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Sample records for parkia pendula leguminosae

  1. Substâncias químicas com atividades alelopáticas presentes nas folhas de Parkia pendula (Leguminosae Chemical compounds with allelopathic activities in Parkia pendula (Leguminosae leaves

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    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas produzidas por Parkia pendula. Os efeitos alelopáticos foram avaliados sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da radícula das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. O processo de isolamento das substâncias envolveu a extração com solvente em ordem crescente de polaridade, e a elucidação estrutural foi realizada via Ressonância Magnética Nuclear, espectro de COSY e de HETCOR. Os bioensaios foram desenvolvidos em condições controladas de 25 ºC de temperatura e fotoperíodo de 12 (germinação e 24 horas (desenvolvimento da radícula. Foram isolados e identificados nas folhas da P. pendula os seguintes aleloquímicos: ácido 3,4,5-trimetoxibenzóico (S1, ácido 3,4-dimetoxibenzóico (S2 e o Blumenol A (S3. Comparativamente, S1 e S2 apresentaram maior atividade alelopática. Os efeitos promovidos sobre o desenvolvimento da radícula foram de maior magnitude do que aqueles verificados sobre a germinação das sementes. As substâncias isoladas mostraram baixo potencial inibitório da germinação das sementes, especialmente as sementes de mata-pasto. Os efeitos alelopáticos inibitórios estiveram positivamente associados à concentração das substâncias, embora em alguns casos esses efeitos não tenham correspondido às diferenças estatísticas.The objective of this paper was to isolate, identify and characterize the allelopathic activity of chemical compounds produced by Parkia pendula. The allelopathic effects were evaluated on seed germination and radicle elongation of the weeds Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia. The isolation process of the compounds involved the use of solvent in an increasing polarity order for extraction and the structural elucidation was carried out by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, COPSY's and HETCOR's spectrum. The bioassays were carried out

  2. Flower and fruit development of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Desenvolvimento de flores e frutos de Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

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    Daniel Piechowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkia pendula occurs in Brazil in Amazonia and in the northeastern Atlantic Forest. In the latter, its buds, nectar, and seedpod gum are discussed to be keystone resources for the mammalian fauna. To enhance the knowledge about these important nourishment sources, the aim of this study was to detect and describe distinct phases in the flower and pod development. The study was conducted in a 306 ha forest fragment in Igarassu, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Six morphometrical variables were measured weekly at five inflorescences of two individuals from September 2003 to January 2004. Eleven distinct developmental phases were identified in the 21 weeks lasting development from the very first inflorescences to mature pods and are described in detail. These phases are good predictors for the flowering and fruiting phenology of P. pendula, since they are easily distinguishable from the forest floor. Furthermore, highly synchronized abortions of inflorescences, buds, and pods were observed which support the previously assumed predator satiation defense strategy in Parkia.Parkia pendula ocorre no Brasil, tanto na Amazônia como na Mata Atlântica nordestina. Seus botões, néctar e goma da vagem são recursos chave para a mastofauna da Mata Atlântica nordestina. Para aumentar o conhecimento sobre estes importantes recursos alimentares, este estudo teve como objetivo detectar e descrever as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de flores e frutos. Este trabalho foi realizado em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica de 306 ha em Igarassu, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Entre setembro de 2003 e janeiro de 2004, seis variáveis morfométricas foram medidas semanalmente em cinco inflorescências de dois indivíduos. Onze fases distintas de desenvolvimento puderam ser identificadas e descritas em detalhe nas 21 semanas desde o desenvolvimento das primeiras inflorescências até as vagens maduras. Essas fases são boas preditoras da fenologia de floração e

  3. A new genus and species of gall midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Um novo gênero e espécie de mosquito galhador (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae associado com Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

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    Valéria Cid Maia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkiamyia paraensis, a new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae that induces galls on Parkia pendula is described (larva, pupa, male,female and gall based on material from Pará (Brazil.Parkiamyia paraensis, um novo gênero e espécie de Cecidomyiidae é descrita (larva, pupa, macho e fêmea com base em material do Pará (Brasil.

  4. Magnetic Parkia pendula seed gum as matrix for Concanavalin A lectin immobilization and its application in affinity purification

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    MOACYR J.B.M. RÊGO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to magnetize Parkia pendula seeds gum and use it as a matrix for Concanavalin A covalent immobilization. This composite was applied in affinity purification of glycoconjugates. Parkia pendula seeds were hydrated and the gum provenient from the supernatant was precipitated and washed with ethanol and dried. The gum was magnetized in co-precipitation using solutions of Fe+2 and Fe+3. Matrix activation was accomplished with NaIO4. Magnetized Parkia pendula seeds gum with covalently immobilized Concanavalin A was used as an affinity matrix for the recognition of bovine serum fetuin glycoprotein. Fetuin elution was carried out with a solution of glucose (300mM and evaluated through SDS-PAGE. The efficiency of lectin immobilization and fetuin purification were 63% and 14%, respectively. These results indicate that the composite produced is a promising magnetic polysaccharide matrix for lectins immobilization. Thus, such system can be applied for affinity purification allowing an easy recovery by magnetic field.

  5. Impact of a gall midge Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on the Amazonian plant Parkia pendula (Fabaceae Impacto do galhador Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae sobre a planta da Amazônia Parkia pendula Benth. ex Walp. (Fabaceae

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    G. Wilson Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed the occurrence of large numbers of galls induced by Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on the leaflets of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae in northern Para, Brazil. We addressed two questions in this study: i what is the proportion of attacked plants in the field, and nursery conditions?; and ii what is the impact of galls on the host plant? An average of 86% of the plants were galled in the field. Galled P. pendula were distinct from healthy individuals due to their prostrated architecture and death of terminal shoots. Approximately 50% of the total available leaves and 35% leaflets were attacked by P. paraensis on saplings under nursery conditions. Each one-year old plant supported an average of 1,300 galls, and an average of 60g allocated to galled tissue. Otherwise, attacked individuals were taller and heavier than healthy plants. Attacked plants weighed five times more than healthy plants. When the weight of the galls was removed, the total weight (aerial part without galls of attacked plants was drastically reduced, indicating that most of the biomass of attacked plants was due to the attack by P. paraensis galls. Although the data indicate a paradox, as young plants attacked by the galling herbivore appear to develop more vigorously than unattacked plants, we suggest that P. paraensis negatively affect P. pendula development.Observou-se a ocorrência de um grande número de galhas induzidas por Parkiamyia paraensis (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae nos folíolos de Parkia pendula (Fabaceae no norte do Pará, Brasil. Este estudo foi direcionado para responder duas perguntas: i qual é a proporção de plantas atacadas no campo e em condições de estufa? e ii qual é o impacto das galhas na planta hospedeira? Uma média de 86% das plantas apresentaram galhas no campo. Indivíduos com galhas de P. pendula eram distintos dos indivíduos saudáveis devido à arquitetura curvada e pela morte dos ramos terminais. Aproximadamente 50% do

  6. Hidrocondicionamento de Parkia pendula [Benth ex Walp]: sementes com dormência física de árvore da Amazônia Hydropriming of Parkia pendula [Penth. ex Walp.]: seeds with physical dormancy from Amazon tree

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    Gina Janet Vargas Pinedo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O visgueiro é uma árvore neotropical de importâncias econômica e ecológica. Este estudo objetivou determinar o tempo de embebição e o teor de água de sementes de Parkia pendula necessários para ativar o metabolismo e aumentar o desempenho pelo condicionamento. Sementes armazenadas (2 anos e não armazenadas (7 dias foram comparadas. Após o desponte as sementes foram submersas em água a 15 ºC, por períodos de 4 a 28 h, para atingir o grau de embebição desejado (20, 40, 60, 80 e 90%. Em seguida, foram diretamente semeadas em areia lavada no viveiro (4 x 25 sementes/tratamento ou dessecadas durante sete dias (24±2 °C e 68±3% UR antes da semeadura. Sementes não armazenadas e sem condicionamento (controle apresentaram 59±8,9% de emergência, valor inferior ao daquelas armazenadas e sem condicionamento (76±11,3%. Períodos de submersão superiores a 13 h reduziram o desempenho da germinação em relação às sementes não condicionadas. Porém, após 4 h (26-31% de teor de água das sementes ambas as sementes não armazenadas e armazenadas aumentaram o desempenho, sendo, ainda, maior quando houve dessecamento após a submersão. Portanto, os efeitos positivos do condicionamento ocorreram na fase I da curva de embebição. O hidrocondicionamento de 4 h a 15 ºC mostrou ser uma opção econômica e de fácil aplicação em sementes de P. pendula: aumentou a velocidade do desenvolvimento das plântulas, a porcentagem de germinação das sementes não armazenadas em níveis similares aos das armazenadas e a sincronização da germinação em sementes armazenadas.Visgueiro is a neo-tropical tree species with economic and ecologic importance. This work aimed to determine the imbibition time and moisture content of P. pendula seeds necessary to activate metabolism and improve their performance by priming. Stored seeds (2 years and unstored seeds (7 days were compared. After clipping, the seeds were kept in water at 15 ºC for periods of

  7. Parkia biglobosa (Leguminosae) en Afrique de l'Ouest : biosystematique et amelioration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouedraogo, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to strengthen the scientific and technical basis of biodiversity conservation, and use of Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean, néré ). The approach to this research included the gathering of technical

  8. Padronização do teste de tetrazólio em sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae Tetrazolium test in Parkia velutina Benoist seeds (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae

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    Angela Maria da Silva Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar métodos de pré-condicionamento e concentrações da solução de tetrazólio na avaliação da qualidade de sementes de Parkia velutina Benoist. Os tratamentos pré-condicionantes das sementes foram avaliados com três métodos de escarificação: desponte na região oposta ao hilo, punção na região mediana e lixa nos dois lados da semente com posterior embebição em 200 ml de água para cada 25 sementes e permanência em câmara a 30 ºC por 16 horas. As concentrações da solução de tetrazólio testadas foram: 1,0%, 0,5% e 0,1% por duas horas na temperatura de 40 ºC. O tratamento de pré-condicionamento mais eficiente foi a combinação do desponte e lixamento nos dois lados da semente. A concentração de tetrazólio a 0,5% pode ser utilizada para avaliar a viabilidade das sementes de P. velutina como complemento ao teste de germinação. O teste de tetrazólio se mostrou eficiente na caracterização de lesões ocasionadas por insetos e danos mecânicos em sementes de P. velutina.This manuscript aimed to determine methods of daily pre-conditioning and concentrations of the tetrazolium solution for evaluating the quality of Parkia velutina Benoist seeds. The daily pre-condicionanting seed treatments were evaluated using three scarification methods: coating cutting on the opposite side of the hilum region, puncture in the medium region and scarification with sandpaper on both sides of the seed, followed by soaking each of the 25 seeds in 200 ml of wate and permanence in chamber 30 ºC for 16 hours. The concentrations of the tetrazolium solution tested were 1.0%, 0.5% and 0.1% for two hours at 40 ºC. The more efficient daily pre-conditioning treatlment was a combination of the coating cutting and the scarification n both sides of the seed. The 0.5% tetrazolium concentration can be used to evaluate the viability of P. velutina seeds as complement to the germination test. The tetrazolium test

  9. Controlled synchronization of pendula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogromski, A.Y.; Belykh, V.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we design a controller forsynchronization problem for two pendula suspended on anelastically supported rigid beam. A relation to Huijgens'experiments as well as the practical motivation are emphasized.

  10. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

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    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  11. Diferenças no padrão da atividade alelopática em espécies da família Leguminosae Differences in allelopathic activity patterns in Leguminosae

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    M. Mourão Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As inúmeras espécies de plantas que compõem a floresta amazônica podem representar excelente alternativa para fazer frente ao desafio de desenvolver a agricultura conforme as exigências da sociedade. Neste trabalho, procurou-se determinar e caracterizar o padrão de atividade alelopática em espécies da família Leguminosae, em função de variações de espécies, fonte de extratos e sensibilidade da planta receptora. Bioensaios de germinação de sementes e alongamento da radícula e do hipocótilo foram desenvolvidos em condições controladas. Os resultados indicam que as espécies estudadas não apresentaram padrão semelhante no tocante aos efeitos potenciais alelopáticos, havendo, entretanto, hierarquização no tocante à intensidade dos efeitos globais, sendo o potencial alelopático inibitório mais amplo e efetivo nas espécies Bauhinia guianensis, Bowdichia virgiloides, Parkia pendula e Platimenia reticulata. O potencial alelopático foi efetivo e mais restrito em Bauhinia macrostachya. O fator fração das plantas revelou diferenciação no padrão de atividade: para a maioria das espécies, as folhas foram a principal fonte de aleloquímicos, e para Bauhinia macrostachya e Inga edulis, a raiz. Em termos de padrão de respostas das espécies receptoras, o alongamento da radícula é mais sensível aos efeitos dos extratos, ficando o alongamento do hipocótilo como o de menor sensibilidade. Os efeitos dos extratos foram mais intensos sobre Mimosa pudica. Esses resultados também atribuem à floresta amazônica importância como fonte de compostos químicos de interesse para o homem, o que, em si, justifica sua preservação.Innumerous plant species in the Amazon forest may be an excellent alternative to meet society's demand for natural products. This work aimed to determine and characterize the pattern of allelopathic activity in species of the Leguminosae family, according to species variation, extract source, and receptor

  12. saccharum saccharum officinarum officinarum ) bagasse and parkia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    in wastewater include: suspended solids, biodegradable organic ... The seeds of the plant are enclosed in a yellowish, mealy, sweet ... and parkia biglobosa in wastewater treatment involve ..... thesis, Graduate Faculty of the Louissiana State.

  13. Gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves against acute gastric lesion models in rodents

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    Hélio B Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkia platycephala Benth. (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae, popularly known as "visgueira", fava bean tree or "fava-de-bolota", is widely found in the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil. Its pods are used as cattle food supplement in the drought period. Compounds with a gastroprotective activity were obtained from the genus Parkia. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Parkia platycephala Benth. leaves (Pp-EtOH, as well as evaluating its possible mechanisms of action in experimental ulcer induction models. Lesions were induced by absolute ethanol, ethanol-HCl, ischemia-reperfusion and indomethacin in rodents. Pp-EtOH showed a protective effect in the lesion models (66, 48 and 52 %, respectively, but it was not able to protect gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced lesions. Results show a possible participation of the NO-synthase pathway in the gastroprotection and an antioxidant activity, by the increase of the catalase activity. The participation of prostaglandins and potassium channels sensitive to ATP in the gastroprotective effect of Pp-EtOH seems less likely to occur. More comprehensive studies, therefore, should be carried out to elucidate the antiulcerative effects of this promising natural product against this gastrointestinal disorder.

  14. Antinociceptive potential of Parkia platycephala B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coord ADM

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... of formalin test. These findings ... 1993); while the stem-bark of this plant also presented ... histamine release from mast cells were found in P. ... Chemicals and drugs .... described; peripheral nerve fibre regeneration, regulation of inner .... from Parkia biglobosa used in traditional medicine in the Ivory Coast.

  15. Parkia speciosa Hassk.: A Potential Phytomedicine

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    Yusof Kamisah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkia speciosa Hassk., or stink bean, is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. It is consumed either raw or cooked. It has been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, hypertension, and kidney problems. It contains minerals and vitamins. It displays many beneficial properties. Its extracts from the empty pods and seeds have a high content of total polyphenol, phytosterol, and flavonoids. It demonstrates a good antioxidant activity. Its hypoglycemic effect is reported to be attributable to the presence of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmast-4-en-3-one. The cyclic polysulfide compounds exhibit antibacterial activity, while thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid possesses anticancer property. The pharmacological properties of the plant extract are described in this review. With ongoing research conducted on the plant extracts, Parkia speciosa has a potential to be developed as a phytomedicine.

  16. Do coupled nested pendula have the same eigenfrequencies as pendula in cascade?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Constancio Jr, M Constancio Jr; Aguiar, O D; Keiser, G McCurrach; Malheiro, M; Lemos, L J Rangel

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, several vibration isolation projects for gravitational wave detectors have been proposed. Some of them are related to N-stages cascaded systems which can achieve great factors of attenuation. However, these systems are usually very tall, which makes it difficult to build an efficient vaccum chamber for them. For this reason, this paper makes a comparison between a theoretical N-stage cascaded pendula with an experimental N-stage nested one. Preliminary results show that their resonant modes are very similar. The ratio between the results of experiment and theory is between 0.94 and 1.01 for the pendular modes and systematically close to 1.05 for the rotational modes. This result implies that an N-stage nested pendula set of about 1.4 m height can have resonant modes similar to a cascaded pendula set of about 6.6 m, which may suggests that a nested system can be theoretically treated as a cascaded one. So, the development of nested pendula can be an effective alternative of vibration isolation systems for future generations of gravitational wave detectors

  17. Callus induction from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants of Parkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epicotyl and hypocotyl explants of Parkia biglobosa (Locust bean) were cultured in vitro to investigate their callogenic capacity. Established cultures were obtained and maintained on MS medium supplemented with either 2,4-D or NAA, each of concentration range of 0.4 – 1.0 mg/L. In general, while higher concentrations of ...

  18. Caracterisation physique et mecanique de la graine de nere( Parkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed of Néré Parkia biglobosa is an agricultural product very rich in proteins and lipids. Traditional process for transformation of Néré seed in food (mustard) consists on several operations of which seed dehulling stays the most tiresome and least hygienic. Physical and mechanical properties of seeds are required in ...

  19. Nutritional composition of the African locust bean ( Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of the African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) fruit pulp were determined using standard methods. Results showed a moisture content of 8.41%, protein 6.56%, fat 1.80%, crude fibre 11.75%, ash. 4.18% and carbohydrate of 67.30%. Sugar content was found to be 9.00 °Brix; total ...

  20. Bioactivity and Toxicity of Senna cana and Senna pendula Extracts

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    J. A. Monteiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the content of total polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as their toxicity and larvicidal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. The antioxidant activities of two medicinal Senna species extracts (Senna cana and Senna pendula were also investigated. The ethanol extract of the leaves of S. cana and the ethanol extract of the branches of S. pendula presented the best performance in the DPPH/FRAP and ABTS/ORAC assays, respectively. For the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, the hexane extract of the flowers of S. pendula presented the lowest IC50 value among the ethanol extracts of the leaves of S. cana and showed the best performance in some assays. The hexane extract of the leaves of S. pendula and the hexane extract of the branches of S. cana were moderate to Artemia salina Leach. In the quantification of phenols and flavonoids, the ethanol extract of the leaves of S. cana presented the best results. The ethanol extracts of the leaves of S. cana were found to be rich in antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids. These results indicate the antioxidant potential of the extracts of Senna species and can be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of these plants.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of acrylated Parkia biglobosa medium oil alkyds

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    E.T. Akintayo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylated Parkia biglobosa medium oil alkyd prepared by the reaction between an acid containing acrylic copolymer and a monoglyceride followed by the addition of polyol and dibasic acid has been investigated for improved properties. The results revealed that acid functional acrylic copolymers containing maleic anhydride as a functional co-monomer can successfully be used to modify alkyd resins yielding acrylated resins with better drying, flexibility, scratch hardness, impact resistance and chemical resistance properties. However there exist optimum levels for modification of alkyds with such copolymers beyond which certain film properties are adversely affected.

  2. Parkia biglobosa as an economic resource for rural women in south-western Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette-Helene Kronborg; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ilboudo, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were...... involved in the sale of soumbala, and 34% of those not participating in soumbala sales were interested in getting involved, suggesting that there is a basis for expanding the soumbala trade. Possible factors that could motivate more women to participate in soumbala sales were sustainability, sowing...... of seeds and amount of seeds harvested per year. In addition, 90% of the informants managed Parkia sustainably, suggesting that enhanced exploitation of Parkia for commercial purposes can be ecologically sustainable if present management techniques are maintained. The results suggest that Parkia have...

  3. Studies on phytosterol content of Parkia roxburgii G. Don.

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    DJADJAT TISNADJAJA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kedawung (Parkia roxburgii G. Don. is one of plants that originally could be found in almost all parts of Java Island. Due to lack of attention, at present situation this plant could be categorized as an endangered species. This plant species distributed widely in Africa. In several African countries, this plant has an important position either as food resource or alternative medicine. In Indonesia, traditionally kedawung tree often use as medicine, especially as part of “jamu gendong” formulation. This work was focused on the study of phytosterol content and it distribution. The research result show that almost all parts of kedawung tree have a significant content of phytosterol, which is dominated by beta-sitosterol. The highest beta-sitosterol content was founded in the stem of leaf (35.24% (w/w and pod (29.67% (w/w.

  4. Experimental multistable states for small network of coupled pendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Grabski, Juliusz; Wojewoda, Jerzy; Perlikowski, Przemyslaw; Maistrenko, Yuri; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    Chimera states are dynamical patterns emerging in populations of coupled identical oscillators where different groups of oscillators exhibit coexisting synchronous and incoherent behaviors despite homogeneous coupling. Although these states are typically observed in the large ensembles of oscillators, recently it has been shown that so-called weak chimera states may occur in the systems with small numbers of oscillators. Here, we show that similar multistable states demonstrating partial frequency synchronization, can be observed in simple experiments with identical mechanical oscillators, namely pendula. The mathematical model of our experiment shows that the observed multistable states are controlled by elementary dynamical equations, derived from Newton’s laws that are ubiquitous in many physical and engineering systems. Our finding suggests that multistable chimera-like states are observable in small networks relevant to various real-world systems.

  5. Bats and bees are pollinating Parkia biglobosa in the Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Ræbild, Anders; Hansen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A pollination experiment was conducted with Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae) in The Gambia. P. biglobosa is integrated in the farming systems and produces fruit pulp and seeds used in cooking. The species is bat-pollinated, and in areas with few bats the main pollinators are assumed to be honey bees...

  6. Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa (Benth) ... There has been emphasis on the use of indigenous tree species to check land ... out to investigate the most effective pre-sowing treatments to break seed dormancy and to ... Matured seeds of P. biglobosa were collected from farmers at Mbalagh ...

  7. Improving livelihoods in West Africa through a natural resource - The case of Parkia biglobosa and soumbala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Mette

    In this thesis we bridge the gap between science and international development work by looking into the life improving prospects of the natural resource Parkia biglobosa. Parkia biglobosa is important for economic and subsistence reasons in Burkina Faso. However, P. biglobosa and its associated...... management practises, soumbala product processing practises, and nutritional composition of soumbala on perceived soumbala quality. Several variables on management practises correlated with high quality soumbala. Variables relating to product processing were examined using qualitative data from producer...... group sessions. Finally, the relationship between nutritional compositions and soumbala quality was determined. The results showed that local knowledge, management practises, and product processing practises were correlated with soumbala quality, whilst nutritional composition was a poor predictor...

  8. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Cultivated on Parkia biglobosa Fruit Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Auta, Helen Shnada; Abidoye, Khadijat Toyin; Tahir, Hauwa; Ibrahim, Aliyu Dabai; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters (pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period) had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced...

  9. Reproduction et Diversité Génétique chez Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Parkiabiglobosa(Jacq.)G.Don, African

  10. Penetapan Kadar Fosfor Dalam Buah Petai (Parkia speciosa) Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Melisa

    2013-01-01

    Parkia speciosa generally consumed by people as other dishes, although there are some people who do not like it due to its odor. It is often recognized as a traditional and uncommon food. This plant products mineral, one of the mineral much is producted is phosphorus. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of phosphorus in the both types: petai padi and papan. Qualitative analysis of phosphorus carried out by turning it into phosphate and ammonium molybdate reagent identified,...

  11. Partial Purification Characterization and Application of Bacteriocin from Bacteria Isolated Parkia biglobosa Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Olorunjuwon, O. Bello; Olubukola, O. Babalola; Mobolaji, Adegboye; Muibat, O. Fashola; Temitope, K. Bello

    2018-01-01

    Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. Fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds (African locust bean) were screened for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with the characterization of putative bacteriocins. Bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. Molecular sizes of the bacteriocins were determined using the tricine-sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacryla...

  12. Estimating the spread rate of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer using fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Antikainen; Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mari Levirinne; Mark Hughes

    2015-01-01

    In plywood production, human operators find it difficult to precisely monitor the spread rate of adhesive in real-time. In this study, macroscopic fluorescence was used to estimate spread rate (SR) of urea formaldehyde adhesive on birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer. This method could be an option when developing automated real-time SR measurement for...

  13. Speciation analysis of aluminium in plant parts of Betula pendula and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin

    2018-03-01

    The research presents the first results of aluminium speciation analysis in aqueous extracts of individual plant parts of Betula pendula and soil samples, using High Performance Ion Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPIC-DAD). The applied method allowed us to carry out a full speciation analysis of aluminium in the form of predominant aluminium-fluoride complexes: AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) (first analytical signal), AlF 2+ (second analytical signal) and Al 3+ (third analytical signal) in samples of lateral roots, tap roots, twigs, stem, leaf and soil collected under roots of B. pendula. Concentrations of aluminium and its complexes were determined for two types of environment characterised by different degree of human impact: contaminated site of the Chemical Plant in Luboń and protected area of the Wielkopolski National Park. For all the analysed samples of B. pendula and soil, AlF (x=2,3,4) (3-x) had the largest contribution, followed by Al 3+ and AlF 2+ . Significant differences in concentration and contribution of Al-F complexes and Al 3+ form, depending on the place of sampling (different anthropogenic pressure) and plant part of B. pendula were observed. Based on the obtained results, it was found that transport of aluminium is "blocked" by lateral roots, and is closely related to Al content of soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala e H. courbaril à fertilização. A aleatorização não foi suficiente para garantir condições semelhantes de luz nos plantios de enriquecimento. A variação na quantidade de luz incidente no sub‑bosque compromete a correta avaliação dos tratamentos de fertilização.

  15. Aktivitas endo-β-mannanase pada perkecambahan biji Parkia roxburghii dengan pemberian variasi konsentrasi giberelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJENG EDITA SUBANDI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subandi AE, Sari SLA, Anggarwulan E, Solichatun. 2015. Enzyme activities of endo-β–mannanase on seed germination of Parkia roxburghii with grant of concentration variation giberellin. Bioteknologi 12: 8-15. Kedawung (Parkia roxburghii G. Don is member of leguminous plants used as medicinal plants. Parkia roxburghii seeds have rigid seed coats and this can inhibit germination process. Seed germination barriers can be broken by adding external hormones such as gibberellin and auxin. Gibberellin hormone has been known to has capabilities to accelerate seed germination. The purpose of this study was to (i determine the effect of various concentrations of the gibberellin hormone on seed germination of P. roxburghii and (ii investigate the activity of endo-β-mannanase enzyme in breaking the endosperm on seed germination P. roxburghii. The experiment was conducted by randomized design (CRD with 4 different gibberellin concentrations namely 0, 100, 300 and 500 ppm respectively. Seeds were incubated in waterbath at 55oC for 1 hour as a pretreatment. Seeds then soaked in a solution of gibberellin hormone for 24 hours. After rinsed with distilled water, seeds subsequently germinated in petri dishes for 30 days. Germination was performed at room temperature (28oC. Germination parameters observed were seed imbibition, germination rate, germination percentage, and activity of endo-β-mannanase enzyme. Measurement of endo-β-mannanase activity was using spectrophotometer. The results showed that the highest germination percentage of P.roxburghii seed at 300 ppm was 47%. During germination process, the activity endo-β-mannanase enzyme has been changing, in which the closer to the germination time, enzyme activity increased. The highest peak of activity endo-β-mannanase enzyme at 300 ppm was 20.34 units/2.4 ml on the third day of germination.

  16. Notas sobre frutos y semillas de plantas colombianas I. Parkia (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Linares

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se llevó a cabo el estudio de los frutos y sernillas de los géneros de Parkia distribuidos en Colombia. En dicho estudio, realizado con ejemplares de colección del Herbario Nacional Colombiano, se encontraron siete especies pertenecientes a dicho genero (P. igneif1ora, P. discolor, P. multijuga, P. nitido, P. panarensis, P. pendulo, P. velutina, a cada una de las cuales se le realizó la descripción detallada de los frutos y las semillas y se elaboraron dibujos en los cuales se resaltan los caracteres más sobresalientes.

  17. Microsatellite Primers for Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) Reveal that a Single Plant Sires All Seeds Per Pod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Ouédraogo, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for an indigenous fruit tree, Parkia biglobosa, as a tool to study reproductive biology and population structure. Here we use the primers to determine the number of fathers per pod.  Methods and Results: Microsatellite loci were enriched...

  18. Germination and Seedling Development of Seeds from Different Parkia biglobosa (Jacq G. Don Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana O. ADEYEMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daylight, continuous illumination and acid scarification on the seed germination and seedling vegetative growth (epicotyl and hypocotyl lengths, and number of secondary roots of different Parkia biglobosawere investigated in the Plant Physiology Laboratory University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State Nigeria. Seeds from two out of the twenty six Parkia tree samples (trees B and T germinated within 24 hours of planting in the daylight germination study while seeds from another tree (Q did not germinate until the third week after planting (3WAP. Some seeds have higher germination percentage both in the daylight (preliminary germination study and in the continuous light (illuminated study. The treatment with concentrated Sulphric acid (conc. H2SO4was effective in breaking the seed dormancy as seeds from eight (8 trees produced one hundred percent (100% germination. At p= 0.05 the length of epicotyl and hypocoty1 lengths were significantly different as seedling vegetative growth were long in the seedlings from the daylight experiment than the continuous light experiment. The vegetative growths of the seedlings from the scarified seed were longer at 15min of scarification in all except in trees F and Z. It was observed that the time of scarification affect the both seed germination and seedling development.

  19. Estudos preliminares de uma lectina de sementes de Parkia platycephala Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Grangeiro

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Parkia platycephala Benth.possuem uma lectina que é melhor extraída a pH 4,0 e pode ser isolada por cromatografia de afinidade em coluna de Sephadex G-50. A lectina aglutina eritrócitos de coelho mas não aglutina hemácias humanas (A, B e O, de boi, de carneiro ou de galinha. D-glicose, D-manose, D-frutose e derivados mostraram ser açúcares inibidores da atividade hemaglutinante, sendo que alfa-metil-glicosídeo e alfa-metil-manosídeo foram os mais potentes inibidores entre os açúcares testados.Seeds of Parkia platycephala Benth. have a lectin which is best extracted at pH 4,0 and partially purified using a Sephadex G-50 column as an affinity adsorbent. The lectin .agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes but not those of cow, sheep, chicken or human D-glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose and derivatives act as inhibitors of the lectin with o-methyl-glucopyranoside and O-methyl-mannopyranoside being the most potent ones.

  20. MORFOBIOMETRIA E GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE Parkia multijuga Benth. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartiane Rubishirley Macêdo Rocha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos métodos para a análise de sementes de muitas espécies estarem descritos nas Regras para Análises de Sementes, para a maioria das sementes das espécies brasileiras não há, ainda, métodos para o teste de germinação. Assim, os objetivos dessa pesquisa foram determinar as dimensões das sementes e as características das plântulas de Parkia multijuga e estabelecer o substrato e a temperatura para a germinação. As dimensões das sementes avaliadas foram: comprimento, largura e espessura. Para avaliação da germinação, em diferentes temperaturas e substratos, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em fatorial duplo (dois substratos, entre areia e entre papel, e quatro temperaturas, 20, 25 e 30ºC com luz contínua e 25-30°C com alternância de luz. As sementes de Parkia multijuga são elipsoidais, com tamanho médio de 46,4 × 11,8 × 8,8 mm. A germinação das sementes é do tipo hipógea e criptocotiledonar. As temperaturas adequadas para o teste de germinação são 25 ou 30ºC, em substrato areia, em luz contínua. Palavras-chave: Faveira-benguê, plântula normal; temperatura, substrato. MORPHOBIOMETRY AND GERMINATION OF Parkia multijuga Benth. SEEDS ABSTRACT Many species have the seed analysis method described in rules for seed testing, however some Brazilian native species do not have studies related about germination methods. The aims of this study were characterize the size of Parkia multijuga Benth. seeds and determine the substrate and temperature for the germination test. The sizes assessed were the length, the width and the thickness. To indicate the best temperature and substrate for the germination test the completely randomized design was used in factorial (two substrate, between sand and between paper, and four temperatures, 20, 25 and 30ºC with light and 25-30°C, with alternated light. Parkia multijuga seeds are ellipsoids shape and its mean size is 46.4 × 11.8 × 8.8 mm

  1. Butanol fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don leaves enhance pancreatic β-cell functions, stimulates insulin secretion and ameliorates other type 2 diabetes-associated complications in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Habila, James Dama; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-05-13

    Ethnopharmacological surveys have reported that Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don (Leguminosae) is among the plants commonly used in the traditional management of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria and Togo. This study investigated the anti-diabetic activity of the butanol fraction of P. biglobosa leaves (PBBF) in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) model of rats and a possible bioactive compound in the fraction. T2D was induced by feeding rats with a 10% fructose solution ad libitum for two weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 40mg/kg body weight streptozotocin and the animals were orally treated with 150 and 300mg/kg BW of the PBBF for five days in a week. Another group of rats was non-diabetic but similarly administered with 300mg/kg BW of the PBBF. Food and fluid intakes, body weight changes and blood glucose levels were monitored during the experiment while other relevant diabetes-associated parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. The PBBF treatments significantly (P<0.05) decreased the blood glucose levels and improved the glucose tolerance ability compared to untreated diabetic rats. Furthermore, the treatments were found to improve pancreatic β cell function (HOMA-β), stimulate insulin secretions, decrease insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), restore liver glycogen, ameliorate serum dyslipidaemia and prevent hepatic and renal damages compared to untreated diabetic rats. Phytochemical analysis of the fraction led to the isolation of lupeol which inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase in non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition patterns respectively. It was concluded that PBBF possessed remarkable anti-T2D activity which is mediated through modulation of β-cell function and stimulation of insulin secretion and the lower dose (150mg/kg BW) was found optimum for anti-T2D activity compared to the high dose (300mg/kg BW) in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE Parkia gigantocarpa (FABACEAE - MIMOSIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Kleber Morbeck de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to determine the best dormancy overcoming methods for Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke seeds and their influence on seedlings quality. The seeds were submitted to the following methods: immersion in boiling water for 10 minutes; acid scarification, in which the seeds were immersed in sulfuric acid (H2SO4 98 % for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes; mechanical scarification, with sandpaper for 15 seconds, and control (no treatment. The seedling quality was evaluated through primary root dry matter. Experiment was entirely random designed, with eight methods. Evaluating all the parameters, the acid scarification, for 30 and 40 minutes, showed the best dormancy overcoming results to the species, providing better vigor into germination and greater biomass allocation mean values to primary root.

  3. Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger Cultivated on Parkia biglobosa Fruit Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, Khadijat Toyin; Tahir, Hauwa; Ibrahim, Aliyu Dabai; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters (pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period) had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced. The maximum yield was obtained at the pH of 2 with citric acid of 1.15 g/L and reducing sugar content of 0.541 mMol−1, 3% vegetative inoculum size with citric acid yield of 0.53 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.87 mMol−1, 2% of the substrate concentration with citric acid yield of 0.83 g/L and reducing sugar content of 9.36 mMol−1, incubation temperature of 55°C with citric acid yield of 0.62 g/L and reducing sugar content of 8.37 mMol−1, and fermentation period of 5 days with citric acid yield of 0.61 g/L and reducing sugar content of 3.70 mMol−1. The results of this study are encouraging and suggest that Parkia biglobosa pulp can be harnessed at low concentration for large scale citric acid production. PMID:27433535

  4. Partial Purification, Characterization and Application of Bacteriocin from Bacteria Isolated Parkia biglobosa Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olorunjuwon O. Bello

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. Fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds (African locust bean were screened for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB with the characterization of putative bacteriocins. Bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB were identified by 16s rDNA sequencing. Molecular sizes of the bacteriocins were determined using the tricine-sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (tricine-SDS–PAGE and effects of enzymes, pH, detergents and temperature on bacteriocin activity investigated, using standard procedures. Bacteriocins production and activities were measured by spectrophotometric analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using student t-test and Analyses of Variance. Bacteriocigenic LAB isolated were Lactobacillus plantarum Z1116, Enterococcus faecium AU02 and Leuconostoc lactis PKT0003. They inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The sizes of bacteriocins Z1116, AU02 and PKT0003 were 3.2 kDa, 10 kDa and 10 kDa, respectively. The synergistic effects of characterized bacteriocins and rifampicin tested on organisms showed significant differences (P < 0.05, as compared with the effects of only one of the two. The antimicrobial activity of the three bacteriocins was deactivated after treatment of the cell-free supernatants with proteinase K, papain, pepsin and trypsin. Parkia biglobosa seeds are, therefore, rich in LAB bacteriocins which could be explored. The biosynthetic mechanisms of LAB bacteriocins could be employed in food safety and security, preservation, peptide design, infection control and pharmacotherapy. This should help in the control of undesirable bacteria and in designing more potent and selective antimicrobial peptides.

  5. EXTRACTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS FROM PETAI LEAVES (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND ASSISTED METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buanasari Buanasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant has an activity to neutralize free radical compound that the body needs to avoid damage cells and tissues. Phenolic is one of the compounds that have an antioxidant activity. The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE conditions on phenolic compounds of Parkia speciosa Hassk. leaves were investigated. The effects of temperature (40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, time (10, 30 and 50 minutes and material-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:13, 1:15 were evaluated based on the yield, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity. The result showed that the highest yield (15.82% was obtained at 1:15 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 50°C of temperature and 50 minutes of extraction time for MAE. The highest yield of UAE is 15.53% that sample was obtained at 1:13 (w/w of material-solvent ratio, 60°C of optimal temperature and 30 minutes extraction time. The highest IC50 of UAE method extract was 52.55 ppm, while the extract obtained using MAE method was 50.44 ppm. UAE is more stable at higher temperatures. Time and solvent which was used more efficient than MAE. Extract of petai leaves (Parkia speciosa Hassk. were very potential to be used as a source of natural antioxidants because they have IC50 values from 41.39 to 66.00 ppm. Its antioxidants capacity is ranged from strong to very strong capacity.

  6. Crown-Stump Diameter Model for Parkia biglobosa Benth. Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chukwu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

  7. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (East Indian Rosewood) of Leguminosae is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. (East Indian Rosewood) of Leguminosae is a large deciduous or nearly evergreen tree that grows in mixed deciduous forests with teak. Leaves are compound. The creamy white flowers are borne on branched inflorescences. The indehiscent dry pod bears. 1-4 seeds. Inset - a juvenile plant.

  8. Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Albizzia lebbeck Benth. (Hindi: Siris) of Leguminosae is a large deciduous tree with greyish bark and compound leaves. Flowers are greenish-yellow in head inflorescences. Fruit pods are yellowish-brown, flat and carry 6-10 seeds (Inset shows the entire crown of the tree covered with previous season's dry pods).

  9. Rhizofiltration of a Heavy metal (lead) containing wastewater using the wetland plant carex pendula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Brijesh K. [Environmental Hydrogeology Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Civil Engineering, New Delhi (India); Siebel, Maarten A.; Bruggen, Johan J.A. van [Department of Environmental Resources, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Rhizofiltration is a subset technique of phytoremediation which refers to the approach of using plant biomass for removing contaminants, primarily toxic metals, from polluted water. The effective implementation of this in situ remediation technology requires experimental as well as conceptual insight of plant-water interactions that control the extraction of targeted metal from polluted water resources. Therefore, pot and simulation experiments are used in this study to investigate the rhizofiltration of a lead containing wastewater using plants of Carex pendula, a common wetland plant found in Europe. The metal contaminant extraction along with plant growth and water uptake rates from a wastewater having varying Pb concentration is studied experimentally for 2 wk. The temporal distribution of the metal concentration in the wastewater and the accumulated metal in different compartments of C. pendula at the end are analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Parameters of the metal uptake kinetics are deduced experimentally for predicting the metal removal by root biomass. Further, mass balance equations coupled with the characterized metal uptake kinetics are used for simulating the metal partitioning from the wastewater to its accumulation in the plant biomass. The simulated metal content in wastewater and plant biomass is compared with the observed data showing a good agreement with the later. Results show that C. pendula accumulates considerable amounts of lead, particularly in root biomass, and can be considered for the cleanup of lead contaminated wastewaters in combination with proper biomass disposal alternatives. Also, the findings can be used for performing further non-hydroponics experiment to mimic the real wetland conditions more closely. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. parkia biglobosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    amino acids, essential fatty acids, fiber and vitamins; but the presence of ... nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive ... containing 0.1 g of NaOH pellets. The distillate was .... fungitoxic effects, adverse effects on animal growth and performance and .... aspect of fermentation of castor oil seeds for.

  11. The influence of log soaking temperature on surface quality and integrity performance of birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Toni Antikainen; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Mark Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Wood material surface properties play an important role in adhesive bond formation and performance. In the present study, a test method was developed to evaluate the integrity of the wood surface, and the results were used to understand bond performance. Materials used were rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneers, produced from logs soaked at 20 or 70 °C prior...

  12. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG & OHASHI, HIROSHI. 2002. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae from Malay Peninsula. Reinwardtia 12(1: 117–119. ⎯ A new species, Dalbergia johoriensis from the Malay Peninsula is described. It is close to D. rostrata and D. havilandii but readily distinguished by the grooved midrib beneath, flowers with narrower standard and wings and style hairy in the lower part.

  13. DNA fingerprinting validates seed dispersal curves from observational studies in the neotropical legume parkia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants.

  14. Parkia biglobosa Improves Mitochondrial Functioning and Protects against Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Hippocampal Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode Komolafe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Methanolic leaf extracts of Parkia biglobosa, PBE, and one of its major polyphenolic constituents, catechin, were investigated for their protective effects against neurotoxicity induced by different agents on rat brain hippocampal slices and isolated mitochondria. Methods. Hippocampal slices were preincubated with PBE (25, 50, 100, or 200 µg/mL or catechin (1, 5, or 10 µg/mL for 30 min followed by further incubation with 300 µM H2O2, 300 µM SNP, or 200 µM PbCl2 for 1 h. Effects of PBE and catechin on SNP- or CaCl2-induced brain mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were also determined. Results. PBE and catechin decreased basal ROS generation in slices and blunted the prooxidant effects of neurotoxicants on membrane lipid peroxidation and nonprotein thiol contents. PBE rescued hippocampal cellular viability from SNP damage and caused a significant boost in hippocampus Na+, K+-ATPase activity but with no effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. Both PBE and catechin also mitigated SNP- or CaCl2-dependent mitochondrial ROS generation. Measurement by safranine fluorescence however showed that the mild depolarization of the ΔΨm by PBE was independent of catechin. Conclusion. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of PBE is dependent on its constituent antioxidants and mild mitochondrial depolarization propensity.

  15. DNA Fingerprinting Validates Seed Dispersal Curves from Observational Studies in the Neotropical Legume Parkia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W.; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M.; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants. PMID:22514748

  16. Betula pendula: A Promising Candidate for Phytoremediation of TCE in Northern Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Qvarfort, Ulf; Sjöström, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Betula pendula (Silver birch) trees growing on two contaminated sites were evaluated to assess their capacity to phytoscreen and phytoremediate chlorinated aliphatic compounds and heavy metals. Both locations are industrially-contaminated properties in central Sweden. The first was the site of a trichloroethylene (TCE) spill in the 1980s while the second was polluted with heavy metals by burning industrial wastes. In both cases, sap and sapwood from Silver birch trees were collected and analyzed for either chlorinated aliphatic compounds or heavy metals. These results were compared to analyses of the surface soil, vadose zone pore air and groundwater. Silver birch demonstrated the potential to phytoscreen and possibly phytoremediate TCE and related compounds, but it did not demonstrate the ability to effectively phytoextract heavy metals when compared with hyperaccumulator plants. The capacity of Silver birch to phytoremediate TCE appears comparable to tree species that have been employed in field-scale TCE phytoremediation efforts, such as Populus spp. and Eucalyptus sideroxylon rosea.

  17. Biomonitoring Study of Air Pollution with Betula pendula Roth., from Plovdiv, Bulgaria

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    Slaveya T. Petrova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active biomonitoring with tree, herbaceous, moss and lichen species for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. All reported results here are preliminary. Betula pendula was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution in Plovdiv. Eight sampling sites in the urban roadside, city center and suburban areas were investigated. Chlorophyll content was determined as essential and sensitive physiological parameter. The concentrations of 26 micro and macroelements were analyzed by FAAS and ICPMS. Maximum for chlorophyll was found in the birch leaves from west part of the town, minimum – in these from north part. More significant variations were detected for Ni, Mn, B, Cr, Co, Fe, Bi, Cd, Al, Zn. Highest concentrations of 12 elements were found in the samples, collected from the central area of Plovdiv.

  18. DNA typing of birch: Development of a forensic STR system for Betula pendula and Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Monique; Dragutinović, Aleksandar; Noordhoek, Jeroen W; Bergwerff, Leonie; Kuiper, Irene

    2018-04-07

    Although botanical trace evidence is often encountered in case investigations, the utilization of such traces in forensic investigations is still limited. Development of a forensic STR system for the two species of Betula (birch) indigenous to and abundant in North West Europe is a step in enhancing the applicability of traces from these species. We describe six microsatellite markers developed for birch species in detail, including repeat structure, and we propose a nomenclature for the encountered alleles. To assess the population characteristics, the genetic composition of wild, planted and intermediate populations of Betula pendula (a diploid species) and Betula pubescens (a tetraploid species) were investigated. The genetic differences between these two species were larger than the differences between populations of one species, even when both species co-occurred at one location. Therefore allele frequencies were estimated for both species separately. General, conservative random match probabilities were estimated for wild trees based on these allele frequencies (5∙10 -6 for the diploid B. pendula and 1∙10 -13 for the tetraploid B. pubescens), illustrating the potential relevance if trace evidence secured from a suspect is found to match a birch tree growing on or near a crime scene. Apart from wild trees, planted Betula trees also occur that may not originate from seeds, but may have been propagated through cloning. Based on the studied Betula trees, the random match probability of a potentially planted profile might be as high as 1.4∙10 -2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 7 CFR 201.56-6 - Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). 201.56-6 Section 201.56-6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...-6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, asparagusbean...

  20. Chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark and fruits of Dichrostachys cinerea and the roots of Parkia bicolor

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    J. Fotie

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Dichrostachys cinerea and the roots of Parkia bicolor have been evaluated. Ethyl acetate extracts have been investigated, studies that led to a series of known compounds, amongst which many are reported here for the very first time from both the species.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Kedawung Extract (Parkia Roxburghii G. Don on Food Borne Pathogens

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    Ervizal A. M Zuhud, Winiati Pudji Rahayu, C. Hanny Wijaya, Pipi Puspita Sari

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Kedawung is a Leguminosae/Fabaceae which. It is commonly used as traditional medicine for infection and stomach disoders, caused by bacteria.The aim of this study is to examine the potential antimicrobial activity of seed, bark, root and kedawung leaf. It is expected that the result will give information on characteristics and concentration of kedawung part which have the highest antimicrobial activity.The result showed that the bark has the highest antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Extract made from kedawung plant and water (ratio 1:2,b/v was better than those made with ratios of 1 : 1 or 1 : 3 (b/v. Heat did not decrease its antimicrobial activity. Extract concentration of 10% (21.40 mg/ml with contact time of 24 hour decreased bacterial growth but did not inactivate them.

  2. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of Parkia biglobosa in Northern Benin

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    Koura Kourouma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa is a multipurpose species used widely in arid Africa by local communities. The present study focused on ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of P. biglobosa in Northern Benin, where the species widely grows. The use values according to the various ethnic groups in the study area have been evaluated in detail for P. biglobosa. Methods From 13 ethnic groups, 1587 people were interviewed in the study area using semi-structured questionnaires. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analyze the use value and the use patterns of P. biglobosa for the different ethnic groups. Results All interviewees in the study area knew at least one use of P. biglobosa. The various uses identified were medicinal (47%, handicraft and domestic (3%, medico-magic (1%, veterinary (1%, cultural (1%, food (25% and commercial (22%. The various parts involved in these types of uses were: fruits [shell (2%, pulp (22% and seeds (36%], bark (17%, leaves (9%, roots (3%, flowers (1% and branches (10%. The ethnic group consensus values for P. biglobosa parts showed that the seeds are used the most. The interviewees diversity value (ID and equitability value (IE indicated that knowledge concerning P. biglobosa use was distributed homogeneously among the ethnic groups. Conclusions P. biglobosa is well-known and used in different ways by the local populations in the study area. Local knowledge on the species is diversified and influenced by ethnic group. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of the species were evident in this study.

  3. Density and spatial distribution of Parkia biglobosa pattern in Benin under climate change

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    Fafunkè Titilayo Dotchamou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa is an indigenous species which, traditionally contributes to the resilience of the agricultural production system in terms of food security, source of income, poverty reduction and ecosystem stability. Therefore, it is important to improve knowledge on its density, current and future spatial distribution. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the tree density, the climate change effects on the spatial distribution of the species in the future for better conservation. The modeling of the current and future geographical distribution of the species is based on the principle of Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt on a total of 286 occurrence points from field work and Global Biodiversity Information Facility GBIF-Data Portal-(www.gbif.org. Two climatic models (HadGEM2_ES and Csiro_mk3_6_0 have been used under two scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 for the projection of the species distribution at the horizon 2050. The correlation analyses and Jackknife test have helped to identify seven variables which are less correlated (r < 0.80 with highest modeling participation. The soil, annual precipitation (BIO12 and temperature (diurnal average Deviation are the variables which have mostly contributed to performance of the models. Currently, 53% of national territory, spread from north to south is very suitable to the cultivation of P. biglobosa. The scenarios have predicted at the horizon 2050, a loss of the habitats which are currently very suitable for the cultivation and conservation of P. biglobosa, to the benefit of moderate and weak habitats. 51% and 57% are the highest proportion of this lost which will be registered with HadGEM2_ES model under two scenarios. These results revealed that the suitable habitat of the species is threatened by climate change in Benin. In order to limit damage such as decreased productivity, extinction of species, some appropriate solutions must be found.

  4. Flavonoids and other bioactive phenolics isolated from Cenostigma macrophyllum (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Clayton Q.; David, Jorge M.; David, Juceni P.; Villareal, Cristiane F.; Soares, Milena B.P.; Queiroz, Luciano P. de; Aguiar, Rosane M.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the phytochemical study of stem bark and leaves of Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. (Leguminosae). Through usual chromatographic techniques were isolated bergenin as the primary compound of the stem bark of and from the leaves gallic acid, methyl gallate, ellagic acid, quercetin, quercetin-3-ο-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-(6 - ο-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (tellimoside), quercetin-3-O-(6 - ο-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (helichrysroside), agathisflavone and vitexin were obtained. The isolates were identified by spectroscopic data analysis, and bergenin showed dose-related antinociception when assessed in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. (author)

  5. Possibilities of assessing trace metal pollution using Betula pendula Roth. leaf and bark - experience in Serbia

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    Pavlović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, both seasonal and spatial variations in trace metal uptake, as well as concentration of photosynthetic pigments in Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. trees in five urban parks in Pančevo, Smederevo, Obrenovac and Belgrade (Serbia affected by different anthropogenic activities were studied. The characteristics of soil were assessed in terms of texture, pH and trace element content. Concentrations of boron, strontium and zinc in both leaves and bark showed an increasing temporal trend, however, copper showed an opposite seasonal trend. A higher accumulation of trace elements was noticed in leaves compared to bark. The obtained results for photosynthetic pigments showed low sensitivity of birch to B, Cu, Sr and Zn contamination, indicating that birch tolerates pollution and climate stress by increasing the amount of pigments. Analysis of the effects on soil chemistry of trace element accumulation in plant tissues proved that soil chemistry poorly explains the variability of elements in bark (27.6 % compared to leaves (82.99 %. Discriminant analysis showed that Belgrade and Smederevo are clearly separated from the other three sites. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173018

  6. Las leguminosas en alimentación animal

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    Rubio, Luis A.

    2016-06-01

    and the fact that most is genetically modified are barriers to its utilization in the EU. In summary, environmental, health and productive considerations result in a growing interest in legume production in the EU.Desde el punto de vista de su uso en nutrición animal, pueden considerarse dos grupos de leguminosas: leguminosas-forraje (p. ej. la alfalfa, usadas en alimentación de rumiantes y leguminosas-grano (p. ej. habas, guisantes y altramuces, usadas esencialmente para aves y cerdos, y en menor medida para rumiantes. Las leguminosas-grano pueden sustituir parcial o totalmente a fuentes de proteínas tradicionales, de origen animal, como carne, huesos o harina de pescado en los piensos para animales, y representan una alternativa para las harinas de soja y otras oleaginosas. Su contenido en proteína es variable pero elevado (25-45 g/100 g materia seca. No obstante, la presencia de metabolitos secundarios (inhibidores de proteasas, saponinas, glucósidos, lectinas, taninos, alcaloides, así como sus altos niveles de fibra (polisacáridos no amiláceos, ha restringido el uso de leguminosas-grano en la alimentación de animales monogástricos (aves y cerdos y, mucho más en la de rumiantes. Sin embargo, en la actualidad se está incrementando el interés por el uso de estas materias primas como alimentos funcionales, sobre todo en nutrición humana, pero también en nutrición animal, entre otras razones, como consecuencia de la prohibición del uso de proteína animal (harinas de carne y hueso, que tuvo lugar en la Unión Europea tras la crisis de la Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina. Para establecer el valor nutritivo de las leguminosas ha de prestarse especial atención a su composición en nutrientes, su contenido en energía y la digestibilidad de los aminoácidos. En rumiantes, es necesario establecer la degradabilidad en el rumen tanto de la proteína como de los aminoácidos individuales y de los carbohidratos, aspectos que determinan la utilización de

  7. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Betula pendula leaves extract and its effects on model foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Skowyra, Monika; Muhammad, Kwestan; Gallego, María Gabriela; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Betula pendula Roth (Betulaceae) exhibits many pharmacological activities in humans including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. However, the antioxidant activity of BP towards lipid degradation has not been fully determined. The BP ethanol and methanol extracts were evaluated to determine antioxidant activity by an in vitro method and lyophilized extract of BP was added to beef patties to study oxidative stability. Antioxidant activities of extracts of BP were determined by measuring scavenging radical activity against methoxy radical generated by Fenton reaction 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (TEAC) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The lipid deterioration in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) of lyophilized extract of BP stored in 80:20 (v/v) O 2 :CO 2 modified atmosphere (MAP) at 4 °C for 10 days was determined using thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), % metmyoglobin and colour value. The BP methanol extract revealed the presence of catechin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin, and p-coumaric acid. The BP ethanol (50% w/w) extract showed scavenging activity in TEAC, ORAC and FRAP assays with values of 1.45, 2.81, 1.52 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, respectively. Reductions in lipid oxidation were found in samples treated with lyophilized BP extract (0.1% and 0.3% w/w) as manifested by the changes of colour and metmyoglobin concentration. A preliminary study film with BP showed retard degradation of lipid in muscle food. The present results indicated that the BP extracts can be used as natural food antioxidants.

  8. The influence of air temperature and relative humidity on dynamics of water potential in Betula pendula (Betulaceae trees

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    G. P. Тikhova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear multiple models were developed to describe diurnal and seasonal dynamics of water potential (Ψ of the foliated shoots in the plants of Betula genus related to air temperature and relative humidity in the middle taiga (southern Karelia. The results of the study revealed unidirectional changes, but different effect strength of air temperature and relative humidity on Ψ of the foliated shoots of common silver birch (Betula pendula Roth and curly (Karelian birch (Betula pendula Roth var. carelica. It was shown that increasing air temperature 1°С results in similar decreasing of Ψ value equal to 0.037–0.038 MPa in both of the birches (p > 0.05. Since the diurnal air temperature range achieves 10–15 °С, the contribution of this factor may be up to 0.57 MPa. On the contrary, the contribution of relative air humidity to Ψ value differs significantly in distinct birch forms (p < 0.05. In this case the change range of Ψ value in silver birch and curly birch may be up to 0.46 (0.015 MPa/1 % RH and 0.52 МПа (0.017 MPa/1 % RH, respectively. The results indicate that curly birch responds to the increase of relative air humidity with higher magnification of Ψ in comparison with common silver birch.

  9. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  10. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. G. Don. (Fabaceae by Flow Injection Analysis — Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Vilegas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the chemical composition of the African plant Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae roots and barks by Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization and Direct Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis. Mass spectral data indicated that B-type oligomers are present, namely procyanidins and prodelphinidins, with their gallate and glucuronide derivatives, some of them in different isomeric forms. The analysis evidenced the presence of up to 40 proanthocyanidins, some of which are reported for the first time. In this study, the antiradical activity of extracts of roots and barks from Parkia biglobosa was evaluated using DPPH method and they showed satisfactory activities.

  11. Melitofilia em Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae

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    Fábio Verçoza

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. This work aimed to study the floral biology and the pollination’s ecology of Canavalia rosea (Sw. DC. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae by bees in the sandbank vegetation of the Grumari Environmental Protection Area (EPA , located in the western zone of Rio de Janeiro’s city. The study was developed between the months of June of 2008 to June of 2009. Sampling on morphology, color and odor of the flowers of the species were made. The number of open flowers per day in each individual was recorded, as well as the opening steps, determining the period of anthesis. The occurrence of floral visitors was recorded through the observation of the visit’s time, of the adaptability for pollination, of the ease of access to the reward and of the intra-floral behavior played. C. rosea occurs in psamophily communities and in post-beach sandbank of Grumari’s EPA. It presents typical characteristics of mellitophily (pollination by bees and the flowers are pollinated by Xylocopa frontalis Oliver. It also receives visits from Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Trigona spinipes Fabricius and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, which collects pollen without pollinating the flowers. X. frontalis proved to be the only effective pollinator of C. rosea in the Grumari sandbank, making the plant directly dependent on this species for fruit and seed’s production in this location.

  12. A new generic system for the pantropical Caesalpinia group (Leguminosae

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    Edeline Gagnon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caesalpinia group is a large pantropical clade of ca. 205 species in subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae in which generic delimitation has been in a state of considerable flux. Here we present new phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid and one nuclear ribosomal marker, with dense taxon sampling including 172 (84% of the species and representatives of all previously described genera in the Caesalpinia group. These analyses show that the current classification of the Caesalpinia group into 21 genera needs to be revised. Several genera (Poincianella, Erythrostemon, Cenostigma and Caesalpinia sensu Lewis, 2005 are non-monophyletic and several previously unclassified Asian species segregate into clades that merit recognition at generic rank. In addition, the near-completeness of our taxon sampling identifies three species that do not belong in any of the main clades and these are recognised as new monospecific genera. A new generic classification of the Caesalpinia group is presented including a key for the identification of genera, full generic descriptions, illustrations (drawings and photo plates of all genera, and (for most genera the nomenclatural transfer of species to their correct genus. We recognise 26 genera, with reinstatement of two previously described genera (Biancaea Tod., Denisophytum R. Vig., re-delimitation and expansion of several others (Moullava, Cenostigma, Libidibia and Erythrostemon, contraction of Caesalpinia s.s. and description of four new ones (Gelrebia, Paubrasilia, Hererolandia and Hultholia, and make 75 new nomenclatural combinations in this new generic system.

  13. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  14. DYEING SILK FABRICS WITH STINK BEAN POD (PARKIA SPECIOSA HASSK. NATURAL DYE IN THE COLOR FASTNESS AND UV PROTECTION

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    M. MASAE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes natural dye extracted from stink bean pod (Parkia speciosa Hassk. which was dyed on the silk fabric. The mordants as aluminum potassium sulfate, iron chloride, sodium hydroxide and mud were used to dye fabric using three different dyeing methods: pre-mordanting, meta-mordanting and post-mordanting. The color fastness to washing, water, perspiration, light and crocking of the dyed samples was determined according to AATCC test methods. In this study the UV-protection properties on silk fabrics were investigated. The chemical functional groups of the dyes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results revealed that the dyeing silk fabrics with stink beans pod were fair to good fastness to washing and crocking and very poor to poor light fastness with the exception of samples mordanted with iron chloride. The water and perspiration fastness ratings were fair to good. Silk fabrics mordanted with iron chloride and dyed with stink bean usually showed good UV-protection levels even if undyed. These extracts gave polyphenolic, betalain dye and chlorophyll content. Therefore, it was suggested that stink bean pod has the potential in producing functional dyes that could be imparted into the silk dyeing natural colorant system.

  15. Anti–odor activity of milk kefir on organosulphur polysulfide cyclic compounds in petai (parkia speciosa hassk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Windayani, N.; Listiawati, M.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to assess the activity of milk kefir whey in neutralizing odor-causing cyclic polysulfide compounds in petai (Parkia speciosa Hassk.). RAL designs used to determine the optimum fermentation conditions. The data obtained were processed using SPSS 20. Results showed the characteristics of the microbes in the kefir grains include lactic acid bacteria consisting of genus Lactobacillus and yeast of the genus Candida and Saccharomyces. The optimum fermentation conditions using cow’s milk kefir grain starter obtained in the fermentation time of 24 hours at a concentration of 5% kefir grain. Whey kefir which is produced have high levels of fat, protein, carbohydrates, fiber and lactic acid respectively 1.81; 4.35; 5.59; 0.26 and 0.16%, pH 4.4; a density of 1.0628 g/mL and 7.9368 cP viscosity. Kefir milk whey actively reduced the level of petai smell significantly different at the level of α = 0.05.

