Sample records for parker river plum

  1. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2006 (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during 2006. The report begins with information about the year’s...

  2. The Effects of Varying Salinity on Ammonium Exchange in Estuarine Sediments of the Parker River, Massachusetts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weston, Nathaniel B.; Giblin, Anne E; Banta, Gary Thomas


    We examined the effects of seasonal salinity changes on sediment ammonium (NH4+) adsorption and exchange across the sediment–water interface in the Parker River Estuary, by means of seasonal field sampling, laboratory adsorption experiments, and modeling. The fraction of dissolvedNH4+relative...... to adsorbedNH4+in oligohaline sediments rose significantly with increased pore water salinity over the season. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that small (∼3) increases in salinity from freshwater conditions had the greatest effect onNH4+adsorption by reducing the exchangeable pool from 69% to 14......% of the totalNH4+in the upper estuary sediments that experience large (0–20) seasonal salinity shifts.NH4+dynamics did not appear to be significantly affected bysalinity in sediments of the lower estuary where salinities under 10 were not measured. We further assessed the importance of salinity...

  3. 76 FR 22140 - Parker River and Thacher Island National Wildlife Refuges, Essex County, MA; Comprehensive... (United States)


    ..., particularly migratory birds and wintering American black ducks. A focus of management is to serve as a land... recent sea level rise study predicts that Plum Island's natural and cultural resources are imminently...

  4. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.


    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  5. 2005 NCALM Plum Island-Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The survey area is an irregular polygon (148 square kilometers) at the Plum Island River in northeast Massachusetts. The eastern third of the polygon was flown on...

  6. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, W.W.


    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion

  7. Home garden plums (United States)

    The paper is to provide extension information on plums for home owners in Georgia and other Southeastern states. It includes seven sections: introduction, varieties, planting, pruning, fertilization, pests/diseases, and long term care....

  8. Interview with Mike Parker Pearson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. T. Williams


    Full Text Available Mike Parker Pearson is the Institute of Archaeology’s newly appointed Professor of British Later Prehistory. In this interview he reflects on his experience at the birth of post-processualism, current problems and opportunities in modern archaeology, and the subject for which he is best known: Stonehenge.

  9. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)


    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  10. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas


    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites. - Highlights: • We studied uptake of Ra-226 from soil into Buchanania obovata. • The influence of group II metals (Sr, Ba and Ca) on Ra uptake was investigated. • The exchangeable Ra fraction of the soil was not a more reliable predictor of Ra uptake than total soil Ra. • Ca outcompetes group II metals Sr, Ba and Ra for root uptake. • Uptake discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra.

  11. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation (United States)


    .... APHIS-2011-0004] RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... interim rule that amended the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible... are required to be destroyed in order to prevent the spread of plum pox. The interim rule also...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sottile


    Full Text Available Thirty four plum local varieties and accessions obtained from different growing area of the Sicilian island were analyzed for their qualitative and nutraceutical properties and three commercialcultivar were used as references. These properties included the fruit fresh weight (g, the pulp firmness (FFF, the total soluble solids (TSS, the titratable acidity (TA, the total anthocyanins,the phenolics content and the antioxidant activity.This preliminary study showed significantly differeces among the plums; Zuccarato giallo and Prunu Niuru presented TSS higher than the commercial cultivars (24.9 and 21.6 °Brix respectivelyand interesting data obtained on the nutraceutical compounds values suggested these local cultivars as sources of polyphenols (Zuccarato giallo with 663 mg GA/100 gFW and naturalantioxidants (Pruno Regina with 47.46 Fe2+/100 gFW. The characterization of these plums could represent also an important resource for the international activity in the genetic improving andthe collection of the more interesting quality traits could be useful for improving the Prunus database actually in use.

  13. 'HoneySweet' (C5), the first genetically engineered Plum pox virus-resistant plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ plum was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, to provide U.S. growers and P. domestica plum breeders with a high fruit quality plum cultivar resistant to Plum pox virus (PPV). ‘HoneySweet’ was developed through genetic engineering utilizing the...

  14. The functionality of plum ingredients in meat products: a review. (United States)

    Jarvis, Nathan; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G


    Dried plums (prunes) have been marketed to consumers for consumption directly from the package as a convenient snack and have been reported to have broad health benefits. Only recently have fractionated, dried plum ingredients been investigated for their functionality in food and feed products. Dried plum puree, dried plum fiber, dried plum powder, dried plum concentrate, and fresh plum concentrate have been investigated to date. They have been evaluated as fat replacers in baked goods, antioxidants in meat formulations, phosphate replacers in chicken marinades, and antimicrobials in food systems. Overall, dried plum products have been shown to be effective at reducing lipid oxidation and show promise as antimicrobials. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Parker limit for monopoles with large magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Kolb, E.W.; Turner, M.S.


    The survival of galactic magnetic fields places a limit on the flux of magnetic monopoles, the so-called ''Parker limit.'' Previous discussions of the Parker limit have assumed that the charge of the monopole is the Dirac value, g/sub Dirac/ = 2π/e. However, if the grand unified group is broken by Wilson lines, as is assumed in some superstring models, the minimum value of the magnetic charge is not the Dirac quantum, but an integer multiple of it. In this brief report we investigate the dependence of the Parker limit on the charge of the magnetic monopole. 10 refs., 1 fig

  16. Unpacking Pat Parker: Intersections and Revolutions in "Movement in Black". (United States)

    Washburn, Amy


    This article explores Pat Parker's poem "Movement in Black." It examines the ways in which she emblematizes intersectionality and simultaneity as forms of revolution in struggles of self and society. It begins with a theoretical and historical apparatus to contextualize Parker as an artist and activist. Then it offers a literary analysis of the poem, focusing on themes of time and space, marginalization and movement, difference and power, visibility and invisibility, and history and memory. It argues that Parker uses autobiographical writing to fuse personal and political sites of resistance.

  17. 76 FR 27219 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas (United States)


    ...-0089] Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... that amended the plum pox virus (PPV) regulations by removing portions of Adams County, PA, from the...: Background The plum pox virus (PPV) is an extremely serious viral disease of plants that can affect many...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Vitanova


    Full Text Available The Bulgarian plum cultivars Gabrovska, Nevena, Strinava, Guliaeva and Balvanska slava, breeding in the Plum Experimental Station in the town of Dryanovo and the introduced cultivars Stanley, Chachanska lepotitsa, Opal, Malvazinka, Hramova renkloda, Tuleu timpuriu, Althan’s Gage, Pacific, Mirabell de Nancy, Anna Schpet and Jojo, what are high productive and are tolerant to sharka and other important economic plum diseases are suitable for the biologic plum production. The organic fertilization is a basic element of the technology for the biologic plum production. The fertilization with manure and the green manure with a winter green peas and with a peas-rye mix increased the humus content, influenced positive action on the supplying of the plum plants with the main nutrient macro elements, increased the yield and to be able apply successfully in the plum orchards and at not irrigation conditions.

  19. Analysis of GMO Plum Plant Culture in System Operations Failure (United States)

    Mercado, Dianne


    GMO plum trees are being evaluated at the Kennedy Space Center as a possible candidate for future space crops. Previously conducted horticultural testing compared the performance of several plum genotypes in controlled environment chambers, resulting in a down-selection to the NASA-11 genotype. Precursory studies determined the water use requirements to sustain the plants as well as the feasibility of grafting non-GMO plum scions onto GMO plum rootstocks of NASA-5, NASA-10, and NASA-11 genotypes. This study follows the growth and horticultural progress of plum trees and in-vitro cultures from August 2017 to November 2017, and provides supplemental support for future GMO plum studies. The presence of Hurricane Irma in early September 2017 resulted in the plants undergoing material deterioration from major changes to their overall horticultural progress.

  20. Scaling of Sweet-Parker reconnection with secondary islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassak, P. A.; Shay, M. A.; Drake, J. F.


    Sweet-Parker (collisional) magnetic reconnection at high Lundquist number is modified by secondary islands. Daughton et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 065004 (2009)] suggested the Sweet-Parker model governs the fragmented current sheet segments. If true, the reconnection rate would increase by the square root of the number of secondary islands. High Lundquist number resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented which agree, in a time-averaged sense, with the predicted scaling. This result may have important implications for energy storage before a solar eruption and its subsequent release.

  1. Volatile Components from Old Plum Brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoslav Nikićević


    Full Text Available Gas chromatography and GC/MS methods were used to detect volatile components of three home-made natural old plum brandy samples and one sample of industrially-produced plum brandy. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of this extracts led to the identification of 99 components, including 46 esters, 7 hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes, 3 aldehydes, 9 alcohols, 1 lactone, 1 ketone, 8 acetals, 14 terpenes, 8 acids and 2 phenols. Ethyl esters of C8–C18 acids were the most abundant in all samples. In addition, the content of methanol, ethanol and higher alcohols C3–C5 was determined.

  2. Sugars and organic acids in plum fruit affected by Plum pox virus. (United States)

    Usenik, Valentina; Marn, Mojca Virscek


    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes severe economic losses in stone fruit production, but little is known about its effect on plum fruit composition. In this study, the influence of PPV on sugars and organic acids was evaluated in a susceptible plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar. PPV infection significantly affected the content and composition of sugars and organic acids. The composition of necrotic tissue was modified the most. A short-time infected tree yielded fruit with similar sugar composition to fruit from a healthy tree, but the decline of organic acids was faster. Prematurely ripened symptomatic fruit had reduced fruit weight and low sugar content. Infected trees of the studied cultivar produce fruit of inferior quality. Fruits are not suitable for processing, especially when most of them exhibit visual symptoms of PPV infection. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Overview on the investigations of transgenic plums in Romania (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, PT3 and PT5 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natu...

