their frequent visitors. Noise measurements were conducted in 55 points, and a total of 335 people were interviewed in the 4 parks studied. The parks selected for this study are located in areas very close to streets with intense vehicle flow, raising the hypothesis that this proximity impairs the acoustic comfort of their visitors. The findings confirm the strong influence of traffic noise on the soundscapes of the parks. Noise measurements showed that in all parks, between 50 and 100% of the points evaluated displayed sound levels above 55dB(A), the level established by Curitiba's Municipal Law 10625 as the limit permitted for green areas during daytime. Other conditions in the parks' environments were also identified, which interfere jointly in the soundscape and in its perception, such as spatial factors of each park, the urban setting of its surroundings, and the sounds originating inside the parks.

  15. Mount Rainier National Park and Olympic National Park Elk Monitoring Program Annual Report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul; Happe, Patricia J.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Reid, Mason; Vales, David J.; Moeller, Barbara J.; Tirhi, Michelle; McCorquodale, Scott; Miller, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal year 2010 was the third year of gathering data needed for protocol development while simultaneously implementing what is expected to be the elk monitoring protocol at Mount Rainier (MORA) and Olympic (OLYM) national parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN). Elk monitoring in these large wilderness parks relies on aerial surveys from a helicopter. Summer surveys are planned for both parks and are intended to provide quantitative estimates of abundance, sex and age composition, and distribution of migratory elk in high elevation trend count areas. Spring surveys are planned at Olympic National Park and are intended to provide quantitative estimates of abundance of resident and migratory elk on low-elevation winter ranges within surveyed trend count areas. An unknown number of elk is not detected during surveys. The protocol under development aims to estimate the number of missed elk by applying a model that accounts for detection bias. Detection bias in elk surveys in MORA will be estimated using a double-observer sightability model that was developed based on data from surveys conducted in 2008-2010. The model was developed using elk that were previously equipped with radio collars by cooperating tribes. That model is currently in peer review. At the onset of protocol development in OLYM there were no existing radio- collars on elk. Consequently double-observer sightability models have not yet been developed for elk surveys in OLYM; the majority of the effort in OLYM has been focused on capturing and radio collaring elk to permit the development of sightability models for application in OLYM. As a result, no estimates of abundance or composition are included in this annual report, only raw counts of the numbers of elk seen in surveys. At MORA each of the two trend count areas (North Rainier herd, and South Rainier herd) were surveyed twice. 290 and 380 elk were counted on the two replicates in the North Rainier herd, and 621 and 327 elk counted on

  16. Architectural heritage or theme park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Solà-Morales

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing parallelism between the perception and the consumer use of theme parks and architectural heritage gives rise to a reflection about the fact that the architectural object has been turned into a museum piece, stripped  of its original value and its initial cultural substance to become images exposed to multiple gazes, thus producing what the author calis the "Theme Park effect", with consequences on protected architecture.

  17. A Practical Application of Statistical Gap Analysis in National Park Management in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Juan Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available If the tourism growth predicted materialized as tourism for Costa Rica protected areas would see major increases. A study conducted in Volcan Poas National Park and Volcan Turrialba National Park two of Costa Rica leading volcanic crater parks was undertaken to make available to national parks and protected areas managers, a procedure, that could be use: to measure using an adapted form of the expectations disconfirmation theory the satisfaction of visitors to Costa Rica national parks, and to evaluate if the results could be used for establishing the areas of the park infrastructure, services and recreational options that needed improvement and management decisions to enhance visitor's satisfaction. The sample included 1414 surveys The findings indicates that the procedure adapted base on the expectations-disconfirmation model was proven helpful in: a getting the information to help “zero in”, the man-agement decisions in the short and medium term and for the development of the Tourist Management Plans that is to say being developed in the 2 sites, b guiding park managers in the resource allocation process, under the conditions of scarcity that are so common in developing countries, c facilitating regular monitoring of the conditions, with a simple and quick methodology that can be used for “day to day” decisions and more sophisticated statistical analysis d identifying the areas in the management of protected areas that need further analysis and in that way is contributing to the development of the long term socio-economic research programs in national parks, e the “real” importance of the information and education activities in national parks, combination of activities that seems to be critical to enhance “consumer satisfaction” among the visitors to national parks everywhere and particularly as a means of understanding whether visitors needs and expectations are met, whether they receive what they should and as a context for

