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Sample records for parkfield wave forms

  1. San andreas fault zone head waves near parkfield, california.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zion, Y; Malin, P

    1991-03-29

    Microearthquake seismograms from the borehole seismic network on the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California, provide three lines of evidence that first P arrivals are "head" waves refracted along the cross-fault material contrast. First, the travel time difference between these arrivals and secondary phases identified as direct P waves scales linearly with the source-receiver distance. Second, these arrivals have the emergent wave character associated in theory and practice with refracted head waves instead of the sharp first breaks associated with direct P arrivals. Third, the first motion polarities of the emergent arrivals are reversed from those of the direct P waves as predicted by the theory of fault zone head waves for slip on the San Andreas fault. The presence of fault zone head waves in local seismic network data may help account for scatter in earthquake locations and source mechanisms. The fault zone head waves indicate that the velocity contrast across the San Andreas fault near Parkfield is approximately 4 percent. Further studies of these waves may provide a way of assessing changes in the physical state of the fault system.

  2. Incorporating fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times into seismic tomography: Application at Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa L.; Thurber, Clifford; Peng, Zhigang; Zhang, Haijiang; Zhao, Peng

    2013-03-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) P wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHWs), and data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSAs). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global- and local-minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of FZHWs and DWSAs results in as much as a 5% and a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast, respectively, for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to that of Thurber et al. [2006]. Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield earthquake hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Following Ampuero and Ben-Zion (2008), the pattern of velocity contrasts is consistent with the observed bilateral rupture propagation for the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Although the velocity contrasts also suggest bilateral rupture propagation for the 1966 Parkfield earthquake, the fault is creeping to the NW here, i.e., exhibiting velocity-strengthening behavior. Thus, it is not surprising that rupture propagated only SE during this event.

  3. Characterization of the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, California by fault-zone trapped waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Vidale, J.; Cochran, E.

    2003-04-01

    In October, 2002, coordinated by the Pre-EarthScope/SAFOD, we conducted an extensive seismic experiment at the San Andreas fault (SAF), Parkfield to record fault-zone trapped waves generated by explosions and microearthquakes using dense linear seismic arrays of 52 PASSCAL 3-channel REFTEKs deployed across and along the fault zone. We detonated 3 explosions within and out of the fault zone during the experiment, and also recorded other 13 shots of PASO experiment of UWM/RPI (Thurber and Roecker) detonated around the SAFOD drilling site at the same time. We observed prominent fault-zone trapped waves with large amplitudes and long duration following S waves at stations close to the main fault trace for sources located within and close to the fault zone. Dominant frequencies of trapped waves are 2-3 Hz for near-surface explosions and 4-5 Hz for microearthquakes. Fault-zone trapped waves are relatively weak on the north strand of SAF for same sources. In contrast, seismograms registered for both the stations and shots far away from the fault zone show a brief S wave and lack of trapped waves. These observations are consistent with previous findings of fault-zone trapped waves at the SAF [Li et al., 1990; 1997], indicating the existence of a well-developed low-velocity waveguide along the main fault strand (principal slip plan) of the SAF. The data from denser arrays and 3-D finite-difference simulations of fault-zone trapped waves allowed us to delineate the internal structure, segmentation and physical properties of the SAF with higher resolution. The trapped-wave inferred waveguide on the SAF Parkfield segment is ~150 m wide at surface and tapers to ~100 m at seismogenic depth, in which Q is 20-50 and S velocities are reduced by 30-40% from wall-rock velocities, with the greater velocity reduction at the shallow depth and to southeast of the 1966 M6 epicenter. We interpret this low-velocity waveguide on the SAF main strand as being the remnant of damage zone caused

  4. 3D P and S Wave Velocity Structure and Tremor Locations in the Parkfield Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Thurber, C. H.; Shelly, D. R.; Bennington, N. L.; Cochran, E. S.; Harrington, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    We have assembled a new dataset to refine the 3D seismic velocity model in the Parkfield region. The S arrivals from 184 earthquakes recorded by the Parkfield Experiment to Record MIcroseismicity and Tremor array (PERMIT) during 2010-2011 were picked by a new S wave picker, which is based on machine learning. 74 blasts have been assigned to four quarries, whose locations were identified with Google Earth. About 1000 P and S wave arrivals from these blasts at permanent seismic network were also incorporated. Low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) occurring within non-volcanic tremor (NVT) are valuable for improving the precision of NVT location and the seismic velocity model at greater depths. Based on previous work (Shelley and Hardebeck, 2010), waveforms of hundreds of LFEs in same family were stacked to improve signal qualify. In a previous study (McClement et al., 2013), stacked traces of more than 30 LFE families at the Parkfileld Array Seismic Observatory (PASO) have been picked. We expanded our work to include LFEs recorded by the PERMIT array. The time-frequency Phase Weight Stacking (tf-PWS) method was introduced to improve the stack quality, as direct stacking does not produce clear S-wave arrivals on the PERMIT stations. This technique uses the coherence of the instantaneous phase among the stacked signals to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the stack. We found that it is extremely effective for picking LFE arrivals (Thurber et al., 2014). More than 500 P and about 1000 S arrivals from 58 LFE families were picked at the PERMIT and PASO arrays. Since the depths of LFEs are much deeper than earthquakes, we are able to extend model resolution to lower crustal depths. Both P and S wave velocity structure have been obtained with the tomoDD method. The result suggests that there is a low velocity zone (LVZ) in the lower crust and the location of the LVZ is consistent with the high conductivity zone beneath the southern segment of the Rinconada fault that

  5. The incorporation of fault zone head wave and direct wave secondary arrival times and arrival polarizations into seismic tomography: Application to the Parkfield, California area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Peng, Z.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a 3D P-wave velocity (Vp) model of the Parkfield region that utilizes existing P-wave arrival time data, including fault zone head waves (FZHW), plus new data from direct wave secondary arrivals (DWSA). The first-arrival and DWSA travel times are obtained as the global and local minimum travel time paths, respectively. The inclusion of DWSA results in as much as a 10% increase in the across-fault velocity contrast for the Vp model at Parkfield relative to Thurber et al. (2006). Viewed along strike, three pronounced velocity contrast regions are observed: a pair of strong positive velocity contrasts (SW fast), one NW of the 1966 Parkfield hypocenter and the other SE of the 2004 Parkfield hypocenter, and a strong negative velocity contrast (NE fast) between the two hypocenters. The negative velocity contrast partially to entirely encompasses peak coseismic slip estimated in several slip models for the 2004 earthquake, suggesting that the negative velocity contrast played a part in defining the rupture patch of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We expand on this work by modifying our seismic tomography algorithm to incorporate arrival polarizations (azimuths). Synthetic tests will be presented to demonstrate the improvements in velocity structure when arrival polarizations are incorporated. These tests will compare the synthetic model recovered when FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data are inverted to that recovered with the same dataset with the inclusion of arrival polarizations. We plan to extend this work to carry out a full scale seismic tomography/relocation inversion at Parkfield, CA utilizing arrival polarizations from all first-P arrivals, and FZHW/DWSA arrivals as well as existing P-wave arrival time data. This effort requires the determination of polarization data for all P-waves and FZHW's at Parkfield. To this end, we use changes in the arrival azimuth from fault normal to source-receiver direction to identify FZHW and

  6. S-wave triggering of tremor beneath the Parkfield, California, section of the San Andreas fault by the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake: observations and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Peng, Zhigang; Shelly, David R.; Aiken, Chastity

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic stresses that are associated with the energetic seismic waves generated by the Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake off the northeast coast of Japan triggered bursts of tectonic tremor beneath the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault (SAF) at an epicentral distance of ∼8200  km. The onset of tremor begins midway through the ∼100‐s‐period S‐wave arrival, with a minor burst coinciding with the SHSH arrival, as recorded on the nearby broadband seismic station PKD. A more pronounced burst coincides with the Love arrival, followed by a series of impulsive tremor bursts apparently modulated by the 20‐ to 30‐s‐period Rayleigh wave. The triggered tremor was located at depths between 20 and 30 km beneath the surface trace of the fault, with the burst coincident with the S wave centered beneath the fault 30 km northwest of Parkfield. Most of the subsequent activity, including the tremor coincident with the SHSH arrival, was concentrated beneath a stretch of the fault extending from 10 to 40 km southeast of Parkfield. The seismic waves from the Tohoku epicenter form a horizontal incidence angle of ∼14°, with respect to the local strike of the SAF. Computed peak dynamic Coulomb stresses on the fault at tremor depths are in the 0.7–10 kPa range. The apparent modulation of tremor bursts by the small, strike‐parallel Rayleigh‐wave stresses (∼0.7  kPa) is likely enabled by pore pressure variations driven by the Rayleigh‐wave dilatational stress. These results are consistent with the strike‐parallel dynamic stresses (δτs) associated with the S, SHSH, and surface‐wave phases triggering small increments of dextral slip on the fault with a low friction (μ∼0.2). The vertical dynamic stresses δτd do not trigger tremor with vertical or oblique slip under this simple Coulomb failure model.

  7. Automatic identification of fault zone head waves and direct P waves and its application in the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zefeng; Peng, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    Fault zone head waves (FZHWs) are observed along major strike-slip faults and can provide high-resolution imaging of fault interface properties at seismogenic depth. In this paper, we present a new method to automatically detect FZHWs and pick direct P waves secondary arrivals (DWSAs). The algorithm identifies FZHWs by computing the amplitude ratios between the potential FZHWs and DSWAs. The polarities, polarizations and characteristic periods of FZHWs and DSWAs are then used to refine the picks or evaluate the pick quality. We apply the method to the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault where FZHWs have been identified before by manual picks. We compare results from automatically and manually picked arrivals and find general agreement between them. The obtained velocity contrast at Parkfield is generally 5-10 per cent near Middle Mountain while it decreases below 5 per cent near Gold Hill. We also find many FZHWs recorded by the stations within 1 km of the background seismicity (i.e. the Southwest Fracture Zone) that have not been reported before. These FZHWs could be generated within a relatively wide low velocity zone sandwiched between the fast Salinian block on the southwest side and the slow Franciscan Mélange on the northeast side. Station FROB on the southwest (fast) side also recorded a small portion of weak precursory signals before sharp P waves. However, the polarities of weak signals are consistent with the right-lateral strike-slip mechanisms, suggesting that they are unlikely genuine FZHW signals.

  8. 3-D P- and S-wave velocity structure and low-frequency earthquake locations in the Parkfield, California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Thurber, Clifford H.; Shelly, David R.; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Bennington, Ninfa L.; Peterson, Dana; Guo, Bin; McClement, Kara

    2016-01-01

    To refine the 3-D seismic velocity model in the greater Parkfield, California region, a new data set including regular earthquakes, shots, quarry blasts and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) was assembled. Hundreds of traces of each LFE family at two temporary arrays were stacked with time–frequency domain phase weighted stacking method to improve signal-to-noise ratio. We extend our model resolution to lower crustal depth with LFE data. Our result images not only previously identified features but also low velocity zones (LVZs) in the area around the LFEs and the lower crust beneath the southern Rinconada Fault. The former LVZ is consistent with high fluid pressure that can account for several aspects of LFE behaviour. The latter LVZ is consistent with a high conductivity zone in magnetotelluric studies. A new Vs model was developed with S picks that were obtained with a new autopicker. At shallow depth, the low Vs areas underlie the strongest shaking areas in the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We relocate LFE families and analyse the location uncertainties with the NonLinLoc and tomoDD codes. The two methods yield similar results.

  9. A look inside the San Andreas Fault at Parkfield through vertical seismic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, J Andres; Malin, Peter; Catchings, Rufus D; Shalev, Eylon

    2003-12-05

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth pilot hole is located on the southwestern side of the Parkfield San Andreas fault. This observatory includes a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) array. VSP seismograms from nearby microearthquakes contain signals between the P and S waves. These signals may be P and S waves scattered by the local geologic structure. The collected scattering points form planar surfaces that we interpret as the San Andreas fault and four other secondary faults. The scattering process includes conversions between P and S waves, the strengths of which suggest large contrasts in material properties, possibly indicating the presence of cracks or fluids.

  10. Long term electromagnetic monitoring at Parkfield, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, Karl Neil

    Electric and magnetic fields in the (10-4-1.0) Hz band were monitored at two sites adjacent to the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield and Hollister, California. Observed fields typically comprise natural magnetotelluric fields, with cultural and instrument noise. A data window [2002-2005], enclosing the September 28, 2004 M6 Parkfield earthquake, was analyzed to determine if anomalous electric or magnetic fields, or changes in ground conductivity, occurred before the earthquake. The data were edited, removing intervals of instrument malfunction, leaving 875 days left in the four-year period. Frequent, local spike-like disturbances were removed. The distribution of these spikes was not biased around the time of the earthquake. Signal to noise ratios, estimated via magnetotelluric processing techniques, provided an index of data quality. Plots of signal and noise amplitude spectra, showed the behavior of the ULF fields to be remarkably constant over the period of analysis. From these first-order plots, it is clear that most of the recorded energy is coherent over the spatial extent of the array. Three main statistical techniques were employed to separate local anomalous electrical or magnetic fields from the dominant coherent natural fields: transfer function estimates between components at each site were employed to subtract the dominant field, and look deeper at the 'residual' fields; the data were decomposed into principal components to identify linear combinations of array channels, which are maximally uncorrelated; the technique of canonical coherences was employed to distinguish anomalous fields which are spatially broad from anomalies which occur at a single site only, and furthermore to distinguish anomalies which are present in both the electric and magnetic fields form those which are present in only one field type. Standard remote reference apparent resistivity estimates were generated daily at Parkfield. Most of the variation was observed to be seasonal

  11. Parametric form of QCD travelling waves

    OpenAIRE

    Peschanski, R.

    2005-01-01

    We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.

  12. Conductivity Structure of the San Andreas Fault, Parkfield, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. K.; Roberts, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    Laboratory measurements of samples of sedimentary rocks from the Parkfield syncline reveal resistivities as low as 1 ohm m when saturated with fluids comparable to those found in nearby wells. The syncline lies on the North American side of the San Andreas fault at Parkfield and plunges northwestward into the fault zone. A previous interpretation of a high resolution magnetotelluric profile across the San Andreas fault at Parkfield identified an anomalously conductive (1-3 ohm m) region just west of the fault and extending to depths of 3 km. These low resistivity rocks were inferred to be crushed rock in the fault zone that was saturated with brines. As an alternative to this interpretation, we suggest that this anomalous region is actually the Parkfield syncline and that the current trace of the San Andreas fault at Middle Mountain does not form the boundary between the Salinian block and the North American plate. Instead, that boundary is approximately 1 km west and collocated with current seismicity. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48 and supported specifically by the Office of Basic Energy Science. Additional support was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of the Interior, under USGS Award number 03HQGR0041. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government.

  13. The October 1992 Parkfield, California, earthquake prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J.

    1992-01-01

    A magnitude 4.7 earthquake occurred near Parkfield, California, on October 20, 992, at 05:28 UTC (October 19 at 10:28 p.m. local or Pacific Daylight Time).This moderate shock, interpreted as the potential foreshock of a damaging earthquake on the San Andreas fault, triggered long-standing federal, state and local government plans to issue a public warning of an imminent magnitude 6 earthquake near Parkfield. Although the predicted earthquake did not take place, sophisticated suites of instruments deployed as part of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment recorded valuable data associated with an unusual series of events. this article describes the geological aspects of these events, which occurred near Parkfield in October 1992. The accompnaying article, an edited version of a press conference b Richard Andrews, the Director of the California Office of Emergency Service (OES), describes governmental response to the prediction.   

  14. Deflagration wave formed by ion beam, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Keishiro; Abe, Takashi; Tamba, Moritake.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is given for the structure of the deflagration wave which is formed in a target bombarded by an ion beam. Stationary deflagration and/or detonation waves are formed at the surface of the target in a case in which the reaction energy of direct fusion and/or the beam energy deposited in the target are less than a critical value. On the other hand, no solution for stationary wave exists, if the energy deposited in the wave exceeds a critical value. In the latter case, the time-dependent fundamental equations reduce approximately to a self-similar type of equations. Numerical integrations are carried out for this type of differential equations, and an example of self-similar deflagration wave numerically obtained is plotted in the figures. (author)

  15. Deflagration wave formed by ion beam, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Kasuya, K.; Niu, K.; Tamba, M.

    1979-06-01

    Analyses are given for structures of deflagration waves formed by ion beams in spherical targets. The singularity at the sonic point disappears in the spherical target if the beam pressure is in balance with the plasma pressure. The expanding supersonic flow of the background plasma can be connected with the subsonic flow in the core of the target through the deflagration wave. The length and the strength of the deflagration wave in the spherical target is comparable with the corresponding ones in the slab target. (author)

  16. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Glad, Aslaug Clemmensen; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup

    2017-01-01

    -preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal....... During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well...

  17. Wave forming mechanisms in explosive welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results of wavy metal interfaces obtained by explosive welding are presented and used to determine which wave forming mechanism occurred. It was found that for small collision angles (smaller than about 20°) the Von Karman or jet indentation mechanism occurs, while for large collision

  18. Critical Wave Forms in Dry Type Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns critical wave forms in dry type transformers under transient voltage application. A very general approach has been applied, meaning that many of the results will be applicable to various types of power transformers. The results can be very useful if they are combined...... with knowledge of the ageing effects of the insulation. Especially fast transients are likely to become a major issue due to fast breakers and power electronics. In order to perform relevant research in transformer insulation with respect to this subject, fundamental knowledge about the transmission...... and distortion of incoming transients is required. Thus, in this paper it is illustrated how the resulting internal wave forms are affected by different transformer characteristics....

  19. Acceleration and volumetric strain generated by the Parkfield 2004 earthquake on the GEOS strong-motion array near Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Rodger D.; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Dietel, Christopher; Glassmoyer, Gary; Myren, Doug; Stephens, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    An integrated array of 11 General Earthquake Observation System (GEOS) stations installed near Parkfield, CA provided on scale broad-band, wide-dynamic measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain of the Parkfield earthquake (M 6.0) of September 28, 2004. Three component measurements of acceleration were obtained at each of the stations. Measurements of collocated acceleration and volumetric strain were obtained at four of the stations. Measurements of velocity at most sites were on scale only for the initial P-wave arrival. When considered in the context of the extensive set of strong-motion recordings obtained on more than 40 analog stations by the California Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (Shakal, et al., 2004 http://www.quake.ca.gov/cisn-edc) and those on the dense array of Spudich, et al, (1988), these recordings provide an unprecedented document of the nature of the near source strong motion generated by a M 6.0 earthquake. The data set reported herein provides the most extensive set of near field broad band wide dynamic range measurements of acceleration and volumetric strain for an earthquake as large as M 6 of which the authors are aware. As a result considerable interest has been expressed in these data. This report is intended to describe the data and facilitate its use to resolve a number of scientific and engineering questions concerning earthquake rupture processes and resultant near field motions and strains. This report provides a description of the array, its scientific objectives and the strong-motion recordings obtained of the main shock. The report provides copies of the uncorrected and corrected data. Copies of the inferred velocities, displacements, and Psuedo velocity response spectra are provided. Digital versions of these recordings are accessible with information available through the internet at several locations: the National Strong-Motion Program web site (http://agram.wr.usgs.gov/), the COSMOS Virtual Data Center Web site

  20. Three-component ambient noise beamforming in the Parkfield area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löer, Katrin; Riahi, Nima; Saenger, Erik H.

    2018-06-01

    We apply a three-component beamforming algorithm to an ambient noise data set recorded at a seismic array to extract information about both isotropic and anisotropic surface wave velocities. In particular, we test the sensitivity of the method with respect to the array geometry as well as to seasonal variations in the distribution of noise sources. In the earth's crust, anisotropy is typically caused by oriented faults or fractures and can be altered when earthquakes or human activities cause these structures to change. Monitoring anisotropy changes thus provides time-dependent information on subsurface processes, provided they can be distinguished from other effects. We analyse ambient noise data at frequencies between 0.08 and 0.52 Hz recorded at a three-component array in the Parkfield area, California (US), between 2001 November and 2002 April. During this time, no major earthquakes were identified in the area and structural changes are thus not expected. We compute dispersion curves of Love and Rayleigh waves and estimate anisotropy parameters for Love waves. For Rayleigh waves, the azimuthal source coverage is too limited to perform anisotropy analysis. For Love waves, ambient noise sources are more widely distributed and we observe significant and stable surface wave anisotropy for frequencies between 0.2 and 0.4 Hz. Synthetic data experiments indicate that the array geometry introduces apparent anisotropy, especially when waves from multiple sources arrive simultaneously at the array. Both the magnitude and the pattern of apparent anisotropy, however, differ significantly from the anisotropy observed in Love wave data. Temporal variations of anisotropy parameters observed at frequencies below 0.2 Hz and above 0.4 Hz correlate with changes in the source distribution. Frequencies between 0.2 and 0.4 Hz, however, are less affected by these variations and provide relatively stable results over the period of study.

  1. The Newtonian form of wave mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuscik, E.

    1984-01-01

    Following the general principles of both Newton's mechanics and quantum mechanics a new formulation of wave mechanics is proposed. The new basic equations do not contain physical parameters and admit a different interpretation of the Planck constant. (author)

  2. Finite-Source Inversion for the 2004 Parkfield Earthquake using 3D Velocity Model Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A.; Dreger, D.; Larsen, S.

    2008-12-01

    We determine finite fault models of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake using 3D Green's functions. Because of the dense station coverage and detailed 3D velocity structure model in this region, this earthquake provides an excellent opportunity to examine how the 3D velocity structure affects the finite fault inverse solutions. Various studies (e.g. Michaels and Eberhart-Phillips, 1991; Thurber et al., 2006) indicate that there is a pronounced velocity contrast across the San Andreas Fault along the Parkfield segment. Also the fault zone at Parkfield is wide as evidenced by mapped surface faults and where surface slip and creep occurred in the 1966 and the 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. For high resolution images of the rupture process"Ait is necessary to include the accurate 3D velocity structure for the finite source inversion. Liu and Aurchuleta (2004) performed finite fault inversions using both 1D and 3D Green's functions for 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake using the same source paramerization and data but different Green's functions and found that the models were quite different. This indicates that the choice of the velocity model significantly affects the waveform modeling at near-fault stations. In this study, we used the P-wave velocity model developed by Thurber et al (2006) to construct the 3D Green's functions. P-wave speeds are converted to S-wave speeds and density using by the empirical relationships of Brocher (2005). Using a finite difference method, E3D (Larsen and Schultz, 1995), we computed the 3D Green's functions numerically by inserting body forces at each station. Using reciprocity, these Green's functions are recombined to represent the ground motion at each station due to the slip on the fault plane. First we modeled the waveforms of small earthquakes to validate the 3D velocity model and the reciprocity of the Green"fs function. In the numerical tests we found that the 3D velocity model predicted the individual phases well at frequencies lower than 0

  3. Source Estimation by Full Wave Form Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjögreen, Björn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing; Petersson, N. Anders [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Applied Scientific Computing

    2013-08-07

    Given time-dependent ground motion recordings at a number of receiver stations, we solve the inverse problem for estimating the parameters of the seismic source. The source is modeled as a point moment tensor source, characterized by its location, moment tensor components, the start time, and frequency parameter (rise time) of its source time function. In total, there are 11 unknown parameters. We use a non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm to minimize the full waveform misfit between observed and computed ground motions at the receiver stations. An important underlying assumption of the minimization problem is that the wave propagation is accurately described by the elastic wave equation in a heterogeneous isotropic material. We use a fourth order accurate finite difference method, developed in [12], to evolve the waves forwards in time. The adjoint wave equation corresponding to the discretized elastic wave equation is used to compute the gradient of the misfit, which is needed by the non-linear conjugated minimization algorithm. A new source point moment source discretization is derived that guarantees that the Hessian of the misfit is a continuous function of the source location. An efficient approach for calculating the Hessian is also presented. We show how the Hessian can be used to scale the problem to improve the convergence of the non-linear conjugated gradient algorithm. Numerical experiments are presented for estimating the source parameters from synthetic data in a layer over half-space problem (LOH.1), illustrating rapid convergence of the proposed approach.

  4. A convenient analytical form for the triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduk, C.; Green, A.M.; Sainio, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The triton wave function obtained by solving the Faddeev equations with the Reid soft core potential is parametrized in a symmetrized cluster form. As a test the 3 He charge form factor is calculated for the exact and the parametrized wave functions and reasonable agreement between the two is found. (author)

  5. Geometric models of nested field wave forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors start with two dimensions. ''Maybe there's this thing we ought to call a 'compressible medium' that seems to be around here''. Maybe it's air or ether. There seems to be this compressible medium which has this quality which is that it conveys inertia momentum. And it is compressible. So, given that, and given not much else, they ought to be able to build things like atomic tables and fundamental concepts of physics. The idea is that the principles of creation are principles of superposition of wave shapes. The suggestion is that wave shape archetypally, naturally builds geometry, and that is the clue to the information structure of atoms and molecules and people

  6. A Novel wave-form command shaper for overhead cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALED ALHAZZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel command shaping control strategy for oscillation reduction of simple harmonic oscillators is proposed, and validated experimentally. A wave-form acceleration command shaper is derived analytically. The performance of the proposed shaper is simulated numerically, and validated experimentally on a scaled model of an overhead crane. Amplitude modulation is used to enhance the shaper performance, which results in a modulated wave-form command shaper. It is determined that the proposed wave-form and modulated wave-form command shaper profiles are capable of eliminating travel and residual oscillations. Furthermore, unlike traditional impulse and step command shapers, the proposed command shaper has piecewise smoother acceleration, velocity, and displacement profiles. Experimental results using continuous and discrete commands are presented. Experiments with discrete commands involved embedding a saturation model-based feedback in the algorithm of the command shaper.

  7. Period functions for Maass wave forms and cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, R; Zagier, D; Bruggeman, R W; Zagier, D

    2015-01-01

    The authors construct explicit isomorphisms between spaces of Maass wave forms and cohomology groups for discrete cofinite groups \\Gamma\\subset\\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{R}}). In the case that \\Gamma is the modular group \\mathrm{PSL}_2({\\mathbb{Z}}) this gives a cohomological framework for the results in Period functions for Maass wave forms. I, of J. Lewis and D. Zagier in Ann. Math. 153 (2001), 191-258, where a bijection was given between cuspidal Maass forms and period functions. The authors introduce the concepts of mixed parabolic cohomology group and semi-analytic vectors in principal serie

  8. Stress diffusion along the san andreas fault at parkfield, california.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, P E; Alvarez, M G

    1992-05-15

    Beginning in January 1990, the epicenters of microearthquakes associated with a 12-month increase in seismicity near Parkfield, California, moved northwest to southeast along the San Andreas fault. During this sequence of events, the locally variable rate of cumulative seismic moment increased. This increase implies a local increase in fault slip. These data suggest that a southeastwardly diffusing stress front propagated along the San Andreas fault at a speed of 30 to 50 kilometers per year. Evidently, this front did not load the Parkfield asperities fast enough to produce a moderate earthquake; however, a future front might do so.

  9. Closed form solutions of two time fractional nonlinear wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Akbar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the exact traveling wave solutions of two nonlinear time fractional wave equations. The fractional derivatives are described in the sense of conformable fractional derivatives. In addition, the traveling wave solutions are accomplished in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational functions involving free parameters. To investigate such types of solutions, we implement the new generalized (G′/G-expansion method. The extracted solutions are reliable, useful and suitable to comprehend the optimal control problems, chaotic vibrations, global and local bifurcations and resonances, furthermore, fission and fusion phenomena occur in solitons, the relativistic energy-momentum relation, scalar electrodynamics, quantum relativistic one-particle theory, electromagnetic interactions etc. The results reveal that the method is very fruitful and convenient for exploring nonlinear differential equations of fractional order treated in theoretical physics. Keywords: Traveling wave solution, Soliton, Generalized (G′/G-expansion method, Time fractional Duffing equation, Time fractional Riccati equation

  10. Characterization of microchannel anechoic corners formed by surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destgeer, Ghulam; Alam, Ashar; Ahmed, Husnain; Park, Jinsoo; Jung, Jin Ho; Park, Kwangseok; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2018-02-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) generated in a piezoelectric substrate couple with a liquid according to Snell's law such that a compressional acoustic wave propagates obliquely at a Rayleigh angle ( θ t) inside the microchannel to form a region devoid of a direct acoustic field, which is termed a microchannel anechoic corner (MAC). In the present study, we used microchannels with various heights and widths to characterize the width of the MAC region formed by a single travelling SAW. The attenuation of high-frequency SAWs produced a strong acoustic streaming flow that moved the particles in and out of the MAC region, whereas reflections of the acoustic waves within the microchannel resulted in standing acoustic waves that trapped particles at acoustic pressure nodes located within or outside of the MAC region. A range of actuation frequencies and particle diameters were used to investigate the effects of the acoustic streaming flow and the direct acoustic radiation forces by the travelling as well as standing waves on the particle motion with respect to the MAC region. The width of the MAC ( w c), measured experimentally by tracing the particles, increased with the height of the microchannel ( h m) according to a simple trigonometric equation w c = h m × tan ( θ t ).

  11. Analysis of nonvolcanic tremor on the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, CA using U. S. Geological Survey Parkfield Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon B.; Baker, Lawrence M.

    2010-10-01

    Reports by Nadeau and Dolenc (2005) that tremor had been detected near Cholame Valley spawned an effort to use UPSAR (U. S. Geological Survey Parkfield Seismic Array) to study characteristics of tremor. UPSAR was modified to record three channels of velocity at 40-50 sps continuously in January 2005 and ran for about 1 month, during which time we recorded numerous episodes of tremor. One tremor, on 21 January at 0728, was recorded with particularly high signal levels as well as another episode 3 days later. Both events were very emergent, had a frequency content between 2 and 8 Hz, and had numerous high-amplitude, short-duration arrivals within the tremor signal. Here using the first episode as an example, we discuss an analysis procedure, which yields azimuth and apparent velocity of the tremor at UPSAR. We then provide locations for both tremor episodes. The emphasis here is how the tremor episode evolves. Twelve stations were operating at the time of recording. Slowness of arrivals was determined using cross correlation of pairs of stations; the same method used in analyzing the main shock data from 28 September 2004. A feature of this analysis is that 20 s of the time series were used at a time to calculate correlation; the longer windows resulted in more consistent estimates of slowness, but lower peak correlations. These values of correlation (peaks of about 0.25), however, are similar to that obtained for the S wave of a microearthquake. Observed peaks in slowness were traced back to source locations assumed to lie on the San Andreas fault. Our inferred locations for the two tremor events cluster near the locations of previously observed tremor, south of the Cholame Valley. Tremor source depths are in the 14-24 km range, which is below the seismogenic brittle zone, but above the Moho. Estimates of error do not preclude locations below the Moho, however. The tremor signal is very emergent but contains packets that are several times larger than the background

  12. Closed form solutions of two time fractional nonlinear wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M. Ali; Ali, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd.; Roy, Ripan

    2018-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the exact traveling wave solutions of two nonlinear time fractional wave equations. The fractional derivatives are described in the sense of conformable fractional derivatives. In addition, the traveling wave solutions are accomplished in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational functions involving free parameters. To investigate such types of solutions, we implement the new generalized (G‧ / G) -expansion method. The extracted solutions are reliable, useful and suitable to comprehend the optimal control problems, chaotic vibrations, global and local bifurcations and resonances, furthermore, fission and fusion phenomena occur in solitons, the relativistic energy-momentum relation, scalar electrodynamics, quantum relativistic one-particle theory, electromagnetic interactions etc. The results reveal that the method is very fruitful and convenient for exploring nonlinear differential equations of fractional order treated in theoretical physics.

  13. Technical Submission Form: Technical Specification of a Wave Energy Farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Kim Nielsen; Ben Kennedy; Bull, Diana L; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    The Wave - SPARC project developed the Technology Performance Level (TPL) assessment procedure based on a rigorous Systems Engineering exercise. The TPL assessment allows a whole system evaluation of Wave Energy Conversion Technology by measuring it against the requirements determined through the Systems Engineering exercise. The TPL assessment is intended to be useful in technology evaluation; in technology innovation; in allocation of public or priva te investment, and; in making equipment purchasing decisions. This Technical Submission Form (TSF) serves the purpose of collecting relevant and complete information, in a technology agnostic way, to allow TPL assessment s to be made by third party assessor s. The intended usage of this document is that the organization or people that are performing the role of developers or promoters of a particular technology will use this form to provide the information necessary for the organization or people who are perf orming the assessor role to use the TPL assessment.

  14. Coherency analysis of accelerograms recorded by the UPSAR array during the 2004 Parkfield earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Kiureghian, Armen Der; Dreger, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variability of near-fault strong motions recorded by the US Geological Survey Parkfield Seismograph Array (UPSAR) during the 2004 Parkfield (California) earthquake is investigated. Behavior of the lagged coherency for two horizontal and the vertical components is analyzed by separately...

  15. The USGS plan for short-term prediction of the anticipated Parkfield earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Aside from the goal of better understanding the Parkfield earthquake cycle, it is the intention of the U.S Geological Survey to attempt to issue a warning shortly before the anticipated earthquake. Although short-term earthquake warnings are not yet generally feasible, the wealth of information available for the previous significant Parkfield earthquakes suggests that if the next earthquake follows the pattern of "characteristic" Parkfield shocks, such a warning might be possible. Focusing on earthquake precursors reported for the previous  "characteristic" shocks, particulary the 1934 and 1966 events, the USGS developed a plan* in late 1985 on which to base earthquake warnings for Parkfield and has assisted State, county, and local officials in the Parkfield area to prepare a coordinated, reasonable response to a warning, should one be issued. 

  16. Relativistic form factors for clusters with nonrelativistic wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.N.; Kumari, I.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple variant of an argument employed by Licht and Pagnamenta (LP) on the effect of Lorentz contraction on the elastic form factors of clusters with nonrelativistic wave functions, it is shown how their result can be generalized to inelastic form factors so as to produce (i) a symmetrical appearance of Lorentz contraction effects in the initial and final states, and (ii) asymptotic behavior in accord with dimensional scaling theories. A comparison of this result with a closely analogous parametric form obtained by Brodsky and Chertok from a propagator chain model leads, with plausible arguments, to the conclusion of an effective mass M for the cluster, with M 2 varying as the number n of the quark constituents, instead of as n 2 . A further generalization of the LP formula is obtained for an arbitrary duality-diagram vertex, again with asymptotic behavior in conformity with dimensional scaling. The practical usefulness of this approach is emphasized as a complementary tool to those of high-energy physics for phenomenological fits to data up to moderate values of q 2

  17. General Forms of Wave Functions for Dipositronium, Ps2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of particle interchange symmetry for the structure of wave functions of the states of dipositronium was recently discussed by the author [I]. In the present work, the methodology is simply explained, and the wave functions are explicitly given.

  18. Teleseismically-induced tremor near Parkfield, CA - a cacophony or a symphony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, J. E.; Peng, Z.; Creager, K. C.; Bodin, P.

    2007-12-01

    The tremor triggered near Parkfield, CA by the 2002 Denali and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes was strong and well recorded by the dense regional CISN and the borehole HRSN networks. Peng et al. (this meeting) survey tremors triggered by a larger set of 12 regional and teleseismic events, providing a broader context. In the case of both the 2002 M7.9 Denali and 2004 M9.1 Sumatra earthquakes, the tremor emanates from at least two source regions deep within the SAF. The first source region is 40 km NW of the SAFOD in the creeping section of the SAF, and the second region is 40 km SE of the SAFOD near Cholame, close to the location where most of the non-triggered tremor has been found previously (Nadeau and Dolenc, Science, 2005). The Denali earthquake triggered tremor is in phase with the surface waves for about 400s. The northern region started tremoring first by about 100s, and both regions quieted before the end of the surface waves. The wavetrain for the 2004 M9.1 Sumatra earthquake was long enough that tremors were also excited by the weak diffracted P waves, and tremor turned up the volume for an hour upon the arrival of the surface waves, underwent a sudden and curious hiatus for 500s before the end of the surface waves, then re-started and continued for at least an hour after the passage of the surface waves. It is easy to suggest that the tremor was accompanied by deep slip on the SAF, but creep and strain data indicate any slip was too small to generate a detectable surface deformation. These observations suggest a component of driven, instantaneous, perhaps Coulomb-friction response with an added dose of self-sustaining, dribbling activity more suggestive of the oozing of fluids.

  19. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SIGNATURES IN BLACK HOLE FORMING CORE COLLAPSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; DeBrye, Nicolas; Aloy, Miguel A.; Font, José A.; Obergaulinger, Martin, E-mail: pablo.cerda@uv.es [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, c/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100-Burjassot (Spain)

    2013-12-20

    We present general relativistic numerical simulations of collapsing stellar cores. Our initial model consists of a low metallicity rapidly-rotating progenitor which is evolved in axisymmetry with the latest version of our general relativistic code CoCoNuT, which allows for black hole formation and includes the effects of a microphysical equation of state (LS220) and a neutrino leakage scheme to account for radiative losses. The motivation of our study is to analyze in detail the emission of gravitational waves in the collapsar scenario of long gamma-ray bursts. Our simulations show that the phase during which the proto-neutron star (PNS) survives before ultimately collapsing to a black hole is particularly optimal for gravitational wave emission. The high-amplitude waves last for several seconds and show a remarkable quasi-periodicity associated with the violent PNS dynamics, namely during the episodes of convection and the subsequent nonlinear development of the standing-accretion shock instability (SASI). By analyzing the spectrogram of our simulations we are able to identify the frequencies associated with the presence of g-modes and with the SASI motions at the PNS surface. We note that the gravitational waves emitted reach large enough amplitudes to be detected with third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope within a Virgo Cluster volume at rates ≲ 0.1 yr{sup –1}.

  20. Analysis of nonvolcanic tremor on the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA using U.S. Geological Survey Parkfield Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon B.; Baker, Lawrence M.