  4. Overview of the investigation of transgenic plums in Romania (United States)

    Transgenic plums of Prunus domestica L. transformed with the Plum pox virus coat protein gene (PPV-CP) were the subjects of three experiments undertaken in Romania. In the first experiment, PPV-CP transgenic clones C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and PT3 were evaluated for Sharka resistance under high natural i...

  5. 7 CFR 503.4 - Conformity with Plum Island regulations. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with Plum Island regulations. 503.4 Section 503.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.4 Conformity with...

  6. Detection of plum pox virus infection in selection plum trees using spectral imaging (United States)

    Angelova, Liliya; Stoev, Antoniy; Borisova, Ekaterina; Avramov, Latchezar


    Plum pox virus (PPV) is among the most studied viral diseases in the world in plants. It is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases of stone fruits in terms of agronomic impact and economic importance. Noninvasive, fast and reliable techniques are required for evaluation of the pathology in selection trees with economic impact. Such advanced tools for PPV detection could be optical techniques as light-induced fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies. Specific regions in the electromagnetic spectra have been found to provide information about the physiological stress in plants, and consequently, diseased plants usually exhibit different spectral signature than non-stressed healthy plants in those specific ranges. In this study spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence were used for the identification of biotic stress caused by the pox virus on plum trees. The spectral responses of healthy and infected leaves from cultivars, which are widespread in Bulgaria were investigated. The two applied techniques revealed statistically significant differences between the spectral data of healthy plum leaves and those infected by PPV in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. Their application for biotic stress detection helps in monitoring diseases in plants using the different plant spectral properties in these spectral ranges. The strong relationship between the results indicates the applicability of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence techniques for conducting health condition assessments of vegetation and their importance for plant protection practices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nursery trees of stone fruits (Prunus spp. are traditionally produced by union of two distinct genotypes - the rootstock and the scion - which, by grafting, form a composite plant that will be maintained throughout of all plant life. In Brazil, the rootstocks are predominantly seed propagated and therefore usually results in heterogeneous trees for vigor and edaphic adaptation. However, with advances in rootstock breeding programs that released cultivars and certification in several countries (notably in Europe, the system will come gradually evolving for vegetative propagation (cuttings and tissue culture and use of seeds of selected rootstocks with specific characteristics and potted nursery trees production. For scion cultivar propagation, the budding system (with its many variations has predominantly been adopted in major producing countries. This review had as objective to comment main propagation methods adopted for rootstocks and scion in peach, nectarine and plum, and recent technical progress obtained as well as the needs of improvement for nursery tree production.

  8. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam... (United States)


    ... River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). 100.1102 Section... MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1102 Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). (a) General. Sponsors are...

  9. Space Pomology: Dwarf Plums for Fresh Food Production (United States)

    Spencer, LaShelle; Graham, Thomas; Stutte, Gary; Massa, Gioia; Mickens, Matthew; Wheeler, Raymond


    Recently, USDA ARS researchers genetically modified plums for rapid breeding work and noticed the plants could flower and develop fruit rapidly on relatively small plants. We have tested several of these genetically modified (GM) plums in plant chambers to assess their potential as a space crop. We have been able to clone these genetic lines using cuttings that are rooted using growth regulating compounds. Results showed that the GM plums indeed flower and fruit on small plants in controlled environments similar to what might be used in space, but they require cross-pollination with pollen from a standard plum. Analysis of stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration showed that water use went up in the light period, as expected, and but that GM types typically showed higher conductance than a standard plum. Analysis of tissue showed that fruit could be a good source of potassium and phenolic compounds, which could be beneficial as a bone loss countermeasure (Smith et al., 2014). These findings are all promising for using dwarf GM plums as a supplemental food for space, but further horticultural testing is needed before they are ready.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin


    Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor ≅ 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R≅S -0.5 , where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.

  11. Evaluation of the genetic diversity of Plum pox virus in a single plum tree. (United States)

    Predajňa, Lukáš; Šubr, Zdeno; Candresse, Thierry; Glasa, Miroslav


    Genetic diversity of Plum pox virus (PPV) and its distribution within a single perennial woody host (plum, Prunus domestica) has been evaluated. A plum tree was triply infected by chip-budding with PPV-M, PPV-D and PPV-Rec isolates in 2003 and left to develop untreated under open field conditions. In September 2010 leaf and fruit samples were collected from different parts of the tree canopy. A 745-bp NIb-CP fragment of PPV genome, containing the hypervariable region encoding the CP N-terminal end was amplified by RT-PCR from each sample and directly sequenced to determine the dominant sequence. In parallel, the PCR products were cloned and a total of 105 individual clones were sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that after 7 years of infection, only PPV-M was still detectable in the tree and that the two other isolates (PPV-Rec and PPV-D) had been displaced. Despite the fact that the analysis targeted a relatively short portion of the genome, a substantial amount of intra-isolate variability was observed for PPV-M. A total of 51 different haplotypes could be identified from the 105 individual sequences, two of which were largely dominant. However, no clear-cut structuration of the viral population by the tree architecture could be highlighted although the results obtained suggest the possibility of intra-leaf/fruit differentiation of the viral population. Comparison of the consensus sequence with the original source isolate showed no difference, suggesting within-plant stability of this original isolate under open field conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  13. Academic Libraries and Automation: A Historical Reflection on Ralph Halsted Parker (United States)

    Burns, C. Sean


    This paper provides a historical account of Ralph Halsted Parker and his work to automate libraries in the early to middle parts of the twentieth century. One of Parker's motivations to automate stemmed from a desire to professionalize academic librarianship, and this is evident in his administration as library director at the University of…

  14. [Questions on the first operation with ethyl ether as anaesthetic by Dr. Peter Parker]. (United States)

    Chen, Q


    Ethyl ether was the first accepted effective general anaesthetic. It was introduced into China by an America missionary, Dr. Peter Parker. This was one of the historical events of medical communication between China and the West. In the records of the first operation with ether, however, Dr. Parker unusually omitted the patient's medical record number and the date of the operation, while those of other operations with ether anesthetics were all available. This was very unusual for a doctor like Peter Parker who always recorded every important case in detail in the hospital reports. It seems that he deliberately rather than carelessly omitted the information for some reasons. Based on the analysis of Parker's reports, a conclusion is made that the anesthetic effect of the case was actually ineffective. Furthermore, possible answers to this are outlined and question by discussion based on the situation that Parker faced in the late Qing era.

  15. Loss of aphid transmissibility of plum pox virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenova, I.; Lohuis, H.; Peters, D.


    The aphid transmissibility of seven Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates and the amino acid sequences of their coat proteins were analysed Two aphid transmissible isolates PPV-A and PPV-P contained the DAG amino triplet, while DAL or NAG replaced this triplet in the coat proteins of non-aphid transmissible

  16. An Introduction to Plum Blossom Boxing: History, Culture and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang


    Full Text Available Meihuaquan (“Plum Blossom Fist [Boxing]” has traditionally been practiced as vernacular (folk art practiced among the Han ethnic group residing in the Shandong, Henan and Hebei Provinces of China. Historical documentation dates Plum Blossom Boxing to the seventeenth century. The classic Chinese novel, Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn (Marsh Chronicles recounts the martial exploits of Shandong’s twelfth century outlaw heroes who may have been Mei Boxers, also. Thus, for perhaps a millennium, the region has been noted for vernacular martial arts and social banditry. The region’s rampant lawlessness promoted highly-developed martial prowess among both lawbreakers and those who were required to protect themselves against the brigands. Cultural, economic, and environmental factors in the region gave rise to heterodox political and religious beliefs that frequently served as a catalyst for martial sects, most notably the “Boxers” who at the turn of the twentieth century, came into conflict with the imperial government. These factors laid the groundwork for the “character traits” of the art while Taoism, the Five Elements theory, and a concept of predictable change shaped Plum Boxing’s strategic and mechanical principles. In the past decade, there have been efforts to globalize this vernacular martial art. Rather than driving Plum Boxing to extinction it is likely that the folk and the “larger than local” will co-exist.

  17. 75 FR 81087 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas (United States)


    ... for host material. Since the fruit itself is not a vector of the disease, the quarantine imposes no.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The plum pox virus (PPV) is an extremely serious viral disease of plants... fruit that is produced is often misshapen and blemished. PPV is transmitted under natural conditions by...

  18. Book Review: Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left by Ian Parker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Z Clyne


    Full Text Available Eyal Clyne reviews Ian Parker's "Revolutionary Keywords for A New Left" (Winchester and Washington: Zero books ISBN: 978-1-78535-642-1, a book that unlocks complex Left-struggle issues in short and accessible essays.