  18. Wireless based Smart Parking System using Zigbee

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Asyrani Bin Sulaiman; Mohd Fareez Bin Mohd Afif; Mohd Azlishah Bin Othman; Mohamad Harris Bin Misran; Maizatul Alice Binti Meor Said

    2013-01-01

    One of main issues of developing big parking space for shopping complexes, office complexes and other types of building that requires large parking space is to notify the visitors of occupied and nonoccupied parking space. Most of the visitors might spending up to 30 to 45 minutes just to find an empty parking space. In most recent technology, some parking lot system offered a system that could automatically count when the car entering the empty car space and blocking an infrared signal thus ...

  19. Comparison of place attachment influence on the level of happiness of people living near residential parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhakim, I.; Kurniawan, E. B.; Wardhani, D. K.

    2018-05-01

    Several studies have shown that living close to a park is associated with high levels of happiness. However, there is a possible difference in the level of happiness between living close to a park (0-400 meters radius) compared to living far from the park (400-1.000 meters radius). Therefore, this study aims to compare the influence of Place Attachment on the level of happiness for people living near a park, especially residential parks in some housing areas in Malang City. Place Attachment in this study defined as a bond between an individual and a particular setting. The study demonstrates a positive influence of Place Attachment on the level of happiness of people living near the park. Respondents who live close to a park (R = 0.441; Happiness Level = 97.8%; Average Happiness = 6.833) tend to have a higher level of happiness compared to respondents who live far from a park (R = 0.326; Happiness Level = 69.9%; average Happiness = 4.148). This result shows the urgency to reconsider the provision standard of residential parks in Indonesia which only suggests one residential park for every 1,000 meters radius.

  20. Public parks as urban tourism in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiati, M. P.; Lestari, N. S.; Wiastuti, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable urban tourism development should provide better places for people to live in and for people to visit. Jakarta as the capital city has a potential for its urban tourism. Thus, urban tourism attribute such as Public Park should be in high- quality to cope with the needs of urban people and outside visitors. The purpose of this study is to investigate Public Park attributes and to analyze its compliance refer to Public Park that eventually supports sustainable urban tourism. This paper used a qualitative approach. Primary data obtain from direct field observation in seven Public Parks in Jakarta; Menteng Park, Suropati Park, Situ Lembang Park, Ayodhya Park, Cattleya Park, Kodok Park, and Langsat Park. Observation checks list use as guidance. The result provides an assessment of Public Park based on four categories; the accessibility, park activities, safety, and user. The implication of this study offers recommendations to enhance Public Park so that it complies with good public park design- attributes and with the obligations of sustainable urban tourism in Jakarta.

  1. Parking management : strategies, evaluation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    Parking facilities are a major cost to society. Current planning practices are based on the assumption that parking should be abundant and provided free, with costs borne indirectly. This report examined parking management strategies related to integrated parking plans. Problems with current parking planning practices were reviewed. The costs of parking facilities were examined, as well as the savings that can accrue from improved management techniques. Strategies included shared parking; remote parking and shuttle services; walking and cycling improvements; improved enforcement and control; and increasing the capacity of existing parking facilities. Parking pricing methods, financial incentives and parking tax reforms were reviewed. Issues concerning user information and marketing were examined. Overflow parking plans were evaluated. Three illustrative examples of parking management programs were outlined, along with details of implementation, planning and evaluation procedures. It was concluded that cost-effective parking management programs can often reduce parking requirements by 20 to 40 per cent compared with conventional planning requirements, in addition to providing economic, social and environmental benefits. 32 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Contributions of Gors’ Environmental Perception About Squares and Parks in Brazil (2009-2013: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Amara Dorigo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban green spaces assume an important role in improving the environment and offering spaces for leisure and recreation, as well as contributing to urban sustainability. This research aims to study the contributions of environmental perception in public green areas, as squares and urban parks. The influence these areas have on their surroundings’ residents and goers was investigated. In order to achieve this, a research of studies on environmental perception in urban green areas was carried out in the Innovation Portal website. The criteria used for the selection of articles was published in national journals from the years 2009 to 2013.Among the findings, it was sought to determine the importance of these areas for the population that sees in them an essentially social function. According to the articles published, the positive aspects of green areas in the vision of the regulars are related to physical activity, leisure, education and promotion of environmental awareness. Regarding the negative aspects, one can notice concern about the safety issue in urban green areas, which may be associated to less frequent use of these public spaces.