    2010-01-01

    Reports by Nadeau and Dolenc (2005) that tremor had been detected near Cholame Valley spawned an effort to use UPSAR (U. S. Geological Survey Parkfield Seismic Array) to study characteristics of tremor. UPSAR was modified to record three channels of velocity at 40–50 sps continuously in January 2005 and ran for about 1 month, during which time we recorded numerous episodes of tremor. One tremor, on 21 January at 0728, was recorded with particularly high signal levels as well as another episode 3 days later. Both events were very emergent, had a frequency content between 2 and 8 Hz, and had numerous high-amplitude, short-duration arrivals within the tremor signal. Here using the first episode as an example, we discuss an analysis procedure, which yields azimuth and apparent velocity of the tremor at UPSAR. We then provide locations for both tremor episodes. The emphasis here is how the tremor episode evolves. Twelve stations were operating at the time of recording. Slowness of arrivals was determined using cross correlation of pairs of stations; the same method used in analyzing the main shock data from 28 September 2004. A feature of this analysis is that 20 s of the time series were used at a time to calculate correlation; the longer windows resulted in more consistent estimates of slowness, but lower peak correlations. These values of correlation (peaks of about 0.25), however, are similar to that obtained for the S wave of a microearthquake. Observed peaks in slowness were traced back to source locations assumed to lie on the San Andreas fault. Our inferred locations for the two tremor events cluster near the locations of previously observed tremor, south of the Cholame Valley. Tremor source depths are in the 14–24 km range, which is below the seismogenic brittle zone, but above the Moho. Estimates of error do not preclude locations below the Moho, however. The tremor signal is very emergent but contains packets that are several times larger than the

  1. THE DECISION OF FORM FOR DIFFRACTIVE STRUCTURES IN THE PROBLEM OF SCATTERING OF RADIO WAVES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Preobrazhensky

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of scattering of electromagnetic waves in different diffraction structures. The solution of the scattering problem is based on the method of integral equations. On diagrams of backscattering at various frequencies of the incident wave, the decision about the form of the object is carried out.

  2. A nonlocal potential form for s-wave α-α scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Bennett, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Low energy s-wave α-α phase shifts that agree well with the measured set, have been extracted using a nonlocal interaction formed by folding (local real) nucleon -α particle interactions with density matrix elements of the (projectile) α particle. The resultant nonlocal s-wave α-α interaction is energy dependent and has a nonlocality range of about 2 fm

  3. On the use of higher order wave forms in the search for gravitational waves emitted by compact binary coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechan, David J. A.

    2010-11-01

    This thesis concerns the use, in gravitational wave data analysis, of higher order wave form models of the gravitational radiation emitted by compact binary coalescences. We begin with an introductory chapter that includes an overview of the theory of general relativity, gravitational radiation and ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. We then discuss, in Chapter 2, the gravitational waves emitted by compact binary coalescences, with an explanation of higher order waveforms and how they differ from leading order waveforms we also introduce the post-Newtonian formalism. In Chapter 3 the method and results of a gravitational wave search for low mass compact binary coalescences using a subset of LIGO's 5th science run data are presented and in the subsequent chapter we examine how one could use higher order waveforms in such analyses. We follow the development of a new search algorithm that incorporates higher order waveforms with promising results for detection efficiency and parameter estimation. In Chapter 5, a new method of windowing time-domain waveforms that offers benefit to gravitational wave searches is presented. The final chapter covers the development of a game designed as an outreach project to raise public awareness and understanding of the search for gravitational waves.

  4. The plain truth about forming a plane wave of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Apoorva G., E-mail: nintsspd@barc.gov.i [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Abbas, Sohrab [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Treimer, Wolfgang [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    We have attained the first sub-arcsecond collimation of a monochromatic neutron beam by diffracting neutrons from a Bragg prism, viz. a single crystal prism operating in the vicinity of Bragg incidence. Analytical as well numerical computations based on the dynamical diffraction theory, led to the optimised collimator configuration of a silicon {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} Bragg prism for 5.26 A neutrons. We fabricated a Bragg prism to these specifications, tested and operated it at the double diffractometer setup in Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin to produce a 0.58 arcsec wide monochromatic neutron beam. With a similarly optimised Bragg prism analyser of opposite asymmetry, we recorded a 0.62 arcsec wide virgin rocking curve for this ultra-parallel beam. With this nearly plane-wave neutron beam, we have recorded the first ever USANS spectrum in Q{approx}10{sup -6} A{sup -1} range with a hydroxyapatite casein protein sample and demonstrated the instrument capability to characterise agglomerates up to 150 {mu}m in size. The super-collimated monochromatic beam has also enabled us to record the first neutron diffraction pattern from a macroscopic grating of 200 {mu}m period. The transverse coherence length of 175 {mu}m (FWHM) of the ultra-parallel beam derived from the analysis of this pattern, is the greatest achieved to date for A wavelength neutrons.

  5. On the fourth moment of Hecke Maass forms and the Random Wave Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Buttcane, Jack; Khan, Rizwanur

    2016-01-01

    Conditionally on the Generalized Lindel\\"of Hypothesis, we obtain an asymptotic for the fourth moment of Hecke Maass cusp forms of large Laplacian eigenvalue for the full modular group. This lends support to the Random Wave Conjecture.

  6. Postseismic relaxation along the San Andreas fault at Parkfield from continuous seismological observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, F; Campillo, M; Hadziioannou, C; Shapiro, N M; Nadeau, R M; Larose, E

    2008-09-12

    Seismic velocity changes and nonvolcanic tremor activity in the Parkfield area in California reveal that large earthquakes induce long-term perturbations of crustal properties in the San Andreas fault zone. The 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes both reduced seismic velocities that were measured from correlations of the ambient seismic noise and induced an increased nonvolcanic tremor activity along the San Andreas fault. After the Parkfield earthquake, velocity reduction and nonvolcanic tremor activity remained elevated for more than 3 years and decayed over time, similarly to afterslip derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements. These observations suggest that the seismic velocity changes are related to co-seismic damage in the shallow layers and to deep co-seismic stress change and postseismic stress relaxation within the San Andreas fault zone.

  7. Estimation of Ship Long-term Wave-induced Bending Moment using Closed-Form Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions and standard deviations for the wave-induced bending moment amidships for mono-hull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main......-empirical closed-form expression for the skewness. The effect of whipping is included by assuming that whipping and wave-induced responses are conditionally independent given Hs. The procedure is simple and can be used to make quick estimates of the design wave bending moment at the conceptual design phase...

  8. Joint inversion for Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs at SAFOD, Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C.; Bedrosian, P.

    2009-01-01

    We refined the three-dimensional (3-D) Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models around the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) site using a new double-difference (DD) seismic tomography code (tomoDDPS) that simultaneously solves for earthquake locations and all three velocity models using both absolute and differential P, S, and S-P times. This new method is able to provide a more robust Vp/Vs model than that from the original DD tomography code (tomoDD), obtained simply by dividing Vp by Vs. For the new inversion, waveform cross-correlation times for earthquakes from 2001 to 2002 were also used, in addition to arrival times from earthquakes and explosions in the region. The Vp values extracted from the model along the SAFOD trajectory match well with the borehole log data, providing in situ confirmation of our results. Similar to previous tomographic studies, the 3-D structure around Parkfield is dominated by the velocity contrast across the San Andreas Fault (SAF). In both the Vp and Vs models, there is a clear low-velocity zone as deep as 7 km along the SAF trace, compatible with the findings from fault zone guided waves. There is a high Vp/Vs anomaly zone on the southwest side of the SAF trace that is about 1-2 km wide and extends as deep as 4 km, which is interpreted to be due to fluids and fractures in the package of sedimentary rocks abutting the Salinian basement rock to the southwest. The relocated earthquakes align beneath the northeast edge of this high Vp/Vs zone. We carried out a 2-D correlation analysis for an existing resistivity model and the corresponding profiles through our model, yielding a classification that distinguishes several major lithologies. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Bow hull-form optimization in waves of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses optimization techniques to obtain bow hull form of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier in calm water and in waves. Parametric modification functions of SAC and section shape of DLWL are used for hull form variation. Multi-objective functions are applied to minimize the wave-making resistance in calm water and added resistance in regular head wave of λ/L = 0.5. WAVIS version 1.3 is used to obtain wave-making resistance. The modified Fujii and Takahashi's formula is applied to obtain the added resistance in short wave. The PSO algorithm is employed for the optimization technique. The resistance and motion characteristics in calm water and regular and irregular head waves of the three hull forms are compared. It has been shown that the optimal brings 13.2% reduction in the wave-making resistance and 13.8% reduction in the added resistance at λ/L = 0.5; and the mean added resistance reduces by 9.5% at sea state 5.

  10. Delayed dynamic triggering of deep tremor along the Parkfield-Cholame section of the San Andreas Fault following the 2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhigang; Shelly, David R.; Ellsworth, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Large, distant earthquakes are known to trigger deep tectonic tremor along the San Andreas Fault and in subduction zones. However, there are relatively few observations of triggering from regional distance earthquakes. Here we show that a small tremor episode about 12–18 km NW of Parkfield was triggered during and immediately following the passage of surface waves from the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa main shock. More notably, a major tremor episode followed, beginning about 12 h later, and centered SE of Parkfield near Cholame. This major episode is one of the largest seen over the past several years, containing intense activity for ~3 days and taking more than 3 weeks to return to background levels. This episode showed systematic along-strike migration at ~5 km/d, suggesting that it was driven by a slow-slip event. Our results suggest that moderate-size earthquakes are capable of triggering major tremor and deep slow slip at regional distances.

  11. The measurement of capillary waves on a weldpool formed by a Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deam, R.T.; Brandt, M.; Harris, J.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were performed using an on-line pyrometer to measure the capillary waves on a weldpool formed by a Nd: YAG laser. The surface temperature measurements taken from the weldpool revealed strong temporal fluctuations. Fourier transform of the pyrometer data revealed distinct peaks, consistent with calculated resonant frequencies for capillary surface waves on the weldpool formed by the laser. The possibility of using on-line measurement of surface temperature fluctuations to control weldpool depth in laser welds is discussed. The work forms part of an on-going programme to develop closed loop control for laser processing at Swinburne University

  12. Relativistic corrections to the form factors of Bc into P-wave orbitally excited charmonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruilin

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the form factors of the Bc meson into P-wave orbitally excited charmonium using the nonrelativistic QCD effective theory. Through the analytic computation, the next-to-leading order relativistic corrections to the form factors were obtained, and the asymptotic expressions were studied in the infinite bottom quark mass limit. Employing the general form factors, we discussed the exclusive decays of the Bc meson into P-wave orbitally excited charmonium and a light meson. We found that the relativistic corrections lead to a large correction for the form factors, which makes the branching ratios of the decay channels B (Bc ± →χcJ (hc) +π± (K±)) larger. These results are useful for the phenomenological analysis of the Bc meson decays into P-wave charmonium, which shall be tested in the LHCb experiments.

  13. Reduced clot debris size using standing waves formed via high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shifang; Du, Xuan; Wang, Xin; Lu, Shukuan; Shi, Aiwei; Xu, Shanshan; Bouakaz, Ayache; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to induce thrombolysis has been demonstrated previously. However, clinical concerns still remain related to the clot debris produced via fragmentation of the original clot potentially being too large and hence occluding downstream vessels, causing hazardous emboli. This study investigates the use of standing wave fields formed via HIFU to disintegrate the thrombus while achieving a reduced clot debris size in vitro. The results showed that the average diameter of the clot debris calculated by volume percentage was smaller in the standing wave mode than in the travelling wave mode at identical ultrasound thrombolysis settings. Furthermore, the inertial cavitation dose was shown to be lower in the standing wave mode, while the estimated cavitation bubble size distribution was similar in both modes. These results show that a reduction of the clot debris size with standing waves may be attributed to the particle trapping of the acoustic potential well which contributed to particle fragmentation.

  14. Asymptotic form of three-body (dtμ)+ and (ddμ)+ wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Y.; Shimamura, I.; Armour, E.A.G.; Kamimura, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to investigate a discrepancy between existing literature values for the normalization constant in the asymptotic form of three-body wave functions for (DTμ) + , we report the results of a new calculation of the normalization constants for this system as well as the related system (DDμ) + . These were obtained by fitting to accurate variational wave functions with special care being taken to describe the long-range behavior. (orig.)

  15. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho; Achenbach, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation

  16. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Achenbach, Jan D. [Northwestern Univ., Everston (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation.

  17. Qualitative Resting Coronary Pressure Wave Form Analysis to Predict Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Mitsuaki; Maehara, Akiko; Johnson, Nils P; Fearon, William F; De Bruyne, Bernard; Oldroyd, Keith G; Pijls, Nico H J; Jenkins, Paul; Ali, Ziad A; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W; Jeremias, Allen

    2018-03-27

    To evaluate the predictability of resting distal coronary pressure wave forms for fractional flow reserve (FFR). Resting coronary wave forms were qualitatively evaluated for the presence of (i) dicrotic notch; (ii) diastolic dipping; and (iii) ventricularization. In a development cohort (n=88) a scoring system was developed that was then applied to a validation cohort (n=428) using a multivariable linear regression model to predict FFR and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to predict FFR ≤0.8. In the development cohort, all 3 qualitative parameters were independent predictors of FFR. However, in a multivariable linear regression model in the validation cohort, qualitative wave form analysis did not further improve the ability of resting distal coronary to aortic pressure ratio (Pd/Pa) (p=0.80) or instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) (p=0.26) to predict FFR. Using ROC, the area under the curve of resting Pd/Pa (0.86 versus 0.86, P=0.08) and iFR (0.86 versus 0.86, P=0.26) did not improve by adding qualitative analysis. Qualitative coronary wave form analysis showed moderate classification agreement in predicting FFR but did not add substantially to the resting pressure gradients Pd/Pa and iFR; however, when discrepancies between quantitative and qualitative analyses are observed, artifact or pressure drift should be considered.

  18. Postearthquake relaxation after the 2004 M6 Parkfield, California, earthquake and rate-and-state friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J.C.; Langbein, J.

    2008-01-01

    An unusually complete set of measurements (including rapid rate GPS over the first 10 days) of postseismic deformation is available at 12 continuous GPS stations located close to the epicenter of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The principal component modes for the relaxation of the ensemble of those 12 GPS stations were determined. The first mode alone furnishes an adequate approximation to the data. Thus, the relaxation at all stations can be represented by the product of a common temporal function and distinct amplitudes for each component (north or east) of relaxation at each station. The distribution in space of the amplitudes indicates that the relaxation is dominantly strike slip. The temporal function, which spans times from about 5 min to 900 days postearthquake, can be fit by a superposition of three creep terms, each of the form ??l loge(1 + t/??l), with characteristic times ??, = 4.06, 0.11, and 0.0001 days. It seems likely that what is actually involved is a broad spectrum of characteristic times, the individual components of which arise from afterslip on different fault patches. Perfettini and Avouac (2004) have shown that an individual creep term can be explained by the spring-slider model with rate-dependent (no state variable) friction. The observed temporal function can also be explained using a single spring-slider model (i.e., single fault patch) that includes rate-and-state-dependent friction, a single-state variable, and either of the two commonly used (aging and slip) state evolution laws. In the latter fits, the rate-and-state friction parameter b is negative.

  19. Alternative Form of the Hydrogenic Wave Functions for an Extended, Uniformly Charged Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Koo, E.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presented are forms of harmonic oscillator attraction and Coulomb wave functions which can be explicitly constructed and which lead to numerical results for the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the atomic system. The Schrodinger equation and its solution and specific cases of muonic atoms illustrating numerical calculations are included.…

  20. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    theory, that is, the most likely time history of inline force around a force peak of given value. The results of FORM and NewForce are linearly identical and show only minor deviations at second order. The FORM results are then compared to wave averaged measurements of the same criteria for crest height......In design of substructures for offshore wind turbines, the extreme wave loads which are of interest in Ultimate Limit States are often estimated by choosing extreme events from linear random sea states and replacing them by either stream function wave theory or the NewWave theory of a certain...... design wave height. As these wave theories super from limitations such as symmetry around the crest, other methods to estimate the wave loads are needed. In the present paper, the First Order Reliability Method, FORM, is used systematically to estimate the most likely extreme wave shapes. Two parameters...

  1. Wave-free floating body forms for a shallow sea area; Senkaiiki no naminashi futai keijo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y; Nariai, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In column footing or semi-submergible type marine structures, a vertical wave force vanishes at a specific period of waves. This phenomenon is called wave-free characteristics. This wave-free characteristics make it possible to design marine structures superior in oscillation performance in waves. Since Bessho`s wave-free theory is useful only for an infinite water depth, this paper studied the wave-free theory for a shallow sea area. On a wave-free singularity and required floating body form, 2-D and 3-D axisymmetric floating body forms were determined, and vertical wave force characteristics of the obtained body forms were calculated and verified experimentally. Since the source term of the wave-free singularity was weaker in a shallow sea area than an infinite deep water area, resulting in the narrow width of the obtained wave-free body forms in a shallow sea area. The wave-free theory for a shallow sea area was verified by both numerical calculation based on a singularity distribution method and model experiment for these floating body forms. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Extreme value predictions and critical wave episodes for marine structures by FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to advocate for a very effective stochastic procedure, based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), for extreme value predictions related to wave induced loads. Three different applications will be illustrated. The first deals with a jack-up rig where second...... order stochastic waves are included in the analysis. The second application is parametric roll motions of ships. Finally, the motion of a TLP floating foundation for an offshore wind turbine is analysed taking into account large motions....

  3. Extreme value predictions and critical wave episodes for marine structures by FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to advocate for a very effective stochastic procedure, based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), for extreme value predictions related to wave induced loads. Three different applications will be illustrated. The first deals with a jack-up rig where second...... order stochastic waves are included in the analysis. The second application is parametric roll motions of ships. Finally, the motion of a TLP floating foundation for an offshore wind turbine is analysed taking into account large motions....

  4. New Families of Rational Form Solitary Wave Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Li Biao; Zhang Hongqing; Chen Yong

    2005-01-01

    Taking the (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system as a simple example, some families of rational form solitary wave solutions, triangular periodic wave solutions, and rational wave solutions are constructed by using the Riccati equation rational expansion method presented by us. The method can also be applied to solve more nonlinear partial differential equation or equations.

  5. Possible deep fault slip preceding the 2004 Parkfield earthquake, inferred from detailed observations of tectonic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Earthquake predictability depends, in part, on the degree to which sudden slip is preceded by slow aseismic slip. Recently, observations of deep tremor have enabled inferences of deep slow slip even when detection by other means is not possible, but these data are limited to certain areas and mostly the last decade. The region near Parkfield, California, provides a unique convergence of several years of high-quality tremor data bracketing a moderate earthquake, the 2004 magnitude 6.0 event. Here, I present detailed observations of tectonic tremor from mid-2001 through 2008 that indicate deep fault slip both before and after the Parkfield earthquake that cannot be detected with surface geodetic instruments. While there is no obvious short-term precursor, I find unidirectional tremor migration accompanied by elevated tremor rates in the 3 months prior to the earthquake, which suggests accelerated creep on the fault ∼16 km beneath the eventual earthquake hypocenter.

  6. Stability and uncertainty of finite-fault slip inversions: Application to the 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Liu, P.; Mendoza, C.; Ji, C.; Larson, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Parkfield, California, earthquake is used to investigate stability and uncertainty aspects of the finite-fault slip inversion problem with different a priori model assumptions. We utilize records from 54 strong ground motion stations and 13 continuous, 1-Hz sampled, geodetic instruments. Two inversion procedures are compared: a linear least-squares subfault-based methodology and a nonlinear global search algorithm. These two methods encompass a wide range of the different approaches that have been used to solve the finite-fault slip inversion problem. For the Parkfield earthquake and the inversion of velocity or displacement waveforms, near-surface related site response (top 100 m, frequencies above 1 Hz) is shown to not significantly affect the solution. Results are also insensitive to selection of slip rate functions with similar duration and to subfault size if proper stabilizing constraints are used. The linear and nonlinear formulations yield consistent results when the same limitations in model parameters are in place and the same inversion norm is used. However, the solution is sensitive to the choice of inversion norm, the bounds on model parameters, such as rake and rupture velocity, and the size of the model fault plane. The geodetic data set for Parkfield gives a slip distribution different from that of the strong-motion data, which may be due to the spatial limitation of the geodetic stations and the bandlimited nature of the strong-motion data. Cross validation and the bootstrap method are used to set limits on the upper bound for rupture velocity and to derive mean slip models and standard deviations in model parameters. This analysis shows that slip on the northwestern half of the Parkfield rupture plane from the inversion of strong-motion data is model dependent and has a greater uncertainty than slip near the hypocenter.

  7. Spatial-temporal variation of low-frequency earthquake bursts near Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Guyer, Robert; Shelly, David R.; Trugman, D.; Frank, William; Gomberg, Joan S.; Johnson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Tectonic tremor (TT) and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) have been found in the deeper crust of various tectonic environments globally in the last decade. The spatial-temporal behaviour of LFEs provides insight into deep fault zone processes. In this study, we examine recurrence times from a 12-yr catalogue of 88 LFE families with ∼730 000 LFEs in the vicinity of the Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in central California. We apply an automatic burst detection algorithm to the LFE recurrence times to identify the clustering behaviour of LFEs (LFE bursts) in each family. We find that the burst behaviours in the northern and southern LFE groups differ. Generally, the northern group has longer burst duration but fewer LFEs per burst, while the southern group has shorter burst duration but more LFEs per burst. The southern group LFE bursts are generally more correlated than the northern group, suggesting more coherent deep fault slip and relatively simpler deep fault structure beneath the locked section of SAF. We also found that the 2004 Parkfield earthquake clearly increased the number of LFEs per burst and average burst duration for both the northern and the southern groups, with a relatively larger effect on the northern group. This could be due to the weakness of northern part of the fault, or the northwesterly rupture direction of the Parkfield earthquake.

  8. Searching for geodetic transient slip signals along the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault is at the transition between a segment locked since the 1857 Mw 7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake to its south and a creeping segment to the north. It is particularly well instrumented since it is the many previous studies have focused on studying the coseismic and postseismic phases of the two most recent earthquake cycles, the interseismic phase is exhibiting interesting dynamics at the down-dip edge of the seismogenic zone, characterized by a very large number of low frequency earthquakes (LFE) with different behaviors depending on location. Interseismic fault creep rates appear to vary over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from the Earth's surface to the base of crust. In this study, we take advantage of the dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network, with 77 continuous stations located within a circle of radius 80 km centered on Parkfield. We correct these time series for the co- and postseismic signals of the 2003 Mw 6.3 San Simeon and 2004 Mw 6.0 Parkfield earthquakes. We then cross-correlate the residual time series with synthetic slow-slip templates following the approach of Rousset et al. (2017). Synthetic tests with transient events contained in GPS time series with realistic noise show the limit of detection of the method. In the application with real GPS time series, the highest correlation amplitudes are compared with micro-seismicity rates, as well as tremor and LFE observations.

  9. Searching for evidence of a preferred rupture direction in small earthquakes at Parkfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, D. L.; Shearer, P. M.; Allmann, B.; Vernon, F. L.

    2009-12-01

    Theoretical modeling of strike-slip ruptures along a bimaterial interface suggests that the interface will have a preferred rupture direction and will produce asymmetric ground motion (Shi and Ben-Zion, 2006). This could have widespread implications for earthquake source physics and for hazard analysis on mature faults because larger ground motions would be expected in the direction of rupture propagation. Studies have shown that many large global earthquakes exhibit unilateral rupture, but a consistently preferred rupture direction along faults has not been observed. Some researchers have argued that the bimaterial interface model does not apply to natural faults, noting that the rupture of the M 6 2004 Parkfield earthquake propagated in the opposite direction from previous M 6 earthquakes along that section of the San Andreas Fault (Harris and Day, 2005). We analyze earthquake spectra from the Parkfield area to look for evidence of consistent rupture directivity along the San Andreas Fault. We separate the earthquakes into spatially defined clusters and quantify the differences in high-frequency energy among earthquakes recorded at each station. Propagation path effects are minimized in this analysis because we compare earthquakes located within a small volume and recorded by the same stations. By considering a number of potential end-member models, we seek to determine if a preferred rupture direction is present among small earthquakes at Parkfield.

  10. Data on the electromagnetic pion form factor and p-wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnicka, S.; Meshcheryakov, V.A.; Milko, J.

    1980-01-01

    The pion form factor absolute value data (free of the omega meson contribution) are unified with the P-wave isovector ππ phase shift. The resultant real and imaginary parts of the pion form factor are described by means of the Pade approximation. All the data, which involve the pion form factor experimental points from the range of momenta - 0.8432 GeV 2 2 , the pion charge radius, and the P-wave isovector ππ phase shift in the elastic region (including also the generally accepted value of the scattering length) are mutually consistent. The data themselves through the Pade approximation reveal that the aforementioned consistency can be achieved only if the pion form factor left-hand cut from the second Riemann sheet is taken into account. Almost in all of the considered Pade approximations one stable pion form factor zero is found in the space-like region, which might indicate the existence of a diffraction minimum in the differential cross section for elastic e - π scattering as a consequence of the constituent structure of the pion like in the case of the electron elastic scattering on nuclei

  11. Forming method of a functional layer-built film by micro-wave plasma CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Keishi

    1988-11-18

    In forming an amorphous semi-conductor material film, the micro-wave plasma CVD cannot be generally used because of such demerits as film-separation, low yield, columnar structure in the film, and problems in the optical and electrical properties. In this invention, a specific substrate is placed in a layer-built film forming unit which is capable of maintaining vacuum; raw material gas for the film formation is introduced; plasma is generated by a micro-wave energy to decompose the raw material gas, thus forming the layer-built film on the substarte. Then a film is made by adding a specific amount of calcoganide-containing gas to the raw material gas. By this, the utilization efficiency of the raw material gas gets roughly 100% and both the adhesion to the substrate and the structural flexibility of the layer-built film increase, enhancing the yield of forming various functional elements (sensor, solar cell, thin transistor film, etc.), and thus greatly reducing the production cost. 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Solitary Wave Solutions of the Boussinesq Equation and Its Improved Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Abazari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the general case study of previous works on generalized Boussinesq equations, (Abazari, 2011 and (Kılıcman and Abazari, 2012, that focuses on the application of G′/G-expansion method with the aid of Maple to construct more general exact solutions for the coupled Boussinesq equations. In this work, the mentioned method is applied to construct more general exact solutions of Boussinesq equation and improved Boussinesq equation, which the French scientist Joseph Valentin Boussinesq (1842–1929 described in the 1870s model equations for the propagation of long waves on the surface of water with small amplitude. Our work is motivated by the fact that the G′/G-expansion method provides not only more general forms of solutions but also periodic, solitary waves and rational solutions. The method appears to be easier and faster by means of a symbolic computation.

  13. Relativistic form factors for hadrons with quark-model wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, D.P.; Robson, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between relativistic form factors and quark-potential-model wave functions is examined using an improved version of an approach by Licht and Pagnamenta. Lorentz-contraction effects are expressed in terms of an effective hadron mass which varies as the square root of the number of quark constituents. The effective mass is calculated using the rest-frame wave functions from the mean-square momentum along the direction of the momentum transfer. Applications with the parameter-free approach are made to the elastic form factors of the pion, proton, and neutron using a Hamiltonian which simultaneously describes mesons and baryons. A comparison of the calculated radii for pions and kaons suggests that the measured kaon radius should be slightly smaller than the corresponding pion radius. The large negative squared charge radius for the neutron is partially explained via the quark model but a full description requires the inclusion of a small component of a pion ''cloud'' configuration. The problematic connection between the sizes of hadrons deduced from form factors and the ''measured'' values of average transverse momenta is reconciled in the present model

  14. Slip deficit on the san andreas fault at parkfield, california, as revealed by inversion of geodetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, P; Harris, R

    1986-09-26

    A network of geodetic lines spanning the San Andreas fault near the rupture zone of the 1966 Parkfield, California, earthquake (magnitude M = 6) has been repeatedly surveyed since 1959. In the study reported here the average rates of line-length change since 1966 were inverted to determine the distribution of interseismic slip rate on the fault. These results indicate that the Parkfield rupture surface has not slipped significantly since 1966. Comparison of the geodetically determined seismic moment of the 1966 earthquake with the interseismic slip-deficit rate suggests that the strain released by the latest shock will most likely be restored between 1984 and 1989, although this may not occur until 1995. These results lend independent support to the earlier forecast of an M = 6 earthquake near Parkfield within 5 years of 1988.

  15. Study on density wave oscillation in parallel channel by section form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jun; Huang Yanping; Wang Yanlin

    2013-01-01

    Based on 170 density wave oscillation experimental data from parallel round tube and narrow rectangular channel, the experiment method, identification method of oscillation and analysis method of experimental data have be uniformed, and the oscillation boundary of round tube and narrow rectangular channel have be analyzed. The investigation results show that the oscillation boundary is not affected by the channel section forms with identical equivalent diameter with pressure l.0∼19.2 MPa, mass flux 101.9∼1200.0 kg·m-2·s -1 and inlet sub cooling 18.0∼85.2℃. (authors)

  16. The two-fermion relativistic wave equations of Constraint Theory in the Pauli-Schroedinger form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, J.; Sazdjian, H.

    1994-01-01

    The two-fermion relativistic wave equations of Constraint Theory are reduced, after expressing the components of the 4x4 matrix wave function in terms of one of the 2x2 components, to a single equation of the Pauli-Schroedinger type, valid for all sectors of quantum numbers. The potentials that are present belong to the general classes of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector interactions and are calculable in perturbation theory from Feynman diagrams. In the limit when one of the masses becomes infinite, the equation reduces to the two-component form of the one-particle Dirac equation with external static potentials. The Hamiltonian, to order 1/c 2 , reproduces most of the known theoretical results obtained by other methods. The gauge invariance of the wave equation is checked, to that order, in the case of QED. The role of the c.m. energy dependence of the relativistic interquark confining potential is emphasized and the structure of the Hamiltonian, to order 1/c 2 , corresponding to confining scalar potentials, is displayed. (authors). 32 refs., 2 figs

  17. Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm equation by means of the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.

    2009-01-01

    Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm (CH) equation are sought. In this work, the homotopy analysis method (HAM), one of the most effective method, is applied to obtain the soliton wave solutions with and without continuity of first derivatives at crest

  18. Joint resummation for pion wave function and pion transition form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hsiang-nan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica,Academia Rd., Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University,University Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University,Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Shen, Yue-Long [College of Information Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China,Songling Rd, Qingdao, Shandong 266100 (China); Wang, Yu-Ming [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie RWTH Aachen,Physikzentrum Otto-Blumenthal-Straße, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-03

    We construct an evolution equation for the pion wave function in the k{sub T} factorization formalism, whose solution sums the mixed logarithm ln xln k{sub T} to all orders, with x (k{sub T}) being a parton momentum fraction (transverse momentum). This joint resummation induces strong suppression of the pion wave function in the small x and large b regions, b being the impact parameter conjugate to k{sub T}, and improves the applicability of perturbative QCD to hard exclusive processes. The above effect is similar to those from the conventional threshold resummation for the double logarithm ln{sup 2} x and the conventional k{sub T} resummation for ln{sup 2} k{sub T}. Combining the evolution equation for the hard kernel, we are able to organize all large logarithms in the γ{sup ∗}π{sup 0}→γ scattering, and to establish a scheme-independent k{sub T} factorization formula. It will be shown that the significance of next-to-leading-order contributions and saturation behaviors of this process at high energy differ from those under the conventional resummations. It implies that QCD logarithmic corrections to a process must be handled appropriately, before its data are used to extract a hadron wave function. Our predictions for the involved pion transition form factor, derived under the joint resummation and the input of a non-asymptotic pion wave function with the second Gegenbauer moment a{sub 2}=0.05, match reasonably well the CLEO, BaBar, and Belle data.

  19. Remote triggering of fault-strength changes on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Taka'aki; Silver, Paul G; Niu, Fenglin; Nadeau, Robert M

    2009-10-01

    Fault strength is a fundamental property of seismogenic zones, and its temporal changes can increase or decrease the likelihood of failure and the ultimate triggering of seismic events. Although changes in fault strength have been suggested to explain various phenomena, such as the remote triggering of seismicity, there has been no means of actually monitoring this important property in situ. Here we argue that approximately 20 years of observation (1987-2008) of the Parkfield area at the San Andreas fault have revealed a means of monitoring fault strength. We have identified two occasions where long-term changes in fault strength have been most probably induced remotely by large seismic events, namely the 2004 magnitude (M) 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the earlier 1992 M = 7.3 Landers earthquake. In both cases, the change possessed two manifestations: temporal variations in the properties of seismic scatterers-probably reflecting the stress-induced migration of fluids-and systematic temporal variations in the characteristics of repeating-earthquake sequences that are most consistent with changes in fault strength. In the case of the 1992 Landers earthquake, a period of reduced strength probably triggered the 1993 Parkfield aseismic transient as well as the accompanying cluster of four M > 4 earthquakes at Parkfield. The fault-strength changes produced by the distant 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake are especially important, as they suggest that the very largest earthquakes may have a global influence on the strength of the Earth's fault systems. As such a perturbation would bring many fault zones closer to failure, it should lead to temporal clustering of global seismicity. This hypothesis seems to be supported by the unusually high number of M >or= 8 earthquakes occurring in the few years following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.

  20. Lower solar chromosphere-corona transition region. II - Wave pressure effects for a specific form of the heating function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, D. Tod; Holzer, Thomas E.; Macgregor, Keith B.

    1990-01-01

    Lower transition region models with a balance between mechanical heating and radiative losses are expanded to include wave pressure effects. The models are used to study the simple damping length form of the heating function. The results are compared to the results obtained by Woods et al. (1990) for solutions in the lower transition region. The results suggest that a mixture of fast-mode and slow-mode waves may provide the appropriate heating mechanism in the lower transition region, with the decline in effective vertical wave speed caused by the refraction and eventual total reflection of the fast-mode wave resulting from the decreasing atmospheric density.

  1. Fine structure of the electromagnetic fields formed by backward surface waves in an azimuthally symmetric surface wave-excited plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Ono, Kouichi

    2003-01-01

    The electromagnetic fields and plasma parameters have been studied in an azimuthally symmetric surface wave-excited plasma (SWP) source, by using a two-dimensional numerical analysis based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approximation to Maxwell's equations self-consistently coupled with a fluid model for plasma evolution. The FDTD/fluid hybrid simulation was performed for different gas pressures in Ar and different microwave powers at 2.45 GHz, showing that the surface waves (SWs) occur along the plasma-dielectric interfaces to sustain overdense plasmas. The numerical results indicated that the electromagnetic SWs consist of two different waves, Wave-1 and Wave-2, having relatively shorter and longer wavelengths. The Wave-1 was seen to fade away with increasing pressure and increasing power, while the Wave-2 remained relatively unchanged over the range of pressure and power investigated. The numerical results revealed that the Wave-1 propagates as backward SWs whose phase velocity and group velocity point in the opposite directions. In contrast, the Wave-2 appeared to form standing waves, being ascribed to a superposition of forward SWs whose phase and group velocities point in the same direction. The fadeaway of the Wave-1 or backward SWs at increased pressures and increased powers was seen with the damping rate increasing in the axial direction, being related to the increased plasma electron densities. A comparison with the conventional FDTD simulation indicated that such fine structure of the electromagnetic fields of SWs is not observed in the FDTD simulation with spatially uniform and time-independent plasma distributions; thus, the FDTD/fluid hybrid model should be employed in simulating the electromagnetic fields and plasma parameters in SWPs with high accuracy

  2. Frequency-Dependent Tidal Triggering of Low Frequency Earthquakes Near Parkfield, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Burgmann, R.; Shelly, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of small periodic stress perturbations on earthquake generation is not clear, however, the rate of low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) near Parkfield, California has been found to be strongly correlated with solid earth tides. Laboratory experiments and theoretical analyses show that the period of imposed forcing and source properties affect the sensitivity to triggering and the phase relation of the peak seismicity rate and the periodic stress, but frequency-dependent triggering has not been quantitatively explored in the field. Tidal forcing acts over a wide range of frequencies, therefore the sensitivity to tidal triggering of LFEs provides a good probe to the physical mechanisms affecting earthquake generation. In this study, we consider the tidal triggering of LFEs near Parkfield, California since 2001. We find the LFEs rate is correlated with tidal shear stress, normal stress rate and shear stress rate. The occurrence of LFEs can also be independently modulated by groups of tidal constituents at semi-diurnal, diurnal and fortnightly frequencies. The strength of the response of LFEs to the different tidal constituents varies between LFE families. Each LFE family has an optimal triggering frequency, which does not appear to be depth dependent or systematically related to other known properties. This suggests the period of the applied forcing plays an important role in the triggering process, and the interaction of periods of loading history and source region properties, such as friction, effective normal stress and pore fluid pressure, produces the observed frequency-dependent tidal triggering of LFEs.