  16. Synergistic Effects of n-Hexane Fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Bark Extract and Selected Antibiotics on Bacterial Isolates

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    Oluwatayo E. Abioye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents by microbial pathogens demands increased effort in the development of effective ways of treating infections and diseases. The n-hexane fraction of lyophilized crude bark extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. was prepared and, in combination with selected antibiotics, assayed for antimicrobial activity against some selected bacterial pathogens using time-kill assay. Protein leakage analysis of the combined agents was performed using Bradford protein quantification method. Determination of active compounds present in the n-hexane fraction was done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. While time-kill assay detected 43.33% synergy; 56.67% indifference and no antagonism at 1/2 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 1 × MIC exhibited 55% synergy, 45% indifference and no antagonism. Protein leakages from the cells of selected bacteria ranged from 1.20 µg/mL to 256.93 µg/mL. The presence of a phenyl group, an aromatic ring and phenolic compounds in the n-hexane fraction was confirmed at 2162 cm−1–2020 cm−1, 1605 cm−1–1533 cm−1 and 1438 cm−1–1444 cm−1 spectra peaks, respectively. The observed antibiotic−n-hexane fraction synergistic interaction revealed the improved antibacterial activity of the selected antibiotics. Hence, exploration of a combination of antibiotics with plant secondary metabolites is hereby advocated in the global quest for means of combating infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  17. Composition chimique du netetu, condiment alimentaire produit par fermentation des graines de caroubier africain Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathelet B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of netetu, a food condiment from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The seed oils and cakes of netetu of different origins available on the Senegalian market have been studied to evaluate the nutritional potentialities of this important food condiment used in many African countries. The total oil content ranged from 141 to 349 g per kg. Careful gas chromatography and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry investigations revealed seven major fatty acids among which linoleic (41.9-46.8/ of the total fatty acids, oleic (12.6-14.6/, palmitic (10.2-11.3/, stearic (10.0-13.4/, and behenic (12.6-13.4/ predominate. Significant differences were observed between fermented and non-fermented seeds as well as between netetu of different origins. The tocopherol content was found very low (17.7 to 30.6 mg per 100g fat. The total amino acid patterns showed that beside high level of proteins (331 a 540 g per kg and interesting levels of essential constituents, there is an important deficiency of tryptophane, cysteine, methionine and threonine.

  18. Volatile aroma components and MS-based electronic nose profiles of dogfruit (Pithecellobium jiringa and stink bean (Parkia speciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonathan Asikin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogfruit (Pithecellobium jiringa and stink bean (Parkia speciosa are two typical smelly legumes from Southeast Asia that are widely used in the cuisines of this region. Headspace/gas chromatography/flame ionization detection analysis and mass spectrometry (MS-based electronic nose techniques were applied to monitor ripening changes in the volatile flavor profiles of dogfruit and stink bean. Compositional analysis showed that the ripening process greatly influenced the composition and content of the volatile aroma profiles of these two smelly food materials, particularly their alcohol, aldehyde, and sulfur components. The quantity of predominant hexanal in stink bean significantly declined (P < 0.05 during the ripening process, whereas the major volatile components of dogfruit changed from 3-methylbutanal and methanol in the unripe state to acetaldehyde and ethanol in the ripe bean. Moreover, the amount of the typical volatile flavor compound 1,2,4-trithiolane significantly increased (P < 0.05 in both ripened dogfruit and stink bean from 1.70 and 0.93%, to relative amounts of 19.97 and 13.66%, respectively. MS-based nose profiling gave further detailed differentiation of the volatile profiles of dogfruit and stink bean of various ripening stages through multivariate statistical analysis, and provided discriminant ion masses, such as m/z 41, 43, 58, 78, and 124, as valuable “digital fingerprint” dataset that can be used for fast flavor monitoring of smelly food resources.

  19. Assessment and comparison of phytochemical constituents and biological activities of bitter bean (Parkia speciosa Hassk.) collected from different locations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Bukhori, Mohamad Fhaizal Mohamad; Rahmat, Mohd Hafizad; Rahmat, Asmah

    2018-02-07

    Parkia speciosa seeds are a common ingredient in Malay cuisine with traditional interest because of its medicinal importance and content of health-promoting phytochemicals. This study evaluated the phytochemical constituents and biological activities (antioxidant and antibacterial activities) of Parkia speciosa Hassk seeds collected from three different regions of Malaysia (Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Johor). Phytochemical constituents (total flavonoid and total phenolic) were measured using the spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay we used in order to evaluation of antioxidant activities. Disc diffusion method was employed for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The primary screening of phytochemicals showed that P. speciosa seeds contain alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenolics. Samples collected from Perak contained the highest levels of the phytochemical constituents, with highest DPPH and FRAP activity followed by Negeri sembilan and Johor. From the identified compounds, quercetin and gallic acid were identified as the most abundant compounds. Seeds collected from the Perak location exhibited potent antibacterial activity, against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were recorded as the bacterial strains most sensitive to P. speciosa seed extracts. Correlation analysis showed that flavonoid compounds are responsible for the antioxidant activities of the P. speciosa seeds studied, while antibacterial activity showed a high correlation with the levels of gallic acid. Parkia speciosa seed grown in Perak exhibit the highest concentrations of phytochemicals, as well as the highest biological activity. It may also be

  20. The Sine-Gordon model and its applications from pendula and Josephson junctions to gravity and high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Williams, Floyd

    2014-01-01

    The sine-Gordon model is a ubiquitous model of Mathematical Physics with a wide range of applications extending from coupled torsion pendula and Josephson junction arrays to gravitational and high-energy physics models. The purpose of this book is to present a summary of recent developments in this field, incorporating both introductory background material, but also with a strong view towards modern applications, recent experiments, developments regarding the existence, stability, dynamics and asymptotics of nonlinear waves that arise in the model. This book is of particular interest to a wide range of researchers in this field, but serves as an introductory text for young researchers and students  interested in the topic. The book consists of well-selected thematic chapters on diverse mathematical and physical aspects of the equation carefully chosen and assigned.

  1. Competitive success of southern populations of Betula pendula and Sorbus aucuparia under simulated southern climate experiment in the subarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Saravesi, Karita; Jylänki, Tanja; Kainulainen, Aila; Pajala, Jonna; Markkola, Annamari; Suominen, Otso; Saikkonen, Kari

    2017-06-01

    Global warming has been commonly accepted to facilitate species' range shifts across latitudes. Cross-latitudinal transplantations support this; many tree species can well adapt to new geographical areas. However, these studies fail to capture species' adaptations to new light environment because the experiments were not designed to explicitly separate species' responses to light and temperature. Here we tested reaction norms of tree seedlings in reciprocal transplantations 1,000 km apart from each other at two latitudes (60°N and 69°N). In contrast to past studies, we exposed our experimental plants to same temperature in both sites (temperature of 60°N growing site is recorded to adjust temperature of 69°N site in real time via Internet connection) while light environment (photoperiod, light quality) remained ambient. Shoot elongation and autumn coloration were studied in seedlings of two deciduous trees ( Betula pendula and Sorbus aucuparia ), which were expected to respond differently to day length. Sorbus as a member of Rosaceae family was assumed to be indifferent to photoperiod, while Betula responds strongly to day length. We hypothesized that (1) southern and northern populations of both species perform differently; (2) southern populations perform better in both sites; (3) autumn phenology of southern populations may delay in the northern site; (4) and Sorbus aucuparia is less dependent on light environment. According to the hypotheses, shoot elongation of northern population was inherently low in both species. An evolutionary consequence of this may be a competitive success of southern populations under warming climate. Southern population of B. pendula was delayed in autumn coloration, but not in growth cessation. Sorbus aucuparia was less responsive to light environment. The results suggest that light provides selection pressure in range shifts, but the response is species dependent.

  2. Superação da dormência em sementes de visgueiro-do-igapó (Parkia discolor Overcoming seed dormancy in visgueiro-of-the-igapó (Parkia discolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Aquino Pereira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de tratamentos pré-germinativos de escarificação mecânica, bem como pré-tratamentos com calor, sobre a germinação de sementes de visgueiro-do-igapó (Parkia discolor Spruce ex Benth.. No primeiro experimento, sob delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições, foram avaliados os pré-tratamentos: testemunha (sem pré-tratamento; desponte no lado distal; desponte no lado proximal; desponte nos lados distal e proximal; lixamento no lado distal; lixamento no lado proximal; lixamento nos lados distal e proximal; perfuração do tegumento com ferro-de-solda; e perfuração com pirógrafo. No segundo experimento, foi adotado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 (calor: seco e úmido x 4 (temperatura: 40ºC, 50ºC, 60ºC e 70ºC x 5 (período de condicionamento: 6, 16, 24, 30 e 48 horas, com três repetições. O desponte ou lixamento das sementes na porção proximal e porções proximal e distal possibilitaram uma embebição mais rápida (143-163%, aos três dias e meio e, conseqüentemente, melhores resultados de germinação (98-100%, aos quatro dias, do índice de velocidade de germinação (1,351-1,460 e do tempo médio de germinação (3 dias. Os pré-tratamentos com calor (úmido e seco, sob diferentes temperaturas, e por vários períodos de condicionamento não superaram a dormência de sementes de P. discolor.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pregerminative mechanical scarification treatments, as well as heat pre-treatments on the germination of visgueiro-of-the-igapó (Parkia discolor Spruce ex Benth. seeds. The first experiment, with a completely randomized design and four repetitions, evaluated these pre-treatments: control (without pre-treatment; clipping at the distal portion; clipping at the proximal portion (hilum; clipping at the proximal and distal portions; scraping at the distal portion; scraping at the

  3. Biosorption of Acid Dye in Single and Multidye Systems onto Sawdust of Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa Tree

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    Abdur-Rahim Adebisi Giwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of raw sawdust of Parkia biglobosa, as a biosorbent for the removal of Acid Blue 161 dye in single, binary, and ternary dye systems with Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue dyes in aqueous solution, were investigated. The sawdust was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and pH point of zero charge. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to determine the equilibrium characteristics, thermodynamics, and kinetics of the sorption processes. The data obtained were subjected to various isotherm and kinetics equations. The results showed that the adsorption processes were described by different isotherm models depending on the composition of the system; they were all spontaneous (ΔG ranges from −0.72 to −5.36 kJ/mol and endothermic (range of ΔH is 11.37–26.31 kJ/mol and with increased randomness with ΔS values of 55.55 and 98.78 J·mol/K for single and ternary systems, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetics model gave better fit for all the sorption systems studied irrespective of the differences in composition, with the initial and overall rate constants higher for the mixtures than for the single system (6.76 g·mg−1min−1. The presence of Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue had a synergetic effect on the maximum monolayer capacity of the adsorbent for Acid Blue 161 dye.

  4. EFFECT OF SOAKED AND FERMENTED AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN (Parkia biglobosa SEED MEAL ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, HAEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE AND NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Tamburawa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa seed is rich in protein and has recently found its way into the feed industry. This research was conducted to determine the growth performance, haematological profile and nutrient digestibility by broiler chickens fed diets containing soaked and fermented African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa seed meal (SFALBSM. Five diets were formulated in which SFALSBM was included at graded levels of 0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 and 30% designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Two hundred and twenty five (225 day old broiler chickens (Marshall Strain were fed these diets in a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated three times with 15 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted 8 weeks (4week starter phase and 4week finisher phase. The results of performance of broiler chicks at starter phase showed there were differences (P0.05 on digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ash. The crude fibre, ether extract and nitrogen free extract digestibility were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Birds fed T3 had highest crude fibre digestibility value (P<0.05. It was concluded that soaked and fermented African locust bean seed meal can be included in broiler chickens diets up to 15% dietary level at the starter phase and 22.5% at the finisher phase without any adverse effect on performance, haematological profile and nutrient digestibility.

  5. Degradabilidade ruminal in situ de vagens de faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. em diferentes tamanhos de partículas In situ ruminal degradability of faveira (Parkia platycephala Benth. pods in different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimaram-se os parâmetros de degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB de vagens de faveira, trituradas em partículas de 2 e 5mm, pelo método do saco de náilon in situ em ovinos, nos tempos de incubação 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas, e determinou-se a degradabilidade efetiva, considerando-se taxas de passagem 2, 5 e 8%/h. A fração a da MS e da PB foram 69,6 e 49,9%, respectivamente, revelando elevada solubilidade da MS; a fração b para MS e PB foi 24,7 e 43,9%, indicando baixa degradação da MS in situ, com estabilização da degradação da MS às 72h e da PB às 48h de incubação. O tanino de vagens de faveira não se mostrou depressor da degradabilidade in situ da PB.Soluble (a and potentially degradable (b fractions and degradation rate of b fraction (c of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP of Parkia platycephala pods in particle sizes 2 and 5mm were estimated by in situ nylon bag method in sheep. The times of incubation were 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, and the effective degradability (ED was determined considering passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/h. The a fractions for DM and CP was 69.6 and 49.9%, respectively, revealing elevated DM solubility: The b fractions for DM and CP was 24.7 and 43.9%, denoting reduced DM in situ degradation. The stabilization of the DM and CP degradation occurred at 72h and 48h after incubation, respectively. In situ degradability of constituents of P. platycephala pods, in special CP, were not depressed for their tannin contents.

  6. Influence of Welding Time on Tensile-Shear Strength of Linear Friction Welded Birch (Betula pendula L. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Ruponen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the optimal welding time for linear friction welding of birch (Betula pendula L. wood while keeping the other parameters constant and at similar levels compared to other species in a similar density range. Specimens with dimensions of 20 × 5 × 150 mm3 were welded together, and the influence of welding time (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 s on the mechanical properties of the specimens was determined. The studies included a tensile-shear strength test as well as visual estimation of wood failure percentage (WFP. Additionally, X-ray microtomographic imaging was used to investigate and characterise the bond line properties as a non-destructive testing method. The highest mean tensile-shear strength, 7.9 MPa, was reached with a welding time of 3.5 s. Generally, all four result groups showed high, yet decreasing proportional standard deviations as the welding time increased. X-ray microtomographic images and analysis express the heterogeneity of the weld line clearly as well. According to the averaged group-wise results, WFP and tensile-shear strength correlated positively with an R2 of 0.93. An extrapolation of WFP to 65% totals a tensile-shear strength of 10.6 MPa, corresponding to four common adhesive bonds determined for beech.

  7. Short-term effects of light quality on leaf gas exchange and hydraulic properties of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niglas, Aigar; Papp, Kaisa; Sekiewicz, Maciej; Sellin, Arne

    2017-09-01

    Leaves have to acclimatize to heterogeneous radiation fields inside forest canopies in order to efficiently exploit diverse light conditions. Short-term effects of light quality on photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf water use and hydraulic traits were studied on Betula pendula Roth shoots cut from upper and lower thirds of the canopy of 39- to 35-year-old trees growing in natural forest stand, and illuminated with white, red or blue light in the laboratory. Photosynthetic machinery of the leaves developed in different spectral conditions acclimated differently with respect to incident light spectrum: the stimulating effect of complete visible spectrum (white light) on net photosynthesis is more pronounced in upper-canopy layers. Upper-canopy leaves exhibit less water saving behaviour, which may be beneficial for the fast-growing pioneer species on a daily basis. Lower-canopy leaves have lower stomatal conductance resulting in more efficient water use. Spectral gradients existing within natural forest stands represent signals for the fine-tuning of stomatal conductance and tree water relations to afford lavish water use in sun foliage and enhance leaf water-use efficiency in shade foliage sustaining greater hydraulic limitations. Higher sensitivity of hydraulic conductance of shade leaves to blue light probably contributes to the efficient use of short duration sunflecks by lower-canopy leaves. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Respuesta de cinco leguminosas de cobertura a la fertilización fosfórica

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    Robin Gómez Gómez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de cobertura de especies leguminosas son sembradas para el control de malezas, prevención de la erosión del suelo y aporte de nitrógeno al suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de las leguminosas de cobertura Mucuna pruriens cv. cinza, Mucuna pruriens cv. preta, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vigna radiata y Pueraria phaseoloides a la fertilización fosfórica, en dos épocas del año. El experimento se realizó en un invernadero en la Estación Experimental Agrícola Fabio Baudrit Moreno (EEAFBM de la Universidad de Costa Rica, en Alajuela, Costa Rica, en el periodo de noviembre del 2012 a enero del 2013, y se repitió de abril a mayo del 2013. Se aplicaron dosis de 0, 30, 60 y 90 kg P2O5/ha en suelo esterilizado con vapor y posteriormente, utilizado para llenar potes de 2 kg de capacidad. Se evaluó altura de planta, número de hojas verdaderas y peso seco luego de 18-26 días de la siembra, según la especie de leguminosa. Tuvieron un mayor crecimiento C. spectabilis Ruth, V. radiata (L Wilczek y P. phaseoloides (Roxb, cuando fueron fertilizadas con 60 kg P2O5/ha, mientras que, los dos cultivares de M. pruriens no incrementaron su crecimiento con la fertilización fosfórica. El fósforo a la siembra de las leguminosas de semilla pequeña aceleró su crecimiento, lo que indica la importancia de validar el empleo de este fertilizante para la obtención de una rápida cobertura del suelo, lo cual podría disminuir la competencia con las malezas.

  9. Avances en la evaluación de leguminosas anuales distintas del T. subterraneum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Cruz, V.; Gallardo Martínez, D.

    2011-01-01

    Dado los problemas actuales de persistencia del T. subterraneum en muchas áreas, debidas en general, al estrecho margen de adaptacóin de las variedades disponibles actualmente, se indican en el presente trabajo otras especies de leguminosas anuales que pueden ser una alternativa, en los pastos del S-O, al referido Trifolium subterraneum. Se incluye, entre las evaluaciones realizadas, las especies Medicago polymorpha, Trifolium glomeratum y Ornithopus compressus, todas ellas presentes en los s...

  10. Dataset of the use of tannin of néré (parkia-biglobosa as a solution for the sustainability of the soil constructions in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinko Banakinao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the main material of construction in African rural areas. Sustainability of construction with soil is a thorny problem to any builder. Finding ways to improve the durability of soil is not only essential but also salutary for the African rural community that mostly lives in soil-built houses that are very often short-lived. The present data assessed the resistance to simple compression and the resistance to bad weather by simulating rainfall alternations through a test of cycles of alternate watering and drying of blocks built from four types of different soils without binder, along with blocks built from the same soils. Keywords: Parkia-biglobosa, Bipinnateleaves, Mimosaceae

  11. Short-rotation cultivation of fast-growing willows and plantations of Betula pendula, Roth on Hirvineva, a mire formerly used for peat production, in Liminka, Finland. Nopeakasvuisten pajujen (Salix spp. ) lyhytkiertoviljelystae ja rauduskoivun (Betula pendula) viljelystae turvetuotannosta poistuneella suolla, limingan Hirvinevalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumme, I.; Kiukaanniemi, E.

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerned with afforestation experiments using fast-growing willows (Salix spp.) and silver birch (Betula pendula, Roth) conducted by the Northern Finland Research Institute of the University of Oulu at the site of a mire formerly used for peat production, Hirvineva in the commune of Liminka (62 deg C 45{sup '} N, 23 deg C 30{sup '} E). Experiments were carried out at the early stages of willow cultivation into the use of chemical fertilizers and peat ash, the liming requirement of the soil and the effects of tilling of the soil on growth. Since 1985 efforts have been concentrated on developing new willow clones. Research was also begun into the mycorhiza which develop when willows are cultivated on peat soils. The experiments with Betula pendula were devoted to examining the effects of plantation density and fertilization with peat ash on four-year old saplings.

  12. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae); Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo Raul [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  13. Elevated CO{sub 2} does not ameliorate effects of ozone on carbon allocation in Pinus halepensis and Betula pendula in symbiosis with Paxillus involutus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoeviita, M.M. [Oulu Univ., Dept. of Biology, Oulu (Finland); Pelloux, J.; Fontaine, V.; Botton, B.; Dizengremel, P. [Univ. Henri Poincare-Nancy, Lab. de Biologie Forestiere Associe INRA, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of 700 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1}, 200 nmol ozone mol{sup -1} and a combination of the two on carbon allocation was examined in Pinus halepensis co-cultured with Betula pendula in symbiosis with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. The results show that under low nutrient and ozone levels, elevated CO{sub 2} has no effect on the growth of B. pendula or P. halepensis seedlings nor on net carbon partitioning between plant parts. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not enhance the growth of the fungus in symbiosis with the birch. On the other hand, ozone had a strong negative effect on the growth of the birch, which corresponded with the significantly reduced growth rates of the fungus. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the negative effects of ozone on birch; in contrast, it acted as an additional stress factor. Neither ozone nor CO{sub 2} had significant effects on biomass accumulation in the pine seedlings. Ozone stimulated the spread of mycorrhizal infection from the birch seedlings to neighbouring pines and had no statistically significant effects on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) or ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity in the pine needles or on PEPC activity in pine roots. (au)

  14. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed. PMID:24194667

  15. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  16. Dihydronaflavonols from the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Ferreira, Malisson; Silva, Milton N. da; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Gisele M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Arruda, Mara Silvia P. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica], e-mail: mspa@ufpa.br; Borges, Rosilvaldo dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Inst. de Ciencias

    2009-07-01

    Derris urucu is an Amazonian plant with insecticide and ichthyotoxic properties. Studies with this species show the presence of flavonoids, mainly rotenoids, as well as stilbenes. The ethanol extract of the leaves of Derris urucu (Leguminosae) afforded three new dihydroflavonols named urucuol A (1), B (2) and C (3), and the dihydroflavonol isotirumalin (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, UV and IR spectra and MS data and comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds (1-4) were evaluated for DPPH radical scavenging activity and showed a relatively lower antioxidant ability compared to the commercial antioxidant trans-resveratrol. (author)

  17. COBERTURAS VIVAS DE LEGUMINOSAS EN EL PLÁTANO (Musa sp.) FHIA 03

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Gutiérrez; G. Pérez; R. Benega; Lourdes Gómez

    2002-01-01

    La necesidad de disminuir el consumo de agrotóxicos en el manejo del cultivo del plátano posibilita la búsqueda de alternativas viables en la esfera agroecológica, razones por las que en la Estación Experimental de la Universidad de Ciego de Avila, entre 1996 y 1998, se desarrolló un experimento para la determinación del efecto de coberturas vivas de leguminosas en una plantación de plátano FHIA-03, que se estableció en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo (Eutric ferralsol), evaluándose los efectos que...

  18. Associações Rhizobium - Leguminosas no Estado de Rondõnia

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães,Fátima M. M.; Silva,Marlene F. da

    1987-01-01

    Verificou-se a ocorrência de nodulação em mudas e/ou individuos adultos de 54 es-pécies da familia Leguminosae em áreas de floresta intacta e áreas perturbadas,no Estado de Rondônia. Das espécies observadas: Acácia polyphyllaÁ. DC., Amburana acreana(Ducke) A. C. Smith, Babieria pinnata(Pers.) Baill., Bauhinia acreanaHarms., BauhiniulongicuspÍ4 Spr. ex Benth., Cassia fastuosaWilld., Dalbergia inundataBenth., Derris ama zonicaKiiiip, Hymenaea reticulataDucke, Machaerium inundaium(Mart. ex Benth...

  19. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    potential threats, the species is evaluated as Endangered (EN). Crotalaria trifoliolata is a bigger shrub than previously thought (up to c. 2 m high, with stems up to c. 3 cm in diam.). Molecular studies confirm that C. trifoliolata is related to the widespread C. saltiana, as predicted from morphological......Crotalaria trifoliolata Baker f. (Leguminosae: Papilionoidaeae) was, for 120 years, only known from an incomplete holotype from an uncertain Ethiopian locality. In 2013 it was rediscovered in the Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia. Surveys in 2014 and 2015 suggest that the species is restricted...

  20. Combination of culture-independent and culture-dependent molecular methods for the determination of bacterial community of iru, a fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga Adedeji Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bacterial composition of iru produced by natural, uncontrolled fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds was assessed using culture-independent method in combination with culture-based genotypic typing techniques. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed similarity in DNA fragments with the two DNA extraction methods used and confirmed bacterial diversity in the sixteen iru samples from different production regions. DNA sequencing of the highly variable V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes obtained from PCR-DGGE identified species related to Bacillus subtilis as consistent bacterial species in the fermented samples, while other major bands were identified as close relatives of Staphylococcus vitulinus, Morganella morganii, B. thuringiensis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Tetragenococcus halophilus, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Brevibacillus parabrevis, Salinicoccus jeotgali, Brevibacterium sp. and Uncultured bacteria clones. Bacillus species were cultured as potential starter cultures and clonal relationship of different isolates determined using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA combined with 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS PCR amplification, restriction analysis (ITS-PCR-RFLP and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR. This further discriminated Bacillus subtilis and its variants from food-borne pathogens such as Bacillus cereus and suggested the need for development of controlled fermentation processes and good manufacturing practices (GMP for iru production to achieve product consistency, safety quality and improved shelf life.

  1. Phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp stalls aflatoxin B1 – mediated oxidative rout in the liver of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek O. Ajiboye

    Full Text Available The effect of phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. ex G. Don, Fabaceae, pulp on aflatoxin B1 induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver was evaluated. Thirty-five male rats were randomized into seven groups of five animals each. Rats in group A served as control and received vehicle for drug administration (0.5% DMSO once daily at 24 h intervals for six weeks. Rats in groups B, D, E, F and G, received aflatoxin B1 (167 μg/kg body weight in 0.5% DMSO for three weeks, starting from the third week of the experimental period. Rats in Group C received 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks, while groups D, E and F rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks respectively. Group G rats received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C. Aflatoxin B1-mediated decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated. Aflatoxin B1 mediated the elevation in malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and significantly lowered DNA fragmentation percentage. Overall, the phenolic extract of P. biglobosa pulp stalls aflatoxin B1-mediated oxidative rout by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities leading to decreased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA fragmentation.

  2. Comparison of 226Ra nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, Petr; Petrova, Sarka; Benesova, Dagmar; Tykva, Richard; Vankova, Radomira; Vanek, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    The uptake of 226 Ra from the contaminated soil was compared in three woody species: alder (Alnus glutinosa), birch (Betula pendula) and elder (Sambucus nigra). The 226 Ra activities increased during the vegetation periods (in 2003, 2004 and 2005) both in the leaves and flowers + seeds. The highest accumulation was found in birch, reaching 0.41 Bq/g DW in the leaves (at the end of the vegetation period in 2003). The lowest 226 Ra accumulation was determined in alder. The extent of 226 Ra accumulation in the leaves of woody species demonstrates that these pioneer woody species can be used as remediation alternative to the use of herbs, provided that the removal of fallen leaves could be achieved in the end of vegetation period

  3. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  4. Combination treatment of elevated UVB radiation, CO2 and temperature has little effect on silver birch (Betula pendula) growth and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavola, Anu; Nybakken, Line; Rousi, Matti; Pusenius, Jyrki; Petrelius, Mari; Kellomäki, Seppo; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2013-12-01

    Elevations of carbon dioxide, temperature and ultraviolet-B (UBV) radiation in the growth environment may have a high impact on the accumulation of carbon in plants, and the different factors may work in opposite directions or induce additive effects. To detect the changes in the growth and phytochemistry of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings, six genotypes were exposed to combinations of ambient or elevated levels of CO2 , temperature and UVB radiation in top-closed chambers for 7 weeks. The genotypes were relatively similar in their responses, and no significant interactive effects of three-level climate factors on the measured parameters were observed. Elevated UVB had no effect on growth, nor did it alter plant responses to CO2 and/or temperature in combined treatments. Growth in all plant parts increased under elevated CO2 , and height and stem biomass increased under elevated temperature. Increased carbon distribution to biomass did not reduce its allocation to phytochemicals: condensed tannins, most flavonols and phenolic acids accumulated under elevated CO2 and elevated UVB, but this effect disappeared under elevated temperature. Leaf nitrogen content decreased under elevated CO2 . We conclude that, as a result of high genetic variability in phytochemicals, B. pendula seedlings have potential to adapt to the tested environmental changes. The induction in protective flavonoids under UVB radiation together with the positive impact of elevated CO2 and temperature mitigates possible UVB stress effects, and thus atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature are the climate change factors that will dictate the establishment and success of birch at higher altitudes in the future. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Índices de oxidación en aceites de algunas leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation process of crude and refined oils from wild leguminous seeds: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta, (vinorama Olneya tesota, (palo fierro Cercidium praecox (palo de brea and Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde were evaluated during storage for 122 days, using corn and soybean oils as controls. Peroxide, Iodine, Acid and p-Anisidine values were determinated during 122 days of storage at room temperature. The wild leguminous raw oils showed results similar to those for the corn raw oil and lower than those of soybean raw oil. This behavior was similar for refinated oils. The rancid odor was detected after 5 days of storage in soybean oil and 40 days in vinorama oil, on the contrary, mezquite, palo verde and palo of brea oils presented this odor after 62 days, and for gatuña’s oil needed 135 days. Our results indicate that legume seed of Sonoran Desert could be a good alternative as source of oil.El proceso de oxidación fue evaluado durante el almacenamiento de los aceites crudos y refinados de las semillas de leguminosas silvestres: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Olneya tesota (palo fierro, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea y Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde. Los aceites de maíz y soja fueron empleados como controles. Se determinó el índice de peróxido (I.P., de Yodo (I.I., de acidez (I.A, y valor de p-Anisidina (p-A durante 122 días de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Los aceites crudos de leguminosas silvestres mostraron valores de estos índices similares a los del aceite de maíz crudo y menores que los del aceite de soja crudo. Este comportamiento también fue observado para los aceites refinados. El olor a rancio se presentó en el aceite de soja a los 5 días de almacenamiento, en el de vinorama a los 40 días, en el de mezquite, palo verde y palo de brea a los 62 días y en el de gatuña a los 135 días. Los valores

  6. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

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    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  7. Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from leaves of Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva

    2014-01-01

    In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15)-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae) growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel)-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature. (author)

  8. Sesquiterpenos e outros constituintes das folhas de Pterodon pubescens Benth (Leguminosae

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    Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phaeophitin A, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+-catechin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and p-hydroxy-benzoic acid, six known sesquiterpenes, namely (rel-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane, oplopanone, 1β,6α-dihydroxy-4(15-eudesmene, caryophyllene oxide, α-cadinol, and spathulenol, were isolated from the leaves of Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae growing in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The (rel-2β,6β-epoxy-5β-hydroxy-isodaucane corresponds to the correct structure of homalomenol D. The sesquiterpene oplopanone, which bears a modified cadinane skeleton, is being reported for the first time in this genus. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectral data (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D and subsequent comparison with data reported in the literature.

  9. Las leguminosas grano en la agricultura española y europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Bernal, María José

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legume cultivation is continuously decreasing in Spain in spite of the long tradition of their cultivation and consumption and their well-known environmental benefits by improving soil fertility. Grain legumes have been replaced in rotations by other crops that have adapted more quickly to technological progress and are more profitable for farmers in the short term. A similar change is taking place in Europe. This generates two major dependencies that can only be alleviated by increasing legume cultivation. On the one hand, Europe faces an increasing dependency on nitrogen fertilizers, using up to 10 million tons yearly, of which about 80% are imported. In addition to this, fertilizer production uses large amounts of energy, being highly dependent on natural gas, of which the EU imports 60% of its requirements. On the other hand, EU countries import 70% of their requirements as vegetable protein. In Spain, we import 4.7 million tons of grain legumes yearly, most of which is soybean (95% of the total. The decline in human consumption does not justify the reduction in cultivation, as we import 85% of the dried beans, 60% of the lentils and 75% of the chickpeas consumed in Spain. This dependency on imports, particularly on soybean, poses a serious threat to the economy as it makes the raw feed industry, and therefore most of the meat industry, vulnerable to fluctuations in the world soybean price.A pesar de la larga tradición de cultivo y consumo de leguminosas en España y de sus conocidos beneficios medioambientales mejorando la fertilidad de los suelos, su cultivo ha disminuido constantemente en los últimos 50 años siendo reemplazadas por otros cultivos que se han adaptado mejor a los avances tecnológicos y resultan más rentables al agricultor. El consumo de legumbres ha descendido en España notablemente desde los 13 kg/persona/año en la década de los 60, hasta los poco más de 3 en la actualidad, pero aun así, importamos hoy

  10. Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on Dry Matter, Total Sugar, Phenolics and Mineral Composition in Different Developmental Stages of Parkia roxburghii G. (Don. Pods

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    Jekendra Singh SALAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkia roxburghii is considered delicious in the Northeastern part of India, especially in the state of Manipur. Though it is widely used, information about the biochemical composition and its changes, after processing, is hardly available. In the present experiment, effect of processing methods on dry matter, soluble sugar, phenolics and mineral composition in different developmental stages of P. roxburghii pods were studied. Total soluble sugar (TSS, total phenols (TP, and orthodihydric phenols (ODHP were determined as per the methods of Morris (1948, Bray and Thorpe (1954 and Mahadevan and Sridhar (1986. Sodium (Na, potassium (K, sulphur (S and phosphorus (P were estimated as per the procedures of Tandon (1993. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, copper (Cu and cobalt (Co were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Processing methods reduced dry matter, soluble sugar and phenolics in all the stages of the pod. TP and ODHP lost up to the extent of 72.78% in tender stage due to ordinary cooking, while higher loss of ODHP recorded in immature stage of the pod due to pressure cooking. Ca, Mg, K and Zn in different stages were found to be affected significantly by different methods of cooking, while no such changes were observed in case of S, P, Fe, Mn and Cu. The level of iron amongst the micro minerals is appreciably high recording up to 51.0 mg/100 g in the immature stage of the pod. As iron, zinc and manganese are antioxidant micronutrients, their higher presence in P. roxburghii might be of some nutritional importance.

  11. Taxonomic value of foliar characters in Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae Valor taxonômico de caracteres foliares em Dahlstedtia Malme: Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Millettieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae is a neotropical genus, native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and comprises two species, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme and D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., although it has been considered a monotypic genus by some authors. Leaf anatomy was compared to verify the presence of anatomical characters to help delimit species. Foliar primordium, leaflet, petiolule, petiole and pulvinus were collected from cultivated plants (Campinas, SP, Brazil and from natural populations (Picinguaba, Ubatuba and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil - D. pinnata; Antonina, PR, Brazil - D. pentaphylla. Studies on leaflet surface assessment (Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as histology and venation analyses were carried out of dehydrated, fresh and fixed material from two species. Leaflet material was macerated for stomatal counts. Histological sections, obtained by free-hand cut or microtome, were stained with Toluidine Blue, Safranin/Alcian Blue, Ferric Chloride, Acid Phloroglucin. Secretory cavities are present in the lamina, petiolule, petiole, pulvinus and leaf primordium in D. pentaphylla, but not in D. pinnata, and can be considered an important character for species diagnosis. Other leaf characters were uninformative in delimiting Dahlstedtia species. There is cambial activity in the petiolule, petiole and pulvinus. This study, associated with other available data, supports the recognition of two species in Dahlstedtia.Dahlstedtia Malme (Leguminosae é um gênero neotropical, com duas espécies reconhecidas, D. pinnata (Benth. Malme e D. pentaphylla (Taub. Burk., embora tenha sido considerado monotípico por alguns autores. Seus representantes ocorrem na Floresta Atlântica, nos Estados do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, realizamos um estudo comparativo da anatomia foliar, para verificar a presença de caracteres que possam auxiliar a identificação das espécies. Primórdio foliar, lâmina foliar, peciólulo, pecíolo e pulvino

  12. Gilbertiodendron grandistipulatum (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), a singular species from West Central Africa and new record for Congo (Brazzaville)

    OpenAIRE

    De La Estrella, Manuel; Devesa, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gilbertiodendron (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic tropical African genus of ca. 30 species, most of which are trees of primary forest. The highest concentration of species and morphological variation is found in the Guineo-Congolian region, particularly in Gabon. One of those species is G. grandistipulatum, which is easily recognized by its stipules (up to 18 cm long) and flowers (adaxial petal up to 12.5 × 14 cm). The taxonomy, habitat and distribution of G. grandistipultaum are ...

  13. Fagaceae tree species allocate higher fraction of nitrogen to photosynthetic apparatus than Leguminosae in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingchao; Cheng, Ruimei; Shi, Zuomin; Xu, Gexi; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Variation in photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) is generally affected by several factors such as leaf nitrogen allocation and leaf diffusional conductances to CO2, although it is still unclear which factors significantly affect PNUE in tropical montane rain forest trees. In this study, comparison of PNUE, photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen allocation, and diffusional conductances to CO2 between five Fagaceae tree species and five Leguminosae tree species were analyzed in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, Hainan Island, China. The result showed that PNUE of Fagaceae was significantly higher than that of Leguminosae (+35.5%), attributed to lower leaf nitrogen content per area (Narea, -29.4%). The difference in nitrogen allocation was the main biochemical factor that influenced interspecific variation in PNUE of these tree species. Fagaceae species allocated a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen to the photosynthetic apparatus (PP, +43.8%), especially to Rubisco (PR, +50.0%) and bioenergetics (PB +33.3%) in comparison with Leguminosae species. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of Leguminosae species was lower than that of Fagaceae species (-15.4%). While there was no significant difference shown for mesophyll conductance (gm), Fagaceae tree species may have greater chloroplast to total leaf surface area ratios and that offset the action of thicker cell walls on gm. Furthermore, weak negative relationship between nitrogen allocation in cell walls and in Rubisco was found for Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis phanera and Cy. patelliformis, which might imply that nitrogen in the leaves was insufficient for both Rubisco and cell walls. In summary, our study concluded that higher PNUE might contribute to the dominance of most Fagaceae tree species in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest.

  14. Fagaceae tree species allocate higher fraction of nitrogen to photosynthetic apparatus than Leguminosae in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruimei; Shi, Zuomin; Xu, Gexi; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Variation in photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) is generally affected by several factors such as leaf nitrogen allocation and leaf diffusional conductances to CO2, although it is still unclear which factors significantly affect PNUE in tropical montane rain forest trees. In this study, comparison of PNUE, photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen allocation, and diffusional conductances to CO2 between five Fagaceae tree species and five Leguminosae tree species were analyzed in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest, Hainan Island, China. The result showed that PNUE of Fagaceae was significantly higher than that of Leguminosae (+35.5%), attributed to lower leaf nitrogen content per area (Narea, –29.4%). The difference in nitrogen allocation was the main biochemical factor that influenced interspecific variation in PNUE of these tree species. Fagaceae species allocated a higher fraction of leaf nitrogen to the photosynthetic apparatus (PP, +43.8%), especially to Rubisco (PR, +50.0%) and bioenergetics (PB +33.3%) in comparison with Leguminosae species. Leaf mass per area (LMA) of Leguminosae species was lower than that of Fagaceae species (-15.4%). While there was no significant difference shown for mesophyll conductance (gm), Fagaceae tree species may have greater chloroplast to total leaf surface area ratios and that offset the action of thicker cell walls on gm. Furthermore, weak negative relationship between nitrogen allocation in cell walls and in Rubisco was found for Castanopsis hystrix, Cyclobalanopsis phanera and Cy. patelliformis, which might imply that nitrogen in the leaves was insufficient for both Rubisco and cell walls. In summary, our study concluded that higher PNUE might contribute to the dominance of most Fagaceae tree species in Jianfengling tropical montane rain forest. PMID:29390007

  15. Historia de la investigación en la simbiosis leguminosa-bacteria: una perspectiva didáctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Marta Helena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After cereals, legumes constitute the second most important family of crops for human and animal consumption. However, in contrast to the former, legumes are capable of growing in arid soils of low fertility, due to their ability to establish symbiotic associations with soil bacteria called rhizobia. These microorganisms form special organs in the roots of legumes called nodules, where atmospheric dinitrogen (N2 is transformed into ammonium that is exported to the plant for growth. Since their discovery in legume nodules until today, knowledge of the bacteria capable of establishing symbiosis with these plants has advanced in many aspects. Especially, advances in molecular techniques for bacterial identification and access to unexplored places have confirmed that the interaction of legumes with rhizobia is older, and that N2-fixing bacteria are more abundant and diverse, than considered previously. Here, we attempt to relate the history of an association whose development is key in the history of mankind as we know it now.Después de los cereales, las leguminosas constituyen la segunda familia en importancia para la alimentación humana y animal. Sin embargo, en contraste con ellos, las leguminosas son capaces de crecer en suelos áridos, de escasa fertilidad, lo que se debe a su capacidad para establecer asociaciones simbióticas con bacterias del suelo llamadas rhizobia. Estos microorganismos forman unos órganos especiales en las raíces de las leguminosas, los nódulos, donde el dinitrógeno (N2 atmosférico se transforma en amonio que se exporta a la planta para su crecimiento. Desde su descubrimiento en los nódulos de las leguminosas hasta nuestros días, el conocimiento de las bacterias capaces de establecer simbiosis con estas plantas ha avanzado en múltiples aspectos. Sobre todo, los avances en las técnicas moleculares de identificación bacteriana y el acceso a lugares inexplorados ha permitido confirmar que la interacción de las

  16. A study of the fatty acid and tocochromanol patterns of some Fabaceae (Leguminosae plants from Turkey I

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    Sahim, Ahmet

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid, tocopherol, tocotrienol and plastochromanol-8 contents of some selected Fabaceae (Leguminosae species belonging to different genera (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella from Turkey were determined by using GLC and HPLC techniques. Some of the studied species are endemic to Turkey. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic, oleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. Palmitic and stearic acids are the major saturated fatty acids in the seed oils. Vicia and Onobrychis patterns showed high similarity in means of qualitative fatty acid concentration. The tocopherol and tocochromanol patterns of the seed oils were also found to be highly variable among the genera investigated here. The total tocopherols was higher than the total tocotrienols. Alpha and gamma tocopherols were also the highest tocopherols present in the whole species. Beta, gamma and delta-tocotrienols were not found in most of the studied leguminous patterns. The results are discussed in view of renewable sources and chemotaxonomy.En este estudio, los contenidos en ácidos grasos, tocoferoles, tocotrienoles y plastocromanol-8 de algunas especies seleccionadas de Fabaceae (Leguminosae, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros (Colutea, Vicia, Lathyrus, Gonocytisus, Lupinus, Hedysarum, Onobrychis, Trigonella de Turquía, fueron determinadas usando técnicas de GLC y HPLC. Algunas de las especies estudiadas son endémicas de Turquía. Los aceites de semillas de los diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico, oleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Las proporciones de estos ácidos grasos fueron muy variables entre los géneros de leguminosas. Los ácidos palmítico y esteárico son los principales ácidos grasos saturados en los aceites de semillas. Los patrones

  17. Efeito da cobertura viva com leguminosas herbáceas perenes na agregação de um argissolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na área do Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, com o objetivo de avaliar a morfologia e a distribuição de raízes de algumas leguminosas herbáceas perenes; os efeitos da cobertura viva no teor de carbono orgânico, e a agregação de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico, medida pela estabilidade dos agregados em água. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de três diferentes espécies de leguminosas herbáceas perenes e um tratamento-controle sem cobertura viva (capinado. As leguminosas utilizadas foram amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical(Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium Atropurpureum. Para a estabilidade de agregados, as profundidades de amostragem foram 0-5 e 5-10 cm, enquanto, para a morfologia e distribuição radicular, as avaliações consistiram das profundidades 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm. As coberturas com as leguminosas amendoim forrageiro e cudzu tropical propiciaram os maiores valores percentuais na classe de agregados > 2,00 mm, em média 38 % superiores aos obtidos na área capinada. Os valores do diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP dos agregados no solo com cobertura de leguminosas foram superiores aos da área capinada para ambas as camadas, o que demonstra o efeito favorável das coberturas vivas na estabilização dos agregados do solo. A cobertura viva de amendoim forrageiro proporcionou incremento no teor de carbono orgânico no solo. Quanto aos atributos morfológicos das raízes, verificou-se que o amendoim forrageiro apresentou raio radicular intermediário entre as demais espécies e área e massa radicular maiores, o que auxiliou na interpretação do efeito positivo da cobertura viva com essa espécie na agregação do solo.

  18. Leguminosas arbóreas introduzidas em pastagem Performance of leguminous trees introduced into pastures

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    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar, por meio de métodos de análise de variância multivariada, o comportamento de 16 espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, introduzidas em pastagem estabelecida de Brachiaria decumbens, a partir de mudas pequenas e em presença de animais, em quatro épocas do ano, em Seropédica, RJ. Nove variáveis relacionadas ao comprimento e ao número de brotos das mudas, antes e após o pastejo dos animais, foram utilizadas nas avaliações. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de quatro agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos Mimosa tenuiflora nas 3ª e 4ª avaliações. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos, para cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que o maior comprimento e o maior número de brotos na muda, após o pastejo, foram encontrados na M. tenuiflora. Esta leguminosa é indicada para ser introduzida, com maior probabilidade de sucesso, nas pastagens de B. decumbens na região, sem a proteção das mudas e em presença de gado.The objective of this work was to analyse, by means of multivariate variance analysis, the behaviour of 16 leguminous tree species introduced into pastures of Brachiaria decumbens from unprotected young plants and under grazing, in four periods of the year, in Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. Nine variables, related to length and to number of sprouting, before and after animal grazing, were used for the evaluation. The statistical difference of the means of the principal canonical variable, calculated by the Scott-Knott test, indicated the formation of four groups, and the Mimosa tenuiflora group stood out at the 3rd and 4th evaluations. Difference among treatment means for each variable, calculated by Bonferroni confidence intervals, showed that the greatest sprouting length and the highest number of sprouting, after

  19. Morphology of seeds and seedlings of four species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae

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    Fabiana Soledad Ojeda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four neotropical species of Vigna Savi (Leguminosae, Phaseolinae have potential value as forage crops or ornamentals and could be cultivated in tropical or subtropical areas, even on floodplains. In order to obtain useful data for their culture and taxonomy, the seed morphology, germination pattern (hypogeal or epigeal and seedling development were studied. The studied species belong to different sections of the genus: V. adenantha (G.F.W. Meyer Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Leptospron; V. candida (Vell. Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier (Sect. Sigmoidotropis; V. caracalla (L. Verdc. (Sect. Caracallae and V. luteola (Jacq. Benth. (Sect. Vigna. The seeds were collected during fieldwork conducted in northwestern and northeastern Argentina. The qualitative and quantitative characters of the seeds were registered, after which they were sown. The development of the emerged seedlings was followed, first in a greenhouse and thereafter in open field. We recorded the type of germination, the thigmotropic movements of the hypocotyl and of the stem, seedling architecture and plant longevity. These traits allowed us to differentiate the species and construct an identification key that could be useful for agronomic or floricultural purposes. The data obtained partially support the current taxonomic treatment of the genus.

  20. Ecological interpretations of the leaf anatomy of amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae

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    FM Leme

    Full Text Available We present the leaf anatomy of seven amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae, interpreting their structures and ecological functions, and also, providing information on which their taxonomy can be based, especially of morphologically similar species. We evaluated Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis and A. sensitiva. The anatomy corroborates the separation of the series Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae and Sensitivae, with the shape of the petiole, types of trichomes and quantity of vascular units in the petiole as main characteristics to delimit the species. The petiole shape varies from cylindric in A. americana, A. sensitiva and A. fluminensis, to triangular in A. evenia and quadrangular in A. rudis, A. denticulata and A. ciliata. We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome. The hydathode trichome was the most common, except for A. americana and A. fluminensis. Species with higher affinity with water share similar adaptive characteristics, including hydathode trichomes described for the first time for the genus. This article adds unseen descriptions for the genus and on the adaptation factors of the amphibious species.

  1. Ecological interpretations of the leaf anatomy of amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, F M; Scremin-Dias, E

    2014-02-01

    We present the leaf anatomy of seven amphibious species of Aeschynomene L. (Papilionoideae, Leguminosae), interpreting their structures and ecological functions, and also, providing information on which their taxonomy can be based, especially of morphologically similar species. We evaluated Aeschynomene americana, A. ciliata, A. evenia, A. denticulata, A. fluminensis, A. rudis and A. sensitiva. The anatomy corroborates the separation of the series Americanae, Fluminenses, Indicae and Sensitivae, with the shape of the petiole, types of trichomes and quantity of vascular units in the petiole as main characteristics to delimit the species. The petiole shape varies from cylindric in A. americana, A. sensitiva and A. fluminensis, to triangular in A. evenia and quadrangular in A. rudis, A. denticulata and A. ciliata. We observed four types of trichomes: hydathode trichome, long conic trichome, short conic trichome and bulb-based trichome. The hydathode trichome was the most common, except for A. americana and A. fluminensis. Species with higher affinity with water share similar adaptive characteristics, including hydathode trichomes described for the first time for the genus. This article adds unseen descriptions for the genus and on the adaptation factors of the amphibious species.

  2. (Glossoscolecidae y Acanthodrilidae y leguminosas (Arachis pintoi en un suelo de traspatio

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    Esperanza Huerta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sureste de la República Mexicana, en el trópico húmedo, se llevó a cabo un estudio en un cultivo de traspatio (huerto familiar con el fin de aumentar la fertilidad del suelo mediante la reproducción e inoculación de individuos de las especies Glossoscolecidae sp y Dichogaster saliens (oligochaeta las cuales tuvieron la mayor tasa de crecimiento diario (3 mg día-1 en sustratos con 1.5 % Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (leguminosa. Cuatro tratamientos con seis repeticiones de 3 x 2 m cada una fueron instalados en el huerto familiar. El contenido de materia orgánica (5.45 ± 1.6%, nitrógeno total (0.27 ± 0.05%, fósforo disponible (40.6 ± 22.5 mg kg-1 y potasio (1.05 ± 0.88 mg kg-1 fueron significativamente superiores (p < 0.05 en aquellas unidades experimentales con lombrices (27 gm-2 en conjunto con Arachis pintoi.

  3. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Isys Mascarenhas; Funch, Ligia Silveira; de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci

    2014-01-01

    Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, Hymenaea courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous) leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of Hymenaea courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1) for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2) for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1) var. altissima, (2) var. longifolia, and (3) all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  4. Endogenous isoflavone methylation correlates with the in vitro rooting phases of Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae).

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    Clematis, Francesca; Viglione, Serena; Beruto, Margherita; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Paola; Poncet, Christine; Curir, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    Spartium junceum L. (Leguminosae) is a perennial shrub, native to the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, widespread in all the Italian regions and, as a leguminous species, it has a high isoflavone content. An in vitro culture protocol was developed for this species starting from stem nodal sections of in vivo plants, and isoflavone components of the in vitro cultured tissues were studied by means of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analytical techniques. Two main isoflavones were detected in the S. junceum tissues during the in vitro propagation phases: Genistein (4',5,7-Trihydroxyisoflavone), already reported in this species, and its methylated form 4',5,7-Trimethoxyisoflavone, detected for the first time in this plant species (0.750 ± 0.02 mg g(-1) dry tissue). The presence of both of these compounds in S. junceum tissues was consistently detected during the in vitro multiplication phase. The absence of the methylated form within plant tissues in the early phases of the in vitro adventitious root formation was correlated with its negative effect displayed on root induction and initiation phases, while its presence in the final "root manifestation" phase influenced positively the rooting process. The unmethylated form, although detectable in tissues in the precocious rooting phases, was no longer present in the final rooting phase. Its effect on rooting, however, proved always to be beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological analyses suggest a new taxonomic circumscription for Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae

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    Isys Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea is a genus of the Resin-producing Clade of the tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae with 14 species. Hymenaea courbaril is the most widespread species of the genus, ranging from southern Mexico to southeastern Brazil. As currently circumscribed, H. courbaril is a polytypic species with six varieties: var. altissima, var. courbaril, var. longifolia, var. stilbocarpa, var. subsessilis, and var. villosa. These varieties are distinguishable mostly by traits related to leaflet shape and indumentation, and calyx indumentation. We carried out morphometric analyses of 14 quantitative (continuous leaf characters in order to assess the taxonomy of H. courbaril under the Unified Species Concept framework. Cluster analysis used the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrices. Principal Component Analyses (PCA were carried out based on the same morphometric matrix. Two sets of Analyses of Similarity and Non Parametric Multivariate Analysis of Variance were carried out to evaluate statistical support (1 for the major groups recovered using UPGMA and PCA, and (2 for the varieties. All analyses recovered three major groups coincident with (1 var. altissima, (2 var. longifolia, and (3 all other varieties. These results, together with geographical and habitat information, were taken as evidence of three separate metapopulation lineages recognized here as three distinct species. Nomenclatural adjustments, including reclassifying formerly misapplied types, are proposed.

  6. Wood anatomy of tribe Detarieae and comparison with tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, José Luis; de Pernía, Narcisana Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    We studied the wood anatomy of 29 species belonging to 10 genera of the tribe Detarieae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae and compare them with tribe Caesalpinieae. Detarieae is the largest of four tribes of Caesalpinioideae, with 84 genera, only eleven occur in Venezuela with species of timber importance. The specimens were collected in Venezuela and include wood samples from the collection of the Laboratorio de Anatomía de Maderas de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela, and of the Forest Products Laboratory of the USDA Forest Service in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. The terminology and methodology used followed the IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hardwood Identification of the IAWA Committee, 1989. Measurements from each specimen were averaged (vessel diameters, vessel element lengths, intervessels pit size, fibre lengths and ray height). The species of Detarieae can be separated using a combination of diagnostic features. Wood characters that provide the most important diagnosis and may be used in systematics of Detarieae include: intercellular axial canals, rays heterocellular, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells, irregular storied structure and fibre wall thickness. For comparative anatomy between Detarieae and Caesalpinieae: intercellular axial canals, heterocellular rays, rays exclusively or predominantly uniseriate, prismatic crystals common in ray cells (in Detarieae) and regular storied structure, fibres septate, fibre wall thick or very thick, rays homocellular, multiseriate rays and silica bodies (in Caesalpinieae). Axial parenchyma is typically a good diagnostic feature for Leguminosae, but not for Detarieae and Caesalpinieae comparisons.

  7. Inventario de Leguminosas activas y evaluación de su potencial de nitrificación, en zonas secas del cantón Paltas.

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Malla, Gloria Esmeralda

    2007-01-01

    Las leguminosas, grupo de plantas muy numeroso, que incluye unas 17000 especies, antes considerado como una única familia y en la actualidad agrupadas en el orden Fabales. Las leguminosas tienen una gran importancia desde el punto de vista económico ya que incluyen muchas especies que se utilizan como alimento, por ejemplo la arveja, el fréjol, el maní; algunas otras que son productoras de aceite, como la soya; otras de interés forrajero como el trébol y la alfalfa o especies ornamentales com...

  8. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L.) CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    José David Álvarez-Solís; Ramón Muñoz-Arroyo; Esperanza Huerta-Lwanga; José Nahed-Toral

    2016-01-01

    El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC) en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N) en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1) frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens), 2) frijol arroz (Vig...

  9. El género Ormosia Jacks: (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) en el estado de Guerrero, México

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Durán, Ramiro; Jiménez-Ramírez, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez la presencia del género Ormosia para el estado de Guerrero, México, con dos especies: Ormosia carinata y O. oaxacana (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, tribe Sophoreae). Se incluyen las descripciones de ambas, datos referentes a los ejemplares, una clave dicotómica para diferenciarlas, y la ilustración de O. carinata. Ormosia carinata era conocida como elemento endémico de los estados de Veracruz y Oaxaca, en las regiones de Los Tuxtlas y de Uxpanapa. Ormosia carinat...

  10. Detección y caracterización preliminar de lectinas presentes en semillas de leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    de Navarro, Yolanda; Pérez, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    La aglutinación de eritrocitos humanos o animales fue ensayada con 23 especies de leguminosas. Las semillas de Bauhinia picta, marindus indica, Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia poseen lectinas inespecíficas para el sistema ABO; Crotalaria agatifolia, C. spp, Cassia indecora y Ormosia spp, presentan cierto grado de especificidad. Se ensayaron eritrocitos de seis especies animales, observándose aglutinación con las especies ya citadas y además con Cassia fruticosa, C. reticulata, Delon...

  11. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

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    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  12. The effect of cisplatin administration on certain trace elements homeostasis in rats and the protective effect of silver birch (Betula pendula) sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muselin, Florin; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Berbecea, Adina; Doma, Alexandru Octavian; Brezovan, Diana; Savici, Jelena; Trif, Alexandra; Cristina, Romeo Teodor

    2018-02-07

    A clinically active structure with known antitumor activities is cisplatin (CDDP), but this it comes with toxicity characteristics which can be faded by the beneficial effects of Silver birch (Betula pendula) sap. We aimed to assess the cisplatin activity on: Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn homeostasis in rats and to observe the effect of birch sap. Healthy Wistar rats (n = 10/group) were divided in four groups: Control: receiving 1 mL saline I.P. way + water; E1: cisplatin 20 mg kgbw -1 , I.P.; E2: cisplatin 20 mg kgbw -1 , I.P. + birch sap and Control sap group: 1 mL saline I.P. + birch sap. Blood was collected: at the trial's start and after 48 h, and blood and organs (liver, kidney and spleen) for the cytoarchitecture investigation and readings were sampled after seven days. Samples were processed in nitric acid by microwave digestion and readings were completed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, the outcomes being statistically analyzed by ANOVA. Cisplatin produced a significant imbalance in the trace elements homeostasis, the birch sap administration recovering them usual homeostasis status. Comparatively with the Control, rats exposed to cisplatin presented a not significant (p > 0.05) decrease of Zn (-26.74%) and Mg (-10.25%), a significant (p  0.05) increase of Mn (+28.16%). Birch sap administration after Cisplatin was followed by restoration or nevertheless significant increase (p sap against diverse cisplatin deleterious side-effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  14. The dilemma of being a fragrant flower: the major floral volatile attracts pollinators and florivores in the euglossine-pollinated orchid Dichaea pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Carlos E P; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Bento, José Maurício S; Salvador, Marcos José; Sazima, Marlies

    2016-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mediate both mutualistic and antagonistic plant-animal interactions; thus, the attraction of mutualists and antagonists by floral VOCs constitutes an important trade-off in the evolutionary ecology of angiosperms. Here, we evaluate the role of VOCs in mediating communication between the plant and its mutualist and antagonist floral visitors. To assess the evolutionary consequences of VOC-mediated signalling to distinct floral visitors, we studied the reproductive ecology of Dichaea pendula, assessing the effects of florivores on fruit set, the pollination efficiency of pollinators and florivores, the floral scent composition and the attractiveness of the major VOC to pollinators and florivores. The orchid depends entirely on orchid-bees for sexual reproduction, and the major florivores, the weevils, feed on corollas causing self-pollination, triggering abortion of 26.4 % of the flowers. Floral scent was composed of approximately 99 % 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, an unusual floral VOC attractive to pollinators and florivores. The low fruit set from natural pollination (5.6 %) compared to hand cross-pollination (45.5 %) and low level of pollinator visitation [0.02 visits (flower hour) -1 ] represent the limitations to pollination. Our research found that 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol mediates both mutualistic and antagonistic interactions, which could result in contrary evolutionary pressures on novo-emission. The scarcity of pollinators, not florivory, was the major constraint to fruit set. Our results suggest that, rather than anti-florivory adaptations, adaptations to enhance pollinator attraction and cross-pollination might be the primary drivers of the evolution of VOC emission in euglossine-pollinated flowers.

  15. Evolution in African tropical trees displaying ploidy-habitat association: The genus Afzelia (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkpegan, Armel S L; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Migliore, Jérémy; Duminil, Jérôme; Dainou, Kasso; Piñeiro, Rosalía; Wieringa, Jan J; Champluvier, Dominique; Hardy, Olivier J

    2017-02-01

    Polyploidy has rarely been documented in rain forest trees but it has recently been found in African species of the genus Afzelia (Leguminosae), which is composed of four tetraploid rain forest species and two diploid dry forest species. The genus Afzelia thus provides an opportunity to examine how and when polyploidy and habitat shift occurred in Africa, and whether they are associated. In this study, we combined three plastid markers (psbA, trnL, ndhF), two nuclear markers (ribosomal ITS and the single-copy PEPC E7 gene), plastomes (obtained by High Throughput Sequencing) and morphological traits, with an extensive taxonomic and geographic sampling to explore the evolutionary history of Afzelia. Both nuclear DNA and morphological vegetative characters separated diploid from tetraploid lineages. Although the two African diploid species were well differentiated genetically and morphologically, the relationships among the tetraploid species were not resolved. In contrast to the nuclear markers, plastid markers revealed that one of the diploid species forms a well-supported clade with the tetraploids, suggesting historical hybridisation, possibly in relation with genome duplication (polyploidization) and habitat shift from dry to rain forests. Molecular dating based on fossil-anchored gene phylogenies indicates that extant Afzelia started diverging c. 14.5 or 20Ma while extant tetraploid species started diverging c. 7.0 or 9.4Ma according to plastid and nuclear DNA, respectively. Additional studies of tropical polyploid plants are needed to assess whether the ploidy-habitat association observed in African Afzelia would reflect a role of polyploidization in niche divergence in the tropics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

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    Xiao-Ning Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC, is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP and supernatant (MSS by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE. The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05, indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and lactic acid (Lac. Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, and malondialdehyde (MDA but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  17. Morphological and agronomical characterization and estimates of genetic parameters of sesbania Scop. (Leguminosae accessions

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    Veasey E.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two accessions of seven Sesbania (Leguminosae species: S. emerus, S. rostrata, S. tetraptera, S. exasperata (annuals, S. grandiflora, S. sesban and S. virgata (perennials, used for ruminant fodder, firewood, wood products, soil improvement, and human food, were investigated, with the aim of characterizing both inter- and intraspecific genetic variability, estimating genetic parameters for the characters evaluated and appraising the forage potential of the accessions. These were planted at the Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, Brazil, in a randomized complete block design with 22 treatments and four replications. Seventeen morphological and 17 agronomic characters were evaluated. Genetic parameters coefficient of intraspecific genetic diversity (bi and coefficient of intraspecific genetic variation (CVgi were obtained for the species represented by more than one accession. Highly significant differences were observed among as well as within species for most characters, showing considerable genetic variability. S. exasperata showed intraspecific genetic variability for the largest number of morphological characters. The same was observed for S. sesban for the agronomic characters. Most of the characters gave high bi values, above 0.80, indicating the possibility of selecting superior genotypes. The CVgi values, on the other hand, which indicate the magnitude of the existing genetic variability relative to the character mean, varied according to the species and character evaluated. Differences between annual and perennial species were observed, with higher biomass yields presented by the annuals at the first cut and by the perennials after the second cut, reaching the highest yield at the third cut. The annual species had higher seed production. Accession NO 934 of S. sesban gave the highest biomass yields and regrowth vigor, showing promise as a forage legume plant.