  3. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. D Gertenbach

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the abiotic and biotic components of the Kruger National Park (KNP system has increased to such an extent, that it was possible to zonate the KNP into landscapes. A landscape was defined as an area with a specific geomorphology, climate, soil and vegetation pattern together with the associated fauna. On this basis 35 landscapes were identified and described in terms of the components mentioned in the definition. The objective of classification is that future management should be based on these landscapes. Relevant management considerations may change, but the landscape a@ a basic functional unit should not be negotiable.

  4. The influence of small urban parks characteristics on bird diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasmani, Zanariah; Ravn, Hans Peter; van den Bosch, Cecil C.Konijnendijk

    2017-01-01

    using the combined field survey method of structured observation and field measurements. The measured variables were divided into three broad categories of physical characteristics, species richness and human factors. Bird species richness and abundance were used as the indicators for assessing...... biodiversity. Pearson correlations and multiple regressions were conducted to analyse the relationships between variables and to identify which variables had a significant effect on bird species richness and abundance. The results demonstrated that park area and vegetation variables (e.g. the percentage...... of tree canopy cover, open grass/ground, native-exotic plants) are the important predictors of bird species richness and abundance. The percentage of canopy covers (negative relation) and park area (positive relation) are the best predictors of bird species richness in small urban parks. Meanwhile...

  5. Floristic study of Kiasar National Park, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Ghahremaninejad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiyasar National Park is a mountainous region in Mazandaran province, Kiyasar district, 70 kilometers far from Sari city, with an area of approximately 9530 hectares. The altitude of the area ranges from 883 m to 2775 m in Shahdeg pick. This park is located in the central Alborz. The mean annual rainfall is 650 mm and the mean annual temperature is 12˚C. Based on classical methods of regional floristic studies, approximately 720 specimens were collected during 2007 through 2008. The total number of 378 identified plant species belonged to 321 genera and 73 families. The dicots with 320 species were the richest group, following by monocots with 49 species, gymnosperms with 4 species and pteridophytes with 5 species respectively. The largest families were Asteraceae (43 species, Lamiaceae (33 species, and the most diverse genera included Astragalus, Salvia and Stachys. There were 11 endemic species among the plants of the area. The life form of all plant species was determined via Raunkier,s method. Hemicryptophytes constituting 37% of the biological types were dominant, followed by therophytes and cryphtophytes with 31% and 16% respectively. The largest chorotype was Irano-Turanian, with 120 species.

  6. Individual and Environmental Correlates to Quality of Life in Park Users in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marina Camargo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To explore individual and environmental correlates to quality of life (QoL in park users in Colombia. Methods: A cross-sectional study with face-to-face interviews was conducted with 1392 park users from ten parks in Colombia. The survey included sociodemographic questions, health condition assessed with EuroQuol-5-Dimensions-5-Levels; in addition, questions about accessibility to the parks and perceptions about quality of infrastructure and green areas were asked. The Spanish version of the questionnaire EUROHIS-QOL-8 items was applied to assess QoL. Log-binomial regression models were applied for analyses. Results: Years of schooling, visits to the park with a companion, active use of the park, a maximum score for quality of trees and walking paths, and the perception of safety on the way to the park were positively associated with a better QoL (p < 0.05. Health conditions related to problems in the ability to perform activities of daily living and anxiety/depression showed negative associations. Conclusions: The present study contributes to the Latin American studies by providing information on how parks in an intermediate city may contribute to increased QoL of park users through safety in neighborhoods, social support, active use, and aesthetics, cleanliness, and care of green areas.

  7. Uneven Access and Underuse of Ecological Amenities in Urban Parks of the Río Piedras Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Santiago

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between consumption of ecological amenities in a park setting and improved physical and mental health substantiates the need for improved accessibility to green areas in lower-income neighborhoods. We measured green area accessibility, considering income variation, and park use in a densely populated tropical urban watershed. Park use was explored with 442 in-person interviews, and U.S. Census and Puerto Rico Commonwealth data were used to measure accessibility. Nearly 20% of residents earning ≤ $15,000 lived within park service areas with the highest crime incidence in the region, whereas 90% of those earning > $75,000 lived within park service areas with lower crime rates. Innovative nonexclusionary activities such as growing vegetable gardens are needed to attract lower-income residents and increase their sense of safety in urban parks.