  3. TJ-II wave forms analysis with wavelets and support vector machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Vega, J.; Sanchez, J.; Santos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Since the fusion plasma experiment generates hundreds of signals, it is essential to have automatic mechanisms for searching similarities and retrieving of specific data in the wave form database. Wavelet transform (WT) is a transformation that allows one to map signals to spaces of lower dimensionality. Support vector machine (SVM) is a very effective method for general purpose pattern recognition. Given a set of input vectors which belong to two different classes, the SVM maps the inputs into a high-dimensional feature space through some nonlinear mapping, where an optimal separating hyperplane is constructed. In this work, the combined use of WT and SVM is proposed for searching and retrieving similar wave forms in the TJ-II database. In a first stage, plasma signals will be preprocessed by WT to reduce their dimensionality and to extract their main features. In the next stage, and using the smoothed signals produced by the WT, SVM will be applied to show up the efficiency of the proposed method to deal with the problem of sorting out thousands of fusion plasma signals.From observation of several experiments, our WT+SVM method is very viable, and the results seems promising. However, we have further work to do. We have to finish the development of a Matlab toolbox for WT+SVM processing and to include new relevant features in the SVM inputs to improve the technique. We have also to make a better preprocessing of the input signals and to study the performance of other generic and self custom kernels. To reach it, and since the preprocessing stages are very time consuming, we are going to study the viability of using DSPs, RPGAs or parallel programming techniques to reduce the execution time

  4. Nouvelles méthodes d'identification des fractures par diagraphie acoustique en full wave form New Methods of Identifying Fractures by Full Wave Form Acoustic Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les outils acoustiques de dernière génération permettent maintenant d'enregistrer l'ensemble des ondes générées par une source acoustique à l'intérieur d'une géométrie cylindrique telle qu'un puits de sondage. Le train d'onde qu'il est alors possible d'analyser se compose successivement de trois composantes majeures (l'onde de compression, de cisaillement et de Stoneley dont nous avons une représentation pour chaque position de la sonde à l'intérieur du puits. Nous présentons, dans ce texte, trois méthodes originales et rapides (calculs possibles sur le site même pour identifier, à partir du traitement de l'onde de Stoneley, les fractures ouvertes recoupées par un forage. Nous donnons, dans un premier temps, nos motivations pour le choix unique du traitement de l'onde de Stoneley pour, dans un deuxième temps, exposer les trois méthodes développées et montrer pour chacune d'entre elles une application pratique. Interest in recognizing and identifying fractures in a coherent formation for the petroleum, geothermal and storage (oil and gas, wastes sectors has led to the development of indirect prospection methods inside boreholes such as acoustic logging. The latest acoustic tools are capable of recording all waves generated by an acoustic logging tool inside a cyclindrical geometry such as a borehole. The wavetrain that can then be analyzed is successively made up of three major components (the P compression wave, the S shear wave and the Stoneley wave for which we have a representation for each position of the logging tool in the borehole. An example of a recording is shown in Fig. 1. Because of its specific features (high amplitudes, low frequency, high signal-to-noise ratio, the Stoneley wave is recognized to be a good indicator of open fractures. Therefore, we use simple digital processing to quantify the influence of fracturing on the propagation of the Stoneley wave. Three methods stemming from the digital processing of

  5. Nondegenerate Four-Wave Mixing in Gold Nanocomposites Formed by Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saonov, V.P.; Zhu, J.G.; Lepeshkin, N.N.; Armstrong, R.L.; Shalaev, V.M.; Ying, Z.C.; White, C.W.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Nondegenerate four-wave mixing technique has been used to investigate the third-order nonlinear susceptibility for nanocomposite material with Au nanocrystals formed inside a SiO 2 glass matrix. High concentrations of encapsulated Au nanocrystals are formed by implantation of Au ions into fused silica glass substrates and thermal annealing. The size distribution and the depth profiles of the Au nanoparticles can be controlled by the implantation dose, energy and annealing temperatures. The high value of the third-order susceptibility - (0.26--1.3)x10 -7 esu was found in the range of the frequency detunings near the surface plasmon resonance. Two characteristic relaxation times, 0.66 ps and 5.3 ps, have been extracted from the detuning curve of the third-order susceptibility as the probe-beam frequency changes and the pump-beam frequency fixed at the plasmon resonance. The first relaxation time was attributed to electron-phonon relaxation, and the second to thermal diffusion to the host medium. The efficient nondegenerate conversion is attractive for optical processing

  6. High Intensity Compton Scattering in a strong plane wave field of general form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartin, A.; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Hamburg Univ.

    2011-06-01

    Photon emission by an electron embedded in a strong external field of general form is studied theoretically. The external field considered is a plane wave electromagnetic field of any number of components, period and polarisation. Exact, Volkov solutions of the Dirac equation with the 4-potential of the general external field are obtained. The photon emission is considered in the usual perturbation theory using the Volkov solutions to represent the electron. An expression for the transition probability of this process is obtained after the usual spin and polarisation sums, trace calculation and phase space integration. The final transition probability in the general case contains a single sum over contributions from external field photons, an integration over one of the phase space components and the Fourier transforms of the Volkov phases. The validity of the general expression is established by considering specific external fields. Known specific analytic forms of the transition probability are obtained after substitution of the 4-potential for a circularly polarised and constant crossed external field. As an example usage of the general result for the transition probability, the case of two circularly polarised external fields separated by a phase difference is studied both analytically and numerically. (orig.)

  7. High Intensity Compton Scattering in a strong plane wave field of general form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartin, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-06-15

    Photon emission by an electron embedded in a strong external field of general form is studied theoretically. The external field considered is a plane wave electromagnetic field of any number of components, period and polarisation. Exact, Volkov solutions of the Dirac equation with the 4-potential of the general external field are obtained. The photon emission is considered in the usual perturbation theory using the Volkov solutions to represent the electron. An expression for the transition probability of this process is obtained after the usual spin and polarisation sums, trace calculation and phase space integration. The final transition probability in the general case contains a single sum over contributions from external field photons, an integration over one of the phase space components and the Fourier transforms of the Volkov phases. The validity of the general expression is established by considering specific external fields. Known specific analytic forms of the transition probability are obtained after substitution of the 4-potential for a circularly polarised and constant crossed external field. As an example usage of the general result for the transition probability, the case of two circularly polarised external fields separated by a phase difference is studied both analytically and numerically. (orig.)

  8. TUNING IN TO FISH SWIMMING WAVES - BODY FORM, SWIMMING MODE AND MUSCLE FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARDLE, CS; VIDELER, JJ; ALTRINGHAM, JD

    Most fish species swim with lateral body undulations running from head to tail, These waves run more slowly than the waves of muscle activation causing them, reflecting the effect of the interaction between the fish's body and the reactive forces from the water, The coupling between both waves

  9. Seismomagnetic effects from the long-awaited 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Sasai, Y.; Egbert, G.D.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Precise measurements of local magnetic fields have been obtained with a differentially connected array of seven synchronized proton magnetometers located along 60 km of the locked-to-creeping transition region of the San Andreas fault at Parkfield, California, since 1976. The M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake on 28 September 2004, occurred within this array and generated coseismic magnetic field changes of between 0.2 and 0.5 nT at five sites in the network. No preseismic magnetic field changes exceeding background noise levels are apparent in the magnetic data during the month, week, and days before the earthquake (or expected in light of the absence of measurable precursive deformation, seismicity, or pore pressure changes). Observations of electric and magnetic fields from 0.01 to 20 Hz are also made at one site near the end of the earthquake rupture and corrected for common-mode signals from the ionosphere/magnetosphere using a second site some 115 km to the northwest along the fault. These magnetic data show no indications of unusual noise before the earthquake in the ULF band (0.01-20 Hz) as suggested may have preceded the 1989 ML 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Nor do we see electric field changes similar to those suggested to occur before earthquakes of this magnitude from data in Greece. Uniform and variable slip piezomagnetic models of the earthquake, derived from strain, displacement, and seismic data, generate magnetic field perturbations that are consistent with those observed by the magnetometer array. A higher rate of longer-term magnetic field change, consistent with increased loading in the region, is apparent since 1993. This accompanied an increased rate of secular shear strain observed on a two-color EDM network and a small network of borehole tensor strainmeters and increased seismicity dominated by three M 4.5-5 earthquakes roughly a year apart in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Models incorporating all of these data indicate increased slip at depth in the region

  10. Solitary-wave families of the Ostrovsky equation: An approach via reversible systems theory and normal forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Choudhury, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Ostrovsky equation is an important canonical model for the unidirectional propagation of weakly nonlinear long surface and internal waves in a rotating, inviscid and incompressible fluid. Limited functional analytic results exist for the occurrence of one family of solitary-wave solutions of this equation, as well as their approach to the well-known solitons of the famous Korteweg-de Vries equation in the limit as the rotation becomes vanishingly small. Since solitary-wave solutions often play a central role in the long-time evolution of an initial disturbance, we consider such solutions here (via the normal form approach) within the framework of reversible systems theory. Besides confirming the existence of the known family of solitary waves and its reduction to the KdV limit, we find a second family of multihumped (or N-pulse) solutions, as well as a continuum of delocalized solitary waves (or homoclinics to small-amplitude periodic orbits). On isolated curves in the relevant parameter region, the delocalized waves reduce to genuine embedded solitons. The second and third families of solutions occur in regions of parameter space distinct from the known solitary-wave solutions and are thus entirely new. Directions for future work are also mentioned

  11. Clustering and periodic recurrence of microearthquakes on the san andreas fault at parkfield, california.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, R M; Foxall, W; McEvilly, T V

    1995-01-27

    The San Andreas fault at Parkfield, California, apparently late in an interval between repeating magnitude 6 earthquakes, is yielding to tectonic loading partly by seismic slip concentrated in a relatively sparse distribution of small clusters (<20-meter radius) of microearthquakes. Within these clusters, which account for 63% of the earthquakes in a 1987-92 study interval, virtually identical small earthquakes occurred with a regularity that can be described by the statistical model used previously in forecasting large characteristic earthquakes. Sympathetic occurrence of microearthquakes in nearby clusters was observed within a range of about 200 meters at communication speeds of 10 to 100 centimeters per second. The rate of earthquake occurrence, particularly at depth, increased significantly during the study period, but the fraction of earthquakes that were cluster members decreased.

  12. Strong-Motion Data From the Parkfield Earthquake of September 28, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakal, A. F.; Borcherdt, R. D.; Graizer, V.; Haddadi, H.; Huang, M.; Lin, K.; Stephens, C.

    2004-12-01

    Very complex ground motion with high spatial variability was recorded in the near field of the M6 Parkfield earthquake of 9/28/04 by a strong motion array. The array provided the highest density of recording stations in the near field of any earthquake recorded to date. A total of 56 stations were located within 20 km of the fault; 48 were within 10 km of the fault, more than for many other earthquakes combined. Most (45) of the stations were part of a specialized array of classic analog instruments installed by CGS in the early 1980s, and 11 were digital high resolution instruments installed by the USGS. The set of recordings obtained provide a wealth of information on near field ground motion. Processing and analysis of the strong-motion data, available at www.cisn-edc.org, is underway. The spatial variation of the ground motion, even over relatively short distances, is great. For example, a peak acceleration of 0.30 g was recorded in the town of Parkfield, but several stations, within about 2 km, that surround this station recorded acceleration levels well over 1 g. The strong shaking at these stations, near the termination end of the rupture, is consistent with directivity focusing, as the rupture propagated from the epicenter near Gold Hill to the northwest. However, some of the strongest shaking occurs well south of the rupture, at stations near Hwy 46 at the south end of the Cholame Valley, incompatible with directivity focusing from a simple rupture. An additional aspect is that several near-fault stations have very low shaking, despite being directly over the rupturing fault. This may provide a quantitative basis to understand observed cases of low-strength buildings immediately near a fault being only slightly damaged.

  13. Detection of aseismic creep along the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California with ERS-1 radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Charles L.; Rosen, Paul; Hensley, Scott; Fielding, Eric; Buckley, Sean

    1997-01-01

    The differential interferometric analysis of ERS data from Parkfield (CA) observations revealed the wide area distribution of creep along the moving fault segment of the San Andreas fault over a 15 month interval. The removal of the interferometric phase related to the surface topography was carried out. The fault was clearly visible in the differential interferogram. The magnitude of the tropospheric water vapor phase distortions is greater than the signal and hinders quantitative analysis beyond order of magnitude calculations.

  14. Extreme Value Predictions for Wave- and Wind-induced Loads on Floating Offshore Wind Turbines using FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Sunvard; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, Alaa E.

    2007-01-01

    duration of the time domain simulations needed (typically 60-300s to cover the hy-drodynamic memory effects in the response) the calcu-lation of the mean out-crossing rates of a given response are very fast. Thus complicated non-linear effects can be included. The FORM analysis also identifies the most...... probable wave episodes leading to given re-sponses. As an example the motions of floating foundations for offshore wind turbines are analysed taking into consid-eration both the wave and wind induced loads and con-sidering different mooring systems. The possible large horizontal motions make it important...

  15. Magnetic form factor of NpAs2: a crystal field wave function for 5f electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, G.; Blaise, A.; Bonnet, M.; Boucherle, J.X.; Delapalme, A.; Fournier, J.M.; Vigneron, F.

    1982-10-01

    Neptunium magnetic form factor measurements in the ferromagnetic phase of NpAs 2 (T = 4.2 K, H = 4.6 T) are analysed under different assumptions: Np 3 + , Np 4 + or Np 5 + , with a free ion wave-function (Russel-Saunders and intermediate coupling scheme) or with a Crystal Field Wave function for 5f electrons: sub(m)sup(μ)asub(m)asub(m)/J,m>. The experimental results are compatible with either a 3+ or 4+ state

  16. GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM MASSIVE MAGNETARS FORMED IN BINARY NEUTRON STAR MERGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Osso, Simone [Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, auf der Morgenstelle 10 D-72076 (Germany); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Physics Department, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Stella, Luigi, E-mail: simone.dallosso@uni-tuebingen.de [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    Binary neutron star (NS) mergers are among the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs), as well as candidate progenitors for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Depending on the total initial mass of the system and the NS equation of state (EOS), the post-merger phase can be characterized by a prompt collapse to a black hole or by the formation of a supramassive NS, or even a stable NS. In the latter cases of post-merger NS (PMNS) formation, magnetic field amplification during the merger will produce a magnetar and induce a mass quadrupole moment in the newly formed NS. If the timescale for orthogonalization of the magnetic symmetry axis with the spin axis is smaller than the spindown time, the NS will radiate its spin down energy primarily via GWs. Here we study this scenario for the various outcomes of NS formation: we generalize the set of equilibrium states for a twisted torus magnetic configuration to include solutions that, for the same external dipolar field, carry a larger magnetic energy reservoir; we hence compute the magnetic ellipticity for such configurations, and the corresponding strength of the expected GW signal as a function of the relative magnitude of the dipolar and toroidal field components. The relative number of GW detections from PMNSs and from binary NSs is a very strong function of the NS EOS, being higher (∼1%) for the stiffest EOSs and negligibly small for the softest ones. For intermediate-stiffness EOSs, such as the n = 4/7 polytrope recently used by Giacomazzo and Perna or the GM1 used by Lasky et al., the relative fraction is ∼0.3%; correspondingly, we estimate a GW detection rate from stable PMNSs of ∼0.1-1 yr{sup –1} with advanced detectors, and of ∼100-1000 yr{sup –1} with detectors of third generation such as the Einstein Telescope. Measurement of such GW signals would provide constraints on the NS EOS and, in connection with an SGRB, on the nature of the binary progenitors giving rise to these events.

  17. Development of Traveling Wave Actuators Using Waveguides of Different Geometrical Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutis Bansevicius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the research and development of piezoelectric traveling wave actuators using different types of the waveguides. The introduced piezoelectric actuators can be characterized by specific areas of application, different resolution, and torque. All presented actuators are ultrasonic resonant devices and they were developed to increase amplitudes of the traveling wave oscillations of the contact surface. Three different waveguides are introduced, that is, symmetrical, asymmetrical, and cone type waveguide. A piezoelectric ring with the sectioned electrodes is used to excite traveling wave oscillations for all actuators. Operating principle, electrode pattern, and excitation regimes of piezoelectric actuators are described. A numerical modelling of the actuators was performed to validate the operating principle and to calculate trajectories of the contact points motion. Prototype actuators were made and experimental study was performed. The results of numerical and experimental analysis are discussed.

  18. Effect of water depth on wind-wave frequency spectrum I. Spectral form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Sheng-Chang; Guan, Chang-Long; Sun, Shi-Cai; Wu, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Da-Cuo

    1996-06-01

    Wen et al's method developed to obtain wind-wave frequency spectrum in deep water was used to derive the spectrum in finite depth water. The spectrum S(ω) (ω being angular frequency) when normalized with the zeroth moment m 0 and peak frequency {ie97-1}, contains in addition to the peakness factor {ie97-2} a depth parameter η=(2π m o)1/2/ d ( d being water depth), so the spectrum behavior can be studied for different wave growth stages and water depths.

  19. Transient stresses al Parkfield, California, produced by the M 7.4 Landers earthquake of June 28, 1992: implications for the time-dependence of fault friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Fletcher

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available he M 7.4 Landers earthquake triggered widespread seismicity in the Western U.S. Because the transient dynamic stresses induced at regional distances by the Landers surface waves are much larger than the expected static stresses, the magnitude and the characteristics of the dynamic stresses may bear upon the earthquake triggering mechanism. The Landers earthquake was recorded on the UPSAR array, a group of 14 triaxial accelerometers located within a 1-square-km region 10 km southwest of the town of Parkfield, California, 412 km northwest of the Landers epicenter. We used a standard geodetic inversion procedure to determine the surface strain and stress tensors as functions of time from the observed dynamic displacements. Peak dynamic strains and stresses at the Earth's surface are about 7 microstrain and 0.035 MPa, respectively, and they have a flat amplitude spectrum between 2 s and 15 s period. These stresses agree well with stresses predicted from a simple rule of thumb based upon the ground velocity spectrum observed at a single station. Peak stresses ranged from about 0.035 MPa at the surface to about 0.12 MPa between 2 and 14 km depth, with the sharp increase of stress away from the surface resulting from the rapid increase of rigidity with depth and from the influence of surface wave mode shapes. Comparison of Landers-induced static and dynamic stresses at the hypocenter of the Big Bear aftershock provides a clear example that faults are stronger on time scales of tens of seconds than on time scales of hours or longer.

  20. Shallow deformation of the San Andreas fault 5 years following the 2004 Parkfield earthquake (Mw6) combining ERS2 and Envisat InSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacques, Guillaume; de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; Aochi, Hideo; Rolandone, Frédérique

    2018-04-16

    This study focuses on the shallow deformation that occurred during the 5 years following the Parkfield earthquake (28/09/2004, Mw 6, San Andreas Fault, California). We use Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR) to provide precise measurements of transient deformations after the Parkfield earthquake between 2005 and 2010. We propose a method to combine both ERS2 and ENVISAT interferograms to increase the temporal data sampling. Firstly, we combine 5 years of available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) acquisitions including both ERS-2 and Envisat. Secondly, we stack selected interferograms (both from ERS2 and Envisat) for measuring the temporal evolution of the ground velocities at given time intervals. Thanks to its high spatial resolution, InSAR could provide new insights on the surface fault motion behavior over the 5 years following the Parkfield earthquake. As a complement to previous studies in this area, our results suggest that shallow transient deformations affected the Creeping-Parkfield-Cholame sections of the San Andreas Fault after the 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake.

  1. The effect of venous pulsation on the forehead pulse oximeter wave form as a possible source of error in Spo2 calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Kirk H; Tamai, Doris; Jablonka, Denis; Gesquiere, Michael; Stout, Robert G; Silverman, David G

    2005-03-01

    Reflective forehead pulse oximeter sensors have recently been introduced into clinical practice. They reportedly have the advantage of faster response times and immunity to the effects of vasoconstriction. Of concern are reports of signal instability and erroneously low Spo(2) values with some of these new sensors. During a study of the plethysmographic wave forms from various sites (finger, ear, and forehead) it was noted that in some cases the forehead wave form became unexpectedly complex in configuration. The plethysmographic signals from 25 general anesthetic cases were obtained, which revealed the complex forehead wave form during 5 cases. We hypothesized that the complex wave form was attributable to an underlying venous signal. It was determined that the use of a pressure dressing over the sensor resulted in a return of a normal plethysmographic wave form. Further examination of the complex forehead wave form reveal a morphology consistent with a central venous trace with atrial, cuspidal, and venous waves. It is speculated that the presence of the venous signal is the source of the problems reported with the forehead sensors. It is believed that the venous wave form is a result of the method of attachment rather than the use of reflective plethysmographic sensors.

  2. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  3. Expansion of X-ray form factor for close shell using uncorrelated wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Robayi, Enas M. [Babylon University , College of Science for Women, laser Physics Department, Hilla (Iraq)

    2013-12-16

    The atomic scattering factor has been studied for Be+ve, and B+2ve ions using the uncorrelated wave function (Hartree-Fock (HF)) for inter particle electronic shells. The physical importance of this factor appears in its relation to several important atomic properties as, the coherent scattering intensity, the total scattering intensity, the incoherent scattering function, the coherent scattering cross section, the total incoherent cross section, the nuclear magnetic shielding constant, the geometrical structure factor. Also there is one atomic properties the one particle radial density distribution function D(r)has been studied using the partitioning technique.

  4. High-order upwind schemes for the wave equation on overlapping grids: Maxwell's equations in second-order form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jordan B.; Banks, Jeffrey W.; Henshaw, William D.

    2018-01-01

    High-order accurate upwind approximations for the wave equation in second-order form on overlapping grids are developed. Although upwind schemes are well established for first-order hyperbolic systems, it was only recently shown by Banks and Henshaw [1] how upwinding could be incorporated into the second-order form of the wave equation. This new upwind approach is extended here to solve the time-domain Maxwell's equations in second-order form; schemes of arbitrary order of accuracy are formulated for general curvilinear grids. Taylor time-stepping is used to develop single-step space-time schemes, and the upwind dissipation is incorporated by embedding the exact solution of a local Riemann problem into the discretization. Second-order and fourth-order accurate schemes are implemented for problems in two and three space dimensions, and overlapping grids are used to treat complex geometry and problems with multiple materials. Stability analysis of the upwind-scheme on overlapping grids is performed using normal mode theory. The stability analysis and computations confirm that the upwind scheme remains stable on overlapping grids, including the difficult case of thin boundary grids when the traditional non-dissipative scheme becomes unstable. The accuracy properties of the scheme are carefully evaluated on a series of classical scattering problems for both perfect conductors and dielectric materials in two and three space dimensions. The upwind scheme is shown to be robust and provide high-order accuracy.

  5. Planar undulator motion excited by a fixed traveling wave. Quasiperiodic averaging normal forms and the FEL pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics; Vogt, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Gooden, Matthew [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-15

    We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the X-Ray FEL regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions, and we examine this dynamical system as the wave length {lambda} of the traveling wave varies. By scalings and transformations the 6D system is reduced, without approximation, to a 2D system in a form for a rigorous asymptotic analysis using the Method of Averaging (MoA), a long time perturbation theory. The two dependent variables are a scaled energy deviation and a generalization of the so- called ponderomotive phase. As {lambda} varies the system passes through resonant and nonresonant (NR) zones and we develop NR and near-to-resonant (NtoR) MoA normal form approximations. The NtoR normal forms contain a parameter which measures the distance from a resonance. For a special initial condition, for the planar motion and on resonance, the NtoR normal form reduces to the well known FEL pendulum system. We then state and prove NR and NtoR first-order averaging theorems which give explicit error bounds for the normal form approximations. We prove the theorems in great detail, giving the interested reader a tutorial on mathematically rigorous perturbation theory in a context where the proofs are easily understood. The proofs are novel in that they do not use a near identity transformation and they use a system of differential inequalities. The NR case is an example of quasiperiodic averaging where the small divisor problem enters in the simplest possible way. To our knowledge the planar prob- lem has not been analyzed with the generality we aspire to here nor has the standard FEL pendulum system been derived with associated error bounds as we do here. We briefly discuss the low gain theory in light of our NtoR normal form. Our mathematical treatment of the noncollective FEL beam dynamics problem in

  6. Planar undulator motion excited by a fixed traveling wave. Quasiperiodic averaging normal forms and the FEL pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus; Gooden, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the X-Ray FEL regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions, and we examine this dynamical system as the wave length λ of the traveling wave varies. By scalings and transformations the 6D system is reduced, without approximation, to a 2D system in a form for a rigorous asymptotic analysis using the Method of Averaging (MoA), a long time perturbation theory. The two dependent variables are a scaled energy deviation and a generalization of the so- called ponderomotive phase. As λ varies the system passes through resonant and nonresonant (NR) zones and we develop NR and near-to-resonant (NtoR) MoA normal form approximations. The NtoR normal forms contain a parameter which measures the distance from a resonance. For a special initial condition, for the planar motion and on resonance, the NtoR normal form reduces to the well known FEL pendulum system. We then state and prove NR and NtoR first-order averaging theorems which give explicit error bounds for the normal form approximations. We prove the theorems in great detail, giving the interested reader a tutorial on mathematically rigorous perturbation theory in a context where the proofs are easily understood. The proofs are novel in that they do not use a near identity transformation and they use a system of differential inequalities. The NR case is an example of quasiperiodic averaging where the small divisor problem enters in the simplest possible way. To our knowledge the planar prob- lem has not been analyzed with the generality we aspire to here nor has the standard FEL pendulum system been derived with associated error bounds as we do here. We briefly discuss the low gain theory in light of our NtoR normal form. Our mathematical treatment of the noncollective FEL beam dynamics problem in the

  7. Constraints on Dynamic Triggering from very Short term Microearthquake Aftershocks at Parkfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero, J.; Rubin, A.

    2004-12-01

    The study of microearthquakes helps bridge the gap between laboratory experiments and data from large earthquakes, the two disparate scales that have contributed so far to our understanding of earthquake physics. Although they are frequent, microearthquakes are difficult to analyse. Applying high precision relocation techniques, Rubin and Gillard (2000) observed a pronounced asymmetry in the spatial distribution of the earliest and nearest aftershocks of microearthquakes along the San Andreas fault (they occur more often to the NW of the mainshock). It was suggested that this could be related to the velocity contrast across the fault. Preferred directivity of dynamic rupture pulses running along a bimaterial interface (to the SE in the case of the SAF) is expected on theoretical grounds. Our numerical simulations of crack-like rupture on such interfaces show a pronounced asymmetry of the stress histories beyond the rupture ends, and suggest two possible mechanisms for the observed asymmetry: First, that it results from an asymmmetry in the static stress field following arrest of the mainshock (closer to failure to the NW), or second, that it is due to a short-duration tensile pulse that propagates to the SE, which could reduce the number of aftershocks to the SE by dynamic triggering of any nucleation site close enough to failure to have otherwise produced an aftershock. To distinguish betwen these mechanisms we need observations of dynamic triggering in microseismicity. For small events triggered at a distance of some mainshock radii, triggering time scales are so short that seismograms of both events overlap. To detect the occurrence of compound events and very short term aftershocks in the HRSN Parkfield archived waveforms we have developed an automated search algorithm based on empirical Green's function (EGF) deconvolution. Optimal EGFs are first selected by the coherency of the cross-component convolution with respect to the target event. Then Landweber

  8. Preliminary analysis of strong-motion recordings from the 28 September 2004 Parkfield, California earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakal, A.; Graizer, V.; Huang, M.; Borcherdt, R.; Haddadi, H.; Lin, K.-W.; Stephens, C.; Roffers, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Parkfield 2004 earthquake yielded the most extensive set of strong-motion data in the near-source region of a magnitude 6 earthquake yet obtained. The recordings of acceleration and volumetric strain provide an unprecedented document of the near-source seismic radiation for a moderate earthquake. The spatial density of the measurements alon g the fault zone and in the linear arrays perpendicular to the fault is expected to provide an exceptional opportunity to develop improved models of the rupture process. The closely spaced measurements should help infer the temporal and spatial distribution of the rupture process at much higher resolution than previously possible. Preliminary analyses of the peak a cceleration data presented herein shows that the motions vary significantly along the rupture zone, from 0.13 g to more than 2.5 g, with a map of the values showing that the larger values are concentrated in three areas. Particle motions at the near-fault stations are consistent with bilateral rupture. Fault-normal pulses similar to those observed in recent strike-slip earthquakes are apparent at several of the stations. The attenuation of peak ground acceleration with distance is more rapid than that indicated by some standard relationships but adequately fits others. Evidence for directivity in the peak acceleration data is not strong. Several stations very near, or over, the rupturing fault recorded relatively low accelerations. These recordings may provide a quantitative basis to understand observations of low near-fault shaking damage that has been reported in other large strike-slip earthquak.

  9. Breaking the wave. The contested legitimation of an alien organizational form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delmestri, G.; Wezel, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Organizational forms imbued with values of modernity – that is, rationality, efficiency and equity – diffuse rapidly around the world. Nonetheless, when sustained by beliefs, norms and regulations contrasting with those prevalent in the receiving country, their adoption may be delayed, and

  10. Development of millimeter-wave accelerating structures using precision metal forming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-03

    High gradients in radio-frequency (RF) driven accelerators require short wavelengths that have the concomitant requirements of small feature size and high tolerances, 1-2 {micro}m for millimeter wavelengths. Precision metal-forming stampling has the promise of meeting those tolerances with high production rates. This STI will evaluate that promise.

  11. Calculation of scalar products of wave functions and form factors in the framework of the algebraic Bethe ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Bethe ansatz method is widely used to investigate two-dimensional completely integrable models. In the framework of the quantum inverse scattering method it has proved to be possible to construct an algebraic scheme of the Bethe ansatz, and this has been successfully applied to calculation of correlation functions. One of the important questions of the method is that of the scalar products of the wave functions. In particular, knowledge of the properties of the scalar products is necessary for investigating the form factors and correlation function. In the present paper the author considers a generalized model with R matrix of the model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The main formulas and notation are given in Sec. 2. In Sec. 3 he calculates the scalar product of an arbitrary function and an eigenfunction of the Hamiltonian. The generalized two-site model is introduced in Sec. 4. In Sec. 5 he calculates the form factor of the particle number operator

  12. Shock wave energy dissipation behavior (SWED) in Network forming ionic liquids (NILs): A Molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guda Vishnu, Karthik; Strachan, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    SWED materials play a crucial role in protecting both personnel and structures in close proximity to blasts or ballistic impact. Exposure to shock waves with intensities as low as 1 MPa can cause brain injury in personnel and, hence, it is extremely important to understand the mechanisms operating in SWED materials and help design improved formulations. Recent experimental studies show that NILs containing di-ammonium cations and citrate anions with glass transition temperatures (Tg) below room temperature exhibit shockwave absorption characteristics that outperform polyurea (PU), a benchmark SWED assessment material. The experimentalists further hypothesized that the increased SWED ability in NILs with longer side chains (in di-ammonium cation) is due to a permanent structural ordering and nano-scale segregation. We use molecular dynamics simulations with the Dreiding force field to study shock propagation mechanisms in NILs. Shock propagation mechanisms in these materials are explored by performing both Hugoniostat and large scale non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations at 300 K. The simulation results show that the NIL 5-6 (5 C atoms (back bone) and 6 C atoms (side chain)) attenuates shocks better than NIL 5-3 (3 C atoms (side chain) and higher Tg) and PMMA in agreement with experimental observation. The simulations show that under shock loading the structures lose long range order; we find no evidence of nano-segregation nor or permanent structural changes.

  13. Wave functions, evolution equations and evolution kernels form light-ray operators of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Robaschik, D.; Geyer, B.; Dittes, F.M.; Horejsi, J.

    1994-01-01

    The widely used nonperturbative wave functions and distribution functions of QCD are determined as matrix elements of light-ray operators. These operators appear as large momentum limit of non-local hardron operators or as summed up local operators in light-cone expansions. Nonforward one-particle matrix elements of such operators lead to new distribution amplitudes describing both hadrons simultaneously. These distribution functions depend besides other variables on two scaling variables. They are applied for the description of exclusive virtual Compton scattering in the Bjorken region near forward direction and the two meson production process. The evolution equations for these distribution amplitudes are derived on the basis of the renormalization group equation of the considered operators. This includes that also the evolution kernels follow from the anomalous dimensions of these operators. Relations between different evolution kernels (especially the Altarelli-Parisi and the Brodsky-Lepage kernels) are derived and explicitly checked for the existing two-loop calculations of QCD. Technical basis of these resluts are support and analytically properties of the anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators obtained with the help of the α-representation of Green's functions. (orig.)

  14. Tremor reveals stress shadowing, deep postseismic creep, and depth-dependent slip recurrence on the lower-crustal San Andreas fault near Parkfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Johnson, Kaj M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2003 magnitude 6.5 San Simeon and the 2004 magnitude 6.0 Parkfield earthquakes induced small, but significant, static stress changes in the lower crust on the central San Andreas fault, where recently detected tectonic tremor sources provide new constraints on deep fault creep processes. We find that these earthquakes affect tremor rates very differently, consistent with their differing transferred static shear stresses. The San Simeon event appears to have cast a "stress shadow" north of Parkfield, where tremor activity was stifled for 3-6 weeks. In contrast, the 2004 Parkfield earthquake dramatically increased tremor activity rates both north and south of Parkfield, allowing us to track deep postseismic slip. Following this event, rates initially increased by up to two orders of magnitude for the relatively shallow tremor sources closest to the rupture, with activity in some sources persisting above background rates for more than a year. We also observe strong depth dependence in tremor recurrence patterns, with shallower sources generally exhibiting larger, less-frequent bursts, possibly signaling a transition toward steady creep with increasing temperature and depth. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Seismicity Precursors of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-03-09

    The M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietastrike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were preceded byseismicity peaks occurring several months prior to the main events.Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded fromthe analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather thanstress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpretedas a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust,whereas the peaks and the subsequent decrease in seismicity areattributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in bothcases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surroundsthe epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicityin the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development ofa low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursoryinformation that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. TheGutenberg-Richter relationship (GRR) should allow extrapolation ofseismicity changes down to seismic noise level magnitudes. Thishypothesis is verified by comparison of seismic noise at 80 Hz with theParkfield M4 1993-1994 series, where noise peaks 5 months before theseries to about twice the background level.

  16. Aftershock distribution as a constraint on the geodetic model of coseismic slip for the 2004 Parkfield earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa; Thurber, Clifford; Feigl, Kurt; ,

    2011-01-01

    Several studies of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake have linked the spatial distribution of the event’s aftershocks to the mainshock slip distribution on the fault. Using geodetic data, we find a model of coseismic slip for the 2004 Parkfield earthquake with the constraint that the edges of coseismic slip patches align with aftershocks. The constraint is applied by encouraging the curvature of coseismic slip in each model cell to be equal to the negative of the curvature of seismicity density. The large patch of peak slip about 15 km northwest of the 2004 hypocenter found in the curvature-constrained model is in good agreement in location and amplitude with previous geodetic studies and the majority of strong motion studies. The curvature-constrained solution shows slip primarily between aftershock “streaks” with the continuation of moderate levels of slip to the southeast. These observations are in good agreement with strong motion studies, but inconsistent with the majority of published geodetic slip models. Southeast of the 2004 hypocenter, a patch of peak slip observed in strong motion studies is absent from our curvature-constrained model, but the available GPS data do not resolve slip in this region. We conclude that the geodetic slip model constrained by the aftershock distribution fits the geodetic data quite well and that inconsistencies between models derived from seismic and geodetic data can be attributed largely to resolution issues.

  17. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J, E-mail: james.friend@monash.edu.au [MicroNanophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia); Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity ({approx}<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  18. Extensional flow of low-viscosity fluids in capillary bridges formed by pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, P K; McDonnell, A G; Prabhakar, R; Yeo, L Y; Friend, J

    2011-01-01

    Forming capillary bridges of low-viscosity (∼<10 mPa s) fluids is difficult, making the study of their capillary-thinning behavior and the measurement of the fluid's extensional viscosity difficult as well. Current techniques require some time to form a liquid bridge from the stretching of a droplet. Rapidly stretching a liquid bridge using these methods can cause its breakup if the viscosity is too low. Stretching more slowly allows the bridge to thin and break up before a suitable bridge geometry can be established to provide reliable and accurate rheological data. Using a pulsed surface acoustic wave to eject a jet from a sessile droplet, a capillary bridge may be formed in about 7.5 ms, about seven times quicker than current methods. With this approach, capillary bridges may be formed from Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids having much lower viscosities-water, 0.04% by weight solution of high-molecular-weight (7 MDa) polystyrene in dioctyl phthalate and 0.25% fibrinogen solution in demineralized water, for example. Details of the relatively simple system used to achieve these results are provided, as are experimental results indicating deviations from a Newtonian response by the low-viscosity non-Newtonian fluids used in our study.

  19. Electronic structure of SnF{sub 3}: An example of valence skipper which forms charge density wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, I., E-mail: i.hase@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Yanagisawa, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Kawashima, K. [IMRA Material R& D Co., LTD., Kariya, Aichi 448-0032 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We calculated the electronic structure of SnF{sub 3} and BaBiO{sub 3} from first principles. • As for SnF{sub 3}, charge-density-wave (CDW) is found, which agrees with the experiment. • As for BaBiO{sub 3}, CDW is not found, contrary to the experiment. • We conclude that the CDW is hard in SnF{sub 3} and is soft in BaBiO{sub 3}. - Abstract: In the present study we calculated the electronic structure of the valence skipping compound SnF{sub 3} and BaBiO{sub 3} from first-principles. We confirmed that the charge-density-wave (CDW) is formed in SnF{sub 3}, and the Sn atoms in two crystallographic different sites take the valence Sn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+}. Structure optimization study reveals that this CDW is stable, though the atomic position is slightly different from the experimental data. This behavior is in contrast with the case of BaBiO{sub 3}, where the structure optimization leads to the uniform state, which means that two Bi sites are equivalent. The CDW state is hard in SnF{sub 3}, which means that the CDW gap is large enough and it is difficult to melt this CDW order.

  20. The Swift/UVOT catalogue of NGC 4321 star-forming sources: a case against density wave theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Cropper, Mark; Kawata, Daisuke; Page, Mat; Hoversten, Erik A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the star-forming regions in the spiral galaxy NGC 4321 (M100). We take advantage of the spatial resolution (2.5 arcsec full width at half-maximum) of the Swift/Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope camera and the availability of three ultraviolet (UV) passbands in the region 1600 spiral arms. The Hα luminosities of the sources have a strong decreasing radial trend, suggesting more massive star-forming regions in the central part of the galaxy. When segregated with respect to near-UV (NUV)-optical colour, blue sources have a significant excess of flux in the IR at 8 μm, revealing the contribution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, although the overall reddening of these sources stays below E(B - V) = 0.2 mag. The distribution of distances to the spiral arms is compared for subsamples selected according to Hα luminosity, NUV-optical colour or ages derived from a population synthesis model. An offset would be expected between these subsamples as a function of radius if the pattern speed of the spiral arm were constant - as predicted by classic density wave theory. No significant offsets are found, favouring instead a mechanism where the pattern speed has a radial dependence.

  1. Acoustic Emission Precursors of M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri

    2005-02-01

    Two recent strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault(SAF) in California, the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietaevents, revealed peaks in the acoustic emission (AE) activity in thesurrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakesdirectly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from theanalysis. The observed increase in AE is assumed to be a signature of theincreasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak andsubsequent decrease in AE starting several months prior to the mainevents is attributed to damage-induced softening processes as discussedherein. Further, distinctive zones of low seismic activity surroundingthe epicentral regions in the pre-event time period are present for thetwo studied events. Both AE increases in the crust surrounding apotential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentralzone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could helpsignal the arrival of large earthquakes.