  18. Classification of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae: A Numerical Re-assessment

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    Adel EL-GAZZAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subdivision of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae into taxa of lower rank was subject for major discrepancies between traditional classifications while more recent phylogenetic studies provided no decisive answer to this problem. As a contribution towards resolving this situation, 81 morphological characters were recorded comparatively for 226 species and infra-specific taxa belonging to 75 genera representing 21 of the 32 tribes currently recognized in this subfamily. The data matrix was subjected to cluster analysis using the Sørensen distance measure and Ward’s clustering method of the PC-ord version-5 package of programs for Windows. This combination was selected from among the 56 combinations available in this package because it produced the taxonomically most feasible arrangement of the genera and species. The 75 genera are divided into two main groups A and B, whose recognition requires little more than the re-alignment of a few genera to resemble tribes 1-18 (Sophoreae to Hedysareae and tribes 19-32 (Loteae to Genisteae, respectively, in the currently accepted classification. Only six of the 21 tribes represented by two or more genera seem sufficiently robust as the genera representing each of them hold together in only one of the two major groups A and B. Of the 29 genera represented by more than one species each 17, 7 and 5 are taxonomically coherent, nearly coherent and incoherent, respectively. The currently accepted circumscription and inter-relationships among the disrupted tribes and genera are in need of much detailed investigation.

  19. Classification of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae: A Numerical Re-assessment

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    Adel EL-GAZZAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subdivision of the Leguminosae-Papilionoideae into taxa of lower rank was subject for major discrepancies between traditional classifications while more recent phylogenetic studies provided no decisive answer to this problem. As a contribution towards resolving this situation, 81 morphological characters were recorded comparatively for 226 species and infra-specific taxa belonging to 75 genera representing 21 of the 32 tribes currently recognized in this subfamily. The data matrix was subjected to cluster analysis using the Sørensen distance measure and Ward’s clustering method of the PC-ord version-5 package of programs for Windows. This combination was selected from among the 56 combinations available in this package because it produced the taxonomically most feasible arrangement of the genera and species. The 75 genera are divided into two main groups A and B, whose recognition requires little more than the re-alignment of a few genera to resemble tribes 1-18 (Sophoreae to Hedysareae and tribes 19-32 (Loteae to Genisteae, respectively, in the currently accepted classification. Only six of the 21 tribes represented by two or more genera seem sufficiently robust as the genera representing each of them hold together in only one of the two major groups A and B. Of the 29 genera represented by more than one species each 17, 7 and 5 are taxonomically coherent, nearly coherent and incoherent, respectively. The currently accepted circumscription and inter-relationships among the disrupted tribes and genera are in need of much detailed investigation.

  20. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo

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    Shagun Kalia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL. Methods: EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ sensitive (MRC2 and CQ resistant (RKL9 strains. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD 50 was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg and preventive (100-750 mg/kg activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg of extract was also evaluated. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC 50 of 8.2 µg/ml (MRC2 and 5.1 µg/ml (RKL9. CC 50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 µg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD 50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant ( p100 mg/kg. Significant (P<0.001 curative and repository activities were exhibited by 750 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. Interpretation & conclusions: The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED 50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further.

  1. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Shagun; Walter, Neha Sylvia; Bagai, Upma

    2015-12-01

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae) has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL). EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (MRC2) and CQ resistant (RKL9) strains. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 ) of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD 50 ) was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg) and preventive (100-750 mg/kg) activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg) of extract was also evaluated. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC 50 of 8.2 µg/ml (MRC2) and 5.1 µg/ml (RKL9). CC 50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 µg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI) of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD 50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant ( p50 >100 mg/kg. Significant (P50 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED 50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further.

  2. Morfologia de nectários em Leguminosae senso lato em áreas de caatinga no Brasil Nectary morphology of Leguminosae senso lato in areas of dry seasonal forest in Brazil

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    Yanna Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectários extraflorais (Nefs são glândulas secretoras de néctar encontradas em diversas espécies de Angiospermas, inclusive Leguminosae. Essas estruturas podem se apresentar sob diferentes formas (elevados, embebidos; com ou sem estipe; cores distintas e posições nas plantas (na raque, no pecíolo, sendo essas características relevantes aos estudos de taxonomia e sistemática. Este trabalho analisou a diversidade morfológica dos Nefs em Leguminosae de uma área prioritária para a conservação da caatinga no Estado de Pernambuco. As 35 espécies de Legumionsae estudadas foram coletadas no Município de Mirandiba, no semi-árido Pernambucano, e submetidas às técnicas usuais para análise e descrição morfológica. Entre essas espécies, foram caracterizados Nefs com origem primária (não substitutivos e secundária (substitutivos. Dois diferentes tipos com onze formatos distintos foram encontrados entre elas. Uma grande variedade de localização, coloração, projeção, e dimensão foram registradas aqui. Uma chave de identificação e ilustrações foram elaboradas também. Os dados apresentados aqui ampliam o número de espécies estudadas com Nefs para a família, e também confirmam a importância taxonômica e ecológica dessas estruturas para os legumes da região do semi-árido do Brasil.Extrafloral nectaries (Efns are nectar secreting glands found in many species of Angiosperms, including Leguminosae. These structures have various forms (elevated, embedded; stalk present or not; different colors and positions on the plants (on the rachis, on the petiole, and these characteristics are relevant to taxonomy and morphology studies. This work analyses the morphological diversity of Efns in Leguminosae from a priority conservation area of caatinga in Pernambuco state. The 35 Leguminosae species studied were collected in Mirandiba municipality, a semi-arid region of Pernambuco and submitted to the usual techniques of anatomy and

  3. A study of the morphoanatomical characters of the leaves of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

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    Ítalo Antônio Cotta Coutinho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little attention has been paid to species of Chamaecrista sect. Apoucouita (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae, especially regarding anatomical studies. When only vegetative material is available, the identification of such species may be difficult. Additionally, vegetative material of some species of C. sect. Apoucouita may be even harder to identify because they can resemble species of Inga Mill. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae. The present study focused on recognizing morphoanatomical characters of leaves that are taxonomically useful for the species of C. sect. Apoucouita by employing standard anatomical techniques. The arrangement of the vascular system in the petiole/rachis, dorsiventral mesophyll, mucilage idioblasts in the epidermis of leaflets and hypostomatic leaves were some of the characters shared by all species studied. Length of the petiole, position and type of extrafloral nectaries, leaflet venation, presence and type of papillae on the epidermis of the leaflet blades and sclereids in the mesophyll were some of the characters useful in the distinction of taxa. The vascular arrangement of the petiole/rachis is a promising character in the distinction of species of C. sect. Apoucouita and Inga. Based on morphoanatomical data, the taxonomic revision of some species and varieties ascribed to C. sect. Apoucouita is suggested.

  4. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos with two new distribution records and lectotypifications for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum W. Saisorn, Chantar. & Balslev from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum DC. and D. laxiflorum DC. subsp. lacei (Schindl.) H. Ohashi, are reported as new for Thailand. Lectotypes of D. amoenum Wall. e...

  5. Crescimento e acúmulo de nutrientes por plantas espontâneas e por leguminosas utilizadas para adubação verde

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    C. Favero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais espontâneas, nas áreas de cultivo agrícola, têm sido tratadas como "plantas daninhas", "ervas invasoras", "inços" e outras denominações, do ponto de vista dos prejuízos que podem acarretar às espécies cultivadas. No entanto, as espontâneas podem promover os mesmos efeitos de proteção do solo e ciclagem de nutrientes que espécies cultivadas ou introduzidas para adubação verde. O crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes pela parte aérea de espontâneas e de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes foram medidos em um experimento de campo em Sete Lagoas (MG, na Embrapa Milho e Sorgo. O experimento consistiu de cinco espécies de leguminosas (feijão-de-porco, feijão-bravo do Ceará, mucuna-preta, lab-lab e guandu, submetidas a duas condições de manejo (com e sem capina, e uma testemunha (somente espontâneas. No florescimento das leguminosas, foram obtidos a massa da matéria seca e o teor de nutrientes da parte aérea de cada espécie de leguminosa e das espontâneas presentes nas parcelas. O sistema com apenas as espontâneas produziu menos biomassa e acumulou menos nutrientes que os sistemas com leguminosas. Foram poucas as espontâneas que apresentaram teores de carbono, cálcio e nitrogênio próximos ou superiores aos das leguminosas. No entanto, para potássio, magnésio e fósforo, ocorreu o inverso. A maioria das espontâneas apresentou teores de potássio, magnésio e de fósforo superiores aos das leguminosas, destacando-se: Portulaca oleracea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Bidens pilosa, Commelina benghalensis e Melanpodium perfoliatum.

  6. Aspectos agronômicos de leguminosas para adubação verde no Cerrado do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha

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    Ricardo Borges Teodoro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo e inadequado dos solos acelera sua degradação, sendo necessária a intervenção por meio de práticas conservacionistas para restaurar a capacidade produtiva dos mesmos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o comportamento e desenvolvimento de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em solos de Cerrado, Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, em Turmalina, MG. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelas leguminosas: mucuna-cinza (Mucuna nivea, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrima, lablabe (Dolichos lablab, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis e guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan. O ciclo precoce de C . juncea, C. spectabilis e feijão-de-porco favorece a inserção destes nos sistemas de cultivo. Aos 40 dias, o feijão-de-porco e mucuna-cinza já cobriam o solo, com 67 e 63 %; já o guandu-anão e C. juncea apresentaram os maiores desenvolvimentos, nesse período. Os teores de N, P e K tendem a diminuir nas avaliações realizadas nas diferentes fases vegetativas, o que contribui para melhor escolha da época de manejo das leguminosas. Crotalaria juncea, mucuna-cinza, feijão-de-porco e mucuna-preta foram as leguminosas que se destacaram na produção de matéria seca, o que torna essas espécies promissoras para adubação verde na região. As leguminosas, em sua maioria, apresentam potencial para reciclagem dos macronutrientes e aporte de N aos sistemas de produção.

  7. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

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    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  8. Acylated flavonol tri- and tetraglycosides in the flavonoid metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Rowe, Emily R; Lewis, Gwilym P; Veitch, Nigel C

    2011-04-01

    The foliar metabolome of Cladrastis kentukea (Leguminosae) contains a complex mixture of flavonoids including acylated derivatives of the 3-O-rhamnosyl(1→2)[rhamnosyl(1→6)]-galactosides of kaempferol and quercetin and their 7-O-rhamnosides, together with an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. Thirteen of the acylated flavonoids, 12 of which had not been reported previously, were characterised by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Eight of these were the four isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) and their 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosides, and three were isomers of quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E/Z-p-coumaroyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) - the remaining 4Z isomer was identified by LC-UV-MS analysis of a crude extract. The final two acylated flavonoids characterised by NMR were the 3E and 4E isomers of kaempferol 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-(3/4-O-E-feruloyl-β-d-galactopyranoside)-7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside while the 3Z and 4Z isomers were again detected by LC-UV-MS. Using the observed fragmentation behaviour of the isolated compounds following a variety of MS experiments, a further 18 acylated flavonoids were given tentative structures by LC-MS analysis of a crude extract. Acylated flavonoids were absent from the flowers of C. kentukea, which contained an array of non-acylated kaempferol and quercetin glycosides. Immature fruits contained kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)[α-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-β-galactopyranoside and its 7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside as the major flavonoids with acylated flavonoids, different from those in the leaves, only present as minor constituents. The presence of acylated flavonoids distinguishes the foliar flavonoid metabolome of C. kentukea from that of a closely related legume, Styphnolobium japonicum, which contains a similar

  9. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

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    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    : Sitio 1, P. laevigata; Sitio 2, M. biuncifera y Sitio 3, ambas leguminosas. En cada sitio se recolectó suelo, tanto abajo y fuera del dosel de las leguminosas, además, se realizaron transectos para medir e identificar las plantas arbóreas y arbustivas, se calculó el índice de valor de importancia y la diversidad del matorral. Asimismo, se registró mayor riqueza y diversidad en el Sitio 3 (ICE 29 spp. y H’ 2.7, en comparación con el Sitio 1 (24 spp. y 2.4 y Sitio 2 (26 spp. y 2.1. La materia orgánica y el carbono orgánico del suelo, así como el N total, el P-Olsen y la mineralización de C fueron mayores en el suelo bajo dosel de ambas leguminosas. La abundancia de esporas de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares fue favorecida por M. biunficera. La influencia de P. laevigata para crear islas más ricas en recursos fue mayor que en M. biunficera, lo anterior sugiere que cada leguminosa modifica de una forma diferente el microambiente, sin embargo, juntas aumentan la disponibilidad de nichos para el establecimiento de otras especies, lo queayuda a comprender el papel de P. laevigata y M. biuncifera sobre la colonización vegetal en ecosistemas semiáridos

  10. Desempenho de bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes Banana plant performance intercropping with perennial herbaceous legumes

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    Adriano Perin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de plantas de cobertura em consórcio com bananeiras pode ser uma estratégia de manejo, possibilitando aumentos de produtividade associados à otimização de processos biológicos e maior estabilidade do sistema produtivo. Neste trabalho, objetivo-se avaliar o efeito da cobertura viva, formada por leguminosas herbáceas perenes sobre a produção de bananeira cultivar Nanicão. Os tratamentos foram: amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krap. & Greg, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides Benth., siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb., vegetação espontânea (dominada por Panicum maximum Jacq. e vegetação espontânea + N-fertilizante. Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras entre abril/1999 e julho/2000 e os atributos de produtividade. O peso do cacho e da penca foram positivamente influenciados pelo siratro e cudzu tropical empregados como coberturas vivas, quando comparados aos demais tratamentos. Todas as leguminosas proporcionaram maior crescimento das bananeiras (notadamente a partir do 6º mês, maior número de folhas emitidas e maior proporção de cachos colhidos, em relação aos tratamentos com vegetação espontânea (com e sem N-fertilizante. As leguminosas siratro e cudzu tropical promoveram condições adequadas ao desenvolvimento das bananeiras, acarretando ganhos de produtividade e eliminação da adubação nitrogenada no bananal. O potencial benéfico das leguminosas cudzu tropical e siratro como coberturas vivas capazes de proporcionar aumentos na produtividade de banana, qualifica essas espécies como alternativa promissora para a fertilidade do solo e nutrição das bananeiras.The use of coverage plants in cover cropping with bananas can be a management strategy, increasing in productivity associated with the optimization of biological processes and greater stability of production system. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of live coverage by herbaceous perennial legume on

  11. Detección y caracterización preliminar de lectinas presentes en semillas de leguminosas

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    Yolanda de Navarro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La aglutinación de eritrocitos humanos o animales fue ensayada con 23 especies de leguminosas. Las semillas de Bauhinia picta, marindus indica, Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia poseen lectinas inespecíficas para el sistema ABO; Crotalaria agatifolia, C. spp, Cassia indecora y Ormosia spp, presentan cierto grado de especificidad. Se ensayaron eritrocitos de seis especies animales, observándose aglutinación con las especies ya citadas y además con Cassia fruticosa, C. reticulata, Delonix regia, Poinciana pulquerrima, Abrus fruticulosus y Mucuna mutisiana. Los ensayos de inhibición con carbohidratos indican que las lectinas de Dioclea lehmannii y Erythrina rubrinervia actúan sobre receptores diferentes.

  12. Fruit consumption and seed dispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae) by the lowland tapir in the cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizerril, M X A; Rodrigues, F H G; Hass, A

    2005-08-01

    Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae) were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  13. Fruit consumption and seed ispersal of Dimorphandra mollis Benth. (Leguminosae by the lowland tapir in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

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    M. X. A. Bizerril

    Full Text Available Fruit phenology observations and consumption of Dimorphandra mollis (Leguminosae were analyzed during seven months in an area of cerrado stricto sensu. We analysed 81 fecal samples collected at six different places of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris in central Brazilian cerrado. In addition, from the feces of five tapirs at the Brasília Zoo to which fruit had been offered, seeds were collected and used in germination tests. The results suggest that the tapir is an important fruit consumer and a potential seed disperser of D. mollis. In the field, however, fruit consumption was found to be very low, probably because of both fruit palatability and the low density of frugivores, especially tapirs. The possibility that the original dispersal agents of D. mollis seeds belonged to the South American Pleistocene megafauna is discussed.

  14. BALANCE PARCIAL DE NITRÓGENO EN EL SISTEMA DE CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L. CON COBERTURA DE LEGUMINOSAS EN CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

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    José David Álvarez-Solís

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial de las leguminosas para mejorar la fertilidad del suelo y sostener la producción de cultivos asociados como el maíz, varía entre especies. Este trabajo evalúa la contribución de 3 leguminosas como cultivos de cobertura (CC en el balance parcial de Nitrógeno (N en el cultivo de maíz. Fue realizado en Ejido La Bella Ilusión, Maravilla Tenejapa, estado de Chiapas, México, con 4 tratamientos en asociación al cultivo de maíz: 1 frijol nescafé (Mucuna pruriens, 2 frijol arroz (Vigna umbellata, 3 frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris y 4 testigo sin leguminosa. Se midió la producción de biomasa y el contenido de N, en las leguminosas y el maíz. Se hizo un balance parcial de N, que consideró el suministro de N de la biomasa de leguminosas y la extracción de N en la cosecha del maíz. La producción de biomasa seca de las leguminosas en la cosecha fue significativamente (p≤0,05 mayor en asociación con los frijoles arroz y nescafé (1290 y 1139 kg.ha-1 que en frijol común (470 kg.ha-1, con un contenido total de 35,4; 25,7 y 8,9 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El rendimiento de grano de maíz fue 2390,5 kg.ha-1; se identificó que la extracción de N fue mayor en el grano, seguido de rastrojo, raíz, bráctea y olote, con 20,9; 9,4; 7,2; 2,0 y 1,5 kg.ha-1 N, respectivamente. El balance parcial de N mostró valores positivos con los frijoles arroz y nescafé, lo que indica su importancia para compensar la extracción de N del grano o de la mazorca del maíz.

  15. EFECTO DE DOS LEGUMINOSAS Y BANANO MADURO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN Y REPRODUCCIÓN DE CONEJOS NUEVA ZELANDA

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    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La investigación tuvo los siguientes objetivos: a Determinar la leguminosa tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb Benth y Gliricidia sepium y el nivel de banano maduro (BM (50, 75, 100 y 100, 125, 150 g animal-1 día-1, que permita incrementar los parámetros reproductivos (fase uno y productivos (fase dos, en conejos Nueva Zelanda. b Determinar la Relación beneficio/costo de los tratamientos. Se utilizó 28 y 42 conejos respectivamente. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 x 3 + 1, en un diseño de bloques completamente al azar (DBCA, con cuatro y tres repeticiones. Se utilizó la prueba de Tukey (p≤0.05. El mayor consumo fue para el kudzu (p0.05 el peso de las hembras al parto, el periodo de gestación, peso y tamaño de la camada al nacimiento. Los niveles de BM no influenciaron (p>0.05 sobre la ganancia de peso, índice de conversión alimenticia (ICA, peso final (PF, peso a la canal (PC y rendimiento a la canal (RC. Los tratamientos en base a leguminosas tropicales y niveles de BM superaron al testigo (p<0.01. La mayor rentabilidad en la fase 1 y 2 se obtuvo al combinar kudzu tropical más 100 y 75 g y 125 y 100 g de BM animal-1 día-1 (30.34 y 29.48%.

  16. Estudo anatômico das espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará como "angelim" An anatomic study of Leguminosae species in the State of Pará commercialized as "angelim"

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    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura da madeira de sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foi analisada quanto aos aspectos anatômicos através de cortes histológicos da madeira, nos sentidos transversal, tangencial e radial. Através deste estudo procurou-se determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com a mesma denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação anatômica das mesmas. Uma chave dicotômica foi elaborada para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. Características de parênquima, raios e poros são muito úteis na separação das espécies estudadas em nível de gênero, porém em nível de espécie a separação é mais difícil. Para o agrupamento de espécies, é necessário que as características anatômicas das espécies sejam conhecidas para associadas a características morfológicas.The wood structure of seven commercialized species of Leguminosae as angelim, in the state of Pará, was analyzed by their anatomical aspects and through histological sections of the wood, in transversal, tangential and radial planes. This study was undertaken to determine basic differences among various species commercialized with the same vernacular denomination, in order to facilitate the process of their anatomical identification. A dichotomous key was elaborated to separate the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. Characteristics of parenchyma, rays and vessels are very useful in the separation of the species studied in the genus level, however in the species level the separation is more difficult. For the species grouping, it is necessary that the anatomical characteristics of the species are known for associates to the morphologic characteristics.

  17. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  18. Evaluación de abonos verdes en el sistema de producción maíz-leguminosas

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    Prager M. Martin

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte del ensayo, se estudió el comportamiento del peso de nódulos, peso fresco y peso seco de tres leguminosas (Crotalaria, Canavalia y Guandul a utilizar como abonos verdes y su efecto sobre sistemas de producción maíz-leguminosas (maíz-caupí, maíz-soya, maíz-frijol. Las variables consideradas (rendimiento, rendimiento equivalente de maíz, ingreso neto y tasa de retorno marginal mostraron el efecto positivo de esta práctica sobre esta forma de producción obteniéndose mejor respuesta de el sistema maíz-caupí. De los abonos verdes la crotalaria presentó el mejor efecto sobre los sistemas de producción. En la segunda parte del trabajo, se utilizó el sistema de producción de mejor comportamiento introduciendo al factor abono verde algunas modalidades de tratamiento, entre ellas efecto residual, adición de una segunda incorporación de los tres abonos verdes y efecto residual más la adición de abono químico. La consideración de las mismas variables usadas en la primera parte mostro mejores valores por la segunda incorporación de abono verde y la adición de abono químico en su orden, el efecto residual de los abonos permite obtener rendimientos superiores a los alcanzados por el testigo.This research was divided in two parts. The first studies the behavior of three legumes (Crotalaria, Canavalia and Cajanus as green manure, measuring weight nodules, green weight matter and dry weight matter of them, so measured the effect on three production systems: Maize- cowpea, Maize- soybean and Maize-bean. The indicators (yield, equivalent maize yields, net income and marginal return rate showed positive effect of green manure on this production systems too maize-cowpea system showed the best yields; Crotalaria was ,the best green manure. In second experimental stage maize- cowpea system was evaluated, using the same indicators and introducing new treatments related to green manure: its residual effects, addicional

  19. Factores del manejo para estabilizar la producción de biomasa con leguminosas en el trópico

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    T. E. Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este material tiene como objetivo abundar acerca de aquellos factores del manejo que conduzcan a estabilizar la producción de biomasa en sistemas ganaderos en el trópico. Es obvio que los sistemas mejorados y bien manejados de pasturas de gramíneas y leguminosas, en cualquiera de sus alternativas, son opciones para lograr la sostenibilidad. Una concepción más amplia y profunda es la relativa a los estudios de pasturas mixtas; éstos, deben tener un enfoque más biológico por lo que, además de considerar el ambiente en el cual se desarrollan y crecen, hay que incluir la forma en que los componentes vegetales se manifiestan en las especies implicadas del agroecosistema. Aquí no podemos olvidar el efecto del animal. Los problemas asociados con la persistencia se reconocen cada vez más como una preocupación real. Los diversos factores que controlan la permanencia de las especies forrajeras se agrupan en aquellos que pueden ser manejados y controlados por el productor, así como en los que éste no puede intervenir. Es por ello que las producciones animales y de otro tipo, derivados de estos sistemas, varían positivamente en el tiempo, en la medida en que se va consolidando la relación suelo /planta /animal. De esta correspondencia no puede quedar excluido el papel interactuante y modificador del hombre con los elementos antes señalados. La producción de biomasa es una actividad multidisciplinaria; de ahí que el éxito de su funcionamiento esté condicionado al conocimiento de las interacciones entre sus componentes, así como entre éstos y el medio ambiente, lo cual permitirá la generación de estrategias de manejo acordes con la ecología que conduzcan a mejorar la productividad y la sostenibilidad del agroecosistema. Por tanto, la producción de biomasa constituye un elemento determinante en el éxito y la eficiencia de los sistemas con leguminosas.

  20. ANATOMÍA, FÍSICA Y MECÁNICA DE LA MADERA DE Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae

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    C. Téllez-Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se determinaron las características anatómicas y las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera de Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae. El material de estudio se obtuvo de un sólo árbol colectado en el municipio de Arteaga, Michoacán, México. La descripción anatómica se basó en las recomendaciones de IAWA. Las propiedades físicas y mecánicas se efectuaron de acuerdo a la norma D 143-94 de la ASTM. La madera de A. inermis presenta brillo mediano, vetado pronunciado, textura media, hilo entrecruzado, porosidad difusa y pared celular muy gruesa. La densidad básica es muy alta y la contracción media. El ELP, MOR y MOE es alto, extremadamente alto y medio, respectivamente, en flexión estática. En compresión paralela a la fibra su ELP es alto, MOR extremadamente alto. ELP muy alto en compresión perpendicular a la fibra. Dureza Janka muy alta.

  1. Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.

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    Silva, J O; Neves, F S

    2014-08-01

    Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.

  2. Dieta consumida por bovinos em pastagens cultivadas e consorciadas com leguminosas, estabelecidas com e sem queima da vegetação secundária

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    Andrea Krystina Vinente Guimaraes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição botânica da dieta em pastagens de capim marandú (B. brizantha e capim quicuio (B. humidicola consorciadas com leguminosas, em dois métodos de preparo de área: com e sem queima. Foram testadas três pastagens para cada experimento: 1. QB - B. humidicola + B. brizantha cv. Marandu. 2. QBAL - B. humidicola + B. brizantha consorciada com A. pintoi cv. Amarilo + L. leucocephala cv. Cunninghan. 3. QBAC - B. humidicola + B. brizantha consorciada com A. pintoi cv. Amarilo + C. Argentea (Cratylia. A composição botânica foi determinada usando a técnica da análise microhistologica de fezes. As coletas de fezes foram realizadas a cada dezoito dias.  O consumo de quicuio e de espécies da capoeira foram superiores na época seca e de braquiarão, na chuvosa. As percentagens de quicuio foram superiores no método com queima, as de braquiarão, no método mulch. As percentagens de braquiarão foram superiores nas pastagens de QB e QBAL e as de leguminosas, nas pastagens consorciadas com leguminosas. Foram encontradas 14 famílias e 23 espécies. O método de preparo de área infuenciou a composição botânica da dieta. As espécies da capoeira tiveram pequena participação na composição botânica da dieta dos animais.

  3. Estudos morfoanatômicos da semente e da plântula de espécies de Anileiras (Indigofera L., Leguminosae Morpho-anatomical studies of seeds and seedlings of wild indigo, "anileira", Indigofera- Leguminosae

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    Juliana Villela Paulino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O nome popular "anileira" designa Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. e I. truxillensis Kunth, muito semelhantes quanto à morfologia externa. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar se caracteres da semente e plântula apresentavam valor diagnóstico para este grupo, já que tais caracteres têm sido muito utilizados na Taxonomia de Leguminosae. A superfície e morfoanatomia de sementes e cotilédones foram estudadas por microscopias eletrônica de varredura e de luz, e as etapas do desenvolvimento das plântulas descritas. Embora as plântulas sejam semelhantes, caracteres de sementes (tamanho, forma, ornamentação da superfície, forma do hilo e tamanho do embrião e cotilédones (forma, organização do parênquima lacunoso na nervura central e distribuição de metabólitos nos tecidos apresentaram valor diagnóstico para as espécies. I. anil distingue-se de I. suffruticosa por suas sementes maiores e cotilédones com borda acuminada. I. truxillensis caracteriza-se por apresentar sementes cilíndricas e cotilédones reniformes contendo gotas de óleo e alcalóides. Nossos dados, a morfologia externa dos frutos (curvos em I. anil e I. suffruticosa, e retos em I. truxillensis e, ainda, a anatomia foliar (células parenquimáticas grandes e fenólicas no floema de I. suffruticosa e sua ausência em I. anil sugerem que I. anil, I. suffruticosa e I. truxillensis não devem ser sinonimizadas.The common name "wild indigo" specifies Indigofera anil L., I. suffruticosa Mill. (legitimate name and I. truxillensis Kunth (legitimate name that are very similar due to their external morphology. This work analyzed diagnostic characteristics of seeds and seedlings of these species since such features are widely used in taxonomic approaches within Leguminosae. We studied surface features and morpho-anatomy of seeds and cotyledons with scanning electronic microscopy and light microscopy, and described seedling phases. Although seedlings are similar

  4. Producción y valor nutricional del cultivo de morera (Morus alba L. con intercalamiento de leguminosas

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    María Judith Delgado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las principales preocupaciones en la alimentación animal es la búsqueda de alternativas rentables para el productor y eficientes desde el punto de vista nutricional para los animales. Para que el volumen de la producción de estos alimentos sea el adecuado, se han utilizado prácticas como las planteadas en la revolución verde, que incluyen el uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados químicos, lo que ha traído secuelas negativas sobre el medioambiente. En la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas nutricionales se encontraron algunos forrajes, como la morera (Morus alba L., que tiene un alto nivel de proteína, entre otras propiedades nutricionales; pero, alternativas nutricionales como ésta requieren fertilización nitrogenada en elevadas cantidades.Con el interés de generar alternativas amigables con el medioambiente y que además logren mantener o incrementar el volumen de producción y el valor nutricional de la morera, surgió la idea de estudiar la intersiembra de este arbusto con leguminosas, como arveja (Pisum sativum L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L y fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L., analizando variables nutricionales y parámetros de crecimiento del cultivo de morera. Además, se trabajó con un grupo de fertilización nitrogenada y un grupo de control (sin modificación alguna del cultivo. Al finalizar el estudio se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0.05 para la mayoría de parámetros, exceptuando la variable altura, que no presentó diferencias importantes (p>0.05.

  5. Emergencia y desarrollo inicial de cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Maribel Ramírez

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos, así como las características morfológicas de las plántulas emergidas en cuatro leguminosas forrajeras arbóreas: lara ruidosa (Albizia lebbeck, cují (Prosopis juliflora, samán (Samanea saman y carocaro (Enterolobium cyclocarpum, presentes en la altiplanicie de Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron: escarificación con lija (EL, remojo en agua (RA e inmersión en agua caliente (IAC, en semillas con distintos tiempos de almacenamiento (TA. Se evaluó el porcentaje de emergencia (PE, la tasa de emergencia (TE, la altura de la plántula (AP, el largo de la raíz (LR, el número de hojas (NH, el número de nudos (NN y el grosor del tallo (GT. En lara ruidosa el tiempo del RA y la interacción entre la EL y la IAC presentaron diferencias significativas en el PE. En las semillas de cují, los efectos individuales del TA, el RA y la IAC mostraron diferencias en el PE. La EL influyó en el PE de las semillas de cují sin artejo, y en las de carocaro y samán. Se concluye que la EL en las semillas de lara ruidosa, cují sin artejo, carocaro y samán; así como la utilización de semillas de cují con artejo frescas o almacenadas durante tres meses y tratadas con agua caliente por cinco minutos permitieron incrementar la emergencia. Las plántulas mostraron un desarrollo normal y homogéneo.

  6. Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae

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    James A Nicholls

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown age of 2-10 MY, yet over 6kb of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data gives only poor phylogenetic resolution among species. Here we explore the use of larger-scale nuclear gene data obtained though targeted enrichment to increase phylogenetic resolution within Inga. Transcriptome data from three Inga species were used to select 264 nuclear loci for targeted enrichment and sequencing. Following quality control to remove probable paralogs from these sequence data, the final dataset comprised 259,313 bases from 194 loci for 24 accessions representing 22 Inga species and an outgroup (Zygia. Bayesian phylogenies reconstructed using either all loci concatenated or a subset of 60 loci in a gene-tree/species-tree approach yielded highly resolved phylogenies. We used coalescent approaches to show that the same targeted enrichment data also have significant power to discriminate among alternative within-species population histories in the widespread species I. umbellifera. In either application, targeted enrichment simplifies the informatics challenge of identifying orthologous loci associated with de novo genome sequencing. We conclude that targeted enrichment provides the large volumes of phylogenetically-informative sequence data required to resolve relationships within recent plant species radiations, both at the species level and for within-species phylogeographic studies.

  7. MORFOLOGIA DO FRUTO E DA SEMENTE DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Senna Mill. (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINIOIDEAE

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    Ely Simone Cajueiro Gurgel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O fruto característico de Leguminosae é o legume, entretanto há uma variabilidade de tipos na família. Este estudo objetivou descrever a morfologia dos frutos e das sementes de Senna obtusifolia (L. H.S.Irwin & Barneby, S. occidentalis (L. Link. e S. tapajozensis (Ducke H.S.Irwin & Barneby. Retirou-se, aleatoriamente, uma amostra constituída de 25 frutos e 25 sementes para a descrição. Dos frutos, registrou-se a morfologia geral, a classificação, a coloração, a textura, a consistência e o indumento do pericarpo. Os caracteres morfológicos das sementes analisadas foram: a externos: consistência, cor e textura da testa, forma das sementes, posição e forma do hilo e da micrópila; b internos: testa; endosperma; embrião quanto ao tipo; forma e cor. As espécies estudadas apresentaram frutos do tipo legume ou folículo, de forma linear e largamente linear, pericarpo seco, cartáceo e sublenhoso, glabro a olho nu, em tons castanhos. Semente obovada, suborbicular, elipsoidal com um lado reto ou irregularmente rômbico, testa em tons castanhos ou acinzentados, pleurograma completo, quando presente, hilo punctiforme e orbicular, embrião axial, foliáceo, eixo embrionário reto e oblíquo, plúmula rudimentar. As características do indumento do pericarpo e pleurograma possibilitaram a separação das espécies estudadas. Palavras-chave: Senna obtusifolia, S. occidentalis, S. tapajozensis, Cassieae, Cassiinae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p80-86

  8. Antinoceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions and Flavones Isolated from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir (Leguminosae.

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    Mariluze P Cruz

    Full Text Available The bark of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poiret (Leguminosae family, popularly known as "jurema preta" in Brazil, is used by the population of Contendas of Sincorá (Bahia State, Brazil for the treatment of coughs and wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the bark ethanol extract (EEMT and solvent soluble fractions (hexane-H, DCM-D, EtOAc-E and BuOH-B of the extract in vivo. Additionally, we synthesized 5,7-dihidroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (isosakuranetin and isolated the compound sakuranetin, and both compounds were also tested. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive assays performed were: writhing test; nociception induced by intraplantar formalin injection; leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity; evaluation of vascular permeability (Evans blue test; and evaluation of mechanical hypernociception (von Frey test. Production of TNF-α, IL-10, myeloperoxidase and the expression of ICAM-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-test (n = 8, with P < 0.05. The EEMT showed antinociceptive activities in writhing test (100-200 mg/kg, in the second phase of the formalin test (50-200 mg/kg, and in mechanical hypernociception (100 mg/kg. EEMT showed an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity and in the plantar tissue detected by the reduction of myeloperoxidase activity (100 mg/kg, reduction of IL-10 levels and expression of ICAM-1 in the peritoneal exudate and the mesentery (100 mg/kg, respectively. The four soluble EEMT fractions showed good results in tests for antinociceptive (H, D, E, B and anti-inflammation (H, D, E. Only sakuranetin showed reduction of the writhing and neutrophil migration (200 mg/kg. Thus, the EEMT and soluble fractions of M. tenuiflora bark demonstrated great antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, as also sakuranetin. More studies

  9. Bilobate leaves of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the middle Miocene of Fujian Province, southeastern China and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanxiang; Wong, William Oki; Shi, Gongle; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2015-11-16

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the pantropical genus Bauhinia L. s.l. (Bauhiniinae, Cercideae, Leguminosae) is paraphyletic and may as well be subdivided into nine genera, including Bauhinia L. s.s. and its allies. Their leaves are usually characteristic bilobate and are thus easily recognized in the fossil record. This provides the opportunity to understand the early evolution, diversification, and biogeographic history of orchid trees from an historical perspective under the framework of morphological and molecular studies. The taxonomy, distribution, and leaf architecture of Bauhinia and its allies across the world are summarized in detail, which formed the basis for classifying the bilobate leaf fossils and evaluating the fossil record and biogeography of Bauhinia. Two species of Bauhinia are described from the middle Miocene Fotan Group of Fujian Province, southeastern China. Bauhinia ungulatoides sp. nov. is characterized by shallowly to moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with shallowly cordate bases and acute apices on each lobe, as well as paracytic stomatal complexes. Bauhinia fotana F.M.B. Jacques et al. emend. possesses moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves with moderately to deeply cordate bases and acute or slightly obtuse apices on each lobe. Bilobate leaf fossils Bauhinia ungulatoides and B. fotana together with other late Paleogene - early Neogene Chinese record of the genus suggest that Bauhinia had been diverse in South China by the late Paleogene. Their great similarities to some species from South America and South Asia respectively imply that Bauhinia might have undergone extensive dispersals and diversification during or before the Miocene. The fossil record, extant species diversity, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the Bauhiniinae might have originated in the Paleogene of low-latitudes along the eastern Tethys Seaway. They dispersed southwards into Africa, migrated from Eurasia to

  10. Multiple Continental Radiations and Correlates of Diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): Testing for Key Innovation with Incomplete Taxon Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Christopher S.; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Miotto, Silvia T. S.; Hughes, Colin E.

    2012-01-01

    Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in diversification rates can confound macroevolutionary inferences regarding the timing and mechanisms of cladogenesis, we used Bayesian relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses as well as MEDUSA and BiSSE birth–death likelihood models of diversification, to evaluate the evolutionary patterns of lineage accumulation in Lupinus. We identified 3 significant shifts to increased rates of net diversification (r) relative to background levels in the genus (r = 0.18–0.48 lineages/myr). The primary shift occurred approximately 4.6 Ma (r = 0.48–1.76) in the montane regions of western North America, followed by a secondary shift approximately 2.7 Ma (r = 0.89–3.33) associated with range expansion and diversification of allopatrically distributed sister clades in the Mexican highlands and Andes. We also recovered evidence for a third independent shift approximately 6.5 Ma at the base of a lower elevation eastern South American grassland and campo rupestre clade (r = 0.36–1.33). Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions and BiSSE likelihood analyses of correlated diversification indicated that increased rates of speciation are strongly associated with the derived evolution of perennial life history and invasion of montane ecosystems. Although we currently lack hard evidence for “replicate adaptive radiations” in the sense of convergent morphological and ecological trajectories among species in different

  11. Caracterización fisicoquímica de los aceites crudos de algunas semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The Sonoran desert has a great variety of nutritional native plants, mainly from the leguminous family. Although in ancient times their products were used as food by native Americans, there is little information about their potential as a food source. For this reason, oils from the following seeds were studied: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro and Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Oils were extracted from the seeds with hexane, and contents ranged from 8.5 to 23.5 %. The physicochemical studies showed mostly unsaturated oils, as demonstrated by the iodine index, (101-147 units. Indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acids were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids were separated and quantified by gas chromatography. Linoleic and oleic acids were found to predominate. All extracted crude oils were of good quality, comparable to those from soybean, com, sunflower and carthamus.

    El desierto de Sonora cuenta con una gran variedad de plantas silvestres principalmente de la familia leguminosae de las cuales se tiene poca información acerca de su potencial como fuente nutricional. Por lo que se estudiaron los aceites de las semillas: Acacia famesiana (huizache, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Cercidium microphyilium (palo verde 1, Cercidium sonorae (brea, Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde 2, Olneya Tesota (palo fierro y Prosopis juliflora (mezquite.
    Los aceites de cada semilla se extrajeron con hexano, obteniéndose de 8.5 a 23.5 %. Estos mostraron un alto grado de insaturación reflejado en los índices de lodo, de 101 a 147. Los índices de acidez, peróxidos y ácidos grasos libres fueron bajos y dentro de los valores aceptables. Al cuantificar los ácidos grasos por

  12. Interacción micorriza vesiculo-arbuscular, Rhizobium leguminosa en un oxisol de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia

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    Satizabal E. Jorge H.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available En los dos primeros trabajos (la y lb, se evaluó la interacción entre cepas seleccionadas de Rhizobium (apropiadas para la leguminosa forrajera tropical Centrosema macrocarpum y especies (Entrophospora colombiana, Acaulospora longula, Glomus manihotis de micorriza vesiculo arbuscular (MVA, en un suelo esterilizado, fijador de P. Los experimentos se diferenciaron por las fuentes de P utilizadas. Por su mayor producción de materia seca, absorción de minerales, nodulación y infección por MVA, se destacaron las plantas inoculadas con cuales quiera de las cepas de FIlizobiumy Glomus manihotis (Experimento la o Acaulospora longula (Experimento lb. En la tercera investigación (Experimento II, se evalúo en Centrosema la interacción MVA, Rhizobiumo N-químico (niveles equivalentes a 0, 30,55, 105,0 + Rhiz. y 30 + Rhiz. kg N ha-1 y dosis de P (0, 20, 40 y 80 kg ha-1. Es aconsejable aplicar pequeñas dosis (30 kg ha-1 de N al momento de la siembra e inocular con Rhizobium. Plantas inoculadas con MVA presentaron su óptimo crecimiento con 40 kg P ha-1. Dosis de 80 kg P ha-1 favoreció la eficiencia de la bacteria más no la del hongo.In the first two works (la and lb we evaluated the interation between selected stumps of Rhizobium (appropiate for the tropical forage legumes Centrosema macrocarpum and species (Entrophospora colombiana, Acaulospora longula, Glomus manihotis of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (MVA, in a sterelize soil fixer of P. The two experiments are different because we used different P sources. For the best production of dry matter, absorption of minerals, nodulation and infection for MVA; rebounded the plants with the inoculation with any of the Rhizobium´s stumps and Glomus manihotis (Experiment la of Acaulospora longula (Experiment lb. In the third investigation (Experiment II we evaluated in Centrosema the interaction MVA. Rhizobium and chemical N (levels equivalent to 0,30. 55, 105, O + Rhizobium and 30 + Rhizobium kg N ha

  13. Bananeiras consorciadas com leguminosas herbáceas perenes utilizadas como coberturas vivas Banana plants intercropped with perennial herbaceous legumes used as living mulches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Azevedo Espindola

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de bananeiras consorciadas com as leguminosas herbáceas perenes - amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides e siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. Os tratamentos-controle consistiram em vegetação espontânea com predomínio de Panicum maximum, e vegetação espontânea com adubação nitrogenada das bananeiras. Também foi avaliado o desenvolvimento vegetativo das bananeiras. Entre as coberturas avaliadas, a vegetação espontânea e o cudzu tropical apresentaram produções maiores de biomassa; o cudzu tropical proporcionou valores maiores para quantidades de N acumulado e derivado da fixação biológica. As leguminosas amendoim forrageiro, cudzu tropical e siratro proporcionaram desenvolvimento vegetativo mais rápido nas bananeiras consorciadas. Cudzu tropical e siratro promoveram maiores valores de peso dos cachos e das pencas. O uso das leguminosas avaliadas resulta em aumento da porcentagem de cachos colhidos e redução do tempo de colheita, além de proporcionar maior produtividade, quando comparado ao uso de vegetação espontânea.The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of banana plants intercropped with the perennial herbaceous legumes forage groundnut (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. The control treatments were spontaneous vegetation (mainly Panicum maximum and spontaneous vegetation plus nitrogen fertilizer application to banana plants. The vegetative growth of banana plants was also evaluated. Among the treatments, spontaneous vegetation and tropical kudzu promoted the highest dry matter productions; tropical kudzu had the highest amounts of accumulated and fixed N. Forage groundnut, tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the fastest vegetative growth for banana plants in this intercropped system. Tropical kudzu and siratro promoted the highest values for bunch weight and

  14. Differences between the composting process of the bovine manure mixture-leguminosae waste with and without stabilizing agent; Diferencias en el proceso de compostaje de estiercol de vacuno-residuo de leguminosa con y sin la aplicacion de un agente estabilizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo Monge, M. A.; Lopez Robles, J.; Gonzalez Carcedo, S.; Johson Troeth, J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate the differences in the compost process of the bovine manure mixture leguminosae waste with and without the application of a stabilizing agent (CaCO3), in two periods of the year. The physical-chemistry, chemical and microbiological parameters, were measured during the different stages of the process. this work has shown that the technique was economical and a solution environmentally acceptable for the treatment of these residuals. We achieved a product with a better C/N ratio, in shorter time and with a better content in organic and nutrition matter. (Author) 42 refs.

  15. Crotalaria incana l. and leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): toxicity indicator species of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil; Crotalaria incana l. y leucaena leucocephala lam. (leguminosae): especies indicadoras de toxicidad por hidrocarburos de petroleo en el suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Luna, Dinora; Castellan Estrada, Mepivoseth; Rivera Cruz, Maria del C.; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I.; Izquierdo R., Francisco [Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Montecillo, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: dinovaz@colpos.mx

    2010-07-01

    This study assesses the toxic effects produced by a Gleysol molic soil contaminated with crude oil on seedlings of two species of legumes. A phytotoxic impact index (IIF) was generated, which includes five parameters measured by relative rates of impact (IRIF{sub (x)}) for variables; emergency, height, root length, aboveground biomass and root biomass. Bioassays were conducted under a completely randomized design with three replications under semi-controlled conditions, to assess the sensitivity of Leucaena leucocephala and Crotalaria incana at different concentrations of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons). Effects were highly significant (P {<=} 0.01) with increasing concentrations of HTP in substrate. The emergence of L. leucocephala was 29 % lower with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} HTP, while C. incana decreased 30 % with 32 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH respect to control. Both species showed a five-day delay in the emergence of seedlings when exposed to high levels of TPH. A significant decrease in the accumulation of dry matter (DM) at concentrations above 20 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH was observed in both species. The respective IIF declined of 50 % with 80 000 and 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH, but L. leucocephala had no significant effect with 10 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. Finally, the EC50 in L. leucocephala, is presented with 80 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH whereas in C. incana this parameter is noted from 25 000 mgkg{sup -1} TPH. [Spanish] En este estudio se evaluaron los efectos toxicos que produce un suelo Gleysol molico contaminado con petroleo crudo, sobre plantulas de dos especies de leguminosas. Para ello se genero un indice de impacto fitotoxico (IIF) que integra cinco parametros, medidos a traves de indices relativos de impacto (IRIF{sub (x)}) para las variables emergencia, altura, longitud radicular, biomasa aerea y biomasa radicular. Los bioensayos se realizaron bajo un diseno completamente al azar, con tres repeticiones, en condiciones semicontroladas, para evaluar la sensibilidad de

  16. Sobre las causas ontogénicas de la productividad diferencial de semillas en la especie anficárpica Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae On the causes of the differential seed production in the anficarpic species Trifolium polymorphum (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Speroni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium polymorphum es una leguminosa de pradera con buena adaptación y persistencia en este tipo de vegetación. Combina diferentes estrategias reproductivas como la reproducción vegetativa por estolones y la reproducción por semillas producidas en dos tipos de frutos y flores, subterráneas y aéreas. Las subterráneas son cleistógamas y las aéreas son casmógamas. Empíricamente se ha detectado mayor formación de semillas en los frutos subterráneos que en los aéreos. En el presente trabajo se realizan estudios embriológicos y de desarrollo de semillas en ambos tipos de flores para dilucidar si existen causas ontogenéticas que determinan la productividad diferencial de semillas en ambos tipos de frutos. No se detectaron causas embriológicas pre-cigóticas que expliquen el menor número de semillas en los frutos de las flores aéreas. Ambos tipos de semillas comparten características ontogenéticas y presentan apropiado desarrollo de los óvulos, sacos embrionarios y establecimiento de vías nutricionales para saco embrionario, embrión y endosperma. En general las floraciones insumen un costo energético importante para las especies vegetales. La floración aérea de T. polymorphum, aunque sometida a una fuerte presión de herbivoría del ganado, incorpora variabilidad genética a sus poblaciones a través de la polinización cruzada y permite la dispersión a distancia.Trifolium polymorphum is recognized as one of the best adapted legume in field conditions. It combines different reproductive strategies such as stoloniferous vegetative reproduction and seed reproduction by two types of fruits produced in underground and aerial flowers. These last ones are chasmogamous and underground flowers are cleistogamous. A higher seed production has empirically been detected in underground flowers rather than in aerial ones. In the present work, embryological studies in aerial and underground flowers were carried out in order to determine

  17. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  18. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras

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    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE TRES LEGUMINOSAS COMO COBERTURAS ASOCIADAS CON MAÍZ EN EL TRÓPICO SUBHÚMEDO

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    Jos\\u00E9 Bernardino Castillo-Caamal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el potencia l de tres leguminosas como coberturas para mejorar el sistema de producción de maíz. Se evaluaron cuatro tratamie ntos: 1 maíz solo; 2 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo corto de semilla blanca 3 maíz y Phaseolus lunatus de ciclo largo de semilla blanca y 4 maíz y frijol terciopelo (Mucuna sp. en un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con cuatro réplicas, durante cuatro ciclos de cultivo (1999-2002 en Yucatán, México. Se midió la biomasa de cultivos, pH, N total, mineralización potencia l anaerobia del nitrógeno, evolución del CO 2, potasio (K, fósforo (P y materia orgánica del suelo, biomasa y frecuencia de arvenses. La cantidad de rastrojo en los tratamie ntos con leguminosas fue: 3436, 3425 y 4018 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer año, respectivamente. El nitrógeno aportado por los rastrojos al maíz fue 25,8; 31,9; 52,8 y 43,4 kg/ha para los tratamie ntos 1, 2, 3 y 4, respectivamente. El rendimie nto de grano de maíz fue en promedio 841, 843 y 460 kg MS /ha para el primero, segundo y tercer ciclo, respectivamente; sin diferencias entre tratamie ntos. En el tercer ciclo, el frijol terciopelo disminuyó la biomasa de arvenses de 126 a 58 g MS /m2. Las coberturas ejercieron poca influencia en las variables de suelo y rendimie nto de grano de maíz.

  20. Leguminosas nuevas de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Uribe Lorenzo

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se ocupa de tres nuevas especies del género Inga, dos de las cuales presentan caracteres muy notables en el género. La gentileza del doctor E. P. Killip, del Museo Nacional de los Estados Unidos, me permite incluir aquí una nueva especie del genero Machaerium; descrita por el y tipificada en un ejemplar colectado por mi en la región de Urabá.

  1. Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding; Larsen, K.; Larsen, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    In Malesia the family contains 25 indigenous genera and 8 genera with only introduced species, as follows (in brackets the number of native and/or introduced species in Malesia): Acrocarpus (1), Afzelia (2), Amherstia (1), Bauhinia (69), Brownea (4), Caesalpinia (22), Cassia (4), Chamaecrista (5),

  2. (Sw) DC (Leguminosae) pods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African ... Since the discovery of terpenes, more than 150 years ago ... anticancer drug discovery. .... (Agricultural Research Service/USDA) [17].

  3. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by Autochthonous Willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Sun Yuanyuan; Yin Ying; Ji Rong; Wu Jichun; Wang Xiaorong; Guo Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L -1 medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L -1 medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate = 68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d -1 pot -1 for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d -1 pot -1 for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  4. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by Autochthonous Willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jiahua [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun Yuanyuan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Department of Hydrosciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yin Ying; Ji Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu Jichun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Department of Hydrosciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Guo Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L{sup -1} medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L{sup -1} medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate = 68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d{sup -1}pot{sup -1} for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d{sup -1}pot{sup -1} for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  5. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by autochthonous willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong; Guo, Hongyan

    2010-09-15

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L(-1) medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L(-1) medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate=68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d(-1) pot(-1) for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d(-1) pot(-1) for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. A dose rate causes no fluctuating asymmetry indexes changes in silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashparova, Elena; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Morozova, Valeriia; Kashparov, Valery

    2018-06-04

    The assessment of the fluctuating asymmetry based on measurement of the parameters of left and right parts of silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and relative sizes of pairs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) was carried out. Twelve samples of both birch leaves and pairs of needles were collected from 10 trees at 5 sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and also at one control site located outside the ChEZ. Values of gamma dose rate in the air varied between the sites from 0.1 to 40 μGy h -1 . Activity concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the birch leaves varied over the range of 0.9÷2460 kBq kg -1 and 0.1÷339 kBq·kg -1 (DW), respectively. In addition to the above, in the Scots pine needles, these ranges were 0.7 ÷1970 kBq kg -1 f for 90 Sr and 0.1÷78 kBq kg -1 (DW) for 137 Cs. From the values of the radionuclides activity concentrations in the plants, the internal dose rate is estimated to be in the range of 0.1 ÷ 274 μGy h -1 . The main sources of the internal dose rate were radiation of 90 Sr and 90 Y. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch leaves and Scots pine needles varied over the range of 0.048 ± 0.007 ÷ 0.060 ± 0.009 and 0.014 ± 0.002 ÷ 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively, and did not statistically differ for all experimental sites. The indices also did not depend on the external or internal dose rate of ionizing radiation for plants. The above findings seem to be consistent with other research effort in terms of understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long-term effects of large scale nuclear accidents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Initial Development of Four Forest Species in Different Shading Conditions

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    C. C. Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Evaluated the initial development through destructive and non-destructive sampling, forest species Adenanthera pavonina, Cassia fistula, Parkia pendula and Hymenolobium petraeum, propagated by seeds at different levels of shading screens black poliefinas (0, 50 and 65% , in the region of Sinop, MT. There were no significant interactions between time and level of shading to any variable. Changes in fresh and dry weight at all levels of shading occurred from 30 DAT. The highest rates of growth were observed in 50% shading to A. pavonina, P. pendula and H. petraeum and 65% shading for C. fistula.Keywords: seedling, growth, physiology, climatic conditions.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of acrylated Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that acid functional acrylic copolymers containing maleic anhydride as a functional co-monomer can successfully be used to modify alkyd resins yielding acrylated resins with better drying, flexibility, scratch hardness, impact resistance and chemical resistance properties. However there exist optimum ...

  9. Antinociceptive potential of Parkia platycephala B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coord ADM

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... In chronic experiment, STZ-rats were daily treated with E.EtOH (150 or ... Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases ... accompanied by the absence of acute toxicity in mice .... The destruction of pancreatic beta cells.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACRYLATED PARKIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    successfully be used to modify alkyd resins yielding acrylated resins with ... superstructure of ships, the paint is also in addition to the above exposed to wind driven salt ... possibility of combining the desirable application and film forming properties of .... Then the temperature was further increased to 230 oC and the reaction.

  11. Cultivo de milho no sistema de aléias com leguminosas perenes Maize crop in alley cropping system with perennials legumes

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    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência de algumas leguminosas perenes no teor foliar de N, P e K e na produtividade da cultura do milho (UENF 506-8, cultivado no sistema de aléias, sem adubação fosfatada. Foram realizados experimentos de campo por dois ciclos de cultivo, no Campo Experimental do CCTA/UENF, em Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram no sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. e duas testemunhas com milho solteiro (com e sem NPK. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, essas foram podadas, o material foi incorporado ao solo e em seguida semeado o milho nas entrelinhas, com espaçamento de 80 cm entre fileiras. Após 60 dias da semeadura do milho efetuou-se nova poda. No segundo ciclo de cultivo, as práticas culturais foram similares às do primeiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Nas aléias de guandu, observou-se milho com maior teor foliar de N, em relação às demais leguminosas, no primeiro ciclo de cultivo. No segundo ciclo, os consórcios milho+guandu, milho+gliricídia e milho solteiro adubado superaram os demais na produtividade de grãos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of perennials legumes, in N, P and K foliar concentration and maize productivity in alley cropping system, without phosphorus fertilization. Field experiments were carried out for two cycles, with legumes intercropping maize (UENF 506-8 in Field Research CCTA/UENF in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the species: Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., Gliricidia

  12. Regionalización y relaciones biogeográficas de la Península de Yucatán con base en los patrones de distribución de la familia Leguminosae The biogeographical regions and relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula based on distribution patterns of the Leguminosae family

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    Rodrigo Duno-de Stefano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución geográfica de 224 especies de leguminosas nativas de la Península de Yucatán (México en 48 unidades geográficas operativas (0.5° de latitud y 0.5 ° longitud. Las relaciones biogeográficas regionales se determinaron utilizando información de las leguminosas de 12 áreas de América Central, América del Norte, América del Sur y las Antillas. Se emplearon 3 métodos de análisis: coeficiente de Jaccard, análisis de parsimonia (PAE y un análisis de patrones generales de distribución, como una visualización general de los trazos individuales de Croizat. También se revisaron filogenias de algunos géneros de leguminosas para determinar patrones de evolución geográfica. La mayor riqueza de especies encontrada al sur de la península se asocia con el gradiente climático en sentido norte-sur. Los resultados indican que esta área se puede dividir en 2 áreas biogeográficas (distritos: una franja septentrional y una franja meridional y al menos 5 subdistritos. Los análisis de parsimonia (PAE y los patrones generales de distribución son congruentes con los análisis de similitud. Todos los resultados sugieren que la Península de Yucatán presenta la mayor afinidad con América Central, y le sigue América del Norte, América del Sur y finalmente las Antillas, mientras que el elemento endémico representa el 6.7 %.In order to assess biogeographical relationship of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico, it was divided in 48 operational geographic units of 0.5 ° latitude and longitude and the distribution patterns of 224 native species of the family Leguminosae were analyzed. Biogeographic relations were determined comparing our results with legumes information of 12 neighboring areas of Central, North and South America, and the Caribbean. Three methodologies were used to analyze the information: the Jaccard's similarity coefficient, parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE, and a simple comparison of

  13. Larvicidal activity of oil-resin fractions from the Brazilian medicinal plant Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae Atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina da planta medicinal brasileira Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae sobre o Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Heloísa Helena Garcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil-resin fractions from Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae were evaluated for larvicidal activity on third larval instars of Aedes aegypti, in searching for alternative control methods for this mosquito. The bioactive fractions were chemically monitored by thin-layer chromatography, ¹H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Bioassays were performed using five repetitions, at a temperature of 28 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 80 ± 5% and light and dark cycles of 12h. Mortality was indicated by darkening of the cephalic capsule after 24h of exposure of the larvae to the solutions. The most active fractions were CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenes and CRM5-7 (labdane diterpenes, which showed LC50 values of 0.2 and 0.8ppm, respectively.A atividade larvicida das frações do óleo-resina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae foi avaliada em larvas de 3º estádio de Aedes aegypti, na busca de alternativas para o controle desse mosquito. As frações bioativas foram monitoradas quimicamente através de cromatografia de camada delgada, analisada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio (¹H e 13C e espectrometria de massas. Os bioensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 28±1°C, 80±5% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 12h, com cinco repetições. A mortalidade foi determinada através do escurecimento da cápsula cefálica, após 24h de exposição das larvas às soluções. As frações mais ativas foram CRM1-4 (sesquiterpenos e CRM5-7 (diterpeno labdano, que mostraram os valores de CL50 de 0,2 e 0,8ppm, respectivamente.

  14. Contribuição ao conhecimento morfológico das espécies de leguminosae comercializadas no estado do Pará, como "angelim" Contribution to the morphologic knowledge of the species of leguminosae in the state of Pará, traded as "angelim"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracialda Costa Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies de Leguminosae comercializadas como "angelim", no estado do Pará, foram analisadas quanto aos aspectos morfológicos dos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos. Este estudo visou determinar diferenças básicas entre as espécies comercializadas com esta denominação vernacular, a fim de auxiliar no processo de identificação taxonômica das mesmas. Foi elaborada uma chave dicotômica para separar as espécies estudadas (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum e Vatairea paraensis. As principais características utilizadas no campo, para separação das espécies estudadas, foram folha, folíolo, casca e tronco, porém, espécies de Andira, Hymenolobium e Vatairea, por apresentarem-se desprovidas de folhas no período fértil, necessitam de dados dos órgãos reprodutivos.The morphology of vegetative and reproductive structures of seven species of Leguminosae traded as "angelim" in the State of Pará were analyzed. This study sought to determine the basic differences between the species traded under the same vernacular name, in order to facilitate their taxonomic identification. A dichotomous key was developed to distinguish the species studied (Andira surinamensis, Dinizia excelsa, Hymenolobium excelsum, H. modestum, H. pulcherrimum, H. petraeum and Vatairea paraensis. The main characteristics used for separation in the field were of leaf, leaflet, bark and trunk. However, flower or fruit characters are needed to identify those species of Andira, Hymenolobium and Vatairea that lose their leaves while flowering.