  8. The dynamics of urban traffic congestion and the price of parking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; de Palma, André

    2013-01-01

    We consider commuting in a congested urban area. While an efficient time-varying toll may eliminate queuing, a toll may not be politically feasible. We study the benefit of a substitute: a parking fee at the workplace. An optimal time-varying parking fee is charged at zero rate when there is queu...

  9. Hemlock resources at risk in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine D. Johnson; Fred P. Hain; Katherine S. Johnson; Felton Hastings

    2000-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) is the dominant species in a variety of sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Hemlock covers approximately 3820 acres (1528 hectares) or one percent of the Park, which at 524,856 acres is the largest area managed as wilderness in the eastern United States. Since timber was never harvested in about...

  10. Supernetwork approach for modeling traveler response to park-and-ride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, F.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Park-and-ride has been identified by transport planners as a key element of any sustainability package to promote multimodal trips, improve air quality, and alleviate congestion in urban areas. This paper presents a supernetwork approach that can assess traveler response to park-and-ride in an

  11. Abundance and population characteristics of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Erran Seaman

    1997-01-01

    We monitored the threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park from 1992 through 1996. We used a stratified random sampling scheme to survey 35 plots totaling 236 km?, approximately 10 percent of the forested area of the park.

  12. Physical activity levels and preferences of ethnically diverse visitors to Georgia State Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; Michael Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Parks provide many outdoor recreation opportunities that encourage physical activity and healthy lifestyles, and research has recently begun to explore the demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with park-based activity levels, particularly outside of urban areas. This study used a mixed methods approach to investigate physical activity levels and...

  13. The Combination of Coastal Resources Potential: Development of Windmill Techno Park in the Context of Edutourism and Hinterland Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin, H.; Nurdin, H.; Waskito, W.; Refdinal, R.

    2018-04-01

    There are many coastal cities in Indonesia, among them the city of Padang and Pariaman in West Sumatra with the ownership of the grace of coastal resources, such as stunning coastal scenery and wind energy that can be converted to its potential. These two types of resources need to be combined utilization especially in relation to the development of tourism so as to have an impact on the regional development and the cities growth. This paper discusses of information related to the potential of coastal resources used as a parameter development of windmill techno park in the context of educational tourism. The discussion focuses on locational aspects and consideration of the design and modification for the windmill model to the enhancement of tourist attraction. In addition, it is also studying the presence of the windmill techno park as a development center in the context of hinterland in the regional analysis. Through the measurement results obtained average wind speed (2.5 - 6.5) m/s and meet the standards & criteria as a windmill design variables. While the geomorphology of the region, its location has a breathtaking coastal landscape as a tourist destination. Then through gravity analysis, the location of the windmill techno park development provides optimum strength to the growth of the city of Padang, with the value of interaction strength is higher than other regions. This means as a sub-urban area of the city the existence of windshield techno park later can support economic development and growth of cities around the coast.

  14. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Circella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned. This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, the integration of parking strategies in a comprehensive vision for the future of a city may significantly improve the allocation of resources and the reduction of the overall environmental externalities. The role of parking in the strategic planning of cities is discussed through the analysis of several recent projects in the city of Bari (Italy. The paper discusses the way these projects are linked (or eventually not linked to broader strategies for urban mobility, and how they might be coordinated into policy packages that promote more sustainable transportation. The use of an integrated land use transportation modeling approach to simulate the long-term evolution of the urban area may significantly contribute to estimate the long-term effects of the proposed policies. This approach may successfully support the process of policy evaluation and the selection of the optimal strategies to implement.

  15. Smart parking management and navigation system

    KAUST Repository

    Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2017-11-09

    Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space; determine a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the wireless signal; and identify a presence of a vehicle located at the parking space based at least in part on the RSSI. In another example, a method includes receiving a wireless signals from a base station controller and a parking controller located at a parking space; determining RSSIs from the wireless signals; and determining a location of the mobile computing device in a parking facility based at least in part on the RSSIs. In another example, a RSSI can be received, a parking occupancy can be determined using the RSSI, and an electronic record can be updated based on the parking occupancy.