  19. Use of a three-dimensional model for the analysis of the ground-water flow system in Parker Valley, Arizona and California (United States)

    Tucci, Patrick


    A three-dimensional, finite-difference model was used to simulate ground-water flow conditions in Parker Valley. The study evaluated present knowledge and concepts of the ground-water system and the ability of the model to represent the system. Modeling assumptions and generalized physical parameters that were used may have transfer value in the construction and calibration of models of other basins along the lower Colorado River. The aquifer was simulated in two layers to represent the three-dimensional system. Ground-water conditions were simulated for 1940-41, the mid-1960's, and 1980. Overall model results generally compared favorably with available field information. The model results showed that for 1940-41 the Colorado River was a losing stream through out Parker Valley. Infiltration of surface water from the river was the major source of recharge. The dominant mechanism of discharge was evapotranspiration by phreatophytes. Agricultural development between 1941 and the mid-1960 's resulted in significant changes to the ground-water system. Model results for conditions in the mid-1960 's showed that the Colorado River had become a gaining stream in the northern part of the valley as a result of higher water levels. The rise in water levels was caused by infiltration of applied irrigation water. Diminished water-level gradients from the river in the rest of the valley reduced the amount of infiltration of surface water from the river. Models results for conditions in 1980 showed that ground-water level rises of several feet caused further reduction in the amount of surface-water infiltration from the river. (USGS)

  20. Water quality, sources of nitrate, and chemical loadings in the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds, south-central Texas, April 2015–March 2016 (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Musgrove, MaryLynn


    Located in south-central Texas, the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds have long been characterized by elevated nitrate concentrations. From April 2015 through March 2016, an assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, to characterize nitrate concentrations and to document possible sources of elevated nitrate in these two watersheds. Water-quality samples were collected from stream, spring, and groundwater sites distributed across the two watersheds, along with precipitation samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent samples from the Plum Creek watershed, to characterize endmember concentrations and isotopic compositions from April 2015 through March 2016. Stream, spring, and groundwater samples from both watersheds were collected during four synoptic sampling events to characterize spatial and temporal variations in water quality and chemical loadings. Water-quality and -quantity data from the WWTPs and stream discharge data also were considered. Samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, and stable isotopes of water and nitrate.The dominant land use in both watersheds is agriculture (cultivated crops, rangeland, and grassland and pasture). The upper part of the Plum Creek watershed is more highly urbanized and has five major WWTPs; numerous smaller permitted wastewater outfalls are concentrated in the upper and central parts of the Plum Creek watershed. The Geronimo Creek watershed, in contrast, has no WWTPs upstream from or near the sampling sites.Results indicate that water quality in the Geronimo Creek watershed, which was evaluated only during base-flow conditions, is dominated by groundwater, which discharges to the stream by numerous springs at various locations. Nitrate isotope values for most Geronimo Creek samples were similar, which indicates that they likely have a common source (or

  1. The determination of furaldehyde and benzaldehyde in plum brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Full Text Available Among all alcohol liqueurs, brandies from drupaceous plants are characterized with the highest level of hydro cyanic acid, benzaldehyde and ethylcarbamate. In fruit brandies ethylcarbamate mainly originates from hydro cyanic acid during the processes of alcohol fermentation of crushed fruit and its preservation, distillation and ripening of the brandy. Hydro cyanic acid and benzaldehyde arise from the hydrolysis of amygdaline that is found exist in the heart of fruit stones and seeds, as well as from the hydrolysis of prunasine from the skin and flesh of drupaceous plants. The content of amygdaline and prunazine depends on the type of fruit, which corresponds to the potential content of hydro cyanic acid and benzaldehyde in the brandy that corresponds the stoichiometric ratio 1:3.94. The content of the aldehydes: furfural and benzaldehyde in plum brandy, strong plum brandy, young brandy, of domestic production in the various regions of Serbia were analyzed in this paper.

  2. Morphogenic variability of some autochthonous plum cultivars in western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Milosevic


    Full Text Available A study conducted over a period of two years in a Western Serbian valley included in situ identification of autochthonous plum cultivars. Observation and recording of their phenological and pomological traits were performed using IBPGR and UPOV methodologies. Fifteen cultivars derived from Prunus domestica L. and two cultivars derived from P. insititia L. were identified. Flowering started between 24 March and 7 April and fruit ripening between 12 July (Petrovača and 16 September (Trnovača. Fruit weight ranged from 6.79± 0.018 to 36.62± 0.251 g and stone weight from 0.14± 0.002 to 1.95± 0.023 g. The cultivars were classified as being extremely small in terms of fruit size. Rounded fruit shape and light-yellow ground colour were dominant. Skin colour ranged from amber to black. Yellow green was a dominant flesh colour and medium flesh firmness predominated. The fruits of the above cultivars could be processed, particularly into plum brandy, or they could be used fresh or dried. The selected plum cultivars can be used both in breeding programmes and as rootstocks as well as in further disease-related systematic studies under field and laboratory conditions.

  3. Plum coatings of lemongrass oil-incorporating carnauba wax-based nanoemulsion. (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Song, Kyung Bin; Lee, Youn Suk; Chung, Dae Sung; Min, Sea C


    Nanoemulsions containing lemongrass oil (LO) were developed for coating plums and the effects of the nanoemulsion coatings on the microbial safety and physicochemical storage qualities of plums during storage at 4 and 25 °C were investigated. The emulsions used for coating were produced by mixing a carnauba wax-based solution (18%, w/w) with LO at various concentrations (0.5% to 4.0%, w/w) using dynamic high pressure processing at 172 MPa. The coatings were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and their ability to preserve various physicochemical qualities of plums. Uniform and continuous coatings on plums, formed with stable emulsions, initially inhibited S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by 0.2 to 2.8 and 0.8 to 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively, depending on the concentration of LO and the sequence of coating. The coatings did not significantly alter the flavor, fracturability, or glossiness of the plums. The antimicrobial effects of the coatings against S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were demonstrated during storage at 4 and 25 °C. The coatings reduced weight loss and ethylene production by approximately 2 to 3 and 1.4 to 4.0 fold, respectively, and also retarded the changes in lightness and the concentration of phenolic compounds in plums during storage. The firmness of coated plums was generally higher than uncoated plums when stored at 4 °C and plum respiration rates were reduced during storage. Coatings containing nanoemulsions of LO have the potential to inhibit Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 contamination of plums and may extend plum shelf life. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  4. 75 FR 20558 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plum Pox Compensation (United States)


    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY... destroyed to eradicate plum pox virus. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on plum pox compensation, contact Dr. S. Anwar Rizvi, Senior...

  5. 40 CFR 174.531 - Coat protein of plum pox virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of plum pox virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.531 Coat protein of plum pox virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the coat protein of plum pox virus in or on the...

  6. 75 FR 13131 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Sale of Plum Island, NY (United States)


    ... the anticipated sale of Plum Island, New York and an ancillary support facility at Orient Point, New...) for the Sale of Plum Island, NY AGENCY: Office of Real Property Utilization & Disposal; General...: Plum Island is an 840-acre island located approximately 1.5 miles off the northeast tip of Orient Point...

  7. 'HoneySweet' plum - a valuable genetically engineered fruit-tree cultivar and germplasm resource (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ is a plum variety developed through genetic engineering to be highly resistant to plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, that threatens stone-fruit industries world-wide and most specifically, in Europe. Field testing for over 15 years in Europe has demonstrated ...

  8. The Killer Will Remain Free: On Pat Parker and the Poetics of Madness. (United States)

    Ali, Kazim


    Poet and scholar Kazim Ali reads Pat Parker's Movement in Black intimately, one poet to another, uncovering the shadow-fact of the lives of most people of color: not only the anger that is somehow sublimated into every part of our lives but also the issue that carrying this feeling around has on our mental health itself-that "anger" and "madness" might have sources in one another. Ali concludes that Parker offers a brutal and clear-eyed and ultimately hopeful assessment of the conditions that were faced at the time, and even now, by communities of color.

  9. Aphid Transmission of the Ontario Isolate of Plum Pox Virus. (United States)

    Lowery, D Thomas; Vickers, Patricia M; Bittner, Lori A; Stobbs, Lorne W; Foottit, Robert G


    Utilization of timed virus acquisition access probes in studies of plum pox virus (PPV) transmission by aphids demonstrated that endemic species transmitted the virus readily from plum, Prunus domestica (L.) Batsch; peach, P. persica (L.); or dwarf flowering almond, P. glandulosa Thunberg., to peach seedlings. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), was shown to be the most efficient vector. Acquisition of virus by green peach aphids from infected peach leaves resulted in 18-28% infected peach seedlings, while aphids previously fed on infected leaves of plum transferred virus to 36% of peach seedlings. Although the spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Patch), was a less efficient vector than M. persicae it is perhaps more important for the spread of PPV due to its greater abundance and occurrence earlier in the season when peach trees are thought to be more susceptible to infection. Virus transmission rates varied depending on the virus source and healthy test plant species. In contrast to many previous studies, aphid inoculation of the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana Domin occurred at a low rate, never exceeding 4%. Acquisition of PPV by M. persicae from infected peach fruit was greatly reduced compared with acquisition from leaves. The results of this research indicate that the Ontario isolate of PPV-D is readily transmissible by aphids to peach and natural spread of the virus needs to be considered in future management or eradication programs. © Her Majesty in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. 78 FR 37210 - Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC; Notice of Environmental Site Review (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13239-002] Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC; Notice of Environmental Site Review Take notice that the following hydroelectric applications have been filed with Commission and are available for public inspection: a. Type of Application: New Major License. b. Project No.: 13239. c. Date...

  11. Understanding non-equilibrium collisional and expansion effects in the solar wind with Parker Solar Probe (United States)

    Korreck, K. E.; Klein, K. G.; Maruca, B.; Alterman, B. L.