  15. Consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae alimentado com folíolos de Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae em três níveis de maturidade Leaf consumption and biological aspects of Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae fed with Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae leaflets in three maturity stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Trevisan

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae tem como principal hospedeiro a essência arbórea Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae, utilizada em diversos estados brasileiros, principalmente, na arborização urbana. Nos últimos anos, foram registrados surtos anuais deste inseto, principalmente no estado do Rio de Janeiro, com desfolha intensa e conseqüente estresse fisiológico das árvores. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em laboratório, o consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de U. acawoios, alimentado com folíolos de C. fairchildiana em três diferentes estádios de maturidade: novos, intermediários e velhos. O consumo de lagartas de U. acawoios foi maior com folíolos novos e a duração das fases de desenvolvimento, a longevidade e o ciclo de vida desse inseto foram afetados pelo tipo de folíolo de C. fairchildiana. A porcentagem de sobrevivência de U. acawoios foi maior para indivíduos alimentados com folíolos de C. fairchildiana de maturidade intermediária.Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae is a tree used in several Brazilian states in the urban arborization and is the main host of Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae. Annual outbreaks of this defoliator insect was registered in the last years mainly in Rio de Janeiro state where these trees are submitted a physiologic stress after being completely stripped. The aim of this study is to evaluate the leaf consumption and biological aspects of U. acawoios caterpillars fed with C. fairchildiana leaflets in laboratory in three maturity stages: new, middlemen and old. The consumption of U. acawoios caterpillars was larger with new leaflets and the duration of the development stages, the longevity and the life cycle were affected for the type of C. fairchildiana leaflet. The U. acawoios survival percentage were larger for individuals fed with C. fairchildiana middlemen leaflets.

  16. Evaluation of legumes and poultry manure for the early protection of burnt soils Evaluación de leguminosas y gallinaza para la protección temprana de suelos quemados Avaliaçao da utilizaçao de leguminosas e estrume de galináceos na protecção precoce de solos queimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín González Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Organic amendments combined with the sowing of gramineous grasses are effective for the early protection of burnt soils (BS but cannot restore soil N status to pre-fire level; this has led to interest in combining their use with N2 fixer legumes. The effectiveness of applying poultry manure (PM; 2 Mg ha-1 and sowing legumes (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus and Trifolium repens for the early protection of BS was compared with that of applying PM + Lolium perenne and growing these four species without PM in a 3-month pot experiment, which also included a control consisting of an unburnt soil (US. In US, the shoot and root biomass increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus << Lolium < Lupinus. Compared with those grown in US, plants grown in BS were smaller and weaker in three species (Lupinus, Lolium and Trifolium. The reverse was true for the four species grown in BS+PM, which showed the benefits of PM addition. In all the treatments, plant N uptake, which prevents soil-N losses, increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus < Lupinus < Lolium. The lack of nodules observed suggested that none of the legumes fixed atmospheric-N2.

    Las enmiendas orgánicas combinadas con la siembra de gramíneas son efectivas para la protección temprana de los suelos quemados (SQ, pero insuficientes para restaurar el estatus pre-incendio del N-edáfico, lo cual deriva en el interés de emplear dichas enmiendas en combinación con leguminosas fijadoras de N2. La utilidad de la gallinaza (G, 2 Mg ha-1 y la siembra de leguminosas (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus y Trifolium repens para la protección temprana de SQ se comparó con la de G + Lolium perenne y esas cuatro especies sin G en una experiencia en invernadero durante tres meses que tambi

  17. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das flores de Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don Leguminosae-Mimosoideae

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    C.A. Andrade

    Full Text Available A atividade antibacteriana das flores da Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. (Leguminosae foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco. As bactérias testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. O meio de cultura utilizado foi ágar Müeller-Hinton. Foram utilizados discos de papel (6 mm de diâmetro impregnados com 1000, 500, 250 e 125 mg dos extratos: Etanol Bruto, fração Acetato de Etila e fração Diclorometano obtidas a partir do extrato etanólico bruto. Os resultados indicam que as amostras avaliadas exercem ação contra as cepas gram positivo testadas, em graus variáveis sendo que a fração Acetato de Etila apresentou maior atividade. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de fenóis e flavonoides nas flores de A. podalyriifolia.

  18. Modificación del caldo extracto de levadura manitol para la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El caldo extracto de levadura manitol (LM, un medio ampliamente utilizado para el cultivo de rizobios, fue modificado para reducir su costo y utilizarlo en la producción a mediana escala de inoculantes para leguminosas. Los dos ingredientes más costosos, el extracto de levadura y el manitol, fueron reducidos o reemplazados con substratos más económicos. Se pudo reducir la concentración de extracto de levadura a 0,05 g/L sin afectar el crecimiento cuando se agregó 1,1 g/L de ácido glutámico o glutamato de sodio grado alimento. El manitol pudo ser substituido por 12,5 g/L de glicerina grado farmacéutico para las cepas de Bradyrhizobium o por 10 g/L de azúcar grado alimento para las cepas de Rhizobium. No se alteraron las propiedades simbióticas de las cepas cultivados en los medios modificados.

  19. Potential pollinators of Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), in restinga, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Rebouças, P; Gimenes, M

    2011-05-01

    Comolia ovalifolia DC Triana (Melastomataceae) and Chamaecrista ramosa (Vog.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby var. ramosa (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) are tropical plant species found in restinga (herbaceous-shrubby, sandy costal ecosystems). They have flowers with poricidal anthers and are pollinated by bees. The study sought to analyse potential pollinators of both plants during visits to their flowers in a restinga area in Bahia. The flowering displayed by both species was considered continuous and long duration, constantly providing pollen to floral visitors. C. ovalifolia was visited by 17 species of bees and C. ramosa by 16 species, predominantly from the Apidae family (with a similarity index of 74%). The behavior displayed by these visiting bees was of vibrating anthers. The small-sized Euglossa sp. Latreille, 1802 and Florilegus similis Urban, 1970 bees played less of a role as pollinators, since they rarely touched the flower stigma during harvests and were thus considered opportunist visitors or casual pollinators. Centris decolorata Lepetier, 1841 (= C. leprieuri) and Xylocopa subcyanea Perez, 1901 are large bees and were considered efficient pollinators of C. ovalifolia and C. ramosa because of the higher frequency and constancy of their visits, and their favourable behaviour and size for pollen transfer between flowers, which guarantees the survival of these native restinga plant species.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Leonardoxa (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) inferred from chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouat, Carine; Gielly, Ludovic; McKey, Doyle

    2001-01-01

    The African genus LEONARDOXA: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) comprises two Congolean species and a group of four mostly allopatric subspecies principally located in Cameroon and clustered together in the L. africana complex. LEONARDOXA: provides a good opportunity to investigate the evolutionary history of ant-plant mutualisms, as it exhibits various grades of ant-plant interactions from diffuse to obligate and symbiotic associations. We present in this paper the first molecular phylogenetic study of this genus. We sequenced both the chloroplast DNA trnL intron (677 aligned base pairs [bp]) and trnL-trnF intergene spacer (598 aligned bp). Inferred phylogenetic relationships suggested first that the genus is paraphyletic. The L. africana complex is clearly separated from the two Congolean species, and the integrity of the genus is thus in question. In the L. africana complex, our data showed a lack of congruence between clades suggested by morphological and chloroplast characters. This, and the low level of molecular divergence found between subspecies, suggests gene flow and introgressive events in the L. africana complex.

  1. Rhizobia and other legume nodule bacteria richness in brazilian Araucaria angustifolia forest Riqueza de rizóbios e de outras bactérias de nódulos de leguminosas em floresta de Araucaria angustifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Renato Lammel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forest is a sub-type of the Atlantic Forest, dominated by Araucaria angustifolia, which is considered an endangered species. The understory has a high diversity of plant species, including several legumes. Many leguminous plants nodulate with rhizobia and fix atmospheric nitrogen, contributing to forest sustainability. This work aimed at bacteria isolation and phenotypic characterization from the root nodules of legumes occurring in Araucaria Forests, at Campos do Jordão State Park, Brazil. Nodule bacteria were isolated in YMA growth media and the obtained colonies were classified according to their growth characteristics (growth rate, color, extra cellular polysaccharide production and pH change of the medium. Data were analyzed by cluster and principal components analysis (PCA. From a total of eleven collected legume species, nine presented nodules, and this is the first report on nodulation of five of these legume species. Two hundred and twelve bacterial strains were isolated from the nodules, whose nodule shapes varied widely and there was a great phenotypic richness among isolates. This richness was found among legume species, individuals of the same species, different nodule shapes and even among isolates of the same nodule. These isolates could be classified into several groups, two up to six according to each legume, most of them different from the used growth standards Rhizobium tropici, Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Burkholderia sp. There is some evidence that these distinct groups may be related to the presence of Burkholderia spp. in the nodules of these legumes.A Floresta de Araucária é um sub-tipo da Mata Atlântica, cujo dossel é dominado por Araucaria angustifolia, uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. O sub-bosque dessa floresta tem alta diversidade, incluindo muitas espécies de leguminosas. Estas plantas podem formar nódulos e fixar nitrogênio atmosférico, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade da floresta

  2. Avaliação da influência da salinidade na germinação, no desenvolvimento e diversidade de microrganismos endofíticos da leguminosa Mucuna aterrima

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    Alan Passos Cruz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de leguminosas é um método visado para a recuperação de fertilidade dos solos, visto que além de fornecerem matéria orgânica também fixam nitrogênio ao solo. Por isso, mostram-se relevantes pesquisas acerca da capacidade das leguminosas para utilização em solos salinos com o intuito de se auxiliar a recuperação destes. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da salinidade na germinação, no desenvolvimento e no isolamento de microrganismos endofíticos da leguminosa mucuna preta (Mucuna aterrima. O experimento foi realizado com tratamentos de NaCl, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (5x3 com cinco tratamentos (0,0; 0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,2 mol NaCl/L e três repetições. Foram analisados a porcentagem de germinação, a massa seca da raiz, caule e folhas e efetuada a contagem de bactérias e fungos endofíticos. Como resultado, verificou-se uma redução da porcentagem da taxa de germinação com o aumento da salinidade. Apesar de não ser observada interferência na riqueza de microrganismos, verificou-se maior resistência das bactérias à salinidade. Dessa forma, este estudo indica que a mucuna preta não é indicada para plantio em solos com concentrações salinas maiores que 0,1 mol NaCL/L, pois essa concentração apresenta toxicidade para a planta e não favorece sua germinação.

  3. Efeito do espaçamento e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura no manejo de plantas invasoras em reflorestamento de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá

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    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino-Rayol

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A infestação crescente de plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivos é um dos fatores que mais afetam os reflorestamentos na Amazônia, causando decréscimos na produtividade devido à competição direta pelos fatores de produção. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de espaçamentos (4x2 m, 4x4 m e 4x6 m e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura (Cajanus cajan e Canavalia ensiformis no controle da matocompetição em plantio de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá. As coletas das plantas invasoras foram feitas aos 30 e 90 dias após a semeadura das leguminosas de cobertura. Posteriormente foram levadas para herbários para identificação. Foram identificadas 24 espécies distribuídas em 13 famílias botânicas. No que se refere à infestação, diversidade e riqueza de plantas daninhas, os melhores resultados foram encontrados nos tratamentos com C. ensiformis. Esta leguminosa influenciou a composição florística e a estrutura das comunidades de plantas invasoras. O espaçamento 4m x 2m contribuiu para menor diversidade e riqueza dessa plantas. As espécies de ervas daninhas mais frequentes em todos os tratamentos foram Spermacoce capitata e Brachiaria brizantha.

  4. As leguminosas como alimentos funcionais: o caso das dislipidémias e das doenças cardiovasculares Legumes as functional foods: the case of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases

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    J.M. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A dieta mediterrânica é rica em alimentos funcionais. As leguminosas, um dos alimentos-chave desta dieta, têm visto o seu papel na prevenção de dislipidémias, diabetes e cancro do cólon mencionado por muitos autores. O efeito do consumo de leguminosas na redução da colesterolémia deve-se a diferentes nutrientes e fitoquímicos, tais como: i proteína; ii lípidos, particularmente a componente polinsaturada e monoinsaturada; iii fibra, especialmente a fracção solúvel; iv saponinas; e v fitosteróis. O consumo da soja tem sido relacionado com tais efeitos benéficos, mas dados recentes obtidos na Universidade de Évora demonstraram que leguminosas como a ervilha e o tremoço de folhas estreitas também apresentam elevado potencial funcional na regulação do colesterol sanguíneo. O seu consumo levou a reduções de 30% na colesterolémia de animais experimentais, via redução do colesterol das LDL. A utilização destas leguminosas como alimentos funcionais e/ou como fornecedoras de fitoquímicos com potencial preventivo e terapêutico é promissora e poderá constituir uma maisvalia e uma fonte extra de rendimento para os agricultores que se dediquem ao cultivo destas espécies.The Mediterranean diet is rich in functional foods. Legumes are one of the key-foods of this diet and many authors mention their role in the prevention of dyslipidemias, diabetes and colon cancer. The hypocholesterolemic effect of legumes is related to several nutrients and phytochemicals. Among them: i protein; ii lipids, especially polyunsaturated and monounsaturated ones; iii dietary fibre, especially soluble fibre; iv saponins; and v phytosterols. Soybean consumption has been related with these benefic effects. However, recent data obtained at the University of Évora have demonstrated that other legumes, such as peas and blue lupin, can also present a high hypocholesterolemic potential. In fact, the consumption of these legumes led to a 30% reduction in

  5. Evaluation of Perennial Forage Legumes and Herbs in Six Mediterranean Environments Evaluación de Leguminosas y Hierbas Forrajeras Perennes en Seis Medioambientes Mediterráneos

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    Daniel Real

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an absence of drought tolerant herbaceous perennial forage legume and herb options other than lucerne (Medicago sativa L. for environments with Mediterranean-like climates common in extensive areas of Southern Australia, the Mediterranean basin, and Chile. Therefore, a collection of 174 forage perennial legume and herb entries from 103 species and 32 genera was evaluated for adaptation in a diverse range of Mediterranean climatic environments in Southern Australia. The seasonal rainfall distribution varied from moderately to highly winter dominant with long term average annual rainfall ranging from 318 to 655 mm. The entries were rated for productivity and persistence over 3 yr. The 12 entries identified as the most promising for winter, summer, or all-year round production included Bituminaria bituminosa (L. C.H. Stirt. var. albomarginata; Cichorium intybus L.; Cullen australasicum (Schltdl. J.W. Grimes; Dorycnium hirsutum (L. Ser.; Kennedia prostrata R. Br.; Lotononis bainesii Baker, Lotus pedunculatus Cav.; L. corniculatus L.; L. cytisoides L.; Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.; Medicago sativa subsp. caerulea (Less. ex Ledeb. Schmalh., and M. sativa subsp. falcata (L. Arcang. These entries maintained production and persisted for the period of the evaluation, with the exception of C. intybus and L. corniculatus that declined in persistence over time. The potential role of these species in extensive grazing systems in Mediterranean climatic zones, their attributes and limitations, and current progress in developing them as useful forage plants was discussed.Existe una escasez de leguminosas y hierbas perennes herbáceas además de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. tolerantes a sequía para ambientes con clima mediterráneo como los que se encuentran en el Sur de Australia, el Mediterráneo y Chile. Por lo tanto, una colección de 174 leguminosas perennes y hierbas correspondientes a 103 especies y 32 géneros fue evaluada por su adaptaci

  6. Morfología de la semilla y anatomía de la cubierta seminal de cinco especies de Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae de Venezuela

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    Sirli Leython

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la morfología de las semillas y la anatomía de la cubierta seminal en cinco especies venezolanas del género Calliandra, con la finalidad de establecer similitudes y diferencias entre estos taxa, para su utilización como criterio taxonómico. Se analizaron caracteres morfológicos de valor taxonómico; entre ellos la forma y el tamaño de la semilla, así como anatómicos tales como espesor de las diferentes regiones, la ubicación de la línea lúcida y el tamaño relativo de los espacios intercelulares en la hipodermis. Con los resultados se realizaron análisis de agrupamiento por medio de la función de análisis discriminante. Diez caracteres cuantitativos, y tres caracteres cualitativos, resultaron informativos para la separación de especies.Seed morphology and anatomy of the seed coat in five species of Calliandra (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae from Venezuela. Calliandra is an exclusively Neotropoical genus with 135 described species. There are 30 species in Venezuela. We studied seed morphology and the seed coat anatomy of five species: Calliandra riparia Pittier, Calliandra glomerulata Karsten var. glomerulata, Calliandra magdalenae (DC. Benth. var. magdalenae, Calliandra surinamensis Benth. and Calliandra falcata Benth., to establish simililarities and differences amongst taxa for taxonomic characterization. Of the evaluated characters, 10 quantitative characters and 3 qualitative characters were selected as the most informative for the separation of species. Seed morphological characters of taxonomic value are form and size. Thickness of the light line, number of layers and space between the osteosclereids constitute distinctive characters. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1075-1086. Epub 2008 September 30.

  7. Evaluación de diez leguminosas con dos niveles de tecnología en un suelo ácido

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    Muñoz F. Jaime E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó durante dos semestres en la zona de Santander de Quilichao, con la finalidad de estudiar el comportamiento agronómico de diez leguminosas en suelos ácidos y sin riego; se empleó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo en parcelas divididas con 10 tratamientos y 3 repeticiones. El análisis de varianza y la diferencia mínima significativa (DMS , permitieron comparar dos modalidades de tecnología: el manejo del agricultor y ligeras modificaciones en la fertilización. En los dos ensayos efectuados, no hubo diferencia entre tecnologías, el material de mejor comportamiento en rendimiento fue Caupí TV U 289-46, la menor variabilidad en los rendimientos la presentó el mungo PI 376873; existió mejor comportamiento de los materiales caupí y mungo, respecto a los Phaseolus en suelos ácidos.The present study was carried out during two halfyears at town of Santander de Quilichao (Cauca in order to study agronomic behaviour of ten leguminous in acid soils with and without watering; the experimental design used was the randomized blocks with an arrangement in split plots with 3 replications. The variance analysis and least significant difference aIlowed to compare 2 ways of technology: farmer management and slight modifications in the fertilizations. In two assays done, there were not differences between technologies, the material of best behaviour in yield was TUV 289- 46 cowpea,the smaIIest variability was observed in PI 376873 mungo; a better behaviour was observed in two Cowpea and mungo materials in relation with phaseolus in acid soils.

  8. Crecimiento en longitud foliar y dinámica de población de tallos de cinco asociaciones de gramineas y leguminosa bajo pastoreo

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    Rigoberto Castro Rivera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la elongación, crecimiento, senescencia, peso y dinámica de tallos de cinco asociaciones conformadas por dos gramíneas y una leguminosa sembradas en diferentes proporciones. Se evaluaron cinco tratamientos: 4:3:3; 4:6:0; 4:0:6; 4:4:2 y 4:2:4 de trébol blanco-ovillo-ballico perenne, los cuales se distribuyeron en 20 unidades experimentales de 104 m2 , en un diseño en bloques completos al azar. La mayor elongación y crecimiento neto de la hoja de las especies evaluadas fue en verano, con 7.1 y 6.53 cm tallo -1 d -1 , para el pasto ovillo, y 7 y 6.7 cm tallo -1 d -1 , para ballico perenne; en trébol blanco no existió diferencia en el recambio de tejido foliar y del peciolo en verano y primavera ( P>0.05. El mayor peso de tallos de ballico perenne y ovillo se registró en verano (0.38g -1 tallo - 1 y las mayores densidades en la época de invierno (9,961 y 10,423 tallos m-2 , respectivamente. El recambio de tejido de las especies evaluadas presentó marcada estacionalidad, siendo más dinámico en verano que en otoño. La asociación de tres especies permitió una mayor dinámica en comparación con la asociación de dos especies.

  9. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Klitgaard, Bente B; Forest, Félix; Francis, Louise; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Hawkins, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce. In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships. This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques, will expand into

  10. The use of phylogeny to interpret cross-cultural patterns in plant use and guide medicinal plant discovery: an example from Pterocarpus (Leguminosae.

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    C Haris Saslis-Lagoudakis

    Full Text Available The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce.In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae. We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships.This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques

  11. Características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais submetidas a duas frequências de corte Morphologic and productive characteristics of tropical forage legumes under two harvest frequencies

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    Valdson José da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras submetidas a duas frequências de corte (28 e 56 dias a altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela e Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (7 leguminosas × 2 frequências de corte com quatro repetições, para avaliação das seguintes variáveis: acúmulo de biomassa, número de ramificações/planta, número de folhas vivas/planta, massa seca das raízes, número e massa seca dos nódulos. A produção acumulada de MS da parte aérea e das raízes foi equivalente para os cortes efetuados a cada 28 dias ou a cada 56 dias, com exceção do Arachis, Clitoria e Desmodium, que apresentaram maior biomassa aérea e de raízes no intervalo de corte de 56 dias. Houve diferenças entre leguminosas quanto à massa seca e ao número de nódulos, todavia, o maior número de nódulos foi observado na frequência de 56 dias. O número de folhas vivas/planta foi maior na frequência de 56 dias, com exceção das leguminosas Arachis e Calopogonium, cujos valores foram próximos quando cortadas nas diferentes frequências. A frequência de corte afetou de forma diferenciada as características morfológicas e produtivas das leguminosas estudadas, o que indica a necessidade de manejo diferenciado para as variedades testadas.The objective of this research was to evaluate morphological and productive characteristics of forage legumes under two harvest frequencies (28 and 56 days and 10 cm harvest intensity. The following legume species were evaluated: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela and Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. A randomized

  12. Leaves and fruits of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China and their biogeographic implications.

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    Wang, Qi; Song, Zhuqiu; Chen, Yunfa; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-04-24

    The pantropical genus Bauhinia, along with the northern temperate Cercis and several tropical genera, bear bilobate, bifoliolate, or sometimes unifoliolate leaves, which constitute the tribe Cercideae as sister to the rest of the family Leguminosae based on molecular phylogenetics. Hence, the fossil record of Cercideae is pivotal to understand the early evolution and biogeographic history of legumes. Three fossil species of Bauhinia were described from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China. Bauhinia ningmingensis sp. nov. is characterized by its bifoliolate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal acrodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins. B. cheniae sp. nov. bears moderately or deeply bilobate, pulvinate leaves, with basal actinodromous primary veins and eucamptodromous secondary veins. B. larsenii D.X. Zhang et Y.F. Chen emend. possesses shallowly or moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal actinodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins, as well as elliptic, stipitate, non-winged, and oligo-seeded fruits. Meanwhile, previously reported Bauhinia fossils were reviewed, and those pre-Oligocene foliage across the world are either questionable or have been rejected due to lacking of reliable evidence for their pulvini or/and basal actinodromous or acrodromous venations. Besides Oligocene leaves and fruits presented here, foliage and/or wood of Bauhinia have been documented from the Miocene-Pliocene of Thailand, India, Nepal, Uganda, and Ecuador. Bauhinia has exhibited a certain diversity with bifoliolate- and bilobate-leafed species in a low-latitude locality-Ningming since at least the Oligocene, implying that the tropical zone of South China may represent one of the centres for early diversification of the genus. The reliable macrofossils of Bauhinia and Cercis have made their debut in the Eocene-Oligocene floras from mid-low latitudes and appeared to lack in the coeval floras at high latitudes, implying a

  13. Levantamento fitogeográfico de Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-papilionoideae com potencial produtivo para própolis vermelha no Estado do Pará

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    Raquel Leão Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Dalbergia L.f. (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae, de distribuição pantropical, compreende cerca de 250 espécies.  Dalbergia spp tem sido amplamente explorada para produção de própolis vermelha, que consiste em uma mistura complexa feita pelas abelhas a partir do material resinoso encontrado no tecido meristemático em várias plantas deste gênero. Este trabalho tem por objetivo realizar levantamento da ocorrência da flora apícola produtora de exsudato vermelho que pode ser utilizada pelas abelhas africanizadas para produção da própolis vermelha no estado do Pará. Realizou-se o levantamento em diversos herbários que possuíam espécies de Dalbergia L.f. produtoras de exsudato vermelho no estado do Pará, juntamente com a sua distribuição. Para tanto, foram averiguadas literaturas específicas de morfologia e taxonomia que envolviam espécies de Dalbergia produtoras de exsudato vermelho localizadas no Pará. A coleta de dados foi obtida a partir da plataforma online SpeciesLink; e do acervo do Herbário IAN (Instituto Agronômico do Norte da EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental. O mapa de distribuição foi elaborado utilizando o software QGis juntamente com os dados de coleta das espécies. Foram encontrados 204 registros depositados em 21 herbários, sendo que, 175 são pertencentes à espécie Dalbergia monetaria e 29 à Dalbergia ecastaphyllum. Analisando os dados de coleta, notou-se que as espécies foram coletadas em 44 municípios do Estado do Pará, dos quais Belém e Bragança apresentaram maior quantidade de registros. A partir do levantamento realizado notou-se a predominância de Dalbergia monetaria nos registros, mostrando que esta é uma espécie que possui potencial para ser explorada. 

  14. Leguminosas isoladas e consorciadas com milheto em diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo no feijão orgânico

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    Marisol Rivero Herrada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vários estudos têm demonstrado as vantagens da utilização de plantas de cobertura em manter ou melhorar a qualidade do solo e produtividade da cultura. No entanto, os efeitos dessa gestão em feijão comum orgânico em condições de savana, ainda são desconhecidos. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de leguminosas, mucuna (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC, feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan L. HUTH, feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis, crotalária (Crotalária juncea em monocultura e em consórcio com milheto (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br. de 1810, na produção de grãos no feijoeiro comum em sistema orgânico de produção sob o sistema do manejo do solo convencional e plantio direto. O experimento foi realizado com a cultivar BRS Pontal, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Aos 90 dias após a germinação das plantas de feijão foram avaliadas, o número de vagens por planta (NVP, número de grãos por vagem (NGV, número de grãos por planta (NGP , peso de 100 grãos (M100G e produção de grãos. Os resultados mostraram que o número de vagens, número de grãos e produtividade do feijoeiro no sistema orgânico, foram influenciados pelas culturas de cobertura do solo e sistemas manejo do solo, com destaque para mucuna associados com milheto e sistema de plantio direto, que proporcionou o melhor desempenho destes parâmetros. A maior produção de grãos foi observado com a mucuna associados com milho em sistema de plantio direto. A produtividade média de grãos orgânicos foi de 3.8 Mg ha-1. A análise de agrupamento mostrou um efeito marcante de sistemas de manejo do solo sobre os componentes de produção do feijoeiro.

  15. Variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos de um argissolo vermelho-amarelo cultivado com leguminosas consorciada com a seringueira

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    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição espacial de alguns atributos físicos do solo e verificar suas alterações no desenvolvimento da seringueira consorciada com leguminosas. O experimento foi instalado em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo no Polo Regional de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico dos Agronegócios do Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama (SP. Foram avaliadas: infiltração de água a 0,10 e a 0,20 m de profundidade, macro e micro porosidade e densidade do solo nas camadas 0-0,10; 0,10-0,20; 0,20-0,40 e 0,40-0,60 m. O desenvolvimento das plantas de seringueira foi avaliado medindo-se o perímetro do caule e o aumento desta medida no período de quatro anos (1996-1999. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de estatística descritiva para verificação de parâmetros de tendência central e dispersão. Foram utilizados métodos geoestatísticos incluindo semivariogramas, krigagem e mapas de isolinhas para a avaliação da variabilidade espacial. Houve dependência espacial de moderada a forte para todos os atributos do solo, com o valor do alcance variando entre 15 e 90 m. A dependência espacial anotada para infiltração de água no solo não teve relação com as avaliações efetuadas nas plantas nem com os outros atributos avaliados. Os altos valores de densidade do solo e de microporosidade na camada de 0,20-0,40 m indicaram a ocorrência de compactação nesta camada. O perímetro do caule de seringueira aumentou linearmente com o tempo, porém a taxa de crescimento do perímetro do caule decresceu ao longo dos anos. A taxa média de crescimento do perímetro do caule variou em função do crescimento menor no inverno quando comparado com o do verão. Na distribuição espacial do espessamento do caule das árvores de seringueira ao longo do tempo houve alta continuidade, avaliada pelos baixos valores do efeito pepita dos semivariogramas e estreita correlação com densidade do solo, onde locais menos densos tiveram os

  16. Los cariotipos de Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana (Leguminosae- Papilionoideae-Phaseoleae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México Karyotypes of Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae- Phaseoleae of Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico

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    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron citogenéticamente células provenientes de meristemos radiculares de 2 leguminosas, Cologania grandiflora y Erythrina americana, que en la actualidad están incluidas en la flora de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, México, D. F., mediante una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para determinar los números cromosómicos somáticos. Por vez primera se obtuvieron la morfología cromosómica y otras características cuantitativas de los cariotipos en C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m +18sm y en E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm +2st sat, primeras también en ambos géneros. Cologania y Erythrina se reconocen como poliploides estabilizados y el hallazgo de un único par de cromosomas con satélites (dominancia nucleolar en las especies estudiadas aquí, favorece la opinión de un origen alopoliploide para estos taxa.Meristematic root cells from Cologania grandiflora and Erythrina americana from Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel, Distrito Federal, Mexico, were analyzed cytogenenetically using a surface-spreading and air-drying method. The somatic chromosome numbers were determined. Chromosome morphology and others quantitative features of the karyotypes obtained for first time in C. grandiflora (2n= 44= 26m + 18sm and E. americana (2n= 42= 36m + 4sm + 2st sat and also the first in both genera. Cologania and Erythrina are recognized as stabilized polyploids and the finding of just one pair of chromosomes with satellites (nucleolar dominance in the species analyzed here supports the view of allopolyploid origin of these taxa.

  17. Estabelecimento de leguminosas arbóreas em pastos de capim-marandu e tanzânia Establishment of leguminous trees in marandu and tanzânia pastures

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    Paulo Francisco Dias

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas sem proteção (de cercas ou estacas de quatro espécies de leguminosas arbóreas e uma mistura eqüitativa dessas espécies, introduzidas em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, na presença de gado. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, duas gramíneas (marandu e tanzânia e quatro espécies de leguminosas (Mimosa artemisiana, Pseudosamanea guachapele, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia farnesiana e uma mistura dessas espécies, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se: altura da muda, diâmetro do caule, diâmetro da copa, sobrevivência da muda, freqüência de pastejo e ocorrência de formigas. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de três agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos M. artemisiana e mistura de leguminosas, nos dois pastos, mais E. contortisiliquum e A. farnesiana, nos pastos dos capins marandu e tanzânia, respectivamente. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos relativas a cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que mudas de M. artemisiana apresentaram maior altura e sobrevivência em pasto de capim-marandu. Mudas dessa leguminosa, sem proteção, são indicadas para ser introduzidas, nas pastagens de capim-marandu da região, na presença do gado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of nonprotected (by fences or pickets seedlings of leguminous tree species and an equitable mix of these species, introduced in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, in the presence of cattle. The experimental design was a completely randomized one, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two grasses (marandu and tanzânia and four leguminous species (Mimosa artemisiana

  18. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de rizobios aisladas de diferentes leguminosas en la región de Cascajal, Villa Clara Isolation and characterization of rhizobia strains isolated from different legumes in the Cascajal region, Villa Clara

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    Pérez Guianeya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron 19 cepas de rizobio a partir de los nódulos de las leguminosas Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides y Macroptilium atropurpureum, con el objetivo de obtener inoculantes efectivos para dichos cultivos en suelos ácidos. Para la caracterización de los aislados bacterianos se estudiaron sus características micromorfológicas, tintoriales y culturales, así como algunas respuestas fisiológico-bioquímicas, tales como la excreción de ácido o base al medio de cultivo y el ensayo de la cetolactasa. Se hizo un ensayo de nodulación in vitro con cada una de las leguminosas para determinar la efectividad de los aislados. De acuerdo con las características culturales, la tasa de crecimiento en medio LMA y la producción de ácido o base, los aislados obtenidos pudieran pertenecer a los géneros Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium. La prueba de la cetolactasa permitió conocer que ninguno de los aislados en estudio pertenece al género Agrobacterium. El ensayo con plantas inoculadas mostró que todas las cepas aisladas fueron efectivas en la nodulación, ya que nodularon en las leguminosas probadas. Se concluye que de las cepas aisladas 11 pudieran pertenecer al género Bradyrhizobium, mientras que las ocho restantes comparten características similares con los géneros Rhizobium y/o Sinorhizobium; todos los aislados fueron efectivos en la nodulación y pueden considerarse cepas promisorias para la obtención de inoculantes para las leguminosas forrajeras en estudio.Nineteen rhizobium strains were isolated from the nodules of the legumes Canavalia ensiformis, Stylosanthes guianensis, Centrosema molle, Pueraria phaseoloides and Macroptilium atropurpureum, with the objective of obtaining effective inoculants for such crops in acid soils. For the characterization of the bacterial isolates, their micromorphological, staining and cultural characteristics were studied, as well as some

  19. Forage intake and botanical composition of feed for cattle fed Brachiaria/legume mixtures Consumo e composição da forragem ingerida por bovinos alimentados com Brachiaria e uma leguminosa

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    Robert Macedo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A key contribution to study the cycling of nutrients in soil/plant/animal systems is the evaluation of the consumption of forage and their nutrients by cattle. The objective of this study was to test techniques to evaluate faecal production, in vitro digestibility, forage consumption and the proportion of legume in the acquired diet. Five Zebu steer calves were confined and fed five diets of different combinations of Brachiaria dictyoneura and Desmodium ovalifolium. All quantities of faeces were collected per animal and these values were found to compare favourably with those derived from using the chromium oxide technique. In vitro digestibility ranged from 7 to 10% higher than the actual in vivo digestibility. Faecal samples from steers fed with diets with 25% or more of grass in the mixture were found to be depleted in δ13C between 1.7 and 2.1‰, but no depletion was observed when the diet was 100% D. ovalifolium. There was a positive linear regression (r² = 0.97*** of the δ13C of the diet with the δ13C of faeces, but if the acquired diet contained a very high proportion of legume, the legume content could be underestimated by as much as 10%. None of the internal indicators, such as lignin or ash content of the diets, were useful to predict feed intake, but the chromium oxide external indicator performed satisfactorily. The 13C analysis of the faeces was an effective predictor of the proportion of the legume in the consumed diet.Uma contribuição fundamental para o estudo da ciclagem de nutrientes no sistema solo/planta/ animal é a avaliação do consumo pelo gado de forragem e dos nutrientes nela contidos. Testaram-se, sob condições controladas, técnicas para avaliar a produção fecal, digestibilidade in vitro, consumo de forragem e a proporção de leguminosa ingerida na dieta. Cinco novilhos de Zebu foram confinados e alimentados com quantidades conhecidas de cinco rações com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria dictyoneura e

  20. Organic matter quality in a soil cultivated with perennial herbaceous legumes Qualidade da matéria orgânica de um solo cultivado com leguminosas herbáceas perenes

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    Luciano Pasqualoto Canellas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Using herbaceous legumes in agricultural systems yields great quantities of plant residues, allowing changes in soil organic matter quality and content over the years. This study was conducted on an Ultisol, at Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different perennial herbaceous legumes on soil organic matter quality. A factorial scheme with three replications was used to evaluate the species: forage groundnut cv. BR-14951 (Arachis pintoi, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides, and siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum. After the first cut, each plot was divided into two subplots; plants were cut and left on the soil surface or cut and removed. Soil samples of a closed area covered by spontaneous vegetation (mainly C3 plants or by Panicum maximum were also analysed. Samples were collected from two layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm, processed for the fractionation of organic matter and the evaluation of structural characteristics of humic acids (HA. Evaluated legumes did not change total organic carbon contents, but promoted HA accumulation in the superficial soil layer. Humic acids may be used as indicators of the management effects on soil organic fractions, because there was significant incorporation of carbon and nitrogen derived from the legume residues, even for the short experimentation time (28 months. Residue management did not modify quantitative aspects of the distribution of the humified organic matter, but promoted, however, a higher condensation degree of humic acids evaluated by the elementary composition, IR and fluorescence spectroscopy.O uso de leguminosas herbáceas em sistemas agrícolas permite o aporte de quantidades expressivas de fitomassa, possibilitando alterações no teor e na qualidade da matéria orgânica do solo ao longo dos anos. Este trabalho avalia a qualidade da matéria orgânica de um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo localizado em Seropédica, RJ, e cultivado com diferentes espécies de leguminosas herb

  1. Produtividade e valor nutritivo de pastos consorciados com diferentes espécies de leguminosas Productivity and nutritive value of mixed pastures with different legume species

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    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutritivo de dois sistemas forrageiros (SF constituídos por capim elefante (CE, azevém (AZ, trevo branco (TB e espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE, como SF1; e CE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE, como SF2. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas espaçadas a cada quatro metros. Entre elas, foi estabelecido azevém, durante o período hibernal, permitindo-se o desenvolvimento de ECE no período estival. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa e o método de pastejo foi o rotacionado. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem inicial (MFI e a composição botânica e estrutural dos pastos. Para as estimativas de valor nutritivo, foram feitas amostragens simulando o pastejo e analisados a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e duas repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os valores médios de massa de forragem inicial e da carga animal foram similares entre os SF. Observou-se resultado superior para o teor médio de PB da forragem do SF2. O uso do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo em consórcio com o CE permite manter massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity and nutritive value of two pasture-based systems (PS with elephant grass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS, for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS, for PS2. EG was established in rows spaced by four meters. Ryegrass was seeding in the space between rows during cool-season and development of SGS was permitted in the warm-season. Holstein cows under rotational grazing were used in the evaluation. The initial forage mass (IFM

  2. Phylogenetics of neotropical Platymiscium (Leguminosae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Chase, Mark W; Robinson, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Platymiscium is a neotropical legume genus of forest trees in the Pterocarpus clade of the pantropical "dalbergioid" clade. It comprises 19 species (29 taxa), distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. This study presents a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Platymiscium and allies inferred from...

  3. Evaluación oxidativa de las mezclas de aceites de leguminosas del Desierto de Sonora con aceites de maíz y soja durante su almacenamiento

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    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available During storage, oils from seeds of wild legumes of the Sonoran Desert have shown greater stability than oils derived from conventional sources. In this work, oxidation process was evaluated during the storage (122 day of mixtures of oils: Mezquite Prosopis juliflora, Gatuña Mimosa grahamii, Palo fierro Olneya tesota, Vino rama Acacia constricta, Palo de brea Cercidium praecox and Palo verde Parkinsonia aculeata with oils from soy and maize. Ratios were 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. Evaluated parameters included: Peroxides (P.V., Iodine (I.V., Acid (A.V., p-Anisidine (p-A values. Results showed that mixtures containing wild and maize oil showed 2-4 meq/Kg as initial values of iodine, while after 122 days of storage the value was 4-7 meq/Kg. Mixtures containing soy oil presented 3-6 meq-Kg initially, and 8-15 meq-Kg were detected at the end experiment. No differences were observed in I.V. and A.V. values in maize mixtures. On the contrary, mixtures containing soy oil presented increments in I.V. Also, A.V. presented a slight increment in 1:1 mixtures. p-Anisidine values presented and small increment in maize mixtures (3:1 ratio while this increment was larger in mixtures containing soy oils and Gatuña or Palo fierro oil. These latter oils when were mixed with maize oils presented the lowest increments in all evaluated indexes.The oils of palo fierro and blended gatuña with oil of corn didn’t present changes in their concentration in the palmitic and araquidic acid during the storage. The concentration of the oleic acid in the mezquite oils (3:1, gatuña (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, vinorama (3:1, as well as the linoleic and erucic acids in gatuña in their three mixtures didn’t present changes neither alteration during the storage, for what you are considered the oils of palo fierro, gatuña and vinorama the most stable in the present study.Los aceites de semillas de leguminosas silvestres han mostrado mayor estabilidad que algunos aceites convencionales

  4. Crescimento, nutrição e fixação biológica de nitrogênio em plantios mistos de eucalipto e leguminosas arbóreas Growth, nutrition and biological fixation of nitrogen in mixed-species plantations of eucalypt with leguminous trees

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    Selma Regina de Freitas Coelho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, a nutrição mineral e a fixação biológica de N2 (FBN em plantios consorciados de Eucalyptus grandis e leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e sete tratamentos por bloco. Nas linhas de plantio, entre as plantas de E. grandis, foram plantadas, intercaladamente, leguminosas arbóreas nativas de matas brasileiras - Peltophorum dubium, Inga sp., Mimosa scabrella, Acacia polyphylla, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia - e uma leguminosa exótica, Acacia mangium. Realizou-se, também, o plantio puro de E. grandis. Mimosa scabrella e A. mangium foram as leguminosas com maior crescimento. Eucalyptus grandis consorciado com M. scabrella cresceu menos, no entanto foi o povoamento com maior acumulação de biomassa. As densidades de raízes finas (DRF do E. grandis foram 6 a 20 vezes maiores que as DRF das leguminosas na camada superficial do solo (0-10 cm 24 meses após plantio. A DRF de M. scabrella e de M. caesalpiniaefolia foi maior na camada 30-50 cm e menor na camada 10-30 cm. Os valores de delta15N da M. scabrella indicam que 90% do N acumulado em seus tecidos é oriundo da FBN.The objective of this work was to assess interactions between species on the above and belowground growth, nitrogen uptake and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and native leguminous N2-fixing trees. A complete randomized block design was installed with seven treatments and three blocks. Within the lines of the E. grandis seedlings, native leguminous N2-fixing trees - Peltophorum dubium, Inga sp., Mimosa scabrella, Acacia polyphylla, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia - and one exotic leguminous plant, Acacia mangium, were intercropped. E. grandis was also solely planted. Mimosa scabrella and A. mangium were the legume trees that presented the highest growth. Although E. grandis showed a lower

  5. Leguminosas e seus efeitos sobre propriedades físicas do solo e produtividade do mamoeiro 'Tainung 1' Leguminous plants and their effects on soil physical properties and productivity of papaya 'Tainung 1'

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    José Eduardo Borges de Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento no período de junho 1998 a dezembro de 2000 na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas, em um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso para avaliar o impacto do manejo de práticas melhoradoras sobre as propriedades físicas desses solos e a produtividade do mamoeiro. Os tratamentos foram: 1- capina em área total; 2- grade nas entrelinhas e herbicida nas linhas de plantio; 3- capina em área total + subsolagem; 4- subsolagem + feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis nas ruas da cultura; 5- Subsolagem + crotalária (Crotalaria juncea nas ruas da cultura; 6- subsolagem + caupi (Vigna uguiculata nas ruas da cultura; 7- subsolagem + calagem + gesso agrícola e feijão-de-porco nas ruas da cultura; 8- subsolagem + vegetação nativa nas ruas da cultura, roçada quando necessária. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Cada parcela foi composta por 36 plantas das quais 16 úteis, em espaçamento de 3 x 2 m. A subsolagem foi realizada de forma cruzada antes do plantio nos tratamentos correspondentes. As leguminosas foram plantadas em maio/junho e roçadas em setembro/outubro. O controle do mato nas linhas foi mecânico (T1 e T3 e químico com glifosato na dose de 1% v/v nos demais. Os tratamentos manejados nas entrelinhas da cultura do mamão com leguminosas proporcionaram as maiores alterações nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Amarelo álico coeso. Os tratamentos manejados com leguminosas e vegetação espontânea foram os que mais se evidenciaram em produtividade, expressada pelo peso total de frutos (PTF, em toneladas por hectare, e em número total de frutos por hectare NTF.An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy School of Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, Cruz das Almas, during the period of June 1998 to December 2000, with the objective of evaluating the impact of good management practices on soil physical properties of an alic and

  6. Sucessão vegetal em uma encosta reflorestada com leguminosas arbóreas em Angra dos Reis, RJ Natural succession under a nitrogen-fixing legume trees stand in a hillside at Angra dos Reis - RJ, Brazil

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    Sylvia de Souza Chada

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma encosta reflorestada há sete anos com leguminosas arbóreas (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora em Angra dos Reis, RJ, foi avaliada a composição florística e fitossociológica da regeneração natural, comparando-as com as de um fragmento de Mata Secundária situado a 200 m de distância. Foram considerados os três terços da encosta, com declividades decrescentes. Em 12 parcelas de 200 m², quatro em cada terço da encosta, foram amostrados 699 indivíduos vegetais a partir de 40 cm de altura, distribuídos em 25 famílias e 50 espécies. As famílias com maior nº de indivíduos foram Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 e Lauraceae (41. Já as famílias com maior nº de espécies foram Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 e Myrtaceae (5. As leguminosas plantadas não estavam regenerando na própria área. A evolução da sucessão natural apresentou um gradiente de desenvolvimento em razão da menor declividade e menor distância dos remanescentes florestais, com maior densidade de indivíduos e maior riqueza de espécies na área de menor declividade.The floristic composition and natural regeneration under a 7-year-old legume tree plantation (Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium e Mimosa tenuiflora was investigated in comparing with a secondary forest 200 m away at Angra dos Reis, RJ. The hillside was divided in 3 parts following the slope. The lower part of the hillside was the nearest to the natural forest remnant. In 12 plots with 200 m² each, 4 of them in each section of the hillside, 699 plants larger then 40 cm height were observed, distributed in 25 families and 50 species. The families with the most individuals were Meliaceae (298, Euphorbiaceae (70, Piperaceae (64 and Lauraceae (41. The families with the most species were Solanaceae (7, Melastomataceae (5 and Myrtaceae (5. None of the legume species introduced in the area had produced natural regeneration. The evolution of natural succession

  7. Renovação de pastagem degradada com calagem, adubação e leguminosa consorciada em Neossolo Quartzarênico = Degraded pasture recovering with liming, fertilization, and associated legume in Quartzipsament

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    Edimilson Volpe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradação é considerada o maior problema das pastagens cultivadas no Cerrado. Em Neossolo Quartzarênico, foi conduzido um experimento para avaliar diversos tratamentos de renovação de pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, introduzindo Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. Os tratamentos foram: Testemunha; Calagem; Calagem +P; Calagem + ½(PK; Calagem + PK; Calagem + PK + Micronutrientes; Calagem + PK + Micronutrientes + Leguminosa. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Realizaram-se três cortes, em 325 dias, e, ao final, avaliação da produção de raízes e análise química do solo. Todos os tratamentos derenovação diferiram da testemunha e alguns deles diferiram entre si na produção de massa seca da parte aérea, destacando-se o tratamento com leguminosa. A produção de raízes foi significativamente superior em três tratamentos quando comparados à testemunha. Foramverificados aumentos significativos nos teores de nutrientes e pH do solo, com a aplicação de calcário e fertilizantes.The degradation is considered to be the major problem of cultivated pastures in the Cerrado. In Quartzipsament, an experiment wasconducted to evaluate several degraded pasture recovering treatments of Brachiaria decumbens, introducing Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. The treatments were: Witness; Liming; Liming + P; Liming + ½(PK; Liming + PK. Liming + PK + Micronutrients; Liming + PK + Micronutrients + Legume. The experimental design was that ofrandomized blocks with four replications. Three cuts in a 325 days period were done and, in the end, the evaluation of roots production and soil chemical analysis. All renovation systems differed from the witness and some of them differed among themselves in terms ofdry mass of aerial portion, with emphasis to the legume treatment. The roots production was significantly greater in three treatments when compared to the witness. Significant increases in the

  8. Barbechos mejorados con leguminosas: una promisoria alternativa agroecológica para el manejo alelopático de malezas y mejoramiento del cultivo de arroz y maíz en los Llanos de Colombia

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    Delgado H. Hernando

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El manejo químico de malezas en arroz asciende hasta un 20% de los costos totales del cultivo, bajando así su rentabilidad. Buscando explorar alternativas de manejo, el presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de tres sistemas de labranza, cuatro barbechos mejorados con leguminosas, el barbecho nativo y tres dosis de herbicidas, sobre la densidad total de malezas resurgentes dentro de los cultivos, algunas propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del arroz y el maíz. El ensayo se llevó a cabo en el Centro de Investigación La Libertad (Villavicencio y en dos fincas en la zona del Ariari, bajo un diseño experimental de parcelas subdivididas con tres repeticiones. Mucuna deeringianum (Bort. Smal presentó los más fuertes efectos alelopáticos, con porcentajes promedio de control de malezas –adicionales al efecto de los herbicidas– entre 41 y 62%; seguida de Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don, con porcentajes de control entre 27 y 46%. Por esta razón, dosis de herbicidas reducidas al 70% de las comerciales mostraron adecuados niveles de control. Es así que los rendimientos de arroz secano favorecido y maíz en la zona del Ariari llegaron a ser incluso superiores a los obtenidos con dosis completas de herbicidas, aunque sin mostrar diferencias significativas. Ambas leguminosas aumentaron el rendimiento del arroz secano favorecido hasta en 1.446 kg ha-1, y mejoraron algunas propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas del suelo, en tanto que únicamente C. ochroleuca incrementó la producción de maíz en 331 kg ha-1. Los múltiples e integrales beneficios agronómicos obtenidos con el uso de un período de barbecho mejorado muestran su potencial para el manejo alelopático de malezas, y como práctica agroecológica en cultivos de arroz y maíz.

  9. Crescimento de Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae sob diferentes níveis de sombreamento Growth of Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong (Leguminosae under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. é uma espécie clímax tolerante a sombra, ao passo que Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. é uma espécie pioneira. O desenvolvimento destas espécies pode refletir a habilidade de adaptação aos diferentes fatores ambientais (luz, água e temperatura no local em que estão crescendo. O suprimento inadequado de um desses fatores pode reduzir o vigor da planta e limitar seu desenvolvimento. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do nível de sombreamento no crescimento e a concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos em duas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. O experimento foi conduzido no Setor de Olericultura do Centro Universitário Luterano de Ji-Paraná (CEULJI/ULBRA/Rondônia. Durante a formação das mudas, ambas as espécies foram expostas a quatro tratamentos de sombra: 0 % (controle - sol pleno; 30 %; 50 % e 80 %. Cada tratamento foi constituído com três repetições de cada espécie; o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualisado. Quatro meses após a semeadura, as seguintes análises foram realizadas: número de folhas, altura da planta, comprimento do sistema radicular, massa seca total e concentração de pigmentos fotossintéticos. O tratamento sob sol pleno afetou negativamente o crescimento de ambas as espécies. As mudas crescidas sob 50% e 80% apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento. Conforme o aumento do sombreamento houve um decréscimo na razão clorofila a/b e um aumento nas concentrações de clorofila total e carotenóides totais.Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. is a clímax shadow tolerant specie and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., by the other hand, is considered as a pioneer specie. The development of these species may reflect its adaptation ability to different environmental

  10. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras Soil litter stock and fertility after planting leguminous shrubs and forage trees on degraded signal grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As pastagens formam a base da pecuária brasileira; essas sofrem degradação em larga escala por deficiência de nitrogênio (N. O consórcio com leguminosas, além de fixar N, pode apresentar outros efeitos na fertilidade do solo como acidificação ou retirada de nutrientes de camadas mais profundas para as mais superficiais. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o estoque de serapilheira e a fertilidade do solo em pastagens degradadas de braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, após implantar leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras. Para isso, uma amostragem foi realizada em março de 2010 em um experimento no campo, introduzindo pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens, em julho de 2008, com sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, além de braquiária adubada e não adubada com N. As amostras de solo e serapilheira foram coletadas aos 0-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade, em três transectos, alternando pontos cobertos por gramíneas e leguminosas, totalizando sete amostras compostas por parcela para determinar pH, P, K, Ca, Mg e Al no solo, enquanto SB, t e m foram calculados. A serapilheira foi separada visualmente em leguminosas, gramíneas e materiais não identificados, em que foram utilizados para quantificação de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, N, P, C, fibra detergente ácido e lignina. A introdução das leguminosas aumentou os teores de N total na serapilheira e reduziu as relações C:N, com destaque para gliricídia e sabiá; entretanto, essa última apresentou elevados teores de lignina. Houve efeito significativo da cobertura por leguminosas, sem diferenças entre essas, para pH e K, na profundidade de 0-10 cm, e para Al e m, aos 10-20 cm de profundidade.Pastures are the fodder supply of Brazilian livestock, and are exhaustively degraded by nitrogen (N deficiency. Intercropping with legumes, aside from nitrogen fixation, may have

  11. PVA-Glutaraldehyde as support for lectin immobilization and affinity chromatography

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    Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo Rêgo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized lectins are a powerful biotechnological tool for separation and isolation of glycoconjugates. In the present study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and glutaraldehyde (GA were used as a support for Concanavalin A (Con A covalent immobilization and for entrapment of Parkia pendula seed gum (PpeG. Con A immobilization yielded approximately 30% and 0.6 M glucose solution was the minimum concentration able to elute fetuin from column. PVA-GA-PpeG column was efficiently recognized by pure P. pendula lectin (PpeL. These findings indicate that PVA-GA interpenetrated network showed to be an efficient support for lectin covalent immobilization and as affinity chromatography matrix after trapping of PpeG.

  12. Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of Parkia biglobosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both plants had similar constituents namely cardiac glycosides, steroids, tannins and alkaloids. The thin layer chromatography of the hexane and ethanol extracts of both plants were also investigated and two of the components of the ethanol extracts of both plants were ...

  13. Seed germination and in vitro plant regeneration of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... 1Laboratoire Campus de Biotechnologies Végétales, Département de Biologie Végétale, Faculté des Sciences et. Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, BP 5005, Dakar ...... et croissance en minirhizotron de Acacia raddiana savi, Physiologie des Arbres et Arbustes en zones arides et semi-arides, pp.

  14. preservative activities parkia biglobosa ervative activities of aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    The general idea of preserving food is to incre its shelf life ... volatile oil and resinous matter (David, 197. Development in ... extracts of P. biglobosa as plant based food preservatives with. ,Preservative ..... activity of essential oils obtained from.

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) root bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... There is global resurgence in the use of herbal prepa- rations and in some developing countries like Nigeria; it is being gradually integrated into the primary and secondary health care systems. Nearly all societies have used herbal materials as sources of medicines and the deve- lopment of these herbal ...

  16. Effect of alternative hormones on the rootability of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to improve the knowledge of vegetative propagation and create a paradigm shift in the attention of farmers and researchers through the introduction of the use of alternative hormones which will help to bypass the juvenile stages of certain species for better field establishment and to improve reforestation of certain ...

  17. In situ variation in leaf anatomy and morphology of Andira legalis (Leguminosae in two neighbouring but contrasting light environments in a Brazilian sandy coastal plain Variação in situ em anatomia e morfologia foliar de Andira legalis (Leguminosae em dois ambientes adjacentes, porém contrastantes quanto ao regime de luz, em restinga brasileira

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    Daniela Carvalho Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo is a legume shrub widespread along the sandy plains of the Brazilian coast. It occurs both shaded, in forest habitats, or exposed to full sunlight, in the vegetation islands growing on sand deposits. Previous studies reported a high range of morpho-physiological variation for this species along a geographical gradient. This study compared leaf morphology and anatomy of A. legalis in two distinct but adjacent light environments: a dense forest (shaded and a scrub of Palmae (exposed. We studied the amplitude of variation for these traits within a small (0.5 ha geographical area. Leaf anatomy parameters were measured for five leaves collected from five plants in each habitat. The parameters measured were leaf and mesophyll thickness, thickness of the outer periclinal cell wall, thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and vascular bundle transversal section area, and also common epidermal cells, stomata and trichome density. Leaf morphology parameters were obtained from five leaves of each of 20 plants in each site. Dry and fresh weights were measured to obtain leaf specific mass and succulence. All anatomy and morphology parameters, except trichome density, were significantly higher for the sun-exposed plants. Less expected, however, was the marked qualitative difference between exposed and shaded plants: in the former the mesophyll had a unilateral symmetry (i.e., the whole mesophyll occupied by photosynthetic tissue, whereas in the latter there was a dorsiventral symmetry (i.e., partly palisade and partly spongy parenchyma. Such amplitude of variation shows that even within a small geographic area A. legalis has a broad ecological plasticity.Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo é uma leguminosa arbustiva distribuída ao longo de planícies arenosas da costa brasileira. Tem ocorrência em ambientes florestais, sombreadas, ou em ilhas de vegetação de restingas abertas, onde é exposta à plena radiação solar

  18. EFFECT OF LEGUME TREES ON SOIL MACROFAUNA OF A Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU PASTURE EFEITO DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS SOBRE A MACROFAUNA DO SOLO EM PASTAGEM DE Brachiaria brizantha cv. MARANDU

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    Avílio Antonio Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of four legume tree species in a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture on soil macrofauna density and diversity, in a low natural fertility soil. The tree leguminous species introduced in the pasture were Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora, and Enterolobium contortisiliquum. The macrofauna sampling consisted in collecting six soil monoliths with 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm under tree canopies or in a transect in the single Brachiaria pasture. The densities varied from 602 individuals.m-2 under the canopy of E. contortisiliquum to two individuals.m-2 in the single pasture. The largest group richness was found under M. tenuiflora canopy (ten groups, followed by P. guachapele (nine groups, E. contortisiliquum (seven groups and M. artemisiana (six groups. The leguminous species influence was related to N content and to C:N ratio of leaf material. M. artemisiana and M. tenuiflora favored the occurrence of Oligochaeta and Coleoptera larvae, while under the P. guachapele and E. contortisiliquum canopies Formicidae activity was more intense.

    KEY-WORDS: Soil macrofauna; sivipastoral systems; soil quality.

    O objetivou deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de quatro espécies leguminosas arbóreas, em uma pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, com dois anos de estabelecimento, sobre a densidade e diversidade da macrofauna de um planossolo de baixa fertilidade natural. As espécies arbóreas introduzidas na pastagem foram: Pseudosamanea guachapele, Mimosa artemisiana, Mimosa tenuiflora e Enterolobium contortisiliquum. A amostragem da macrofauna consistiu na retirada de seis monolitos de solo com 25 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm sob a copa das árvores ou em um transecto na pastagem solteira. As densidades variaram de 602

  19. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF TREE LEGUME SPECIES INTRODUCED IN TROPICAL GRASS PASTURES ANÁLISE DO COMPORTAMENTO DE ESPÉCIES LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS INTRODUZIDAS EM PASTAGENS DE GRAMÍNEAS TROPICAIS

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    Janaina Ribeiro Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of sixteen tree legume species introduced in tropical grass pastures, without seedling protection and in the presence of animals, in three municipalities of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A multivariate factor analysis method was used with sixteen variables related to seven experimental units in the municipalities and ten variables related to leguminous species. The first rotative factor (F1, which explained the highest percentage of the observed variance (62.7%, showed that the Fazenda Santo Antônio experimental unit, in the Itatiaia municipality, presented the highest values for Ca+Mg, N, and Mg, and the lowest value for P (soil sample collected at the beginning of experimental period, while the opposite was observed for Sipa I unit, in the Seropédica municipality. The F1 factor also showed that the species Jurema branca (Mimosa artemisiana and Jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora presented the highest values for diameter growth rate of stem and crown, and the lowest percentage of pastured seedlings, while Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala showed the inverse behavior. Results indicate that M. artemisiana and M. tenuiflora present better potential for introduction in tropical grass pastures without seedling protection and without animal exclusion.