  2. Coincidence of features of emitted THz electromagnetic wave power form a single Josephson junction and different current components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdipour, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    By applying a voltage to a Josephson junction, the charge in superconducting layers (S-layers) will oscillate. Wavelength of the charge oscillations in S-layers is related to external current in junction, by increasing the external current, the wavelength will decrease which cause in some currents the wavelength be incommensurate with width of junction, so the CVC shows Fiske like steps. External current throwing along junction has some components, resistive, capacitive and superconducting current, beside these currents there is a current in lateral direction of junction, (x direction). On the other hand, the emitted electromagnetic wave power in THz region is related to AC component of electric field in junction, which itself is related to charge density in S-layers, which is related to currents in the system. So we expect that features of variation of current components reflect the features of emitted THz power form junction. Here we study in detail the superconductive current in a long Josephson junction (JJ), the current voltage characteristics (CVC) of junction and emitted THz power from the system. Then we compare the results. Comparing the results we see that there is a good qualitative coincidence in features of emitted THz power and supercurrent in junction.

  3. Estimation of the Effect of Green Water and Bow Flare Slamming on the Wave-Induced Vertical Bending Moment Using Closed-Form Ex-pressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    (1993) and for green water loads the results from Buchner (1995) and Wang et al .(1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions...

  4. Use of the reciprocity theorem for a closed form solution of scattering of the lowest axially symmetric torsional wave mode by a defect in a pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaesun; Achenbach, Jan D; Cho, Younho

    2018-03-01

    Guided waves can effectively be used for inspection of large scale structures. Surface corrosion is often found as major defect type in large scale structures such as pipelines. Guided wave interaction with surface corrosion can provide useful information for sizing and classification. In this paper, the elastodynamic reciprocity theorem is used to formulate and solve complicated scattering problems in a simple manner. The approach has already been applied to scattering of Rayleigh and Lamb waves by defects to produce closed form solutions of amplitude of scattered waves. In this paper, the scattering of the lowest axially symmetric torsional mode, which is widely used in commercial applications, is analyzed by the reciprocity theorem. In the present paper, the theorem is used to determine the scattering of the lowest torsional mode by a tapered defect that was earlier considered experimentally and numerically by the finite element method. It is shown that by the presented method it is simple to obtain the ratio of amplitudes of scattered torsional modes for a tapered notch. The results show a good agreement with earlier numerical results. The wave field superposition technique in conjunction with the reciprocity theorem simplifies the solution of the scattering problem to yield a closed form solution which can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tidal triggering of low frequency earthquakes near Parkfield, California: Implications for fault mechanics within the brittle-ductile transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.M.; Burgmann, R.; Shelly, David R.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Rudolph, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of nonvolcanic tremor (NVT) have established the significant impact of small stress perturbations on NVT generation. Here we analyze the influence of the solid earth and ocean tides on a catalog of ∼550,000 low frequency earthquakes (LFEs) distributed along a 150 km section of the San Andreas Fault centered at Parkfield. LFE families are identified in the NVT data on the basis of waveform similarity and are thought to represent small, effectively co-located earthquakes occurring on brittle asperities on an otherwise aseismic fault at depths of 16 to 30 km. We calculate the sensitivity of each of these 88 LFE families to the tidally induced right-lateral shear stress (RLSS), fault-normal stress (FNS), and their time derivatives and use the hypocentral locations of each family to map the spatial variability of this sensitivity. LFE occurrence is most strongly modulated by fluctuations in shear stress, with the majority of families demonstrating a correlation with RLSS at the 99% confidence level or above. Producing the observed LFE rate modulation in response to shear stress perturbations requires low effective stress in the LFE source region. There are substantial lateral and vertical variations in tidal shear stress sensitivity, which we interpret to reflect spatial variation in source region properties, such as friction and pore fluid pressure. Additionally, we find that highly episodic, shallow LFE families are generally less correlated with tidal stresses than their deeper, continuously active counterparts. The majority of families have weaker or insignificant correlation with positive (tensile) FNS. Two groups of families demonstrate a stronger correlation with fault-normal tension to the north and with compression to the south of Parkfield. The families that correlate with fault-normal clamping coincide with a releasing right bend in the surface fault trace and the LFE locations, suggesting that the San Andreas remains localized and contiguous down

  6. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J

    , steep nonsymmetric cnoidal waves, solitons and random waves. They have different properties too. Any wave form has a wave period (T), wave height (H) and speed (C) which depends on T. Still another type of waves are breaking waves near a coast...

  7. Diagnosis of asbestosis by a time expanded wave form analysis, auscultation and high resolution computed tomography: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Jarad, N; Strickland, B; Bothamley, G; Lock, S; Logan-Sinclair, R; Rudd, R M

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Crackles are a prominent clinical feature of asbestosis and may be an early sign of the condition. Auscultation, however, is subjective and interexaminer disagreement is a problem. Computerised lung sound analysis can visualise, store, and analyse lung sounds and disagreement on the presence of crackles is minimal. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is superior to chest radiography in detecting early signs of asbestosis. The aim of this study was to compare clinical auscultation, time expanded wave form analysis (TEW), chest radiography, and HRCT in detecting signs of asbestosis in asbestos workers. METHODS--Fifty three asbestos workers (51 men and two women) were investigated. Chest radiography and HRCT were assessed by two independent readers for detection of interstitial opacities. HRCT was performed in the supine position with additional sections at the bases in the prone position. Auscultation for persistent fine inspiratory crackles was performed by two independent examiners unacquainted with the diagnosis. TEW analysis was obtained from a 33 second recording of lung sounds over the lung bases. TEW and auscultation were performed in a control group of 13 subjects who had a normal chest radiograph. There were 10 current smokers and three previous smokers. In asbestos workers the extent of pulmonary opacities on the chest radiograph was scored according to the International Labour Office (ILO) scale. Patients were divided into two groups: 21 patients in whom the chest radiograph was > 1/0 (group 1) and 32 patients in whom the chest radiograph was scored auscultation in seven (22%) patients and by TEW in 14 (44%). HRCT detected definite interstitial opacities in 11 (34%) and gravity dependent subpleural lines in two (6%) patients. All but two patients with evidence of interstitial disease or gravity dependent subpleural lines on HRCT had crackles detected by TEW. In patients with an ILO score of > 1/0 auscultation and TEW revealed mid to late

  8. Effects of heat and mass transfer on peristaltic flow of a Bingham fluid in the presence of inclined magnetic field and channel with different wave forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Safia; Nadeem, S.; Hussain, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    In the present analysis we discussed the influence of heat and mass transfer on the peristaltic flow of a Bingham in an inclined magnetic field and channel with different wave forms. The governing two dimensional equations of momentum, heat and mass transfer are simplified under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. The exact solutions of momentum, heat and mass transfer are calculated. Finally, graphical behaviors of various physical parameters are also discussed through the graphical behavior of pressure rise, pressure gradient, temperature concentration and stream functions. - Highlights: • Combine effects of heat and mass transfer on peristaltic flow problem is discussed. • Effects of inclined magnetic field and channel on new fluid model are discussed. • Effects of different wave forms are also discussed in the present flow problem

  9. An absorptive single-pole four-throw switch using multiple-contact MEMS switches and its application to a monolithic millimeter-wave beam-forming network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sanghyo; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Kwon, Youngwoo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new absorptive single-pole four-throw (SP4T) switch based on multiple-contact switching is proposed and integrated with a Butler matrix to demonstrate a monolithic beam-forming network at millimeter waves (mm waves). In order to simplify the switching driving circuit and reduce the number of unit switches in an absorptive SP4T switch, the individual switches were replaced with long-span multiple-contact switches using stress-free single-crystalline-silicon MEMS technology. This approach improves the mechanical stability as well as the manufacturing yield, thereby allowing successful integration into a monolithic beam former. The fabricated absorptive SP4T MEMS switch shows insertion loss less than 1.3 dB, return losses better than 11 dB at 30 GHz and wideband isolation performance higher than 39 dB from 20 to 40 GHz. The absorptive SP4T MEMS switch is integrated with a 4 × 4 Butler matrix on a single chip to implement a monolithic beam-forming network, directing beam into four distinct angles. Array factors from the measured data show that the proposed absorptive SPnT MEMS switch can be effectively used for high-performance mm-wave beam-switching systems. This work corresponds to the first demonstration of a monolithic beam-forming network using switched beams

  10. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  11. Global smooth solutions of 3-D null-form wave equations in exterior domains with Neumann boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Li; Huicheng, Yin

    2018-05-01

    The paper is devoted to investigating long time behavior of smooth small data solutions to 3-D quasilinear wave equations outside of compact convex obstacles with Neumann boundary conditions. Concretely speaking, when the surface of a 3-D compact convex obstacle is smooth and the quasilinear wave equation fulfills the null condition, we prove that the smooth small data solution exists globally provided that the Neumann boundary condition on the exterior domain is given. One of the main ingredients in the current paper is the establishment of local energy decay estimates of the solution itself. As an application of the main result, the global stability to 3-D static compressible Chaplygin gases in exterior domain is shown under the initial irrotational perturbation with small amplitude.

  12. Improving attenuation tomography by novel inversions for t* and Q: application to Parkfield, California and Okmok volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesicek, J. D.; Bennington, N. L.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Standard methods for mapping variations in seismic attenuation (Q) structure using local earthquake data involve a two-step process. First, values of the whole path attenuation operator t* are determined from earthquake data recorded on a seismic array by inverting observed spectra for source and attenuation parameters. Then, these t* data are used to invert tomographically for frequency-independent Q models. The observed earthquake amplitude spectra depend on both source parameters and site effects. However, quantification of site effects is often neglected. Bennington et al. [2008] determined site response jointly with source parameters for small groups of events and then computed each station's site response as the average over all groups. Building on this work, we have adapted the method to model all events simultaneously to more accurately determine site response from the earthquake spectra. This in turn allows us to more accurately determine t*. However, resolution analysis of the results shows that some parameters are not well resolved in the joint inversion. Thus, an alternating inversion scheme is tested and adapted to alleviate poor resolution and parameter trade-offs. The new scheme produces better fits to the earthquake spectra than previous methods, and the resulting t* data should allow for more accurate determination of the Q structure. Because the equation relating t* to Q is nonlinear, the typical approach to determining Q is to solve for changes to a starting model iteratively, similar to methods commonly used in travel time tomography. However, if we instead solve for the inverse of Q, the equation becomes linear and the solution no longer depends on the starting model. This simple modification may allow us to more accurately determine Q. We test these new t* and Q methods using earthquake data from Parkfield, California and Okmok volcano, Alaska. We present the results for real and synthetic data and compare and contrast these results to more

  13. Relating seismicity to the velocity structure of the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippoldt, Rachel; Porritt, Robert W.; Sammis, Charles G.

    2017-06-01

    The central section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) displays a range of seismic phenomena including normal earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes (LFE), repeating microearthquakes (REQ) and aseismic creep. Although many lines of evidence suggest that LFEs are tied to the presence of fluids, their geological setting is still poorly understood. Here, we map the seismic velocity structures associated with LFEs beneath the central SAF using surface wave tomography from ambient seismic noise to provide constraints on the physical conditions that control LFE occurrence. Fault perpendicular sections show that the SAF, as revealed by lateral contrasts in relative velocities, is contiguous to depths of 50 km and appears to be relatively localized at depths between about 15 and 30 km. This is consistent with the hypothesis that LFEs are shear-slip events on a deep extension of the SAF. We find that along strike variations in seismic behaviour correspond to changes in the seismic structure, which support proposed connections between fluids and seismicity. LFEs and REQs occur within low-velocity structures, suggesting that the presence of fluids, weaker minerals, or hydrous phase minerals may play an important role in the generation of slow-slip phenomena.

  14. Continuous borehole strain and pore pressure in the near field of the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield, California, earthquake: Implications for nucleation, fault response, earthquake prediction and tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Linde, A.T.; Gladwin, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Near-field observations of high-precision borehole strain and pore pressure, show no indication of coherent accelerating strain or pore pressure during the weeks to seconds before the 28 September 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake. Minor changes in strain rate did occur at a few sites during the last 24 hr before the earthquake but these changes are neither significant nor have the form expected for strain during slip coalescence initiating fault failure. Seconds before the event, strain is stable at the 10-11 level. Final prerupture nucleation slip in the hypocentral region is constrained to have a moment less than 2 ?? 1012 N m (M 2.2) and a source size less than 30 m. Ground displacement data indicate similar constraints. Localized rupture nucleation and runaway precludes useful prediction of damaging earthquakes. Coseismic dynamic strains of about 10 microstrain peak-to-peak were superimposed on volumetric strain offsets of about 0.5 microstrain to the northwest of the epicenter and about 0.2 microstrain to the southeast of the epicenter, consistent with right lateral slip. Observed strain and Global Positioning System (GPS) offsets can be simply fit with 20 cm of slip between 4 and 10 km on a 20-km segment of the fault north of Gold Hill (M0 = 7 ?? 1017 N m). Variable slip inversion models using GPS data and seismic data indicate similar moments. Observed postseismic strain is 60% to 300% of the coseismic strain, indicating incomplete release of accumulated strain. No measurable change in fault zone compliance preceding or following the earthquake is indicated by stable earth tidal response. No indications of strain change accompany nonvolcanic tremor events reported prior to and following the earthquake.

  15. Evaluation of hypotheses for right-lateral displacement of Neogene strata along the San Andreas Fault between Parkfield and Maricopa, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Barron, John A.; Powell, Charles L.

    2017-12-22

    We used geological field studies and diatom biostratigraphy to test a published hypothesis that Neogene marine siliceous strata in the Maricopa and Parkfield areas, located on opposite sides of the San Andreas Fault, were formerly contiguous and then were displaced by about 80–130 kilometers (km) of right-lateral slip along the fault. In the Maricopa area on the northeast side of the San Andreas Fault, the upper Miocene Bitterwater Creek Shale consists of hard, siliceous shale with dolomitic concretions and turbidite sandstone interbeds. Diatom assemblages indicate that the Bitterwater Creek Shale was deposited about 8.0–6.7 million years before present (Ma) at the same time as the uppermost part of the Monterey Formation in parts of coastal California. In the Parkfield area on the southwest side of the San Andreas Fault, the upper Miocene Pancho Rico Formation consists of soft to indurated mudstone and siltstone and fossiliferous, bioturbated sandstone. Diatom assemblages from the Pancho Rico indicate deposition about 6.7–5.7 Ma (latest Miocene), younger than the Bitterwater Creek Shale and at about the same time as parts of the Sisquoc Formation and Purisima Formation in coastal California. Our results show that the Bitterwater Creek Shale and Pancho Rico Formation are lithologically unlike and of different ages and therefore do not constitute a cross-fault tie that can be used to estimate rightlateral displacement along the San Andreas Fault.In the Maricopa area northeast of the San Andreas Fault, the Bitterwater Creek Shale overlies conglomeratic fan-delta deposits of the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation, which in turn overlie siliceous shale of the Miocene Monterey Formation from which we obtained a diatom assemblage dated at about 10.0–9.3 Ma. Previous investigations noted that the Santa Margarita Formation in the Maricopa area contains granitic and metamorphic clasts derived from sources in the northern Gabilan Range, on the opposite side of

  16. Long-term decline of the canopy-forming algae Gelidium corneum, associated to extreme wave events and reduced sunlight hours, in the southeastern Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Fontán, Almudena; Garmendia, Joxe Mikel; Uyarra, María C.

    2018-05-01

    Canopy-forming macroalgae are experiencing large biogeographical shifts due to climate change. One of them (Gelidium corneum) has shown a dramatic decline in biomass in northern Spain, in the past 20 years. We investigate here two most plausible hypotheses to explain its decline: (i) a combination of increasing wave energy and decrease of irradiance in the growth season; and (ii) a combination of increasing light in summer and decreasing nutrient concentration. Using a dataset of biomass and environmental variables (1993-2016), in three sectors and three water depths, we have determined that the variables explaining more biomass variability were: suspended solids, nitrate, sunlight hours, significant wave height threshold exceedances (Hs5m), temperature, silicate, and nitrite. When undertaking multiple regression analyses for the whole depth range, only the model including sunlight hours with Hs5m was selected, being highly significant (p algae from the substratum during the growth season. The decline rate in biomass with time, at each sector and depth, was highly correlated (p < 0.001) to the wave energy flux received at each depth, which was higher at 5 m in all sectors, decreasing with depth. In turn, nutrients, instead of decreasing, have increased, and only nitrate presented a significant negative correlation with G. corneum biomass, which was not significant after detrending. The significant (p = 0.001) increase in rainfall over the studied period can explain the increase of those nutrients. Hence, we question whether the effect of nutrients is such, as already described. The most likely factor explaining the decline of this macroalga was the combination of sunlight hours decrease and Hs5m increase.

  17. Study of the in-medium nucleon electromagnetic form factors using a light-front nucleon wave function combined with the quark-meson coupling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, W. R. B.; de Melo, J. P. B. C.; Tsushima, K.

    2018-02-01

    We study the nucleon electromagnetic (EM) form factors in symmetric nuclear matter as well as in vacuum within a light-front approach using the in-medium inputs calculated by the quark-meson coupling model. The same in-medium quark properties are used as those used for the study of in-medium pion properties. The zero of the proton EM form factor ratio in vacuum, the electric to magnetic form factor ratio μpGEp (Q2) /GMp (Q2) (Q2 = -q2 > 0 with q being the four-momentum transfer), is determined including the latest experimental data by implementing a hard constituent quark component in the nucleon wave function. A reasonable fit is achieved for the ratio μpGEp (Q2) /GMp (Q2) in vacuum, and we predict that the Q02 value to cross the zero of the ratio to be about 15 GeV2. In addition the double ratio data of the proton EM form factors in 4He and H nuclei, [GEp4He (Q2) /G4HeMp (Q2) ] / [GEp1H (Q2) /GMp1H (Q2) ], extracted by the polarized (e → ,e‧ p →) scattering experiment on 4He at JLab, are well described. We also predict that the Q02 value satisfying μpGEp (Q02) /GMp (Q0 2) = 0 in symmetric nuclear matter, shifts to a smaller value as increasing nuclear matter density, which reflects the facts that the faster falloff of GEp (Q2) as increasing Q2 and the increase of the proton mean-square charge radius. Furthermore, we calculate the neutron EM form factor double ratio in symmetric nuclear matter for 0.1 neutron double ratio is enhanced relative to that in vacuum, while for the proton it is quenched, and agrees with an existing theoretical prediction.

  18. Studies on waves and instabilities in a plasma sheath formed on the outer surface of a space craft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aria, Anil K.; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2008-01-01

    Using the normal mode analysis, the number of possible modes is obtained in a magnetized inhomogeneous plasma sheath formed during the motion of a space craft which consists of negative ions (due to dust) along with the positive ions and the isothermal electrons. In addition to three propagating modes with phase velocities λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 such that λ 1 2 3 , two types of instabilities with growth rates γ 1 and γ 2 also occur in such a plasma sheath. The growth rate γ 1 is increased with the negative to positive ion density ratio r 0 , ion temperature T, and obliqueness θ of the magnetic field B 0 . The growth rate γ 2 of the other instability gets lower with the density ratio r 0 but gets higher with the temperature T. The growth rate γ 2 is sensitive to the temperature T, whereas the growth rate γ 1 gets prominently changed with the density ratio r 0 . The increase in the growth rate γ 1 with the obliqueness θ is more pronounced under the effect of stronger magnetic field. On other hand, the phase velocity λ 1 shows weak dependence on r 0 and T (though it gets larger) but it gets significantly changed (increased) for the larger obliqueness θ. The phase velocity λ 2 gets larger with r 0 , B 0 , and θ and becomes lower for the higher temperature T. The phase velocity λ 3 is decreased for the higher values of r 0 and B 0 and is increased for the larger values of T and θ

  19. [Experimental study of brain lesions after combined coaxial exposure to high-peaked pulse wave form CO2 and Nd: YAG lasers on the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyumu, M; Verasques, G; Yamazaki, S; Kuroiwa, T; Suzuki, R; Takei, H; Suzuki, K; Inaba, Y

    1985-04-01

    The CO2 laser is useful for cutting and vaporization but not for coagulation and hemostasis. On the contrary, YAG laser is effective for coagulation and hemostasis but not for cutting. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the exposure of combined, coaxial CO2 and YAG laser on the animal brain to supplement the advantages and draw-backs of each other. To compare these results, each of non-combined pulse wave form CO2 and YAG lasers was employed separately. The lasers in this study were pulse wave form CO2 and YAG lasers, employed separately or simultaneously using 130 YZ of Nihon Infrared Industries Company. Japanese white rabbits were anesthetized with pentobarbital. Fronto-parietal burr holes were made, the dura was removed and then Evans blue solution was injected intravenously. The lasers were employed to the cerebral cortex without great vessels using a micromanipulator attached to the operative microscope with a distance of 30 cm. The spot size was 700 mu for CO2 laser and 1200 mu for YAG laser. The first experiment was to see the effect of nine combinations of simultaneous coaxial CO2 of 2, 4 and 8 watts and YAG lasers of 10, 20 and 40 watts, 1 sec on the brain. In the second experiment, also combining two lasers, the exposure time of YAG laser was elongated from 1 or 2 seconds into 2 or 4 seconds and the arrangement of powers was the same as that of the first experiment. The lesions were thus made in 18 different conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. 探析土家族摆手舞的舞蹈形态及风格特征%Analysis on Dance Forms and Style Features of Tujia Waving Dance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪茜

    2015-01-01

    Taking the fact that the name, form and content of Tujia Waving Dance were originated from religion, war and labor pro-ductivity as the breakthrough point, the author analyzes such two performance forms of Tujia Waving Dance as big-range waving and small-range waving, and then elaborates the style character-istics of Tujia Waving Dance, namely, originality, warfare, sacri-fice and aesthetics, and finally specifies the dance forms of Tujia Waving Dance, including bending knees, vibration, same side, vertical jump and waving, circular jump and waving. The aim of this paper is to promote the popularization of Tujia Waving Dance among more and more people.%笔者以土家族摆手舞的起名、形式、内容分别产生于宗教信仰、战争及劳动生产为切入点,解析了土家族摆手舞的大摆、小摆两种表演形式,进而对土家族摆手舞的原生性、战争性、祭祀性、审美性的风格特征进行了阐述,最后对土家族摆手舞的屈膝、颤动、顺拐、同边、直立跳摆及绕圈跳摆的舞蹈形态特征进行了剖析。以期推动土家族摆手舞被越来越多的人所认识。

  1. Attenuation of an optical wave propagating in a waveguide, formed by layers of a semiconductor heterostructure, owing to scattering on inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogatov, Alexandr P; Burmistrov, I S

    1999-01-01

    The scattering of an optical wave, propagating in a waveguide made up of layers of a semiconductor heterostructure, is analysed. The attenuation coefficient of the wave is found both for quasi-homogeneous single-crystal layers of a semiconductor solid solution and for layers containing quantum dots. (active media)

  2. Characterization and application of microearthquake clusters to problems of scaling, fault zone dynamics, and seismic monitoring at Parkfield, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, Robert Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains information about the characterization and application of microearthquake clusters and fault zone dynamics. Topics discussed include: Seismological studies; fault-zone dynamics; periodic recurrence; scaling of microearthquakes to large earthquakes; implications of fault mechanics and seismic hazards; and wave propagation and temporal changes.

  3. The experimental definition of the acoustic standing wave series shapes, formed in the coolant of the primary circuit of VVER-440 type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavin, V.V.; Pavelko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of pressure fluctuation measurements in some primary circuit loops at 2 nd Unit of Kola NPP with VVER-440 type reactors, the shapes of acoustic standing waves (ASW) were determined at frequencies corresponding to four minimal oscillation eigenfrequencies in the primary circuit coolant. On identification of the ASW modes and properties, experimental results based on six circulating loops in symmetric arrangement allowed determination of the three-dimensional space structure of the wave nodes and antinodes inside and outside of the reactor vessel (RV). As part of this analysis, the geometric features of the primary circuit that caused the formation of these standing waves were identified. Differences in each ASW shape were shown to cause different individual effects on the neutron field in the reactor core and on fuel assembly vibration. This has been partially confirmed by ex-core neutron ionization chamber noise analysis. One type of ASW, possessing an antinode inside the RV, can be used for measurement of the pressure coefficient of reactivity. However, this must be done with care to avoid the potential for incorrect results in some cases. The results presented in this paper can be readily extended to other VVER type reactors with both odd and even number of loops. (author)

  4. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  5. Joint innversion of seismic and magnetotelluric data in the Parkfield Region of California using the normalized cross-gradient constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa L.; Zhang, Haijiang; Thurber, Cliff; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    We present jointly inverted models of P-wave velocity (Vp) and electrical resistivity for a two-dimensional profile centered on the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). Significant structural similarity between main features of the separately inverted Vp and resistivity models is exploited by carrying out a joint inversion of the two datasets using the normalized cross-gradient constraint. This constraint favors structurally similar Vp and resistivity images that adequately fit the seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) datasets. The new inversion code, tomoDDMT, merges the seismic inversion code tomoDD and the forward modeling and sensitivity kernel subroutines of the MT inversion code OCCAM2DMT. TomoDDMT is tested on a synthetic dataset and demonstrates the code’s ability to more accurately resolve features of the input synthetic structure relative to the separately inverted resistivity and velocity models. Using tomoDDMT, we are able to resolve a number of key issues raised during drilling at SAFOD. We are able to infer the distribution of several geologic units including the Salinian granitoids, the Great Valley sequence, and the Franciscan Formation. The distribution and transport of fluids at both shallow and great depths is also examined. Low values of velocity/resistivity attributed to a feature known as the Eastern Conductor (EC) can be explained in two ways: the EC is a brine-filled, high porosity region, or this region is composed largely of clay-rich shales of the Franciscan. The Eastern Wall, which lies immediately adjacent to the EC, is unlikely to be a fluid pathway into the San Andreas Fault’s seismogenic zone due to its observed higher resistivity and velocity values.

  6. Deep rock damage in the San Andreas Fault revealed by P- and S-type fault-zone-guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L.; Malin, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Damage to fault-zone rocks during fault slip results in the formation of a channel of low seismic-wave velocities. Within such channels guided seismic waves, denoted by Fg, can propagate. Here we show with core samples, well logs and Fg-waves that such a channel is crossed by the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) borehole at a depth of 2.7 km near Parkfield, California, USA. This laterally extensive channel extends downwards to at least half way through the seismogenic crust, more than about 7 km. The channel supports not only the previously recognized Love-type- (FL) and Rayleigh-type- (FR) guided waves, but also a new fault-guided wave, which we name FF. As recorded 2.7 km underground, FF is normally dispersed, ends in an Airy phase, and arrives between the P- and S-waves. Modelling shows that FF travels as a leaky mode within the core of the fault zone. Combined with the drill core samples, well logs and the two other types of guided waves, FF at SAFOD reveals a zone of profound, deep, rock damage. Originating from damage accumulated over the recent history of fault movement, we suggest it is maintained either by fracturing near the slip surface of earthquakes, such as the 1857 Fort Tejon M 7.9, or is an unexplained part of the fault-creep process known to be active at this site.

  7. Electrochemical behavior of the antituberculosis drug isoniazid and its square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric estimation in bulk form, tablets and biological fluids at a mercury electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, M M; el-Baradie, K Y; Tawfik, A

    2003-11-24

    Isoniazid, pyridine-4-carboxylic acid hydrazide, is an antituberculosis-agent, which is used to prevent the development of clinical tuberculosis. A validated square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetric procedure for the trace determination of the bulk drug at the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) has been developed. Under the optimized conditions, (accumulation potential=-0.9 V, accumulation time=50-300 s, scan increment=8 mV, pulse-amplitude=25 mV, frequency=120 Hz and acetate buffer at pH 5.5) isoniazed generated two irreversible cathodic peaks. The first peak current showed a linear dependence with the drug concentration over the range 5 x 10(-10)-21 x 0(-6) M. The mean percentage recoveries, based on the average of five replicate measurements, for 7 x 10(-9) and 5 x 10(-8) M isoniazid were 97.71+/-2.93 and 99.76+/-0.77, respectively. The achieved limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 1.18 x 10(-10) and 3.93 x 10(-10) M isoniazid, respectively. The procedure was applied to the assay of the drug in tablets (Isocid and T.B. Zide), spiked human serum and urine with mean percentage recoveries of 97.81+/-1.49, 97.45+/-2.09, and 97.08+/-1.06, respectively. The limits of detection of 1.47 x 10(-9) and 2.4 x 10(-8) M, and quantitation of 4.9 x 10(-9) and 8 x 10(-8) M drug in human serum and urine, respectively, were achieved. The mean values of the various pharmackinetic parameters of isoniazid (C(max), T(max), t(1/2), AUC, and K(e)), estimated from analysis of plasma of two volunteers by means of the proposed procedure were similar to literature values.

  8. On the Clouds of Bubbles Formed by Breaking Wind-Waves in Deep Water, and their Role in Air -- Sea Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1982-02-01

    Clouds of small bubbles generated by wind waves breaking and producing whitecaps in deep water have been observed below the surface by using an inverted echo sounder. The bubbles are diffused down to several metres below the surface by turbulence against their natural tendency to rise. Measurements have been made at two sites, one in fresh water at Loch Ness and the other in the sea near Oban, northwest Scotland. Sonagraph records show bubble clouds of two distinct types, `columnar clouds' which appear in unstable or convective conditions when the air temperature is less than the surface water temperature, and `billow clouds' which appear in stable conditions when the air temperature exceeds that of the water. Clouds penetrate deeper as the wind speed increases, and deeper in convective conditions than in stable conditions at the same wind speed. The response to a change in wind speed occurs in a period of only a few minutes. Measurements of the acoustic scattering cross section per unit volume, Mv, of the bubbles have been made at several depths. The distributions of Mv at constant depth are close to logarithmic normal. The time-averaged value of Mv, {M}v, decreases exponentially with depth over scales of 40-85 cm (winds up to 12 m s-1),, the scale increasing as the wind increases. Values of {M}v at the same depth and at the same wind speed are greater in the sea than in the fresh-water loch, even at smaller fetches. Estimates have been made of the least mean vertical speed at which bubbles must be advected for them to reach the observed depths. Several centimetres per second are needed, the speeds increasing with wind. Results depend on the conditions at the surfaces of the bubbles, that is whether they are covered by a surface active-film. The presence of oxygen (or gases other than nitrogen) in the gas composing the bubbles appears not to be important in determining their general behaviour. The presence of turbulence in the water also appears unlikely to affect

  9. Automatic picking of direct P, S seismic phases and fault zone head waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Z. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-10-01

    We develop a set of algorithms for automatic detection and picking of direct P and S waves, as well as fault zone head waves (FZHW), generated by earthquakes on faults that separate different lithologies and recorded by local seismic networks. The S-wave picks are performed using polarization analysis and related filters to remove P-wave energy from the seismograms, and utilize STA/LTA and kurtosis detectors in tandem to lock on the phase arrival. The early portions of P waveforms are processed with STA/LTA, kurtosis and skewness detectors for possible first-arriving FZHW. Identification and picking of direct P and FZHW is performed by a multistage algorithm that accounts for basic characteristics (motion polarities, time difference, sharpness and amplitudes) of the two phases. The algorithm is shown to perform well on synthetic seismograms produced by a model with a velocity contrast across the fault, and observed data generated by earthquakes along the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault and the Hayward fault. The developed techniques can be used for systematic processing of large seismic waveform data sets recorded near major faults.

  10. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E

    1997-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  11. Maslov shear-waveforms in highly anisotropic shales and implications for shear-wave splitting analyses; Formes d`onde transversales de Maslov dans les argiles fortement anisotropes et implications dans les analyses de birefringence des ondes transversales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caddick, J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Kendall, J.M.; Raymer, D.G. [Western Geophysical, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-09-01

    Shales are the most common sedimentary rocks in hydrocarbon environments often forming the source rock and trapping rock for a reservoir. Due to the platy nature of the constituent grains, shales are commonly anisotropic. In this paper we calculate seismic waveforms for highly anisotropic shales using Maslow asymptotic theory (MAT). This theory is an extension of classical ray theory which provides valid waveforms in regions of caustics (wavefront folding) where ray theory amplitudes are unstable. Asymptotic ray theory (ART) is based on the Fermat or geometrical ray which connects the source and receiver. In contrast, the Maslov solution integrates the contributions from neighbouring non-Fermat rays. Ray-paths, travel-times, amplitudes and synthetic seismograms are presented for three highly anisotropic shales using a very simple 1D model comprised of an anisotropic shale overlying an isotropic shale. The ART waveforms fail to account for complex waveform effects due to triplications. In comparison, the MAT waveforms predict nonsingular amplitudes at wavefront cusps and it predicts the diffracted signals from these cusps. A Maslov solution which integrates ray contributions over a single slowness component will break down when rays focus in 3D (at a point rather than along a line). One of the tested shales shows such a point caustic and integration over 2 slowness components is required to remove the amplitude singularity. Finally, we examine the effects of wavefront triplications on Alford rotations which are used to estimate shear-wave splitting. In such cases, the rotation successfully finds the fast shear-wave polarization, but it can be unreliable in its estimate of the time separation. (authors) 21 refs.

  12. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  14. Modeling storm waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, M.; Marcos, F.; Teisson, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power stations located on the coast take the water they use to cool their circuits from the sea. The water intake and discharge devices must be able to operate in all weathers, notably during extreme storms, with waves 10 m high and over. To predict the impact of the waves on the equipment, they are modeled digitally from the moment they form in the middle of the ocean right up to the moment they break on the shore. (authors)

  15. Nonlinear Waves on Stochastic Support: Calcium Waves in Astrocyte Syncytia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, P.; Cornell-Bell, A. H.

    Astrocyte-signaling has been observed in cell cultures and brain slices in the form of Calcium waves. Their functional relevance for neuronal communication, brain functions and diseases is, however, not understood. In this paper, the propagation of intercellular calcium waves is modeled in terms of waves in excitable media on a stochastic support. We utilize a novel method to decompose the spatiotemporal patterns into space-time clusters (wave fragments). Based on this cluster decomposition, a statistical description of wave patterns is developed.

  16. Seismic wave generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaure, Bernard.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a device for simulating earth tremors. This device includes a seismic wave generator formed of a cylinder, one end of which is closed by one of the walls of a cell containing a soil, the other end being closed by a wall on which are fixed pyrotechnic devices generating shock waves inside the cylinder. These waves are transmitted from the cylinder to the cell through openings made in the cell wall. This device also includes a mechanical device acting as low-pass filter, located inside the cylinder and close to the cell wall [fr

  17. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, B. Utkin

    2011-10-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type.

  18. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utkin, Andrei B.

    2011-01-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  20. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  1. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  2. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies, co...

  3. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  4. Wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)

  5. Seismic trapped modes in the oroville and san andreas fault zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y G; Leary, P; Aki, K; Malin, P

    1990-08-17

    Three-component borehole seismic profiling of the recently active Oroville, California, normal fault and microearthquake event recording with a near-fault three-component borehole seismometer on the San Andreas fault at Parkfield, California, have shown numerous instances of pronounced dispersive wave trains following the shear wave arrivals. These wave trains are interpreted as fault zone-trapped seismic modes. Parkfield earthquakes exciting trapped modes have been located as deep as 10 kilometers, as shallow as 4 kilometers, and extend 12 kilometers along the fault on either side of the recording station. Selected Oroville and Parkfield wave forms are modeled as the fundamental and first higher trapped SH modes of a narrow low-velocity layer at the fault. Modeling results suggest that the Oroville fault zone is 18 meters wide at depth and has a shear wave velocity of 1 kilometer per second, whereas at Parkfield, the fault gouge is 100 to 150 meters wide and has a shear wave velocity of 1.1 to 1.8 kilometers per second. These low-velocity layers are probably the rupture planes on which earthquakes occur.

  6. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  7. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  8. Topological horseshoes in travelling waves of discretized nonlinear wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Chiuan; Chen, Shyan-Shiou; Yuan, Juan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Applying the concept of anti-integrable limit to coupled map lattices originated from space-time discretized nonlinear wave equations, we show that there exist topological horseshoes in the phase space formed by the initial states of travelling wave solutions. In particular, the coupled map lattices display spatio-temporal chaos on the horseshoes

  9. Topological horseshoes in travelling waves of discretized nonlinear wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Chiuan, E-mail: YCChen@math.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Mathematics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shyan-Shiou, E-mail: sschen@ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Yuan, Juan-Ming, E-mail: jmyuan@pu.edu.tw [Department of Financial and Computational Mathematics, Providence University, Shalu, Taichung 43301, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-15

    Applying the concept of anti-integrable limit to coupled map lattices originated from space-time discretized nonlinear wave equations, we show that there exist topological horseshoes in the phase space formed by the initial states of travelling wave solutions. In particular, the coupled map lattices display spatio-temporal chaos on the horseshoes.

  10. From the Somigliana waves to the evanescent waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Caloi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Rayleigh equation has real coefficients; therefore, also the case of complex conjugated roots may be explained physically. The Author proves that the Somigliana waves may be formed for Poisson ratio values until 0.30543; for gradually less rigid media, they are missing altogether and degenerate into evanescent waves.

  11. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for Burgers, Fisher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 1. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for Burgers, Fisher, Huxley and combined forms of these equations by the (′/)-expansion method. Jalil Manafian Mehrdad Lakestani. Volume 85 Issue 1 July 2015 pp 31-52 ...

  12. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  13. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  14. Opdriftsbaserede modeller for Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten

    Formålet med dette skrift er at få en forhåndsvurdering af mulige effektforøgelser for Wave Star ved anvendelse af aktiv akkumulatordrift. Disse vurderinger baseres på simuleringsmodeller for driften af Wave Star i uregelmæssige bølger. Modellen er udarbejdet i programmeringssproget Delphi og er en...

  15. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for Burgers, Fisher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The generalized (G′/G)-expansion method; Burgers equation; Fisher's equation; ... the travelling wave solutions plays an important role in nonlinear sciences. ... Burgers, Fisher, Huxley equations and combined forms of these equations will ...