    The evolution of the solar wind from the corona to the Earth and throughout the heliosphere is a complex interplay between local micro kinetics and large scale expansion effects. These processes in the solar wind need to be separated in order to understand and distinguish the dominant mechanism for heating and acceleration of the solar wind. With the upcoming launch in 2018 of Parker Solar Probe and the launch of Solar Orbiter after, addressing the local and global phenomena will be enabled with in situ measurements. Parker Solar Probe will go closer to the Sun than any previous mission enabling the ability to examine the solar wind at an early expansion age. This work examines the predictions for what will be seen inside of the 0.25 AU (54 solar radii) where Parker Solar Probe will take measurements and lays the groundwork for disentangling the expansion and collisional effects. In addition, methods of thermal plasma data analysis to determine the stability of the plasma in the Parker Solar Probe measurements will be discussed.

  12. 78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the....). RPM Racing Enterprises is sponsoring the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals, which is...

  13. 75 FR 43519 - Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No. 5 Substation and the Palo Verde Hub AGENCY... Department of Energy (DOE), is requesting SOIs from entities that are interested in purchasing transmission...

  14. The Spiral of Science (Mis)Education, Parker's "Multiple Influences," and Missed Opportunities (United States)

    Richardson Bruna, Katherine


    In this reflection on Carolyn Parker's article, I connect to my own professional work at the intersection of Latino education and science education as well as to my own personal interest in liberation theology. I use constructs central to liberation theology to indicate what a liberationist science might look like and push us, in doing so, to…

  15. Rethinking English phyisco-theology: Samuel Parker's Tentamina de Deo (1665). (United States)

    Levitin, Dmitri


    Recent historiography has claimed that a radically new, non-dogmatic physico-theology gained prominence with, and simultaneously promoted, the new science. This article challenges this view by focusing on an important physico-theological work by the young Oxford cleric Samuel Parker, published in 1665. It received a glowing review in the first volume of the Philosophical Transactions and gained its author election to the Royal Society, yet has been almost entirely ignored by modern scholars. Parker's work demonstrates both how easily the pious rhetoric of the naturalists could be incorporated into the traditional--largely humanist--knowledge gained by a typical M.A. student in mid-seventeenth-century England. Moreover, far from being non-dogmatic, Parker's physico-theology culminated in a remarkable deployment of the new philosophy (specifically Thomas Willis's neurology) to explain scriptural passages referring to God's passions. Parker believed himself not to be doing something radically new, but to be working in the traditions of scholastic theology. At the same time, his work was one of the most important conduits for the early English reception of both Descartes and Gassendi.

  16. Update on Plum pox virus distribution in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol AKBAŞ


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Extensive surveys to determine the occurrence of Plum pox virus (PPV in Turkey were carried out between 2007 and 2010 in commercial stone fruit orchards and nurseries, in non commercial stone fruit trees at other locations, and in rural and urban residential properties located in 56 of Turkey’s 81 provinces. A total of 5,762 samples were collected from almond, apricot, mahaleb, nectarine, plum, peach, sweet cherry and sour cherry and tested by biological indexing, DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Two hundred and twenty two samples from 4 regions (the Aegean region, the Central Anatolia region, the Marmara region and the Mediterranean region were found to be infected with PPV. This virus has occurred in Turkey since 1968. This is the first record of PPV occurrence in Aksaray, Çanakkale, İzmir, Kayseri, and Konya provinces.

  17. Classification of plum spirit drinks by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. (United States)

    Sádecká, J; Jakubíková, M; Májek, P; Kleinová, A


    Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was used in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the differentiation of plum spirits according to their geographical origin. A total of 14 Czech, 12 Hungarian and 18 Slovak plum spirit samples were used. The samples were divided in two categories: colorless (22 samples) and colored (22 samples). Synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) obtained at a wavelength difference of 60 nm provided the best results. Considering the PCA-LDA applied to the SFS of all samples, Czech, Hungarian and Slovak colorless samples were properly classified in both the calibration and prediction sets. 100% of correct classification was also obtained for Czech and Hungarian colored samples. However, one group of Slovak colored samples was classified as belonging to the Hungarian group in the calibration set. Thus, the total correct classifications obtained were 94% and 100% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Applying PCA-LDA to NIR spectra (5500-6000 cm(-1)), the total correct classifications were 91% and 92% for the calibration and prediction steps, respectively, which were slightly lower than those obtained using SFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Daniel; Alvina, Andres


    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  19. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits. (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo


    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations. (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam


    Among popular crops, plum ( Prunus domestica L.) has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar "Valor") juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C) drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Powders Obtained from Different Plum Juice Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Michalska


    Full Text Available Among popular crops, plum (Prunus domestica L. has received special attention due to its health-promoting properties. The seasonality of this fruit makes it impossible to consume it throughout the year, so new products in a powder form may offer an alternative to fresh consumption and may be used as high-quality natural food ingredients. A 100% plum (cultivar “Valor” juice was mixed with three different concentrations of maltodextrin or subjected to sugars removal by amberlite-XAD column, and dried using the freeze, spray, and vacuum (40, 60, and 80 °C drying techniques. The identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins in plum powders was performed by LC-MS QTof and UPLC-PDA, respectively. l-ascorbic acid, hydroxymethylfurfural, and antioxidant capacity were measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP methods in order to compare the influence of the drying methods on product quality. The results indicated that the profile of polyphenolic compounds in the plum juice powders significantly differed from the whole plum powders. The drying of a sugar free plum extract resulted in higher content of polyphenolic compounds, l-ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity, but lower content of hydroxymethylfurfural, regardless of drying method applied. Thus, the formulation of plum juice before drying and the drying method should be carefully selected in order to obtain high-quality powders.

  2. BBN: Description of the PLUM System as Used for MUC-4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayuso, Damaris; Boisen, Sean; Fox, Heidi; Gish, Herb; Ingria, Robert; Weischedel, Ralph


    .... In contrast, BBN's PLUM system (Probabilistic Language Understanding Model) was developed as part of a DARPA-funded research effort on integrating probabilistic language models with more traditional linguistic techniques...

  3. The metabolism of sorbitol and fructose in isolated chloroplasts of Santa Rosa plum leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, O.T.


    Aqueously as well as non-aqueously isolated chloroplasts from Santa Rosa plum leaves readily metabolised sorbitol- 14 C to fructose, glucose and sucrose. Likewise, fructose- 14 C was converted to sorbitol, glucose and sucrose [af

  4. Effect of environmental conditions on flower induction of marian plum (Bouea burmanica Griff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusie L. Mavuso


    Full Text Available Marian plum flowering naturally occurs during the cool, dry season so Thailand farmers usually withdraw irrigation a month before flowering. However, irregular flowering continues to be a serious problem. This study investigated the effects of environmental conditions (air temperature, soil moisture and relative humidity on flower induction of marian plum. Daily weather data were collected using weather stations in three orchards where flowering was also recorded. Thirty representative trees per orchard were randomly selected for data collection. The results showed that trees from all orchards flowered in response to low temperature (below 18 °C despite different levels of water stress and relative humidity. These results indicated that soil moisture content and relative humidity had no influence on marian plum flower induction but enhanced flower bud development. Night temperatures of 18 °C or lower are essential for marian plum flower induction.

  5. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums... (United States)


    ... plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for animal feed; or (5) Avocados for seed shall obtain an “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” (FV-6...

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Plum pox virus in Japan. (United States)

    Maejima, Kensaku; Himeno, Misako; Komatsu, Ken; Takinami, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou


    For a molecular epidemiological study based on complete genome sequences, 37 Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates were collected from the Kanto region in Japan. Pair-wise analyses revealed that all 37 Japanese isolates belong to the PPV-D strain, with low genetic diversity (less than 0.8%). In phylogenetic analysis of the PPV-D strain based on complete nucleotide sequences, the relationships of the PPV-D strain were reconstructed with high resolution: at the global level, the American, Canadian, and Japanese isolates formed their own distinct monophyletic clusters, suggesting that the routes of viral entry into these countries were independent; at the local level, the actual transmission histories of PPV were precisely reconstructed with high bootstrap support. This is the first description of the molecular epidemiology of PPV based on complete genome sequences.

  7. Biodiversity of Yeasts During Plum Wegierka Zwykla Spontaneous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Tuszynski


    Full Text Available The study comprises an analysis of the yeast microbiota that participated in the spontaneous fermentation of crushed Wegierka Zwykla plum fruit, which is the raw material for slivovitz production in the mountain region in the south of Poland. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains were differentiated by means of the killer sensitivity analysis related to a killer reference panel of 9 well-known killer yeast strains. The first phase of the fermentation was dominated by the representatives of Kloeckera apiculata and Candida pulcherrima species, which reached their maximum concentration (1.4·106 CFU/mL after 48 h of the process. Almost all yeasts isolated during the following days were classified as S. cerevisiae and the killer sensitivity analysis revealed a high population diversity of this species and the presence of 14 different strains that changed quantitatively and qualitatively throughout the fermentation period.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Butac


    Full Text Available Three plum cultivars bred in Romania (‘Carpatin’, ‘Centenar’ and ‘Tita’ were tested together with several standards (‘Cacanska Rodna’ and ‘Stanley’ in a high density experimental orchard established at Pitesti - Maracineni in the spring of 2009, with spacing 4 x 2.25 m. Trees were trained as spindles, grafted on ‘Saint Julian’ rootstock. In the orchard the following characteristics were evaluated: tree vigour based upon measuring of trunk-diameter, yields in kg/tree, time of fruit ripening and basic parameters of fruit quality. All Romanian varieties were characterized by earliness and large fruit, but production was relatively small. Instead, foreign varieties were characterized by high productivity in the 4th year after planting.