    KEY-WORDS: Tree seedling; factor analysis; communality, mimosa; Leucaena.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o comportamento de dezesseis espécies leguminosas arbóreas introduzidas em pastagens de gramíneas tropicais, sem proteção das mudas e na presença de animais, em três municípios do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para isso, utilizou-se a técnica multivariada da análise de fatores, considerando-se dezesseis variáveis relativas a sete unidades experimentais nos municípios e dez vari

  20. IDENTIFICACIÓN, USOS Y MEDICIÓN DE LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS FORRAJERAS EN RANCHOS GANADEROS DEL SUR DEL ESTADO DE MÉXICO

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    Jaime Olivares Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar las especies arbóreas leguminosas, usos, densidad, frecuencia, abundancia y medidas dasométricas en ranchos ganaderos del sur del Estado de México; así como evaluar la producción de follaje (kg materia seca árbol-1ha-1 de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium —preferidas por los ganaderos como fuente de forraje y con mayor densidad—; y evaluar  la producción de fruto (kg materia seca  árbol-1ha-1 de Acacia  cochliacantha y P. dulce. La información de usos se obtuvo mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas a 69 ganaderos, cantidad que representó 83% de la población. Las mediciones de los árboles se realizaron en seis ranchos mediante trabajo de campo. La información se analizó usando estadísticas descriptivas. Se identificaron 12 especies arbóreas (Acacia cochliacantha, Lysiloma divaricata, Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium, las cuales presentaron mayor densidad, frecuencia y abundancia. De 46.6% de las arbóreas, su follaje y fruto es consumido por rumiantes; de 20%, es consumido follaje, fruto y flor. Se proporcionan de cinco a ocho usos en 80% de las especies, además del forrajero, como leña, poste, sombra, cerca viva, medicinal, consumo humano, artesanal y maderable. Las arbóreas con mayor fuste fueron: Caesalpinia coriaria, Pithecellobium dulce, Enterolobium cyclocarpum y Leucaena esculenta, con diámetro basal (DB de 47.11 a 57.2 cm, diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP de 49.34 a 50.3 cm y altura (A de 7.4 a 14.5 m,  los cuales son preferidos para sombra. La producción de follaje de Pithecellobium dulce, Haematoxylum brasiletto y Gliricidia sepium fue de 44.5, 8.8 y 8.4 kg MS arbol-1, respectivamente. La producción de fruto de Pithecellobium dulce y Acacia cochliacantha fue 63.9 y 21.7 kg MS árbol-1, respectivamente. Las 12 leguminosas

  1. Aerobic stability of triticale silage in single culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes Estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the aerobic stability and losses during the fermentation process of triticale silages in single crop or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The following crops were used for silage production: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack, triticale intercropped with forage pea (Pisum arvense and triticale intercropped with oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, forage pea and vetch (Vicia sativa. The dry matter content and its recovery did not differ among the silages. Buffer capacity was higher for tricale silage intercropped with oats, forage pea and vetch(88.67 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM followed by triticale intercropped with forage pea (80.80 m eq. NaOH/100 g DM. Electric conductivity values were higher in the intercropped triticale silages. Triticale silage presented the lowest temperatures observed in the silos, and the silages of intercropped triticale silages presented higher heat retention and higher pH values. Silage of triticale intercropped with oats and legumes presented lower aerobic stability but it did not reduce the aerobic stability of the total feed. Dry matter recovery during storage and in stability evaluations in aerobiosis is similar among the silages.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade aeróbia e as perdas durante o processo de fermentação de silagens de triticale em cultivo exclusivo ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. As culturas utilizadas para produção das silagens foram: triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack; triticale em consórcio com ervilha-forrageira (Pisum arvense; e triticale em consórcio com aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa. O teor de matéria seca e a recuperação de matéria seca não diferiram entre as silagens. A capacidade tampão foi maior para a silagem de triticale cultivado em consórcio com aveia, ervilha-forrageira e ervilhaca (88,67 m eq. NaOH/100 g de MS, seguida da silagem de triticale cultivado

  2. Avaliação da solubilidade de cobre e zinco em caldos de leguminosas Evaluation of the solubility of copper and zinc in a salty, watrry vegetatable soup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os metais cobre e zinco podem se apresentar sob diversas formas químicas na natureza: como sais, estando sob a forma de íons I e II ou como compostos orgânicos, complexados com aminoácidos e proteínas. A forma mais biodisponível ao organismo é a forma de compostos organo quelados. Avaliando os teores dos metais em caldo de leguminosas processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso é possível avaliar a solubilidade destes metais. Duas marcas e dois lotes de amostras de feijão preto, feijão branco, feijão carioquinha, feijão mulatinho, feijão manteiga, ervilha e lentilha foram processadas termicamente em meios salino e aquoso e determinou-se os teores totais de cobre e zinco em seus caldos. Os caldos foram dissolvidos em HCl 2molL-1 e o teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado através da espectroscopia de absorção atômica em chama. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foi aplicado o teste Dixon e o teste t de student. Os resultados mostraram que a solubilidade média dos metais cobre e zinco nos meios aquoso e salino foram respectivamente 8 e 6%. Acredita-se que os compostos de cobre e zinco nas leguminosas analisadas não são compostos inorgânicos facilmente solúveis em água. Estudos de especiação podem auxiliar na análise da biodisponibilidade destes metais.Copper and zinc can appear in nature under chemical forms, such as salts, being as íons I and II or as organic compounds, synthesized as amino acids and proteins. The most bio-available form to the human body are organic compounds. The solubility of these metals can be determined by evaluating their ratio in a both of legumes thermally processed in an aqueous and a saline mediium. Samples of several varieties of beans, peas, lentils and chickpeas, in two batches containing two different brands of each variety, were thermally processeced in an aqueous and a saline medium and the total ratio of copper and zinc in their respective broths was

  3. Cobertura do solo e estoque de nutrientes de duas leguminosas perenes, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio Soil cover and nutrient accumulation of two perennial legumes as functions of spacing and planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perin

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O estabelecimento de leguminosas herbáceas perenes nos sistemas de produção constitui ainda um desafio, principalmente por apresentarem crescimento inicial lento. Para viabilizar sua implantação, este trabalho objetivou determinar as taxas de cobertura do solo, produção de matéria seca, teores e acumulação de N, P e K das leguminosas herbáceas perenes galáxia (Galactia striata e cudzu tropical (Pueraria phaseoloides, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio. O experimento, instalado em dezembro/98 na Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, constou do delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 x 4, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram das espécies galáxia e cudzu tropical, plantadas em dois espaçamentos entre sulcos de plantio (25 e 50 cm e quatro densidades de plantas (5, 10, 15 e 20 plantas m-1. A densidade adequada para a rápida cobertura do solo para cudzu tropical e galáxia foi de 10 plantas m-1, no espaçamento de 25 cm entre os sulcos de plantio. A maior produção de matéria seca e acumulação de N, P e K na parte aérea das plantas foram evidenciadas apenas no primeiro corte, sendo os maiores valores obtidos no espaçamento de 25 cm e na densidade de 10 plantas m-1. O espaçamento de 25 cm com 10 plantas m-1 foi a combinação mais adequada para a plena formação da cobertura viva do solo com cudzu tropical e galáxia.The establishment of herbaceous perennial leguminous in production systems is still a challenge, mainly because of the slow initial growth. Evaluations of the soil cover ratio, dry matter production, contents and accumulations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium of the herbaceous perennial Galactia striata and Pueraria phaseoloides, sown in different densities and row spacing, aimed at making their establishments feasible. The experiment was conducted in December/98 at Embrapa Agrobiologia, Seropédica (RJ, in a completely randomized block design, as a factorial

  4. Water requirements and crop coefficients of tropical forest seedlings in different shading conditions

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    Emanoeli B. Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the crop evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (Kc of tropical forest seedlings over a 135-day cycle, in the climatic conditions of the Cerrado-Amazon transitional region (11º 51’ 08 “S; 55º 30’ 56” W; altitude of 371 m. Five native species (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Tabebuia roseoalba, Handroanthus chrysotrichus, Parkia pendula and Parkia platycephala and one exotic species (Adenanthera pavonina were evaluated in seven shading conditions: 35, 50 and 80% black nets (Polyolefin; green Frontinet®, red ChromatiNet® and blue ChromatiNet® of 50% shading; and full sun. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo was obtained by the Penman-Monteith FAO-56 method and the crop evapotranspiration of the seedlings (ETc was given by daily weighing. The Kc values were obtained by dividing ETo by ETc. At 135 DAT, destructive analysis was performed to determine the leaf area. In full sun conditions, ETc varied from 3.9 (P. pendula to 5.0 mm d-1 (T. roseoalba. The increase in the shading percentage promotes reduction in leaf area, ETc and Kc. Colored nets with 50% shading generate similar water demands.

  5. Sucessão entre cultivos orgânicos de milho e couve consorciados com leguminosas em plantio direto Organic crop succession of maize and collard greens intercropped with legumes in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EE Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Práticas agrícolas têm sido desenvolvidas para reduzir a aplicação de insumos químicos e minimizar as agressões ao meio ambiente, produzindo alimentos mais saudáveis e ecologicamente corretos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho da sucessão entre couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala e milho (Zea may L., em consórcio com leguminosas para fins de adubação verde, sob plantio direto em manejo orgânico. O estudo foi conduzido em Seropédica, Região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, em dois anos. Utilizaram-se, como adubos verdes, mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana e crotalária spectabilis (Crotalaria spectabilis em consórcio com couve e em sucessão crotalária juncea (Crotalaria juncea e mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens em consórcio com milho. Como controles utilizaram-se os monocultivos de couve e milho. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, constituindo fatorial 3 (sistema de cultivo x 2 (doses de cama-de-frango, com quatro repetições, em parcelas de 20 m². Na couve, aplicou-se em cobertura cama-de-frango nas doses 0 e 5,4 t ha-1 (2,7 t ha-1 em duas aplicações em 2003 e 0 e 2,7 t ha-1 em 2004. Em monocultivo, a produtividade da couve foi de 37,7 e 18,4 t ha-1; consorciada com mucuna-anã, foi de 40,3 e 38,8 t ha-1 e com crotalária spectabilis, de 42,9 e 24,8 t ha-1, em 2003 e 2004, respectivamente. O milho beneficiou-se do efeito residual da adubação com cama-de-frango, aumentando o número de espigas produzidas de 25.625 para 27.916 ha-1. O cultivo de couve em sucessão ao milho, consorciada com leguminosas anuais, sob adubação orgânica com cama-de-frango, resultou em aumento de produtividade das culturas de couve e milho.New farming practices have been developed to reduce the application of fertilizer and pesticides and minimize the aggression to the environment, producing healthy foods and environmentally correct. We evaluated the performance of the succession of collard greens (Brassica

  6. Avaliação da produtividade de fitomassa e acúmulo de N, P e K em leguminosas arbóreas no sistema de aléias, em Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ Evaluation of phytomass productivity and N, P and K accumulation of shrub legumes in alley cropping system in Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ

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    Luciano Rodrigues Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de fitomassa da parte aérea e o acúmulo de N, P e K nas leguminosas arbóreas em sistemas agroflorestais de aléias, bem como verificar o efeito da adição de fósforo sobre as leguminosas. Foram realizados experimentos de campo com a utilização de leguminosas, com e sem adição de P, por dois anos consecutivos de avaliação, em Campos dos Goytacazes,RJ. Os tratamentos consistiram do sistema de aléias com Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth., Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit., Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Sesbania virgata (Cav. Pers., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. e Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Pers. Após oito meses de plantio das leguminosas, estas foram podadas a 1,5 m de altura, restando a haste principal. O material podado foi pesado, descartando-se os ramos com diâmetro superior a 1,5 cm e sendo retiradas as amostras compostas para determinações da fitomassa seca e dos teores de N, P e K. Efetuou-se nova poda 80 dias após a primeira, e pesou-se esse material. No primeiro ano, o guandu mostrou-se superior na produtividade de fitomassa seca e no acúmulo de N, P e K. No segundo ano de avaliação, no experimento com adição de P a leucena e a canafístula assemelharam-se ao guandu na produtividade de fitomassa, enquanto a leucena e o guandu, no acúmulo de N e P, porém a leucena superou o guandu e a canafístula no acúmulo de K na parte aérea. A aplicação de P teve efeito positivo na produtividade de fitomassa seca de algumas espécies.The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoot phytomass and shrub legumes N, P and K accumulation in agroforestry system (alley cropping system and study the effect of P fertilization. Two field experiments were carried out - without and with P application - for two years: 2004 and 2005, using shrub legumes in Campos dos Goytacazes - RJ - Brazil. The treatments consisted of alley cropping system with the

  7. Perennial herbaceous legumes as live soil mulches and their effects on C, N and P of the microbial biomass Leguminosas herbáceas perenes como cobertura viva do solo e seu efeito no C, N e P da biomassa microbiana

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    Gustavo Pereira Duda

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of living mulch with legumes is increasing but the impact of this management technique on the soil microbial pool is not well known. In this work, the effect of different live mulches was evaluated in relation to the C, N and P pools of the microbial biomass, in a Typic Alfisol of Seropédica, RJ, Brazil. The field experiment was divided in two parts: the first, consisted of treatments set in a 2 x 2 x 4 factorial combination of the following factors: live mulch species (Arachis pintoi and Macroptilium atropurpureum, vegetation management after cutting (leaving residue as a mulch or residue remotion from the plots and four soil depths. The second part had treatments set in a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial combination of the following factors: absence of live mulch, A. pintoi, Pueraria phaseoloides, and M. atropurpureum, P levels (0 and 88 kg ha-1 and vegetation management after cutting. Variation of microbial C was not observed in relation to soil depth. However, the amount of microbial P and N, water soluble C, available C, and mineralizable C decreased with soil depth. Among the tested legumes, Arachis pintoi promoted an increase of microbial C and available C content of the soil, when compared to the other legume species (Pueraria phaseoloides and Macroptilium atropurpureum. Keeping the shoot as a mulch promoted an increase on soil content of microbial C and N, total organic C and N, and organic C fractions, indicating the importance of this practice to improve soil fertility.A adoção de práticas de cobertura do solo com leguminosas tem aumentado. Porém, o impacto desta prática sobre o compartimento microbiano ainda não é bem conhecido. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes leguminosas, sobre o C, N e P da biomassa microbiana, coletaram-se amostras de Argissolo oriundas de um experimento sob condições de campo em Seropédica-RJ. O experimento foi subdividido em dois ensaios. No primeiro, os tratamentos corresponderam à combinação de tr

  8. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo da beterraba orgânica sob cobertura morta de leguminosa e gramínea Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of beet in organic mulch of grass and legume

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    Dionízio H Oliveira Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As práticas agrícolas que maximizam a produtividade e o uso da água são de vital importância para a agricultura. Assim, foram testados três tipos de manejo do solo com objetivo de determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc e os coeficientes de cultivo (kc da beterraba. Os tipos de manejo foram a utilização de coberturas mortas vegetais, denominadas capim cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e solo sem cobertura morta em área experimental do SIPA (Sistema Integrado de Produção Orgânica localizado em Seropédica, Brasil. A lâmina de irrigação foi estimada com base no balanço de água no solo, cujo monitoramento foi realizado com a técnica da TDR. As ETc acumuladas para a cultura da beterraba foram 59,41; 55,31 e 119,62 mm, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi obtida por meio do modelo de Penamn-Monteith. Os valores médios de kc obtidos para as fases inicial, média e final de desenvolvimento foram de 0,39; 0,42 e 1,02; 0,79; 0,76 e 1,18; e 0,56; 0,61 e 0,84, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. O uso da cobertura do solo com gramínea ou leguminosa minimizou de forma expressiva a demanda hídrica da cultura da beterraba (Beta vulgaris.Agricultural practices that maximize productivity and water use are of vital importance to farming. Thus, three different soil managements were used in order to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (kc of beet in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, located in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The used managements consisted of cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium and bare soil. The irrigation depth was estimated based on the soil water balance in order to restore the amount of water until soil moisture corresponded to field capacity, monitored by a TDR

  9. Efectos combinados de escarificación y de hidratación parcial en la germinación de semillas frescas de leguminosas Combined effects of scarification and partial hydration on the germination of fresh legume seeds

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    Yolanda González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicó un diseño de clasificación simple con arreglo factorial y cinco réplicas (25 semillas cada una para conocer la germinación de las semillas frescas de leguminosas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos pregerminativos de hidratación-deshidratación y condiciones controladas de estrés calórico del sustrato. Previamente se estudió el comportamiento germinativo ante tratamientos de escarificación: agua a 80ºC durante 2' (en semillas de Crotalaria sp. y H2SO4 al 96% durante 10' (en semillas de Indigofera sp., Desmanthus virgatus y Centrosema pubescens, que se combinaron con un tratamiento de hidratación parcial en agua a temperatura alterna de 25/30ºC (termoperíodo óptimo de germinación. La hidratación parcial se realizó hasta dos horas antes del inicio de la germinación visible; en las semillas escarificadas de Indigofera sp., D. virgatus, Crotalaria sp. y C. pubescens este momento se alcanzó a las 15, 16, 16 y 19 horas, respectivamente. La deshidratación se llevó a cabo al aire durante 48 horas, hasta alcanzar aproximadamente el contenido inicial de humedad de las semillas (7-12% en base a la masa fresca. En todas las especies, excepto en D. virgatus, los tratamientos de hidratación parcial incrementaron el porcentaje de germinación, aunque originaron una mayor velocidad de germinación. Se concluye que los tratamientos de hidratación parcial en agua son adecuados para incrementar la germinación de las especies estudiadas, excepto en D. virgatus, bajo condiciones controladas de estrés calórico.A simple classification design with factorial arrangement and five replications (25 seeds each was used in order to know the germination of fresh legume seeds subject to different pregerminative hydration-dehydration treatments and controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. The germinative performance before scarification treatments was previously studied: water at 80ºC for 2' (in Crotalaria sp. seeds and H2

  10. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

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    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost 100 years elapsed between Linnaeus’ naming the then lone species ofArachis (A. hypogaea L. known to Europeans, and the first taxonomic treatment of the genus by Bentham in 1841. During the next 100 years five to ten additional species descriptions appeared, assigning different species to the same names, and different names to the same species. By mid-20th Century, it was impossible to examine any herbarium collection of Arachis and assign any epithet with any assurance to any specimen (which was not a type collection except to A. hypogaea, A. guaranitica, A. tuberosa and A. villosulicarpa. In our treatment, the literature of this botanical chaos in Arachis is reviewed in detail and an assessment is made of the foundations for its occurrence. It is shown that the bases for the confusion lay in the combination of the esoteric nature of the differentiating morphological features of Arachis, the fragmentary early collections, and the representation of species by seedling specimens. Also, it is related how, in 1959, we decided to re-explore the type locality of each species then known, collect therein complete plant specimens and thereby resolve the problem. Thirty-five years, two generations of plant collectors and around 2000 collections later, we present here 69 species descriptions of Arachis, species distributed in South America east of the Andes, south of the Amazon, north of La Plata and from NW Argentina to NE Brazil. We soon discovered that the most significant characters ofArachis lay in their underground structures, including their fruits, rhizomatous stems, root systems and hypocotyls. We showed that these defining characters tended to cluster the collections into groups which were associated with generally different geographic areas and ecological features. We drew a sample of 100 collections representing these clusters, areas and features, and arranged them in a hybridization diallel and showed, in crosses between collections representing different clusters of characters, areas and features, a remarkable number of complete failures to cross-fertilize and, in those hybrids that were recovered, a high degree of F1 hybrid infertility. When these cross-incompatibilities and pollen infertilities were combined with the data on character clustering, the nine distinct sections of the genus presented here then crystallized. Figures imposed upon maps of South America illustrate the geographic distributions of these sections. The collections were then assigned to the different sections on the bases of cross-incompatibility and exo-morphologic character clustering. When these groups were made, the esoteric characteristics referred to above, so confounding when applied across sectional lines, became highly pertinent when applied to the problem of species differentiation between collections within sections. These characteristics, applied in conjunction with chromosome cytology, chromatographic and antigenic reactions, variations in intra-sectional hybrid fertility and adaptations of plant form, and annual and perennial habit, allowed us to assemble the following taxa of the genus Arachis: Section I. TRIERECTOIDES nov.: 1. A. guaranitica, 2. A. tuberosa.Section II. ERECTOIDES nov.: 3. A. Martii, 4. A. brevipetiolata nov., 5. A. Oteroi nov., 6. A. Hatschbachii nov., 7. A. cryptopotamica nov., 8. A. major nov., 9. A. Benthamii, 10. A. douradiana nov., 11. A. gracilis nov., 12. A. Hermannii nov., 13. A. Archeri nov., 14. A. stenophylla nov., 15a. A. paraguariensis subsp. paraguariensis, 15b. A. paraguariensis subsp. capibarensis nov. Section III. EXTRANERVOSAE nov.: 16. A. setinervosa nov., 17. A. Macedoi nov., 18. A. marginata, 19. A. prostrata, 20. A. lutescens, 21. A retusa nov., 22. A. Burchellii nov., 23. A. Pietrarellii nov., 24. A. villosulicarpa. Section IV. TRISEMINATAE nov.: 25. A. triseminata nov. Section V.HETERANTHAE nov.: 26. A. Giacomettii nov., 27. A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var.Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea, var. 2.hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3. aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris. The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit and the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections. The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed and are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating the ideas presented. It is evident that the genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. The presumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae and Heteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections and from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae and Arachis. Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species of this section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied by species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upper Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal. They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow from Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A. hypogaea. Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presented here in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A. hypogaeafrom the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names in several native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the level of civilization required for its creation. Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sections and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of the sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures of whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures, carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  11. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

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    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  12. ESTUDIOS CROMOSÓMICOS EN ARACHIS (LEGUMINOSAE

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    Graciela Inés Lavia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el número de cromosomas de 38 accesiones que representan 17 especies de cinco secciones del género Arachis. El primer conteo cromosómico informa de las siguientes ocho especies: Sect. Extranervosae: A.retusa, secc. Heteranthae: A. Giacomettii, secc. Procumbentes: A.vallsii, secc. Arachis: A.decora, A.microsperma, A.palustris, A.rinitensis y A.williamsii. En informes anteriores son confirmadas nueve especies. Todas las especies estudiadas tienen 2n = 2x = 20, con excepción de una adhesión de A.palustris, que tiene 2n = 2x = 18, que representa probablemente un nuevo número básico x = 9 para el género. Cromosomas satélites se analizan para la mayoría de las especies. "A" cromosomas se encuentran sólo en A.microsperma y A.trinitensis (Sect. Arachis

  13. The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex (Leguminosae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der X.M.; Mackinder, B.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Estrella, de la Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The Gilbertiodendron ogoouense species complex consists of 14 tree species. Eight species are here newly described and one is here reinstated: G. bambolense Burgt; G. breteleri Burgt; G. ebo Burgt & Mackinder; G. ecoukense (Pellegr.) Burgt; G. maximum Burgt & Wieringa; G. minkebense Burgt

  14. Antifatigue Effect of Millettiae speciosae Champ (Leguminosae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, ... plasma which can indicate alterations in energy utilization during exercise performance, were .... morbidity. Changes in the body weight of mice.

  15. SERIANTHES Benth. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae-Ingeae

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    F. R. FOSBERG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Serianthes was erected by Bentham to accomodate plants which Wallich had called Inga grandiflora, from Singapore, and those which Bertero had called Acacia myriadenia, from Tahiti. It has been accepted from the first, as it is amply distinct from Acacia and reasonably so from Inga. though it is usually placed in the tribe Ingeae. Serianthes is widespread in the southwest Pacific, usually, though not always, occurring on islands, frequently on calcareous or serpentine rocks or their derived soils. It is seldom abundant, though in places common. In habit it varies from a dwarf tree or large shrub to a forest giant. It is reported to be an excellent timber tree, but seems nowhere to be abundant enough to be important commercially. Since Bentham's original description in 1844, eleven additional species and one variety have been ascribed to it in addition to the original S. grandiflora. Three of these do not belong in Serianthes. Most of the specimens in herbaria, excepting those called S. grandiflora, have been misidentified, usually being placed in S. myriadenia. Although I first saw this genus growing and collected it in Raivavae and Rurutu in 1934, my interest in it was aroused by failure, in 1950, to find a satisfactory disposition for specimens collected in Palau, similar to those that Kanehira had referred to S. grandiflora, which they clearly were not. The more I tried to make sense of the herbarium material available in a number of herbaria the more frustrating the problem became. Notes were accumulated in a most haphazard and unsystematic manner, as I had no intention of doing more than identifying my Micronesian material. Finallyit became evident that over half of the entities discernible in the material examined were undescribed, and I felt a certain obligation to work up at least a synopsis of the genus.

  16. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles.

  17. Produção de matéria seca e eficiência nutricional para P, Ca e Mg em leguminosas herbáceas Dry matter production and nutritional efficiency for P, Ca and Mg in herbaceous legumes

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    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas para adubação verde têm sido introduzidas nos sistemas agrícolas para a recuperação de solos desgastados pelo uso intensivo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de leguminosas herbáceas à aplicação de calcário e fósforo sobre a produção de biomassa e eficiência nutricional para o P, Ca e Mg. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, utilizando-se um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico coletado na profundidade de 0 - 20 cm, em Belém, PA. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo de tratamentos em um fatorial 3³, onde foram comparadas três espécies de leguminosas: mucuna preta (Stizolobium atterrimum, mucuna cochinchinensis (Stilozobium cochinchinensis e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes; três níveis de calagem: de calcário dolomítico (0, 4 e 8 t.ha-1 e de fósforo (0, 25 e 45 mg.dm-3, com quatro repetições cada um. Mucuna cochinchinensis e o feijão de porco produziram maiores quantidades de biomassa vegetal do que a mucuna preta, sendo que a primeira espécie acumulou maior quantidade de P e a segunda maior quantidade de Ca. Mucuna cochinchinensis apresentou maior eficiência de utilização de P, Ca e Mg na ausência da calagem. Nos solos intemperizados com baixa concentração de P, Ca e Mg, o feijão-de-porco e a mucuna cochinchinensis poderão ter melhor desempenho do que a mucuna preta, visto que apresentaram maior eficiência de translocação e de utilização desses nutrientes, respectivamente.The legumes used for green manure have been introduced in agricultural systems for recovering degraded soils by intensive use. The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of herbaceous legumes to liming and P application on dry matter and its nutritional efficiency. The experiment was developed in greenhouse at the Soil Science Department of the Federal University

  18. Las leguminosas (Fabaceæ de Cuba. II. Tribus Crotatarieæ, Æschynomeneæ, Millettieæ y Robinieæ

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    Beyra Matos, Á.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of a monographic revision of the legumes of Cuba. It includes the four tribes listed in the title, one of them divided into fíve subtribes, with a total of 16 genera and 78 species. For each species, after the nomenclature. Description, habitat and distribution are recorded, as well as some data about dispersion and phenology, and sometimes ethnobotanical and chemical composition data. When found, karyologic information was also included. The chorological data are completed with 76 maps showing the Cuban distribution of as many taxa. Further on the text, 30 plates representing as many species are included, plus four indices. The first index shows the numerical reference of the 122 recognized taxa. The second one shows the position in the text of the distributional maps. The third one shows the illustrations. The fourth one, which has 322 small entries, shows all scientific names used, both accepted as well as synonyms.

    [es] Parte segunda de una revisión monográfica de las leguminosas de Cuba. Comprende las cuatro tribus que se enuncian en el título, una de ellas a su vez dividida en cinco subtribus, con un total de 16 géneros aceptados y 78 especies reconocidas. Para cada especie y tras la nomenclatura, además de la descripción, el hábitat y la distribución, se consignan diversos datos sobre dispersión y fenología, más algunos etnobotánicas o de composición química ocasionalmente. Cuando pudimos hallarla, incluimos información cariológica. Los datos corológicos se completan con 76 mapas que muestran la distribución cubana de otros tantos táxones nativos de Cuba. Acompañan al texto 30 láminas que representan otras tantas especies, más cuatro índices. En el primero se muestra la referencia numérica de los 122 táxones reconocidos. El segundo muestra la posición en el texto de los mapas distribucionales. El tercero señala las ilustraciones. En el cuarto, que reúne 322 entradillas, figuran todos los

  19. KECERNAAN IN SACCO HIJAUAN LEGUMINOSA DAN HIJAUAN NON- LEGUMINOSA DALAM RUMEN SAPI PERANAKAN ONGOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendi Fathoni Hadi

    2012-06-01

    values of ADF: GL 61.27%; SW 43.95%; TP 56.53%; BR 40.11%; KL 21.08%; NG 44.66%; and CO 69.15%. There were significant differences (P<0.05 on the degradation of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF. It is concluded that not all of legume has higher DT values of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF fraction than non-legume. There is a tendency that the longer retention time in the rumen, the higher degradation rate. (Keywords: Legume, Non-legume, In sacco rumen

  20. Visitantes florais de Erythrina speciosa Andr. (Leguminosae Flowering visitors of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Vitali-Veiga

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of Etythrina species exhibit morphologic attributes for adaptation to pollination by nectarivorous birds mentioned in the literature, E. speciosa is pollinated by lots of bees (Apinae and Meliponinae which show a great urban occurrence. Systems of E. speciosa floral reproduction, fenology, diversity, frequency and constancy of insects visiting at different hours and flowering periods were studied. E. speciosa is Biocompatible, but xenogamy is the predominant system of reproduction. A large diversity of insects visiting the inflorescences was observed, with predominance of bees. The bee species showed a higher frequency: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (45,0 %, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (28,6%, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (12,2 % and the ant Zacryptoceruspusillus Klug, 1824 (2,8 %. Constant but not frequent were the bees (Apidae Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900, Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, 1900, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, the wasps (Vespidae Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896, Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure, 1854, Agelaia pallipes (Olivier. 1791, the ant (Formicidae Pseudomyrmex sp. and the beetle (Chrysomelidae Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. E. speciosa flowers were visited by hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, Clorostilbon aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 and Amazilia sp. The birds Passer domeslicus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ploceidae and Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758 (Emberizidac, also are present. The frequency and insect distribution were influenced by ambiental factors. Temperature, light, time, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly correlated with insect numbers. There is a visit sequence, by floral resource disponibility during the day, conditioned by transport ability, insect numbers and colony necessity, which begins by A. mellifera followed by meliponid bees. These bees make the pollination when they collect the pollen. There is a great animal variety which are sustained by flowers. It is suggested that E. speciosa is one important food source for urban fauna in winter, and so it should be utilized more frequently in streets, parks and gardens arborization.

  1. Resposta de varjão (Parkia multijuga a subdoses de glyphosate Response of varjão (Parkia multijuga seedlings to reduced glyphosate rates

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    O.M. Yamashita

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de madeira no Brasil e no mundo apresenta demanda crescente. Em confronto com a pressão ambientalista de manutenção das florestas nativas, há necessidade de se estabelecerem áreas de reflorestamento para suprir o aumento da demanda de madeira, com a utilização de formas de manejo e tratos culturais que permitam o pleno crescimento das essências florestais. Um dos principais problemas do manejo de reflorestamento é a interferência das plantas daninhas após o plantio das mudas no campo, sendo o uso de herbicidas a principal forma de manejo. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de doses crescentes de glyphosate em mudas de varjão em condições de ambiente protegido. Foram avaliadas as doses de 0, 90, 180, 360 e 720 g ha-1 de glyphosate em plantas com quatro meses de idade, observando a intoxicação das plantas, altura, diâmetro do caule e número de folhas. O varjão, nas condições do experimento, apresentou tolerância e recuperação ao glyphosate até a dose de 360 g ha-1. Doses superiores a esta retardaram o crescimento da planta. O prejuízo causado pela deriva de glyphosate nessas plantas foi diretamente proporcional ao aumento da dose. Os sintomas evoluíram para queda de folhas, comprometendo o crescimento das plantas.Wood consumption has significantly increased in Brazil and worldwide.The environmental pressure to preserve native forest led to the need to establish reforestation areas to meet the increasing wood demand by applying cultural practices and management allowing a total growth of forest trees. One of the main problems in reforestation management is weed competition after seedling planting, with herbicide use being the main form of management. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phytotoxic effect of increasing rates of glyphosate on Varjão seedlings, under greenhouse conditions. Concentrations of 90, 180, 360 and 720 g ha-1 of glyphosate were evaluated in four-month-old plants by observing plant toxicity, plant height, stem diameter, and leaf number. A control was also used without herbicide application to compare the effects. Under the conditions of this experiment, Varjão presented tolerance to and ability to recover from glyphosate up to the rate of 360 g ha-1. Higher rates delayed plant development. The damage caused by glyphosate drift in these plants was directly proportional to rate increase. The symptoms included leaf fall, compromising plant growth.

  2. Comparação dos teores de cobre e zinco em leguminosas cruas e após serem processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso Evaluation of total amount of copper and zinc by legumes raw and thermally processed ina an aqueous and saline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. B. Andrade

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre e o zinco participam de diversas reações no organismo, diretamente ou como co-fatores de enzimas, e são considerados essenciais. Avaliar os teores destes, em leguminosas cruas e após processamento térmico, permite um conhecimento do comportamento destes metais em meio salino e aquoso o que auxiliará no conhecimento do aproveitamento destes pelo organismo humano. Amostras de feijões preto, branco, carioquinha, manteiga, mulatinho, ervilha, lentilha e grão-de-bico, duas marcas de cada tipo e em dois lotes, foram analisadas quanto ao teor total de cobre e zinco quando cruas e processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso. A abertura das amostras foi feita por calcinação a 550ºC. As amostras que foram processadas termicamente, passaram por dessecação em estufa a 105ºC antes da calcinação. O teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado através da espectrometria de absorção atômica em chama. Na análise da rejeição de resultados foram aplicados o teste Dixon e o teste t de Student. Observou-se que, após o processamento térmico em meio salino ou aquoso, a maioria das amostras não teve perda significativa dos teores de cobre e zinco em relação às amostras cruas. Considerando que os teores médios do cobre e zinco nas amostras cruas foram, respectivamente, de 0,75mg% e 3,2mg% ao ser consumido uma porção média de leguminosas, cerca de 50g, a mesma fornece aproximadamente 19% e 10% das necessidades diárias de cobre e zinco, respectivamente, para um homem adulto segundo a R.D.A.Copper and zinc are considered essential oligoelements to human nutrition, taking part in several reactions either directly or as enzymatic co-fators. The amount of these elements in legumes, both raw and thermally processed in an aqueous and saline medium, provides an insight into their behavior, thus allowing an understanding of how these metals are best utilized by the human body. Two different commercial samples of raw and

  3. Chemical composition, “in vitro” digestibility and production of woody forage legumes cultivated in sandy soils Composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" e produção de biomassa de leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas cultivadas em solo arenoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimilson Volpe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional value and productivity of woody forage legumes Albizia lebbeck, Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium e Leucaena leucocephala, to be used in supplementation of cattle as a bank protein, five species in Quartzpisament were evaluated. The experiment was conducted from March 2006 to October 2007. The evaluations were carried out in two periods (rainy and dry, with two cuts by period. There was no difference in the accumulation of dry matter, in rainy period. In the dry evaluation, A. lebbeck and C. argentea were higher than the other legumes. The C. cajan was not recovered after the rainy period, which resulted in a low accumulation of dry matter in the dry period. The leaves of Albizia lebbeck showed the highest levels of crude protein in cuts evaluated (210 to 212 g/kg. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter in the leaves of A. lebbeck was significantly higher, with average values of 568g/kg. A. lebbeck, Cratylia argentea and Gliricidea sepium showed the highest content for digestibility of the thin stem. The A. lebbek and C. argentea presented higher accumulation of dry matter (19,3 and 24,3 t DM/ha, respectively and, still, the best values for the qualitative characteristics. Both species are the most promising and adapted to the formation of protein banks in these types of soils.Com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo e a produtividade das leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas: Albizia lebbeck (Albízia, Cajanus cajan (Feijão-Guandu, Cratylia argentea (Cratília, Gliricidia sepium (Gliricídia e Leucaena leucocephala (Leucena, a serem utilizadas na suplementação de bovinos como banco de proteína, conduziu-se um experimento em Neossolo Quartzarênico. O experimento foi realizado entre março de 2006 e outubro de 2007. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois períodos (chuvoso e seco, com dois cortes para cada período. Não houve diferença no acúmulo de matéria seca nos cortes do per

  4. Efeito do fósforo e do potássio sobre o desenvolvimento e a nodulação de três leguminosas anuais de estação fria Effect of phosphorus and potassium on development and nodulation of three cool season annual legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Holz Krolow

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de fósforo e potássio na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, comprimento da parte aérea e sistema radicular, escore e eficiência da nodulação de três leguminosas forrageiras anuais de estação fria. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg/dm³ de P2O5 e K (0,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg/dm³ de K2O, correspondendo a 0,0 (controle 1, 2, 3 e 4 vezes a recomendação da análise de solo, em vasos, com 8 kg de solo tipo Planossolo, unidade de mapeamento Pelotas. As leguminosas utilizadas foram: Trifolium resupinatum L. cv. Kyambro (trevo-persa, Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Woogenellup e Lotus subbiflorus Lag. cv. El Rincón. O delineamento experimental foi o completamente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 3 x 5 x 5, com três repetições. O trabalho foi conduzido no período de maio a outubro de 2000, sendo os dados colhidos ao final do período experimental, aproximadamente 170 dias após a semeadura. A maioria das características estudadas não foi influenciada pela aplicação de potássio, e sim pela aplicação de fósforo. Para as variáveis relacionadas com produção (MS parte aérea e raízes, o trevo-persa foi a espécie mais produtiva. Para a nodulação, o trevo-subterrâneo e o Lotus El Rincón apresentaram maior eficiência e quantidade de nódulos.This experiment was established in greenhouse at Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, with the objective to evaluate the effects of different doses of phosphorus and potassium on dry matter production of aerial biomass and roots, length of above ground parts and roots and efficiency and score of nodulation of three cool season annual forage legumes. The treatments were five doses of P (0,0; 1,08; 2,15; 3,23 e 4,30 mg de P2O5/dm³ and K (00,0; 0,43; 0,85; 1,28 e 1,70 mg de

  5. Organic material decomposition and nutrient dynamics in a mulch system enriched with leguminous trees in the Amazon Decomposição de material orgânico e dinâmica de nutrientes em um sistema de cobertura morta enriquecido com árvores leguminosas na Amazônia

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    José Henrique Cattanio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The new techniques proposed for agriculture in the Amazon region include rotational fallow systems enriched with leguminous trees and the replacement of biomass burning by mulching. Decomposition and nutrient release from mulch were studied using fine-mesh litterbags with five different leguminous species and the natural fallow vegetation as control. Samples from each treatment were analyzed for total C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, lignin, cellulose content and soluble polyphenol at different sampling times over the course of one year. The decomposition rate constant varied with species and time. Weight loss from the decomposed litter bag material after 96 days was 30.1 % for Acacia angustissima, 32.7 % for Sclerolobium paniculatum, 33.9 % for Iinga edulis and the Fallow vegetation, 45.2 % for Acacia mangium and 63.6 % for Clitoria racemosa. Immobilization of N and P was observed in all studied treatments. Nitrogen mineralization was negatively correlated with phenol, C-to-N ratio, lignin + phenol/N ratio, and phenol/phosphorus ratios and with N content in the litterbag material. After 362 days of field incubation, an average (of all treatments, 3.3 % K, 32.2 % Ca and 22.4 % Mg remained in the mulch. Results confirm that low quality and high amount of organic C as mulch application are limiting for the quantity of energy available for microorganisms and increase the nutrient immobilization for biomass decomposition, which results in competition for nutrients with the crop plants.As novas técnicas propostas para a agricultura na Amazônia incluem sistema de rotação de capoeira enriquecido com árvores leguminosas e transformando a queima da biomassa em cobertura morta sobre o solo. A decomposição e a liberação de nutrientes da cobertura morta foram estudadas usando sacos de liteira com malha fina que continham cinco tratamentos com diferentes espécies de leguminosas em comparação a um tratamento-controle com vegetação natural. As amostras para

  6. Utilização de cama sobreposta de suínos e sobressemeadura de leguminosas para aumento da produção e qualidade de pastagem natural Swine deep bedding amendment and legume sod-seeding to increase production and quality of natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hentz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da fertilização com dois tipos de camas sobrepostas de suínos (CSS, à base de casca de arroz (CA e maravalha (MA, sobre a produção de uma pastagem natural, com predomínio de Axonopus sp. e Paspalum sp., sobressemeada com leguminosas (cornichão e trevo-branco. As camas sobrepostas foram aplicadas em quantidades equivalentes a 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg/ha de P2O5, constituindo quatro níveis de cama de casca de arroz (30, 60, 90 ou 120 t/ha e quatro níveis de cama de maravalha (20,6; 41,2; 62,2 ou 82,8 t/ha. Foram incluídos dois tratamentos-testemunha: 180 kg/ha de superfosfato triplo (SFT e ausência de adubação (AA. A sobressemeadura das leguminosas foi realizada em maio de 2004 e, a partir de agosto de 2004, foram realizados nove cortes da pastagem, a cada seis semanas. As maiores produções de matéria seca (MS anuais (setembro/2004 a agosto/2005 com as aplicações de cama de casca de arroz foram obtidas nos níveis 30 e 60 t/ha e, com cama de maravalha, nos níveis 62,2 e 82,8 t/ha, que resultaram em produções de MS de 8.083 e 8.276 kg/ha, superiores às obtidas com superfosfato triplo (4.091 kg MS/ha e sem adubação (3.071 MS kg/ha. A produção de MS de trevo-branco aumentou linearmente no outono e no inverno, de acordo com os níveis de adubação com cama de maravalha, mas não variaram com a adubação com cama de casca de arroz. O efeito fertilizante varia entre os tipos de cama sobreposta, que podem influenciar a composição botânica de pastagens mistas de leguminosas-gramíneas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of two swine deep beddings (SDB: rice husk (CA and sawdust coarse (MA on the production of natural pasture. The predominant species in this pasture were Axonopus sp. and Paspalum sp. that was sod-seeded with the forage legumes birdsfoot trefoil and white clover. The SDBs were applied in amounts equivalent to 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg/ha of P2O

  7. In vitro anti-oxidative activities of the various parts of Parkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the aqueous extracts of the stem bark and leaves, all other extracts exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS) activity but the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of the stem bark and EtOH extracts of the root and leaves possessed more powerful HRS activity than other corresponding extracts in the parts. Further, nitric ...

  8. Effect of graded levels of Parkia biglobosa in concentrate diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ether extract and hemicellulose contents, digestibility of DM, OM and neutral detergent fibre, and N intake, absorbtion and retentionwere greatest (p<0.05) for the control diet (0%) compared to the PBF based diets. Digestibility of acid detergent fibre and acid detergent lignin, and N retention (N retained as % of N intake) ...

  9. Effet antihypertensif d'un extrait aqueux d'écorce de tronc de parkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci-Nat

    musculaire lisse vasculaire au travers des canaux calciques lents ou voltage - dépendants ou canaux de type L (Gired et al., 1998); il s'en suit une relaxation musculaire et une diminution des résistances périphériques, entraînant une vasodilatation et une chute de la pression artérielle (Cohen, 1997; Gired et al.,. 1998 ...

  10. Evaluation of Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Contents of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that of Aloe vera (4.2 ± 0.9%) , Euphorbia radians (4.9 ± 1.7% ) and Arbutus xalapensis (3.9. ± 0.5%) as reported by Sotelo et al. (2007) and. 5.3% for C. esculenta (Richard et al., 1996). The low lipid content of the plants is in agreement with general observation that vegetables are low lipid containing foods (Lintas, 1992).

  11. Soil mineral N dynamics beneath mixtures of leaves from legume and fruit trees in Central Amazonian multi-strata agroforests Dinâmica do nitrogênio mineral no solo em misturas de folhas de leguminosas arbóreas e de fruteiras em sistemas agroflorestais multiestratificados na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Melanie Schwendener

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term applications of leguminous green mulch could increase mineralizable nitrogen (N beneath cupuaçu trees produced on the infertile acidic Ultisols and Oxisols of the Amazon Basin. However, low quality standing cupuaçu litter could interfere with green mulch N release and soil N mineralization. This study compared mineral N, total N, and microbial biomass N beneath cupuaçu trees grown in two different agroforestry systems, north of Manaus, Brazil, following seven years of different green mulch application rates. To test for net interactions between green mulch and cupuaçu litter, dried gliricidia and inga leaves were mixed with senescent cupuaçu leaves, surface applied to an Oxisol soil, and incubated in a greenhouse for 162 days. Leaf decomposition, N release and soil N mineralization were periodically measured in the mixed species litter treatments and compared to single species applications. The effect of legume biomass and cupuaçu litter on soil mineral N was additive implying that recommendations for green mulch applications to cupuaçu trees can be based on N dynamics of individual green mulch species. Results demonstrated that residue quality, not quantity, was the dominant factor affecting the rate of N release from leaves and soil N mineralization in a controlled environment. In the field, complex N cycling and other factors, including soil fauna, roots, and microclimatic effects, had a stronger influence on available soil N than residue quality.Aplicações a longo prazo de leguminosas como adubo verde podem aumentar o nitrogênio (N mineralizável sob árvores de cupuaçu em solos pouco férteis e ácidos (Ultisols e Oxisols da Bacia Amazônica. Entretanto, a baixa qualidade da liteira de cupuaçu pode influênciara liberação de N do adubo verde e a mineralização deste no solo. Neste estudo foram comparados o N mineral, N total, e o N da biomassa microbiana sob árvores de cupuaçu cultivadas em dois sistemas

  12. State estimation and synchronization of pendula systems over digital communication channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkov, A. L.; Andrievsky, B.; Ananyevskiy, M.

    2014-04-01

    The recent results on nonlinear systems synchronization and control under communication constraints are applied to the remote state estimation and synchronization for a class of exogenously excited nonlinear Lurie systems. State estimation of the chain of diffusively coupled pendulums over the digital communication channel with limited capacity is experimentally studied. Advantage of the adaptive coding procedure under the conditions of the plant model uncertainty and irregular disturbances is shown. Quality of the estimation is evaluated by means of the experiments with the multi-pendulum set-up. Experimental study of master-slave synchronization over network (local network, wireless network) for the system with two cart-pendulums is presented.

  13. Selective Solvents for Extraction of Triterpenes from Betula Pendula Outer Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Pāže, A; Zandersons, J; Rižikovs, J; Dobele, G; Jurkjāne, V; Spince, B

    2013-01-01

    The volume of birch plywood production in Latvia is illustrated by the 208 000 m3 of plywood sold in 2011 and about 562 000 m3 of processed birch veneer blocks. Wood residues such as bark, veneer shorts, cut off ends and others are used as a fuel. It would be more expedient to increase the birch wood utilisation degree by involving also birch outer bark in the processing cycle. It makes up 2% of the veneer blocks’ mass. At the J.S.C. “Latvijas Finieris”, about 6000 t per year of graded and mi...

  14. Patterns of mechanical energy change in tetrapod gait: pendula, springs and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewener, Andrew A

    2006-11-01

    Kinematic and center of mass (CoM) mechanical variables used to define terrestrial gaits are compared for various tetrapod species. Kinematic variables (limb phase, duty factor) provide important timing information regarding the neural control and limb coordination of various gaits. Whereas, mechanical variables (potential and kinetic energy relative phase, %Recovery, %Congruity) provide insight into the underlying mechanisms that minimize muscle work and the metabolic cost of locomotion, and also influence neural control strategies. Two basic mechanisms identified by Cavagna et al. (1977. Am J Physiol 233:R243-R261) are used broadly by various bipedal and quadrupedal species. During walking, animals exchange CoM potential energy (PE) with kinetic energy (KE) via an inverted pendulum mechanism to reduce muscle work. During the stance period of running (including trotting, hopping and galloping) gaits, animals convert PE and KE into elastic strain energy in spring elements of the limbs and trunk and regain this energy later during limb support. The bouncing motion of the body on the support limb(s) is well represented by a simple mass-spring system. Limb spring compliance allows the storage and return of elastic energy to reduce muscle work. These two distinct patterns of CoM mechanical energy exchange are fairly well correlated with kinematic distinctions of limb movement patterns associated with gait change. However, in some cases such correlations can be misleading. When running (or trotting) at low speeds many animals lack an aerial period and have limb duty factors that exceed 0.5. Rather than interpreting this as a change of gait, the underlying mechanics of the body's CoM motion indicate no fundamental change in limb movement pattern or CoM dynamics has occurred. Nevertheless, the idealized, distinctive patterns of CoM energy fluctuation predicted by an inverted pendulum for walking and a bouncing mass spring for running are often not clear cut, especially for less cursorial species. When the kinematic and mechanical patterns of a broader diversity of quadrupeds and bipeds are compared, more complex patterns emerge, indicating that some animals may combine walking and running mechanics at intermediate speeds or at very large size. These models also ignore energy costs that are likely associated with the opposing action of limbs that have overlapping support times during walking. A recent model of terrestrial gait (Ruina et al., 2005. J Theor Biol, in press) that treats limb contact with the ground in terms of collisional energy loss indicates that considerable CoM energy can be conserved simply by matching the path of CoM motion perpendicular to limb ground force. This model, coupled with the earlier ones of pendular exchange during walking and mass-spring elastic energy savings during running, provides compelling argument for the view that the legged locomotion of quadrupeds and other terrestrial animals has generally evolved to minimize muscle work during steady level movement. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Functional characterization of CCR in birch (Betula platyphylla × Betula pendula) through overexpression and suppression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Wei, Rui; Chen, Su; Jiang, Jing; Li, Huiyu; Huang, Haijiao; Yang, Guang; Wang, Shuo; Wei, Hairong; Liu, Guifeng

    2015-06-01

    We cloned a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase gene (BpCCR1) from an apical meristem and first internode of Betula platyphylla and characterized its functions in lignin biosynthesis, wood formation and tree growth through transgenic approaches. We generated overexpression and suppression transgenic lines and analyzed them in comparison with the wild-type in terms of lignin content, anatomical characteristics, height and biomass. We found that BpCCR1 overexpression could increase lignin content up to 14.6%, and its underexpression decreased lignin content by 6.3%. Surprisingly, modification of BpCCR1 expression led to conspicuous changes in wood characteristics, including xylem vessel number and arrangement, and secondary wall thickness. The growth of transgenic trees in terms of height was also significantly influenced by the modification of BpCCR1 genes. We discuss the functions of BpCCR1 in the context of a phylogenetic tree built with CCR genes from multiple species. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Influence of radiation on intensity of fluctuating asymmetry at Betula pendula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipen', V.N.; Krapivina, N.S.; Sinevich, E.A.; Baranov, A.S.; Mel'nov, S.B.; Lozinskaya, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of anthropogenic pressure was conducted in cities having different industrial development levels and with different levels of radiation contamination. Based on obtained data one could state that environmental effect level in different regions of Belarus varies in wide range caused by unevenness of anthropogenic effect. (authors)

  17. Rhizofiltration of a Heavy Metal (Lead) Containing Wastewater Using the Wetland Plant Carex pendula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, B.K.; Siebel, M.A.; Van Bruggen, J.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Rhizofiltration is a subset technique of phytoremediation which refers to the approach of using plant biomass for removing contaminants, primarily toxic metals, from polluted water. The effective implementation of this in situ remediation technology requires experimental as well as conceptual

  18. Synthesis of Dynamically Balanced Mechanisms by Using Counter-Rotary Countermass Balanced Double Pendula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2009-01-01

    Complete dynamic balancing principles still cannot avoid a substantial increase in mass and inertia. In addition, the conditions for dynamic balance and inertia equations can be complicated to derive. This article shows how a double pendulum, which is fully dynamically balanced using counter-rotary

  19. Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: A New Species of Annual Legumes for High Rainfall Areas of the Mediterranean Climate Zone of Chile Trébol Vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi: Una Nueva Especie de Leguminosa Anual para Áreas de Alta Precipitación en la Zona Mediterránea de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ovalle M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines the main attributes and agronomic characteristics of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi and its incorporation into production systems in dryland areas of the Andean foothills of the humid Mediterranean climate zone of Chile. It is a new species of annual legume in Chile for light and medium textured soils. The root system can reach a depth of 1.5 m and its seeds have a high percentage of hardseedness (99.8%. It is an upright plant, with purplish-white flowers. The mature plant has large arrow-shaped leaves up to 50 mm long, often marked with a large white “V”. Dry matter and seed production in the Andean foothills is high (3.9-8.8 t DM ha-1 and 700-900 kg ha-1, respectively, surpassing the productivity of sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. cv. Mount Barker and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.. However, DM production in the second year was lower, possibly because the high percentage of hardseedness inhibited plant emergence. The phenological records and productive performance suggest that arrowleaf clover could contribute to improving pastoral production in dryland areas with annual rainfall levels of more than 800 mm, such as the Andean foothills in the central-southern region of Chile.En la presente revisión se examinan los principales atributos y características agronómicas del trébol vesiculoso (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi y su eventual incorporación a sistemas de producción en la precordillera andina de la zona de clima mediterráneo húmedo de Chile. Se trata de una nueva especie de leguminosa forrajera anual para suelos de textura liviana y media. El sistema radical puede alcanzar 1,5 m de profundidad y las semillas tienen un alto porcentaje de dureza seminal (99,8%. Es una planta de crecimiento erecto, flores de color blanco con una leve coloración púrpura. Las plantas adultas tienen grandes hojas con forma de flecha de más de 50 mm de largo, a menudo muestran una marca blanca en

  20. Fixação biológica e transferência de nitrogênio por leguminosas em pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicia Miranda Paulino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN e a transferência do N derivado da FBN das espécies leguminosas - gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea e feijão-guandu anão (Cajanus cajan - para um pomar orgânico de mangueira e gravioleira, pelo método da abundância natural de N. Foram avaliados os seguintes sistemas de cultivos consorciados: mangueira e gravioleira com gliricídia; mangueira e gravioleira com crotalária; mangueira e gravioleira com feijão-guandu; e a testemunha mangueira e gravioleira. Agliricídia apresentou maior potencial de FBN (80%, seguida da crotalária (64,5% e feijão-guandu (45%. Em dois cortes, a crotalária forneceu 149,5 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 96,5kg derivados da FBN. A gliricídia com três podas anuais forneceu 56,4 e 80,3 kg ha-1 por ano de N, com 45 e 64 kg derivados da FBN, em dois anos consecutivos. A quantidade de N fornecida foi superior à demandada pela mangueira e gravioleira. Variações na abundância natural de 15N foram detectadas somente na gravioleira. Gliricídia e crotalária destacaram-se na transferência de N, com cerca de 22,5 e 40% do N fixado, respectivamente. A adubação verde com gliricídia possibilita o parcelamento do N, com melhor aproveitamento pelas espécies frutíferas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia, Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following intercropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80% , followed by sunnhemp (64.5% and pigeon pea (45%. After two sunnhemp prunes, 149

  1. Two new species of Callerya Endl. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirichamon, Yotsawate; Balslev, Henrik; Mathapa, Sawai

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Callerya (Endl.); C. chlorantha and C. tennaserimensis are illustrated and described. They are commonly found in dry deciduous or bamboo forest in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi province, South-western Thailand. It was also found that C. chlorantha might be associated...... with limestone habitat. Callerya chlorantha is characterized by its greenish flowers, which is relatively uncommon among species of this genus. Callerya tennaserimensis is characterized by its glabrous leaves and stems and rather small, purplish or maroonish flowers with golden-brown hairs on calyx and abaxial...

  2. Morphological and micromorphological characteristics of Desmodium fruits (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane M. Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Desmodium is represented in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, by 13 species, all with lomentaceous fruits. Shape, size and isthmus margin of loments vary, while the surface is glabrous, or covered by trichomes of different types. Morphological diversity of trichomes becomes particularly relevant to taxonomic description. The trichome types present on the surface of Desmodium fruits provide data for the identification and classification of species in the State. To assess this, three fruits of each species were collected and deposited at two herbaria, HBR and FLOR, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Some rehydrated samples were examined using light microscopy (LM; and some sections were exposed to the following histochemical reagents: Sudan III for oils and Thionine for mucilage. The structural aspects of trichomes can be classified into uni- or multicel- lular and may still be simple, i.e., nonglandular or glandular. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, five types of trichomes were identified and analyzed among the Desmodium species studied: uncinate, uniseriate, globose multicellular, globose unicellular and subulate. Characteristics, such as loment margin and article form, glabrescent or pillous indument, trichome type, with or without papillous epidermal cells and epicuticular striations, showed relevant diagnostic value. An identification key was developed for Desmodium species from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on macro and micromorphological characters of the fruit.

  3. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfuração simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3-seriados e fibras libriformes separadas. A preseça de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na séire Vulgares Benth.,  que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  4. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. ofLeguminosae is a lofty tree ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native natural strands of this tree are fast disappearing due to over exploitation. This has led to inclusion of this plant in the list of endangered species. Extracts of tender vegetative regions of this plant are used as remedy for diarrhoea, dysentery, fever and toothache. The aqueous infusion of the wood is believed to ...

  5. Assessing the biological potential of N2-fixing Leguminosae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... legume genotypes or host/strain combinations for increased plant growth would help identify superior symbiotic ... are highly leached acidic soils (85% sand) with low ... quently, identifying crop species that are adapted to low.

  6. Chemical constituents of leaves from Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Souza, Alex Fonseca; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Abot, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoy1-3-O-α-D-galactopyranosy1 -(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+)-catechin and the dimer (+)-catechin-(4β-8)-catechin, glutinol, squalene, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, β-carotene, a-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and based on literature data. (author)

  7. Eocene Podocarpium (Leguminosae) from South China and its biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Qiu, Jue; Zhou, Zhekun; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger is one of the most common legumes in the Neogene of Eurasia, including fossil fruits, seeds, leaves, and possible flower and pollen grains. This genus is not completely consistent with any extant genera according to gross morphological characters and poorly preserved cuticular structures reported in previous studies. The fossil pods collected from the coal-bearing series of the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island and Maoming Basin of Guangdong, South China, are examined by morphologically comparative work, with special reference to venation patterns and placental position. These distinctive features, as well as the ovule development of pods from different developmental stages and the epidermal structure of the pods, as distinguished from previous records lead to the conclusion that these fossils can be recognized as a new species of Podocarpium, P. eocenicum sp. nov. This new discovery indicates that Podocarpium had arrived in South China by the Eocene. Investigation on the fossil records of this extinct genus shows that P. eocenicum is the earliest and lowest latitude fossil data. The possible occurrence pattern of this genus is revealed as follows: Podocarpium had distributed in the South China at least in the middle Eocene, and then migrated to Europe during the Oligocene; in the Miocene this genus reached its peak in Eurasia, spreading extensively across subtropical areas to warm temperate areas; finally, Podocarpium shrank rapidly and became extinct in Eurasia during the Pliocene.

  8. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  9. Bellulicauda dialii on Dialium guianense (Leguminosae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Olinto L.; Bosquetti, Lorrayne B.; Barreto, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    This is the first report of Bellulicauda dialii on Dialium guianense leaves, and the second record of this fungus, previously known only from Africa (Sierra Leone). Bellulicauda dialii é relatado pela primeira vez em folhas de Dialium guianense. Trata-se do segundo registro dessa espécie fúngica, anteriormente conhecida apenas do Continente Africano (Serra Leoa).

  10. Una nueva especie de Adesmia (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae para la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A. Ulibarri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Adesmia australis (serie Frigidae, una nueva especie de la provincia de Santa Cruz, que se distingue de su especie más afín, A. frigida, por el número y tamaño de los folíolos, el tamaño de las flores y estípulas isomorfas.

  11. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex distributed in the Río Balsas Depression and Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley. The phylogeographic structure was determined analyzing sequences from 4 plastid regions (trnL, trnL-F, psbA-trnH and accD-psaI in all populations. A nonparametric rate smoothing (NPRS method was employed to estimate the time of origin of the species complex. Haplotypic (0.64-1 and the nucleotide differences (3.8-11.52 were high in all species. The morphologically indistinct C. oyamae populations are genetically structured and showed 3 haplogroups where gene flow is low; considered them here as cryptic entities. The C. hintonii populations are genetically close-knit, even though they are morphologically distinct. The populations of C. macvaughii exhibit 2 divergent lineages with gene flow (Nm=1.41. Divergence events in 2 lineages between east and west from Rio Balsas Depression can be explained by geologic events. Our results showed that the C. hintonii complex is under diversification and in some cases morphostatic radiation.

  12. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  13. Chemical constituents of leaves from Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae); Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Mayker Lazaro Dantas; Souza, Alex Fonseca; Rodrigues, Edilene Delphino; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Abot, Alfredo [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMGS), Aquidauana, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Aquidauana

    2012-07-01

    A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), 1,2-di-O-{alpha}-linolenoy1-3-O-{alpha}-D-galactopyranosy1 -(1{yields}6)-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+)-catechin and the dimer (+)-catechin-(4{beta}-8)-catechin, glutinol, squalene, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, {beta}-carotene, a-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D) and based on literature data. (author)

  14. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrates and proteins fractioning of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumesDegradabilidade ruminal e fracionamento de carboidratos e proteínas em silagens de triticale em cultivo singular ou em misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Calixto Junior

    2011-07-01

    misturas com aveia e/ou leguminosas. Os tratamentos foram: silagem triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittimack (ST; silagem de triticale + ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense (STE; silagem de triticale + aveia (Avena strigosa Scheb + ervilha forrageira + ervilhaca (Vicia sativa (STAE. Foram utilizados três machos bovinos castrados da raça Holandesa, com peso vivo médio de 300 kg, portadores de cânula ruminal. Os tempos de incubação empregados tiveram a duração de 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 h. As frações a, c e a DE da MS da silagem STAE foram maiores (30,33; 0,026 e 45,45% em relação às demais silagens. A fração b da MS da silagem ST foi maior (58,45% em relação às silagens STE (45,36% e STAE (44,37%. Na PB a silagem ST apresentou maior fração a (72,12%. Na fração potencialmente degradável (b da PB não houve diferença entre tratamentos. A taxa de degradação (c da PB foi maior para a silagem STE (0,063% em relação à silagem ST (0,012%, porém esta foi semelhante à STAE (0,045%. A DE da PB foi melhor na silagem STE (77,71%. A silagem ST apresentou fração a e b da FDN maior (8,62 e 81,99% em relação às outras silagens. A taxa de degradação (c da FDN foi maior para STAE (0,027%. A DE da FDN não apresentou diferença entre tratamentos. A silagem ST apresentou os melhores valores dos carboidratos totais (83,97% em relação às silagens STE (79,87% e STAE (76,77%. As silagens STE e STAE apresentaram melhor degradabilidade da matéria seca e sugerem ser potencial fonte de proteína não-degradável no rúmen. A silagem exclusiva de triticale mostrou-se superior com relação à degradabilidade da fração fibrosa, apresentando também maior quantidade de carboidratos totais potencialmente degradáveis.

  15. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ≥ 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata

  16. Toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    The microbiology of the naturally fermented African condiments Afiitin, iru and sonru produced in Benin from locust beans, has recently been studied showing high Bacillus cereus counts of log7CFU/g (Azokpota, 2005). A total of 19 B. cereus strains isolated from the three condiments showed...