  16. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  17. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  18. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  19. Quasitravelling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklaryan, Leva A

    2011-01-01

    A finite difference analogue of the wave equation with potential perturbation is investigated, which simulates the behaviour of an infinite rod under the action of an external longitudinal force field. For a homogeneous rod, describing solutions of travelling wave type is equivalent to describing the full space of classical solutions to an induced one-parameter family of functional differential equations of point type, with the characteristic of the travelling wave as parameter. For an inhomogeneous rod, the space of solutions of travelling wave type is trivial, and their 'proper' extension is defined as solutions of 'quasitravelling' wave type. By contrast to the case of a homogeneous rod, describing the solutions of quasitravelling wave type is equivalent to describing the quotient of the full space of impulsive solutions to an induced one-parameter family of point-type functional differential equations by an equivalence relation connected with the definition of solutions of quasitravelling wave type. Stability of stationary solutions is analyzed. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  20. The essential theory of fast wave current drive with full wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Gong Xueyu; Yang Lei; Yin Chenyan; Yin Lan

    2007-01-01

    The full wave numerical method is developed for analyzing fast wave current drive in the range of ion cyclotron waves in tokamak plasmas, taking into account finite larmor radius effects and parallel dispersion. the physical model, the dispersion relation on the assumption of Finite Larmor Radius (FLR) effects and the form of full wave be used for computer simulation are developed. All of the work will contribute to further study of fast wave current drive. (authors)

  1. Antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity in (doped) Mott insulators: A wave function approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Z. Y.; Zhou, Y.; Muthukumar, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a class of wave functions that provide a unified description of antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity in (doped) Mott insulators. The wave function has a Jastrow form and prohibits double occupancies. In the absence of holes, the wave function describes antiferromagnetism accurately. Off diagonal long range order develops at finite doping and the superconducting order parameter has d-wave symmetry. We also show how nodal quasiparticles and neutral spin excitations can be ...

  2. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry

  3. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  4. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  5. Dual chiral density wave in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2002-01-01

    We prove that quark matter is unstable for forming a dual chiral density wave above a critical density, within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Presence of a dual chiral density wave leads to a uniform ferromagnetism in quark matter. A similarity with the spin density wave theory in electron gas and the pion condensation theory is also pointed out. (author)

  6. Affective Temporality: Towards a Fourth Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Prudence

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the way in which the wave has been constructed as a negative means by which to understand feminism, making a case for reconceptualising the wave as an "affective temporality". Focusing on both feeling and historically specific forms of activism, the article suggests that the wave should not be considered as…

  7. Travelling wave solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we constructed different form of new exact solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations by utilizing the modified extended direct algebraic method. New exact traveling wave solutions for both equations are obtained in the form of soliton, periodic, bright, and dark solitary wave solutions. There are many applications of the present traveling wave solutions in physics and furthermore, a wide class of coupled nonlinear evolution equations can be solved by this method. Keywords: Traveling wave solutions, Elliptic solutions, Generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation, Dispersive long wave equation, Modified extended direct algebraic method

  8. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  10. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during this ext......Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...... this extended period. The prototype is highly instrumented. The overtopping characteristic and the power produced are presented here. This has enabled comparison between the prototype and earlier results from both laboratory model and computer simulation. This gives the optimal operating point and the expected...... power of the device. The project development team has gained much soft experience from working in the harsh offshore environment. In particular the effect of marine growth in the draft tubes of the turbines has been investigated. The control of the device has been a focus for development as is operates...

  11. Piezoelectric wave motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  12. Undercuts by Laser Shock Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO 2 -laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. A challenge in forming technologies is the manufacturing of undercuts. By conventional forming methods these special forms are not feasible. In this article, it is presented that undercuts in the micro range can be produced by laser shock deep drawing. Different drawing die diameters, drawing die depths and the material aluminum in the thicknesses 20 and 50 μm were investigated. It will be presented that smaller die diameters facilitate undercuts compared to bigger die diameters. The phenomena can be explained by Barlow's formula. Furthermore, it is shown which maximum undercut depth at different die diameters can be reached. To this end, cross-sections of the different parameter combinations are displayed.

  13. Tropical Cyclogenesis in a Tropical Wave Critical Layer: Easterly Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside.

  14. Model wave functions for the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certov, A.; Mathelitsch, L.; Moravcsik, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Model wave functions are constructed for the deuteron to facilitate the unambiguous exploration of dependencies on the percentage D state and on the small-, medium-, and large-distance parts of the deuteron wave function. The wave functions are constrained by those deuteron properties which are accurately known experimentally, and are in an analytic form which is easily integrable in expressions usually encountered in the use of such wave functions

  15. Improving the forming capability of laser dynamic forming by using rubber as a forming medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zongbao; Liu, Huixia; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Cuntang

    2016-04-01

    Laser dynamic forming (LDF) is a novel high velocity forming technique, which employs laser-generated shock wave to load the sample. The forming velocity induced by the high energy laser pulse may exceed the critical forming velocity, resulting in the occurrence of premature fracture. To avoid the above premature fracture, rubber is introduced in LDF as a forming medium to prolong the loading duration in this paper. Laser induced shock wave energy is transferred to the sample in different forming stages, so the forming velocity can be kept below the critical forming velocity when the initial laser energy is high for fracture. Bulge forming experiments with and without rubber were performed to study the effect of rubber on loading duration. The experimental results show that, the shock wave energy attenuates during the propagation through the rubber layer, the rubber can avoid the premature fracture. So the plastic deformation can continue, the forming capability of LDF is improved. Due to the severe plastic deformation under rubber compression, adiabatic shear bands (ASB) occur in LDF with rubber. The material softening in ASB leads to the irregular fracture, which is different from the premature fracture pattern (regular fracture) in LDF without rubber. To better understand this deformation behavior, Johnson-Cook model is used to simulate the dynamic response and the evolution of ASB of copper sample. The simulation results also indicate the rubber can prolong the loading duration.

  16. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered.......The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  17. Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    Development of digital processing algorithms of seismic wave fields for the purpose of useful event picking to study environment and other objects is the basis for the establishment of new seismic techniques. In the submitted paper a fundamental property of seismic wave field coherence is used. The authors extended conception of coherence types of observed wave fields and devised a technique of coherent component selection from observed wave field. Time coherence and space coherence are widely known. In this paper conception "parameter coherence" has been added. The parameter by which wave field is coherent can be the most manifold. The reason is that the wave field is a multivariate process described by a set of parameters. Coherence in the first place means independence of linear connection in wave field of parameter. In seismic wave fields, recorded in confined space, in building-blocks and stratified mediums time coherent standing waves are formed. In prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping head waves are coherent by parallel correlation course or, in other words, by one measurement on generalized plane of observation system. For detail prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping on basis of coherence property by one measurement of area algorithms have been developed, permitting seismic records to be converted to head wave time sections which have neither reflected nor other types of waves. Conversion in time section is executed on any specified observation base. Energy storage of head waves relative to noise on basis of multiplicity of observation system is realized within area of head wave recording. Conversion on base below the area of wave tracking is performed with lack of signal/noise ratio relative to maximum of this ratio, fit to observation system. Construction of head wave time section and dynamic plots a basis of automatic processing have been developed, similar to CDP procedure in method of

  18. Wave calculus based upon wave logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Y.F.

    1978-01-01

    A number operator has been introduced based upon the binary (p-nary) presentation of numbers. This operator acts upon a numerical state vector. Generally the numerical state vector describes numbers that are not precise but smeared in a quantum sense. These states are interrupted in wave logic terms, according to which concepts may exist within the inner language of a phenomenon that in principle cannot be translated into the language of the investigator. In particular, states may exist where mean values of a quantity, continuous in classical limits, take only discrete values. Operators for differentiation and integration of operator functions are defined, which take the usual form in the classical limit. (author)

  19. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  20. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  1. KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  2. Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2000-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  3. Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold

  4. Twist-2 Light-Cone Pion Wave Function

    OpenAIRE

    Belyaev, V. M.; Johnson, Mikkel B.

    1997-01-01

    We present an analysis of the existing constraints for the twist-2 light-cone pion wave function. We find that existing information on the pion wave function does not exclude the possibility that the pion wave function attains its asymptotic form. New bounds on the parameters of the pion wave function are presented.

  5. General characteristics of long waves around the South African Coast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rossouw, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-period waves are almost invisible waves due to the long wave-lengths of several hundreds of metres and heights of only decimetres. The effect of these long waves can, however, be devastating in the form of harbour basin oscillations...

  6. Linear superposition solutions to nonlinear wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yu

    2012-01-01

    The solutions to a linear wave equation can satisfy the principle of superposition, i.e., the linear superposition of two or more known solutions is still a solution of the linear wave equation. We show in this article that many nonlinear wave equations possess exact traveling wave solutions involving hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions, and the suitable linear combinations of these known solutions can also constitute linear superposition solutions to some nonlinear wave equations with special structural characteristics. The linear superposition solutions to the generalized KdV equation K(2,2,1), the Oliver water wave equation, and the k(n, n) equation are given. The structure characteristic of the nonlinear wave equations having linear superposition solutions is analyzed, and the reason why the solutions with the forms of hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions can form the linear superposition solutions is also discussed

  7. Stochastic Procedures for Extreme Wave Load Predictions- Wave Bending Moment in Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    A discussion of useful stochastic procedures for stochastic wave load problems is given, covering the range from slightly linear to strongly non-linear (bifurcation) problems. The methods are: Hermite transformation, Critical wave episodes and the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The proced......). The procedures will be illustrated by results for the extreme vertical wave bending moment in ships....

  8. GEODYNAMIC WAVES AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vikulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related.  The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.  

  9. Competing p-wave orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P; Pantelidou, Christiana

    2014-01-01

    We construct electrically charged, asymptotically AdS 5 black hole solutions that are dual to d = 4 CFTs in a superfluid phase with either p-wave or (p + ip)-wave order. The two types of black holes have non-vanishing charged two-form in the bulk and appear at the same critical temperature in the unbroken phase. Both the p-wave and the (p + ip)-wave phase can be thermodynamically preferred, depending on the mass and charge of the two-form, and there can also be first order transitions between them. The p-wave black holes have a helical structure and some of them exhibit the phenomenon of pitch inversion as the temperature is decreased. Both the p-wave and the (p + ip)-wave black holes have zero entropy density ground states at zero temperature and we identify some new ground states which exhibit scaling symmetry, including a novel scenario for the emergence of conformal symmetry in the IR. (paper)

  10. Group Velocity for Leaky Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeznik, Andrew; Chumakova, Lyubov; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2017-11-01

    In many linear dispersive/conservative wave problems one considers solutions in an infinite medium which is uniform everywhere except for a bounded region. In general, localized inhomogeneities of the medium cause partial internal reflection, and some waves leak out of the domain. Often one only desires the solution in the inhomogeneous region, with the exterior accounted for by radiation boundary conditions. Formulating such conditions requires definition of the direction of energy propagation for leaky waves in multiple dimensions. In uniform media such waves have the form exp (d . x + st) where d and s are complex and related by a dispersion relation. A complex s is required since these waves decay via radiation to infinity, even though the medium is conservative. We present a modified form of Whitham's Averaged Lagrangian Theory along with modulation theory to extend the classical idea of group velocity to leaky waves. This allows for solving on the bounded region by representing the waves as a linear combination of leaky modes, each exponentially decaying in time. This presentation is part of a joint project, and applications of these results to example GFD problems will be presented by L. Chumakova in the talk ``Leaky GFD Problems''. This work is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043, DMS-1719637, and 1122374, and by the Hertz Foundation.

  11. Linear interaction of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the linearized Einstein equations written in the same form as Maxwell equations, a damping term is found in the wave equation. The analogy with the propagation of the electromagnetic wave in ohmic media is obvious if we introduce an 'ohmic relation' for gravitational interaction. The possibility of the amplification of gravitational waves by a suitable choice of the velocity field of a dust ('dust with negative viscosity'), for example by the use of the free-electron laser principle, is indicated. (Author)

  12. Wave Physics Oscillations - Solitons - Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Nettel, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This textbook is intended for those second year undergraduates in science and engineering who will later need an understanding of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The classical physics of oscillations and waves is developed at a more advanced level than has been customary for the second year, providing a basis for the quantum mechanics that follows. In this new edition the Green's function is explained, reinforcing the integration of quantum mechanics with classical physics. The text may also form the basis of an "introduction to theoretical physics" for physics majors. The concluding chapters give special attention to topics in current wave physics: nonlinear waves, solitons, and chaotic behavior.

  13. Surf similarity and solitary wave runup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative to a previ...... functional dependence on their respective surf similarity parameters. Important equivalencies in the runup of sinusoidal and solitary waves are thus revealed.......The notion of surf similarity in the runup of solitary waves is revisited. We show that the surf similarity parameter for solitary waves may be effectively reduced to the beach slope divided by the offshore wave height to depth ratio. This clarifies its physical interpretation relative...... to a previous parameterization, which was not given in an explicit form. Good coherency with experimental (breaking) runup data is preserved with this simpler parameter. A recasting of analytical (nonbreaking) runup expressions for sinusoidal and solitary waves additionally shows that they contain identical...

  14. Waves in periodic medium. Atomic matter waves in light crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberthaler, M. K.

    1997-07-01

    This work deals with the propagation of matter waves inside a periodic potential. In analogy to photon optics a potential can be described by a refractive index for matter waves. A real potential leads to a refractive spatial structure while an imaginary potential leads to an absorptive structure. A general theoretical description is given in the framework of Floquet theory. The equivalent approach of dynamical diffraction theory will be treated in detail. The analytic solution for weak potentials are given in a general form so that they are applicable for every kind of wave and medium. For our experiments an open two level atom (metastable Argon) propagating inside a standing light wave was used. Detuning the frequency of the light wave from the atomic resonance leads to a real (refractive) periodic potential. Tuning the laser exact on resonance gives rise to a pure imaginary (absorptive) periodic potential. In analogy to solid state crystals in X-ray and neutron optics we call a standing light wave a light crystal. Tuning the standing light field on resonance we demonstrated experimentally the Borrmann effect. This effect describes the increase of the total transmission through a crystal for Bragg incidence. Furthermore, we confirmed that this effect is coherent and that a sinusoidal wave field is formed inside the crystal. The nodes of the wave field were found to coincide with the maxima of absorption. For a detuned standing light field a refractive crystal was realized, for which the expected Pendelloesung effect was demonstrated. In this case the maximum of the wave field inside the crystal was found at the steepest gradient of the potential as predicted by dynamical diffraction theory. Superposing an absorptive and a refractive light crystal a complex light crystal was realized. With such a crystal the violation of Friedel's law was demonstrated in a very clear way. (author)

  15. Multi-directional random wave interaction with an array of cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Xinran; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the linear theory of wave interaction with an array of circular bottom-mounted vertical cylinders, systematic calculations are made to investigate the effects of the wave directionality on wave loads in short-crested seas. The multi-directional waves are specified using a discrete form...... of the Mitsuyasu-type spreading function. The time series of multi-directional wave loads, including both the wave run-up and wave force, can be simulated. The effect of wave directionality on the wave run-up and wave loading on the cylinders is investigated. For multi-directional waves, as the distribution...

  16. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator.......This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  17. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  18. Wave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, T.J.T. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK)); White, P.R.S. (Lanchester Polytechnic, Coventry (UK)); Baker, A.C.J. (Binnie and Partners, London (UK))

    1988-10-01

    An informal discussion on various wave energy converters is reported. These included a prototype oscillating water column (OWC) device being built on the Isle of Islay in Scotland; the SEA Clam; a tapering channel device (Tapchan) raising incoming waves into a lagoon on a Norwegian island and an OWC device on the same island. The Norwegian devices are delivering electricity at about 5.5p/KWh and 4p/KWh respectively with possibilities for reduction to 2.5-3p/KWh and 3p/KWh under favourable circumstances. The discussion ranged over comparisons with progress in wind power, engineering aspects, differences between inshore and offshore devices, tidal range and energy storage. (UK).

  19. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  20. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  1. Reduced-order prediction of rogue waves in two-dimensional deep-water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsis, Themistoklis; Farazmand, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of large wave prediction in two-dimensional water waves. Such waves form due to the synergistic effect of dispersive mixing of smaller wave groups and the action of localized nonlinear wave interactions that leads to focusing. Instead of a direct simulation approach, we rely on the decomposition of the wave field into a discrete set of localized wave groups with optimal length scales and amplitudes. Due to the short-term character of the prediction, these wave groups do not interact and therefore their dynamics can be characterized individually. Using direct numerical simulations of the governing envelope equations we precompute the expected maximum elevation for each of those wave groups. The combination of the wave field decomposition algorithm, which provides information about the statistics of the system, and the precomputed map for the expected wave group elevation, which encodes dynamical information, allows (i) for understanding of how the probability of occurrence of rogue waves changes as the spectrum parameters vary, (ii) the computation of a critical length scale characterizing wave groups with high probability of evolving to rogue waves, and (iii) the formulation of a robust and parsimonious reduced-order prediction scheme for large waves. T.S. has been supported through the ONR Grants N00014-14-1-0520 and N00014-15-1-2381 and the AFOSR Grant FA9550-16-1-0231. M.F. has been supported through the second Grant.

  2. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  3. CMS-Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward...marching, finite-difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction... CMS -Wave can be used in either on a half- or full-plane mode, with primary waves propagating from the seaward boundary toward shore. It can

  4. On the origin of mixed-layered clay minerals from the San Andreas Fault at 2.5-3 km vertical depth (SAFOD drillhole at Parkfield, California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, A. M.; Warr, L. N.; van der Pluijm, B. A.

    2009-02-01

    A detailed mineralogical study is presented of the matrix of mudrocks sampled from spot coring at three key locations along the San Andreas Fault Observatory at depth (SAFOD) drill hole. The characteristics of authigenic illite-smectite (I-S) and chlorite-smectite (C-S) mixed-layer mineral clays indicate a deep diagenetic origin. A randomly ordered I-S mineral with ca. 20-25% smectite layers is one of the dominant authigenic clay species across the San Andreas Fault zone (sampled at 3,066 and 3,436 m measured depths/MD), whereas an authigenic illite with ca. 2-5% smectite layers is the dominant phase beneath the fault (sampled at 3,992 m MD). The most smectite-rich mixed-layered assemblage with the highest water content occurs in the actively deforming creep zone at ca. 3,300-3,353 m (true vertical depth of ca. 2.7 km), with I-S (70:30) and C-S (50:50). The matrix of all mudrock samples show extensive quartz and feldspar (both plagioclase and K-feldspar) dissolution associated with the crystallization of pore-filling clay minerals. However, the effect of rock deformation in the matrix appears only minor, with weak flattening fabrics defined largely by kinked and fractured mica grains. Adopting available kinetic models for the crystallization of I-S in burial sedimentary environments and the current borehole depths and thermal structure, the conditions and timing of I-S growth can be evaluated. Assuming a typical K+ concentration of 100-200 ppm for sedimentary brines, a present-day geothermal gradient of 35°C/km and a borehole temperature of ca. 112°C for the sampled depths, most of the I-S minerals can be predicted to have formed over the last 4-11 Ma and are probably still in equilibrium with circulating fluids. The exception to this simple burial pattern is the occurrence of the mixed layered phases with higher smectite content than predicted by the burial model. These minerals, which characterize the actively creeping section of the fault and local thin film

  5. Quantum wave packet revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinett, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The numerical prediction, theoretical analysis, and experimental verification of the phenomenon of wave packet revivals in quantum systems has flourished over the last decade and a half. Quantum revivals are characterized by initially localized quantum states which have a short-term, quasi-classical time evolution, which then can spread significantly over several orbits, only to reform later in the form of a quantum revival in which the spreading reverses itself, the wave packet relocalizes, and the semi-classical periodicity is once again evident. Relocalization of the initial wave packet into a number of smaller copies of the initial packet ('minipackets' or 'clones') is also possible, giving rise to fractional revivals. Systems exhibiting such behavior are a fundamental realization of time-dependent interference phenomena for bound states with quantized energies in quantum mechanics and are therefore of wide interest in the physics and chemistry communities. We review the theoretical machinery of quantum wave packet construction leading to the existence of revivals and fractional revivals, in systems with one (or more) quantum number(s), as well as discussing how information on the classical period and revival time is encoded in the energy eigenvalue spectrum. We discuss a number of one-dimensional model systems which exhibit revival behavior, including the infinite well, the quantum bouncer, and others, as well as several two-dimensional integrable quantum billiard systems. Finally, we briefly review the experimental evidence for wave packet revivals in atomic, molecular, and other systems, and related revival phenomena in condensed matter and optical systems

  6. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Dunkerton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i a region of

  7. Wave emission by resonance crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, E.R.; Kaufman, A.N.; Liang, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The emission of collective waves by a moving charged particle in a nonuniform medium is discussed. Emission occurs in a nonuniform medium when the local dispersion relation of the collective wave is satisfied. This is a form of resonance crossing. Using the Weyl symbol calculus, a local expansion of the collective wave equation driven by the particle source is derived in the neighborhood of the crossing. The collective wave dispersion manifold and the gyroballistic wave dispersion manifold can be used as a pair of local coordinates in the neighborhood of the resonance crossing, which greatly simplifies the analysis. This change of representation is carried out using a metaplectic transform (a generalization of the fourier transform). The Wigner function of the emitted wave field is then computed in the new coordinates. The Wigner function is a phase space scalar, hence the numerical value is invariant under linear canonical transformations. This invariance is invoked to finally arrive at the Wigner function in the original (physical) coordinates. The wave-action and -energy emission rates are then computed from the Wigner function. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Faddeev wave function decomposition using bipolar harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Tomusiak, E.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The standard partial wave (channel) representation for the Faddeev solution to the Schroedinger equation for the ground state of 3 nucleons is written in terms of functions which couple the interacting pair and spectator angular momenta to give S, P, and D waves. For each such coupling there are three terms, one for each of the three cyclic permutations of the nucleon coordinates. A series of spherical harmonic identities is developed which allows writing the Faddeev solution in terms of a basis set of 5 bipolar harmonics: 1 for S waves; 1 for P waves; and 3 for D waves. The choice of a D-wave basis is largely arbitrary, and specific choices correspond to the decomposition schemes of Derrick and Blatt, Sachs, Gibson and Schiff, and Bolsterli and Jezak. The bipolar harmonic form greatly simplifies applications which utilize the wave function, and we specifically discuss the isoscalar charge (or mass) density and the 3 He Coulomb energy

  9. Internal Waves and Wave Attractors in Enceladus' Subsurface Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, A. M.; Maas, L. R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most peculiar features on Saturn moon Enceladus is its so-called tiger stripe pattern at the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT), as first observed in detail by the Cassini spacecraft early 2005. It is generally assumed that the four almost parallel surface lines that constitute this pattern are faults in the icy surface overlying a confined salty water reservoir. In 2013, we formulated the original idea [Vermeersen et al., AGU Fall Meeting 2013, abstract #P53B-1848] that the tiger stripe pattern is formed and maintained by induced, tidally and rotationally driven, wave-attractor motions in the ocean underneath the icy surface of the tiger-stripe region. Such wave-attractor motions are observed in water tank experiments in laboratories on Earth and in numerical experiments [Maas et al., Nature, 338, 557-561, 1997; Drijfhout and Maas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2740-2763, 2007; Hazewinkel et al., Phys. Fluids, 22, 107102, 2010]. Numerical simulations show the persistence of wave attractors for a range of ocean shapes and stratifications. The intensification of the wave field near the location of the surface reflections of wave attractors has been numerically and experimentally confirmed. We measured the forces a wave attractor exerts on a solid surface, near a reflection point. These reflection points would correspond to the location of the tiger stripes. Combining experiments and numerical simulations we conclude that (1) wave attractors can exist in Enceladus' subsurface sea, (2) their shape can be matched to the tiger stripes, (3) the wave attractors cause a localized force at the water-ice boundaries, (4) this force could have been large enough to contribute to fracturing the ice and (5) the wave attractors localize energy (and particles) and cause dissipation along its path, helping explain Enceladus' enigmatic heat output at the tiger stripes.

  10. Coordinate transformations and matter waves cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, G.R.; Moghaddam, A.G.; Mohammadkhani, R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformation method provides an efficient tool to control wave propagation inside the materials. Using the coordinate transformation approach, we study invisibility cloaks with sphere, cylinder and ellipsoid structures for electronic waves propagation. The underlying physics behind this investigation is the fact that Schrödinger equation with position dependent mass tensor and potentials has a covariant form which follows the coordinate transformation. Using this technique we obtain the exact spatial form of the mass tensor and potentials for a variety of cloaks with different shapes. - Highlights: • Invisibility cloaks for matter waves with three different geometries. • Exact analytical form of the effective mass tensor and potential. • Analogy between cloaking for quantum mechanical waves with classical electromagnetic waves. • Possible experimental realization in engineered semiconducting structures.

  11. Models of wave memory

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchenko, Serguey

    2015-01-01

    This monograph examines in detail models of neural systems described by delay-differential equations. Each element of the medium (neuron) is an oscillator that generates, in standalone mode, short impulses also known as spikes. The book discusses models of synaptic interaction between neurons, which lead to complex oscillatory modes in the system. In addition, it presents a solution to the problem of choosing the parameters of interaction in order to obtain attractors with predetermined structure. These attractors are represented as images encoded in the form of autowaves (wave memory). The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but it will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  12. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship....... Following the so-called 'Dogma' concept developed by Danish filmmakers, this contribution aim to explore the key elements making up the recipes guiding the entrepreneurship training program exercised by the school. Key factors forming a community of learning practice are outlined as well as the critical...... pedagogical elements on which the education in entrepreneurship rests....

  13. Super rogue wave in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Pallabi; Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Bailung, Heremba

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of super rogue wave having amplitude ∼5 times the background wave has been observed in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions in a double plasma device. In normal electron-ion plasma the ion acoustic solitons are described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. At a critical concentration of negative ions, the ion acoustic modified KdV solitons are found to propagate. Multicomponent plasma also supports the propagation of a special kind of soliton namely 'Peregrine soliton' at critical concentration of negative ions. Peregrine soliton is a doubly localized solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) having amplitude 3 times the background carrier wave. In a double plasma device, ion-acoustic Peregrine soliton is excited by applying slowly varying amplitude modulated continuous sinusoidal signal to the source anode and described by the rational solution of NLSE. The ion acoustic wave is modulationally unstable in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions and an initial modulated wave perturbation is found to undergo self-modulation to form localized structures by balancing the nonlinearity with the dispersion. In presence of higher order nonlinearity, propagation of a high amplitude (∼5 times of background carrier wave) ion acoustic Peregrine soliton has been observed experimentally. The existence of such types of higher order wave has been reported in other dispersive media. These are considered to be the prototype of super rogue wave in deep water. In this work, experimental results on the evolution of super rogue wave in a double plasma device are presented and compared with the numerical solution of NLSE. (author)

  14. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  15. Waves and Tsunami Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frashure, K. M.; Chen, R. F.; Stephen, R. A.; Bolmer, T.; Lavin, M.; Strohschneider, D.; Maichle, R.; Micozzi, N.; Cramer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Demonstrating wave processes quantitatively in the classroom using standard classroom tools (such as Slinkys and wave tanks) can be difficult. For example, waves often travel too fast for students to actually measure amplitude or wavelength. Also, when teaching propagating waves, reflections from the ends set up standing waves, which can confuse…

  16. Excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized electromagnetic wave incident upon a boundary of a dense magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave

  17. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    wavelength, they are called shallow water waves. In the ... Deep and intermediate water waves are dispersive as the velocity of these depends on wavelength. This is not the ..... generation processes, the finite amplitude wave theories are very ...

  18. Resonant Alfven waves on auroral field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that resonant Alfven waves on dipole magnetic field geometry and plasma distributions suitable for auroral field lines can be conveniently treated in the theory of Mathieu functions. Resurgent interest in invoking large-scale Alfven waves to structure some elements of auroral electrodynamics calls for interpretation of measured perpendicular electric and magnetic disturbance fields in terms of Alfven waves. The ability to express the resonant eigenmodes in closed form in terms of Mathieu functions allows for convenient tests of the Alfven wave structuring hypothesis. Implications for current vector electric and magnetic disturbance measurements are discussed

  19. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...... power outputs of three wave energy technologies in the Danish North Sea are examined. The simultaneous and co-located forecast and buoy-measured wave parameters at Hanstholm, Denmark, during a non-consecutive autumn and winter 3-month period form the basis of the investigation. The objective...

  20. Grammaticalization waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Artiklens formål er påvise at samtidige og konsekutive grammatikaliseringer i et og samme sprog ikke er adskilte processer, men ofte vil være tæt forbundne. Denne teori illustreres med en "bølge" af grammatikaliseringer i russisk. Udgangspunktet er konjunktiven, der i oldrussisk var en perifrasti...

  1. Contributor Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-09-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  2. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  3. Atom Wave Interferometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchard, David

    1999-01-01

    Matter wave interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and then recombined to produce interference fringes, have opened exciting new possibilities for precision and fundamental...

  4. Linear waves and stability in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhoff, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    Linear waves superimposed on an arbitrary basic state in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are studied by an asymptotic expansion valid for short wavelenghts. The theory allows for a gravitational potential, and it may therefore be applied both in astrophysics and in problems related to thermonuclear fusion. The linearized equations for the perturbations of the basic state are found in the form of a symmetric hyperbolic system. This symmetric hyperbolic system is shown to possess characteristics of nonuniform multiplicity, which implies that waves of different types may interact. In particular it is shown that the mass waves, the Alf-n waves, and the slow magnetoacoustic waves will persistently interact in the exceptional case where the local wave number vector is perpendicular to the magnetic field. The equations describing this interaction are found in the form of a weakly coupled hyperbolic system. This weakly coupled hyperbloc system is studied in a number of special cases, and detailed analytic results are obtained for some such cases. The results show that the interaction of the waves may be one of the major causes of instability of the basic state. It seems beyond doubt that the interacting waves contain the physically relevant parts of the waves, which often are referred to as ballooning modes, including Suydam modes and Mercier modes

  5. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  6. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  7. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2014-01-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots

  8. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  9. Plane-wave impulse approximation extraction of the neutron magnetic form factor from Quasi-Elastic 3(rvec H)e((rvec e),e(prime)) at Q2 = 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Anderson, B.; Auberbach, L.; Averett, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Black, T.; Calarco, J.; Cardman, L.; Cates, G.D.; Chai, Z.W.; Chen, J.P.; Choi, S.; Chudakov, E.; Churchwell, S.; Corrado, G.S.; Crawford, C.; Dale, D.; Deur, A.; Djawotho, P.; Donnelly, T.W.; Dutta, D.; Finn, J.M.; Gao, H.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A.V.; Glashausser, C.; Gloeckle, Walter; Golak, J.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Hansen, J.O.; Hersman, F.W.; Higinbotham, D.W.; Holmes, R.; Howell, C.R.; Hughes, E.; Humensky, B.; Incerti, S.; Jager, C.W. de; Jensen, J.S.; Jiang, X.; Jones, C.E.; Jones, M.; Kahl, R.; Kamada, H.; Kievsky, A.; Kominis, I.; Korsch, W.; Kramer, K.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Lakuriqi, E.; Liang, M.; Liyanage, N.; LeRose, J.; Malov, S.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Martin, J.W.; McCormick, K.; McKeown, R. D.; McIlhany, K.; Meziani, Z.E.; Michaels, R.; Miller, G.W.; Mitchell, J.; Nanda, S.; Pace, E.; Pavlin, T.; Petratos, G.G.; Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Pripstein, D.; Prout, D.; Ransome, R.D.; Roblin, Y.; Rvachev, M.; Saha, A.; Salme, G.; Schnee, M.; Shin, T.; Slifer, K.; Souder, P.A.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Sutter, M.; Tipton, B.; Todor, L.; Viviani, M.; Vlahovic, B.; Watson, J.; Williamson, C.F.; Witala, H.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Xiong, F.; Yeh, J.; Zolnierczuk, P.

    2003-01-01

    A high precision measurement of the transverse spin-dependent asymmetry A T in 3 (rvec H)e((rvec e),e(prime)) quasielastic scattering was performed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab at values of the squared four-momentum transfer, Q 2 , between 0.1 and 0.6 (GeV/c) 2 . A T is sensitive to the neutron magnetic form factor, G M n . Values of G M n at Q 2 = 0.1 and 0.2 (GeV/c) 2 , extracted using Faddeev calculations, were reported previously. Here, we report the extraction of G M n for the remaining Q 2 -values in the range from 0.3 to 0.6 (GeV/c) 2 using a Plane-Wave Impulse Approximation calculation. The results are in good agreement with recent precision data from experiments using a deuterium target

  10. Observation of Ion Acoustic Waves Excited by Drift Waves in a Weakly Magnetized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukabayashi, Isao; Sato, Sugiya; Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous fluctuations excited by drift waves are investigated experimentally in magnetic multi-pole plasma. The magnetic multi-pole has been widely used in DP devices and so on. It was observed that the high level of density fluctuations was generated by the drift instability near a magnetic multi-pole or a dipole magnet. The waves propagate to the middle plasma region forming the envelope train waves

  11. Gravitational Waves and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Biermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that dark energy is gravitational waves may explain its strength and its time-evolution. A possible concept is that dark energy is the ensemble of coherent bursts (solitons of gravitational waves originally produced when the first generation of super-massive black holes was formed. These solitons get their initial energy as well as keep up their energy density throughout the evolution of the universe by stimulating emission from a background, a process which we model by working out this energy transfer in a Boltzmann equation approach. New Planck data suggest that dark energy has increased in strength over cosmic time, supporting the concept here. The transit of these gravitational wave solitons may be detectable. Key tests include pulsar timing, clock jitter and the radio background.

  12. Financial Rogue Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2010-01-01

    We analytically give the financial rogue waves in the nonlinear option pricing model due to Ivancevic, which is nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes model. These rogue wave solutions may he used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for rogue wave phenomenon in financial markets and related fields.

  13. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  14. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  15. Vacillations induced by interference of stationary and traveling planetary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salby, Murry L.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1987-01-01

    The interference pattern produced when a traveling planetary wave propagates over a stationary forced wave is explored, examining the interference signature in a variety of diagnostics. The wave field is first restricted to a diatomic spectrum consisting of two components: a single stationary wave and a single monochromatic traveling wave. A simple barotropic normal mode propagating over a simple stationary plane wave is considered, and closed form solutions are obtained. The wave fields are then restricted spatially, providing more realistic structures without sacrificing the advantages of an analytical solution. Both stationary and traveling wave fields are calculated numerically with the linearized Primitive Equations in a realistic basic state. The mean flow reaction to the fluctuating eddy forcing which results from interference is derived. Synoptic geopotential behavior corresponding to the combined wave and mean flow fields is presented, and the synoptic signature in potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces is examined.

  16. Wave disc engine apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  17. Photon wave function

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2005-01-01

    Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, t...

  18. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion.

  19. Forming Behaviour in Laser Shock Drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Niehoff, H.; Vollertsen, F.; Wielage, H.

    2008-01-01

    Through the continuing trend of miniaturization new cost efficient and fast methods for processing small parts are required. In this paper a new non-mechanical process for the forming process of micro deep drawing is presented. This new deep drawing process utilizes a laser initiated plasma shock wave at the target, which forms the sheet. Several pulses can be applied at one point and therefore high forming degrees can be reached without increasing the energy density. In this paper the pressu...

  20. Generation of Langmuir wave supercontinuum by phase-preserving equilibration of plasmons with irreversible wave-particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiichirou, Kawamori

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of supercontinuum of Langmuir plasma waves, that exhibits broad power spectrum having significant spatio-temporal coherence grown from a monochromatic seed-wave, in one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The Langmuir wave supercontinuum (LWSC) is formed when the seed wave excites side-band fields efficiently by the modulational instabilities. Its identification is achieved by the use of the tricoherence analysis, which detects four wave mixings (FWMs) of plasmons (plasma wave quanta), and evaluation of the first order coherence, which is a measure of temporal coherence, of the wave electric fields. The irreversible evolution to the coherent LWSC from the seed wave is realized by the wave-particle interactions causing stochastic electron motions in the phase space and the coherence of LWSC is maintained by the phase-preserving FWMs of plasmons. The LWSC corresponds to a quasi Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode.

  1. Electromagnetic form factors of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidell, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    A vector meson dominance model of the electromagnetic form factors of hadrons is developed which is based on the use of unstable particle propagators. Least-square fits are made to the proton, neutron, pion and kaon form factor data in both the space and time-like regions. A good fit to the low-energy nucleon form factor data is obtained using only rho, ω, and phi dominance, and leads to a determination of the vector meson resonance parameters in good agreement with experiment. The nucleon-vector meson coupling constants obey simple sum rules indicating that there exists no hard core contribution to the form factors within theoretical uncertainties. The prediction for the electromagnetic radii of the proton is in reasonable agreement with recent experiments. The pion and kaon charge form factors as deduced from the nucleon form factors assuming vector meson universality are compared to the data. The pion form factor agrees with the data in both the space and time-like regions. The pion charge radius is in agreement with the recent Dubna result, but the isovector P-wave pion-pion phase shift calculated from the theory disagrees with experiment. A possible contribution to the form factors from a heavy rho meson is also evaluated

  2. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  3. Studies on spin waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prets, A.

    1998-07-01

    In the present Ph. D. thesis we are considering a special form of scaling limits, namely the hydrodynamic limit. Such limits are considered to explain macroscopic behavior of matter by means of microscopic dynamic laws. In this procedure a rescaling of space and time plays a central role. The limit will be formulated in a quantum mechanical way. Within this framework we study derivations of the Landau Lifshitz equation for ferromagnets. This equation is a macroscopic equation of motion for the magnetization vector and results into the theory of spin waves. Since we have no exact knowledge of the Heisenberg operator's time evolution no definitive statement an how to regain the Landau Lifshitz equation from the microscopic dynamics can be given. In contrast to the Heisenberg operator, for an Ising type interaction inside a ferromagnet one is able to recover macroscopically a solution of a linearized Landau Lifschitz equation. (author)

  4. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  5. Nonlinear waves and pattern dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2018-01-01

    This book addresses the fascinating phenomena associated with nonlinear waves and spatio-temporal patterns. These appear almost everywhere in nature from sand bed forms to brain patterns, and yet their understanding still presents fundamental scientific challenges. The reader will learn here, in particular, about the current state-of-the art and new results in: Nonlinear water waves: resonance, solitons, focusing, Bose-Einstein condensation, as well as and their relevance for the sea environment (sea-wind interaction, sand bed forms, fiber clustering) Pattern formation in non-equilibrium media: soap films, chimera patterns in oscillating media, viscoelastic Couette-Taylor flow, flow in the wake behind a heated cylinder, other pattern formation. The editors and authors dedicate this book to the memory of Alexander Ezersky, Professor of Fluid Mechanics at the University of Caen Normandie (France) from September 2007 to July 2016. Before 2007, he had served as a Senior Scientist at the Institute of Applied Physi...