  16. Los parques ecoarqueológicos en el área maya: algunos aspectos de su gestión The Eco-archaeological Parks in the Mayan Area: Some Aspects About Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García Targa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La mayor sensibilidad en torno al patrimonio cultural es uno de los rasgos de la sociedad actual. Turistas y ciudadanos de las ciudades demandan mayores grados de protección a los restos del pasado y las autoridades políticas dan respuesta a esa demanda. En este sentido, los parques ecoarqueológicos son el reflejo de esa nueva oferta en la que muestras del pasado conviven con espacios de descanso con el objetivo de dar a conocer de forma sencilla y divertida periodos anteriores de las ciudades y pueblos.The major sensibility around the cultural heritage is one of the traits of the present society. Tourists and citizens ask for the best protection of the past material remains and the political authorities must to reply this question. In this sense, the eco-archaeological parks reflects this new cultural offers where past evidence remains coexist in repose spaces with the objective to show ancient periods of cities in a simple and enjoyable form.

  17. Sandeels and clams (Spisula sp.) in the wind turbine park at Horns Reef. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Henrik; Sand Kristensen, P.; Hoffmann, E.

    2003-04-01

    Sandeels were found in the sediment at all of the sample locations in the area of the wind turbine park and in the control area. The mean density of sandeels in the sediment was 0.0102 m -2 (10,200 km -2 ) in the control area and 0.0096 m -2 (9,600 km -2 ) in the impact area. The most abundant species of sandeel in both the impact and the control area was H. lanceolatus followed by A. marinus and A. tobianus. No G. semisquamatus was caught during the surveys. The construction of the wind turbine park is not supposed to effect the sandeel population in the Horns Reef area because the impact area seems to constitute a small fraction of a larger area with sandeel habitat. However, within the area of the wind turbine park sandeel abundance might be affected if the surface sediment changes due to the construction of the wind turbine park or if the abundance of sandeel predators increases in the impact area after the wind turbine park has been build (the so called artificial reef effect). To investigate if these effects will occur the field programmethat was carried out in February/march 2002 (the subject of this report) will have to be repeated after the wind turbine park has been constructed. (au)

  18. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  19. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource and social impacts caused by recreationists and tourists have become a management concern in national parks and equivalent protected areas. The need to contain visitor impacts within acceptable limits has prompted park and protected area managers to implement a wide variety of strategies and actions, many of which are spatial in nature. This paper classifies and illustrates the basic spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in parks and protected areas. A typology of four spatial strategies was proposed based on the recreation and park management literature. Spatial segregation is a common strategy for shielding sensitive resources from visitor impacts or for separating potentially conflicting types of use. Two forms of spatial segregation are zoning and closure. A spatial containment strategy is intended to minimize the aggregate extent of visitor impacts by confining use to limited designated or established Iocations. In contrast, a spatial dispersal strategy seeks to spread visitor use, reducing the frequency of use to levels that avoid or minimize permanent resource impacts or visitor crowding and conflict. Finally, a spatial configuration strategy minimizes impacting visitor behavior though the judicious spatial arrangement of facilities. These four spatial strategics can be implemented separately or in combination at varying spatial scales within a single park. A survey of national park managers provides an empirical example of the diversity of implemented spatial strategies in managing visitor impacts. Spatial segregation is frequently applied in the form of camping restrictions or closures to protect sensitive natural or cultural resources and to separate incompatible visitor activities. Spatial containment is the most widely applied strategy for minimizing the areal extent of resource impacts. Spatial dispersal is commonly applied to reduce visitor crowding or conflicts in popular destination areas but is less frequently applied or

  20. Science parks as knowledge organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    gained agrowing importance in the new economy. If we shift focus to organizationtheory discussions on new knowledge and innovation has specialized in relationto the process of creation, managing, organizing, sharing, transferring etc. ofknowledge. The evaluation of science parks has to relate......Recent studies of the impact of science parks have questioned traditionalassumption about the effect of the parks on innovation and economic growth.Most studies tend to measure the effect by rather traditional measures, revenue,survival of new firms, without taking into account, that knowledge has...... to the changed role ofknowledge in the creation of economic growth. With the help of the concept ofthe ba from Nonanka, the article discuss if or how traditional organized scienceparks can become central actors in the new knowledge production or has to beviewed as an outdated institution from the industrial...