  17. The role of Staphylococcus species in the production of iru during the fermentation of African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amao, J.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus spp. are regularly isolated from iru, but the role(s they play in the fermentation process has not yet been determined; this work thus seeks to determine if Staphylococcus spp. isolated from iru play any role in the fermentation of African locust bean. Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. isolated from spontaneously fermented African locust bean (iru were used to ferment African locust beans. The temperature, pH and moisture content were determined as fermentation progress while the total soluble sugar and total free amino acid were determined after fermentation. The microbial load for the three iru products increased gradually until the end of fermentation. The total free amino acids increased in all three iru (1.10, 1.51 and 2.35 mg leucine ml-1 for Staphylococcus spp. iru, Bacillus spp. iru and iru produced with combination of the two species of bacteria when compared with that of the unfermented bean, while the total soluble sugars reduced after fermentation with Staphylococcus spp. iru having 3.84, Bacillus spp. iru has 3.60, and the unfermented bean has 5.30 mg glucose ml-1 total soluble sugar. The increased free amino acids in the iru fermented with Staphylococcus spp. and the ability of the Staphylococcus spp. to produce lipase showed that Staphylococcus spp. isolated from iru has the ability to ferment African locust bean and carry out the lipolytic activity during the fermentation.

  18. Adaptive properties of Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) & Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R.Br. (African Locust Bean) to drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouda, Zoewinde Henri-Noel

    been suggested as a strategy to improve local population livelihoods. The present thesis studies the adaptive properties to drought stress of A. digitata and P. biglobosa at nursery level, two species native to African savannas. Nursery trials were established with seeds of seven provenances of each...... of the two species. Three water regimes were applied, corresponding to 100%, 75% and 50% of field capacity. The effects of drought stress on the seedling survival, growth and dry matter partitioning was investigated on both species, and for A. digitata the experiment also included seedling morphology...... and physiology. A. digitata had a much higher survival rate than P. biglobosa. However, both species showed a strong reduction of the relative growth rate (diameter and height) and the total dry weight under the effect of applied water stress. Despite differences between provenances of P. biglobosa...

  19. Unravelling the distinct crystallinity and thermal properties of suberin compounds from Quercus suber and Betula pendula outer barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia F; Gandini, Alessandro; Caetano, Ana; Maria, Teresa M R; Freire, Carmen S R; Neto, Carlos Pascoal; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of suberin (a naturally occurring aromatic-aliphatic polyester ubiquitous to the vegetable realm) as a renewable source of chemicals and, in particular, to assess their physical properties. A comparison between cork and birch suberin fragments obtained by conventional depolymerisation processes (hydrolysis or methanolysis) is provided, focusing essentially on their thermal and crystallinity properties. It was found that suberin fragments obtained by the hydrolysis depolymerisation of birch had a high degree of crystallinity, as indicated by their thermal analysis and corroborated by the corresponding XRD diffractions, as opposed to hydrolysis-depolymerised cork suberin counterparts, which were essentially amorphous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estrutura fitossociológica do componente arbóreo de um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Densa na mata sul de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Felix Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to describe physiognomy and structure of a Dense Ombrophyllous Forest fragment located in Catende, Pernambuco. All trees with DAP (breast height diameter ≥ 4.77 cm were measured in 40 10 x 25 m plots, systematically installed in five transects. A total of 1049 individuals were observed, distributed in 91 species, 64 genera and 37 botanical families. Mimosaceae and Lauraceae were the families with higher species number, while Anacardiaceae and Moraceae had the highest individuals numbers. Shannon index (H´ was 3.83 nats/ind. Total basal area, height and diameter (average and maximum were 23.59 m²/ha, 13.57 m (± 7.13, 45 m, 13.20 cm (± 10.60 and 127.32 cm, respectively. The species with higher importance values were Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith, Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl. Rusby, Thyrsodium spruceanum Benth., Plathymenia foliolosa Benth., Brosimum discolor Schott, Parkia pendula (Willd. Benth. ex Walp., Schefflera morototoni (Aubl. Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin, Eschweilera ovata (Cambess. Miers and Cecropia palmata Willd. Diametric distribution had an inverted-J-like curve, predicted for a forest unequal in ages in a secondary succession stage.

  1. Morfologia e anatomia foliar de Bauhinia curvulha Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Morphology and anatomy of Bauhinia curvula Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Maria Helena Rezende

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o estudo morfológico e anatômico da folha de Bauhinia cumula Benth., espécie de cerrado. As observações foram feitas em folhas adultas, tratadas segundo a metodologia usual utilizada em anatomia vegetal. Foi observado que a espécie apresenta as seguintes características: folhas bilobadas cuja incisão foliar chega próximo à região motora; um par de estipulas membranáceas; um par de nectários extraflorais, localizadaos na base do pulvino proximal; a venação possui padrão acródomo; o pecíolo, que possui dois pulvinos, um proximal e um distai, apresenta epiderme contendo grande quantidade de tricomas tecto res simples e glândulas; a lâmina foliar é anfiestomática com predomínio de estômatos dos tipos anomocítico e paracítico; a epiderme adaxial é monoestratificada, subpapilosa, desprovida de tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; a epiderme abaxial é subpapilosa, apresentando numerosos tricomas tectores simples e glândulas; e o mesofilo é formado predominantemente por parênquima paliçádico.A morphological and anatomical study of Bauhinia curvula Benth. leaf, a cerrado spe-cies, was perfomed. The observations, in grown up leaves, prepared according to the costumary methodology used in plant anatomy, showed the following characteristics of the species: bilobed leaves with foliar incision close to the motor region; one pair of membranaceous stipules; one pair of extrafloral nectaries located on the basis of the proximal pulvinus; acrodromous patterns of leaf venetion; the petiole, which has two pulvinus, one proximal and one distal, has an epidermis containing large quantities of simple tector trichomes and glands; the leaf blade, amphiestomatic, with predominance of anomocytic and paracytic stomata; the adaxial epidermis uniserial, sub papillose, without tector trichomes and glands; the abaxial epiderms, sub-papillose, presents a high number of simple trichomes and glands; and the mesophyll with a basic composition of palisadic parenchyma.

  2. Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae nos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, MG, Brasil Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae in "Campos Rupestres" of Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Valquíria Ferreira Dutra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste do estudo florístico de Caesalpinioideae dos Campos Rupestres do Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEI, localizado no sul da Cadeia do Espinhaço. As coletas foram mensais, no período entre setembro/2003 e outubro/2004. Foram encontradas 13 espécies de Caesalpinioideae, reunidas em três gêneros: Bauhinia, Chamaecrista e Senna. O gênero Chamaecrista foi o que mais se destacou em número de espécies. Foram elaboradas chaves para identificação das espécies, além de diagnoses, ilustrações e comentários sobre afinidades, distribuição geográfica e fenologia das mesmas.This work consists of a floristic study of the Caesalpinioideae in "Campos Rupestres" at Itacolomi State Park, southern Espinhaço Range. Collections were carried out monthly from September 2003 to October 2004. Thirteen species of Caesalpinioideae belonging to three genera were found: Bauhinia, Chamaecrista and Senna. The genus Chamaecrista had the highest number of species. Species identification keys are presented, as well as descriptions, illustrations and comments on morphological relationships, geographic distribution and phenology.

  3. Revisão taxonômica de Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae Taxonomic revision of Myrocarpus Allemão (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae, Sophoreae

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    Ângela L.B. Sartori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Em Myrocarpus, gênero exclusivamente sul-americano, são reconhecidas cinco espécies: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoe M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Na delimitação das espécies são discutidos dados de morfologia, hábitats e de distribuição geográfica. A morfologia das pétalas e a ornamentação da região seminífera são caracteres relevantes na identificação das espécies, embora não utilizados até o presente. Este estudo apresenta chave de identificação das espécies, descrições, ilustrações, mapa de distribuição e novos registros de ocorrência.In Myrocarpus, an exclusively South American genus, five species are recognised: Myrocarpus frondosus Allemão, M. leprosus Pickel, M. venezuelensis Rudd, M. fastigiatus Allemãoand M. emarginatus A.L.B. Sartori & A.M.G. Azevedo. Morphologic data, habitat information and geographic distribution of each taxon are discussed. Petal morphology and ornamentation of seed chamber are an important character for species identification, though not shown previously. Key to the species, descriptions, illustrations, distribution, and new registers are presented.

  4. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 17. The genus Dalbergia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, F.; Ohashi, H.; Sunarno, B.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic treatment of the genus Dalbergia for the Flora Malesiana (FM) region is presented. The treatment includes a genus description, two keys to the species, an enumeration of the species present in the FM-area with names and synonyms, details of distribution, habitat and ecology and where

  5. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 1. The genus Erythrina L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1996-01-01

    Erythrina L. is reviewed for the Flora Malesiana region. Six species are recognised. Erythrina merrilliana is reduced to E. insularis and E. microcarpa Koord. & Valeton to E. stricta. A key to the species is presented.

  6. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) 16. The genus Mucuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiriadinata, H.; Ohashi, H.; Adema, F.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Mucuna is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Several characters are discussed in some detail. The subdivision of the genus is discussed. We accept two subgenera: subg. Mucuna and subg. Stizolobium. Several groups of species showing similarity in some characters are discussed. A

  7. New Biogeographic insight into Bauhinia s.l. (Leguminosae): integration from fossil records and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hong-Hu; Jacques, Frédéric Mb; Su, Tao; Huang, Yong-Jiang; Zhang, Shi-Tao; Ma, Hong-Jie; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2014-08-10

    Given that most species that have ever existed on earth are extinct, it stands to reason that the evolutionary history can be better understood with fossil taxa. Bauhinia is a typical genus of pantropical intercontinental disjunction among the Asian, African, and American continents. Geographic distribution patterns are better recognized when fossil records and molecular sequences are combined in the analyses. Here, we describe a new macrofossil species of Bauhinia from the Upper Miocene Xiaolongtan Formation in Wenshan County, Southeast Yunnan, China, and elucidate the biogeographic significance through the analyses of molecules and fossils. Morphometric analysis demonstrates that the leaf shapes of B. acuminata, B. championii, B. chalcophylla, B. purpurea, and B. podopetala closely resemble the leaf shapes of the new finding fossil. Phylogenetic relationships among the Bauhinia species were reconstructed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference, which inferred that species in Bauhinia species are well-resolved into three main groups. Divergence times were estimated by the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method under a relaxed clock, and inferred that the stem diversification time of Bauhinia was ca. 62.7 Ma. The Asian lineage first diverged at ca. 59.8 Ma, followed by divergence of the Africa lineage starting during the late Eocene, whereas that of the neotropical lineage starting during the middle Miocene. Hypotheses relying on vicariance or continental history to explain pantropical disjunct distributions are dismissed because they require mostly Palaeogene and older tectonic events. We suggest that Bauhinia originated in the middle Paleocene in Laurasia, probably in Asia, implying a possible Tethys Seaway origin or an "Out of Tropical Asia", and dispersal of legumes. Its present pantropical disjunction resulted from disruption of the boreotropical flora by climatic cooling after the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) seem the most plausible route for migration of Bauhinia from Asia to America; and additional aspects of the Bauhinia species distribution are explained by migration and long distance dispersal (LDD) from Eurasia to the African and American continents.

  8. Glands on the foliar surfaces of tribe Cercideae (Caesapiniodeae, Leguminosae: distribution and taxonomic significance

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    JOAQUIM M. DUARTE-ALMEIDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large elongated glands occur on Cercideae leaf surfaces. Leaves of Bauhinia (55 taxa, 53 species, Cercis (1 species, Phanera (1 species, Piliostigma (2 species, Schnella (19 species and Tylosema (1 species were observed to determine location and relative number of glands. They were only observed on the abaxial leaf surface of 42 Bauhinia taxa. The glands were analyzed by light stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. They are large (up to 270 µm long and 115 µm wide and multicellular, containing lipophilic substances, probably volatile oils. Presence or absence and density of the glands in species of Bauhinia may be useful to determine species delimitation or distinction among infraspecific taxa. Higher density of glands is more common in species from "cerrado" (a savanna ecosystem and "caatinga" (a semiarid ecosystem from northeast Brazil areas. Bauhinia species devoid of foliar glands are frequently from humid forests.

  9. Flavonóides glicosilados das folhas e flores de Bauhinia forficata (Leguminosae

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    Pizzolatti Moacir Geraldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Bauhinia forficata kaempferol and four flavonoid glycosides, 3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol, 3,7-di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylquercetin, 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylquercetin were obtained. From the flowers only the flavonoid 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol was isolated. The structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods.

  10. SEED, SEEDLINGS AND GERMINATION MORPHOLOGY OF Copaifera langsdorfii Desf. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae

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    Maria Elane de Carvalho Guerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of seed and seedling morphology are extremely important to the identification and preservation of plant species. In order to studying seed and seedling morphology and seed germination of copaiba (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf seeds, experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and Laboratory of Botany of the Federal University of Ceará. In copaíba seeds the characteristics studied were shape, size (length, width, thickness and morphology. The kind of germination, the root systems, hypocotyls, epicotyls and first leaves were the characteristics evaluated in copaiba seedlings. Ruler and pachimeter were used to make the measurements, as well as optical microscope and magnifying glass. The seeds are exalbumin kind, have neuter photoblastism and epigeous germination. Seed coat shows a palisade cell layer with a conspicuous light line. The seedlings have compound first leaves and axial root system.

  11. Leguminosas naturalizadas en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba Naturalized legumes in the Cauto Valley, Cuba

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    I Gómez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la dinámica de crecimiento de 24 accesiones del género Brachiaria spp., se desarrolló la presente investigación en la región de Barrancabermeja, Santander, Colombia. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, en 72 parcelas de 21 m2 cada una y tres réplicas (parcelas para cada tratamiento. Las accesiones fueron agrupadas según los hábitos de crecimiento en: estoloníferas, decumbentes y erectas, y se determinó la tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura del pasto. Las accesiones con mejor crecimiento durante la investigación fueron: de las estoloníferas, B. dictyoneura CIAT-6133; de las de hábito decumbente, B. decumbens CIAT-606; y de las de crecimiento erecto, B. brizantha CIAT-16113, CIAT-26110, CIAT-26318 y CIAT-16322. Algunas accesiones no tuvieron un buen comportamiento, al parecer por las condiciones edafoclimáticas a las que fueron sometidas. Entre ellas se encuentran B. dictyoneura CIAT-16871, B. ruziziensis CIAT-26180 y B. brizantha CIAT-16212, 26124 y 26427.With the objective of prospect and collect the naturalized legumes for livestock production usage in the Cauto Valley, Cuba, two searches were made in representative zones of the region. The first search was conducted in the territory located west of Bayamo city, where there are different soils and rainfall regimes, and the second one on soils affected by salinity. In prospection number 1 the presence of 17 genera was determined and within them a total of 22 species, among which the following prevailed: Galactia spiciformis, Centrosema molle, Desmodium triflorum and Teramnus uncinatum; the existence of an important number of species was also known on vertisol soils with deficient drainage, which edaphic grouping constitutes the most extended in the region, and on the other hand, the associability degree of each legume with other species of the spontaneous vegetation present in the search areas, was characterized. In prospection number 2 four and five genera were found on areas with weak and moderate fertility levels, respectively, and Desmanthus virgatus stood out due to the abundance in the number of individuals. It is concluded that under the conditions these prospections were made, there is a rich potential of naturalized legumes with multiplication and usage possibilities in the region.

  12. Lectins of Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii (Leguminosae: characterization and mitogenic effect

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    Silvia Quesada

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina species are widely distributed in Costa Rica and known popularly as "poró". In this study, two species were selected, Erythrina poeppigiana and Erythrina steyermarkii. Seed extracts were prepared in phosphate-buffered saline. The presence of lectins in the extracts was verified by hemagglutinating effect over suspensions of human erythrocytes. A selective hemagglutinating effect on erythrocytes of several mammal species, goat, horse and rabbit red cells was tested; only the latter were agglutinated by E. steyermarkii. The hemagglutinating effect of both lectins was inhibited with the following carbohydrates: D-galactose, N-acetyl galactosamine, D-lactose and D-raffinose. The lectin from E. steyermarkii was also inhibited with L-rhamnose. Both lectins were isolated with gel filtration and affinity chromatography using lactose as ligand. Fractions that proved positive were tested with the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration and SDS-PAGE showed that these lectins have an apparent molecular mass of 50kDa, and are formed by two subunits of approximately 25 kDa. E. poeppigiana had no mitogenic effect, but the extract of E. steyermarkii had a mitogenic effect on human mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood. The stability of the lectins was tested at different temperature and pH ranges (4 to 100 °C and at pH 2 to 12. Both were stable at a pH range from 2 to 10, and at temperatures from 40 to 70 °C.Las diferentes especies de Erythrina se encuentran ampliamente distribuidas en Costa Rica y se las conoce popularmente con el nombre de "poró". En el presente estudio, se seleccionaron dos especies: Erythrina poeppigiana y Erythrina steyermarkii. Se prepararon extractos de las semillas en solución tampón salina de fosfatos y se verificó la presencia de lectinas en ellos mediante la técnica de hemaglutinación, utilizando eritrocitos humanos. Se trató de demostrar un efecto selectivo de la hemaglutinación empleando eritrocitos de varias especies de mamíferos, específicamente de carnero, caballo y conejo. Solo los eritrocitos de conejo fueron aglutinados con la lectina de E. steyermarkii. El efecto hemaglutinante de las dos lectinas fue inhibido con los siguientes carbohidratos: D-galactosa, N-D-acetil galactosamina, D-lactosa y D-rafinosa. La lectina de E. steyermarkii también fue inhibida con L-rhamnosa. Las dos lectinas fueron aisladas por filtración en gel y cromatografìa de afinidad, usando lactosa como ligando. Las fracciones que resultaron positivas se analizaron mediante la técnica de electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida y duodecil sulfato de sodio (SDS-PAGE. Con la filtración en gel y el SDS-PAGE, se comprobó que las dos lectinas tienen una masa molecular aparente de 50 kDa y que están formadas por dos subunidades de 25 kDa, aproximadamente. Se buscó un efecto mitogénico en las dos lectinas y se encontró que sólo E. steyermarkii lo manifestaba sobre células mononucleares humanas aisladas de sangre periférica. Se determinó la estabilidad de las lectinas en diferentes ámbitos de temperatura (4 a 100 °C y de pH (2 a 12 . Las dos lectinas se mantuvieron estables en un rango de temperatura de 40 a 70 °C y en un pH de 2 a 10.

  13. Morpho-physiological responses of alhagi sparsifolia shap. (leguminosae) seedlings to progressive drought stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, F.; Zhang, B.; Lu, Y.; Li, C.; Liu, B.; An, G.; Gao, X.

    2016-01-01

    Water is a key limiting factor influencing plant growth and development in arid ecosystem. To explore the mechanisms of the desert plant Alhagi sparsifolia seedlings to tolerate drought stress in extreme desert, an experiment was conducted from July to September in 2010 with four water treatments: 100 percent (W/sub 100/), 80 percent (W80), 60 percent (W60) and 45 percent (W/sub 45/) of water holding capacity (WHC). Plant growth, photosynthesis, nutrient content and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured. The Results showed that plant growth, branch number, biomass allocation, number of leaves and area per leaf as well as leaf area ratio with drought stress treatments (W/sub 80/, W/sub 60/ and W/sub 45/) decreased than W/sub 100/ treatment, while root/shoot ratio and specific leaf area increased gradually throughout the experimental duration. Furthermore, photosynthetic pigment content, light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and concentration of carbon and nitrogen in plant significantly decreased with increasing drought stress. The WUE at W/sub 100/ and W/sub 80/ treatments increased significantly at the beginning of drought stress treatment and then reduced with stress prolonged. In Conclusion, the desert plant A. sparsifolia can tolerate the progressive drought stress due to the strong plasticity of morphological and physiological traits. The critical level of soil WHC to limit the growth and dry mass production of A. sparsifolia seedlings in the southern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert was approximately at 45 percent. (author)

  14. Meiotic behavior of Adesmia DC. (Leguminosae-Faboideae species native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Coelho Liliana Gressler May

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic behavior in Adesmia DC. is described for the first time. The study encompassed twelve populations of seven Adesmia DC. species native to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Populations with 2n = 2x = 20 are A. securigerifolia 9615, A. riograndensis 9590 (subnudae, A. latifolia 1568, 1775, 15025, A. bicolor JB-UFSM, A. incana var. incana 9636, 10288, A. punctata var. hilariana 6885, 10812, and A. tristis 10757. A. incana var. incana 9637 is a tetraploid with 2n = 4x = 40. The material was stained with 1% acetic orcein. The meiotic behavior of the populations studied was considered normal. The meiotic index (MI and the estimates of pollen grain viability were above 95%, except for A. latifolia 1568 (MI = 89%. The present data indicate that these plants are meiotically stable and potentially fertile, apparently with no problems for use in programs of selection, crossing and viable seed production.

  15. Mimosoideae (Leguminosae do litoral paraense Mimosoideae (Leguminose on the coast of Pará

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    Julio dos Santos de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento taxonômico de Mimosoideae nas restingas do litoral paraense, uma vez que estas são pouco conhecidas sob esse aspecto. Esse estudo abrangeu a análise do material proveniente de coletas e exsicatas dos herbários MG e IAN, além de literatura especializada. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações dos táxons, bem como dados adicionais sobre distribuição geográfica, comentários, período de floração e frutificação e hábitat das mesmas. O fruto foi o caráter de maior destaque na separação dos táxons. Os resultados evidenciaram a presença de sete espécies, três variedades e uma subespécie, distribuídas em seis gêneros. Inga thibaudiana subsp. thibaudiana e Mimosa candollei, são novos registros para o litoral do Pará. O gênero Inga Mill. foi o mais representativo com cinco espécies. Entada polystachya var. polystachya e principalmente Chloroleucon acacioides apresentaram distribuição mais ampla e a formação floresta de restinga foi o ecossistema que apresentou o maior número de espécie.This study deals with the taxonomic treatment of Mimosoideae on the coastal sandbanks of Pará, since they are poorly known under this aspect. That study includes the analysis of botanical material from new collections and specimens of the MG and IAN herbariums, besides that found in specialized literature. Are given identification key, descriptions, and illustrations of the taxa, as well as data concerning geographical distribution, additional comments, flowering and fructification period, and habitat of the species. The fruit has the quality of great prominence in the separation of taxa. The results pointed out the presence of seven species, three varieties and one subspecies, distributed in six genera. Inga thibaudiana subsp. thibaudiana e Mimosa candollei are new records for the sand coast of Pará. The genus Inga Mill. was the most representative with five species. Entada polystachya var. polystachya and specially Chloroleucon acacioides presented the widest distribution, and sandbank forest formation was the ecosystem which had the largest number of species.

  16. Efeito da seca e chuva sobre a comunidade microbiana da rizosfera de leguminosas da Caatinga

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Duarte Lançoni

    2014-01-01

    Propriedades que constituem um clima árido são encontradas distribuídas por todo o globo terrestre. A Caatinga, bioma semi-árido brasileiro, se estende por 11% do território nacional e tem particularidades tanto em relação ao clima, volume de chuvas e temperatura, quanto à sua composição flora e faunística. Micro-organismos associados a plantas provêm defesas e resistência a diferentes estresses abióticos ou bióticos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a comunidade rizosférica microbiana...

  17. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 ± 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L -1 rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 μg mL -1 ) and 30 nmol L -1 rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 ± 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  18. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Methods Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. Key Results The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S–26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Conclusions Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms involved in the origin of economically important species of Arachis, either by triploid bridge or bilateral sexual polyploidization. PMID:21693666

  19. Cytogenetics of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) O. Kuntze (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae): chromosome number, polysomaty and meiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Olkoski, Denise; Wittmann, Maria Teresa Schifino

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome numbers (somatic and/or gametic) were determined in 50 populations of M. bimucronata (DC.) O. Kuntze collected in the species area of distribution in Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. All populations were diploid (2n = 2x = 26, n = 13). Polysomatic (mostly tetraploid) cells were detected in the seedlings root-tip cells in 39 out of the 41 populations examined, ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 % among populations, but were absent in the root-tips of grown plants. Polysomaty was as well absen...

  20. Cytogenetics of Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kuntze (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae: chromosome number, polysomaty and meiosis.

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    Denise Olkoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers (somatic and/or gametic were determined in 50 populations of M. bimucronata (DC. O.Kuntze collected in the species area of distribution in Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil. All populations were diploid (2n = 2x = 26,n = 13. Polysomatic (mostly tetraploid cells were detected in the seedlings root-tip cells in 39 out of the 41 populations examined,ranging from 3.0 to 28.2 % among populations, but were absent in the root-tips of grown plants. Polysomaty was as well absent inpollen-mother cells. In M. bimucronata pollen-mother cells are joined two-by-two before the onset of meiosis, remaining attachedduring all the meiotic division until the formation of pollen grain polyads, composed of two sets of four pollen grains each, that aredispersed in this way, which, according to previous suggestions would be an adaptation to ensure high seed set after a singlepollination event.

  1. Estudo preliminar da atividade antibacteriana das cascas de Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae (Leguminosae

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    S. Virtuoso

    Full Text Available A Erythrina velutina é popularmente conhecida como suinã, mulungu, corticeira, mulungu-da-catinga dentre outros. Das várias espécies distribuídas pelo mundo cerca de doze estão no Brasil. A casca é utilizada, principalmente no nordeste brasileiro, pelas propriedades sudorífica, calmante, emoliente, peitoral, anestésica local e outras. Considerando-se que não existem estudos sobre o potencial microbiológico das cascas de Erythrina velutina este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliá-lo preliminarmente contra oito bactérias patogênicas. Foram utilizados os métodos de difusão em disco e concentração inibitória mínima para o extrato etanólico bruto e difusão em disco para a fração hexano. A atividade contra o Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus pyogenes foi evidenciada para ambas as amostras. A viabilidade de futuras pesquisas com outras frações e substâncias isoladas na busca de novas alternativas, visando uma terapêutica racional a partir de fontes naturais foi apontada pelos resultados.

  2. COMPONENTES QUÍMICOS DEL DURAMEN DE Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae

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    C. Téllez-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis químico del duramen de Andira inermis para determinar los principales componentes químicos. Los resultados encontrados fueron: pH de 5.9, 0.71 % de sustancias inorgánicas, 19.1 % de sustancias extraíbles, 34.2 % de lignina y 65.78 % de polisacáridos. En las cenizas se detectó la presencia de calcio, magnesio, azufre y silicio. Las sustancias fueron obtenidas mediante extracción sucesiva con ciclohexano, cloroformo, acetona y metanol en equipo Soxhlet y finalmente con agua caliente bajo reflujo. La solubilidad del duramen fue mayor en acetona (8.6 % y en metanol (5.3 %; el contenido total de sustancias extraíbles fue de 19.1 %.

  3. The reproductive biology of Sophora fernandeziana (Leguminosae), a vulnerable endemic species from Isla Robinson Crusoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardello, Gabriel; Aguilar, Ramiro; Anderson, Gregory J

    2004-02-01

    Sophora fernandeziana is the only legume endemic to Isla Robinson Crusoe (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile); it is uncommon and becoming rare. Although its preservation status is listed as "vulnerable," as with many species, little is known of its reproductive biology. Flowering phenology, floral morphology, nectar features, breeding system, and visitors were analyzed in two populations. Flowering is from late winter to early spring. Flowers last 6 d and have a number of ornithophilous features. A floral nectary begins to secrete highly concentrated nectar 48 h after flowers open. Nectar secretion increases as the flower ages but culminates in active nectar reabsorption as the flower senesces. Nectar production is negatively affected by nectar removal. Self-pollen germinates and tubes grow down the style. However, pollen tubes were only observed to enter the ovaries in open pollinated styles, suggesting the possibility of an ovarian self-incompatibility mechanism. Both sexes of the two hummingbird species that inhabit the island are regular visitors. Low fruit and seed set, low genetic diversity, and a shrinking number of populations all contribute to increased concern about the future of this species-and perhaps the hummingbirds that depend on it.

  4. LAS PROTEINAS SEMINALES DEL MANI (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA, LEGUMINOSAE y SU RELACION CON LAS CATEGORIAS INFRAESPECIFICAS

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    N R Grosso

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Las proteínas seminales de 122 muestras diferentes de Arachis hypogaea L. originarios de Bolivia, Perú y Ecuador fueron estudiadas por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida.Se detectaron siete bandas constantes y 27 bandas inconstantes. Los resultados de las últimas se utilizaron para analizar las similitudes entre las muestras empleando el coeficiente de Jaccard y el método de ligamiento promedio de la media aritmética no ponderada(UPGMA.Las proteínas seminales permitieron separar totalmente la subespecies de A.hypogaea y las variedades en menor medida.

  5. A new species of Erythrostemon (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) from the western Río Balsas Depression, Mexico

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    Sotuyo,Solange; Contreras,José Luis; Lewis,Gwilym

    2017-01-01

    A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with E. hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and in...

  6. A new species of Erythrostemon (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae from the western Río Balsas Depression, Mexico

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    Solange Sotuyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new legume species from a seasonally dry forest of the Western Río Balsas Depression, in the states of Guerrero and Michoacán, Mexico, Erythrostemon guevarafeferii, is herein described and illustrated. The new species shows morphological affinities with E. hintonii, from which it is distinguished in having fewer leaflets per pinna, mature leaflets disposed toward the upper half of the pinnae rachises, long inflorescences on curved slender peduncles, abundant red glands on its flowers and inflorescences, and its fruit glabrous with red stipitate glands at maturity. A taxonomic key to the Río Balsas Depression species of Erythrostemon is included.

  7. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da, E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Laboratorio de Cromatografia Liquida, Universidade Federal do Para, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; MFilho, Arnaldo Jorge [Laboratorio de Neuropatologia Experimental, Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2'',2''dimethylchromene-(5''6'':6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'',2''-dimethylchromene-(5'',6'':6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1}rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  8. Flavonoids from the leaves of Deguelia utilis (Leguminosae): structural elucidation and neuroprotective properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dalglish G. de; Almeida, Cecilia M.C. de; Silva, Consuelo Y.Y. e; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Arruda, Alberto C., E-mail: yumilton@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida; Lopes, Dielly C.F.; Yamada, Elizabeth S.; Costa, Edmar T. da; Silva, Milton N. da [Hospital Universitario Barros Barreto, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Neuropatologia Experimental

    2012-10-15

    Five new flavonoids, 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylchromene-(5''6''6,7)- dihydroflavonol (1), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-dihydroflavonol (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-allyl-2'', 2''-dimethylchromene-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}6,7) flavanone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanone (4), 3,5,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy- 6,8-dimethylallyl-flavanol (5), together with the stilbenes 4-methoxylonchocarpene (6) and lonchocarpene (7) were isolated from the leaves of Deguelia utilis. Their chemical structures were established on the basis of NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectral data and HRESITOF-MS (electrospray ionization-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry). Also, in order to investigate potential cytoprotective effects of these flavonoids, we used a fraction eluted with hexane:EtOAc containing all seven flavonoids, in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, using hippocampal primary cultures from neonatal (PND2-P3) rats exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. There was a significant reduction in cell viability (19.4 {+-} 1.6%) when the cultures were exposed to 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone for 72 h. Concomitant exposure of the cultures to the FR3 (5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) and 30 nmol L{sup -1} rotenone resulted in values of cell viability similar to control groups (99.6 {+-} 4.8%), strongly suggesting a cytoprotective effect for this flavonoid-rich fraction. (author)

  9. Lathyrus linearifolius (Leguminosae-Vicieae confirmed species for the Argentine flora

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    Ricardo O. Vanni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lathyrus linearifolius Vogel is confirmed in the Argentine flora. The number of species of the genus recorded for the northeast region is increased to nine. The new citation is described and illustrated indicating its geographic distribution. A key to distinguish the nine species from NE of Argentina is provided

  10. Nectar production dynamics and sugar composition in two Mucuna species (Leguminosae, Faboideae) with different specialized pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Kayna; Sazima, Marlies; Galetto, Leonardo

    2011-11-01

    Nectar is secreted in particular rhythms throughout the lifespan of a flower, which allows determining the nectar production dynamics. This paper compares nectar features in Mucuna japira and Mucuna urens describing: dynamics of nectar production, floral response to nectar removal, resorption, nectar sugar composition, and variation in nectar sugar composition. M. japira inflorescence bears 12-21 yellow flowers, which are in anthesis for 7 days, whereas M. urens inflorescence bears 36-54 greenish flowers, but only 1-3 flowers are in anthesis simultaneously that last one night. Nectar volume and sugar concentration were measured, and the amount of sugar was estimated. Qualitative and quantitative nectar sugar composition was determined. Both species had a constant nectar sugar concentration (ca. 10% for M. japira and ca. 16% for M. urens) and secreted high volumes of nectar (ca. 340 μl per flower for M. japira and 310 μl per flower for M. urens), during 5 days for M. japira and 6 h for M. urens, but after the first removal, i.e., when flower opening mechanism is triggered, nectar production stops immediately. Nectar resorption occurred in both species. Nectar sugar composition showed some similarities between the species. Variation in nectar sugar composition occurred in both species. The Mucuna species are dependent on their pollinators to produce fruits and seeds, and they have different strategies to promote the necessary interaction with birds or bats, especially related to nectar and flower characteristics.

  11. Morphoanatomy of nectaries of Chamaecrista (L. Moench sections Chamaecrista , Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae

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    Marinalva dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nectaries are specialized structures that secrete nectar. Several species of Chamaecrista possess nectaries on the petiole, which have been shown to vary widely in morphology and the chemical nature of their secretion. However, a comprehensive investigation of the nectaries of the clade formed by sect. Chamaecrista, Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx has yet to be performed. Our study aimed to confirm whether or not the leaf glands of species of this clade are in fact nectaries, determine the chemical nature of their secretion and expand the morphoanatomical database on leaf nectaries in Chamaecrista with the intention of contributing to the taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus. Samples from herbarium and field-collected material were subjected to standard methods for light and scanning electron microscopy. Four different forms of nectaries were observed: urceolate, patelliform, verruciform and cupuliform. The nectaries were found to comprise a single-layered epidermis, nectary parenchyma, subnectary parenchyma and vascularization. Polysaccharides, lipids, phenolic compounds and proteins were detected in secretions. Although anatomical similarities were observed among the studied species, their morphology differed. Moreover, the glands are indeed nectaries and are similar to those observed in other species of the genus Chamaecrista. These data hold potential taxonomic usefulness for the studied sections.

  12. Constituintes químicos das folhas de Riedeliella graciliflora Harms (Leguminosae

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    Mayker Lazaro Dantas Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new salicylic acid derivative, pentacosanyl salicylate, was isolated from the leaves of the plant toxic to cattle, Riedeliella graciliflora, in addition to a digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG, 1,2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranosyl-glycerol, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, (+-catechin and the dimer (+-catechin-(4β-8-catechin, glutinol, squalene, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and ficaprenol-12. Their structures were determined using spectral techniques (MS, IR, and NMR-1D and 2D and based on literature data.

  13. Storage sites in seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea (Leguminosae with considerations on nutrients flow

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    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea behaved as typical endospermic seeds, despite their different morphological classification (exendospermic seeds were described for C. echinata and endospermic seeds for C. ferrea. Then, the aim of this work was to compare, under ultrastructural and histochemical terms, the nature of the storage substances and their accumulation sites, as well as the nutrient flow in seeds of these species. Cotyledons in C. echinata accumulate carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, which are mobilized from the outer to the inner parts as revealed by the position of plasmodesmata. Endosperm in C. ferrea accumulates carbohydrates and in C. echinata accumulates substances during the initial embryogenic phases. Such tissue develops a chalazal haustorium that is responsible for the transport of substances into the endosperm itself and from it into the embryo, confirmed by the presence of transference cells.As sementes de Caesalpinia echinata e C. ferrea comportam-se como endospérmicas, apesar de descritas na literatura como exendospérmicas e endospérmicas, respectivamente. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar, em termos ultra-estrutural e histoquímico, a natureza das substâncias de reserva e seus tecidos acumuladores, bem como o fluxo de nutrientes nas sementes destas espécies. Os cotilédones em C. echinata acumulam carboidratos, lipídios e proteínas, mobilizados da periferia para o centro, como visto pelo posicionamento dos plasmodesmas. O endosperma em C. ferrea acumula carboidratos e lipídios, e em C. echinata, acumula substâncias nos estádios iniciais da embriogênese. Este tecido desenvolve um haustório calazal agressivo, que transporta substâncias para o endosperma propriamente dito e deste para o embrião, fato confirmado pela presença de células de transferência no endosperma.

  14. Evidences of local adaptation in quantitative traits in Prosopis alba (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessega, C; Pometti, C; Ewens, M; Saidman, B O; Vilardi, J C

    2015-02-01

    Signals of selection on quantitative traits can be detected by the comparison between the genetic differentiation of molecular (neutral) markers and quantitative traits, by multivariate extensions of the same model and by the observation of the additive covariance among relatives. We studied, by three different tests, signals of occurrence of selection in Prosopis alba populations over 15 quantitative traits: three economically important life history traits: height, basal diameter and biomass, 11 leaf morphology traits that may be related with heat-tolerance and physiological responses and spine length that is very important from silvicultural purposes. We analyzed 172 G1-generation trees growing in a common garden belonging to 32 open pollinated families from eight sampling sites in Argentina. The multivariate phenotypes differ significantly among origins, and the highest differentiation corresponded to foliar traits. Molecular genetic markers (SSR) exhibited significant differentiation and allowed us to provide convincing evidence that natural selection is responsible for the patterns of morphological differentiation. The heterogeneous selection over phenotypic traits observed suggested different optima in each population and has important implications for gene resource management. The results suggest that the adaptive significance of traits should be considered together with population provenance in breeding program as a crucial point prior to any selecting program, especially in Prosopis where the first steps are under development.

  15. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

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    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  16. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  18. Isozyme and RAPD studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. Velutina (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae

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    Bessega Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD techniques have been compared for their usefulness for genetic and taxonomic studies in Prosopis glandulosa and P. velutina populations. Isozymes and RAPDs yielded similarly high estimates of genetic variability. Genetic structure and differentiation were analyzed through non-hierarchical Wright's F DT. For all populations considered, both markers produced low gene flow (Nm 1, in agreement with that expected for conspecific populations. However, in RAPD data the expected reduction in F DT and the increase in Nm were not observed. Correlation between F DT and geographical distance matrices (Mantel test for all populations was significant (P = 0.02 when based on isozymes, but not so (P = 0.33 when based on RAPDs. No significant associations among genetic and geographical or climatic variables were observed. Two isoenzyme systems (GOT and PRX enabled us to distinguish between P. glandulosa and P. velutina, but no diagnostic band for recognition of populations or species studied here were detected by RAPD. However, RAPD markers showed higher values for genetic differentiation among conspecific populations of P. glandulosa and a lower coefficient of variation than those obtained from isozymes.

  19. Pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala (leguminosae-papilionoideae

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    Maria Cecília de Chiara Moço

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollination ecology of Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala was studied in the restinga of Maricá, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. S. apetala var. apetala is a shrub with asynchronic annual blooming, between the months of November and April (hot-rainy season. Each plant can exhibit more than one blooming episode in this period. Their flowers are hermaphrodites, apetalous, heterantherous, odoriferous, and the pollen represents the only reward offered to visitors. It is pollinized by species of Centris and Xylocopa, solitary and polyletic bees, which collect the pollen by means of vibratory movements. Other bees such as Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea and Trigona spinipes are only pollen-thieves. In this variety of Swartzia vibrating is an efficient method to collect pollen from the anthers despite non-poricidal dehiscence.. The flowering phenology and the behavior of visitors influence the rate of outcrossing.A ecologia da polinização de Swartzia apetala Raddi var. apetala foi estudada na restinga de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. S. apetala var. apetala é um arbusto com floração do tipo anual assincrônica, entre os meses de novembro e abril (estação quente- chuvosa. Cada planta pode apresentar mais de um episódio de floração neste período. As flores são hermafroditas, apétalas, heterândricas, odoríferas e o polem constitui a única recompensa oferecida aos visitantes. É polinizada por espécies de Centris e Xylocopa, abelhas solitárias e poliléticas, que coletam o polem através do método de vibração. Nesta variedade de Swartzia a vibração é um método eficiente de coleta de polem apesar das anteras apresentarem deiscência rimosa. Outras abelhas, como Apis mellifera, Pseudaugochloropsis graminea e Trigona spinipes, são pilhadoras de pólen. A fenologia da floração e o comportamento dos visitantes florais influenciam a taxa de fertilização cruzada.

  20. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β 0 e β1•E-1), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R2>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12cm in diameter and 550cm3 of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80g•cm-3), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC•ha-1) at the highest density of 2500 trees•ha-1 (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC•ha-1 are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits. PMID:25992905

  1. Origin of triploid Arachis pintoi (Leguminosae) by autopolyploidy evidenced by FISH and meiotic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Graciela Inés; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán; Fernández, Aveliano; Seijo, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Polyploidy is a dominant feature of flowering-plant genomes, including those of many important crop species. Arachis is a largely diploid genus with just four polyploid species. Two of them are economically important: the cultivated peanut and A. glabrata, a tropical forage crop. Even though it is usually accepted that polyploids within papilionoid legumes have arisen via hybridization and further chromosome doubling, it has been recently suggested that peanut arose through bilateral sexual polyploidization. In this paper, the polyploid nature of the recent, spontaneously originated triploid cytotype of the tropical lucerne, A. pintoi, was analysed, and thereby the mechanism by which polyploids may arise in the genus. Chromosome morphology of 2x and 3x A. pintoi was determined by the Feulgeńs technique and the rDNA sites were mapped by FISH. To investigate whether polyploidization occurred by means of unreduced gametes, a detailed analysis of the microsporogenesis and pollen grains was made. The 2x and 3x plants presented 9m + 1sm and a satellited chromosome type 2 in each haploid genome. Physical mapping revealed a cluster of 18S-26S rDNA, proximally located on chromosome 6, and two 5S rDNA loci on chromosomes 3 and 5. Diploid plants presented 10II in meiosis while trivalents were observed in all triploids, with a maximum of 10III by cell. Diploid A. pintoi produced normal tetrads, but also triads, dyads and monads. Two types of pollen grains were detected: (1) normal-sized with a prolate shape and (2) large ones with a tetrahedral morphology. Karyotype and meiotic analysis demonstrate that the 3x clone of A. pintoi arose by autopolyploidy. The occurrence of unreduced gametes strongly supports unilateral sexual polyploidization as the most probable mechanism that could have led to the origin of the triploid cytotype. This mechanism of polyploidization would probably be one of the most important mechanisms involved in the origin of economically important species of Arachis, either by triploid bridge or bilateral sexual polyploidization.

  2. Degradation of proteins during the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) by strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for production of Soumbala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, L.I.I.; Rechinger, K.B.; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine isolates of Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus predominant in Soumbala for their ability to degrade African locust bean proteins (ALBP).Methods and Results: Agar diffusion test in casein and ALBP agar was used for screening of isolates. The profiles of water-soluble proteins and free...... amino acids (FAA) during the fermentation of ALBP by the Bacillus isolates were studied by SDS-PAGE and cation exchange chromatography. The profile of soluble proteins changed with the fermentation time and varied depending on the isolate. The quantity of total FAA and essential FAA such as lysine...... was increased sharply between 24 and 48 h of fermentation and differed among the isolates. Simultaneously, a pH increase was observed. Cysteine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalaline appeared during fermentation.Conclusion: The Bacillus isolates studied degraded ALBP leading to a profile...

  3. Performance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped under Parkia biglobosa in an agroforestry system in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ahmed Nur; Ræbild, Anders; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2011-01-01

    In agroforestry systems, crop yields under trees are often low compared to outside. This study explored crop management under trees for improved production and income for farmers. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) sole and intercrops were grown under and outside...... the trees and intercrops flowered earlier than sole crops. Cowpea sole crops had significant grain yield losses of up to 21% under trees compared to outside, and pearl millet yield was reduced up to 67% under trees. Intercrop yields were less affected by growth under trees. LER was significantly higher...... under the trees than outside, and were always larger than unity indicating benefits of intercropping over sole cropping. Intercropping with two rows of cowpea and one row of millet gave significantly higher economic benefit than mixture with one row of each of the crops. Results indicate...

  4. Pollination Strategies to Increase Productivity of the African Fruit Trees Vitellaria paradoxa subsp. paradoxa & Parkia biglobosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie

    of the potential pollinators in the flowers. For one of the species, a number of seeds from the resulting pods were genotyped and the distances to the assigned father trees were found. Due to relatively few flower-visitors it was possible to assign the effective pollinators for both species. The main results...

  5. Proposta metodológica para análise da ocorrência de sinergismo e efeitos potencializadores entre aleloquímicos Methodological proposal for analysis of synergism and potentializing effects among allelochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos envolvendo a análise de sinergismo entre aleloquímicos têm envolvido, basicamente, a utilização de concentrações fixas. Neste trabalho, propõe-se um modelo teórico envolvendo quatro possibilidades de respostas: uma que demonstra a existência de sinergismo (possibilidade A do modelo; outra que revela a inexistência de sinergismo (possibilidade B do modelo; e duas que revelam que uma substância potencializa o efeito de outra (possibilidades C e D do modelo. Para efeito de teste do modelo, utilizaram-se duas substâncias químicas (ácido 3,4,5-trimetoxibenzóico [S1] e ácido verátrico [S2] isoladas das folhas de Parkia pendula, com atividade alelopática já comprovada, nas seguintes proporções: S1 pura, S2 pura e combinações de S1 e S2, nas seguintes proporções: 3:1, 1:1 e 1:3. Como plantas indicadoras foram utilizadas as plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Os resultados, analisados em relação às quatro possibilidades estabelecidas no modelo teórico, permitiram inferir a inexistência de efeitos sinérgicos entre as duas substâncias testadas. As variações entre os resultados obtidos e a possibilidade B do modelo podem ser atribuídas ao potencial inibitório da substância e à sensibilidade das espécies receptoras às substâncias testadas.The procedures involving the analysis of synergism between allelochemicals have basically involved the use of fixed concentrations. This work deals with theoretical model involving four possibilities of response: one demonstraing the existence of synergism (possibility A of the model; one demonstraing the absence of synergism (possibility B of the model and two showing that a substance potentializes the effect of another (possibilities C and D of the model. Two isolated chemical substances (3,4,5-trimetoxybenzoic acid [S1] and 3,4-dimetoxybenzoic acid [S2] were used to test the model, isolated from Parkia pendula leaves with

  6. FATORES EDÁFICOS E AS VARIAÇÕES FLORÍSTICAS DA REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL EM DUAS FORMAÇÕES FLORESTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gonçalves Jardim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ecossistemas litorâneos são influenciados pelas características do solo que junto com a disponibilidade de nutrientes atuam como fator determinante da composição florística e da estrutura de uma comunidade vegetal. Com o objetivo de verificar a correlação entre os fatores edáficos e a composição de espécies em duas formações florestais da Área de Proteção Ambiental Algodoal-Maiandeua, Maracanã, Pará, foram delimitadas três parcelas de 50 x 50 m (0,75 ha na floresta de restinga seca e duas (0,50 ha na floresta inundável. Cada parcela foi dividida em 50 subparcelas de 2 x 2 m distribuídas aleatoriamente e foram identificados e quantificados todos os indivíduos com altura ≥ 5 cm e ≤ 80 cm, calculada a densidade relativa e coletadas 5 amostras simples de solo por parcela. Para relacionar os gradientes ao componente edáfico foi realizada a análise de correspondência canônica (CCA. Na floresta de restinga seca a CCA mostrou maior correlação entre Myrcia fallax, Pradosia pedicellata, Protium heptaphyllum e Parkia pendula com Fe, P, Cu, Ca, K e MO e na floresta inundável Symphonia globulifera e Virola surinamensis tiveram alta relação com CaCl2, KCl, H2O, Zn e N. Foi constatada a separação das espécies mais bem representadas nas duas florestas e respectivos nutrientes do solo. Palavras-chave: Floresta de restinga seca, floresta inundável, nutrientes no solo.

  7. Biodegradation of PAHs in long-term contaminated soil cultivated with european white birch (betula pendula) and red mulberry (morus rubra) tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Jan; Wiesche in der, C.; Macková, M.; Zadražil, F.; Macek, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2009), s. 66-81 ISSN 1522-6514 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06156 Program:2B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phytoremediation * Lolium perenne * HPLC * plants Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2009

  8. Effect of log soaking and the temperature of peeling on the properties of rotary-cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer bonded with phenol-formaldehyde adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Akio Yamamoto; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Mark Hughes; Jaan Kers

    2016-01-01

    Heating logs prior to peeling positively affects the surface properties of veneer as well as the wood-adhesive bond strength. However, the mechanism behind this increase in strength is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to separate the influence of soaking temperature and peeling temperature on the physical surface properties and bonding quality....

  9. Potencialidad de Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamilia: Mimosoideae para estudios dendrocronológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montaña Potential of Prosopis ferox Griseb (Leguminosae, subfamily: Mimosoideae for dendrochronological studies in high-montane subtropical deserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO S. MORALES

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la escasez de especies con anillos anuales de crecimiento, la dendrocronología de regiones áridas de montañas tropicales y subtropicales está muy poco desarrollada. En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de la especie arbórea Prosopis ferox,"churqui", para estudios dendrocronológicos analizando las características anatómicas del leño y las relaciones entre registros climáticos y cronologías de ancho de anillos de una colección realizada a 3.500 m, en la quebrada de Humahuaca (23°13' S, 65°20' O, Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina. Las observaciones microscópicas de cortes histológicos muestran que los anillos están claramente demarcados por una banda parenquimática terminal clara. Comparando la cronología estandarizada de ancho de anillos con los registros instrumentales de La Quiaca (22º06'S, 65º36'O, se observan correlaciones significativas con precipitaciones por encima de la media y temperaturas por debajo de la media durante los meses de verano (diciembre_marzo. Esto se interpreta como una relación positiva con la disponibilidad de agua en el suelo durante el período de crecimiento. Esta cronología representa no solamente el primer registro dendrocronológico desarrollado a partir de P. ferox, sino también la primera cronología de anillos de árboles en la provincia biogeográfica Prepuneña. La buena discriminación de los anillos anuales de crecimiento, la fuerte relación con variables climáticas, el amplio rango de distribución de la especie en el noroeste de Argentina y sur de Bolivia (20° a 25° S y la longevidad observada en individuos aislados (c. 500 años, hacen de P. ferox una especie muy promisoria para estudios dendroclimatológicos y dendroecológicos en desiertos subtropicales de alta montañaDue to the scarcity of species with annual tree rings, the use of dendrochronological techniques has received little attention in tropical and subtropical montane dry areas. In this study, we assess the dendrochronological potential of Prosopis ferox, "churqui", through the analysis of its wood anatomy and the relationships between climate and tree growth variations from trees collected at 3,500 m, in the Humahuaca valley (23°13' S, 62°20' W, Jujuy province, Argentina. Microscopic observations show that annual rings are clearly defined by a relatively lighter parenchyma belt formed at the end of the annual band. Comparisons between the standardized ring-width chronology and the instrumental records from La Quiaca (22º 06'S, 65º36'W indicated that above-average rainfall and below-average temperature during summer (i.e., December to March favor tree growth. This can be interpreted as a positive relationship between radial growth and abundant soil water content during the growing season. The chronology shown here represents not only the first dendrocronological record from P. ferox, but also the first tree-ring chronology for the Prepuna biogeographic province. The well-defined annual rings, the strong relationship between growth and climatic variables, the large range of distribution across northwestern Argentina and southern Bolivia (20° to 25° S, and the longevity observed in some individuals (c. 500 years, indicate that P. ferox is a very promising species for dendroclimatological and dendroecological studies in subtropical montane ecosystems

  10. Separation of the genera in the subtribe Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae using molecular markers Separação dos gêneros na subtribo Cassiinae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidae utilizando marcadores moleculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmikanta Acharya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers were used to verify the segregation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato into three distinct genera namely Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. sensostricto Eighteen representatives of the three taxa were characterized using the molecular markers. 25 RAPD, six ISSR primers and six AFLP primer combinations resulted in the amplification of 612, 115 and 622 bands (loci respectively. Most of the loci are found to be polymorphic, showing high degrees of genetic diversity among the different taxa studied. The dendrogram constructed on the basis of the RAPD, ISSR and AFLP data using SHAN clustering, divided Cassia L. senso lato. into three different clusters as Chamaecrista Moench. Senna P. Mill. and Cassia L. senso stricto High bootstrap value revealed that all the clusters were stable and robust. It was observed from the present investigation that these genera have their identity at molecular level, which supports the elevation of the genus Cassia L. senso lato to the level of subtribe Cassiinae and segregation into three distinct genera instead of intrageneric categories.Técnicas de Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR e Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLP foram utilizadas para verificar a segregação do gênero Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes gêneros, Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Dezoito representantes dos três táxons foram caracterizados com o uso de marcadores moleculares: 25 RAPD, seis iniciadores ("primers" ISSR e seis AFLP combinações de iniciadores, resultando na amplificação de 612, 115 e 622 bandas (loci, respectivamente. A maioria dos loci apresentou-se como polimórfico, mostrando um alto grau de diversidade genética entre os táxons estudados. O dendrograma construído com base nos dados de RAPD, ISSR e AFLP e agrupamento com procedimentos SHAN dividiu Cassia L. senso lato em três diferentes agrupamentos, chamados de Chamaecrista Moench., Senna P. Mill. e Cassia L. senso stricto Valores altos de bootstrap revelaram que todos os agrupamentos foram estáveis e robustos. Foi observado pela presente investigação que estes gêneros possuem identidade ao nível molecular, o que sustenta a elevação do genero Cassia L. senso lato para o nível de subtribo e a segregação dos três gêneros ao invés de formarem categorias infra-genéricas.

  11. Análise morfoanatômica comparativa da folha de Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae Comparative morphogical and anatomycal analyses of Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makeli Garibotti Lusa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho foi desenvolvido com o propósito de subsidiar o controle de qualidade das espécies medicinais Bauhinia forficata Link e B. variegata Linn. Essas foram coletadas em jardins e terrenos baldios de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. As amostras do limbo, pecíolo e pulvino foram fixadas em F.A.A. 50 e conservadas em etanol 70%. O seccionamento do material foi feito em micrótomo de rotação (material incluído em historresina ou a mão livre e as lâminas foram montadas de forma permanente ou semipermanente. Foram realizadas análises em microscopia fotônica e eletrônica de varredura. A folha de B. forficata é alongada, com folíolos unidos em torno da metade do limbo, ápices agudos, superfície adaxial lisa e mucro entre os folíolos. Enquanto que, B. variegata possui folha mais larga que longa, com folíolos unidos na porção terminal do limbo e ápices obtusos. Nos pulvinos de B. variegata ocorrem camadas de colênquima, ausentes em B. forficata. O formato e a bainha de fibras dos pecíolos, em secção transversal, são distintos entre as espécies, assim como a distribuição dos estômatos e tricomas no limbo e a forma do bordo em secção transversal. B. variegata possui maior quantidade de idioblastos com drusas e compostos fenólicos. As características morfológicas e anatômicas de B. forficata e B. variegata contribuem para a identificação e diferenciação das espécies, sendo importantes para o controle de qualidade do material destinado à pesquisa e à indústria farmacêutica.This work has been developed with the purpose of helping the quality control of the medicinal species Bauhinia forficata Link and B. variegata Linn., which were collected in gardens and vacant lots in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The samples of leaf blade, petiole and pulvinus were fixed in FAA 50 and preserved in alcohol 70. The sectioning of the material was made in rotational microtome (with the material included in historesine or manually and the blades were mounted in permanent or semipermanent way. Analyses in photonic and scanning electronic micros betscopy were performed. The leaf of B. forficata is elongated, with the leaflets united around the middle of the leaf blade, acute apices, smooth adaxial surface and mucroween the leaflets. The B. variegata, on the other hand, possesses a broader than long leaf, with the leaflets united in the terminal portion of the blade and obtuse apices. In the pulvinus of B. variegata there are collenchyma layers, which are absent in B. forficata. The shape and the petiole fibers sheath, in cross section, are distinct in both species, as well as the distribution of the stomata and trichomes in the leaf blade and the shape of the border in transversal section. B. variegata possesses a higher quantity of idioblasts with druses and phenolic compounds. The morphologic and anatomic characteristics of B. forficata an B. variegata contribute to the identification and distinction of the species and they are important for the control of the material destined to research and to the pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Atividade alelopática de extratos brutos de três espécies de Copaifera (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Allelophatic activity of crude extracts from three species of Copaifera (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioidedae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S Souza Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, atenção especial foi dada aos compostos químicos envolvidos na interação entre plantas, especialmente quando se sabe das possibilidades do seu uso em estratégia de manejo de plantas daninhas. A Amazônia, pela sua megabiodiversidade e abundância de espécies vegetais, pode oferecer excelente oportunidade para a descoberta de inovadoras moléculas químicas com potencial de uso na atividade agrícola. Dessa forma, neste trabalho analisou-se, comparativamente, a atividade potencialmente alelopática de três espécies de Copaifera, caracterizando-se as variações na intensidade dos efeitos alelopáticos em função da espécie doadora, da fração da planta e da polaridade dos constituintes químicos. Extratos hexânico e etanólico, preparados a 1,0% a partir de folhas, galhos e cascas de Copaifera duckei, C. martii e C. reticulata, foram testados sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da raiz das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Observaram-se variações nas intensidades dos efeitos em função das variáveis estudadas. O extrato etanólico de folhas e o de galhos de C. martii e C. reticulata apresentaram alto potencial para inibir a germinação de sementes, sobretudo da espécie malícia. A espécie C. duckei evidenciou baixo potencial alelopático inibitório na germinação das duas espécies receptoras. Cascas, folhas e galhos de C. duckei apresentaram potencial inibitório mais expressivo sobre o desenvolvimento da raiz, com destaque para as folhas. Compostos químicos apolares e polares estão envolvidos na atividade alelopática da espécie C. duckei, com ênfase maior para os compostos apolares. Diferentemente, para C. martii e C. reticulata, compostos polares estão envolvidos, preferencialmente, na atividade inibitória evidenciada por essas espécies, notadamente aqueles localizados nas folhas e cascas. Comparativamente, a tendência observada foi de que a espécie receptora malícia demonstrou maior sensibilidade aos efeitos alelopáticos dos extratos, especialmente no bioensaio de germinação.For the past few years, special attention has been given to chemical composites involved in interaction between plants, especially when the potential of their use in weed management is known. The Amazon region with its enormous biodiversity and abundance of plant species may offer excellent opportunities for the discovery of innovative chemical molecules capable of being used in agriculture. Thus, in this paper, a comparative analysis was made between the potential allelopathic activity of three species of Copaifera, characterizing the variations of the intensity of the allelopathic effects of the donating species, plant fraction and chemical component polarity. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts, prepared at 1.0% from the leaves, branches and barks of Copaifera duckei, C. martii and C. reticulata, were tested on seed germination and development of Mimosa pudica and Senna obtusifolia weed roots. The results showed that the intensity of the effects varied according to the variables studied. The ethanolic extract of C. martii and C. reticulata leaves and barks showed high potential to inhibit seed germination, especially of M. pudica species. The species C. duckei showed low allelopathic inhibitory potential in the germination of two receptor species. Barks, branches and especially leaves of C. duckei presented more expressive inhibitory potential for root development. Polar, and especially non-polar chemical composites, are involved in the allelopathic activity of C. duckei. Differently for C. martii and C. reticulata, the polar composites are preferentially involved in the inhibitory activity evidenced by these species, especially those located on the leaves and barks. Comparatively, it was observed that the weed species receptor tended to show more sensitivity to the allelopathic effects of the extracts, especially in the germination bioassay.

  13. Mortalidade de abelhas visitantes de flores de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth (Leguminosae no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Mortality of bees visiting Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth (Leguminosae flowers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Del Lama

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a mortalidade de abelhas (213 fêmeas e 60 machos pertencentes a 20 espécies ao visitarem as inflorescências de Caesalpinia peltophoroides. A presença presumida de um composto tóxico no néctar mostrou grande variação espacial e temporal. Árvores individuais produziram ou não mortalidade de abelhas em diferentes períodos de floração e árvores vizinhas mostraram efeitos distintos em cada floração. A toxicidade sobre as abelhas foi igualmente variável. A maior parte das abelhas morria logo após visitarem as flores; algumas mostravam sinais de narcose, morrendo em seguida; poucas, após um período de narcose, deixaram este estado e voaram. Utilizando o índice de desgaste alar foram observadas abelhas jovens (29%, velhas (26% e de idade intermediária (45% (n = 227 entre as abelhas mortas. Se a presença do presumido composto tóxico afeta ou não o fitness da planta requer inicialmente a identificação de qual(is fator(es elicia(m seu aparecimento. Uma vez que C. peltophoroides é amplamente utilizada em projetos paisagísticos urbanos, é necess��rio estimar o potencial efeito negativo sobre as comunidades de abelhas que vivem em áreas urbanas de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Até que este efeito seja conhecido, recomenda-se aos profissionais do planejamento urbano a não utilização paisagística da sibipiruna em nossas cidades.It is reported the mortality of bees (213 females and 60 males belonging to 20 species when visiting the inflorescences of Caesalpinia peltophoroides. The presumed presence of a toxic compound in the nectar showed considerable spatial and temporal variation. Sibipiruna trees may or may not kill bees during different flowering periods and neighboring trees showed distinct effects on bee mortality. The toxicity effect on bees was quite variable. Most of the bees died immediately after visiting some flowers; a few showed signals of narcosis, but after some time they came out of this state and flew away. Using a wing-wear index, 'young' (29%, 'old' (26% and intermediate aged bees (45% (n = 227 were observed among the dead insects. Determining whether the presence of a toxic nectar affects plant fitness requires the identification of this chemical and the knowledge of what factor or factors elicit its production. As C. peltophoroides is widely used in urban landscape projects, it is necessary to estimate the potencial negative effect on bee communities living in urban areas of Bazil. We recommend that urban planners avoid the use of sibipiruna trees for landscape purposes until the real mortality effect on bees is clarified.