  9. Magnetorotational and Parker instabilities in magnetized plasma Dean flow as applied to centrifugally confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yimin; Hassam, A.B.


    The ideal magnetohydrodynamics stability of a Dean flow plasma supported against centrifugal forces by an axial magnetic field is studied. Only axisymmetric perturbations are allowed for simplicity. Two distinct but coupled destabilization mechanisms are present: flow shear (magnetorotational instability) and magnetic buoyancy (Parker instability). It is shown that the flow shear alone is likely insufficient to destabilize the plasma, but the magnetic buoyancy instability could occur. For a high Mach number (M S ), high Alfven Mach number (M A ) system with M S M A > or approx. πR/a (R/a is the aspect ratio), the Parker instability is unstable for long axial wavelength modes. Implications for the centrifugal confinement approach to magnetic fusion are also discussed

  10. NASA's Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter Missions: Discovering the Secrets of our Star (United States)

    Zurbuchen, T.


    This session will explore the importance of the Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter missions to NASA Science, and the preparations for discoveries from these missions. NASA's Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter Missions have complementary missions and will provide unique and unprecedented contributions to heliophysics and astrophysics overall. These inner heliospheric missions will also be part of the Heliophysics System Observatory which includes an increasing amount of innovative new technology and architectures to address science and data in an integrated fashion and advance models through assimilation and system-level tests. During this talk, we will briefly explore how NASA Heliophysics research efforts not only increase our understanding and predictive capability of space weather phenomena, but also provide key insights on fundamental processes important throughout the universe.

  11. Mexican plums (Spondias spp.): their current distribution and potential distribution under climate change scenarios for Mexico


    Arce-Romero, Antonio Rafael; Monterroso-Rivas, Alejandro Ismael; Gómez-Díaz, Jesús David; Cruz-León, Artemio


    Abstract Plums (Spondias spp.) are species native to Mexico with adaptive, nutritional and ethnobotanical advantages. The aim of this study was to assess the current and potential distribution of two species of Mexican plum: Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L. The method applied was ecological niche modeling in Maxent software, which has been used in Mexico with good results. In fieldwork, information on the presence of these species in the country was collected. In addition, environm...

  12. The spiral of science (mis)education, Parker's ``multiple influences,'' and missed opportunities (United States)

    Richardson Bruna, Katherine


    In this reflection on Carolyn Parker's article, I connect to my own professional work at the intersection of Latino education and science education as well as to my own personal interest in liberation theology. I use constructs central to liberation theology to indicate what a liberationist science might look like and push us, in doing so, to put learning, not teaching, at the center of our efforts.

  13. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies. (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam


    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of giant cloud complexes by the Parker-Jeans instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.


    The Parker-Jeans instability is considered as a possible mechanism for forming the giant cloud complexes observed near OB associations. We use a previously derived dispersion relation to evaluate the masses and growth times of the dominant modes in this instability. The results show that massive clouds (Mroughly-equal10 6 M/sub sun/) can form quickly (roughly-equal12 million yr) in the high density environments (5 cm -3 ) associated with spiral density wave shocks. For densities larger than about 3 cm -3 , these clouds form primarily as a result of the self-graviational forces in the interstellar medium. Lower mass clouds (Mroughly-equal10 5 M/sub sun/) can form in lower density environments as a result of the pure Parker instability. The masses of the clouds that form when the density exceeds about 3 cm -3 are insensitive to the magnetic field strength, cosmic ray pressure, and ambient density (even in compressed media.). These masses are essentially the Jeans mass in a magnetic interstellar medium. The occurrence of a characteristic mass may explain the similarity of the local OB associations. The role of the Parker-Jeans instability as part of a complete theory of cloud formation is summarized

  15. Parker Solar Probe: A NASA Mission to Touch the Sun: Mission Status Update (United States)

    Fox, N. J.


    The newly renamed, Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission will be the first mission to fly into the low solar corona, revealing how the corona is heated and the solar wind and energetic particles are accelerated, solving fundamental mysteries that have been top priority science goals since such a mission was first proposed in 1958. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The primary science goal of the Parker Solar Probe mission is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles. PSP uses an innovative mission design, significant technology development and a risk-reducing engineering development to meet the science objectives. In this presentation, we provide an update on the progress of the Parker Solar Probe mission as we prepare for the July 2018 launch.

  16. Radio Remote Sensing of Coronal Mass Ejections: Implications for Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter (United States)

    Kooi, J. E.; Thomas, N. C.; Guy, M. B., III; Spangler, S. R.


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are fast-moving magnetic field structures of enhanced plasma density that play an important role in space weather. The Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe will usher in a new era of in situ measurements, probing CMEs within distances of 60 and 10 solar radii, respectively. At the present, only remote-sensing techniques such as Faraday rotation can probe the plasma structure of CMEs at these distances. Faraday rotation is the change in polarization position angle of linearly polarized radiation as it propagates through a magnetized plasma (e.g. a CME) and is proportional to the path integral of the electron density and line-of-sight magnetic field. In conjunction with white-light coronagraph measurements, Faraday rotation observations have been used in recent years to determine the magnetic field strength of CMEs. We report recent results from simultaneous white-light and radio observations made of a CME in July 2015. We made radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a set of radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged between 8 - 23 solar radii. These Faraday rotation observations provide a priori estimates for comparison with future in situ measurements made by the Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe. Similar Faraday rotation observations made simultaneously with observations by the Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe in the future could provide information about the global structure of CMEs sampled by these probes and, therefore, aid in understanding the in situ measurements.

  17. Ionospheric and boundary contributions to the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula for Dst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas


    Full Text Available The Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula for the disturbance magnetic field averaged over the Earth's surface, universally used to interpret the geomagnetic Dst index, can be generalized, by using the well known method of deriving it from the virial theorem, to include the effects of ionospheric currents. There is an added term proportional to the global integral of the vertical mechanical force that balances the vertical component of the Lorentz force J×B/c in the ionosphere; a downward mechanical force reduces, and an upward increases, the depression of the magnetic field. If the vertical component of the ionospheric Ohm's law holds exactly, the relevant force on the plasma is the collisional friction between the neutral atmosphere and the vertically flowing plasma. An equal and opposite force is exerted on the neutral atmosphere and thus appears in its virial theorem. The ionospheric effect on Dst can then be related to the changes of kinetic and gravitational energy contents of the neutral atmosphere; since these changes are brought about by energy input from the magnetosphere, there is an implied upper limit to the effect on Dst which in general is relatively small in comparison to the contribution of the plasma energy content in the magnetosphere. Hence the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula can be applied without major modification, even in the case of strong partial ring currents; the ionospheric closure currents implied by the local time asymmetry have only a relatively small effect on the globally averaged disturbance field, comparable to other sources of uncertainty. When derived from the virial theorem applied to a bounded volume (e.g. the magnetosphere bounded by the magnetopause and a cross-section of the magnetotail, the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke formula contains also several boundary surface terms which can be identified as contributions of the magnetopause (Chapman-Ferraro and of the magnetotail currents.

  18. Sharka: how do plants respond to Plum pox virus infection? (United States)

    Clemente-Moreno, María J; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro


    Plum pox virus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, is one of the most studied plant viruses, and major advances in detection techniques, genome characterization and organization, gene expression, transmission, and the description of candidate genes involved in PPV resistance have been described. However, information concerning the plant response to PPV infection is very scarce. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the research carried out to date in order to elucidate how plants cope with PPV infection and their response at different levels, including the physiological, biochemical, proteomic, and genetic levels. Knowledge about how plants respond to PPV infection can contribute to the development of new strategies to cope with this disease. Due to the fact that PPV induces an oxidative stress in plants, the bio-fortification of the antioxidative defences, by classical or biotechnological approaches, would be a useful tool to cope with PPV infection. Nevertheless, there are still some gaps in knowledge related to PPV-plant interaction that remain to be filled, such as the effect of PPV on the hormonal profile of the plant or on the plant metabolome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  19. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  20. Healing bodies or saving souls? Reverend Dr Peter Parker (1804-1888) as medical missionary. (United States)

    Fu, Louis


    The important role played by medical services in the preaching of the Gospel in China was undeniable. Anglo-American missionaries entered Canton in the early 18th century and introduced modern Western medicine to China. Reverend Dr Peter Parker, founder of medical missionaries to China, was more than that, far more advanced than his predecessors including Drs Pearson, Livingstone and Colledge. He was an enthusiastic missionary of exceptional ability and vigour as witnessed his labours at the Canton Ophthalmic Hospital. His 20 years in the medical field unexpectedly paved the way for his future career as a diplomat in the American Legation. © © IMechE 2014.

  1. Herbert M. Parker: Publications and contributions to radiological and health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Baalman, R.W.; Bair, W.J.