  6. Waves in magnetized quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogaça, D. A.; Sanches, S. M.; Navarra, F. S.

    2018-05-01

    We study wave propagation in a non-relativistic cold quark-gluon plasma immersed in a constant magnetic field. Starting from the Euler equation we derive linear wave equations and investigate their stability and causality. We use a generic form for the equation of state, the EOS derived from the MIT bag model and also a variant of the this model which includes gluon degrees of freedom. The results of this analysis may be relevant for perturbations propagating through the quark matter phase in the core of compact stars and also for perturbations propagating in the low temperature quark-gluon plasma formed in low energy heavy ion collisions, to be carried out at FAIR and NICA.

  7. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of resonant electrons interacting with coherent Langmuir waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, Miwa; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2018-03-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of resonant particles interacting with coherent waves in space plasmas. Magnetospheric plasma waves such as whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and hiss emissions contain coherent wave structures with various discrete frequencies. Although these waves are electromagnetic, their interaction with resonant particles can be approximated by equations of motion for a charged particle in a one-dimensional electrostatic wave. The equations are expressed in the form of nonlinear pendulum equations. We perform test particle simulations of electrons in an electrostatic model with Langmuir waves and a non-oscillatory electric field. We solve equations of motion and study the dynamics of particles with different values of inhomogeneity factor S defined as a ratio of the non-oscillatory electric field intensity to the wave amplitude. The simulation results demonstrate deceleration/acceleration, thermalization, and trapping of particles through resonance with a single wave, two waves, and multiple waves. For two-wave and multiple-wave cases, we describe the wave-particle interaction as either coherent or incoherent based on the probability of nonlinear trapping.

  9. INTERFERENCE FRINGES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES AROUND SUNSPOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dean-Yi; Zhao Hui; Yang, Ming-Hsu; Liang, Zhi-Chao, E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-20

    Solar acoustic waves are scattered by a sunspot due to the interaction between the acoustic waves and the sunspot. The sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave. The scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave around the sunspot. The interference fringes between the scattered wave and the incident wave are visible in the intensity of the total wave because the coherent time of the incident wave is of the order of a wave period. The strength of the interference fringes anti-correlates with the width of temporal spectra of the incident wave. The separation between neighboring fringes increases with the incident wavelength and the sunspot size. The strength of the fringes increases with the radial order n of the incident wave from n = 0 to n = 2, and then decreases from n = 2 to n = 5. The interference fringes play a role analogous to holograms in optics. This study suggests the feasibility of using the interference fringes to reconstruct the scattered wavefields of the sunspot, although the quality of the reconstructed wavefields is sensitive to the noise and errors in the interference fringes.

  10. Simulation of Irregular Waves and Wave Induced Loads on Wind Power Plants in Shallow Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumars, Jenny [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Water Environment Transport

    2004-05-01

    The essay gives a short introduction to waves and discusses the problem with non-linear waves in shallow water and how they effect an offshore wind energy converter. The focus is on the realisation of non-linear waves in the time domain from short-term statistics in the form of a variance density spectrum of the wave elevation. For this purpose the wave transformation from deep water to the near to shore site of a wind energy farm at Bockstigen has been calculated with the use of SWAN (Simulating Waves Near Shore). The result is a wave spectrum, which can be used as input to the realisation. The realisation of waves is done by perturbation theory to the first and second-order. The properties calculated are the wave elevation, water particle velocity and acceleration. The wave heights from the second order perturbation equations are higher than those from the first order perturbation equations. This is also the case for the water particle kinematics. The increase of variance is significant between the first order and the second order realisation. The calculated wave elevation exhibits non-linear features as the peaks become sharper and the troughs flatter. The resulting forces are calculated using Morison's equation. For second order force and base moment there is an increase in the maximum values. The force and base moment are largest approximately at the zero up and down crossing of the wave elevation. This indicates an inertia dominated wave load. So far the flexibility and the response of the structure have not been taken into account. They are, however, of vital importance. For verification of the wave model the results will later on be compared with measurements at Bockstigen off the coast of Gotland in the Baltic Sea.

  11. A simple and realistic triton wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitz-Adler, J.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple triton wave function that consists of a product of three correlation operators operating on a three-body spin-isospin state. This wave function is formally similar to that used in the recent variational theories of nuclear matter, the main difference being in the long-range behavior of the correlation operators. Variational calculations are carried out with the Reid potential, using this wave function in the so-called 'symmetrized product' and 'independent pair' forms. The triton energy and density distributions obtained with the symmetrized product wave function agree with those obtained in Faddeev and other variational calculations using harmonic oscillator states. The proposed wave function and calculational methods can be easily generalized to treat the four-nucleon α-particle. (orig.)

  12. The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO): A Portal to Heliophysics Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2010-01-01

    The Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO) is one of the discipline-oriented virtual observatories that help form the nascent NASA Heliophysics Data environment to support heliophysics research. It focuses on supporting the searching and accessing of distributed heliophysics wave data and information that are available online. Since the occurrence of a natural wave phenomenon often depends on the underlying geophysical -- i.e., context -- conditions under which the waves are generated and propagate, and the observed wave characteristics can also depend on the location of observation, VWO will implement wave-data search-by-context conditions and location, in addition to searching by time and observing platforms (both space-based and ground-based). This paper describes the VWO goals, the basic design objectives, and the key VWO functionality to be expected. Members of the heliophysics community are invited to participate in VWO development in order to ensure its usefulness and success.

  13. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived...... experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient...... to allow advanced control systems to be developed using this knowledge to significantly improve power capture....

  14. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedd, J.; Frigaard, P. [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient to allow advanced control systems to be developed using this knowledge to significantly improve power capture.

  15. Wave Packet Based Statistical Approach to Complex-Forming Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hua [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2017-12-06

    Combustion represents a key chemical process in energy consumption in modern societies and a clear and comprehensive understanding of the elemental reactions in combustion is of great importance to a number of challenging areas such as engine efficiency and environmental protection. In this award, we proposed to develop new theoretical tools to understand elemental chemical processes in combustion environments. With the support of this DOE grant, we have made significant advances in developing new and more efficient and accurate algorithms to characterize reaction dynamics.

  16. Wave form of current quench during disruptions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Gribov, Yuri; Shimada, Michiya; Lukash, Victor; Kawano, Yasunori; Yoshino, Ryuji; Miki, Nobuharu; Ohmori, Junji; Khayrutdinov, Rustam

    2003-01-01

    The time dependence of the current decay during the current quench phase of disruptions, which can significantly influence the electro-magnetic force on the in-vessel components due to the induced eddy currents, is investigated using data obtained in JT-60U experiments in order to derive a relevant physics guideline for the predictive simulations of disruptions in ITER. It is shown that an exponential decay can fit the time dependence of current quench for discharges with large quench rate (fast current quench). On the other hand, for discharges with smaller quench rate (slow current quench), a linear decay can fit the time dependence of current quench better than exponential. (author)

  17. Incident wave, infragravity wave, and non-linear low-frequency bore evolution across fringing coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Griffioen, D.; Cheriton, O. M.

    2016-12-01

    Coral reefs have been shown to significantly attenuate incident wave energy and thus provide protection for 100s of millions of people globally. To better constrain wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels over fringing coral reefs, a 4-month deployment of wave and tide gauges was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island and two transects on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. At all locations, although incident wave (periods 250 s) heights on the outer reef flat just inshore of the zone of wave breaking, the infragravity wave heights generally equaled the incident wave heights by the middle of the reef flat and exceeded the incident wave heights on the inner reef flat by the shoreline. The infragravity waves generally were asymmetric, positively skewed, bore-like forms with incident-band waves riding the infragravity wave crest at the head of the bore; these wave packets have similar structure to high-frequency internal waves on an internal wave bore. Bore height was shown to scale with water depth, offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. For a given tidal elevation, with increasing offshore wave heights, such bores occurred more frequently on the middle reef flat, whereas they occurred less frequently on the inner reef flat. Skewed, asymmetric waves are known to drive large gradients in velocity and shear stress that can transport material onshore. Thus, a better understanding of these low-frequency, energetic bores on reef flats is critical to forecasting how coral reef-lined coasts may respond to sea-level rise and climate change.

  18. Gravitational Wave Detection in the Introductory Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2017-05-01

    A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, two black holes, one of mass 36 solar masses and the other of mass 29 solar masses, were dancing their death waltz, leading to their coalescence and the emission of gravitational waves carrying away with them three solar masses of energy. More precisely, it happened 1.3 billion years ago at a distance of 410 Mpc. When the waves were emitted, the most complex life forms on Earth were eukaryotes. As the gravitational waves propagated toward Earth, it changed much. Five hundred million years after the waves were emitted, or 800 million years ago, the first multicellular life forms emerged on Earth. Earth saw the Cambrian explosion 500 million years ago. Sixty-six million years ago the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event caused the disappearance of the dinosaurs. The first modern humans appeared 250,000 years ago.

  19. Electromagnetic waves in gravitational wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, M.; Bini, D.; Ortolan, A.; Fortini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have considered the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a space-time representing an exact gravitational plane wave and calculated the induced changes on the four-potential field Aμ of a plane electromagnetic wave. By choosing a suitable photon round-trip in a Michelson interferometer, we have been able to identify the physical effects of the exact gravitational wave on the electromagnetic field, i.e. phase shift, change of the polarization vector, angular deflection and delay. These results have been exploited to study the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector beyond the linear approximation of the general theory of relativity. A much more detailed examination of this problem can be found in our paper recently published in Classical and Quantum Gravity (28 (2011) 235007).

  20. A numerical study of the wave shoaling effect on wind-wave momentum flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xuanting; Shen, Lian

    2017-11-01

    Momentum transfer between wind and waves is crucial to many physical processes in air-sea interactions. For decades, there has been a number of observational evidence that the surface roughness in the nearshore region is notably higher than in the open sea. In order to explain the mechanism behind this important phenomenon, in particular the wave shoaling effect on surface roughness, we conduct a series of numerical experiments using the wind-wave module of WOW (Wave-Ocean-Wind), a high-fidelity computational framework developed in house. We use prescribed monochromatic waves with linear shoaling effect incorporated, while the wind field is simulated using wall-resolved large-eddy simulation. A comparison between a shallow water wave case and deep water wave cases shows remarkably stronger wave effects on the wind for the former. Detailed analyses show that the increased surface roughness is closely associated with the increased form drag that is mainly due to the reduced wave age in wave shoaling.

  1. Gravity wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.

    1979-01-01

    The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted

  2. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  3. Finsler pp-waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuster, A.; Pabst, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a Finslerian version of the well-known pp-waves, which generalizes the very special relativity (VSR) line element. Our Finsler pp-waves are an exact solution of Finslerian Einstein's equations in vacuum.

  4. Atom Wave Interferometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchard, David

    2000-01-01

    Long-term research objective: Matter wave interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and then recombined to produce interference fringes, have opened exciting new possibilities for precision and fundamental...

  5. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  6. Detonation Wave Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-12-14

    The Zel’dovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) profile of a detonation wave is derived. Two basic assumptions are required: i. An equation of state (EOS) for a partly burned explosive; P(V, e, λ). ii. A burn rate for the reaction progress variable; d/dt λ = R(V, e, λ). For a steady planar detonation wave the reactive flow PDEs can be reduced to ODEs. The detonation wave profile can be determined from an ODE plus algebraic equations for points on the partly burned detonation loci with a specified wave speed. Furthermore, for the CJ detonation speed the end of the reaction zone is sonic. A solution to the reactive flow equations can be constructed with a rarefaction wave following the detonation wave profile. This corresponds to an underdriven detonation wave, and the rarefaction is know as a Taylor wave.

  7. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  8. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  9. Dispersionless wave packets in Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubský, Vít; Tušek, Matěj

    2017-01-01

    We show that a wide class of quantum systems with translational invariance can host dispersionless, soliton-like, wave packets. We focus on the setting where the effective, two-dimensional Hamiltonian acquires the form of the Dirac operator. The proposed framework for construction of the dispersionless wave packets is illustrated on silicene-like systems with topologically nontrivial effective mass. Our analytical predictions are accompanied by a numerical analysis and possible experimental realizations are discussed.

  10. Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.

  11. Acceleration of auroral electrons by waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.S.

    1983-06-01

    The evolution of the auroral electron distribution function as the electrons traverse a region of plasma turbulence is discussed. Electron measurements are used to illustrate that if the energy densities of the waves associated with the turbulence are distributed in a particular way, various features of the electron distributions can be accounted for by changes in the details of the wave spectra without changes in the overall form. (author)

  12. On the theory of wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some aspects of the theory of wave packets. We consider a popular non-covariant Gaussian model used in various applications and show that it predicts too slow a longitudinal dispersion rate for relativistic particles. We revise this approach by considering a covariant model of Gaussian wave packets, and examine our results by inspecting a wave packet of an arbitrary form. A general formula for the time dependence of the dispersion of a wave packet of an arbitrary form is found. Finally, we give a transparent interpretation of the disappearance of the wave function over time due to the dispersion - a feature often considered undesirable, but which is unavoidable for wave packets. We find, starting with simple examples, proceeding with their generalizations and finally by considering the continuity equation, that the integral over time of both the flux and probability densities is asymptotically proportional to the factor 1/|x| 2 in the rest frame of the wave packet, just as in the case of an ensemble of classical particles

  13. Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.

  14. An axisymmetric inertia-gravity wave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, P.; Ghaemsaidi, S. J.; Joubaud, S.; Peacock, T.; Odier, P.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a rich interplay between laboratory experimental studies of internal waves and advancing understanding of their role in the ocean and atmosphere. In this study, we present and demonstrate the concept for a new form of laboratory internal wave generator that can excite axisymmetric wave fields of arbitrary radial structure. The construction and operation of the generator are detailed, and its capabilities are demonstrated through a pair of experiments using a Bessel function and a bourrelet (i.e., ring-shaped) configuration. The results of the experiments are compared with the predictions of an accompanying analytical model.

  15. Local Tensor Radiation Conditions For Elastic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2001-01-01

    A local boundary condition is formulated, representing radiation of elastic waves from an arbitrary point source. The boundary condition takes the form of a tensor relation between the stress at a point on an arbitrarily oriented section and the velocity and displacement vectors at the point....... The tensor relation generalizes the traditional normal incidence impedance condition by accounting for the angle between wave propagation and the surface normal and by including a generalized stiffness term due to spreading of the waves. The effectiveness of the local tensor radiation condition...

  16. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve

  17. Seismic Wave Propagation in Layered Viscoelastic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in the general theory of wave propagation in layered viscoelastic media reveal new insights regarding seismic waves in the Earth. For example, the theory predicts: 1) P and S waves are predominantly inhomogeneous in a layered anelastic Earth with seismic travel times, particle-motion orbits, energy speeds, Q, and amplitude characteristics that vary with angle of incidence and hence, travel path through the layers, 2) two types of shear waves exist, one with linear and the other with elliptical particle motions each with different absorption coefficients, and 3) surface waves with amplitude and particle motion characteristics not predicted by elasticity, such as Rayleigh-Type waves with tilted elliptical particle motion orbits and Love-Type waves with superimposed sinusoidal amplitude dependencies that decay exponentially with depth. The general theory provides closed-form analytic solutions for body waves, reflection-refraction problems, response of multiple layers, and surface wave problems valid for any material with a viscoelastic response, including the infinite number of models, derivable from various configurations of springs and dashpots, such as elastic, Voight, Maxwell, and Standard Linear. The theory provides solutions independent of the amount of intrinsic absorption and explicit analytic expressions for physical characteristics of body waves in low-loss media such as the deep Earth. The results explain laboratory and seismic observations, such as travel-time and wide-angle reflection amplitude anomalies, not explained by elasticity or one dimensional Q models. They have important implications for some forward modeling and inverse problems. Theoretical advances and corresponding numerical results as recently compiled (Borcherdt, 2008, Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media, Cambridge University Press) will be reviewed.

  18. Waves in unmagnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, A.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)

  19. Wave Dragon MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the experience gained a full scale, multi MW prototype...

  20. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  1. B-waves revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spiegelberg

    2016-12-01

    With the still unmet need for a clinically acceptable method for acquiring intracranial compliance, and the revival of ICP waveform analysis, B-waves are moving back into the research focus. Herein we provide a concise review of the literature on B-waves, including a critical assessment of non-invasive methods for obtaining B-wave surrogates.

  2. Bragg grating rogue wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degasperis, Antonio [Dipartimento di Fisica, “Sapienza” Università di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Wabnitz, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.wabnitz@unibs.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Università degli Studi di Brescia and INO-CNR, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Aceves, Alejandro B. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States)

    2015-06-12

    We derive the rogue wave solution of the classical massive Thirring model, that describes nonlinear optical pulse propagation in Bragg gratings. Combining electromagnetically induced transparency with Bragg scattering four-wave mixing may lead to extreme waves at extremely low powers.

  3. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  4. Instability of a planar expansion wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Zalesak, S.T.; Metzler, N.; Wouchuk, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    An expansion wave is produced when an incident shock wave interacts with a surface separating a fluid from a vacuum. Such an interaction starts the feedout process that transfers perturbations from the rippled inner (rear) to the outer (front) surface of a target in inertial confinement fusion. Being essentially a standing sonic wave superimposed on a centered expansion wave, a rippled expansion wave in an ideal gas, like a rippled shock wave, typically produces decaying oscillations of all fluid variables. Its behavior, however, is different at large and small values of the adiabatic exponent γ. At γ>3, the mass modulation amplitude δm in a rippled expansion wave exhibits a power-law growth with time ∝t β , where β=(γ-3)/(γ-1). This is the only example of a hydrodynamic instability whose law of growth, dependent on the equation of state, is expressed in a closed analytical form. The growth is shown to be driven by a physical mechanism similar to that of a classical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the opposite extreme γ-1 -1/2 , and then starts to decrease. The mechanism driving the growth is the same as that of Vishniac's instability of a blast wave in a gas with low γ. Exact analytical expressions for the growth rates are derived for both cases and favorably compared to hydrodynamic simulation results

  5. Wave-packet revivals for quantum systems with nondegenerate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, R.; Tudose, B.

    1996-01-01

    The revival structure of wave packets is examined for quantum systems having energies that depend on two nondegenerate quantum numbers. For such systems, the evolution of the wave packet is controlled by two classical periods and three revival times. These wave packets exhibit quantum beats in the initial motion as well as new types of long-term revivals. The issue of whether fractional revivals can form is addressed. We present an analytical proof showing that at certain times equal to rational fractions of the revival times the wave packet can reform as a sum of subsidiary waves and that both conventional and new types of fractional revivals can occur. (orig.)

  6. Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, S.; Maekawa, T.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Wave trajectories in high density tokamak plasmas are studied numerically. Results show that the ordinary wave injected at an appropriate incident angle can propagate into the dense plasmas and is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at the plasma cutoff, is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a folded curve near the upper hybrid resonance layer, and is cyclotron damped away, resulting in local electron heating before arriving at the cyclotron resonance layer. Similar trajectory and damping are obtained when a microwave in a form of extraordinary wave is injected quasi-perpendicularly in the direction of decreasing toroidal field

  7. Relativistic bound state wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micu, L.

    2005-01-01

    A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is

  8. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  9. The Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Hansen, R.; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type, utilizing a patented wave reflector design to focus the waves towards a ramp, and the overtopping is used for electricity production through a set of Kaplan/propeller hydro turbines. During the last 2 years, excessive...... design an testing has been performed on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, and on a scale 1:3:5 model turbine. Thus survivability, overtopping, hydraulic response, turbine performance and feasibility have been verified....

  10. Physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, William C

    1985-01-01

    Because of the increasing demands and complexity of undergraduate physics courses (atomic, quantum, solid state, nuclear, etc.), it is often impossible to devote separate courses to the classic wave phenomena of optics, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation. This brief comprehensive text helps alleviate the problem with a unique overview of classical wave theory in one volume.By examining a sequence of concrete and specific examples (emphasizing the physics of wave motion), the authors unify the study of waves, developing abstract and general features common to all wave motion. The fundam

  11. Crossing seas and occurrence of rogue waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The study is addressing crossing wave systems which may lead to formation of rogue waves. Onorato et al. (2006, 2010) have shown using the Nonlinear Schr?dringer (NLS) equations that the modulational instability and rogue waves can be triggered by a peculiar form of directional sea state, where two identical, crossing, narrow-banded random wave systems interact with each other. Such results have been underpinned by numerical simulations of the Euler equations solved with a Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and experimental observations (Toffoli et al., 2011). They substantiate a dependence of the angle between the mean directions of propagation of the two crossing wave systems, with a maximum rogue wave probability for angles of approximately 40 degrees. Such an unusual sea state of two almost identical wave systems (approximately the same significant wave height and mean frequency) with high steepness and different directions was observed during the accident to the cruise ship Louis Majesty (Cavaleri et al. 2012). Occurrence of wind sea and swell having almost the same spectral period and significant wave height and crossing at the angle 40o low and intermediate wave conditions. They have not been found in a location off coast of Australia and Nigeria. There are some indications that in the future climate we may expect an increase number of occurrence of rogue-prone crossing sea states in some ocean regions An adopted partitioning procedure of a wave spectrum will impact the results. References Bitner-Gregersen, E.M. and Toffoli, A., 2014. Probability of occurrence of rogue sea states and consequences for design of marine structures. Special Issue of Ocean Dynamics, ISSN 1616-7341, 64(10), DOI 10.1007/s10236-014-0753-2. Cavaleri, L., Bertotti, L., Torrisi, L. Bitner-Gregersen, E., Serio, M. and Onorato, M., 2012. Rogue Waves in Crossing Seas: The Louis Majesty accident. J. Geophysical Research, 117, C00J10, doi:10.1029/2012JC007923 Onorato, M., A. Osborne, A

  12. Morphological development of coasts at very oblique wave incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dorthe Pia; Deigaard, Rolf; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on one distinct feature to be found on coasts exposed to a very oblique wave incidence, namely an accumulating spit. That is a spit where no retreat of the shoreline is going on along the spit. This requires a monotonically decreasing sediment transport capacity from the updrift...... that such a spit grows without changing its shape i.e. an equilibrium form emerge if the coast is exposed to a constant wave climate. During experiments conducted in a wave tank where a uniform stretch of coast was exposed to waves approaching at a very oblique angle an accumulating spit was formed at the down......-drift end of the coast. The spits approached equilibrium forms when constant wave climates were applied. The sediment transport around the spit has been investigated by two-dimensional models. The characteristic length scale for the equilibrium form depends linearly on the width of the surf zone...

  13. Characteristics of the solitary waves and rogue waves with interaction phenomena in a (2 + 1)-dimensional Breaking Soliton equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md. Belal; Roshid, Harun-Or; Ali, M. Zulfikar

    2018-05-01

    Under inquisition in this paper is a (2 + 1)-dimensional Breaking Soliton equation, which can describe various nonlinear scenarios in fluid dynamics. Using the Bell polynomials, some proficient auxiliary functions are offered to apparently construct its bilinear form and corresponding soliton solutions which are different from the previous literatures. Moreover, a direct method is used to construct its rogue wave and solitary wave solutions using particular auxiliary function with the assist of bilinear formalism. Finally, the interactions between solitary waves and rogue waves are offered with a complete derivation. These results enhance the variety of the dynamics of higher dimensional nonlinear wave fields related to mathematical physics and engineering.

  14. Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueny, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional linear stability analysis may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipitation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave-wave coupling, which leads to explosive growth. In the dissipationaless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially non-resonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. This is illustrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counter-streaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamilitonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamilitonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, which occur generically for long enough wavelengths. Three-wave interactions which occur in isolated, but numerous, regions of parameter space can drive either decay instability or explosive instability. When the resonance for explosive growth is detuned, a stable region exists around the equilibrium point in phase space, while explosive growth occurs outside of a separatrix. These interactions may be described exactly if only one resonance is considered, while multiple nonlinear terms make the Hamiltonian nonintegradable. Simple Hamiltonians of two and three degrees of freedom are studied numerically using symplectic integration algorithms, including an explicit algorithm derived using Lie algebraic methods

  15. Linear waves and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1975-01-01

    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  16. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  17. Forming Spirals From Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    What causes the large-scale spiral structures found in some protoplanetary disks? Most models assume theyre created by newly-forming planets, but a new study suggests that planets might have nothing to do with it.Perturbations from Planets?In some transition disks protoplanetary disks with gaps in their inner regions weve directly imaged large-scale spiral arms. Many theories currently attribute the formation of these structures to young planets: either the direct perturbations of a planet embedded in the disk cause the spirals, or theyre indirectly caused by the orbit of a planetary body outside of the arms.Another example of spiral arms detected in a protoplanetary disk, MWC 758. [NASA/ESA/ESO/M. Benisty et al.]But what if you could get spirals without any planets? A team of scientists led by Matas Montesinos (University of Chile) have recently published a study in which they examine what happens to a shadowed protoplanetary disk.Casting Shadows with WarpsIn the teams setup, they envision a protoplanetary disk that is warped: the inner region is slightly tilted relative to the outer region. As the central star casts light out over its protoplanetary disk, this disk warping would cause some regions of the disk to be shaded in a way that isnt axially symmetric with potentially interesting implications.Montesinos and collaborators ran 2D hydrodynamics simulations to determine what happens to the motion of particles within the disk when they pass in and out of the shadowed regions. Since the shadowed regions are significantly colder than the illuminated disk, the pressure in these regions is much lower. Particles are therefore accelerated and decelerated as they pass through these regions, and the lack of axial symmetry causes spiral density waves to form in the disk as a result.Initial profile for the stellar heating rate per unit area for one of the authors simulations. The regions shadowed as a result of the disk warp subtend 0.5 radians each (shown on the left

  18. Determination of Focal Depths of Earthquakes in the Mid-Oceanic Ridges from Amplitude Spectra of Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-06-01

    Foreshock , mainshock and aftershock of the Parkfield, California earthquake of June 28, 1966. b. The Denver earthquake of August 9, 1967. Let us look...into the results of these tests in more details. (1) Test on the main shock, foreshock and aftershock of the Parkfield earthquake of June 28, 1966...According to McEvilly et. al. (1967), the origin times and locations of.these events were the following: Foreshock June 28, 1966, 04:08:56.2 GMT; 350 57.6

  19. Reciprocal mass tensor : a general form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Using the results of earlier treatment of wave packets, a general form of reciprocal mass tensor has been obtained. The elements of this tensor are seen to be dependent on momentum as well as space coordinates of the particle under consideration. The conditions under which the tensor would reduce to the usual space-independent form, are discussed and the impact of the space-dependence of this tensor on the motion of Bloch electrons, is examined. (author)

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic waves, electrohydrodynamic waves and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstoin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Two new subjects have lately attracted increased attention: the magnetohydrodynamics (m.h.d.) and the theory of lasers. Equally important is the subject of electrohydrodynamics (e.h.d.). Now, clearly, all electromagnetic waves carry photons; it is the merit of Louis de Broglie to have had reconciled the validity of the Maxwell equations with existence of the latter. I have, recently, derived L. de Broglie's equations from the equations C. It seems natural to assume that the m.h.d. waves carry also photons, but how to reconcile the m.h.d axioms with the existence of photons ... a problem which has, so far, escaped the notice of physicists. In the lines which follows, an attempt is made to incorporate the photons in the m.h.d. waves, re e.h.d. waves in a rather simple fashion

  1. Wave Overtopping Characteristics of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Simulation work has been used extensively with the Wave dragon and other overtopping devices to analyse the power production performance of them and to optimise the structural design and the control strategy. A time domain approach to this is well documented in Jakobsen & Frigaard 1999. Using...... measurements taken from the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning prototype, some of the previous assumptions have been slightly modified and improved upon, so that the simulation method better represents the reality of what is occurring....

  2. Interactions of solitary waves and compression/expansion waves in core-annular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Michelle; Anderson, Dalton; El, Gennady; Franco, Nevil; Hoefer, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The nonlinear hydrodynamics of an initial step leads to the formation of rarefaction waves and dispersive shock waves in dispersive media. Another hallmark of these media is the soliton, a localized traveling wave whose speed is amplitude dependent. Although compression/expansion waves and solitons have been well-studied individually, there has been no mathematical description of their interaction. In this talk, the interaction of solitons and shock/rarefaction waves for interfacial waves in viscous, miscible core-annular flows are modeled mathematically and explored experimentally. If the interior fluid is continuously injected, a deformable conduit forms whose interfacial dynamics are well-described by a scalar, dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation. The main focus is on interactions of solitons with dispersive shock waves and rarefaction waves. Theory predicts that a soliton can either be transmitted through or trapped by the extended hydrodynamic state. The notion of reciprocity is introduced whereby a soliton interacts with a shock wave in a reciprocal or dual fashion as with the rarefaction. Soliton reciprocity, trapping, and transmission are observed experimentally and are found to agree with the modulation theory and numerical simulations. This work was partially supported by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 (M.A.H.) and NSF GRFP (M.D.M.).

  3. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  4. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  5. Traveling waves in a spring-block chain sliding down a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J. E.; James, G.; Tonnelier, A.

    2017-07-01

    Traveling waves are studied in a spring slider-block model. We explicitly construct front waves (kinks) for a piecewise-linear spinodal friction force. Pulse waves are obtained as the matching of two traveling fronts with identical speeds. Explicit formulas are obtained for the wavespeed and the wave form in the anticontinuum limit. The link with localized waves in a Burridge-Knopoff model of an earthquake fault is briefly discussed.

  6. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  7. Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m model...... Spain, to evaluate the potential for reducing wave heights close the shore by means of Wave Dragons....

  8. Travelling waves in expanding spatially homogeneous space–times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, George

    2015-01-01

    Some classes of the so-called ‘travelling wave’ solutions of Einstein and Einstein–Maxwell equations in general relativity and of dynamical equations for massless bosonic fields in string gravity in four and higher dimensions are presented. Similarly to the well known plane-fronted waves with parallel rays (pp-waves), these travelling wave solutions may depend on arbitrary functions of a null coordinate which determine the arbitrary profiles and polarizations of the waves. However, in contrast with pp-waves, these waves do not admit the null Killing vector fields and can exist in some curved (expanding and spatially homogeneous) background space–times, where these waves propagate in certain directions without any scattering. Mathematically, some of these classes of solutions arise as the fixed points of Kramer–Neugebauer transformations for hyperbolic integrable reductions of the above mentioned field equations or, in other cases, after imposing the ansatz that these waves do not change the part of the spatial metric transverse to the direction of wave propagation. It is worth noting that the strikingly simple forms of all the solutions presented prospectively make possible the consideration of the nonlinear interaction of these waves with the background curvature and singularities, as well as the collision of such wave pulses with solitons or with each other in the backgrounds where such travelling waves may exist. (paper)

  9. Modulational instability, solitons and periodic waves in a model of quantum degenerate boson-fermion mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations modelling a quantum degenerate mixture of bosons and fermions. We analyze the stability of plane waves, give precise conditions for the existence of solitons and write explicit solutions in the form of periodic waves. We also check that the solitons observed previously in numerical simulations of the model correspond exactly to our explicit solutions and see how plane waves destabilize to form periodic waves

  10. Internal waves and temperature fronts on slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Thorpe

    Full Text Available Time series measurements from an array of temperature miniloggers in a line at constant depth along the sloping boundary of a lake are used to describe the `internal surf zone' where internal waves interact with the sloping boundary. More small positive temperature time derivatives are recorded than negative, but there are more large negative values than positive, giving the overall distribution of temperature time derivatives a small negative skewness. This is consistent with the internal wave dynamics; fronts form during the up-slope phase of the motion, bringing cold water up the slope, and the return flow may become unstable, leading to small advecting billows and weak warm fronts. The data are analysed to detect `events', periods in which the temperature derivatives exceed a set threshold. The speed and distance travelled by `events' are described. The motion along the slope may be a consequence of (a instabilities advected by the flow (b internal waves propagating along-slope or (c internal waves approaching the slope from oblique directions. The propagation of several of the observed 'events' can only be explained by (c, evidence that the internal surf zone has some, but possibly not all, the characteristics of the conventional 'surface wave' surf zone, with waves steepening as they approach the slope at oblique angles.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (benthic boundary layers; limnology, Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  11. Instability of a planar expansion wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A L; Zalesak, S T; Metzler, N; Wouchuk, J G

    2005-10-01

    An expansion wave is produced when an incident shock wave interacts with a surface separating a fluid from a vacuum. Such an interaction starts the feedout process that transfers perturbations from the rippled inner (rear) to the outer (front) surface of a target in inertial confinement fusion. Being essentially a standing sonic wave superimposed on a centered expansion wave, a rippled expansion wave in an ideal gas, like a rippled shock wave, typically produces decaying oscillations of all fluid variables. Its behavior, however, is different at large and small values of the adiabatic exponent gamma. At gamma > 3, the mass modulation amplitude delta(m) in a rippled expansion wave exhibits a power-law growth with time alpha(t)beta, where beta = (gamma - 3)/(gamma - 1). This is the only example of a hydrodynamic instability whose law of growth, dependent on the equation of state, is expressed in a closed analytical form. The growth is shown to be driven by a physical mechanism similar to that of a classical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the opposite extreme gamma - 1 gas with low . Exact analytical expressions for the growth rates are derived for both cases and favorably compared to hydrodynamic simulation results.

  12. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  13. Linear Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N.; Maz'ya, V.; Vainberg, B.

    2002-08-01

    This book gives a self-contained and up-to-date account of mathematical results in the linear theory of water waves. The study of waves has many applications, including the prediction of behavior of floating bodies (ships, submarines, tension-leg platforms etc.), the calculation of wave-making resistance in naval architecture, and the description of wave patterns over bottom topography in geophysical hydrodynamics. The first section deals with time-harmonic waves. Three linear boundary value problems serve as the approximate mathematical models for these types of water waves. The next section uses a plethora of mathematical techniques in the investigation of these three problems. The techniques used in the book include integral equations based on Green's functions, various inequalities between the kinetic and potential energy and integral identities which are indispensable for proving the uniqueness theorems. The so-called inverse procedure is applied to constructing examples of non-uniqueness, usually referred to as 'trapped nodes.'

  14. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  15. Analysis of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present book describes the most important aspects of wave analysis techniques applied to physical model tests. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave analysis software WaveLab 3, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In that respect it should be mentioned that supplementary...... to the present technical documentation exists also the online help document describing the WaveLab software in detail including all the inputs and output fields. In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald, Jacob Helm-Petersen and Morten Møller Jakobsen have contributed to the note. Their input is highly...... acknowledged. The outline of the book is as follows: • Chapter 2 and 3 describes analysis of waves in time and frequency domain. • Chapter 4 and 5 describes the separation of incident and reflected waves for the two-dimensional case. • Chapter 6 describes the estimation of the directional spectra which also...

  16. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  17. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  18. Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  19. The physics of orographic gravity wave drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A C Teixeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drag and momentum fluxes produced by gravity waves generated in flow over orography are reviewed, focusing on adiabatic conditions without phase transitions or radiation effects, and steady mean incoming flow. The orographic gravity wave drag is first introduced in its simplest possible form, for inviscid, linearized, non-rotating flow with the Boussinesq and hydrostatic approximations, and constant wind and static stability. Subsequently, the contributions made by previous authors (primarily using theory and numerical simulations to elucidate how the drag is affected by additional physical processes are surveyed. These include the effect of orography anisotropy, vertical wind shear, total and partial critical levels, vertical wave reflection and resonance, non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves, rotation and nonlinearity. Frictional and boundary layer effects are also briefly mentioned. A better understanding of all of these aspects is important for guiding the improvement of drag parametrization schemes.

  20. Clustering of cycloidal wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G.

    2016-03-29

    A wave energy conversion system uses a pair of wave energy converters (WECs) on respective active mountings on a floating platform, so that the separation of the WECs from each other or from a central WEC can be actively adjusted according to the wavelength of incident waves. The adjustable separation facilitates operation of the system to cancel reactive forces, which may be generated during wave energy conversion. Modules on which such pairs of WECs are mounted can be assembled with one or more central WECs to form large clusters in which reactive forces and torques can be made to cancel. WECs of different sizes can be employed to facilitate cancelation of reactive forces and torques.

  1. Use of sand wave habitats by silver hake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, P.J.; Lindholm, J.; Schaub, S.; Funnell, G.; Kaufman, L.S.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Silver hake Merluccius bilinearis are common members of fish communities in sand wave habitats on Georges Bank and on Stellwagen Bank in the Gulf of Maine. Observations of fish size v. sand wave period showed that silver hake are not randomly distributed within sand wave landscapes. Regression analyses showed a significant positive relationship between sand wave period and fish length. Correlation coefficients, however, were low, suggesting other interactions with sand wave morphology, the range of current velocities, and available prey may also influence their distribution. Direct contact with sand wave habitats varied over diel periods, with more fish resting on the seafloor during daytime than at night. Social foraging, in the form of polarized groups of fish swimming in linear formations during crepuscular and daytime periods, was also observed. Sand wave habitats may provide shelter from current flows and mediate fish-prey interactions. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. A possible form of the pion's structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Ming; Huang Tao

    1986-01-01

    The pion's structure function behaviour is discussed by using the Fock state expansion of the hadronic wave function in QCD in this paper. As an example, we employ a model wave function of the Fock state in the light-cone and assume a Regge behaviour of a weight function for higher Fock states, and we get a possible form of the pion's structure function. This form is consistent with experimental data of the pion's structure function

  3. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for generating a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content wherein a gain medium is pumped into a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  4. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  5. Dyakonov surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Crasovan, Lucian Cornel; Johansen, Steffen Kjær

    2008-01-01

    The interface of two semi-infinite media, where at least one of them is a birefringent crystal, supports a special type of surface wave that was predicted theoretically by D'yakonov in 1988. Since then, the properties of such waves, which exist in transparent media only under very special......, the existence of these surface waves in specific material examples is analyzed, discussing the challenge posed by their experimental observation....