  1. Parking spaces for people with disabilities at bank agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ferreira Mazetto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environment accessibility influences the quality of performance of the activities developed by individuals in their daily lives with autonomy and independence, and also guarantees the equal right to ‘come and go’. Thisstudy aimed to assess the parking spaces reserved for people with disabilities at bank branches in Uberaba, Minas Gerais state, analyzing whether they are in accordance with the current technical standards of accessibility. The study is characterized by being a quantitative survey with a sample consisting of bank branches established in the municipality. Data was collected using a form with nine questions to be filled through observation of space - outdoor parking spaces at the agency. The data were processed using the technique of content analysis, pointing as a result four categories according to the verification carried out, namely: (i signaling, (ii parking spaces, (iii accessible route, and (iv other elements. Thirty-seven banks were listed; eight were excluded for not meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 29 banks included in the study, only nine had reserved parking spaces for people with disabilities and, from those, six were adequate.

  2. Smart parking management system with decal electronics system

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Wicaksono, Irmandy

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.

  3. Smart parking management system with decal electronics system

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-21

    Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.

  4. Peace parks in Southern Africa: bringers of an African renaissance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buscher, B.E.; van Amerom, M.

    2005-01-01

    The pursuit of an African Renaissance has become an important aspect of regional cooperation between South Africa and its neighbours. Transfrontier conservation areas, or 'Peace Parks' as they are popularly called, have been identified as key instruments to promote the African Renaissance dream, and

  5. The challenges of on-street parking in Nigerian Cities’ transportation routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Asiyanbola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parking is an integral component of the transport system. It plays a crucial role in the management of traffic and congestion. On-street parking constitutes one major problem that makes traffic situation chaotic in Nigeria cities. Most roads in Nigeria cities are narrow and lack pedestrian lanes. There are cases of double parking along these narrow roads thereby causing traffic congestion. This is due to the non-availability of off-street parking facilities along the transportation routes. This study examines the challenges of on-street parking in Nigerian cities’ transportation routes using Ibadan North-East Local Government area as a case study. Both primary and secondary data which were collected in 2009 were used in the study. Among the issues examined in the study are the situation of existing parking facilities along the transportation routes in the area; perception of road users (drivers and passengers about motorist’s parking behavior and the effect of on-street parking in the area. Policy implications are discussed in the paper.

  6. Assessment of climate change effects on Canada's National Park system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffling, Roger; Scott, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated for Canada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonal temperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050 and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems and people. Important, widespread changes relate to marine and freshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern and upward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combined East coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosion and deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic uplift negates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individual parks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migrate lakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroy the fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. For example: we could not form conclusions about glacial mass balance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for the East Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty.

  7. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  8. Evaluating terrain based criteria for snow avalanche exposure ratings using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delparte, Donna; Jamieson, Bruce; Waters, Nigel

    2010-05-01

    Snow avalanche terrain in backcountry regions of Canada is increasingly being assessed based upon the Avalanche Terrain Exposure Scale (ATES). ATES is a terrain based classification introduced in 2004 by Parks Canada to identify "simple", "challenging" and "complex" backcountry areas. The ATES rating system has been applied to well over 200 backcountry routes, has been used in guidebooks, trailhead signs and maps and is part of the trip planning component of the AVALUATOR™, a simple decision-support tool for backcountry users. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers a means to model and visualize terrain based criteria through the use of digital elevation model (DEM) and land cover data. Primary topographic variables such as slope, aspect and curvature are easily derived from a DEM and are compatible with the equivalent evaluation criteria in ATES. Other components of the ATES classification are difficult to extract from a DEM as they are not strictly terrain based. An overview is provided of the terrain variables that can be generated from DEM and land cover data; criteria from ATES which are not clearly terrain based are identified for further study or revision. The second component of this investigation was the development of an algorithm for inputting suitable ATES criteria into a GIS, thereby mimicking the process avalanche experts use when applying the ATES classification to snow avalanche terrain. GIS based classifications were compared to existing expert assessments for validity. The advantage of automating the ATES classification process through GIS is to assist avalanche experts with categorizing and mapping remote backcountry terrain.