    For more than a half century, Herbert M. Parker was a leading force in radiological physics. As a scientist, he was codeveloper of a systematic dosimetry scheme for implant therapy and the innovative proposer of radiological units with unambiguous physical and biological bases. He made seminal contributions to the development of scientifically based radiation protection standards and, as an administrator and manager as well as scientist, helped the Hanford Laboratories to achieve preeminance in several areas, including radiation biology, radioactive waste disposal, and environmental radioactivity. This volume brings together, sometimes from obscure sources, his works

  2. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides. (United States)

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E


    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  3. Independent Confirmatory Survey Summary and Results for the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Sandusky OH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, E.N.


    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (later known as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities. After successfully completing the objective of landing humans on the Moon and returning them safely to Earth, NASA was faced with budget reductions from Congress in 1973. These budgetary constraints caused NASA to cease operations at several research facilities across the country, including those at Plum Brook Station. The major test facilities at Plum Brook were maintained in a standby mode, capable of being reactivated for future use. The Plum Brook Reactor Facility (PBRF) was shut down January 5, 1973 and all of the nuclear fuel was eventually removed and shipped off site to a U.S. Department of Energy facility in Idaho for disposal or reuse. Decommissioning activities are currently underway at the PBRF (NASA 1999). The objectives of the confirmatory survey activities were to provide independent contractor field data reviews and to generate independent radiological data for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in evaluating the adequacy and accuracy of the licensee's procedures and final status survey (FSS) results

  4. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.


    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...... trees (sour cherries) or at the lower crop load (plum). Additionally, pruning decreased the con­centrations of total and soluble dry matter and of anthocya­nins ('Stevnsbær'), while titratable acids showed an increas­ing tendency. The effects of pruning are discussed based on influences on root...

  5. Enhancing the polyphenol content of a red-fleshed Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) nectar by incorporating a polyphenol-rich extract from the skins. (United States)

    de Beer, Dalene; Steyn, Naomi; Joubert, Elizabeth; Muller, Nina


    Plum skins are a waste product generated during production of plum juice or pulp. Polyphenols, shown to have various health-promoting properties, can be recovered from this waste product. Red-fleshed plum nectar formulations containing plum skin extract in varying amounts were characterised in terms of intensity of sensory attributes, consumer acceptability, colour, polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Commercial beverages containing red fruits were used as benchmarks. The polyphenolic profile of the plum skin extract was similar to that of the pulp, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols and a phenolic acid. Addition of the extract to plum nectar, which enhanced the colour, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, was limited by its negative sensory impact. The formulations were deemed acceptable by consumers, although a decrease in positive sensory attributes (plum flavour, plum aroma and sweetness) and an increase in negative sensory attributes (plant-like flavour, plant-like aroma, acidity and astringency) were observed with increasing skin extract content. The formulations compared favourably with commercial beverages in terms of colour total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. Plum skins were successfully used to enhance the functional status of plum nectar. Use of a functional ingredient from plum skins is, therefore, a feasible value-addition strategy. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  7. Plum pox virus (PPV) genome expression in genetically engineered RNAi plants (United States)

    An important approach to controlling sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) is the development of PPV resistant plants using small interfering RNAs (siRNA) technology. In order to evaluate siRNA induced gene silencing, we studied, based on knowledge of the PPV genome sequence, virus genome t...

  8. Essential oils to control Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits. (United States)

    Aminifard, Mohammad Hossein; Mohammadi, Samane


    The consequence of misusing chemical biocides in controlling pests and diseases has drawn the attention of policy makers to the development of methods potentially available in nature for this purpose. In the present study the inhibitory effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils against Botrytis cinerea were tested at various concentrations in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro results showed that the growth of B. cinerea was completely inhibited by the application of black caraway and fennel oils at concentrations of 400 and 600 µL L⁻¹ respectively. The in vivo results indicated that black caraway, fennel and peppermint oils at all applied concentrations inhibited B. cinerea growth on plum fruits compared with the control. In addition, all three oils at higher concentrations showed positive effects on fruit quality characteristics such as titrable acidity, total soluble solids, carbohydrate content, pH and weight loss percentage. Thus the oils inhibited the infection of plum fruits by B. cinerea and increased their storage life. This research confirms the antifungal effects of black caraway, fennel and peppermint essential oils both in vitro and in vivo on plum fruits postharvest. Therefore these essential oils could be an alternative to chemicals to control postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on plum fruits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Tourist event "Days of plum" at Blace: Demographic and geographic analysis of visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lović Suzana


    Full Text Available The event "Days of Plum - My Plum" at Blace has been one of 42 events dedicated to fruits and vegetables and one of three events dedicated to plum in Serbia. It has been held for nine consecutive years in the town situated in the wide Toplica valley at the foot of Jastrebac, where in a relatively favourable climate conditions there are good conditions for development of plum, so it has become a traditional event. This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted during the last event, August 2011. The survey is used as methodical procedure because in relatively short time period a relatively large amount of information and data has been obtained. The survey includes 304 randomly selected respondents of different gender, age and educational structures. It was performed to examine the tourism market, attitudes and behaviour of visitors, as well as tourism promotion. In addition to the survey, the tourist valorisation of events is done in which the elements of geographic and economic groups of criteria are analyzed in order to investigate the tourism potential in terms of development of tourism as an economic sector that can contribute to the development of Blace as an underdeveloped area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  10. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна


    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  11. 77 FR 68764 - Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare An Environmental Impact Statement and Notice... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13239-002] Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare An Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Scoping Meetings and Soliciting Scoping Comments Take notice that the following hydroelectric applications have been filed with Commission and are available for...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 223 - Net Diagram for the Excluder Panel of the Parker Soft TED (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net Diagram for the Excluder Panel of the Parker Soft TED 5 Figure 5 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  13. The effect of treating plum tree with Rovral (iprodion and Euparen (dichlofluanid on the content of soluble solids in fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Borecka


    Full Text Available The concentration of soluble solids in plum fruit varied and depended on the cultivar, year, and fungicide treatment. Plums from trees treated with Rovral (iprodion contained in some case the lowest level of soluble solids, higher or equal levels were found in those sprayed with Euparen (dichlofluanid, and the highest concentration of soluble solids was in fruits from untreated trees. Explanation of this phenomenon is possible by looking for changes in photosynthesis of treated and untreated leaves. Fungicide treatment of some plum cultivars, particularly with Rovral, decreased the photosynthesis of the leaves.

  14. Effect of high-hydrostatic pressure and moderate-intensity pulsed electric field on plum. (United States)

    García-Parra, J; González-Cebrino, F; Delgado-Adámez, J; Cava, R; Martín-Belloso, O; Élez-Martínez, P; Ramírez, R


    Moderate intensity pulse electric fields were applied in plum with the aim to increase bioactive compounds content of the fruit, while high-hydrostatic pressure was applied to preserve the purées. High-hydrostatic pressure treatment was compared with an equivalent thermal treatment. The addition of ascorbic acid during purée manufacture was also evaluated. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on microorganisms, polyphenoloxidase, color and bioactive compounds of high-hydrostatic pressure, or thermal-processed plum purées made of moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated or no-moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated plums, after processing during storage. The application of moderate intensity pulse electric field to plums slightly increased the levels of anthocyanins and the antioxidant activity of purées. The application of Hydrostatic-high pressure (HHP) increased the levels of bioactive compounds in purées, while the thermal treatment preserved better the color during storage. The addition of ascorbic acid during the manufacture of plum purée was an important factor for the final quality of purées. The color and the bioactive compounds content were better preserved in purées with ascorbic acid. The no inactivation of polyphenoloxidase enzyme with treatments applied in this study affected the stability purées. Probably more intense treatments conditions (high-hydrostatic pressure and thermal treatment) would be necessary to reach better quality and shelf life during storage.

  15. A comparative study of the bone metabolic response to dried plum supplementation and PTH treatment in adult, osteopenic ovariectomized rat. (United States)

    Smith, Brenda J; Bu, So Young; Wang, Yan; Rendina, Elizabeth; Lim, Yin F; Marlow, Denver; Clarke, Stephen L; Cullen, Diane M; Lucas, Edralin A


    Dried plum has been reported to have potent effects on bone in osteopenic animal models, but the mechanisms through which bone metabolism is altered in vivo remain unclear. To address this issue, a study comparing the metabolic response of dried plum to the anabolic agent, parathyroid hormone (PTH), was undertaken. Six month-old female Sprague Dawley rats (n=84) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX) and maintained on a control diet for 6wks until osteopenia was confirmed. Treatments were initiated consisting of a control diet (AIN-93M) supplemented with dried plum (0, 5, 15 or 25%; w/w) or a positive control group receiving PTH. At the end of 6wks of treatment, whole body and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) were restored by the two higher doses of dried plum to the level of the SHAM group. Trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness were also improved with these two doses of dried plum. Dried plum suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover as indicated by systemic biomarkers of bone metabolism, N-terminal procollagen type 1 (P1NP) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD). Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the tibial metaphysis revealed that dried plum restored the OVX-induced increase in cancellous bone formation rate (BFR) and mineralizing surface (MS/BS) to the SHAM group, but some doses of dried plum increased endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR). As expected, PTH significantly increased endocortical MAR and BFR, periosteal BFR, and trabecular MAR and BFR beyond that of the OVX and maintained the accelerated rate of bone resorption associated with OVX. Dried plum up-regulated bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) while down-regulating nuclear factor T cell activator 1 (Nfatc1). These findings demonstrate that in the adult osteopenic OVX animal, the effects of dried plum differ from that of PTH in that dried plum primarily suppressed bone turnover with the exception of the indices of bone