  6. Gravitation Waves seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.

  7. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  8. Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.

  9. Nonlinear periodic space-charge waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    A solution is obtained in the form of coupled nonlinear periodic space-charge waves propagating in a magnetoactive plasma. The wave spectrum in the vicinity of the critical point, where the number of harmonics increases substantially, is found to fall with harmonic number as ∝ s -1/3 . Periodic space-charge waves are invoked to explain the zebra pattern in the radio emission from solar flares.

  10. Enhancement of particle-wave energy exchange by resonance sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-10-01

    It is shown that as the resonance condition of the particle-wave interaction is varied adiabatically, that the particles trapped in the wave will form phase space holes or clumps that can enhance the particle-wave energy exchange. This mechanism can cause much larger saturation levels of instabilities, and even allow the free energy associated with instability, to be tapped in a system that is linearly stable due to background dissipation

  11. On the construction of translationally invariant deformed wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola, R.

    1975-01-01

    Translationally invariant nuclear wave functions are constructed from deformed harmonic oscillator shell-model wave functions, with an exact projection of angular momentum quantum numbers. It is shown that the computation of matrix elements with the translationally invariant wave functions is as simple as the standard calculation, and formulae are obtained for (i) the potential energy, (ii) the kinetic energy and rms radius, and (iii) the charge form factor. (Auth.)

  12. An Introduction to Wave-Trapping in Supergranulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W; Hill, F

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to modelling waves trapped in a supergranular cell. The supergranular cell is generalized to the form of a hexagon with a cylinder inscribed within its boundaries. A cylindrical wave equation is implemented and solved and we account for the edges of the hexagon through boundary conditions. Plots are created of the solution and will serve as a test as to whether the model reflects actual wave conditions inside a single supergranular cell.

  13. Ambipolarons: Solitary wave solutions for the radial electric field in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The ambipolar radial electric field in a nonaxisymmetric plasma can be described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. This equation is shown to possess solitary wave solutions. A model nonlinear diffusion equation with a cubic nonlinearity is studied. An explicit analytic step-like form for the solitary wave is found. It is shown that the solitary wave solutions are linearly stable against all but translational perturbations. Collisions of these solitary waves are studied and three possible final states are found: two diverging solitary waves, two stationary solitary waves, or two converging solitary waves leading to annihilation

  14. Asymptotics of Heavy-Meson Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Grozin, A.G.; Grozin, Andrey G.; Neubert, Matthias

    1997-01-01

    Using methods developed for hard exclusive QCD processes, we calculate the asymptotic behaviour of heavy-meson form factors at large recoil. It is determined by the leading- and subleading-twist meson wave functions. For $1\\ll |v\\cdot v'|\\ll m_Q/\\Lambda$, the form factors are dominated by the Isgur--Wise function, which is determined by the interference between the wave functions of leading and subleading twist. At $|v\\cdot v'|\\gg m_Q/\\Lambda$, they are dominated by two functions arising at order $1/m_Q$ in the heavy-quark expansion, which are determined by the leading-twist wave function alone. The sum of these contributions describes the form factors in the whole region $|v\\cdot v'|\\gg 1$. As a consequence, there is an exact zero in the form factor for the scattering of longitudinally polarized $B^*$ mesons at some value $v\\cdot v'\\sim m_b/\\Lambda$, and an approximate zero in the form factor of $B$ mesons in the timelike region ($v\\cdot v'\\sim -m_b/\\Lambda$). We obtain the evolution equations and sum rules ...

  15. Bubbles and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The physical processes which control the transfer of gases between the atmosphere and oceans or lakes are poorly understood. Clouds of micro-bubbles have been detected below the surface of Loch Ness when the wind is strong enough to cause the waves to break. The rate of transfer of gas into solution from these bubbles is estimated to be significant if repeated on a global scale. We present here further evidence that the bubbles are caused by breaking waves, and discuss the relationship between the mean frequency of wave breaking at a fixed point and the average distance between breaking waves, as might be estimated from an aerial photograph.

  16. Five Waves of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus Møller; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Gertsen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Building on previous well-argued work by Jon Sundbo (1995a), on how innovation has evolved in three phases or waves since 1880, this paper’s contribution is extending the historical line, by offering arguments and explanations for two additional waves of innovation that explain the most recent...... developments. The paper also adds new interpretations of the previous work by Sundbo (1995a) in suggesting that the waves are triggered by societal and economic crisis. The result is a new theoretical and historical framework, proposing five waves of innovation triggered by societal and economic crises...

  17. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  18. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    The invention broadly involves a method and means for generating a traveling wave laser pulse and is basically analogous to a single pass light amplifier system. However, the invention provides a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content, wherein a gain medium is pumped in a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  19. Propagation of waves

    CERN Document Server

    David, P

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear

  20. Surfing surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Nick

    2017-11-01

    A simple criterion for water particles to surf an underlying surface gravity wave is presented. It is found that particles travelling near the phase speed of the wave, in a geometrically confined region on the forward face of the crest, increase in speed. The criterion is derived using the equation of John (Commun. Pure Appl. Maths, vol. 6, 1953, pp. 497-503) for the motion of a zero-stress free surface under the action of gravity. As an example, a breaking water wave is theoretically and numerically examined. Implications for upper-ocean processes, for both shallow- and deep-water waves, are discussed.

  1. Non-diffractive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E; Recami, Erasmo

    2013-01-01

    This continuation and extension of the successful book ""Localized Waves"" by the same editors brings together leading researchers in non-diffractive waves to cover the most important results in their field and as such is the first to present the current state.The well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments guides readers through the background of different types of non-diffractive waves, their generation, propagation, and possible applications. The authors include a historical account of the development of the field, and cover different types of non-diffractive waves, including Airy

  2. Maslov Shear-Waveforms in Highly Anisotropic Shales and Implications for Shear-Wave Splitting Analyses Formes d'onde transversales de Maslov dans les argiles fortement anisotropes et implications dans les analyses de biréfringence des ondes transversales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caddick J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shales are the most common sedimentary rocks in hydrocarbon environments often forming the source rock and trapping rock for a reservoir. Due to the platey nature of the constituent grains, shales are commonly anisotropic. In this paper we calculate seismic waveforms for highly anisotropic shales using Maslov asymptotic theory (MAT. This theory is an extension of classical ray theory which provides valid waveforms in regions of caustics (wavefront folding where ray theory amplitudes are unstable. Asymptotic ray theory (ART is based on the Fermat or geometrical ray which connects the source and receiver. In contrast, the Maslov solution integrates the contributions from neighbouring non-Fermat rays. Raypaths, travel-times, amplitudes and synthetic seismograms are presented for three highly anisotropic shales using a very simple 1D model comprised of an anisotropic shale overlying an isotropic shale. The ART waveforms fail to account for complex waveform effects due to triplications. In comparison, the MAT waveforms predict nonsingular amplitudes at wavefront cusps and it predicts the diffracted signals from these cusps. A Maslov solution which integrates ray contributions over a single slowness component will break down when rays focus in 3D (at a point rather than along a line. One of the tested shales shows such a point caustic and integration over 2 slowness components is required to remove the amplitude singularity. Finally, we examine the effects of wavefront triplications on Alford rotations which are used to estimate shear-wave splitting. In such cases, the rotation successfully finds the fast shear-wave polarization, but it can be unreliable in its estimate of the time separation. Les argiles sont les roches sédimentaires les plus répandues dans l'environnement des hydrocarbures, et forment souvent la roche mère et la roche des pièges pétrolifères. En raison de la structure en plaques des grains, les argiles sont g

  3. New Wave in the Perception of New Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ristivojević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis of contemporary ideas about new wave music formed by generations born after 1980, in the "post-new wave" period. The ever more evident tendency to revitalize and re-actualize the new wave phenomenon at the local level, as well as the identities which stem from it, is indicative not only of the importance of this musical concept but its interdependence with the local community. The echoes of different contemporary narratives about this phenomenon influence the forming of a set of notions about, on the one hand, new wave itself, and on the other – notions about Belgrade of that time period, among generations which form their opinions and perceptions of it indirectly, and after the fact. The aim of the paper is to answer the question of the extent to which young people today are familiar with new wave and what the concept represents for them.

  4. Radial wave crystals: radially periodic structures from anisotropic metamaterials for engineering acoustic or electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2009-08-07

    We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.

  5. Leading Wave Amplitude of a Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.

    2015-12-01

    Okal and Synolakis (EGU General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts-Vol. 17-7622) recently discussed that why the maximum amplitude of a tsunami might not occur for the first wave. Okal and Synolakis list observations from 2011 Japan tsunami, which reached to Papeete, Tahiti with a fourth wave being largest and 72 min later after the first wave; 1960 Chilean tsunami reached Hilo, Hawaii with a maximum wave arriving 1 hour later with a height of 5m, first wave being only 1.2m. Largest later waves is a problem not only for local authorities both in terms of warning to the public and rescue efforts but also mislead the public thinking that it is safe to return shoreline or evacuated site after arrival of the first wave. Okal and Synolakis considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) linear dispersive analytical solution with a tsunami generation through an uplifting of a circular plug on the ocean floor. They performed parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean since these are the independent scaling lengths in the problem. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, regarding the parameters of the problem. Here, we extend their analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common tsunami initial wave form of N-wave as presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112). We compare our results with non-dispersive linear shallow water wave results as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015), investigating focusing feature. We discuss the results both in terms of leading wave amplitude and tsunami focusing. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk

  6. Typology of nonlinear activity waves in a layered neural continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Paul; Leisman, Gerry

    2006-04-01

    Neural tissue, a medium containing electro-chemical energy, can amplify small increments in cellular activity. The growing disturbance, measured as the fraction of active cells, manifests as propagating waves. In a layered geometry with a time delay in synaptic signals between the layers, the delay is instrumental in determining the amplified wavelengths. The growth of the waves is limited by the finite number of neural cells in a given region of the continuum. As wave growth saturates, the resulting activity patterns in space and time show a variety of forms, ranging from regular monochromatic waves to highly irregular mixtures of different spatial frequencies. The type of wave configuration is determined by a number of parameters, including alertness and synaptic conditioning as well as delay. For all cases studied, using numerical solution of the nonlinear Wilson-Cowan (1973) equations, there is an interval in delay in which the wave mixing occurs. As delay increases through this interval, during a series of consecutive waves propagating through a continuum region, the activity within that region changes from a single-frequency to a multiple-frequency pattern and back again. The diverse spatio-temporal patterns give a more concrete form to several metaphors advanced over the years to attempt an explanation of cognitive phenomena: Activity waves embody the "holographic memory" (Pribram, 1991); wave mixing provides a plausible cause of the competition called "neural Darwinism" (Edelman, 1988); finally the consecutive generation of growing neural waves can explain the discontinuousness of "psychological time" (Stroud, 1955).

  7. Resonances and surface waves in bounded plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, K.J.; Qui, D.W.; Smith, H.B.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    Surface waves provide a promising means of creating large, area plasmas. These waves can uniformly distribute the excitation energy and while presenting a small resistance and zero reactance to the driving source. Experimentally and in the simulations, the electron temperature is low (like 1--3 eV) as is the plasma potential (like 10 Te). The use of surface waves experimentally, and now industrially, to sustain large area plasma sources with device size is comparable to free space wavelength have motivated the authors to refine the theories of [1] and [2] to be fully electromagnetic. The wave dispersion predicted by the electromagnetic theory differs from the predictions of the prior theories and the results illuminate limitations of the electrostatic model. The use of surface waves have also motivated them to explore the mechanisms by which surface waves heat the plasma. In the 1d electrostatic simulations high velocity electron bunches are formed in the sheaths and are alternatively accelerated from each sheath into the bulk plasma each RF cycle. They speculate similar mechanisms provide the ionization in surface wave discharges. They also see in these simulations the plasma makes an abrupt transition from capacitively coupled to resistively coupled and the series resonance locks onto the drive frequency; these abrupt transitions resemble mode-jumping seen experimentally in large area sources. Furthermore, the density profile of the plasma tracks the drive frequency while in the resonant mode giving a new mechanism by which the plasma parameters can be controlled. They are currently investigating the effect of the driving electrode shape has on these resonances and conducting 2d simulations of a large area surface wave source to explore the ignition of surface wave devices and how the plasma fills in the device

  8. Full-wave calculation of fast-wave current drive in tokamaks including kparallel upshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.F.; Batchelor, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical calculations of fast-wave current drive (FWCD) efficiency have generally been of two types: ray tracing or global wave calculations. Ray tracing shows that the projection of the wave number (k parallel) along the magnetic field can vary greatly over a ray trajectory, particularly when the launch point is above or below the equatorial plane. As the wave penetrates toward the center of the plasma, k parallel increases, causing a decrease in the parallel phase speed and a corresponding decrease in the current drive efficiency, γ. But the assumptions of geometrical optics, namely short wavelength and strong single-pass absorption, are not greatly applicable in FWCD scenarios. Eigenmode structure, which is ignored in ray tracing, can play an important role in determining electric field strength and Landau damping rates. In such cases, a full-wave or global solution for the wave fields is desirable. In full-wave calculations such as ORION k parallel appear as a differential operator (rvec B·∇) in the argument of the plasma dispersion function. Since this leads to a differential system of infinite order, such codes of necessity assume k parallel ∼ k var-phi = const, where k var-phi is the toroidal wave number. Thus, it is not possible to correctly include effects of the poloidal magnetic field on k parallel. The problem can be alleviated by expressing the electric field as a superposition of poloidal modes, in which case k parallel is purely algebraic. This paper describes a new full-wave calculation, Poloidal Ion Cyclotron Expansion Solution, which uses poloidal and toroidal mode expansions to solve the wave equation in general flux coordinates. The calculation includes a full solution for E parallel and uses a reduced-order form of the plasma conductivity tensor to eliminate numerical problems associated with resolution of the very short wavelength ion Bernstein wave

  9. Wave Mechanics or Wave Statistical Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Shangwu; Xu Laizi

    2007-01-01

    By comparison between equations of motion of geometrical optics and that of classical statistical mechanics, this paper finds that there should be an analogy between geometrical optics and classical statistical mechanics instead of geometrical mechanics and classical mechanics. Furthermore, by comparison between the classical limit of quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics, it finds that classical limit of quantum mechanics is classical statistical mechanics not classical mechanics, hence it demonstrates that quantum mechanics is a natural generalization of classical statistical mechanics instead of classical mechanics. Thence quantum mechanics in its true appearance is a wave statistical mechanics instead of a wave mechanics.

  10. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  11. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lamb, Bradford [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Prudell, Joseph [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hammagren, Erik [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  12. Pressure vessel made by free forming using underwater explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iyama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Explosive forming is one particular forming technique, in which, mostcommonly, water is used as the pressure transmission medium. In recentyears, we have done the development of the method which obtains anecessary form of the metal by the control of underwater shock wave actson the metal plate, without a metal die. On the other hand, the pressurevessel is required in various fields, but we think that the free forming usingthe underwater shock wave is advantageous in the production of pressurevessel of a simple spherical, ellipse, parabola shape. In this paper, we willintroduce an experiment and several numerical simulations that we carriedout for this technical development.

  13. Development of a 2 MW relativistic backward wave oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a high power relativistic backward wave oscillator (BWO) experiment is reported. A 230 keV, 2 kA, 150 ns relativistic electron beam is generated using a Marx generator. The beam is then injected into a hollow rippled wall metallic cylindrical tube that forms a slow wave structure. The beam is guided using an ...

  14. Stochastic procedures for extreme wave induced responses in flexible ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Seng, Sopheak

    2014-01-01

    Different procedures for estimation of the extreme global wave hydroelastic responses in ships are discussed. Firstly, stochastic procedures for application in detailed numerical studies (CFD) are outlined. The use of the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) to generate critical wave episodes...

  15. Spherical-wave expansions of piston-radiator fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, R C; Yaghjian, A D

    1991-09-01

    Simple spherical-wave expansions of the continuous-wave fields of a circular piston radiator in a rigid baffle are derived. These expansions are valid throughout the illuminated half-space and are useful for efficient numerical computation in the near-field region. Multipole coefficients are given by closed-form expressions which can be evaluated recursively.

  16. Seasonal wave power distribution around the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    different seasons viz. southwest monsoon, northeast monsoon and nonmonsoon period were computed for various regions in the form of 10 grids and are presented here. The study shows that average annual wave power potential per metre length of the wave crest...

  17. Curvature collineations for the field of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Singh, Gulab

    1981-01-01

    It has been shown that the space-times formed from a plane-fronted gravity wave and from a plane sandwich wave with constant polarisation admit proper curvature collineation in general. The curvature collineation vectors have been determined explicitly. (author)

  18. Electroweak form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present status of electroweak nucleon form factors and the N - Δ transition form factors is reviewed. Particularly the determination of dipole mass M A in the axial vector form factor is discussed

  19. Making waves: visualizing fluid flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers, Wout; Zwart, Valerie; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-01-01

    We explore the visualization of violent wave dynamics and erosion by waves and jets in laser-cut reliefs, laser engravings, and three-dimensional printing. For this purpose we built table-top experiments to cast breaking waves, and also explored the creation of extreme or rogue waves in larger wave

  20. Skeletonized Least Squares Wave Equation Migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2010-01-01

    of the wave equation. Only the early‐arrivals of these Green's functions are saved and skeletonized to form the migration Green's function (MGF) by convolution. Then the migration image is obtained by a dot product between the recorded shot gathers and the MGF

  1. Shielded serpentine traveling wave tube deflection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C.L.; Spector, J.

    1994-12-27

    A shielded serpentine slow wave deflection structure is disclosed having a serpentine signal conductor within a channel groove. The channel groove is formed by a serpentine channel in a trough plate and a ground plane. The serpentine signal conductor is supported at its ends by coaxial feed through connectors. A beam interaction trough intersects the channel groove to form a plurality of beam interaction regions wherein an electron beam may be deflected relative to the serpentine signal conductor. 4 figures.

  2. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  3. Power from Ocean Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  4. Magnetospheric plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawhan, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of plasma wave observations in the Earth's magnetosphere is recounted and a classification of the identified plasma wave phenomena is presented. The existence of plasma waves is discussed in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the plasma, the energetic particle populations and the proposed generation mechanisms. Examples are given for which plasmas waves have provided information about the plasma parameters and particle characteristics once a reasonable theory has been developed. Observational evidence and arguments by analogy to the observed Earth plasma wave processes are used to identify plasma waves that may be significant in other planetary magnetospheres. The similarities between the observed characteristics of the terrestrial kilometric radiation and radio bursts from Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus are stressed. Important scientific problems concerning plasma wave processes in the solar system and beyond are identified and discussed. Models for solar flares, flare star radio outbursts and pulsars include elements which are also common to the models for magnetospheric radio bursts. Finally, a listing of the research and development in terms of instruments, missions, laboratory experiments, theory and computer simulations needed to make meaningful progress on the outstanding scientific problems of plasma wave research is given. (Auth.)

  5. Those Elusive Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)

  6. Developing de Broglie Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Johansson J. X.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic component waves, comprising together with their generating oscillatory massless charge a material particle, will be Doppler shifted when the charge hence particle is in motion, with a velocity v, as a mere mechanical consequence of the source motion. We illustrate here that two such component waves generated in opposite directions and propagating at speed c between walls in a one-dimensional box, superpose into a traveling beat wave of wavelength Λd=vcΛ and phase velocity c2/v+v which resembles directly L. de Broglie’s hypothetic phase wave. This phase wave in terms of transmitting the particle mass at the speed v and angular frequency Ωd= 2πv/Λd, with Λd and Ωd obeying the de Broglie relations, represents a de Broglie wave. The standing-wave function of the de Broglie (phase wave and its variables for particle dynamics in small geometries are equivalent to the eigen-state solutions to Schrödinger equation of an identical system.

  7. Supergranular waves revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langfellner, Jan; Birch, Aaron; Gizon, Laurent

    2017-08-01

    Solar supergranules remain a mysterious phenomenon, half a century after their discovery. One particularly interesting aspect of supergranulation is its wave-like nature detected in Fourier space. Using SDO/HMI local helioseismology and granulation tracking, we provide new evidence for supergranular waves. We also discuss their influence on the evolution of the network magnetic field using cork simulations.

  8. Vector financial rogue waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-01-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.

  9. Gravitational waves from inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-01-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  10. Parametric analysis of change in wave number of surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the dependence of the change wave number of materials soil constants, ie the frequency of the waves. The starting point in this analysis cosists of wave equation and dynamic stiffness matrix of soil.

  11. Rotating magnetic shallow water waves and instabilities in a sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Artavia, X.; Jones, C. A.; Tobias, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    Waves in a thin layer on a rotating sphere are studied. The effect of a toroidal magnetic field is considered, using the shallow water ideal MHD equations. The work is motivated by suggestions that there is a stably stratified layer below the Earth's core mantle boundary, and the existence of stable layers in stellar tachoclines. With an azimuthal background field known as the Malkus field, ?, ? being the co-latitude, a non-diffusive instability is found with azimuthal wavenumber ?. A necessary condition for instability is that the Alfvén speed exceeds ? where ? is the rotation rate and ? the sphere radius. Magneto-inertial gravity waves propagating westward and eastward occur, and become equatorially trapped when the field is strong. Magneto-Kelvin waves propagate eastward at low field strength, but a new westward propagating Kelvin wave is found when the field is strong. Fast magnetic Rossby waves travel westward, whilst the slow magnetic Rossby waves generally travel eastward, except for some ? modes at large field strength. An exceptional very slow westward ? magnetic Rossby wave mode occurs at all field strengths. The current-driven instability occurs for ? when the slow and fast magnetic Rossby waves interact. With strong field the magnetic Rossby waves become trapped at the pole. An asymptotic analysis giving the wave speed and wave form in terms of elementary functions is possible both in polar trapped and equatorially trapped cases.

  12. Slow wave cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, T.H.; Lin, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclotron masers such as Gyrotrons and the Autoresonance Masers, are fast wave devices: the electromagnetic wave's phase velocity v rho , is greater than the electron beam velocity, v b . To be able to convert the beam kinetic energy into radiation in these devices the beam must have an initial transverse momentum, usually obtained by propagating the beam through a transverse wiggler magnet, or along a nonuniform guide magnetic field before entry into the interaction region. Either process introduces a significant amount of thermal spread in the beam which degrades the performance of the maser. However, if the wave phase velocity v rho v b , the beam kinetic energy can be converted directly into radiation without the requirement of an initial transverse beam momentum, making a slow wave cyclotron maser a potentially simpler and more compact device. The authors present the linear and nonlinear physics of the slow wave cyclotron maser and examine its potential for practical application

  13. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-10-24

    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  14. Cold plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    The book aims to present current knowledge concerning the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous magnetoplasma for which temperature effects are unimportant. It places roughly equal emphasis on the radio and the hydromagnetic parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The dispersion properties of a magnetoplasma are treated as a function both of wave frequency (assumed real) and of ionization density. The effect of collisions is included only in so far as this can be done with simplicity. The book describes how pulses are radiated from both small and large antennas embedded in a homogeneous magnetoplasma. The power density radiated from a type of dipole antenna is studied as a function of direction of radiation in all bands of wave frequency. Input reactance is not treated, but the dependence of radiation resistance on wave frequency is described for the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Also described is the relation between beaming and guidance for Alfven waves. (Auth.)

  15. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  16. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  17. Spin-Wave Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lan (兰金

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound states in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. Our findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.

  18. Ion Acoustic Waves in the Presence of Electron Plasma Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave.......Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave....

  19. Laser shock wave and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojun; Zhang, Yongkang; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Aixin

    2007-12-01

    The technology of laser shock wave is used to not only surface modification but also metal forming. It can be divided into three parts: laser shock processing, laser shock forming (LSF) and laser peenforming(LPF). Laser shock processing as a surface treatment to metals can make engineering components have a residual compressive stress so that it obviously improves their fatigue strength and stress corrosion performances, while laser shock forming (LSF) is a novel technique that is used in plastic deformation of sheet metal recently and Laser peen forming (LPF) is another new sheet metal forming process presented in recent years. They all can be carried out by a high-power and repetition pulse Nd:Glass laser device made by Jiangsu University. Laser shock technology has characterized of ultrahigh pressure and high strain rate (10 6 - 10 7s -1). Now, for different materials, we are able to form different metals to contours and shapes and simultaneity leave their surfaces in crack-resistant compressive stress state. The results show that the technology of laser shock wave can strengthen surface property and prolong fatigue life and especially can deform metals to shapes that could not be adequately made using conventional methods. With the development of the technology of laser shock wave, the applied fields of laser will become greater and greater.

  20. Deriving nearshore wave climate along South African coast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rossouw, M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study addressed aspects of the highly interrelated study area of coastal safety and vulnerability, climate change and setback lines for South African coast. A medium resolution numerical wave analysis was undertaken, in the form...

  1. Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calibration of the MIKE21BW model against the measured wave height reduction behind a 24 kW/m Wave Dragon (WD) wave energy converter. A numerical model is used to determine the wave transmission through the floating WD in varying wave conditions. The transmission obtained...

  2. Risk analysis of breakwater caisson under wave attack using load surface approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyawn

    2014-12-01

    A new load surface based approach to the reliability analysis of caisson-type breakwater is proposed. Uncertainties of the horizontal and vertical wave loads acting on breakwater are considered by using the so-called load surfaces, which can be estimated as functions of wave height, water level, and so on. Then, the first-order reliability method (FORM) can be applied to determine the probability of failure under the wave action. In this way, the reliability analysis of breakwaters with uncertainties both in wave height and in water level is possible. Moreover, the uncertainty in wave breaking can be taken into account by considering a random variable for wave height ratio which relates the significant wave height to the maximum wave height. The proposed approach is applied numerically to the reliability analysis of caisson breakwater under wave attack that may undergo partial or full wave breaking.

  3. Directional spectrum of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Gouveia, A; Nagarajan, R.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...

  4. The propagation of travelling waves for stochastic generalized KPP equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elworthy, K.D.; Zhao, H.Z.

    1993-09-01

    We study the existence and propagation of approximate travelling waves of generalized KPP equations with seasonal multiplicative white noise perturbations of Ito type. Three regimes of perturbation are considered: weak, milk, and strong. We show that weak perturbations have little effect on the wave like solutions of the unperturbed equations while strong perturbations essentially destroy the wave and force the solutions to die down. For mild perturbations we show that there is a residual wave form but propagating at a different speed to that of the unperturbed equation. In the appendix J.G. Gaines illustrates these different regimes by computer simulations. (author). 27 refs, 13 figs

  5. Filtering of elastic waves by opal-based hypersonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasyuk, Alexey S; Scherbakov, Alexey V; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Akimov, Andrey V; Kaplyanskii, Alexander A; Kaplan, Saveliy F; Grudinkin, Sergey A; Nashchekin, Alexey V; Pevtsov, Alexander B; Golubev, Valery G; Berstermann, Thorsten; Brüggemann, Christian; Bombeck, Michael; Bayer, Manfred

    2010-04-14

    We report experiments in which high quality silica opal films are used as three-dimensional hypersonic crystals in the 10 GHz range. Controlled sintering of these structures leads to well-defined elastic bonding between the submicrometer-sized silica spheres, due to which a band structure for elastic waves is formed. The sonic crystal properties are studied by injection of a broadband elastic wave packet with a femtosecond laser. Depending on the elastic bonding strength, the band structure separates long-living surface acoustic waves with frequencies in the complete band gap from bulk waves with band frequencies that propagate into the crystal leading to a fast decay.

  6. Low-frequency fluid waves in fractures and pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneev, Valeri

    2010-09-01

    Low-frequency analytical solutions have been obtained for phase velocities of symmetrical fluid waves within both an infinite fracture and a pipe filled with a viscous fluid. Three different fluid wave regimes can exist in such objects, depending on the various combinations of parameters, such as fluid density, fluid viscosity, walls shear modulus, channel thickness, and frequency. Equations for velocities of all these regimes have explicit forms and are verified by comparisons with the exact solutions. The dominant role of fractures in rock permeability at field scales and the strong amplitude and frequency effects of Stoneley guided waves suggest the importance of including these wave effects into poroelastic theories.

  7. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  8. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieternel; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  9. revivals of Rydberg wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, R.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Tudose, B.

    1998-01-01

    We examine the revival structure of Rydberg wave packets. The effects of quantum defects on wave packets in alkali-metal atoms and a squeezed-state description of the initial wave packets are also described. We then examine the revival structure of Rydberg wave packets in the presence of an external electric field, i.e., the revival structure of Stark wave packets. These wave packets have energies that depend on two quantum numbers and exhibit new types of interference behaviour

  10. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Morrison, P. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); O' Neil, T. M. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  11. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,ω R ) plane (ω R being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known “thumb curve” for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  12. Robust Wave Resource Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    density estimates of the PDF as a function both of Hm0 and Tp, and Hm0 and T0;2, together with the mean wave power per unit crest length, Pw, as a function of Hm0 and T0;2. The wave elevation parameters, from which the wave parameters are calculated, are filtered to correct or remove spurious data....... An overview is given of the methods used to do this, and a method for identifying outliers of the wave elevation data, based on the joint distribution of wave elevations and accelerations, is presented. The limitations of using a JONSWAP spectrum to model the measured wave spectra as a function of Hm0 and T0......;2 or Hm0 and Tp for the Hanstholm site data are demonstrated. As an alternative, the non-parametric loess method, which does not rely on any assumptions about the shape of the wave elevation spectra, is used to accurately estimate Pw as a function of Hm0 and T0;2....

  13. Viscoelastic Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    General theoretical solutions for Rayleigh- and Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media describe physical characteristics of the surface waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitrary amounts of intrinsic absorption. In contrast to corresponding physical characteristics for Rayleigh waves in elastic media, Rayleigh- Type surface waves in anelastic media demonstrate; 1) tilt of the particle motion orbit that varies with depth, and 2) amplitude and volumetric strain distributions with superimposed sinusoidal variations that decay exponentially with depth. Each characteristic is dependent on the amount of intrinsic absorption and the chosen model of viscoelasticity. Distinguishing characteristics of anelastic Love-Type surface waves include: 1) dependencies of the wave speed and absorption coefficient on the chosen model and amount of intrinsic absorption and frequency, and 2) superimposed sinusoidal amplitude variations with an exponential decay with depth. Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physical characteristics of both types of viscoelastic surface waves appropriate for interpretations pertinent to models of earth materials ranging from low-loss in the crust to moderate- and high-loss in water-saturated soils.

  14. Nonlocal symmetries, solitary waves and cnoidal periodic waves of the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Tian, Shou-Fu; Feng, Lian-Li

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation, which describes the interaction of a Riemann wave propagating along the y-axis with a long wave along the x-axis. By virtue of the truncated Painlevé expansion method, we obtain the nonlocal symmetry, Bäcklund transformation and Schwarzian form of the equation. Furthermore, by using the consistent Riccati expansion (CRE), we prove that the breaking soliton equation is solvable. Based on the consistent tan-function expansion, we explicitly derive the interaction solutions between solitary waves and cnoidal periodic waves.

  15. Water wave scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Birendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    The theory of water waves is most varied and is a fascinating topic. It includes a wide range of natural phenomena in oceans, rivers, and lakes. It is mostly concerned with elucidation of some general aspects of wave motion including the prediction of behaviour of waves in the presence of obstacles of some special configurations that are of interest to ocean engineers. Unfortunately, even the apparently simple problems appear to be difficult to tackle mathematically unless some simplified assumptions are made. Fortunately, one can assume water to be an incompressible, in viscid and homogeneous

  16. SSG Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Vicinanza, Diego; Frigaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The SSG (Sea Slot-cone Generator) is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level, in which the water of incoming waves is stored temporary. In each reservoir, expressively designed low...... head hydroturbines are converting the potential energy of the stored water into power. A key to success for the SSG will be the low cost of the structure and its robustness. The construction of the pilot plant is scheduled and this paper aims to describe the concept of the SSG wave energy converter...

  17. Relativistic wave mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corinaldesi, Ernesto

    1963-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat

  18. Vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliski, S

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth

  19. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  20. Wave analysis at frictional interface: A case wise study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Chattopadhyay, Amares; Singh, Pooja; Singh, Abhishek Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The present article deals with the propagation of a Stoneley wave and with the reflection as well as refraction of an incident P -wave at the frictional bonded interface between an initially stressed isotropic viscoelastic semi-infinite superstratum and an initially stressed isotropic substratum as case I and case II, respectively. The complex form of the velocity equation has been derived in closed form for the propagation of a Stoneley wave in the said structure. The real and imaginary parts of the complex form of the velocity equation correspond to the phase velocity and damped velocity of the Stoneley wave. Phase and damped velocity have been analysed against the angular frequency. The expressions of the amplitude ratios of the reflected and refracted waves are deduced analytically. The variation of the amplitude ratios is examined against the angle of incidence of the P -wave. The influence of frictional boundary parameters, initial stress, viscoelastic parameters on the phase and damped velocities of the Stoneley wave and the amplitude ratios of the reflected as well as refracted P - and SV -wave have been revealed graphically through numerical results.

  1. Analytical solution for the transient wave propagation of a buried cylindrical P-wave line source in a semi-infinite elastic medium with a fluid surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhendong; Ling, Daosheng

    2018-02-01

    This article develops an analytical solution for the transient wave propagation of a cylindrical P-wave line source in a semi-infinite elastic solid with a fluid layer. The analytical solution is presented in a simple closed form in which each term represents a transient physical wave. The Scholte equation is derived, through which the Scholte wave velocity can be determined. The Scholte wave is the wave that propagates along the interface between the fluid and solid. To develop the analytical solution, the wave fields in the fluid and solid are defined, their analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are derived using the boundary and interface conditions, and the solutions are then decomposed into series form according to the power series expansion method. Each item of the series solution has a clear physical meaning and represents a transient wave path. Finally, by applying Cagniard's method and the convolution theorem, the analytical solutions are transformed into the time domain. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate some interesting features in the fluid layer, the interface and the semi-infinite solid. When the P-wave velocity in the fluid is higher than that in the solid, two head waves in the solid, one head wave in the fluid and a Scholte wave at the interface are observed for the cylindrical P-wave line source.

  2. Artificial excitation of ELF waves with frequency of Schumann resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Guido, T.; Tulegenov, B.; Labenski, J.; Chang, C.-L.

    2014-11-01

    We report results from the experiment aimed at the artificial excitation of extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves with frequencies corresponding to the frequency of Schumann resonance. Electromagnetic waves with these frequencies can form a standing pattern inside the spherical cavity formed by the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere. In the experiment the ELF waves were excited by heating the ionosphere with X-mode HF electromagnetic waves generated at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. The experiment demonstrates that heating of the ionosphere can excite relatively large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range 7.8-8.0 Hz when the ionosphere has a strong F layer, the frequency of the HF radiation is in the range 3.20-4.57 MHz, and the electric field greater than 5 mV/m is present in the ionosphere.

  3. Dissipation of Alfven waves in compressible inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.

    1997-01-01

    In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. Using numerical simulations, we study the properties of Alfven waves propagating in a compressible inhomogeneous medium, with an inhomogeneity transverse to the direction of wave propagation. Two dynamical effects, energy pinching and phase mixing, are responsible for the small-scales formation, similarly to the incompressible case. Moreover, compressive perturbations, slow waves and a static entropy wave are generated; the former are subject to steepening and form shock waves, which efficiently dissipate their energy, regardless of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates show that the dissipation times are consistent with those required to dissipate Alfven waves of photospheric origin inside the solar corona

  4. Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.

  5. Lower hybrid wave cavities detected by the FREJA satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecseli, H.L.; Iranpour, K.; Holter, Oe.; Lybekk, B.; Holtet J.; Truelsen, J.; Holback, B.

    1994-12-01

    Localized electrostatic wave packets in the frequency region of lower-hybrid waves have been detected by the instruments on the FREJA satellite. These waves are usually associated with local density depletions indicating that the structures can be interpreted as wave filled cavities. The basic features of the observations are discussed. Based on simple statistical arguments it is attempted to present some characteristics which have to be accommodated within an ultimate theory describing the observed wave phenomena. An explanation in terms of collapse of nonlinear lower-hybrid waves is discussed in particular. It is argued that such a model seems inapplicable, at least in its simplest form, by providing time and length scales which are not in agreement with observations. Alternatives to this model are presented. 24 refs., 8 figs

  6. Ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in a quantum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Haas, F.

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Using the reductive perturbation method, a Korteweg-de Vries equation is derived for appropriate boundary conditions and nonlinear periodic wave solutions are obtained. The corresponding analytical solution and numerical plots of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves and solitons in the phase plane are presented using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential approach. The variations in the nonlinear potential of the ion-acoustic cnoidal waves are studied at different values of quantum parameter H e which is the ratio of electron plasmon energy to electron Fermi energy defined for degenerate electrons. It is found that both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic cnoidal wave structures are formed depending on the value of the quantum parameter. The dependence of the wavelength and frequency on nonlinear wave amplitude is also presented

  7. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E

    2014-10-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.

  8. Electromagnetic waves in single- and multi-Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    The terahertz wave emission from the intrinsic Josephson junctions is one of recent topics in high T c superconductors. We investigate, by numerical simulation, properties of the electromagnetic waves excited by a constant bias current in the single- and multi-Josephson junctions. Nonlinear equations of phase-differences are solved numerically by treating the effects of the outside electromagnetic fields as dynamical boundary conditions. It is shown that the emitted power of the electromagnetic wave can become large near certain retrapping points of the I-V characteristics. An instability of the inside phase oscillation is related to large amplitude of the oscillatory waves. In the single- (or homogeneous mutli-) Josephson junctions, electromagnetic oscillations can occur either in a form of standing waves (shorter junctions) or by formation of vortex-antivortex pairs (longer junctions). How these two effects affects the behavior of electromagnetic waves in the intrinsic Josephson junctions is discussed

  9. Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...