  9. Perceived Health Benefits and Willingness to Pay for Parks by Park Users: Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Henderson-Wilson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whilst a growing body of evidence demonstrates people derive a range of health and wellbeing benefits from visiting parks, only a limited number of attempts have been made to provide a complementary economic assessment of parks. The aim of this exploratory study was to directly estimate the perceived health and wellbeing benefits attained from parks and the economic value assigned to parks by park users in Victoria, Australia. The research employed a mixed methods approach (survey and interviews to collect primary data from a selection of 140 park users: 100 from two metropolitan parks in Melbourne and 40 from a park on the urban fringe of Melbourne, Victoria. Our findings suggest that park users derive a range of perceived physical, mental/spiritual, and social health benefits, but park use was predominantly associated with physical health benefits. Overall, our exploratory study findings suggest that park users are willing to pay for parks, as they highly value them as places for exercising, socialising, and relaxing. Importantly, most people would miss parks if they did not exist. The findings aim to provide park managers, public health advocates, and urban policy makers with evidence about the perceived health and wellbeing benefits of park usage and the economic value park visitors place on parks.

  10. Proposed open-pit mine threatens Jasper National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelcic, S.

    1996-12-31

    Concerns by the Sierra Club, the Alberta Wilderness Association, and other environmental groups about the proposed Cheviot Mine are discussed. Cardinal River Coals, which is owned by Luscar Ltd. and Consolidated Coals of Pittsburgh, is proposing the mining operation, which includes 26 deep open pit mines of which 14 will not be backfilled. The mine extends to within 2 km of Jasper National Park`s border. Concerns about the mine include: disruption of an environmentally sensitive area, interference with grizzly bear movement and bighorn sheep habitat and diet, destruction of flora and fauna, and pollution of two major watersheds. Hearings for the mine commence in January 1997.

  11. Protected natural resources: Media representations of national parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeunović-Bajić Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to set trends of reporting about national parks as exquisite units of national importance through the research of online editions of dominant media in Serbia. Since 2009 the entire set of “green laws“ was adopted, the great progress has been made in this area, and the research will refer to the next year of 2010 so it can be detected how much is the public informed by the means of communication about ambient, ecologic, aesthetic and recreational potentials of the national parks in Serbia.

  12. Mammals recorded in the QwaQwa National Park (1994-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L. Avenant

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, relative abundance, and habitat preferences of mammals were studied in the newly proclaimed QwaQwa National Park (QQNP and compared with those of the adjacent 33 year-old Golden Gate Highlands National Park, a nearby protected area in the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg, Lesotho, and the rest of the Free State Province. In total, 53 mammal species were recorded inside the park and the probability of another 14 likely inhabitants, discussed. The fact that the QQNP contains ca. 70 of mammalian fauna recorded in the Free State and between five and 10 Red Data species stresses the importance of this park and the necessity for correct management of this ca. 21 000 ha conservation area. The low small mammal numbers, variety, and mean diversity found on 17 transects in the QQNP is attributed to previous human habitation and activities@some of which are still present in the park.

  13. Valuation of tropical forest services and mechanisms to finance their conservation and sustainable use: A case study of Tapantí National Park, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard, F.; Groot, de R.S.; Campos, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica comprises a precious but vulnerable tropical rain forest area. The monetary values of ecosystem services that are provided by this park are estimated in order to assess the mechanisms to finance the park's conservation and sustainable use. The main ecosystem