  14. Números cromossômicos em espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae Chromosome numbers in species of Acosmium Schott and Leptolobium Vogel (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Schütz Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a análise citotaxonômica de espécies de Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel, através da determinação de seus números cromossômicos. Foram estudadas as três espécies aceitas de Acosmium e cinco espécies de Leptolobium (representando 50% do gênero, a partir de sementes oriundas de diferentes regiões do Brasil. As contagens mitóticas apresentadas para todas as espécies de Acosmium e para quatro espécies de Leptolobium são inéditas. Acosmium cardenasii apresentou uniformemente 2n = 18, enquanto que em A. diffusissimum foram encontradas no mesmo meristema 2n = 18, 24 e 32 e em A. lentiscifolium 2n = 18 e 32. Para Leptolobium, o número cromossômico das espécies estudadas foi de 2n = 18, confirmando uma contagem mitótica anterior para L. dasycarpum. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram homogeneidade no número cromossômico de Acosmium e Leptolobium, confirmando x = 9 como o número cromossômico básico em ambos os gêneros. Portanto, o número cromossômico não é um caráter taxonômico utilizável na distinção entre Acosmium e Leptolobium.A cytotaxonomic analysis of species of Acosmium Schott e Leptolobium Vogel was carried out, by determining their chromosome numbers. The three species of Acosmium and five species of Leptolobium (representing 50% of the genus were studied from seeds obtained from different regions of Brazil. Chromosome counts were new for all Acosmium species and for four Leptolobium species. For Acosmium cardenasii, 2n = 18 was constantly observed, while occurring at the same meristem were found 2n = 18, 24 e 32 in A. diffusissimum and 2n = 18 e 32 in A. lentiscifolium. For Leptolobium, all studied species had 2n = 18, confirming a previous count for L. dasycarpum. The results showed that chromosome numbers of Acosmium and Leptolobium species are homogeneous, confirming the basic number x = 9 for both genera. Therefore, chromosome numbers do not provide a useful taxonomic character distinguishing Acosmium from Leptolobium.

  15. Temperatura, luz e substrato para germinação de sementes de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae Temperature, light and substrate for germination of seeds of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Programas de preservação de Caesalpinia echinata, espécie considerada em risco de extinção, incluem a conservação ex situ, que poderia ser ainda mais intensificada pelo armazenamento, no longo prazo, de suas sementes. Embora já se tenha desenvolvido tecnologia suficiente para preservar a germinabilidade dessas sementes por até dois anos, ainda são insuficientes as informações acerca das condições adequadas para a germinação, mormente as referentes a temperatura, luz e substrato. Este trabalho visou avaliar os efeitos de temperaturas constantes de 10 a 45 °C em presença ou ausência de luz e o tipo (papel, areia e vermiculita e umidade do substrato sobre a germinação das sementes de pau-brasil. Concluiu-se que a semeadura deve ser realizada em rolo de papel, umedecido na relação 1:2,5 a 1:3,0 (substrato:água, em massa, e na temperatura de 25 °C, sem necessidade de luz.Preservation of the Brazilian endangered tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. include the ex situ conservation that could be enhanced by the long term storage of its seeds. In despite of having enough technology to preserve brazilwood seed viability for at least two years, there is scarce information on the optimal conditions for germination, mainly concerning temperature, light and substrate. This research aimed to study the effects of the constant temperatures (10 to 45°C, the presence or absence of light and the moisture content of three substrates (paper, sand and vermiculite on the germination of C. echinata seeds. The results suggested that these seeds should be sowed on paper roll moistened at the ratio 1:2.5 or 1:3.0 (substrate:water, w/w at 25°C, no need for light.

  16. Efeito de Brachiaria decumbens na herbivoria e no desenvolvimento de duas leguminosas nativas de cerrado Effect of Brachiaria decumbens on herbivory and development of two cerrado native leguminosae species

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    A.C.V. Pires

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o impacto da presença da gramínea exótica (Brachiaria decumbens na herbivoria e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de espécies nativas (Hymenaea stigonocarpa e Dipteryx alata de Cerrado. Para avaliar o impacto da presença da gramínea, 10 blocos em pastagem (antiga área de Cerrado na Embrapa Gado de Corte (Campo Grande-MS foram demarcados em janeiro de 2009. As gramíneas foram mantidas intactas em metade dos blocos e, na outra metade, foram removidas. Em cada tratamento, foram avaliados a herbivoria, a altura e o diâmetro na altura do solo (DAS de 25 plântulas de cada espécie ao longo do ano. O conteúdo de carbono, nitrogênio e água das folhas também foi quantificado. Plântulas de Hymenaea stigonocarpa nos tratamentos com gramínea tiveram maior taxa de crescimento em diâmetro que as plântulas no tratamento sem gramíneas. As plântulas de Dipteryx alata que estavam no tratamento sem gramíneas tiveram maiores taxas de crescimento em altura que as do tratamento com gramíneas. Houve diferença na taxa de herbivoria de D.alata entre os tratamentos. As plântulas das duas espécies que estavam no tratamento com gramínea mostraram maiores concentrações de carbono e menores de água. O conteúdo de nitrogênio foliar foi maior no tratamento com gramíneas que no sem gramíneas em D.alata; já o nitrogênio em H. stigonocarpa não variou entre os tratamentos. Esses resultados mostram que cada espécie nativa possui distintas respostas fisiológicas e suscetibilidade à herbivoria em ambientes sob competição de recursos com a gramínea exótica, B. decumbens.This study evaluated the impact of the presence of the exotic grass (Brachiaria decumbens on the herbivory and development of seedlings of native species (Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Dipteryx alata of the Cerrado. Thus, 10 pasture plots (former Cerrado at the Embrapa Gado de Corte (Campo Grande-MS were demarcated in January 2009. The grasses were kept intact in half of the plots and were removed in the other half. In each treatment, the herbivory, as well as height and diameter at ground level (DGL of 25seedlings of each species were evaluated during one year. Carbon, nitrogen and water content of the leaves in each treatment were also quantified. Seedlings of Hymenaea stigonocarpa in plots without grasses had higher diameter growth rates than seedlings in plots with grasses. Dipteryx alata seedlings grown in plots without grasses had a higher height growth rate than seedlings grown in plots with grasses. There was a difference in the herbivory rate of D. alata between treatments. Seedlings of plots with grasses for the two species showed a higher concentration of carbon and lower amount of water. The leaf nitrogen content was higher in plots with grasses than without grasses in D. alata, while nitrogen in H. stigonocarpa did not vary between treatments. These results showed that each native species had distinct physiological responses and susceptibility to herbivory in environments under resource competition with the exotic grass B. decumbens.

  17. Aves explorando flores de Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae durante a estação seca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso Exploitation of Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae flowers by birds during the dry season in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Ricardo Parrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm evidenciado a importância de flores como recurso alimentar de diversas espécies de aves neotropicais. Este estudo teve o objetivo de listar espécies e descrever o comportamento das aves que se alimentaram de recursos florais de Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae no Pantanal Mato-Grossense. Para isso, foram acompanhadas aves que se alimentaram em 14 árvores floridas dessa espécie em um total de cerca de 25 horas de observação. Como resultados, 20 espécies de aves pertencentes a sete famílias taxonômicas foram observadas alimentando-se de recursos florais de E. fusca. Apesar de várias espécies de aves terem apresentado comportamentos destrutivos em maior proporção, algumas espécies, sobretudo das famílias Trochilidae e Icteridae, apresentaram estratégias alimentares compatíveis com o transporte de pólen. O cruzamento dos dados obtidos neste estudo com os da literatura indicam que a família Icteridae pode ter relevante papel na polinização dessa espécie vegetal.Recent studies reported the importance of flowers in the diet of many Neotropical bird species. In this paper we identify and describe the feeding behaviour of bird species that feed on flower resources of Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae in the Pantanal Mato-Grossense, Brazil. We recorded birds foraging in 14 flowered individuals of E. fusca during 25 hours of observation. We recorded 20 bird species belonging to seven families feeding on the flowers. Several of the observed behaviours were destructive, despite some species, especially the Trochilidae and Icteridae, showed feeding strategies that preserve the integrity of the flowers and are compatible with pollen transportation. The comparison of the data gathered in this study with the available literature indicates that the Icteridae may play an important role in pollination of this tree species.

  18. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae

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    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se estableció la distribución de los estomas sobre las superficies adaxial y abaxial del folíolo secundario. Se encontraron diferencias en la densidad de estomas entre los folíolos secundarios de la parte basal, media y apical de la hoja que están relacionadas a la posición de éstas en la copa del árbol. Dentro de la copa del árbol se encontró que la densidad de estomas decrece desde la parte basal hasta la parte superior. La distribución y densidad estomática estarían relacionadas a la forma del folíolo secundario y posición de éstos sobre el raquis, al movimiento diario de los folíolos secundarios y de la hoja interactuando con los factores ambientales. Cabe destacar que el valor medio de densidad de estomas se halló en la parte media de la hoja y en la parte media de la copa del árbol. El trabajo se acompaña con ilustraciones originales.

  19. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  20. Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a previously incompletely known Ethiopian endemic rediscovered after 120 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile

    2014-01-01

    . rhynchocarpa Polhill, C. saltiana Andrews, C. thomasii Harms) in having the inside of the pod densely packed with long, white hairs. C. trifoliolata was observed at the edge of and in glades inside dry Juniperus-Olea forest, in which the canopy is dominated by J. procera Endl. and the undergrowth by Barbeya...... oleoides Schweinf. and other species characteristic of dry Afromontane forest and bushland. The species is found only in a limited area near the eastern Ethiopian escarpment at Sheik Hussein. It is documented with images and maps, its potential distribution is modelled and a conservation assessment...

  1. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

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    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha -1 , respectively. The gliricídia residues showed the highest decomposition rates, in the two year seasons.

  2. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

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    Germán Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small "A chromosomes" characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter.

  3. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae) and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small “A chromosomes” characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter. PMID:21637581

  4. Genomic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005) (Leguminosae): multiple origin of Arachis species with x = 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Silvestri María; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán Ariel; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro; Lavia, Graciela Inés

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Arachis Linnaeus, 1753 comprises four species with x = 9, three belong to the section Arachis: Arachis praecox (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994), Arachis palustris (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and Arachis decora (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and only one belongs to the section Erectoides: Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005). Recently, the x = 9 species of section Arachis have been assigned to G genome, the latest described so far. The genomic relationship of Arachis porphyrocalyx with these species is controversial. In the present work, we carried out a karyotypic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx to evaluate its genomic structure and analyse the origin of all x = 9 Arachis species. Arachis porphyrocalyx showed a karyotype formula of 14m+4st, one pair of A chromosomes, satellited chromosomes type 8, one pair of 45S rDNA sites in the SAT chromosomes, one pair of 5S rDNA sites and pericentromeric C-DAPI+ bands in all chromosomes. Karyotype structure indicates that Arachis porphyrocalyx does not share the same genome type with the other three x = 9 species and neither with the remaining Erectoides species. Taking into account the geographic distribution, morphological and cytogenetic features, the origin of species with x = 9 of the genus Arachis cannot be unique; instead, they originated at least twice in the evolutionary history of the genus. PMID:28919947

  5. Resposta morfogênica de embriões zigóticos de Erythrina velutina Willd: (Leguminosae cultivados in vitro

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    Priscila Tavares Fonseca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo in vitro de embriões zigóticos é uma técnica promissora para se avançar no estudo do desenvolvimento embrionário e da quebra da dormência de sementes. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito dos reguladores vegetais 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA no potencial morfogenético, in vitro, de embriões zigóticos de mulungu. Embriões zigóticos maduros, oriundos de sementes foram utilizados inteiros, ou seccionados em plúmula, região intermediária e radícula, sendo posteriormente inoculados em meio de cultura WPM, suplementado com combinações de BAP (0,0; 2,0; 4,0; 8,0; 12,0 e 16,0 µM e ANA (0,0; 1,0 e 2,0 µM, acrescido de 87,64 mM de sacarose e solidificado com 0,7% de ágar. Após 30 dias, avaliaram-se a percentagem de regeneração dos embriões e ápice plumular, o número de brotos, o número de folhas, o comprimento da parte aérea dos brotos, o número de raízes e a percentagem de formação de calos oriundos da região intermediária e da radícula. É possível a regeneração in vitro de mulungu, a partir dos explantes plúmula e embriões zigóticos inteiros, cultivados em meio de cultura WPM, suplementado com 4,0 µM de BAP. Regiões intermediárias e da radícula promoveram a formação de calos compactos (96,06%, na combinação de 10,63 µM BAP e 2,0 µM de ANA.

  6. Intense uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau triggered rapid diversification of Phyllolobium (Leguminosae) in the Late Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Yun Kang; Yang Zhong; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Phyllolobium, a recently established genus from subgenus Pogonophace of Astragalus, contains about 20 species and four sections, mostly endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The uplift of the QTP undoubtedly affected organismic evolution in the region, but further molecular dating in a phylogenetic context is required to test whether diversification is linked...

  7. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan

    2011-12-01

    Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.

  8. Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Leguminosae in Italy: first cases of naturalization

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    Pasta, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of naturalization of Acacia cyclops are reported for Italy. Young trees were observed growing in the wild some 15 years ago on Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Strait of Sicily. A decade later, this alien plant should no longer be considered as a casual, since a very intensive process of self-sown regeneration has been observed in some plantations on Lampedusa, the major island of the same Archipelago. The available literature suggests the need for careful monitoring of the ongoing invasion process, as A. cyclops has already shown a very invasive behaviour elsewhere within Mediterranean-type biomes due to its ability to withstand high environmental stresses. As migrating birds are suspected to have played an important role in facilitating the arrival of A. cyclops, further propagules are likely to reach the islands in the future. We recommend that new plantations of A. cyclops should be forbidden, but that extant naturalized populations should be managed instead of eradicating them. In fact, the effect of Acacia plantations warrants investigation at different scales in order to assess their impact on local plant-diversity and ecological succession processes.

    Se muestran los dos primeros casos de naturalización de Acacia cyclops para el territorio italiano. Se observó que las plántulas de este arbol crecen en forma silvestre hace unos 15 años en Linosa (islas Pelagias, estrecho de Sicilia. Una década después, ya no puede ser considerada una xenófita casual ya que se observó una regeneración muy intensa en algunos proyectos de reforestación en Lampedusa, la isla más grande del mismo archipiélago. Publicaciones anteriores sugieren la necesidad de un monitoreo cuidadoso del proceso de invasión en curso, ya que A. cyclops ha expresado un comportamiento altamente invasivo en otros biomas de tipo mediterráneo, debido a su alta tolerancia al estrés ambiental. Dado que se sospecha que las aves migratorias han jugado un papel importante en la llegada de A. cyclops, es probable que en el futuro otros propágulos lleguen a las islas Pelagias. Se recomienda la prohibición de nuevas plantas, aunque también el manejo de poblaciones artificiales ya presentes en vez de su erradicación. El efecto de la forestación con A. cyclops, de hecho, merece ser investigado a diferentes escalas, a fin de aclarar su impacto tanto en la diversidad florística local como en los procesos de sucesión ecológica.

  9. Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera (Leguminosae, jointly influence plant diversity and soil fertility of a Mexican semiarid ecosystem

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    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis laevigata and Mimosa biuncifera are frequently found in arid and semiarid shrublands, but scarce information is available about their influence on plant community structure and soil fertility. We compared plant community structure, diversity and soil nutrients of three semiarid shrubland sites located in Mezquital Valley, Mexico. These sites differ in their dominant species: Site 1 (Bingu P. laevigata, Site 2 (González M. biuncifera, and Site 3 (Rincón with the presence of both legumes. The results showed that the plant community with P. laevigata and M. biuncifera (Site 3 had more cover, taller plants and higher plant diversity than sites with only one legume (Site 1 and Site 2. Soil organic matter (SOM, soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, phosphorus-Olsen (P and C mineralization were higher in the soil under the canopy of both legumes than in bare soil. In contrast, soil cation concentrations were lower under the canopy of P. laevigata, but not for M. biuncifera. In addition, the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores was higher within the soil under the canopy of M. biuncifera than in the soil under the canopy of P. laevigata. Thus, resource islands (RI created by P. laevigata increased the amounts of SOC, TN and P when compared with the RI of M. biuncifera. This study provided evidences about the importance of species identity in order to expand the niche availability for the establishment of other plants, and highlights that P. laevigata and M. biuncifera jointly influencing plant colonization within semiarid ecosystems

  10. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR

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    Farshid Mahmodi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3 verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4% and (15.5–19.9, respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers.

  11. Impact of bee pollinators on seed set and yield of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa (Leguminosae grown under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Zaitoun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 at Jordan University of Science and Technology campus (32°30” N, 35°59” E, Irbid, Jordan, to study the role of bee visitors on seed set and production of Vicia villosa spp. dasycarpa grown under semiarid conditions. Two treatments were imposed on Vicia villosa plants before flowering: 1 Plants were covered in cages (control or 2 Plants were left uncovered to permit bee visiting. The results of this experiment showed that V. villosa flowers were very attractive to worker honeybees as well as to few numbers of wild bees. The most frequent visitor species were A. mellifera and Anthophora albigena of family Apidae. V. villosa flowers attracted most of the bee visitors in the early hours of the day. The duration of their visit on the flowers also peaked early in the day and decreased toward the end of the day. The percentage of pod set of the un-covered plants averaged 14% out of the total florets on the plants, which was significantly higher than the covered plants (2%. These results indicated that the percentage of flower abscission was high and averaged more than 86%. Plant covering significantly reduced seed yield by reducing seed and pod number per plant and seed number per pod, but had no effect on individual seed weight. In conclusion, preventing bees from visiting during flowering of V. villosa spp. dasycarpa decreased seed set, seed yield and yield components. Further studies are needed to understand the high flower abscission and failure of seed set in this species.

  12. Pollination Biology and Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Some Major Acacia Species (Leguminosae) of the Arabian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adgaba, N.; Alghamidi, A.; Tadesse, Y.; Getachew, A.; Ansari, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24+-1.72 -10.02+-4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acaciaspecies could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer. (author)

  13. Secretory structures on the leaf rachis of Caesalpinieae and Mimosoideae (Leguminosae): implications for the evolution of nectary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, L M; Motte-Florac, E F; McKey, D B

    2000-03-01

    Cup- or sometimes slit-shaped nectary glands on the rachis are a widespread trait in the legume subfamily Mimosoideae, especially in derived tribes. Their spotty occurrence in genera that appear to be basal has led to uncertainty about when in the mimosoid radiation this character evolved. Until now, specialized rachis glands were unknown in caesalpinioids thought to be related to ancestral mimosoids. We report here the occurrence of rachis glands in seven of the ten species of the Paleotropical genus Erythrophleum, a member of the Dimorphandra group of caesalpinioids thought to include the sister group(s) of mimosoids. The histological structure and location of Erythrophleum glands suggest homology with those of mimosoids; these glands are simpler structurally than rachis glands of any known mimosoid. The Erythrophleum glands differ from those of most mimosoids in the following respects: (1) they are smaller than glands of mimosoids; (2) the secretory surface is sunken in a pit capped by a small round pore rather than exposed on a broad concave or flat surface; (3) a smaller number of cells are involved in production and secretion of nectar; (4) vascular supply to the nectary is less extensive; and (5) mechanical support tissue (sclerenchyma) is less extensive and less organized. Rachis glands appear to be absent in the nine other genera included in the Dimorphandra group. We also report the occurrence of other secretory structures (patches of glandular trichomes) on the rachis of some Caesalpinieae and Mimoseae that lack specialized nectary glands and suggest that these patches of trichomes are primitive homologues of more organized glands. We discuss the significance of these glands and of the patches of trichomes for understanding relationships among primitive mimosoids and related caesalpinioids, and for understanding the origin of ant-guard defenses typical of many mimosoids.

  14. Molecular biogeography of tribe Thermopsideae (Leguminosae): A Madrean-Tethyan disjunction pattern with an African origin of core genistoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Jian-Feng Huang; Stewart C. Sanderson; Ping Yan; Yu-H Wu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2015-01-01

    Thermopsideae has 45 species and exhibits a series of interesting biogeographical distribution patterns, such as Madrean-Tethyan disjunction and EastAsia-North America disjunction,with a center of endemism in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau (QTP) and Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis in this paper employed maximum likelihood using ITS, rps16, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F...

  15. The endangered Ethiopian endemic Crotalaria trifoliolata (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) and its little-known habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Weber, Odile; van Breugel, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    to limestone habitats in the Kubayo National Forest, where it forms almost monospecific stands of up to one thousand individuals in glades and at forest margins. Predictive distribution models suggest uncertain suitability of the present habitats under future climatic conditions. Based on this and other...

  16. Genetic and ecological outcomes of Inga vera subsp. affinis (Leguminosae) tree plantations in a fragmented tropical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Neto, Oswaldo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Twyford, Alex D; Neaves, Linda E; Pennington, R Toby; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2014-01-01

    Planting of native trees for habitat restoration is a widespread practice, but the consequences for the retention and transmission of genetic diversity in planted and natural populations are unclear. Using Inga vera subsp. affinis as a model species, we genotyped five natural and five planted populations in the Atlantic forest of northeastern Brazil at polymorphic microsatellite loci. We studied the breeding system and population structure to test how much genetic diversity is retained in planted relative to natural populations. We then genotyped seedlings from these populations to test whether genetic diversity in planted populations is restored by outcrossing to natural populations of I. vera. The breeding system of natural I. vera populations was confirmed to be highly outcrossing (t = 0.92; FIS = -0.061, P = 0.04), with populations showing weak population substructure (FST = 0.028). Genetic diversity in planted populations was 50% less than that of natural populations (planted: AR = 14.9, HO = 0.865 and natural: AR = 30.8, HO = 0.655). However, seedlings from planted populations showed a 30% higher allelic richness relative to their parents (seedlings AR = 10.5, parents AR = 7.6). Understanding the processes and interactions that shape this system are necessary to provide ecologically sensible goals and successfully restore hyper-fragmented habitats. Future restoration plans for I. vera must consider the genetic diversity of planted populations and the potential for gene flow between natural populations in the landscape, in order to preserve ecological interactions (i.e. pollination), and promote opportunities for outcrossing.

  17. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  18. Fenologia e visitantes florais de Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Alice Coimbra Vieira Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p51 Erythrina crista-galli é uma espécie característica do bioma Pampa, também usada com fins ornamentais em arborização urbana. E. crista-galli  floresce mais intensamente de novembro a dezembro. A antese inicia entre 7h-11h, e as flores têm duração de cinco dias. Um total de 1.275 visitas florais foi registrado em 57h de observações. Abelhas da família Apidae (Trigona spinipes e Apis mellifera foram os visitantes fl orais mais freqüentes (88,23%, seguidos de moscas (Muscidae – 5,50%, formigas (Formicidae – 2,35%, vespas (Vespidae –  1,56% e besouros (Chrysomelidae – 1,56%. As flores também foram visitadas por beija-flores da família Trochilidae (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0,79%. A abelha T. spinipes foi observada em todos os horários e apresentou comportamento de possível polinizadora, juntamente com A. mellifera e o beija-fl or C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli é autocompatível, apresentando produção de frutos e sementes após a polinização manual e sob condições naturais.

  19. Phenology and floral visitors of Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina crista-galli is a characteristic species of the Pampa biome also used as an ornament in urban arborization. Erythrina crista-galli flourishes more intensively from November to Decem¬ber. Anthesis starts around 7:00 am to 11:00 am, and flowers last five days. A total of 1,275 floral visits were registered over 57h of observations. Apidae bees (Trigona spinipes and Apis mellifera were the most frequent visitors (88.23%, followed by Muscidae flies (5.50%, Formicidae ants (2.35%, Vespidae wasps (1.56%, and Chrysomelidae beetles (1.56%. Trochilidae hummingbirds (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0.79% also visited the flowers. Trigona spinipes was observed at throughout the daytime and behaved as a probable pollinator, along with A. mellifera and C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli is autocompatible, producing fruits and seeds after manual pollination and under natural conditions.

  20. 1957-IJBCS-Article-Koura Kourouma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    des sous-populations de Parkia biglobosa (néré) du Nord-Bénin, en vue d'une gestion durable de l'espèce. ... Mots clés : Sous-population, Parkia biglobosa, phénotype, structure, Nord-Bénin. ...... nutrition et alimentation dans les pays en.

  1. Women's Involvement in Non Timber Forest Products Utilization in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa and Prosopis africana were more important for food and income while Nauclea latifolia, Khaya senegalensis ranked highest for medicine. Woody plants preferred as fuel wood included; Parkia biglobosa, Brachystegia eurycoma and Bridelia feruginea. Community Forest Programmes ...

  2. Nutrient release from decomposing leaf mulches of karité (Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré (Parkia biglobosa) under semi-arid conditions in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayala, J.; Mando, A.; Teklehaimanot, Z.; Ouedraogo, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Information on decomposition and nutrient release from leaf litter of trees in agroforestry parkland systems in Sub-Saharan Africa is scarce despite the significant role of these trees on soil fertility improvement and maintenance. Decomposition and nutrient release patterns from pruned leaves of

  3. insect diet of some afrotropical insectivorous passerines at the jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Such studies identify the food resources ... Insectivorous birds are beneficial to agriculturists as they control ... devastated by tin-mining activities, a high human population has ... dominated by Jacaranda mimosaefolia, Parkia clappertoniana,.

  4. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (2012) P. biglobosa has important socio-economic and cultural values .... It is a common knowledge that Parkia bean processing is a chain activity which is ... that P. biglobosa trees are not productive even when found in the study area.

  5. BKR.2013.024 (Galley_Proof)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-15

    Aug 15, 2013 ... Parkia biglobosa pods contained some toxicologically active constituents that can be meaningfully ... filtrate, which was freeze-dried over-night using a freeze- .... treatment in. Nigeria. ... products in anti-cancer therapy. Current ...

  6. Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    than HMT starch which was irregularly-shaped formed. Conclusion: Native parkia ... properties of the native modified starches were ... oven, then ground into powder using a mortar and pestle .... Figure 1: Effect of pyrodextrinization (PD), cross-.

  7. Nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw, partially fermented and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw and fermented seeds of Parkia ... between 4.27 and 8.33 % for the fully fermented and the partially fermented seeds, respectively.

  8. jfewr ©2016 - jfewr Publication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKUTEKPA

    Experimental Design and Data Collection. P. biglobosa(Jacq) Benth seeds for the experiment ... The untreated seeds (con- trol) having a .... were capable of breaking seed dormancy and pro- ... Sacande, M. and Clethero, C, (2007): Parkia big-.

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    bUMR 7213 C.N.R.S. Laboratoire de Biophotonique et Pharmacologie, 74 route du Rhin, BP. 60024 ; 67401 ..... practically without danger by oral route. ... Etude de l'action antihypertensive des graines de Parkia ... American Industrial.

  10. Germinación, dispersión y establecimiento de plántulas de Mimosa tenuiflora (Leguminosae en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Camargo-Ricalde

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. es un recurso natural importante para México debido a sus diversos usos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se había estudiado la germinación, la dispersión y el establecimiento de plántulas de esta especie. Se recolectaron frutos y semillas de esta planta en el estado de Chiapas, México (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ. Las pruebas de germinación se hicieron después de cuatro años de almacenamiento; se sembraron en total 1 935 semillas en cajas de Petri con papel filtro Wathman humedecido. Se determinaron las temperaturas óptimas usando un gradiente de 5-40°C, con luz continua, para semillas escarificadas mecánicamente y no escarificadas. Se realizaron tres pruebas de fotoperíodo: a luz continua, b oscuridad constante y c luz 12hr/oscuridad 12 hr. Se aplicaron tres tratamientos pregerminativos: a escarificación mecánica, b ácido sulfúrico concentrado, c fuego directo y d ningún tratamiento. Para cada variable y pretratamiento se hicieron tres repeticiones, cada una con 15 semillas. Se aplicaron las pruebas estadísticas correspondientes: desviación estandar (S, análisis de varianza de una vía (ANOVA y comparación de medias (Prueba de Scheffé (pMimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. is an important natural resource in Mexico, due to its diverse uses. However, seed germination, dissemination and seedling establishment of this species had not been studied up to date. Fruits and seeds were collected in the State of Chiapas, Mexico (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ. Germination experiments were carried out after four years of seed storage; 1 935 seeds were sown in Petri dishes containing moistened Wathman filter paper. Optimum temperatures were determined in a gradient 5-40 0C, with continuous light for mechanically scarified and non scarified seeds. Three photoperiod experiments were made: a continuous light, b constant darkness and c 12 hr light/12 hr darkness. Three germinate pretreatments were applied: a mechanical scarification, b sulfuric acid scarification, c fire scarification and d control. Three replicates of 15 seeds each were made for each variable and pretreatment. Standard deviations (S were determined, a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and media comparison (Scheffé’s test were applied (p<0.05. Analysis of fruit and seed dissemination and seedling establishment was made qualitatively on the basis of field and laboratory observations; radius of dissemination of the fruits from the mother plant was measured; development of laboratory grown seedlings was followed during three months. Seeds germinated at 10-30°C; however, the highest percentages of germination were obtained at 20°C (84.44% and 25°C (95.55%; seeds are indistinctly photoblastic and percentages of germination, after the three germinate pretreatments, were: control (24.44-35.55%, mechanical scarification (84.44-88.88%, sulfuric acid scarification (73.33-91.11% and fire scarification (0%. Fruits and seeds are disseminated by the wind in a radius of 5-8 m from the mother plant; rain carries them from slopes to lower plains and human activities contribute to their dissemination. Growth of seedlings is fast; they develop a paripinnate protophyll and ten biparipinnate pronomophylls; the first nomophyll develops during the weeks 12 to 14. It is concluded that optimum temperatures for seed germination of M. tenuiflora are 20 °C and 25 °C; seeds are indistinctly photoblastic; percentage and rate of germination are highly increased by coat scarification. This species has certain advantages for its establishment in open areas, given by the abundant production of seeds, their small size, the rate of germination and the fast growth, as well as by its seedling characters: the tap root system, the hypocotyl-epicotyl axis woody at the base and, the compound leaves with linear-oblong leaflets having changes in orientation in response to light. Our results confirm the invasive and typically secondary character of this species.

  11. Malformações, abortos e mortalidade embrionária em ovinos causada pela ingestão de Mimosa tenuiflora (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rômulo Soares dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a teratogenicidade de Mimosa tenuiflora, 15 ovelhas, distribuídas em dois grupos, foram introduzidos em área invadida pela planta. O Grupo 1, com seis ovelhas prenhes, foi introduzido na área experimental 20 dias após o acasalamento. O Grupo 2, formado por nove ovelhas não prenhes e um carneiro, foi introduzido na área experimental no início do experimento. O experimento começou no mês de outubro de 2009, período de estiagem, quando M. tenuiflora estava sementando. Nesse período as plantas foram rebaixadas a 40 cm de altura e os galhos com folhas e sementes foram disponibilizados para os ovinos na mesma área onde M. tenuiflora foi rebaixada. M. tenuiflora começou a rebrotar ainda na estação seca antes do período de chuvas. No período de rebrota, as ovelhas ficavam livres para pastar M. tenuiflora e recebiam concentrado em quantidade equivalente a 1% do peso vivo. Após as primeiras chuvas, em meados de janeiro do ano seguinte, quando o estrato herbáceo apareceu, essas ovelhas foram confinadas em baias, onde M. tenuiflora foi fornecida até o fim do experimento. A cada 15 dias eram realizados exames ultrassonográficos para acompanhamento da gestação. No Grupo 1, três ovelhas abortaram, cada uma um feto sem malformações. Outra ovelha pariu dois cordeiros, um com hiperflexão na articulação inter-falangeana proximal no membro torácico direito e outro sem malformações. Outra ovelha pariu um cordeiro com hiperflexão dos dois membros pélvicos na região da articulação tarso-metatársica. No grupo formado pelas ovelhas que foram acasaladas na área experimental, uma ovelha abortou um feto sem malformações e cinco pariram cordeiros normais. Três das ovelhas desse grupo não emprenharam durante todo o período experimental, mostrando retornos repetidos ao cio, sugerindo perda embrionária. Trinta e duas ovelhas e um carneiro, que permaneceram numa área vizinha a área experimental e foram utilizados como controle, pariram cordeiros normais. Conclui-se que M. tenuiflora, além de causar malformações causa, também, mortalidade embrionária e abortos em ovelhas.

  12. Latencia en semillas de Stylosanthes hamata (Leguminosae y su relación con la morfología de la cubierta seminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Castillo

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La semilla de Stylosanthes hamata (L. Taub. se caracteriza por presentar un alto grado de latencia asociada a una restricción a la absorción de humedad (semilla dura. En esta investigación, se estudió la dureza de semillas distales y basales de siete líneas diploides y cinco líneas tetraploides, cultivadas bajo condiciones tropicales. Las pruebas pruebas de germinación (HR: 55-65%, temperatura constante: 27-30º C, fotoperíodo: 12/12 hr llevadas a cabo en semillas desprovistas de vaina indicaron que el grado de dureza seminal estuvo en casi todos los casos por encima del 85%, independientemente del nivel de ploidia y de la posición de la semilla en el fruto. Así mismo, se realizó una caracterización morfo-anatómica de la cubierta seminal a través del uso del microscopio óptico y de barrido. Esta caracterización fue complementada con un estudio histoquímico para determinar la ubicación de compuestos hidrofóbicos en la cubierta seminal. Los resultados de estas pruebas señalaron que la dureza seminal estuvo relacionada con la presencia de un micropilo y un hilo totalmente cerrados, una epidermis compuesta por macroesclereidas en empalizada con una línea lúcida en las paredes más externas de estas células y a una alta concentración de compuestos hidrofóbicos en todos los tejidos que conforman la cubierta seminal.The seed of Stylosanthes hamata is characterized by it's a high level of dormancy, which is imposed by seed-coat impermeability to water entry (harseededness or hard-seed condition. The level of hardseededness between upper and lower articulations of seven diploid and five tetraploid accessions was studied under tropical conditions. Germination tests on naked seeds (relative humidity: 55-65%, constant temperature: 27-30º C, photoperiod: 12/12 hr showed that hard-seed percentage was, in most cases, over 85% independent of ploidy level and seed position within the fruit. Histochemical analysis indicated that hardseededness in this species was associated with a completely sealed microphile and hilum. This feature was also associated to: a an epidermis consisting of a palisade-like layer of macrosclereids, b a like-line at the outermost region of these cells and c a high concentration of hydrophobic compounds located all across the seed-coat.

  13. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L. :leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, G A; Banerjee, S; Modi, V V [Baroda Univ. (India). Faculty of Science

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author).

  14. Perspectives of recycling gamma irradiated sewage-sludge in agricultural applications: a study on methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.:leguminosae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, G.A.; Banerjee, S.; Modi, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) in pot cultures have been studied. The gamma-irradiated sludge appeared to negatively affect the physical growth parameters of the plant. The significant positive effect of gamma-irradiated sludge was observed on the biochemical growth parameters and yield of methi plants. There was a 3.5-, 1.7- and 2-fold increase in the total protein content, total soluble sugars and starch content, respectively, of plants grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge after 45 days of growth. The gamma-irradiated sludge did not show any detrimental effect on any of the three biochemical parameters studied, even after 90 days of plant growth. The sludge obtained from the conventional treatment process was found to be inhibitory to the protein and starch content of plants in the latter stages of plant growth. A significant increase in the yield of methi plants, after 45 as well as 90 days, grown in the presence of gamma-irradiated sludge indicates a beneficial effect of recycling of irradiated sludge for agricultural applications. (author)

  15. Evaluación agronómica y valor nutricional de 84 accesiones de la leguminosa Tadehagi triquetrum en suelos ácidos

    OpenAIRE

    Cerón Fernández, Claudia Lorena

    2010-01-01

    En la búsqueda de nuevas opciones forrajeras para alimentación animal en el trópico, se evaluó una colección de Tadehagi triquetrum con 84 accesiones suministradas por la Unidad de Recursos Genéticos del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical – CIAT, en suelos ácidos del norte del Cauca. La evaluación se realizó en la subestación Experimental CIAT Quilichao, ubicada en el Municipio de Santander de Quilichao, Departamento del Cauca a 3º 06´ de latitud norte y 76º 31´de longitud oeste, a ...

  16. Descomposición de hojarasca en la leguminosa Adenocarpus decorticans: pérdida de peso y dinámica de los nutrientes

    OpenAIRE

    Moro Cuadrillero, María José; Domingo Poveda, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la pérdida de peso y la liberación de N, P, K, Mg y Ca de la hojarasca de Adenocarpus decorticans Boiss. en la Sierra de los Filabres (Almería). Tras 828 días de incubación en el campo, la pérdida de peso inicial fue del 70%. La tasa de descomposición estimada a partir de la aplicación del modelo exponencial simple es de -0.82 el primer año, -0.62 el segundo año y -0.53 para el conjunto del periodo. La liberación de nutrientes sigue la secuencia K>Mg>Ca> P>N....

  17. EVALUACIÓN COMPARATIVA DE LOS ATRIBUTOS NUTRICIONALES Y ANTINUTRICIONALES DE LEGUMINOSAS SUBUTILIZADAS, Canavalia gladiata (JACQ. DC, Erythrina indica LAM. Y Abrus precatorius L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pious Soris Tresina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron muestras de semillas de of Canavalia gladiata, Erythrina indica y Abrus precatorius (roja y negra, semilla de cascara colorada y semilla de cascara blanca de las regiones de Tamil Nadu y se analizó su composición química con la visión de evaluar su potencial nutricional. La composición proximal reveló que todas las muestras investigadas de semillas contenían altos niveles de proteína cruda y grasa. Los perfiles de minerales fueron también analizados en todas las muestras. Todas las muestras parecieron tener buenas fuentes de potasio, magnesio, sodio, calcio, fosforo, hierro, zinc, cobre, el contenido de manganeso fue deficiente cuando se comparó con los requerimentos diarios en la dieta (NRC/NAS, 1980, 1989. Los contenidos de vitaminas (niacina y ácido ascórbico fueron relativamente altos en todas las muestras investigadas. Los perfiles de aminoácidos esenciales del total de proteína de la semilla se compararon favorablemente con los patrones de requerimientos de la FAO/WHO (1991. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos revelaron que todas las muestras de semilla fueron ricas en ácidos grasos insaturados (55.60-72.04 y muy altos niveles de ácido linoleico (24.16-34.14%. El IVPD de las muestras estuvo en un rango de 63.31-71.36%. Se analizaron los factores antinutricionales como fenoles totales, taninos, L-DOPA, ácido fítico, hidrogeno ciánico, inhibidor de tripsina, oligosacáridos y fitohematoaglutinación.

  18. Leguminosa no controle integrado de plantas daninhas para aumentar a produtividade da laranja-'Pêra' Legume plants in the integrated weeds control to improve orange 'Pera' yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EDUARDO B. DE CARVALHO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade da laranja-'Pêra', em dois ecossistemas, considerando dois diferentes manejos de solo para o controle integrado de plantas daninhas. O experimento foi instalado nos municípios de Rio Real e Conceição do Almeida, Bahia, no período de 1994 a 1999, em área total de 6000 m², em cada local. O manejo utilizado pelo produtor constou de três capinas manuais nas linhas de plantio e três gradagens nas entrelinhas, enquanto o manejo proposto utilizou como cobertura vegetal o feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes L., nas entrelinhas do pomar, associado a uma subsolagem. O controle químico das plantas daninhas nas linhas do pomar foi realizado duas vezes ao ano com glifosate. O manejo proposto apresentou melhores resultados em relação ao manejo do produtor nos dois municípios para todos os parâmetros analisados: peso do fruto, número de frutos por planta e produtividade. Em Conceição do Almeida, o sistema proposto foi 56,8% mais produtivo que o do produtor e, em Rio Real, 64,9%.Aimed to evaluate the productivity of sweet orange "Pera" grown considering two different ecosystems and under two soil management systems to control weeds. This work was carried out at the cities of Rio Real and Conceição de Almeida, Bahia State, during the period from 1994 to 1999. The soil management used by the farmer comprised three hoeings within planting lines and three harrowings between the planting lines. The new soil management proposed used a green cover of pig beans (Canavalia ensiformes, L. between the planting lines along with subsoiling, associated with a chemical control of the weeds by Gliphosate, on the planting lines, twice a year. The soil management proposed yielded better results than the farmer soil management at both ecosystems for fruit weight of fruit, number, and plant productivity. At Conceição do Almeida and Rio Real the proposed soil management was 56,8% and 64,9%, respectively, superior than the farmer system.

  19. Anti-Anxiety Effect of (-)-Syringaresnol-4-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside from Albizzia julibrissin Durazz (Leguminosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Lv, Yue-Wei; Shi, Jin-Li; Ma, Xiao-Jie; Chen, Yi; Zheng, Zhi-Quan; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Guo, Jian-You

    2017-08-11

    Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, a Chinese Medicine, is commonly used for its anti-anxiety effects. (-)-syringaresnol-4- O -β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (SAG) is the main ingredient of Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect and potential mechanisms on the HPA axis and monoaminergic systems of SAG on acute restraint-stressed rats. The anxiolytic effect of SAG was examined through an open field test and an elevated plus maze test. The concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in plasma was examined by an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kit while neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain were examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We show that repeated treatment with SAG (3.6 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the number and time spent on the central entries in the open-field test when compared to the vehicle/stressed group. In the elevated plus maze test, 3.6 mg/kg SAG could increase the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In addition, the concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in plasma and neurotransmitters (NE, 5-HT, DA and their metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC, and HVA) in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain were decreased after SAG treatment, as compared to the repeated acute restraint-stressed rats. These results suggest that SAG is a potential anti-anxiety drug candidate.

  20. AFLP marker analysis revealing genetic structure of the tree Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae in the southern Brazilian Tropical Rainforest

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    Laís Bérgamo de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parapiptadenia rigida is a tropical early secondary succession tree characteristic of the Tropical Atlantic Rainforest. This species is of great ecological importance in the recovery of degraded areas. In this study we investigated the variability and population genetic structure of eight populations of P. rigida. Five AFLP primer combinations were used in a sample of 159 individuals representing these eight populations, rendering a total of 126 polymorphic fragments. The averages of percentage of polymorphic loci, gene diversity, and Shannon index were 60.45%, 0.217, and 0.322, respectively. A significant correlation between the population genetic variability and the population sizes was observed. The genetic variability within populations (72.20% was higher than between these (22.80%. No perfect correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances, which might be explained by differences in deforestation intensities that occurred in these areas. A dendrogram constructed by the UPGMA method revealed the formation of two clusters, these also confirmed by Bayesian analysis for the number of K cluster. These results show that it is necessary to develop urgent management strategies for the conservation of certain populations of P. rigida, while other populations still preserve reasonably high levels of genetic variability.

  1. Cytotoxic activity of erypogein d from erythrina poeppigiana (leguminosae) against cervical cancer (HeLa), breast cancer (MCF-7) and ovarian cancer (SKOV-3) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlina, T.; Gaffar, S.; Widowati, W.

    2018-05-01

    Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells and continues to divide rapidly in the body. Current anticancer treatment usually causes many side effects. Natural products are then explored to be new alternatives for cancer treatment. Flavonoids have been known to possess medicinal properties, including anticancer. This study was performed to observe the cytotoxic activity of isoflavanone compound, erypogein D from Erythrina poeppigiana, toward cervical cancer (HeLa), breast cancer (MCF-7) and ovarian cancer (SKOV-3) cells. The cytotoxic activity of erypogein D was tested using MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3- carboxyme-thoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay. The percentage of cell mortality was calculated and the IC50 was analyzed using probit analysis. The result showed that cytotoxic activity of the erypogein D against HeLa, SKOV-3, and MCF-7 cells had an IC50 value 225, 70.74, and 30.12 μM, respectively. Based on IC50 value can be concluded that erypogein D is the most cytotoxic to breast cancer MCF-7 cell. However the cytotoxic activity of erypogein D toward MCF7 is moderate.

  2. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

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    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  3. EVALUACIÓN FENOLÓGICA Y DIGESTIBILIDAD in vivo DE LA LEGUMINOSA FORRAJERA (Arachis pintoi EN DIFERENTES EDADES DE CORTE

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    Víctor Godoy Espinoza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de ésta investigación fue evaluar la fenología, producción, composición química nutricional y digestibilidad in vivo de A. pintoi y de establecer modelos matemáticos para determinar el valor nutricional y producción en base a la composición química de la planta. Las evaluaciones fenológicas se realizaron en la hacienda ESPE y la digestibilidad in vivo en la Facultad de Ciencias Pecuarias de la ESPOCH. En la primera fase se utilizaron parcelas experimentales de 10x15 m con cuatro repeticiones, mientras que en la segunda fase la unidad experimental fue un ovino (n=4. En ambos ensayos se aplicó un diseño experimental completamente al azar con un modelo lineal aditivo utilizando un nivel de significancia del 5%. Se realizó un análisis de correlación y regresión lineal entre variables fenológicas, composición química, digestibilidad y energía. Todos los análisis fueron realizados con el paquete SPSS 10. Las mayores producciones de forraje verde y materia seca (MS por hectárea se obtuvieron con cortes a los 75 días con 47,730 y 12,480 kg ha-1, respectivamente. En cuanto a la composición química de la proteína bruta y digestibilidad in vivo de la MS, el forraje cortado a 30 días obtuvo los mayores valores con 24.50 y 66.42%, respectivamente. El máximo valor de energía neta de lactancia (ENL se logró en el corte de 30 días, alcanzando 1.51 para luego disminuir a 1.24 Mcal ENL kg-1 a los 75 días.

  4. Influência da remoção de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de leguminosas Effect of cotyledon removal on cotyledonal axillary shooting in seedlings of leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaci Fernandes de Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos inteiramente casualizados foram conduzidos em condições de viveiro com o objetivo de verificar a importância da permanência de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. e Delonix regia L. Os tratamentos foram: remoção de ambos os cotilédones nos primeiro, segundo e terceiro dias da emergência, remoção de um só cotilédone no primeiro dia da emergência e não remoção de cotilédones. A recuperação do desenvolvimento em plântulas de P. vulgaris, avaliada através da ocorrência de ramificações, independe do número de cotilédones removidos no período de um a três dias da emergência, mas é menos eficiente que em V. unguiculata. A remoção de ambos os cotilédones em plântulas de V. unguiculata, no dia da emergência, afetou a recuperação do desenvolvimento dessas plântulas em comparação com os outros tratamentos. Em plântulas de L leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica e D. regia, a remoção de ambos os cotilédones, no período de um a três dias da emergência, sugere o aumento de mortalidade nessas plântulas. A remoção de um único cotilédone não afetou significativamente o percentual de sobrevivência das plântulas nem limitou o surgimento de brotações à axila cotiledonar correspondente ao cotilédone removido.Completely randomized experiments under greenhouse conditions were carried to study the role of cotyledons on the cotyledonal axillary shooting of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. and Delonix regia L. The seedlings underwent the following treatments: removal of both cotyledons on the first to the third day after emergence, removal of only one cotyledon on the first day of emergence, and no cotyledon removal. Growth recovery in P. vulgaris seedlings, as evaluated through shooting occurrence, is independent of the number of cotyledons removed on the first to the third day after emergence, but it was mostly less effective than that in V. unguiculata. Growth recovery in V. unguiculata seedlings was less effective when both cotyledons were removed on the first day of emergence as compared to the other treatments. In L. leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica, and D. regia seedlings, the removal of both cotyledons, on the first to the third day after emergence, suggests an increase in the mortality of seedlings. The removal of only one cotyledon did not significantly affect the percentage of seedling survival nor limit shooting to the corresponding axil of the removed cotyledon.

  5. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    pendula (Annonaceae), on lipopolysaccharide-induced fever in rats. Department of ... At 300 mg kg-1, all extracts exhibited activities higher than that of Acetylsalicyclic acid (Aspirin) whose per- .... -α and IL-β (Aronoff and Nelson, 2001).

  7. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards;Fixacao biologica e transferencia de nitrogenio por leguminosas em pomar organico de mangueira e gravioleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulino, Gleicia Miranda; Barroso, Deborah Guerra, E-mail: gleiciamiranda@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: deborah@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues; Urquiaga, Segundo; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo, E-mail: bruno@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: urquiaga@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha{sup -1} of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of {sup 15}N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  9. Disponibilidade e valor nutritivo de forragem de leguminosas nativas (Adesmia DC. e exóticas (Lotus L. Availability and nutritive value of the wild leguminous (Adesmia DC. and exotics (Lotus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Adesmia DC. possui 17 espécies nativas no Brasil, distribuídas nos Estados do Sul, cuja importância está vinculada a sua adaptação ao solo e clima regionais, além de ser de crescimento hibernal (temperadas. Este trabalho teve o objetivo comparar o padrão de acúmulo de matéria seca (MS e valor nutritivo de forragem de A. latifolia, A. punctata e A. tristis, tendo como padrão Lotus corniculatus (cornichão e L. uliginosus. O ensaio foi realizado em casa de vegetação durante 210 dias (4000 graus-dia. A disponibilidade de forragem (DF foi similar entre A. latifolia (276 g MS/m² e cornichão (275 g MS/m² e entre A. tristis (201g MS/m² e L. uliginosus (192 g MS/m², sendo que A. punctata apresentou a menor DF (155 g MS/m². A. latifolia caracterizou-se pela maior precocidade na DF, devido ao crescimento mais rápido em relação às demais espécies, sugerindo seu potencial para utilização durante a estação fria. Em relação às análises de qualidade, o teor de proteína bruta (PB nas folhas de A. latifolia foi de até 21,6% e a DIVMO atingiu 72,3%. Os maiores conteúdos de PB e DIVMO foram encontrados nas folhas de cornichão, 30,3 e 75,8%, respectivamente. A. tristis apresentou DIVMO muito baixa nos caules (34,9 a 44,7%, o que poderia limitar seu consumo por bovinos. Concluiu-se que, entre as espécies de Adesmia estudadas, A. latifolia detém o maior potencial forrageiro, sugerindo a continuidade de estudos com a espécie.The genus Adesmia DC. has 17 species native to Brazil, distributed in the Southern states, whose importance is linked to its adaptation to the soils and climatic conditions of the region, besides being an active winter-growing species (temperate. This work aimed to compare the patterns of dry matter (DM accumulation and nutritive value of A. latifolia, A. punctata and A. tristis, using Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil and L. uliginosus (big trefoil, as checks. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse for 210 days (4000 degrees-day. The forage availability (FA was similar for A. latifolia (276 g DM/m² and birdsfoot trefoil (275 g DM/m², as well as for A. tristis (201 g DM/m² and big trefoil (192 g DM/m², while A. punctata showed the smallest FD (155 g DM/m². A. latifolia was characterized by an early FA, due to its fast growth when compared to other species, pointing to its potential utilization during the cold season. In relation to the quality analysis, the crude protein (CP in A. latifolia leaves was up to 21.6% and the organic matter in vitro digestibility (OMIVD was up to 72.3%. The highest CP and OMIVD was found in the birdsfoot trefoil leaves, 30.3 and 75.8%, respectively. A. tristis presented a very low OMIVD in the stems, from 34.9 to 44.7%, which could limit its intake by cattle. It is concluded that, among the Adesmia species studied, A. latifolia holds the greatest forage potential and deserves further study.

  10. Aplicación de modelos en los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la meseta central : Simulación de rotaciones y modelado de la arquitectura de la planta en leguminosas

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo profundiza en el estudio de los sistemas agrícolas de secano de la Meseta Central. Sobre la base de la alternativa tradicional ce^eal^arbecho, se han estudiado durante tres años de cultivo 1995/96, 1996/97 y 1997/98 seis rotaciones diferentes: monocultivo de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.), cebada/barbecho, cebada/habas (Viciafaba L.), cebada/guisantes {Pisum sativum L.), cebada/habas/barbecho y cebada/guisantes/barbecho. Entre las rotaciones, se ha comparado la biomasa, el rendimien...

  11. Estudio de la tecnología de extrusión para la valorización de subproductos vegetales y nuevas aplicaciones en leguminosas como ingredientes de productos para alimentación humana

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Espeso, Belén

    2017-01-01

    La tecnología de extrusión se ha aplicado en la última década sobre diferentes tipos de subproductos con el fin de determinar la posibilidad de obtener ciertas mejoras nutricionales y/o tecnológicas sobre ellos al igual que en las harinas. La información disponible en relación al procesado mediante extrusión de subproductos de origen vegetal es limitada. Son varios los factores que afectan a la calidad del producto final tales como el tipo de extrusor que se utiliza, la configuración del t...

  12. Alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de Aedes aegypti submetidas ao diterpeno labdano, isolado de Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae, e à uma fração rica em taninos de Magonia pubescens (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyde Ferreira Barreto Valotto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública, em vários países, e tem como principal vetor o Aedes aegypti, mosquito mais adaptado às áreas urbanizadas. Apresenta-se, pela primeira vez, as alterações ultraestruturais em larvas de 3º estádio, desse mosquito, causadas pelos larvicidas naturais, um diterpeno labdano, extraído de Copaifera reticulata, e uma fração rica em taninos catéquicos, extraída de Magonia pubescens, evidenciando o mecanismo de ação dessas substâncias. MÉTODOS: Os experimentos foram realizados com larvas de 3º estádio em solução de 0,9ppm, do diterpeno (3-β-acetoxylabdan-8(17-13-dien-15-óico e de 3,7ppm, da fração majoritária de tanino catéquico de massa molecular 864Da. Obtiveram-se as substâncias através de fracionamentos cromatográficos sucessivos, identificadas por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e espectrometria de massas. As larvas que atingiram estado letárgico foram coletadas e dissecadas e seus tubos digestórios fixados, desidratados, emblocados e polimerizados. Cortes ultrafinos foram feitos e contrastados com acetato de uranila 3% e citrato de chumbo, posteriormente, levados ao microscópio eletrônico. RESULTADOS: As principais alterações ultraestruturais provocadas pelos diterpeno e tanino sobre larvas de Aedes aegypti foram vacuolização citoplasmática, desorganização e degeneração celular, mudança estrutural dos microvilos e deslocamento das células da lâmina basal. CONCLUSÕES: O diterpeno e a fração rica em taninos catéquicos provocaram a morte das larvas de Aedes aegypti através da destruição celular no intestino médio.

  13. Bioactivity of Powder and Extracts from Garlic, Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and Spring Onion, Allium fistulosum L. (Alliaceae against Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae on Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp (Leguminosae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun A. Denloye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to investigate the bioactivity of powders, extracts, and essential oils from Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae and A. fistulosum L. (Liliaceae against adults, eggs, and larvae of Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. On the basis of 48 hr median lethal toxicity (LC50, test plant powders and extracts from A. sativum were more toxic to C. maculatus adults than those from A. fistulosum. The 48 hr LC50 values for the powder against the test insect species were 9.66 g/kg and 26.29 g/kg for A. sativum and A. fistulosum, respectively. Also the 48 hr LC50 values obtained show that aqueous extracts of the test plant species, 0.11 g/L (A. sativum and 0.411 g/L (A. fistulosum were more toxic to C. maculatus than the corresponding ethanol extracts. There was no significant difference in the toxicity of vapours from the two test plant species against C. maculatus, although A. sativum gave lower values. The study shows that A. sativum and A. fistulosum have potentials for protecting stored cowpea from damage by C. maculatus.

  14. Produção de forragem em pastagens consorciadas com diferentes leguminosas sob pastejo rotacionado = Forage production in pasture-based systems mixed with different legumes under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Steinwandter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar dois sistemas forrageiros, constituídos por capim-elefante, azevém, trevo branco ou amendoim forrageiro e espécies de crescimento espontâneo, quanto às taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS. Para avaliação utilizaram-se quatro piquetes, com 0,25 ha cada um, com capim-elefante estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4 m. No período hibernal, entre as linhas do capim-elefante, fez-se o estabelecimento do azevém; em dois piquetes foi semeado o trevo branco e nos demais se preservou o amendoim forrageiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. Para a determinação das taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS, avaliaram-se as massas de forragem de pré e pós-pastejo. Foram avaliadas a composição botânica e estrutural da pastagem e a lotação. Na média, as taxas de acúmulo e dedesaparecimento da MS e a lotação foram de 47,29 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,24% e 3,01 UA ha-1 e de 53,16 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,45% e 3,48 UA ha-1 para os sistemas constituídos por trevo branco e por amendoim forrageiro, respectivamente. Considerando-se a taxa de acúmulo deMS, a MS desaparecida e a lotação, os resultados demonstram melhores resultados para o sistema forrageiro constituído pelo amendoim forrageiro.The objective of this research was to evaluate two pasture-based systems, with elephantgrass, ryegrass, white clover or forage peanut and spontaneous growth species about the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass. The elephantgrass was established in rows with a distance of 4 m between rows. In the cool season, ryegrass was planted between rows of elephantgrass; white clover wassowed,in two paddocks, and in the other two the forage peanut was preserved. The experimental design was completely randomized. In order to stipulate the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass, the pre- and post-graze forage mass were evaluated.The botanical and structural composition, as well as the stocking rate were analyzed. The average rate of accumulation and disappearance of forage mass and the stocking rate were of47.29 kg of DM ha-1 day-1; 3.24% and 3.10 UA ha-1 and of 53.16 kg of DM ha-1 day-1; 3.45% and 3.48 UA ha-1 to the systems formed by white clover and forage peanut, respectively. Considering the accumulation rate of the pasture dry matter, the disappearance of foragemass and the stocking rate, the forage system associated with forage peanut showed a better performance.

  15. Characterization of condensed tannins from native legumes of the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid Caracterização dos taninos condensados em leguminosas nativas do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mendes Guimarães-Beelen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possible influence of tannins on the nutritional value of the forages from Caatinga vegetation, there are few studies that evaluated their tannin concentration. This study was conducted to characterize condensed tannins present in the legumes species Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá and Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, at three stages of their phenological cycle. The concentration of soluble tannin (ST, bound tannin (BT and total tannin (TT were determined using the butanol-HCL method; astringency was by the radial diffusion method, and the monomeric composition of purified tannins by a high-performance liquid chromatograph with delphinidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin as standards. Concentration and astringency of purified condensed tannins, as well as their monomeric composition varied between species, and in some cases among phenological cycles. The values observed were always above the limits considered beneficial for ruminal digestion (i.e. 5%. Jurema Preta presented the highest values (30.98% TT and 22% astringency at full growth stage, and Mororó the lowest (10.38% TT and 14% astringency during fructification. Jurema Preta presented a mean relationship prodelfinidin (PD: procyanidin (PC of 97:3, which did not vary during the phenological cycle, showing the high astringent capacity of these tannins. Sabiá presented a relationship of 90:20 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 40:50 at fructification. In Mororó the PD:PC relationship was more equilibrated, around 40:50 during full growth and flowering stages, decreasing to 35:60 During fructification. Propelargonidin was not detected or was present at low concentration in the three species.Apesar da possível influência do tanino sobre o valor nutritivo das forrageiras da Caatinga, poucos são os estudos que avaliam a concentração de taninos nestas plantas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar os taninos condensados presentes nas espécies Mimosa hostilis (Jurema Preta, Mimosa caesalpinifolia (Sabiá e Bauhinia cheilantha (Mororó, em três fases do ciclo fenológico. As concentrações de tanino solúvel (TS, tanino ligado ao resíduo (TL e tanino total (TT foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCl; a adstringência foi avaliada pelo método de difusão radial e a composição de monômeros dos taninos purificados através do sistema de cromatografia líquida de alta resolução, utilizando delfinidina, cianidina e pelargonidina como padrões. A concentração e adstringência dos taninos condensados purificados, assim como sua composição monomérica, variou entre as espécies e, em alguns casos, entre os ciclos fenológicos. Os valores foram superiores aos considerados benéficos a digestão ruminal (5%. Jurema Preta apresentou os maiores valores (30,98% TT e 22% de adstringência na vegetação plena e Mororó os menores valores observados (10,38 TT e 14% de adstringência na frutificação. A Jurema Preta apresentou uma relação prodelfinidina (PD:procianidina (PC média de 97:3 que se mostrou pouco variável, indicando uma alta capacidade adstringente dos taninos desta espécie em todas as fases do ciclo fenológico. O Sábia apresentou uma relação de 90:20 nas fases de vegetação plena e floração, diminuindo para 40:50 na fase de frutificação. A relação PD:PC do Mororó foi mais equilibrada, oscilando em torno de 40:50 nas fases de vegetação plena e floração e reduzindo para 35:60 durante a frutificação. A propelargonidina esteve ausente ou em pequena concentração nas espécies estudadas.