  10. Elastic-wave generation in the evolution of displacement peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, V.P.; Boldin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigated the character of elastic shock wave generation and damping in irradiated materials along with the possibility of their long-range influence on the structure of the irradiated materials. Dispersion at the elastoplastic stage of atomic displacement peak development was taken into account. The three-dimensional nonlinear wave was described by an equation in the approximation of weak nonlinearity and weak spatial dispersion. Numerical modeling of the propagation of a plane shock wave in a crystal lattice was conducted. The distribution of the density and mass velocity of the material at the instant of complete damping of the plastic shock-wave component was determined. The appearance of solitary waves (solitons) at large amplitudes, localized in space, which propagate without distortion to arbitrary distances and retain their amplitude and form in interacting with one another, was investigated. Some physical consequences of the influence of solitary waves on the irradiated materials were considered

  11. [Decimeter-wave physiotherapy in viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kents, V V; Mavrodiĭ, V M

    1995-01-01

    Effectiveness was evaluated of magnetotherapy, inductothermy, UNF electric field and electromagnetic waves of decimetric wave band (460 MHz) on the projection of the liver, adrenals and thyroid gland in controlled trials enrolling a total of 835 patients with viral hepatitis (type A, B, associated forms). A conclusion is reached that optimum effectiveness of decimetric field on the projection of the adrenals and thyroid gland can be achieved through the application of minimum power and everyday alternation of exposures. It has been estimated that as many as 69 percent of the patients derive benefit from the above treatment.

  12. Relativistic deuteron wave function on light front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the one boson exchange model the approximate analytical expression for the deuteron wave function (WF) at relativistic relative momenta is obtained. WF depends on extra variable having the form of a unit vector and is determined by six functions instead of two ones (S-and D-waves) in the nonrelativistic case. At moderate momenta the WF is matched with WF in the Reid model. It is emphasized the importance of indication of the qualitative observed phenomena associated with change of parametrization and spin structure of relativistic deuteron WF

  13. Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1962-03-01

    Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)

  14. Numerical Simulations of Upstream Propagating Solitary Waves and Wave Breaking In A Stratified Fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastna, M.; Peltier, W. R.

    In this talk we will discuss ongoing numerical modeling of the flow of a stratified fluid over large scale topography motivated by observations in Knight Inlet, a fjord in British Columbia, Canada. After briefly surveying the work done on the topic in the past we will discuss our latest set of simulations in which we have observed the gener- ation and breaking of three different types of nonlinear internal waves in the lee of the sill topography. The first type of wave observed is a large lee wave in the weakly strat- ified main portion of the water column, The second is an upward propagating internal wave forced by topography that breaks in the strong, near-surface pycnocline. The third is a train of upstream propagating solitary waves that, in certain circumstances, form as breaking waves consisting of a nearly solitary wave envelope and a highly unsteady core near the surface. Time premitting, we will comment on the implications of these results for our long term goal of quantifying tidally driven mixing in Knight Inlet.

  15. Propagation of waves at the loosely bonded interface of two porous elastic half-spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajuddin, M.

    1993-10-01

    Employing Biot's theory for wave propagation in porous solids, the propagation of waves at the loosely bonded interface between two poroelastic half-spaces is examined theoretically. The analogous study of Stoneley waves for smooth interface and bonded interface form a limiting case. The results due to classical theory are shown as a special case. (author). 13 refs

  16. Localized structures of electromagnetic waves in hot electron-positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartal, S.; Tsintsadze, L.N.; Berezhiani, V.I.

    1995-08-01

    The dynamics of relatively strong electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in hot electron-positron plasma is investigated. The possibility of finding localized stationary structures of EM waves is explored. It it shown that under certain conditions the EM wave forms a stable localized soliton-like structures where plasma is completely expelled from the region of EM field location. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  17. Dust acoustic shock wave generation due to dust charge variation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to generation of shock wave in the dusty plasma described as collisionless shock wave. ... Trans- forming to the frame of the wave with velocity λ ζ = x λd -λωpdt =X -λT. (2) .... Jd =0, there exists steady state (apart from the initial state) defined.

  18. Clinical Significance of A Waves in Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimhan, Sindhuja; Venkatraman, Chandramouleeswaran; Vellaichamy, Kannan; Ranganathan, Lakshminarasimhan

    2018-05-25

    A wave is a late response recognized during recording of F waves. Though they might be seen in healthy subjects, their presence assumes significance in a patient presenting with polyradiculoneuropathy. In this prospective study, 75 patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) were enrolled. They were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of A waves. Clinical features, electrophysiological parameters and extent of clinical recovery in short-term follow-up were analyzed. A waves were present in 49 out of 75 patients (65%). Most common pattern observed was multiple A waves. Prevalence of A waves was more in lower limb nerves than upper limb nerves. Occurrence of A waves correlated with the presence of conduction block. Patients with A waves had higher Hughes grade (P = 0.003) and lower Medical Research Council sum score at 6 weeks of follow-up (P = 0.04) as compared to patients without A waves. A waves are common in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy form of Guillain Barre syndrome and are considered as a marker of demyelination. Long-term follow-up studies are required to ascertain their significance in prognostication and assessing recovery.

  19. LANGMUIR WAVE DECAY IN INHOMOGENEOUS SOLAR WIND PLASMAS: SIMULATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Volokitin, A. S. [IZMIRAN, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krasnoselskikh, V. V., E-mail: catherine.krafft@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace, 3A Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-08-20

    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  20. Covariant trace formalism for heavy meson s-wave to p-wave transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balk, S.; Koerner, J.G.; Thompson, G.; Hussain, F.

    1992-06-01

    Heavy meson, s- to p-wave, weak transitions are studied in the context of the Heavy Quark Effective Theory using covariant meson wave functions. We use the trace formalism to evaluate the weak transitions. As expected from heavy quark symmetry, the eight transitions between s- and p-wave states are described in terms of only two universal form factors which are given in terms of explicit wave function overlap integrals. We present our results in terms of both invariant and helicity amplitudes. Using our helicity amplitude expressions we discuss rate formulae, helicity structure functions and joint angular decay distributions in the decays B-bar→D**(→(D,D*)+π)+W - (→l - ν l ). The heavy quark symmetry predictions for the one-pion transitions D**→(D,D*)+π are similarly worked out by using trace techniques. (author). 35 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  1. NOAA NDBC SOS - waves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have waves data. Because of the nature of SOS requests, requests for data...

  2. DRI internal Wave Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Stephen A; Levine, Murray D

    2005-01-01

    .... A processing module is developed that takes profile estimates as input and uses numerically simulated linear internal wave displacements to create two-dimensional range-dependent sound speed fields...

  3. Instantaneous wave emission model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1970-12-01

    A useful treatment of electrostatic wave emission by fast particles in a plasma is given. First, the potential due to a fast particle is expressed as a simple integration over the particle orbit; several interesting results readily follow. The potential in the wake of an accelerating particle is shown to be essentially that produced through local excitation of the plasma by the particle free-streaming about its instantaneous orbit. Application is made to one dimension, and it is shown that the wave emission and adsorption synchronize to the instantaneous velocity distribution function. Guided by these calculations, we then formulate a test particle model for computing the instantaneous wave emission by fast particles in a Vlasov plasma. This model lends itself to physical interpretation and provides a direct approach to many problems. By adopting a Fokker-Planck description for the particle dynamics, we calculate the broadening of the wave-particle resonance due to velocity diffusion and drag

  4. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  5. Riding the ocean waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yemm, Richard

    2000-01-01

    It is claimed that important developments over the past five years mean that there will be a range of competing pre-commercial wave-energy systems by 2002. The generation costs should be on a par with biomass schemes and offshore wind systems. The environmental advantages of wave energy are extolled. Ocean Power Delivery (OPD) have produced a set of criteria to be satisfied for a successful wave power scheme and these are listed. OPD is responsible for the snake-like Pelamis device which is a semi-submerged articulated series of cylindrical sections connected through hinged joints. How the wave-induced movement of the hinges is used to generate electricity is explained. The system is easily installed and can be completely removed at the end of its life

  6. Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sturani, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    We give an overview about the recent detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO first and second observing runs and by Advanced Virgo, with emphasis on the prospects for multi-messenger astronomy involving neutrinos detections.

  7. Traveling-wave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.

    1993-12-14

    The traveling-wave photodetector of the present invention combines an absorptive optical waveguide and an electrical transmission line, in which optical absorption in the waveguide results in a photocurrent at the electrodes of the electrical transmission line. The optical waveguide and electrical transmission line of the electrically distributed traveling-wave photodetector are designed to achieve matched velocities between the light in the optical waveguide and electrical signal generated on the transmission line. This velocity synchronization provides the traveling-wave photodetector with a large electrical bandwidth and a high quantum efficiency, because of the effective extended volume for optical absorption. The traveling-wave photodetector also provides large power dissipation, because of its large physical size. 4 figures.

  8. Turbulence generation by waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.

  9. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.; Pereira, N.R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed

  10. Benney's long wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Benney's equations of motion of incompressible nonviscous fluid with free surface in the approximation of long waves are analyzed. The connection between the Lie algebra of Hamilton plane vector fields and the Benney's momentum equations is shown

  11. Parametric decay of lower hybrid wave into drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, Heiji.

    1976-12-01

    A dispersion relation describing the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into an electrostatic drift wave and a drift Alfven wave is derived for an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. Particularly the stimulated scattering of a drift Alfven wave in such a plasma was investigated in detail. The resonance backscattering instability is found to yield the minimum threshold. (auth.)

  12. Generating gravity waves with matter and electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P A.

    2008-01-01

    If a homogeneous plane lightlike shell collides head on with a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave having a step-function profile then no backscattered gravitational waves are produced. We demonstrate, by explicit calculation, that if the matter is accompanied by a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave with a step-function profile then backscattered gravitational waves appear after the collision

  13. Geological formation characterisation by acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, J.L.; Gaudiani, P.; Delay, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. For many years, the transmission of a sonic wave through formations has been used for drilling measurements. The tools used are of monopole or dipole type. Monopole-type tools are the most commonly used. Sources and receivers are multidirectional. In the fluid, sources generate a compression wave which creates in the formation a compression wave (P wave) and a shear wave (S wave) at the refraction limit angles. In a vertical well, such tools permit the recording of five propagation modes: the refracted compression wave, the refracted shear wave (only in fast formations), the fluid wave, two dispersive guided modes which are the pseudo Rayleigh waves (only in fast formations) and the Stoneley waves. Full waveform acoustic measurements are represented as constant-offset sections or as common source point gathers, similar to those used in seismic operations. For the different modes, the acoustic parameters which are usually measured are: picked time, amplitude and frequency. The acoustic parameters allow one to determine the propagation velocities of the various modes and some petro-physical parameters and to obtain lithologic and mechanical information if the shear velocity of the formation has been measured. Usually the picking of the refracted S wave is difficult due to the interferences of different wave trains such as leaky modes associated with the refracted P waves and the pseudo Rayleigh. To compute a continuous log of shear velocity, we propose an hybrid method based on the local measurement of the shear velocity (picking of the arrival time of the refracted S wave) and on the analysis of the dispersion curve of the Stoneley modes ( Biot 1956, White 1965). We also show the benefit of using a shape index parameter named Ic, computed from the amplitudes (A1, A2 and A3) of the first refracted P wave to detect acoustic anomalies specially in fractured formation. The Ic parameter is independent of the energy of

  14. Making waves in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, Judith

    1999-01-01

    The advantages of using wave power as a renewable energy source are discussed. Various methods of harnessing wave power are also discussed, together with investment requirements and the relative costs of producing electricity by other means. Island communities who currently rely on imported diesel are interested. The provision of power for reverse osmosis plants producing drinking water is an attractive application. There are many potential devices but the best way forward has yet to be identified. (UK)

  15. Density-wave oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Bratianu, C.

    1979-01-01

    Boiling flow in a steam generator, a water-cooled reactor, and other multiphase processes can be subject to instabilities. It appears that the most predominant instabilities are the so-called density-wave oscillations. They can cause difficulties for three main reasons; they may induce burnout; they may cause mechanical vibrations of components; and they create system control problems. A comprehensive review is presented of experimental and theoretical studies concerning density-wave oscillations. (author)

  16. The wave of the future - Searching for gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, D.

    1991-01-01

    Research on gravity waves conducted by such scientists as Gamov, Wheeler, Weber and Zel'dovich is discussed. Particular attention is given to current trends in the theoretical analysis of gravity waves carried out by theorists Kip Thorne and Leonid Grishchuk. The problems discussed include the search for gravity waves; calculation of the types of gravity waves; the possibility of detecting gravity waves from localized sources, e.g., from the collision of two black holes in a distant galaxy or the collapse of a star, through the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory; and detection primordial gravity waves from the big bang

  17. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2015-08-19

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  18. Surface sensitivity of nuclear-knock-out form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratamico, G.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical calculation has been performed to investigate the sensitivity of nuclear-knock-out form factors to nuclear-surface behaviour of bound-state wave functions. The result of our investigation suggests that one can extract the bound-state behaviour at the surface from experimental information on nuclear-knock-out form factors

  19. Extreme wave and wind response predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Olsen, Anders S.; Mansour, Alaa E.

    2011-01-01

    codes and the short duration of the time domain simulations needed (typically 60–300s to cover the hydro- and aerodynamic memory effects in the response) the calculation of the mean out-crossing rates of a given response is fast. Thus non-linear effects can be included. Furthermore, the FORM analysis...... also identifies the most probable wave episodes leading to given responses.Because of the linearization of the failure surface in the FORM procedure the results are only asymptotically exact and thus MCS often also needs to be performed. In the present paper a scaling property inherent in the FORM...

  20. Solitary waves in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Grimshaw, RHJ

    2007-01-01

    After the initial observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary wave in a canal, his insightful laboratory experiments and the subsequent theoretical work of Boussinesq, Rayleigh and Korteweg and de Vries, interest in solitary waves in fluids lapsed until the mid 1960's with the seminal paper of Zabusky and Kruskal describing the discovery of the soliton. This was followed by the rapid development of the theory of solitons and integrable systems. At the same time came the realization that solitary waves occur naturally in many physical systems, and play a fundamental role in many circumstances. The aim of this text is to describe the role that soliton theory plays in fluids in several contexts. After an historical introduction, the book is divided five chapters covering the basic theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the subsequent application to free-surface solitary waves in water to internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean and the atmospheric boundary layer, solitary waves in rotating flows, ...

  1. Against Logical Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Johnson-Laird

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.

  2. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  3. Forms Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish EPA’s Forms Management Program; to describe the requisite roles, responsibilities, and procedures necessary for the successful management of EPA forms; and to more clearly fulfill EPA’s obligations in this regard.

  4. Numerical investigation of freak waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikov, D.

    2009-04-01

    Paper describes the results of more than 4,000 long-term (up to thousands of peak-wave periods) numerical simulations of nonlinear gravity surface waves performed for investigation of properties and estimation of statistics of extreme (‘freak') waves. The method of solution of 2-D potential wave's equations based on conformal mapping is applied to the simulation of wave behavior assigned by different initial conditions, defined by JONSWAP and Pierson-Moskowitz spectra. It is shown that nonlinear wave evolution sometimes results in appearance of very big waves. The shape of freak waves varies within a wide range: some of them are sharp-crested, others are asymmetric, with a strong forward inclination. Some of them can be very big, but not steep enough to create dangerous conditions for vessels (but not for fixed objects). Initial generation of extreme waves can occur merely as a result of group effects, but in some cases the largest wave suddenly starts to grow. The growth is followed sometimes by strong concentration of wave energy around a peak vertical. It is taking place in the course of a few peak wave periods. The process starts with an individual wave in a physical space without significant exchange of energy with surrounding waves. Sometimes, a crest-to-trough wave height can be as large as nearly three significant wave heights. On the average, only one third of all freak waves come to breaking, creating extreme conditions, however, if a wave height approaches the value of three significant wave heights, all of the freak waves break. The most surprising result was discovery that probability of non-dimensional freak waves (normalized by significant wave height) is actually independent of density of wave energy. It does not mean that statistics of extreme waves does not depend on wave energy. It just proves that normalization of wave heights by significant wave height is so effective, that statistics of non-dimensional extreme waves tends to be independent

  5. Rarefaction and compression waves of the first sound in superfluid He-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, V.F.; Kolmakov, G.V.; Lebedeva, E.V.; Mezhov-Deglin, L.P.; Trusov, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of the form of the first sound waves, excited by the pulse heater in the superfluid He-II with increase in the thermal pulse Q-capacity, is studied. Propagation of the first sound rarefaction wave (heating wave), subsequent transformation of the rarefaction wave into the compression wave and further into the compression shock wave with Q growth are observed in the fluid, compressed up to 13.3 atm., i.e. it is possible to judge about the change in the heat transfer conditions at the solid body - He-II interface by the change in the sound wave form. It is established that heat expansion of the He-I normal fluid layer, originating at the interface between He-II and the heater by the Q-capacity exceeding certain critical one, is the basic cause of the compression waves excitation in He-II by the pressures of P ≥ 1 atm [ru

  6. Some Further Results on Traveling Wave Solutions for the ZK-BBM( Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the traveling wave solutions for the ZK-BBM( equations by using bifurcation method of dynamical systems. Firstly, for ZK-BBM(2, 2 equation, we obtain peakon wave, periodic peakon wave, and smooth periodic wave solutions and point out that the peakon wave is the limit form of the periodic peakon wave. Secondly, for ZK-BBM(3, 2 equation, we obtain some elliptic function solutions which include periodic blow-up and periodic wave. Furthermore, from the limit forms of the elliptic function solutions, we obtain some trigonometric and hyperbolic function solutions which include periodic blow-up, blow-up, and smooth solitary wave. We also show that our work extends some previous results.

  7. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. I - General asymptotic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William

    1989-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic wave emission from several localized, periodic, kinematically specified fluid velocity fields are calculated using Lighthill's method for finding the far-field wave forms. The waves propagate through an isothermal and uniform plasma with a constant B field. General properties of the energy flux are illustrated with models of pulsating flux tubes and convective rolls. Interference theory from geometrical optics is used to find the direction of minimum fast-wave emission from multipole sources and slow-wave emission from discontinuous sources. The distribution of total flux in fast and slow waves varies with the ratios of the source dimensions l to the acoustic and Alfven wavelengths.

  8. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia; Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  9. STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES IN THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA ASSOCIATED WITH EIT/EUV WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Ofman, Leon; Kramar, Maxim; Olmedo, Oscar; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2013-01-01

    We report white-light observations of a fast magnetosonic wave associated with a coronal mass ejection observed by STEREO/SECCHI/COR1 inner coronagraphs on 2011 August 4. The wave front is observed in the form of density compression passing through various coronal regions such as quiet/active corona, coronal holes, and streamers. Together with measured electron densities determined with STEREO COR1 and Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI) data, we use our kinematic measurements of the wave front to calculate coronal magnetic fields and find that the measured speeds are consistent with characteristic fast magnetosonic speeds in the corona. In addition, the wave front turns out to be the upper coronal counterpart of the EIT wave observed by STEREO EUVI traveling against the solar coronal disk; moreover, stationary fronts of the EIT wave are found to be located at the footpoints of deflected streamers and boundaries of coronal holes, after the wave front in the upper solar corona passes through open magnetic field lines in the streamers. Our findings suggest that the observed EIT wave should be in fact a fast magnetosonic shock/wave traveling in the inhomogeneous solar corona, as part of the fast magnetosonic wave propagating in the extended solar corona.

  10. Meson form factors and covariant three-dimensional formulation of the composite model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus is developed which allows within the relativistic quark model, to find explicit expressions for meson form factors in terms of the wave functions of two-quark system that obey the covariant two-particle quasipotential equation. The exact form of wave functions is obtained by passing to the relativistic configurational representation. As an example, the quark Coulomb interaction is considered

  11. Quantization and non-holomorphic modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Unterberger, André

    2000-01-01

    This is a new approach to the theory of non-holomorphic modular forms, based on ideas from quantization theory or pseudodifferential analysis. Extending the Rankin-Selberg method so as to apply it to the calculation of the Roelcke-Selberg decomposition of the product of two Eisenstein series, one lets Maass cusp-forms appear as residues of simple, Eisenstein-like, series. Other results, based on quantization theory, include a reinterpretation of the Lax-Phillips scattering theory for the automorphic wave equation, in terms of distributions on R2 automorphic with respect to the linear action of SL(2,Z).

  12. Fast wave current drive above the slow wave density limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, R.; Sheehan, D.P.; Wolf, N.S.; Edrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Fast wave and slow wave current drive near the mean gyrofrequency were compared in the Irvine Torus using distinct phased array antennae of similar principal wavelengths, frequencies, and input powers. The slow wave current drive density limit was measured for 50ω ci ≤ω≤500ω ci and found to agree with trends in tokamaks. Fast wave current drive was observed at densities up to the operating limit of the torus, demonstrably above the slow wave density limit

  13. Unified form language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Martin S.; Logg, Anders; Ølgaard, Kristian Breum

    2014-01-01

    We present the Unied Form Language (UFL), which is a domain-specic language for representing weak formulations of partial dierential equations with a view to numerical approximation. Features of UFL include support for variational forms and functionals, automatic dierentiation of forms and expres...... libraries to generate concrete low-level implementations. Some application examples are presented and libraries that support UFL are highlighted....

  14. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  15. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  16. Nonlinear Waves in the Terrestrial Quasiparallel Foreshock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B; Kolotkov, D Y; O'Connell, D; Nakariakov, V M; Rowlands, G

    2016-12-02

    We provide strongly conclusive evidence that the cubic nonlinearity plays an important part in the evolution of the large amplitude magnetic structures in the terrestrial foreshock. Large amplitude nonlinear wave trains at frequencies above the proton cyclotron frequency are identified after nonharmonic slow variations are filtered out by applying the empirical mode decomposition. Numerical solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, predicted analytically by the use of a pseudopotential approach, are found to be consistent with the observed wave forms. The approximate phase speed of these nonlinear waves, indicated by the parameters of numerical solutions, is of the order of the local Alfvén speed. We suggest that the feedback of the large amplitude fluctuations on background plasma is reflected in the evolution of the pseudopotential.

  17. Wave chaos in acoustics and elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Gregor; Soendergaard, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Interpreting wave phenomena in terms of an underlying ray dynamics adds a new dimension to the analysis of linear wave equations. Forming explicit connections between spectra and wavefunctions on the one hand and the properties of a related ray dynamics on the other hand is a comparatively new research area, especially in elasticity and acoustics. The theory has indeed been developed primarily in a quantum context; it is increasingly becoming clear, however, that important applications lie in the field of mechanical vibrations and acoustics. We provide an overview over basic concepts in this emerging field of wave chaos. This ranges from ray approximations of the Green function to periodic orbit trace formulae and random matrix theory and summarizes the state of the art in applying these ideas in acoustics-both experimentally and from a theoretical/numerical point of view. (topical review)

  18. Faraday waves under time-reversed excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Dirk; Stannarius, Ralf; Wagner, Christian; John, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Do parametrically driven systems distinguish periodic excitations that are time mirrors of each other? Faraday waves in a Newtonian fluid are studied under excitation with superimposed harmonic wave forms. We demonstrate that the threshold parameters for the stability of the ground state are insensitive to a time inversion of the driving function. This is a peculiarity of some dynamic systems. The Faraday system shares this property with standard electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals [J. Heuer et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036218 (2008)]. In general, time inversion of the excitation affects the asymptotic stability of a parametrically driven system, even when it is described by linear ordinary differential equations. Obviously, the observed symmetry has to be attributed to the particular structure of the underlying differential equation system. The pattern selection of the Faraday waves above threshold, on the other hand, discriminates between time-mirrored excitation functions.

  19. Partnership for Wave Power - Roadmaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; Krogh, Jan; Brodersen, Hans Jørgen

    This Wave Energy Technology Roadmap is developed by the Partnership for Wave Power including nine Danish wave energy developers. It builds on to the strategy [1] published by the Partnership in 2012, a document that describes the long term vision of the Danish Wave Energy sector: “By 2030...

  20. Some considerations of wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, P. L. F. M.

    The meaning of group velocity and its relation to conserved quantities are demonstrated. The origin of wave dispersion in terms of nonlocal and relaxation phenomena are clarified. The character of a wave described by an equation with a general type of nonlinearity and general dispersion terms is explained. The steepening of a wave flank and the occurrence of stationary waves are discussed.

  1. Rogue waves in nonlinear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2012-01-01

    Rogue waves, as a special type of solitary waves, play an important role in nonlinear optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, ocean, atmosphere, and even finance. In this report, we mainly review on the history of the rogue wave phenomenon and recent development of rogue wave solutions in some nonlinear physical models arising in the fields of nonlinear science.

  2. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  3. Revivals of Rydberg wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, R.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Tudose, B.

    1998-01-01

    We examine the revival structure of Rydberg wave packets. These wave packets exhibit initial classical periodic motion followed by a sequence of collapse, fractional (or full) revivals, and fractional (or full) superrevivals. The effects of quantum defects on wave packets in alkali-metal atoms and a squeezed-state description of the initial wave packets are also considered. We then examine the revival structure of Rydberg wave packets in the presence of an external electric field - that is, the revival structure of Stark wave packets. These wave packets have energies that depend on two quantum numbers and exhibit new types of interference behavior

  4. Dispersion relation of test waves in an electron beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Test waves are propagated in an electron beam plasma system and the dispersion relation is measured. At the center of the experimental region a beam mode is excited. Near the chamber wall an electron plasma wave is excited and propagates from the chamber wall to the center of the experimental region. It is also found that observed unstable waves are standing wave which is formed by superposing the beam modes propagating in the opposite directions each other. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  5. Numerical Simulation of Explosive Forming Using Detonating Fuse

    OpenAIRE

    H Iyama; Y Higa; M Nishi; S Itoh

    2017-01-01

    The explosive forming is a characteristic method. An underwater shock wave is generated by underwater explosion of an explosive. A metal plate is affected high strain rate by the shock loading and is formed along a metal die. Although this method has the advantage of mirroring the shape of the die, a free forming was used in this paper. An expensive metal die is not necessary for this free forming. It is possible that a metal plate is formed with simple supporting parts. However, the forming ...

  6. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  7. Properties of backward electromagnetic waves and negative reflection in ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashkovsky, Anatolii V; Lock, Edwin H

    2006-01-01

    For a backward electromagnetic wave (magnetostatic wave) in a ferrite film, reflection from a perfect mirror formed by the straight edge of the film is investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is found that when the incident wave is collinear (the group velocity vector and the wave vector have opposite directions), negative reflection occurs at any angle of incidence, i.e., the incident and reflected beams are on the same side of the normal to the boundary. It is discovered that a noncollinear backward wave is nonreciprocal in the sense that its energy can be localized both near the surface and in the middle of the film. This property, previously observed only for surface magnetostatic waves, provides both the efficiency of generating and receiving the wave and the possibility of observing the reflected beam. A situation is realized where wave reflection results in two reflected beams. The properties of backward electromagnetic waves propagating in ferrite films are briefly analyzed. (methodological notes)

  8. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  9. Lapse time and frequency-dependent attenuation of coda waves in the Zagros continental collision zone in Southwestern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, H; Hamzehloo, H

    2008-01-01

    The coda Q, Q c , were estimated for the Zagros continental collision zone in southwestern Iran by analyzing the coda waves of 51 local earthquakes recorded on the three stations of the Iranian National Seismic Network (INSN) with magnitudes of between 3.1 and 4.9 recorded in the region during March and April 2006. Most of the analyzed events are foreshocks and aftershocks of the Darb-e-Astane earthquake which occurred on 31 March 2006 with a magnitude of 6.1 (IIEES). The earthquakes had an epicentral distance of between 120 and 200 km and a focal depth of about 18 km. The Q c values were computed at nine central frequencies of 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 and 20.0 Hz through eight lapse time windows from 25 to 60 s starting at double the time of the primary S-wave from the origin time using the time-domain coda-decay method of a single backscattering model. In this study the collected data were compared between the events that occurred before and after the main event (foreshocks and aftershocks). The analysis showed a significant variation in the value of coda, Q, for the study region in different lapse times and frequencies. The variation of the quality factor, Q c , before and after the main event was estimated at different lapse time windows to observe its effect with depth. The estimated average frequency-dependent relation of Q c for foreshocks varies from Q c = (144 ± 24)f (0.42±0.23) at 25 s to Q c = (85 ± 10)f (0.92±0.11) at 60 s lapse window time length, respectively. For aftershocks, it varies from Q c = (121 ± 55)f (0.97±0.26) at 25 s to Q c = (212 ± 59)f (0.82±0.15) at 60 s. The averages of Q c in all stations and lapse times window are obtained as Q c = 99f 0.84 and Q c = 178f 0.86 for foreshocks and aftershocks, respectively. The Q frequency relationship for foreshocks is similar to that for the South Carolina, Koyna, western Anatolia and Aleutian earthquakes, whereas for aftershocks it is similar to the Kumaun, NW Himalaya and

  10. Migration of scattered teleseismic body waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.; Rondenay, S.

    1999-06-01

    The retrieval of near-receiver mantle structure from scattered waves associated with teleseismic P and S and recorded on three-component, linear seismic arrays is considered in the context of inverse scattering theory. A Ray + Born formulation is proposed which admits linearization of the forward problem and economy in the computation of the elastic wave Green's function. The high-frequency approximation further simplifies the problem by enabling (1) the use of an earth-flattened, 1-D reference model, (2) a reduction in computations to 2-D through the assumption of 2.5-D experimental geometry, and (3) band-diagonalization of the Hessian matrix in the inverse formulation. The final expressions are in a form reminiscent of the classical diffraction stack of seismic migration. Implementation of this procedure demands an accurate estimate of the scattered wave contribution to the impulse response, and thus requires the removal of both the reference wavefield and the source time signature from the raw record sections. An approximate separation of direct and scattered waves is achieved through application of the inverse free-surface transfer operator to individual station records and a Karhunen-Loeve transform to the resulting record sections. This procedure takes the full displacement field to a wave vector space wherein the first principal component of the incident wave-type section is identified with the direct wave and is used as an estimate of the source time function. The scattered displacement field is reconstituted from the remaining principal components using the forward free-surface transfer operator, and may be reduced to a scattering impulse response upon deconvolution of the source estimate. An example employing pseudo-spectral synthetic seismograms demonstrates an application of the methodology.

  11. Capillary waves in slow motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seydel, Tilo; Tolan, Metin; Press, Werner; Madsen, Anders; Gruebel, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Capillary wave dynamics on glycerol surfaces has been investigated by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy performed at grazing angles. The measurements show that thermally activated capillary wave motion is slowed down exponentially when the sample is cooled below 273 K. This finding directly reflects the freezing of the surface waves. The wave-number dependence of the measured time constants is in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for overdamped capillary waves

  12. Radiation phenomena of plasma waves, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro.

    1978-06-01

    The fundamental radiation theories on radiation phenomena of plasma waves are presented. As the fundamental concepts of propagating waves, phase, group and ray velocities are explained, and phase velocity surface, group velocity surface, ray velocity surface and refractive index surface are considered. These concepts are important in anisotropic plasma. Fundamental equations for electron plasma waves in a fluid model and fundamental equations for ion plasma waves can be expressed with the above mentioned concepts. Kuehl derived the formulas for general radiation fields of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are radiated from an arbitrary current source. Fundamental equations for kinetic model are the Vlasov equation and Maxwell equations. By investigating electromagnetic radiation in cold anisotropic plasma, Kuehl found the important behavior that the fields radiated from a source become very large in certain directions for some ranges of plasma parameters. The fact is the so-called high frequency resonance cone. A fundamental formula for quasi-static radiation from an oscillating point source in warm anisotropic plasma includes the near field of electromagnetic mode and the field of electrostatic mode, which are radiated from the source. This paper presents the formula in a generalized form. (Kato, T.)

  13. Long gravitational waves in a closed universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, L.P.; Doroshkevich, A.G.; Yudin, V.M.

    The important part played by long gravitational waves in the evolution of a homogeneous closed universe (model of type IX in Biancki's classification) is discussed. It is shown that the metric of this model can be represented in the form of a sum of a background metric, describing nonstationary space of constant positive curvature, and a group of terms that may be interpreted as a set of gravitational waves of maximal length compatible with closure of the space. This subdivision of the metric is exact and does not presuppose necessary smallness of the wave corrections. For this reason the behavior of the wave terms can be traced at all stages of their evolution--both in the epoch when the contribution of the ''energy density'' and ''pressure'' of the gravitational waves to the dynamics of the background universe is negligibly small and in the epoch when this contribution is dominant. It was demonstrated, in particular, that in the limiting case of complete absence of ordinary matter the scale factor of the background metric, because of the negativity of gravitational ''pressure,''can pass during the evolution of the universe through a state of stable regular minimum

  14. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2017-11-01

    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.

  15. Solitons and nonlinear waves in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiewicz, K.

    2005-01-01

    Recent measurements made on the ESA/NASA Cluster mission to the Earth's magnetosphere have provided first detailed measurements of magnetosonic solitons in space. The solitons represent localized enhancements of the magnetic field by a factor of 2-10, or depressions down to 10% of the ambient field. The magnetic field signatures are associated with density depressions/enhancements A two-fluid model of nonlinear electron and ion inertial waves in anisotropic plasmas explains the main properties of these structures. It is shown that warm plasmas support four types of nonlinear waves, which correspond to four linear modes: Alfvenic, magnetosonic, sound, and electron inertial waves. Each of these nonlinear modes has slow and fast versions. It is shown by direct integration that the exponential growth rate of nonlinear modes is balanced by the ion and electron dispersion leading to solutions in the form of trains of solitons or cnoidal waves. By using a novel technique of phase portraits it is shown how the dispersive properties of electron and ion inertial waves change at the transition between warm and hot plasmas, and how trains of solitons ('' mirror modes '') are produced in a hot, anisotropic plasma. The applicability of the model is illustrated with data from Cluster spacecraft. (author)

  16. Deep-water bedforms induced by refracting Internal Solitary Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, Federico; Droghei, Riccardo; Casalbore, Daniele; Martorelli, Eleonora; Mosetti, Renzo; Sannino, Gianmaria; Santoleri, Rosalia; Latino Chiocci, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Subaqueous bedforms (or sand waves) are typically observed in those environments that are exposed to strong currents, characterized by a dominant unidirectional flow. However, sand-wave fields may be also observed in marine environments where no such current exists; the physical processes driving their formation are enigmatic or not well understood. We propose that internal solitary waves (ISWs), induced by tides, can produce an effective, unidirectional boundary flow filed that forms asymmetric sand waves. We test this idea by examining a sand-wave field off the Messina Strait, where we hypothesize that ISWs formed at the interface between intermediate and surface waters are refracted by topography. Hence, we argue that the deflected pattern (i.e., the depth-dependent orientation) of the sand-wave field is due to refraction of such ISWs. Combining field observations and numerical modelling, we show that ISWs can account for three key features: ISWs produce fluid velocities capable of mobilizing bottom sediments; the predicted refraction pattern resulting from the interaction of ISWs with bottom topography matches the observed deflection of the sand waves; and predicted migration rates of sand waves match empirical estimates. This work shows how ISWs may contribute to sculpting the structure of continental margins and it represents a promising link between the geological and oceanographic communities.

  17. Scalings, spectra, and statistics of strong wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    A two-component model of strongly nonlinear wave turbulence is developed for a broad class of systems in which high-frequency electrostatic waves interact with low-frequency sound-like waves. In this model coherent nonlinear wave packets form and collapse amid a sea of incoherent background waves. It is shown that three classes of turbulence exist, typified by Langmuir, lower-hybrid, and upper-hybrid turbulence. Balance between power input to incoherent waves, and dissipation at the end of collapse determines power-law scalings of turbulent electrostatic energy density, density fluctuations, length and time scales. Knowledge of the evolution of collapsing packets enables probability distributions of the magnitudes of electric fields and density fluctuations to be calculated, yielding power-law dependences. Wavenumber spectra of collapsing waves and associated density fluctuations are also calculated and shown to have power-law forms. Applications to Langmuir, lower-hybrid, and upper-hybrid waves are discussed. In the Langmuir case the results agree with earlier theory and simulations, with one exception, which is consistent only with earlier simulations. In the lower-hybrid and upper-hybrid cases, the results are consistent with the few simulations to date. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, G.

    2015-08-04

    We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.

  19. Rogue waves in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomere, T.

    2010-07-01

    Most of the processes resulting in the formation of unexpectedly high surface waves in deep water (such as dispersive and geometrical focusing, interactions with currents and internal waves, reflection from caustic areas, etc.) are active also in shallow areas. Only the mechanism of modulational instability is not active in finite depth conditions. Instead, wave amplification along certain coastal profiles and the drastic dependence of the run-up height on the incident wave shape may substantially contribute to the formation of rogue waves in the nearshore. A unique source of long-living rogue waves (that has no analogues in the deep ocean) is the nonlinear interaction of obliquely propagating solitary shallow-water waves and an equivalent mechanism of Mach reflection of waves from the coast. The characteristic features of these processes are (i) extreme amplification of the steepness of the wave fronts, (ii) change in the orientation of the largest wave crests compared with that of the counterparts and (iii) rapid displacement of the location of the extreme wave humps along the crests of the interacting waves. The presence of coasts raises a number of related questions such as the possibility of conversion of rogue waves into sneaker waves with extremely high run-up. Also, the reaction of bottom sediments and the entire coastal zone to the rogue waves may be drastic.

  20. Sheath waves, non collisional dampings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marec, Jean Lucien Ernest

    1974-01-01

    When a metallic conductor is inserted into an ionised gas, an area of electron depletion is formed between the conductor and the plasma: the ionic sheath. Moreover, if the conductor is excited by an electric field, this ionic sheath plays an important role with respect to microwave properties. In this research thesis, the author addresses the range of frequencies smaller than the plasma frequency, and reports the study of resonance phenomena. After a presentation of the problem through a bibliographical study, the author recalls general characteristics of sheath wave propagation and of sheath resonances, and discusses the validity of different hypotheses (for example and among others, electrostatic approximations, cold plasma). Then, the author more particularly addresses theoretical problems related to non collisional dampings: brief bibliographical study, detailed presentation and description of the theoretical model, damping calculation methods. The author then justifies the design and performance of an experiment, indicates measurement methods used to determine plasma characteristics as well as other magnitudes which allow the description of mechanisms of propagation and damping of sheath waves. Experimental results are finally presented with respect to various parameters. The author discusses to which extent the chosen theoretical model is satisfying [fr