  14. The comparative analyses of selected aspects of conservation and management of Vietnam’s national parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thanh An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The national parks in Vietnam are protected areas in the national system of special-use forests created to protect natural resources and biodiversity. In order to improve the effectiveness of management of national parks, the study assesses some current aspects of conservation and management of natural resources with respect to management plans, financial sources, staff, cooperative activities, causes of limited management capacity and threats to natural resources. Out of the total of 30 national parks, six are under the responsibility of the Vietnam Administration of Forestry (VNFOREST and 24 national parks are managed by provincial authorities. It was found that most of the national parks have updated their management plans. Financial sources of funding for national parks mainly originated from the central and provincial budgets, with an average of 51% and 76% respectively. Fifty percent of national parks spent 40–60% of their total funding on conservation activities. About 85% of national parks’ staff had academic degrees, typically in the fields of forestry, agriculture and fisheries. Biodiversity conservation was considered a priority cooperative action in national parks with scientific institutes. Major causes of a limited management capacity of national parks included human population growth and pressure associated with resources use, lack of funding, limited human and institutional capacity and land use conflict/land grab. Illegal hunting, trapping, poaching and fishing, the illegal wildlife trade, illegal logging and firewood collecting appeared to be the most serious threats to the conservation and management of natural resources. In addition to these results, significant differences were found between the VNFOREST and provincial parks in terms of financial sources, staff and the threat of illegal logging and firewood collecting. The authors’ findings offer useful information for national park planners and managers, as well as

  15. Salt attack in parking garage in block of flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Pavel; Frankeová, Dita; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    In recent years many new block of flats with parking garages placed inside the buildings were constructed. This tendency brings beyond question benefits for residents and also for city planning, but it requires new design and structural approaches and advanced material and construction solutions. The analysis of plaster damage on partition wall in parking garage in one of these buildings is presented in the paper. The damage of studied plaster is caused by the salts which are transported together with snow on cars undercarriage into garage area during winter. The snow melts and water with dissolved salts is transported by the capillary suction from concrete floor into the rendered partition wall. Based on the interior temperature, adsorbed water with dissolved chlorides evaporates and from the over saturated pore solution are formed salt crystals that damages the surface plaster layers. This damage would not occur if the partition wall was correctly isolated from the floor finish layer in the parking garage.

  16. The role of Canada's national parks in a changed climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopoukhine, N.

    1991-01-01

    There is a requirement to manage national parks for completeness or wholeness, to maintain a functional ecosystem with all its parts, including processes, and to maintain biological diversity. Climate change has the potential to affect vegetation distribution, and will not merely manifest itself as a change in zones, but will be characterized by a flora with new dominants. Canadian national parks within the Prairie provinces are on or near ecotones, the transition from forest to tundra and grasslands. Forest fire frequency and severity is likely to increase, with the potential of transforming the boreal forest into remnant units. A flexible national system of designating areas must be devised to provide protection for the ephemeral biological systems which will be transformed and moved in response to climatic change. The adoption of adaptive management is critical, and should include monitoring, communication, protection through networks, and park service leadership. Benign neglect management must be replaced with management for wilderness. 15 refs

  17. Non-native plant invasions of United States National parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States National Park Service was created to protect and make accessible to the public the nation's most precious natural resources and cultural features for present and future generations. However, this heritage is threatened by the invasion of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. To evaluate the scope of invasions, the USNPS has inventoried non-native plant species in the 216 parks that have significant natural resources, documenting the identity of non-native species. We investigated relationships among non-native plant species richness, the number of threatened and endangered plant species, native species richness, latitude, elevation, park area and park corridors and vectors. Parks with many threatened and endangered plants and high native plant species richness also had high non-native plant species richness. Non-native plant species richness was correlated with number of visitors and kilometers of backcountry trails and rivers. In addition, this work reveals patterns that can be further explored empirically to understand the underlying mechanisms. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  18. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Carr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  19. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 14: plants of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ann; Das, Adrian; Wenk, Rebecca; Haultain, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    updating and refining the criteria for the special status plant list, as this list defines which taxa are considered in our assessment. Observation data of these species was then compiled from all known sources in order to provide a comprehensive view of where special status plants have been documented and, ultimately, to enable the most informed determinations of areas in the parks that potentially support the highest number of rare and endemic taxa. These ‗hot spot‘ analyses are presented by geographic region, vegetation type and elevation. For these and other analyses presented in this report, we place more focus on summarizing findings for the herbaceous and shrub special status taxa than on special status trees. The trees which qualify as special status are the focus of other NRCA chapters, including Giant Sequoia and Intact Forests/Five-needle Pines. We do, however, present their mapped distributions and provide overviews of research related to the special status tree taxa in the Stressors section of this report.

  20. San Francisco SFpark and parking information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    SFpark is a demonstration of a new approach to parking management that : will evaluate the effectiveness of demand-responsive pricing and real-time : information on parking availability for reducing congestion and greenhouse gas : emissions and provi...