  16. Sistema em fluxo para determinação espectrofotométrica de uréia em plasma de sangue animal empregando leguminosa como fonte natural da enzima urease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Gilmara C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric flow injection analysis (FIA procedure employing natural urease enzyme source for the determination of urea in animal blood plasma was developed. Among leguminous plants used in the Brazilian agriculture, the Cajanus cajan specie was selected as urease source considering its efficiency and availability. A minicolumn was filled with leguminous fragments and coupled to the FIA manifold, where urea was on-line converted to ammonium ions and subsequently it was quantified by spectrophotometry. The system was employed to determine urea in animal plasma samples without any prior treatment. Accuracy was assessed by comparison results with those obtained employing the official procedure and no significant difference at 90 % confidence level was observed. Other profitable features such as an analytical throughput of 30 determinations per hour, a reagent consumption of 19.2 mg sodium salicylate, 0.5 mg sodium hipochloride and a relative standard deviation of 1.4 % (n= 12 were also obtained.

  17. Germinação de sementes e crescimento inicial de plânturas de Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya (DC. G.P.Lewis & M.P.Lima (Leguminosae em diferentes anbientes de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Gesteira Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da atividade madeireira e a elevada taxa de desmatamento na Amazônia têm intensificado a necessidade de estudos sobre as técnicas mais adequadas para a produção de mudas que possam ser usadas em atividades de reflorestamento e de plantio em florestas. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar: a se a taxa de germinação de sementes de Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya difere entre sementes colhidas na copa e coletadas no chão da floresta; e b qual o efeito do grau de sombreamento no viveiro sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas dessa espécie. Seis repetições de 10 sementes colhidas na copa e coletadas no chão foram colocadas em germinador. A taxa de germinação não diferiu entre os dois métodos de obtenção de sementes, sendo recomendada a coleta de frutos no chão. No viveiro, quatro repetições de 25 sementes foram colocadas para germinar a pleno sol e em 30, 50 e 70% de sombra. Em cada tratamento de luz, 40 plântulas foram sorteadas, e sua "performance" foi avaliada quatro meses após a semeadura. Tanto a germinação das sementes quanto o crescimento em diâmetro e acúmulo de biomassa das plântulas foram superiores em 30 e 50% de sombreamento, em comparação com pleno sol. Os resultados indicaram que o crescimento de plântulas de P. psilostachya é favorecido em condições relativamente altas de iluminação, embora algum sombreamento seja necessário, e que a produção de mudas dessa espécie é de fácil execução, ao menos nos estágios iniciais de desenvolvimento das plântulas.The expansion of logging and deforestation in the Amazon forest increases the need for studies on techniques to grow seedlings that can be used in reforestation and enrichment planting programs. We addressed the following questions: a does the seed germination of Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya differ between seeds collected directly on the crown and the ones collected on the forest floor? b what is the effect of the shading level on the seed germination and the initial development of seedlings of this species? Six replicates of 10 seeds were germinated in a growth chamber. The germination rate did not differ between the seed collection methods and the collection of fruits in the forest floor is recommended. In the nursery, four replicates of 25 seeds were germinated under full sun and 30%, 50% and 70% shade. In each light treatment, the performance of 40 seedlings randomly selected was assessed four months after sowing. Seed germination, seedling growth and biomass accumulation were higher under 30% and 50% shade than under full sun. The results suggest that the growth of P. psilostachya seedlings is favored under high light levels, although some shade is required, and that it is relatively easy to produce seedlings of this species, at least on the initial developmental stage.

  18. Aspectos químicos e bioquímicos de leguminosas enlatadas em diferentes estádios de maturação Chemical and biochemical aspects of legumes canned at different maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.P. BARCELOS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a composição química e aspectos bioquímicos dos grãos de soja cultivar IAC PL-1 e de guandu cultivar IAC Fava Larga, crus e pós-enlatamento em diferentes estádios de maturação avaliando os efeitos do processamento sobre os grãos dos dois cultivares. A composição química dos grãos crus , principalmente no último estádio verde, e na maturação de colheita foi de modo geral semelhante. O enlatamento conservou 95% e 98% do total das proteínas dos grãos de soja e guandu, respectivamente. Nos enlatados de soja obteve-se a inativação da atividade de lectinas. Os processamentos térmicos utilizados para os enlatamentos, 121ºC por 6 a 7 minutos para a soja e 5 a 6 minutos para o guandu foram suficientes para eliminar 83% da atividade dos inibidores de tripsina da soja e do guandu. A digestibilidade da proteína do guandu enlatado (62% foi inferior em relação à soja enlatada (78%. Com exceção do ácido glutâmico, prolina, lisina e histidina, os demais aminoácidos do grão de soja enlatado colhido no 64º DAF tiveram seus conteúdos iguais aos enlatados do 85º DAF pós-armazenados e pós-macerados. Os teores de aminoácidos dos grãos de guandu enlatados no 62º DAF, com exceção do ácido glutâmico e fenilalanina, foram iguais àqueles presentes na última colheita (92º DAF. A metionina disponível no grão de soja não se modificou com a evolução da maturação, porém a do guandu se elevou no 92º DAF e o processo de enlatamento reduziu a metionina disponível da soja apenas no 55º e 64º DAF e do guandu no 57º e 92º DAF. Rafinose e estaquiose nos grãos de soja estão mais elevadas no estádio verde, e nos grãos de guandu, apenas a estaquiose está mais elevada no estádio verde. O processo de enlatamento provocou um pequeno decréscimo nestes dois açúcares da soja e guandu nos dois últimos estádios de maturação estudados.This work intended to study the chemical composition and biochemical aspects of soybean grains, cultivar IAC PL-1 and pigeon pea cultivar IAC Fava Larga, both raw and post-canning at different maturation stages, evaluating the effects of the processing caused on the grain. The chemical composition of the raw grains, mainly in the last green stage and in the harvest maturation it was in general similar. The canning of soybean conserved by 95% and pigeon pea by 98% the whole protein content of grains. In soybean canned products, inactivation of the activity of lectins was obtained. The heat processings utilized for the cannings, 121ºC for 6 to 7 minutes for soybean and 5 to 6 minutes for pigeon pea, were enough to remove 83% the activity of soybean and pigeon pea trypsine inhibitors. The in vitro digestibility of the canned pigeon pea protein was lower (62% relative to canned soybean (78%. With exception of glutamic acid, proline, lysine and histidine, the other amino acids of the canned soybean grain harvested on the 64th DAF had their contents equal to those canned on the 85th DAF post stored and post-soaking. The amino acid of the pigeon pea grains canned on the 62nd DAF, with exception of glutamic acid and phenilalanine, were equal to those amino acids present at the last harvest (92nd DAF. The available methionine in soybean grain did’t change with the evolution of the maturation, but that of pigeon pea rose at the 92nd DAF and the canning process decreased the available methionine of the soybean at 55th and 64th and pigeon pea at 57th and 92nd DAF. Both raffinose and stachyose in soybean grains are higher in green stages and in pigeon pea grains only stachyose is higher in green stage. The canning process caused a small reduction in these two sugars of soybean and pigeon pea in the last two studied maturation stages.

  19. Obtención de carbón activado a partir de la cubierta seminal de leguminosa haba (Vicia-Faba) y su uso en el proceso de recuperación de oro desde soluciones cianuradas

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Zea, Norberto Sixto

    2008-01-01

    La minería aurífera en el Perú, carece de tecnologías adecuadas para recuperar oro eficientemente, teniéndose pérdidas significativas en los relaves como oro sedimentado o submicroscópico. Los procesos en nuevos proyectos de recuperación de oro, desarrollan la aplicación de la tecnología del carbón activado que adsorbe oro de soluciones lixiviadas en cianuro que permite trabajar minerales de baja ley consiguiendo ventajas en costos de operación y mejor productividad. El carbón activado para r...

  20. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L), con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento al...

  1. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezal Mezquita, P.; Urtuvia Gatica, V.; Ramírez Quintanilla, V.; Romero Palacios, N.; Arcos Zavala, R.

    2011-01-01

    La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupinus albus L), para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificació...

  2. The Bravais pendulum: the distinct charm of an almost forgotten experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babovic, V M; Mekic, S

    2011-01-01

    In the year 1851 in Paris, the apparent change of the plane of oscillation of a linear pendulum was observed by Leon Foucault. In the same year, at the same place, the unequal duration of the oscillations of a right- and left-handed conical pendulum was observed by Bravais. Today, the Foucault pendula are common at universities, the Bravais pendula not at all. We have revisited and experimentally tested Bravais's method and found it worthy of revitalization in student labs.

  3. Variação intraspecífica do lenho de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae - Mimosoideae de populações ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica Intraspecific variation in wood anatomy of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima (Leguminosae -Mimosoidae in two Atlantic rain forest remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza R. da Costa Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho compara populações distintas de Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC. G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima ocorrentes em dois remanescentes de Floresta Atlântica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas árvores de diâmetro semelhante retas e sem defeitos aparentes. Os resultados obtidos comprovam estatisticamente a ocorrência de variação intraspecífica na estrutura anatômica da madeira. Os caracteres qualitativos mantiveram-se constantes, enquanto os quantitativos variaram, sendo os significativos, de acordo com o teste t de Student, a freqüencia, comprimento e diâmetro dos elementos vasos, o comprimento e espessura da parede das fibras, a freqüência e largura dos raios. A análise dos componentes principais, utilizando características anatômicas quantitativas ordenou as duas populações separadamente. O eixo I responde por 33% da variância total principalmente pela relação positiva do diâmetro do elemento de vaso, enquanto o eixo II responde por 20% da variância total, principalmente pelo comprimento das fibras.This study compares distinct populations of Pseudopiptadenia contorta (DC G.P. Lewis & M.P. Lima occurring in two remnants of Atlantic rain forest in Rio de Janeiro state. Trees with similar diameters and with no apparent defects were selected. The results confirm intraspecific variation in wood anatomy. Qualitative features do not change, while according to the Student t test quantitative features showed significant differences in vessel-element frequency, width, and length, fiber length and wall thickness, and ray frequency and width. Principal component analysis showed two separate populations. Factor 1 explains 33% of the total variance, mainly due to the positive relationship of vessel-element tangential diameter; factor 2 explains 20% of the total variance, mainly due to fiber length.

  4. Papilionoideae (Leguminosae arbóreas e lianas na estação de pesquisa, treinamento e educação ambiental (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira Trees and lianes of the papilionoideae (Leguminosae in the research, training and environmental education station (EPTEA, Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Martins da Costa Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste em um levantamento florístico das árvores e lianas pertencentes à Papilionoideae da Mata do Paraíso, importante fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Submontana, no Município de Viçosa, Zona da Mata mineira. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada por meio de visitas à área de estudo, no período de julho/2004 a agosto/2005. Foram reconhecidos 12 táxons infra-específicos pertencentes a oito gêneros, sendo Machaerium Pers. (4 spp. e Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. os mais representativos. São apresentados chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações e comentários sobre os táxons analisados. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., espécie vulnerável, e Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endêmica da região, foram encontradas na EPTEA.This work is a floristic survey of trees and lianas of the Papilionoideae in the Mata do Paraíso, an important fragment of Submontane Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, in Viçosa, Zona da Mata Mineira. The fieldwork was carried out through visits to the studied area, from July/2004 to August/2005. Twelve taxa represented by eight genera were recorded. Machaerium Pers. (4spp. and Dalbergia L. f. (2 spp. were the most representatives. Identification keys, descriptions and illustrations are presented for the analyzed taxa. Dalbergia nigra (Vell. Allemão ex Benth., vulnerable species and, Ormosia vicosana Rudd, endemic for the region were found at EPTEA.

  5. Effects of sulphuric acid, mechanical scarification and wet heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different treatment methods on the germination of seeds of Parkia biglobosa (mimosaceae) were carried out. Prior treatment of seeds with sulphuric acid, wet heat and mechanical scarification were found to induce germination of the dormant seeds. These methods could be applied to raise seedlings of the plant for ...

  6. Full Length Research Paper Seed germination and in vitro plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parkia biglobosa is an important leguminous forest species which is being threatened of going into extinction in Senegal. To preserve this genetic resource of great economic value, studies on germination were carried out and in vitro conservation option through tissue culture technique was adopted. 100% of germination ...

  7. Influence of leafy biomass transfer of agroforestry trees with nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of leguminous tree crops and biomass transfer is the main possibility for soil enrichment with nutrients, especially with nitrogen and play alternative role as source of organic fertilizer. This study investigated the influence of leafy biomass transfer of Albizia lebbeck and Parkia biglobosa leguminous agroforestry ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 161 of 161 ... Vol 31, No 2 (2010), Quality Evaluation of Cookies Produced from Composite Blends of Wheat Flour and African LocustBean (Parkia biglobosa) ... Vol 32, No 1 (2011), The Determination of Lead, Arsenic, Mercury, Cadmium Contents in Some Edible Fish Species Retailed in Ibadan, Nigeria, Abstract.

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hounhouigan, DJ. Vol 75 (2014) - Articles Caractérisation physique et composition chimique des graines de Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) R. Br. en usage au Nord-Bénin Abstract PDF · Vol 86 (2015) - Articles Effet des opérations unitaires d'extraction sur le rendement et la qualité du beurre de Pentadesma butyracea produit en ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 591 ... Vol 8, No 1 (2010), Economic assessment of marketing and ... A. Gray used as green manure on the early growth of Parkia ... Vol 12, No 2 (2014), Effect of alternative hormones on the .... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Qualitative determination of chemical and nutritional composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil has very high saponification value and hence would be useful in soap industry. Some simple reducing sugars, including lactose, were identified. Key words: Parkia bioglobosa, Qalitative determination, Industrial use, Saponification, underexploited. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (8), pp. 812-815 ...

  12. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B.; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2013-01-01

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin...

  13. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermentedfood condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I.; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean(Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel Produced From Some Vegetable Oils of Nigeria Origin Abstract PDF · Vol 19, No 1 (2011) - Articles Evaluation of Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Contents of Parkia biglobosa (L.) Flower Abstract PDF · Vol 19, No 1 (2011) - Articles Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters on Fuel ...

  15. Services ecosystémiques du parc agroforestier à Cordyla pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats de l'enquête indiquent que les principales espèces ligneuses du parc citées pour leur fonction alimentaire dans la commune de. Keur Samba Guèye sont: Parkia biglobosa. (15%), Anacardium occidentale (13%),. Mangifera indica (10%), Zyziphus mauritiana. (10%), Detarium senegalensis (8%), Parinari.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of African Locust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most logical approach towards the improvement and efficient use of indigenous fruits to supply nutritional requirement for human diet is through the investigation of their nutritional values. This study was carried out to investigate the nutritional value of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) fruit collected from two ...

  17. Caractéristiques biochimiques et microbiologiques de moutardes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate "the African mustard» produced from fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds and fermented Glycine max, in order to determine their nutritional and microbial qualities. Overall composition of these local condiments was determined. Results indicted that the water content ranged from 15.35 ...

  18. Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA. Vol 12 (2008) - Articles Hypoglycaemic And Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities Of Fermented Seeds Of Parkia Biglobosa (Jacq) Benth Abstract. ISSN: 1118-6267. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  19. Induction of callus and somatic embryogenesis from cotyledon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore the potential for in vitro rapid regeneration of Parkia biglobosa, an endangered multipurpose woody angiosperm, cotyledon explants obtained from 7-day old aseptically germinated seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 0.4-1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid ...

  20. Premilinary Studies on Phytochemical Screening of Ulam and Fruit from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliwirianis N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic distribution in 14 Malaysian favourite ulam and fruit belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The plants investigated were parkia speciosa (petai, solanum torvum (terung pipit, pithecellobium bubalinum (kerdas, moringa oleifera (kacang kelor, dryobalanops oblongifolia (keladan, cosmos caudatus (ulam raja, mentha arvensis (pudina, ocimum sp. (selasih, cymbopogon nardus (serai wangi, eugenia polyantha (serai kayu, Barringtonia scortechinii, (Putat, musa sp. (pisang, talinum paniculatum (akar som and phyllanthus acidus (cermai. Moringa oleifera leaf and dryobalanops oblongifolia fruit were found contain positive reactions of alkaloids. All the samples studied also show high content of saponin except in bark and seed of parkia speciosa and stem of phyllanthus acidus. Meanwhile, results of the phytochemical screening on saponins, steroids, terpenoids, phenolic and flavonoids showed that cosmos caudatus, ocimum sp., mentha arvensis, barringtonia scortechinii and moringa oleifera were the active compounds present in the leaves of the plant.

  1. The Bravais pendulum: the distinct charm of an almost forgotten experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babovic, V M; Mekic, S [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, State University of Novi Pazar, Vuka Karadzica bb, 36300 Novi Pazar (Serbia)

    2011-07-15

    In the year 1851 in Paris, the apparent change of the plane of oscillation of a linear pendulum was observed by Leon Foucault. In the same year, at the same place, the unequal duration of the oscillations of a right- and left-handed conical pendulum was observed by Bravais. Today, the Foucault pendula are common at universities, the Bravais pendula not at all. We have revisited and experimentally tested Bravais's method and found it worthy of revitalization in student labs.

  2. Molecular passportization of clones of karelian birch using PCRwith semi-specific primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V Matveeva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Using 4 clones of Karelian birch (Betula pendula Roth var caretica Merckl. from the collection of the karelian birch of the laboratory of genetics of Research Institute of Forest Genetics and Breeding, Voronezh, one normal tree of Betula pendula Roth, and one tree of B. pubescens Ehrh., collected from the nature, we have analyzed the possibility of application of PCR with semi-specific primers for molecular typing. We found primers with high percentage of polymorphic markers. These primers could be recommended for molecular typing of birch.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 444 ... ... (Leguminosae) and their probable significance in pollination, Details ... on some major vegetable crops in some ecological zones of Ghana, Abstract ... in smallholder peri-urban dairy farms in the Accra plains, Abstract.

  4. Differential activity of multiple saponins against omnivorous insects with varying feeding preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of saponin glycosides and aglycones from seven different plant families (Aquifoliaceae, Asparagaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae) were tested against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The corn earworm fe...

  5. Isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci from Korean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leguminosae) and its cytotaxonomic signifi- cance. Cathaya 2, 139–150. Estoup A., Garnery L., Solignac M. and Cornuet J. M. 1995. Microsatellite variation in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) popula- tions: hierarchical genetic structure and test of ...

  6. Distribution of Sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae on Tree-trunks in a Non-flooded Area of the Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRS Cabanillas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the Ducke Forest Reserve, near Manaus in the State of Amazonas. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. Caryocar villosum, Chrysophyllum amazonicum, Dinizia excelsa, Eschweilera atropetiolata and Parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. Seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in the forest were observed.

  7. Evolution récente de la population, de l'occupation des sols et de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cisse

    on assiste depuis peu aux premières plantations par les populations d'espèces arborées locales. : Prosopis africana, Khaya senegalensis,. Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa ou importées : Eucalytus camaldulensis, Prosopis juliflora. Ces plantations sont pour la plupart effectuées à l'intérieur et le long de la clôture de.

  8. Frost hardiness of tree species is independent of phenology and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. Distribution map of Betula pendula. Green = distribution range. The region limited in magenta colours shows minimum temperatures of the coldest month that were lower than the LT50 value of closed buds measured in this study (−32.3°C). The region limited in blue colour shows the lowest ...

  9. Enrichment ratios of elements in selected plant species from black coal mine dumps in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Kempers, A.J. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    Concentration of the metals Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn and V as well as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and S were measured in soils and in two tree species (leaves of Betula pendula and Salix caprea) and two herbs (whole above-ground parts of Solidago canadensis and Tanacetum vulgare) sampled from dumps in the Walbrzych coal mine area (Lower Silesia, SW Poland). These plants, as used to evaluate the distribution of elements in the examined dumps, contained elevated levels of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Especially the highest levels of Mn in Betula pendula seriously exceed background values. Betula pendula characterized also the highest enrichment ratio for Mn, Salix caprea for Ni and Sr and Tanacetum vulgare for Cu. Test-t indicated that from both herbs Tanace-tum vulgare accumulated much more K, N, S and Zn than Solidago canadensis and of both trees Salix caprea accumulated significantly more Cd, Cu, K and Ca than Betula pendula, while this last species accumulated significantly more Fe and Mn than Salix caprea. A post hoc LSD test indicated that all examined plants had similar enrichment ratios for Al, Pb and V.

  10. The Bravais Pendulum: The Distinct Charm of an Almost Forgotten Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babovic, V. M.; Mekic, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the year 1851 in Paris, the apparent change of the plane of oscillation of a linear pendulum was observed by Leon Foucault. In the same year, at the same place, the unequal duration of the oscillations of a right- and left-handed conical pendulum was observed by Bravais. Today, the Foucault pendula are common at universities, the Bravais…

  11. Global chaos synchronization of coupled parametrically excited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the synchronization behaviour of two linearly coupled parametrically excited chaotic pendula. The stability of the synchronized state is examined using Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI); and some sufficient criteria for global asymptotic synchronization are derived from which ...

  12. Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Allergic diseases, such as hay fever and food allergy, affect a substantial part of the population in westernized countries. Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula) is a considerable cause of hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) in northern and central Europe. The major birch pollen

  13. Proteomic analysis of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 predicts allergenicity for 15 birch species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Peters, J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen of the European and Asian white birch (Betula pendula and B. platyphylla) causes hay fever in humans. The allergenic potency of other birch species is largely unknown. To identify birch trees with a reduced allergenicity, we assessed the immunochemical characteristics of 15 species and two

  14. Analyzing Collision Processes with the Smartphone Acceleration Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    It has been illustrated several times how the built-in acceleration sensors of smartphones can be used gainfully for quantitative experiments in school and university settings (see the overview in Ref. 1 ). The physical issues in that case are manifold and apply, for example, to free fall, radial acceleration, several pendula, or the exploitation…

  15. The influence of lathe check depth and orientation on the bond quality of phenol-formaldehyde-bonded birch plywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Mark Hughes; Charles R. Frihart; Janne Logren

    2013-01-01

    During the rotary peeling of veneer for plywood or the laminated veneer lumber manufacture, checks are formed in the veneer that are as deep as 70 – 80 % of the veneer thickness. The results of this study show that, during adhesive bond testing, deep lathe checks in birch (Betula pendula Roth.) veneer significantly reduce the shear strength and the...

  16. Meer met berk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbaan, A.; Polman, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    De ruwe berk (Betula pendula Roth) en de zachte berk (Betula pubescens Erh.) zijn voor de bosbouw en het landschap in Nederland van groot belang. Vroeger was de berk een ongewenste boomsoort, maar nu blijkt hoe belangrijk de berk in onze bosgemeenschappen is. Na een bezoek aan Finland om specifiek

  17. On a rigorously classical approach to the Sine-Gordon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, W.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the continuum limit of an infinite set of coupled pendula yields the Sine-Gordon theory. The extension of the model to more dimensions with respect to the propagation yields a generalized Sine-Gordon equation for vector fields, containing Proca equations as a first order approximation. (author)

  18. Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid cloning and bioinformatic analysis of spinach Y chromosome- specific EST sequences. Chuan-Liang Deng, Wei-Li Zhang, Ying Cao, Shao-Jing Wang, ... Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for mitochondrial half-ABC transporter (STA1 gene). 389 2.31E-13. 98.96. SP3−12. Betula pendula histidine kinase 3 (HK3) mRNA, ...

  19. Use of woods at continual phytoextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruskova, A.

    2007-01-01

    Phytoextraction that used natural hyper-accumulators for cleaning polluted soil has more advantages than induced phytoextraction. After all, using the tree species as hypo-accumulators is very rarely. This paper notes about few characteristics of tree species, especially birch (Betula pendula), which should encourage the research and next, their using in the process of phytoextraction. (author)

  20. Impact of wind-induced microsites and disturbance severity on tree regeneration patterns: Results from the first post-storm decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor Vodde; Kalev Jogiste; Jeroen Engelhart; Lee E. Frelich; W. Keith Moser; Alan Sims; Marek Metslaid

    2015-01-01

    In two hemiboreal mixed spruce-hardwood forests in north-east Estonia, we studied (1) which factors affect tree regeneration survival and development during the first post-storm decade and (2) how these effects change in time. Regeneration height and mortality of the tree species black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) J. Gaertn.), birch (Betula pendula Roth., Betula...

  1. Predação de sementes de leguminosas por bruquídeos (Insecta: Coleoptera na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil Legume seed damage by bruchids (Insecta: Coleoptera in Serra dos Carajás, Pará state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Lomônaco

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a predação de sementes em Bauhinia pulchella Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosa acutistipula Benth. var. nigra Hub., Mimosa somnians H.B. ex Willd. (Mimosaceae e Phaseolus linearis H.B.K. (Fabaceae para investigar a taxa de predação e a existência de defesas contra a ação de predadores. Foi constatada a preferência por sementes de maior tamanho pelo bruquídeo de Bauhinia pulchella, o que pode significar uma adaptação das plantas em ter sementes pequenas que escapem da predação. Em Mimosa somnians, a imprevisibilidade do número de sementes viáveis produzidas poderia consistir num mecanismo de defesa, por impedir a otimização da quantidade de ovos deixados pelo predador em cada fruto. O formato extremamente achatado das sementes de Mimosa acutistipula parece limitar a ação de predadores. A alta resistência da casca dos frutos de Phaseolus linearis e o aspecto compacto e duro de suas sementes podem ser considerados defesas mecânicas. Existe relação entre o tamanho de sementes e o tamanho de predadores para as espécies estudadas.Seed damage in Bauhinia pulchella Benth. (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosa acutistipula Benth var. nigra Hub., Mimosa somnians H.B. ex Willd. (Mimosaceae and Phaseolus linearis H.B.K. (Fabaceae, was studied to investigate defense against predators. The preference for larger seeds of Bauhinia pulchella by bruchids is a selection pressure for the plant to product smaller seeds, as a survival mechanism to scape predation. The impredictability of the number of viable seeds per pod in Mimosa somnians could represent a defense mechanism because it does not permit the optimization of the number of eggs laid in each fruit. The flattened seeds of Mimosa acutistipula limit the attack sucess of predator beetles. The high resistance of the pod skin and the hard compact seeds in Phaseolus linearis may be considered mechanical defenses. There is a con-elation between seed size and predator size in the species studied.

  2. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen fixation (N{sub 2}) contribution in several forage legumes and the transfer of N to associated grasses; Avaliacao da contribuicao da fixacao biologica de N{sub 2} em varias leguminosas forrageiras e transferencia de N para uma graminea consorciada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M S.V.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to compare two different techniques for labelling the soil mineral nitrogen with {sup 15} N, for studies to quantify the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to forage legumes using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. The two techniques for labelling the soil were: incorporation a {sup 15} N labelled organic compost (slow release treatment), and split applications of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate. The evaluation of the techniques was through the quantification of BNF in the Itaguai Hybrid of Centrosema using two non-Na- fixing control plants (P. maximum K K-16 and Sorghum bicolor). The objective of experiment 2 was to quantify the contribution of BNF to forage legumes and the transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grasses in mixed swards again using the {sup 15} N isotope dilution technique. This study was conducted on a red podzolic soil (Typic Hapludult), with 7 forage legumes and 3 grasses in monoculture, and 3 mixed swards of Brachiaria brizantha with the Centrosema hybrid, Galactia striata and Desmodium ovalifolium, respectively, with varying ratios of grass to legume (4:1 to 1:4). In order to quantify the BNF contributions to the legumes and the transfer of fixed N to the B. brizantha, the plots were amended 8 times with doses of 0.01 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N labelled ammonium sulphate (12.5 atom % {sup 15} N) each 14 days, giving a total of 0.08 g {sup 15} N m{sup -2} of {sup 15} N during the 97 days of the experiment. In monoculture the different forage legumes obtained the equivalent of between 43 and 100 kg N ha{sup -1} from BNF. Stylosanthes guianensis showed the greatest contributions from BNF at 100 Kg N ha{sup -1}. In mixed swards with Brachiaria brizantha the proportion of N derived from BNF in the three legumes studied (Centrosema hybrid, G. striata and D. ovalifolium) was significantly greater than when they were grown in monoculture. (author). 197 refs, 9 figs, 19 tabs.

  3. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. I. Variables morfoestructurales Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. I. Morphostructural variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Medina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo un ensayo en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento morfoestructural de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca en condiciones de vivero. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Las variables estudiadas fueron: altura de la planta; diámetro del tallo y de las ramas; número de hojas, ramas, raíces y nódulos totales; y longitud de la rama y de la raíz. Al final de la evaluación (18 semanas no se observaron diferencias significativas entre L. leucocephala y E. fusca en la altura de la planta (45,2 y 51,0 cm, el diámetro del tallo (0,65 y 0,78 cm, el número de hojas (43 y 45 y de ramas (17 y 18 y la longitud de la raíz (32,1 y 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck sólo se destacó en el número de raíces (61 y de nódulos totales promedio (6. Los resultados permiten concluir que con la utilización de un sustrato alcalino en vivero, L. leucocephala y E. fusca exhibieron un comportamiento morfoestructural aéreo similar y superior que el de A. lebbeck; mientras que la albizia mostró mejores resultados en la morfoestructura radical.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the morphostructural performance of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca under nursery conditions. A completely randomized design was used for repeated measurements in time and ten replications per species. The studied variables were: plant height; stem and branch diameter; number of leaves, branches, roots and total nodules; and branch and root length. At the end of the evaluation (18 weeks no significant differences were observed between L. leucocephala and E. fusca in plant height (45,2 and 51,0 cm, stem diameter (0,65 and 0,78 cm, number of leaves (43 and 45 and branches (17 and 18 and root length (32,1 and 36,5 cm. A. lebbeck only stood out for the number of roots (61 and average total nodules (6. The results allow concluding that with the utilization of an alkaline substratum in nursery, L. leucocephala and E. fusca showed a similar aerial morphostructural performance and higher than that of A. lebbeck; while albizia showed better results in root morphostructure.

  4. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil Espécies leguminosas e forrageiras, solteiras ou consorciadas com milho, na sucessão soja-milho no centro-oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of no-tillage in the Cerrado (Savanna-like vegetation of Brazil depends on the production of sufficient above-ground crop residue, which can be increased by corn-forage intercropping. This study evaluated how above-ground crop residue production and yields of soybean and late-season corn in a soybean-corn rotation were influenced by the following crops in the year before soybean: corn (Zea mays L. intercropped with Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis, cv. comum., Panicummaximum cv. Tanzânia, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp]; sole corn, forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (cv. Santa Elisa], and ruzi grass. In March 2005, corn and forage species were planted in alternate rows spaced 0.90 m apart, and sole forage species were planted in rows spaced 0.45 m apart. In October 2005, the forages were killed with glyphosate and soybean was planted. After the soybean harvest in March 2006, sole late-season corn was planted in the entire experimental area. Corn grain and stover yields were unaffected by intercropping. Above-ground crop residue was greater when corn was intercropped with Tanzania grass (10.7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10.1 Mg ha-1, and Ruzi Grass (9.8 Mg ha-1 than when corn was not intercropped (4.0 Mg ha-1. The intercropped treatments increased the percentage of soil surface covered with crop residue. Soybean and corn grain yields were higher after sole ruzi grass and intercropped ruzi grass than after other crops. The intercropping corn with Brachiaria spp. and corn with Panicum spp. increases above-ground crop residue production and maintains nutrients in the soil without reducing late-season corn yield and the viability of no-till in the midwestern region of Brazil.A viabilidade do plantio direto no Cerrado brasileiro depende da produção adequada de palha das culturas, que pode ser aumentada pela consorciação de milho (Zea mays L. com uma espécie forrageira. O trabalho foi implantado em março de 2005 com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de resíduos das espécies e de grãos de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e de milho safrinha em sucessão. Foram avaliados tratamentos de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis cv. comum, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L., guandu [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp], e também o sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, a B. ruziziensis e o milho safrinha solteiro. Em outubro de 2005, as espécies foram dessecadas com glyphosate e a soja semeada. Após a colheita de soja em março de 2006, o milho safrinha foi cultivado em área total. O rendimento de grãos e palha de milho não foi influenciado pela espécie em consórcio. A massa seca da parte aérea foi maior quando o milho foi consorciado com Tanzânia (10,7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10,1 Mg ha-1 e Ruziziensis (9,8 Mg ha-1 do que com o milho solteiro (4,0 Mg ha-1. Nos tratamentos consorciados, houve aumento na porcentagem de solo coberto com os resíduos vegetais. O rendimento de grãos de soja e milho safrinha em sucessão foram maiores na ruziziensis solteira e no milho safrinha consorciado com ruziziensis. O cultivo de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria spp. ou com Panicum spp. aumenta a produção de resíduos culturais, preserva os nutrientes no solo sem reduzir a produtividade do milho e viabiliza o plantio direto no Centro-Oeste do Brasil.

  5. Nitrogenous compounds, phenolic compounds and morphological aspects of leaves: comparison of deciduous and semideciduous arboreal legumes Compostos nitrogenados, fenólicos e aspecto morfológico em folhas: comparação entre leguminosas arbóreas semidecíduas e decíduas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Silva Lima

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, perennial species contain higher concentrations of certain secondary compounds, such as phenolics, lower levels of nitrogenous compounds, and greater specific leaf mass (SLM than deciduous species. The aim of this study was to verify whether the comparative data reported in the literature regarding deciduous and evergreen species, also applies to four selected species of a semideciduous tropical forest (a remnant of the Atlantic Forest. The four species chosen for this study, each with apparently different leaf life spans, were two semideciduous (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang., and Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme, and two deciduous (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong., and Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in plastic pots containing soil taken from their natural habitat. Mature leaves were harvested for determination of the SLM and contents of phenolic compounds, tannins, nitrate, protein, free amino acids, chlorophyll, and nitrogen. Data registered are in agreement with those of the literature. Leaves with the longest life span had the highest content of phenolics and the lowest levels of tannins, nitrate, protein, amino acids, chlorophyll and nitrogen, as well as presenting the greatest SLM.Em geral as espécies perenifólias possuem maior concentração de alguns compostos secundários, como por exemplo fenóis, menor concentração de compostos nitrogenados e maior massa foliar específica (MFE, quando comparadas a espécies decíduas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as observações encontradas na literatura, comparando espécies perenifólias e decíduas aplicam-se também a quatro espécies de uma mata semidecídua, remanescente da Mata Atlântica. Das quatro espécies usadas neste estudo, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes, duas eram semidecíduas (Hymenaea courbaril L. var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee et Lang. e Lonchocarpus guilleminianus (Tul. Malme e duas decíduas (Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. e Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub.. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos, contendo solo da mata. O cultivo foi feito em casa de vegetação. Folhas maduras foram coletadas para análise de fenóis totais, taninos condensados, nitrato, proteínas totais, aminoácidos livres totais, clorofila total, nitrogênio total e MFE. Os resultados obtidos corroboram os da literatura, já que as espécies com folhas mais longevas apresentaram concentrações maiores de fenóis totais, menores de taninos condensados, nitrato, proteínas solúveis totais, aminoácidos livres totais, clorofilas totais, nitrogênio total e maior MFE.

  6. Comparación de tres leguminosas arbóreas sembradas en un sustrato alcalino durante el período de aviveramiento. II. Patrón de crecimiento y distribución de la biomasa Comparison of three tree legumes planted on an alkaline substratum during the nursery stage. II. Growth and biomass distribution pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Medina¹

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un experimento en el estado Trujillo, Venezuela, con el objetivo de comparar el patrón de crecimiento y la distribución de biomasa de Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (ecotipo Trujillo y Erythrina fusca durante 18 semanas en vivero. Las variables estudiadas fueron: tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura (TCA y de la distribución de la MS (TCMS, así como el porcentaje de materia seca (MS y el peso seco por planta de las fracciones (hojas, tallo, raíz. Se utilizó un diseño completamente aleatorizado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo y diez réplicas por especie. Erythrina presentó la mayor TCA y TCMS promedio (3,7 mm/día y 94,8 mg/día, seguida por leucaena (3,1 y 81,3 y, por último, albizia (1,2 mm/día y 53,1 mg/día, respectivamente. Independientemente de la especie, el mayor porcentaje de MS promedio se observó en las raíces (31,9, seguido por el tallo (28,0 y las hojas (25,4. Se observó una mayor distribución de MS por planta en las hojas (3,9 g y la raíz (3,1 g, comparados con el tallo (2,9 g. Se concluye que, para estas condiciones de aviveramiento, E. fusca presentó los mejores resultados; mientras que A. lebbeck necesitaría más tiempo para alcanzar las características deseables para su trasplante a campo.A trial was conducted in the Trujillo state, Venezuela, in order to compare the growth and biomass distribution pattern of Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala (Trujillo ecotype and Erythrina fusca for 18 weeks in nursery. The studied variables were: growth rate related to height (GRH and DM distribution (GRDM, as well as dry matter percentage (DM and dry weight per plant of the fractions (leaves, stem, root. A completely randomized design for measurements repeated in time and ten replications per species were used. E. fusca showed the highest average GRH and GRDM (3,7 mm/day and 94,8 mg/day, followed by L. leucocephala (3,1 and 81,3 and, lastly, A. lebbeck (1,2 mm/day and 53,1 mg/day, respectively. In dependently from the species, the highest percentage of average DM was observed in the roots (31,9, followed by the stem (28,0 and leaves (25, 4. A higher DM distribution per plant was observed in the leaves (3,9 g and root (3,1 g as compared to the stem (2,9 g. It is concluded that, for these nursery conditions, E. fusca showed the best results; while A. lebbeck would need more time to reach the desirable characteristics for its transplant to the field.

  7. Isolation and characterization of two plant growth-promoting bacteria from the rhizoplane of a legume (Lupinus albescens in sandy soil Isolamento e caracterização de duas bactérias promotoras de crescimento vegetal do rizoplano de uma leguminosa (Lupinus albescens de solo arenoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giongo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two bacterial strains that amplified part of the nifH gene, RP1p and RP2p, belonging to the genus Enterobacter and Serratia, were isolated from the rhizoplane of Lupinus albescens. These bacteria are Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, facultative anaerobic, and fast-growing; the colonies reach diameters of 3-4 mm within 24 h of incubation at 28 ºC. The bacteria were also able to grow at temperatures as high as 40 ºC, in the presence of high (2-3 % w/v NaCl concentrations and pH 4 -10. Strain RP1p was able to utilize 10 of 14 C sources, while RP2p utilized nine. The isolates produced siderophores and indolic compounds, but none of them was able to solubilize phosphate. Inoculation of L. albescens with RP1p and RP2p strains resulted in a significant increase in plant dry matter, indicating the plant-growth-promoting abilities of these bacteria.Duas linhagens bacterianas que apresentaram amplificação de parte do gene nifH, RP1p e RP2p, pertencentes aos gêneros Enterobacter e Serratia, foram isoladas do rizoplano de Lupinus albescens. Essas bactérias são Gram-negativas, com formato de bastonete, móveis, anaeróbias facultativas e apresentam multiplicação rápida, com colônias alcançando diâmetros de 3-4 mm em 24 h de incubação a 28 ºC. RP1p e RP2p também foram capazes de multiplicação em temperaturas elevadas, como 40 ºC, na presença de alta concentração de NaCl (2-3 % v/v e em valores de pH que variaram de 4 a 10. A linhagem RP1p foi capaz de utilizar 10 das 14 fontes de carbono avaliadas, enquanto a linhagem RP2p utilizou nove. Os isolados produziram sideróforos e compostos indólicos, mas foram incapazes de solubilizar fosfatos. A inoculação de L. albescens com as linhagens RP1p e RP2p resultou em aumento significativo do peso das plantas secas, o que demonstra que essas bactérias apresentam propriedades que favorecem o crescimento vegetal.

  8. Yield and botanical composition of a mixed grass-legume pasture in response to maintenance fertilization Produção e composição botânica de uma pastagem consorciada de gramínea e leguminosa em resposta à adubação de manutenção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on a low-productive Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture, mixed with Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte (forage peanut, established 13 years ago in a Red-Yellow Latosol in Acre State, western Brazilian Amazon. The purpose was to evaluate the response of this pasture to different fertilizer combinations, aiming at identifying the nutritional factors responsible for the fall of pasture carrying capacity and for the reduced vigor of forage peanut. It was used a randomized complete block design, with three replications and 12 combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, lime, sulfur, and micronutrients (100 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K2O; 300 kg/ha of dolomitic lime; 30 kg/ha of sulfur and FTE BR-10. Fertilizers were broadcast in 5 × 5-m plots, and the experimental area was isolated from grazing for 35 days. Pasture response to fertilizations showed that nitrogen was the main limiting nutrient to forage production. The other nutrients, applied singly or in a combined way, without nitrogen source, did not change dry matter accumulation rate. Overall, fertilizations with nitrogen provided dry matter accumulation rate of 115 kg/ha/day in comparison to only 32 kg/ha/day when nitrogen was not applied. There was no response from forage peanut to fertilization, so, there are other factors responsible for its reduced vigor of regrowth.Este estudo foi realizado em uma pastagem pouco produtiva de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, consorciada com Arachis pintoi cv. Belmonte (amendoim-forrageiro, estabelecida há 13 anos em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo no estado do Acre, Amazônia ocidental brasileira. Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta desta pastagem a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes, visando identificar os fatores nutricionais responsáveis pela queda da capacidade de suporte da pastagem e pelo reduzido vigor do amendoim-forrageiro. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos completos ao acaso, com três repetições, com 12 combinações de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, calcário, enxofre e micronutrientes (100 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O; 300 kg/ha de calcário dolomítico; 30 kg/ha de enxofre e FTE BR-10. Os fertilizantes foram aplicados em cobertura, em parcelas de 5 × 5 m, e a área experimental foi isolada do pastejo durante 35 dias. A resposta do pasto à adubação indicou que o nitrogênio foi o principal nutriente limitante à produção de forragem. Os demais nutrientes, aplicados isoladamente ou de forma combinada, sem uma fonte de nitrogênio, não alteraram a taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. Em média, as adubações com nitrogênio proporcionaram taxa de acúmulo de massa seca de 115 kg/ha/dia, em comparação à de apenas 32 kg/ha/dia quando não foi aplicado nitrogênio. Não houve resposta do amendoim-forrageiro à adubação, logo há outros fatores responsáveis pelo seu reduzido vigor de rebrota.

  9. Feijão-vagem semeado sobre cobertura viva perene de gramínea e leguminosa e em solo mobilizado, com adubação orgânica Snap bean planted on living perennial mulch of grass and legume and in tilled soil with organic amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Geraldo de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico do feijão-vagem, cv. Alessa, cultivado sobre cobertura viva perene de grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum Flüggé e de amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Krapov & Gregory, e em solo convencionalmente preparado, como controle. Diferentes doses de cama de aviário (0, 7, 14 e 28 t ha-1 foram fornecidas, parceladamente, em um Planossolo, em Seropédica, RJ, de agosto a outubro de 2002. O delineamento adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, utilizando-se modelo quadrático para análise dos resultados. A produtividade de vagens foi semelhante nos três sistemas de cultivo sem efeito competitivo das espécies de cobertura viva, sobre as quais foi realizada a semeadura direta da cultura, com enxada. A produtividade máxima estimada pelo modelo de regressão foi 20,3 t ha-1 de vagens. Esse valor foi obtido com a dose de 26 t ha-1 de cama de aviário, aplicada de forma parcelada. A semeadura direta de feijão-vagem sobre cobertura viva perene de grama-batatais e de amendoim forrageiro é viável, com resultados preliminares positivos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of snap bean planted on living perennial mulch of bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé and of peanut (Arachis pintoi Krapov & Gregory and in a conventional tillage soil as a control. Different parcels and doses of poultry bed manure (0, 7, 14 and 28 t ha-1 were used in a Planosol soil from August to October of 2002. The statistical design was a split plot, in completely randomized blocks, with four replications, using a quadratic model to analyze the results. Snap bean yield was similar for the tillage system treatments without competition effect from the living mulch, in which direct seeding of the main crop was performed with a hoe. The greatest snap bean yield estimated by regression model was 20.3 t ha-1, corresponding to the dose of 26 t ha-1 of manure applied in parcels. The direct seeding of snap bean on living perennial mulch of bahia grass and perennial peanut is agronomicaly viable, with positive preliminary results on snap bean yield.

  10. How is rainfall interception in urban area affected by meteorological parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabret, Katarina; Rakovec, Jože; Mikoš, Matjaž; Šraj, Mojca

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall interception is part of the hydrological cycle. Precipitation, which hits vegetation, is retained on the leaves and branches, from which it eventually evaporates into the atmosphere (interception) or reaches the ground by dripping from the canopy, falling through the gaps (throughfall) and running down the stems (stemflow). The amount of rainfall reaching the ground depends on various meteorological and vegetation parameters. Rainfall, throughfall and stemflow have been measured in the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia since the beginning of 2014. Manual and automatic measurements are performed regularly under Betula pendula and Pinus nigra trees in urban area. In 2014, there were detected 178 rainfall events with total amount of 1672.1 mm. In average B. pendula intercepted 44% of rainfall and P. nigra intercepted 72% of rainfall. In 2015 we have detected 117 events with 1047.4 mm of rainfall, of which 37% was intercepted by B. pendula and 60% by P. nigra. The effect of various meteorological parameters on the rainfall interception was analysed in the study. The parameters included in the analysis were rainfall rate, rainfall duration, drop size distribution (average drop velocity and diameter), average wind speed, and average temperature. The results demonstrate decreasing rainfall interception with longer rainfall duration and higher rainfall intensity although the impact of the latter one is not statistically significant. In the case of very fast or very slow rainfall drops, the interception is higher than for the mean rain drop velocity values. In the case of P. nigra the impact of the rain drop diameter on interception is similar to the one of rain drop velocity while for B. pendula increasing of drop diameter also increases the interception. As expected, interception is higher for warmer events. This trend is more evident for P. nigra than for B. pendula. Furthermore, the amount of intercepted rainfall also increases with wind although it could be

  11. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asase, Alex; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred A; Odamtten, George T; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2005-06-03

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Wechiau Community Hippopotamus Sanctuary area in Ghana, through interviews and quadrate studies, to investigate the range and abundance of species used in the treatment of malaria. Forty-one species belonging to 17 families were encountered during the study. Of the 17 families studied Leguminosae and Anacardiaceae predominated in terms of number of species used to treat malaria. Eight plant species namely, Afraegle paniculata (Rutaceae), Haematostaphis barteri (Anacardiaceae), Indigo era pulchra (Leguminosae), Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae), Strychnos innocua (Loganiaceae), Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) and Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Leguminosae) have not previously been documented for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. The results are discussed and recommendations made for future research to support the conservation and sustainable harvesting of the species reported to have medicinal properties.

  12. 2487-IJBCS-Article-Mkalao Mouti Marceline

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Il n'y a pas une grande variation de la teneur en lipides entre les fruits secs et frais. L'analyse des vitamines et minéraux pour 100 g de matières sèches montrent que les fruits de Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. sont aussi les plus riches en vitamine C (208,71 mg±0,19) et en zinc. (47,65 mg±0,16). Les fruits de Tamarindus ...

  13. Incorporación de Vicia sativa L. y fertilización fosfatada en un pastizal del nordeste argentino

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, M.; Hack, C.M.; Castelán, M.E.; Golluscio, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    En el nordeste argentino, los pastizales megatérmicos constituyen un importante recurso forrajero para la ganadería. Sus principales limitantes son el déficit forrajero invernal y la baja calidad nutritiva. En amplias regiones se agrega, además, el bajo contenido de P en el suelo y, consecuentemente, en el forraje. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar el potencial de la incorporación de una leguminosa y la fertilización fosfatada para aumentar la biomasa de leguminosas y el contenido ...

  14. Fertilización de pastos en zonas semiáridas de secano del S-W- español

    OpenAIRE

    Olea Márquez de Prado, L.; Jiménez Mozo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Se presentan los resultados de aportaciones de P, K, Mg + Ca, Mo + Mn y Cu + Co sobre pastizales artificiales de leguminosas + gramíneas y pastos naturales en varias zonas de Extremadura. En pastizales artificiales la fertilización previa al establecimiento con 75-95 u. de P2O5 /Ha, duplica la producción. En pastos naturales la fertilización anual con 46 u. de P2 O5, duplica la producción y el porcentaje de leguminosas. Los mayores incrementos se consiguen con aportaciones anuales de 40 u. de...

  15. Effect of fly ash from a fuel oil power station on heavy metal content of wild plants at Tenerife island, the Canarian archipelago, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, C.E.; Fernandez, M.; Iglesias, E.; Perez, N.; Snelling, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy metal analysis have been carried out in wild plants around a Power Station located at the southeastern area of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). The concentrations of Fe, Ni, and V in the leaves and terminal stems of three wild plants (Euphorbia obtusifolia, Kleinia neriifolia, and Plocama pendula) which were collected during the spring of 1988 are reported from four different allotments. These sampling sites were located at distances of 0.4, 1, 1, 25, and 34 km from the Electric Generating Facility, and at elevations of 60, 120, 180 and 60 m, respectively. Results show a potential contamination of vanadium in E. obtusifolia and P. pendula plants located close to the Power Station, probably due to dry deposition on fly ash in the surrounding area. The levels of iron and nickel concentrations in the same type of plants did not show any geographical relationship with respect to the location of the Power Station. 19 refs., 4 figs

  16. One pendulum to run them all

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenboim, G.; Oteo, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    The analytical solution for the three-dimensional linear pendulum in a rotating frame of reference is obtained, including Coriolis and centrifugal accelerations, and expressed in terms of initial conditions. This result offers the possibility of treating Foucault and Bravais pendula as trajectories of the same system of equations, each of them with particular initial conditions. We compare them with the common two-dimensional approximations in textbooks. A previously unnoticed pattern in the three-dimensional Foucault pendulum attractor is presented.

  17. One pendulum to run them all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenboim, G; Oteo, J A

    2013-01-01

    The analytical solution for the three-dimensional linear pendulum in a rotating frame of reference is obtained, including Coriolis and centrifugal accelerations, and expressed in terms of initial conditions. This result offers the possibility of treating Foucault and Bravais pendula as trajectories of the same system of equations, each of them with particular initial conditions. We compare them with the common two-dimensional approximations in textbooks. A previously unnoticed pattern in the three-dimensional Foucault pendulum attractor is presented. (paper)

  18. Growth and Yield of 15-Year Plantations of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daugaviete Mudrite

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth data and the potential returns from 15-year-old plantations of pine Pinus sylvestris L. (6 trial sites, spruce Picea abies Karst L. (9 trial sites and silver birch Betula pendula Roth (13 trial sites, established in abandoned agricultural lands in a variety of soil types (sod calcareous, anthrosols, podzolic, podzols, gley, podzolic gley, alluvial, using the planting density 2,500 and 3,300 and also 5,000 trees/ha are analysed.

  19. Metabolism of [ 14 C]GA 19 and [ 14 C]GA 53 by ecotypes of Betula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing with this line of research, we studied the metabolism of 14C-labelled GA19 and GA53. [14C]GA19 and [14C] A53 were applied to the apices of the northern ecotype (67º N) and to the leaves of the southern ecotype (64º N) of Betula pendula Roth. under different photoperiods and at different times in order to ...

  20. Extension of a chaos control method to unstable trajectories on infinite- or finite-time intervals: Experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagasaki, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    In experiments for single and coupled pendula, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a new control method based on dynamical systems theory for stabilizing unstable aperiodic trajectories defined on infinite- or finite-time intervals. The basic idea of the method is similar to that of the OGY method, which is a well-known, chaos control method. Extended concepts of the stable and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic trajectories are used here

  1. Comparative analysis of species-based specificity in Sr 90 and Cs 137 accumulation demonstrated by ligneous plant forest communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinovich, B.S.; Vlasov, V.K.; Sak, M.M.; Golushko, R.M.; Afmogenov, A.M.; Kirykhin, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors provided field-proven study of Sr 90 and Cs 137 absorption activity demonstrated by Pinus silvestris L.; Piceae abies (L.) Roth.; Quercus rubra L.; Acer platanoides L.; Betula pendula Roth.; Tilia cordata Mill, under identical habitat conditions. The above plants were examined after 5-year growth period on radionuclide-contaminated soil. To a great extent, such parameters as radionuclide accumulation in experimental plants and accumulation activity were determined by the plants' bio-ecological properties. (Authors)

  2. Multispecies genetic structure and hybridization in the Betula genus across Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sebastiani, Federico; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Lascoux, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Boreal and cool temperate forests are the major land cover of northern Eurasia, and information about continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history of forest species is important from an evolutionary perspective and has conservation implications. However, although many population genetic studies of forest tree species have been conducted in Europe or Eastern Asia, continental-scale genetic structure and past demographic history remain poorly known. Here, we focus on the birch genus Betula, which is commonly distributed in boreal and cool temperate forests, and examine 129 populations of two tetraploid and four diploid species collected from Iceland to Japan. All individuals were genotyped at seven to 18 nuclear simple sequence repeats (nSSRs). Pairwise FST' among the six species ranged from 0.285 to 0.903, and genetic differentiation among them was clear. structure analysis suggested that Betula pubescens is an allotetraploid and one of the parental species was Betula pendula. In both species pairs of B. pendula and B. plathyphylla, and B. pubescens and B. ermanii, genetic diversity was highest in central Siberia. A hybrid zone was detected around Lake Baikal for eastern and western species pairs regardless of ploidy level. Approximate Bayesian computation suggested that the divergence of B. pendula and B. platyphylla occurred around the beginning of the last ice age (36 300 years BP, 95% CI: 15 330-92 700) and hybridization between them was inferred to have occurred after the last glacial maximum (1614 years BP, 95% CI: 561-4710), with B. pendula providing a higher contribution to hybrids. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A contribution to the knowledge of biology and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Attelabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurrence, development and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L.. The majority of field studies was carried out at Training Forest Enterprise (TFE Masaryk Forest in Křtiny (District Brno-venkov in 2010 and 2011. In addition to this, the species was studied in detail also in a laboratory. It occurred mostly on Betula pendula and Carpinus betulus. Rarely, the species was found on Alnus glutinosa and Corylus avellana and only sporadically on Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. In the studied area, larvae and pupae hibernate. Beetles occur on trees from the end of April to the beginning of July, sporadically later. Females lay on average 2.5 (in the laboratory 4.4 eggs into rolls on B. pendula, on C. betulus 2.2 eggs. During two months, they damage on average 5.3 cm2 leaves creating 14 rolls and laying 35 eggs into the rolls. Larvae consume only 1.7 cm2 leaf blade. The development of the species takes three to four months from egg laying to the departure of larvae into soil. On leaves of B. pendula of an average area of 14.2 cm2, females roll up the same area (about 11.2 cm2 as on leaves of C. betulus of an area of 21.7 cm2. Into the rolls, they lay on average the same number of eggs. The average number of eggs in rolls increases with the increased area of B. pendula leaf blade. Trees partly compensate for the reduction of assimilatory area also by the growth of the area of neighbouring undamaged leaves (on average by 12.7 %.

  4. The influence of felling season and log-soaking temperature on the wetting and phenol formaldehyde adhesive bonding characteristics of birch veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti Rohumaa; Christopher G. Hunt; Charles R. Frihart; Pekka Saranpää; Martin Ohlmeyer; Mark Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most adhesive studies employing wood veneer as the substrate assume that it is a relatively uniform material if wood species and veneer thickness are constant. In the present study, veneers from rotary cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) were produced from logs harvested in spring, autumn and winter, and soaked at 20°C and 70°C prior to peeling. Firstly...

  5. Elevated CO2 and Tree Species Affect Microbial  Activity and Associated Aggregate Stability in Soil  Amended with Litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwan M. J. Al‐Maliki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2 may affect organic inputs to woodland soils with potential consequences for C dynamics and associated aggregation; (2 The Bangor Free Air Concentration Enrichment experiment compared ambient (330 ppmv and elevated (550 ppmv CO2 regimes over four growing seasons (2005–2008 under Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. Litter from the experiment (autumn 2008 and Lumbricus terrestris were added to mesocosm soils. Microbial properties and aggregate stability were investigated in soil and earthworm casts. Soils taken from the field experiment in spring 2009 were also investigated; (3 eCO2 litter had lower N and higher C:N ratios. F. sylvatica and B. pendula litter had lower N and P than A. glutinosa; F. sylvatica had higher cellulose. In mesocosms, eCO2 litter decreased respiration, mineralization constant (respired C:total organic C and soluble carbon in soil but not earthworm casts; microbial‐C and fungal hyphal length differed by species (A. glutinosa = B. pendula > F. sylvatica not CO2 regime. eCO2 increased respiration in field aggregates but increased stability only under F. sylvatica; (4 Lower litter quality under eCO2 may restrict its initial decomposition, affecting C stabilization in aggregates. Later resistant materials may support microbial activity and increase aggregate stability. In woodland, C and soil aggregation dynamics may alter under eCO2, but outcomes may be influenced by tree species and earthworm activity.

  6. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trigonella foenum-graecum (NO - Leguminosae) is cultivated in many parts of India. It has been found to possess significant medicinal value. Its leaves are used both internally and externally to reduce swelling, prevent falling of hair and in treating burns. Its seeds are carminative, antipyretic, anthelmintic and diuretic, and ...

  7. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  8. Land Based Environmental Monitoring at Johnston Island - Disposal of Herbicide Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Allizan fistuloswon p Welsh onion Allium sp. P Chives Aloe sp. P * Aloe Cordyline fruticosa p Cordyline Sansevicria tirifaciata r Bowstring Hecmp Vow...Beanf M7 52 TABLE 15. (Continued) Island s Family Sand Species John- Sand Man- Common Name Akau Hikina ston Orig. made Leguminosae (cont.) Piswn sativum p

  9. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed Acacia karroo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Casper Nyamukanza

    Goats are important browsers in the Eastern Cape Province, which keeps ... Acacia karroo Hayne (Fabaceae = Leguminosae) trees are abundant and able to ... savanna and consists of subtropical thicket vegetation dominated by deciduous woody shrubs shorter than ..... National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

  10. Prenylated isoflavonoids from plants as selective estrogen receptor modulators (phytoSERMs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Gruppen, H.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Vincken, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavonoids are a class of secondary metabolites, which comprise amongst others the subclasses of isoflavones, isoflavans, pterocarpans and coumestans. Isoflavonoids are abundant in Leguminosae, and many of them can bind to the human estrogen receptor (hER) with affinities similar to or lower than

  11. Assessment of Vegetation Structural Diversity and Similarity Index of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, relative density, diversity and similarity indices. The result showed that the forest reserve has one hundred and ninety species of plants belonging to sixty three families. The dominant plant families recorded in the forest are Leguminosae (12.63%), Rubiaceae (8.42%), ...

  12. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  13. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Colville's glory) of Leguminosae is a medium size deciduous tree with a thin coppery bark and slender feathery canopy. Leaves are twice compound bearing many leaflets. Flowers are fiery orange-red and produced on long drooping inflorescence. Stamens are longer than the corolla and are exserted. Fruit is a cylindrical ...

  14. Éthiopie : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: GRAIN LEGUMES, LEGUMINOSAE, NITROGEN FIXATION, SOIL IMPROVEMENT, SOIL CONSERVATION, HUMAN NUTRITION, FOOD SECURITY, Gender. Région: Ethiopia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Agriculture et sécurité alimentaire. Financement total : CA$ 964,648.00. Étude de l'influence ...

  15. ethiopia : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: GRAIN LEGUMES, LEGUMINOSAE, NITROGEN FIXATION, SOIL IMPROVEMENT, SOIL CONSERVATION, HUMAN NUTRITION, FOOD SECURITY. Région: Ethiopia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Agriculture et sécurité alimentaire. Financement total : CA$ 964,648.00. Étude de l'influence des ...

  16. : tous les projets | Page 284 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: GRAIN LEGUMES, LEGUMINOSAE, NITROGEN FIXATION, SOIL IMPROVEMENT, SOIL CONSERVATION, HUMAN NUTRITION, FOOD SECURITY. Région: Ethiopia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Agriculture et sécurité alimentaire. Financement total : CA$ 964,648.00. Accroissement de la sécurité ...

  17. A note on the tonka bean and William Forsyth junior’s ‘A botanical nomenclator’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabberley, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    The 70 new combinations made in Forsyth’s ‘A botanical nomenclator’ (1794) include ten names in current use, but hitherto attributed to later authors, notable being that of the economically significant Dipteryx odorata (tonka bean), Leguminosae. Of Forsyth’s 26 nomina nova, Psychotria caerulea

  18. On the presence of Vicia vicioides in Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Haase, A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Please read the Spanish version of this Abstract.

    En el presente trabajo se actualiza el conocimiento corológico de la leguminosa Vicia vicioides (Desf. Cout. en la provincia de Alicante, aportando información sobre cinco nuevas poblaciones, que se añaden a la única localidad conocida previamente.

  19. Is the response of aphids to alarm pheromone stable?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thieme, T.; Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 10 (2015), s. 741-746 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : (E)-β-farnesene * dropping response * habituation * Leguminosae * pea aphid Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.517, year: 2015

  20. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tamarindus indica L. (English: the tamarind tree; Hindi: Imli) of Leguminosae is a medium-to large size tree with dense and characteristic canopy. Leaves are compound. Flowers are many on long inflorescence stalk, white and pink in colour. Fruits are long and constricted between seeds and are fleshy and indehiscent ...