  16. Spatial and temporal assessment of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow from genetically engineered plum Prunus domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Scorza

    Full Text Available Pollen flow from a 0.46 ha plot of genetically engineered (GE Prunus domestica located in West Virginia, USA was evaluated from 2000-2010. Sentinel plum trees were planted at distances ranging from 132 to 854 m from the center of the GE orchard. Plots of mixed plum varieties and seedlings were located at 384, 484 and 998 m from the GE plot. Bee hives (Apis mellifera were dispersed between the GE plum plot and the pollen flow monitoring sites. Pollen-mediated gene flow from out of the GE plum plot to non-GE plums under the study conditions was low, only occurring at all in 4 of 11 years and then in only 0.31% of the 12,116 seeds analyzed. When it occurred, gene flow, calculated as the number of GUS positive embryos/total embryos sampled, ranged from 0.215% at 132 m from the center of the GE plum plot (28 m from the nearest GE plum tree to 0.033-0.017% at longer distances (384-998 m. Based on the percentage of GUS positive seeds per individual sampled tree the range was 0.4% to 12%. Within the GE field plot, gene flow ranged from 4.9 to 39%. Gene flow was related to distance and environmental conditions. A single year sample from a sentinel plot 132 m from the center of the GE plot accounted for 65% of the total 11-year gene flow. Spatial modeling indicated that gene flow dramatically decreased at distances over 400 m from the GE plot. Air temperature and rainfall were, respectively, positively and negatively correlated with gene flow, reflecting the effects of weather conditions on insect pollinator activity. Seed-mediated gene flow was not detected. These results support the feasibility of coexistence of GE and non-GE plum orchards.

  17. Determining Total Phenolics, Anthocyanin Content and Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Plum Genotypes Grown in Ardahan Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. ABACI


    Full Text Available In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, brix, pH, titrable acidity and total ascorbic acid content in the five plum genotypes cultivated in Ardahan City are determined and sustenance of the plums are revealed. Total phenol content was determined with folin-ciocalteu’s method, total anthocyanin content was determined with pH differential method and total ascorbic acid was determined with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method.It is detected that the genotype with the highest brix content (%13.9 and lowest acidity (%0.98 is cancur, the genotype with the lowest brix content (%11 and highest acidity (%2.06 is wild plum, the genotype with the highest content of total anthocyanin, total phenolic substance and ascorbic acid is the wild plum and the genotype with the least content of these is the water plum. As a result of the study, it is revealed that the plum fruit has high levels of phenolic substance, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, so it has a high sustenance.

  18. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Podestá


    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  19. Changes in polyphenolics during maturation of Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.). (United States)

    Lestario, Lydia Ninan; Howard, Luke R; Brownmiller, Cindi; Stebbins, Nathan B; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O


    Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.) is a rich source of polyphenolics with many purported health benefits, but the effect of maturation on polyphenolic content is unknown. Freeze-dried samples of Java plum from seven different maturity stages were analyzed for anthocyanin, flavonol, flavanonol and hydrolysable tannin composition by HPLC. Anthocyanins were first detected at the green-pink stage of maturity and increased throughout maturation with the largest increase occurring from the dark purple to black stages of maturation. Levels of gallotannins, ellagitannins, flavonols, gallic acid and ellagic acid were highest at early stages of maturation and decreased as the fruit ripened. For production of antioxidant-rich nutraceutical ingredients, fruit should be harvested immature to obtain extracts rich in hydrolysable tannins and flavonols. The exceptional anthocyanin content of black fruit may prove useful as a source of a natural colorant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parker's sneak-guard model revisited: why do reproductively parasitic males heavily invest in testes? (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio; Sato, Tetsu


    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in males and may cause intraspecific differences in testes investment. Parker's sneak-guard model predicts that sneaker males, who mate under sperm competition risk, invest in testes relatively more than bourgeois conspecifics that have lower risk. Given that sneakers are much smaller than bourgeois males, sneakers may increase testes investment to overcome their limited sperm productivity because of their small body sizes. In this study, we examined the mechanism that mediates differential testes investment across tactics in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus. In the Rumonge population of Burundi, bourgeois males are small compared with those in other populations and have a body size close to sneaky dwarf males. Therefore, if differences in relative testis investment depend on sperm competition, the rank order of relative testis investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge = bourgeois males in the other populations. If differences in relative testis investment depend on body size, the rank order of relative testes investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge > bourgeois males in the other populations. Comparisons of relative testis investment among the three male groups supported the role of sperm competition, as predicted by the sneak-guard model. Nevertheless, the effects of absolute body size on testes investment should be considered to understand the mechanisms underlying intraspecific variation in testes investment caused by alternative reproductive tactics.

  1. The Inevitable Universe---Parker-Rhodes' peculiar mixture of ontology and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.


    When asked to give a lecture on Parker-Rhodes' physics, I was somewhat non-plused. I almost replied ''What physics?'' --- a point of view that Frederick expresses himself more than once in the book he was working on when he died. But that would be unjust. Whatever his view, I assert that the discovery of the Combinational Hierarchy is one of the most important ''discoveries'' --- or whatever you want to call it --- in physics made in this century. His calculation of the proton-electron mass ratio is also a fantastic result that we are still trying to come to grips with. And his insight into early cosmology --- what he called a ''cold big bang'' --- which appeared in an early version of the Theory of Indistinguishables, also had merit. His early universe is a lot closer to my own views now than I realized when I first encountered it. We will mention other insights as I go along. But his views are so different from those of anyone I know or knew, that I have decided to let him speak for himself by reading passages from his manuscript The Inevitable Universe, or TIU, which was still unpublished at the time of his death, and add a few comments on them

  2. SPADER - Science Planning Analysis and Data Estimation Resource for the NASA Parker Solar Probe Mission (United States)

    Rodgers, D. J.; Fox, N. J.; Kusterer, M. B.; Turner, F. S.; Woleslagle, A. B.


    Scheduled to launch in July 2018, the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) will orbit the Sun for seven years, making a total of twenty-four extended encounters inside a solar radial distance of 0.25 AU. During most orbits, there are extended periods of time where PSP-Sun-Earth geometry dramatically reduces PSP-Earth communications via the Deep Space Network (DSN); there is the possibility that multiple orbits will have little to no high-rate downlink available. Science and housekeeping data taken during an encounter may reside on the spacecraft solid state recorder (SSR) for multiple orbits, potentially running the risk of overflowing the SSR in the absence of mitigation. The Science Planning Analysis and Data Estimation Resource (SPADER) has been developed to provide the science and operations teams the ability to plan operations accounting for multiple orbits in order to mitigate the effects caused by the lack of high-rate downlink. Capabilities and visualizations of SPADER are presented; further complications associated with file downlink priority and high-speed data transfers between instrument SSRs and the spacecraft SSR are discussed, as well as the long-term consequences of variations in DSN downlink parameters on the science data downlink.

  3. Monopole search below the Parker limit with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso (United States)

    Tarle, G.


    The MACRO detector approved for the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy will be the first capable of performing a definitive search for super-massive grand unified theory (GUT) monopoles at a level significantly below the Parker flux limit of 10 to the minus 15th power square centimeters Sr(-1) 5(-1). GUT monopoles will move at very low velocities (V approx. 0.001 c) relative to the Earth and a multifaceted detection technique is required to assume their unambiguous identification. Calculations of scintillator response to slow monopoles and measurements of scintillation efficiency for low energy protons have shown that bare monopoles and electrically charged monopoles moving at velocities as low as 5 x .0001 c will produce detectable scintillation signals. The time-of-flight between two thick (25 cm) liquid scintillation layers separated by 4.3m will be used in conjunction with waveform digitization of signals of extended duration in each thick scintillator to provide a redundant signature for slow penetrating particles. Limited streamer tubes filled with He and n-pentane will detect bare monopoles with velocities as low as 1 x 0.0001 c by exploiting monopole induced level mixing and the Penning effect.

  4. The Inevitable Universe---Parker-Rhodes' peculiar mixture of ontology and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.


    When asked to give a lecture on Parker-Rhodes' physics, I was somewhat non-plused. I almost replied What physics '' --- a point of view that Frederick expresses himself more than once in the book he was working on when he died. But that would be unjust. Whatever his view, I assert that the discovery of the Combinational Hierarchy is one of the most important discoveries'' --- or whatever you want to call it --- in physics made in this century. His calculation of the proton-electron mass ratio is also a fantastic result that we are still trying to come to grips with. And his insight into early cosmology --- what he called a cold big bang'' --- which appeared in an early version of the Theory of Indistinguishables, also had merit. His early universe is a lot closer to my own views now than I realized when I first encountered it. We will mention other insights as I go along. But his views are so different from those of anyone I know or knew, that I have decided to let him speak for himself by reading passages from his manuscript The Inevitable Universe, or TIU, which was still unpublished at the time of his death, and add a few comments on them.

  5. 3D Visualization of Solar Data: Preparing for Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe (United States)

    Mueller, D.; Nicula, B.; Felix, S.; Verstringe, F.; Bourgoignie, B.; Csillaghy, A.; Berghmans, D.; Jiggens, P.; Ireland, J.; Fleck, B.


    Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe will focus on exploring the linkage between the Sun and the heliosphere. These new missions will collect unique data that will allow us to study, e.g., the coupling between macroscopic physical processes to those on kinetic scales, the generation of solar energetic particles and their propagation into the heliosphere and the origin and acceleration of solar wind plasma. Combined with the several petabytes of data from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, the scientific community will soon have access to multi­dimensional remote-sensing and complex in-situ observations from different vantage points, complemented by petabytes of simulation data. Answering overarching science questions like "How do solar transients drive heliospheric variability and space weather?" will only be possible if the community has the necessary tools at hand. In this contribution, we will present recent progress in visualizing the Sun and its magnetic field in 3D using the open-source JHelioviewer framework, which is part of the ESA/NASA Helioviewer Project.

  6. Select polyphenolic fractions from dried plum enhance osteoblast activity through BMP-2 signaling. (United States)

    Graef, Jennifer L; Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Crockett, Erica K; Ouyang, Ping; King, Jarrod B; Cichewicz, Robert H; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J


    Dried plum supplementation has been shown to enhance bone formation while suppressing bone resorption. Evidence from previous studies has demonstrated that these responses can be attributed in part to the fruit's polyphenolic compounds. The purpose of this study was to identify the most bioactive polyphenolic fractions of dried plum with a focus on their osteogenic activity and to investigate their mechanisms of action under normal and inflammatory conditions. Utilizing chromatographic techniques, six fractions of polyphenolic compounds were prepared from a crude extract of dried plum. Initial screening assays revealed that two fractions (DP-FrA and DP-FrB) had the greatest osteogenic potential. Subsequent experiments using primary bone-marrow-derived osteoblast cultures demonstrated these two fractions enhanced extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an indicator of osteoblast activity, and mineralized nodule formation under normal conditions. Both fractions enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, as indicated by increased Bmp2 and Runx2 gene expression and protein levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5. DP-FrB was most effective at up-regulating Tak1 and Smad1, as well as protein levels of phospho-p38. Under inflammatory conditions, TNF-α suppressed ALP and tended to decrease nodule formation (P=.0674). This response coincided with suppressed gene expression of Bmp2 and the up-regulation of Smad6, an inhibitor of BMP signaling. DP-FrA and DP-FrB partially normalized these responses. Our results show that certain fractions of polyphenolic compounds in dried plum up-regulate osteoblast activity by enhancing BMP signaling, and when this pathway is inhibited by TNF-α, the osteogenic response is attenuated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. HPLC-DAD-ESIMS analysis of phenolic compounds in nectarines, peaches, and plums. (United States)

    Tomás-Barberán, F A; Gil, M I; Cremin, P; Waterhouse, A L; Hess-Pierce, B; Kader, A A


    The phenolic compounds of 25 peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars were studied and quantified by HPLC-DAD-ESIMS. Hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, flavonols, and anthocyanins were detected and quantified. White and yellow flesh nectarines and peaches, and yellow and red plums, were analyzed at two different maturity stages with consideration of both peel and flesh tissues. HPLC-MS analyses allowed the identification of procyanidin dimers of the B- and A-types, as well as the presence of procyanidin trimers in plums. As a general rule, the peel tissues contained higher amounts of phenolics, and anthocyanins and flavonols were almost exclusively located in this tissue. No clear differences in the phenolic content of nectarines and peaches were detected or between white flesh and yellow flesh cultivars. There was no clear trend in phenolic content with ripening of the different cultivars. Some cultivars, however, had a very high phenolic content. For example, the white flesh nectarine cultivar Brite Pearl (350-460 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 430-550 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and the yellow flesh cv. Red Jim (180-190 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 210-330 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh), contained 10 times more phenolics than cultivars such as Fire Pearl (38-50 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 23-30 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh). Among white flesh peaches, cultivars Snow King (300-320 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 660-695 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and Snow Giant (125-130 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 520-540 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) showed the highest content. The plum cultivars Black Beaut and Angeleno were especially rich in phenolics.

  8. Comments on the Paper "Is the Sea Level Stable at Aden, Yemen?" by Albert Parker and Clifford D. Ollier in Earth Systems and Environment (Volume 1, December 2017) (United States)

    Rickards, Lesley


    This short note provides comments and a response to the paper published in Earth Systems and Environment by Albert Parker and Clifford D. Ollier (Volume 1, December 2017) entitled "Is the Sea Level Stable at Aden, Yemen?"

  9. W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum: Pioneers of ventilatory management in poliomyelitis. (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M


    Historically, neurologists were not involved in the day-to-day management of critically ill patients with bulbar poliomyelitis, but some were. The major contributions of 3 neurologists-W. Ritchie Russell, A.B. Baker, and Fred Plum-in the respiratory management of poliomyelitis have not been recognized. Russell's work was instrumental in identifying multiple types of poliomyelitis defined by their respiratory needs, and he advised treatment that varied from simple postural drainage to use of respirators. He participated in the development of the Radcliffe respiratory pump. Baker recognized the essential involvement of the vagal nerve in respiratory distress, but also observed that involvement of vital centers without cranial nerve involvement would lead to irregular and shallow respiration in some patients and in others with marked dysautonomic features. A similar finding of central involvement of respiration was noted by Plum, who also stressed the importance of hypercapnia. Plum emphasized measurements of vital capacity and techniques to minimize trauma with suctioning after tracheostomy. These 3 neurologists understood the importance of airway and ventilator management, which is currently one of the many pillars of neurocritical care. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J


    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.

  11. Salak plum peel extract as a safe and efficient antioxidant appraisal for cosmetics. (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya; Ospondpant, Dusadee; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Pongpunyayuen, Siriluck; Chansriniyom, Chaisak


    The antioxidant activities of Salak plum (Salacca edulis) peel extracts were assessed by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was the most potent (DPPHIC50=2.932 ± 0.030 µg/mL, ABTSIC50=7.933 ± 0.049 µg/mL, FRAPEC=7,844.44 ± 40.734). Chlorogenic acid was detected as the marker (1.400 ± 0.102 g/kg). The EtOAc fraction was non-cytotoxic in vero and normal human fibroblast (NHF) cells. It exhibited cellular oxidative prevention and damage treatment at 5-40 µg/mL in NHF cells. Salak plum peel loaded liposome consisting of lecithin and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethylcellulose (HMHEC) was developed and found stable with adequate entrapment efficacy. Thus Salak plum peel was highlighted as a potential ecological antioxidant for health promotion aspects, and for cosmetics.

  12. Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Monize Sousa Sales


    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape flavouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.

  13. A first empirical comparison of energy Footprints embodied in trade. MRIO versus PLUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedmann, Thomas


    The Ecological Footprint as an indicator that accounts for human demand on global bioproductivity sets out to quantify the impacts associated with consumption in a given country, including the impacts associated with trade. The National Footprint Accounts (NFA) by Global Footprint Network (GFN) calculate trade-embodied Footprints by multiplying yield and embodied energy factors with mass volumes of traded goods in a 'Product Land Use Matrix (PLUM)'. This article compares energy Footprints embodied in trade from and to the United Kingdom in 2002 as calculated by the NFA-PLUM with the results from a recently developed multi-region input-output model (MRIO) for the UK. Although totals for imports and exports are comparable, breaking down the results by economic sectors reveals large differences and hardly any correlation between the two methods. The omission of trade in services (especially transport services) and upstream impacts of energy goods (fossil fuels) and the use of inappropriate embodied energy factors in the NFA-PLUM method are identified as the main reasons for these differences. In the light of the results it seems that a comprehensive Footprint account of trade can better be achieved with an input-output based approach. I conclude that MRIO models - once fully developed - will be particularly suitable in the future to estimate the Ecological Footprints of imports and exports of nations with the possibility to track their origin via inter-industry linkages, international supply chains and multi-national trade flows. (author)

  14. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast. (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J


    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  15. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to identify and quantify the infestation of fruit fly species and their parasitoids, associated with 20 hog plum genotypes (Spondias mombin L. in a commercial orchard in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The survey was conducted by fruit sampling and monitoring through traps stocked with bait food, in the period from January to December 2012. Overall, 6560 fruits were collected (79.58 kg, resulting in 23059 pupae, of which 10080 fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha and 4984 braconid parasitoids emerged. Anastrepha obliqua species was the predominant with 99.92%. F16P13 and F11P10 genotypes had the highest infestation indexes and F15P11 and F04P01 genotypes, the lowest. The main parasitoids collected were Opius bellus (77.65%, Doryctobracon areolatus (19.88% and Utetes anastrephae (2.47%. The average parasitism rate among genotypes was of 30.46%. In traps, a total of 1434 fruit flies were collected, whose species were: A. obliqua (97.6%, A. serpentina (1.4%, A. fraterculus (0.4%, A. striata (0.4%, A. dissimilis (0.1%, A. pseudoparallela (0.1%. Anastrepha obliqua species was predominant in the area, based on faunistic analysis. The infestation index in the orchard was relevant for five months (January-May, coinciding with the period of availability of hog plum fruits, reaching the highest peak in March (2.86 FAT. There was a significant negative correlation between number of fruit flies in the orchard and the average air temperature, and a significant positive correlation with rainfall and relative humidity. However, the main factor that influenced the observed infestation index in the hog plum orchard was fruit availability.

  17. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel


    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  18. The use of transgenic fruit trees as a resistance strategy for virus epidemics: the plum pox (sharka) model. (United States)

    Ravelonandro, M; Scorza, R; Callahan, A; Levy, L; Jacquet, C; Monsion, M; Damsteegt, V


    Sharka or plum pox, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV: genus Potyvirus; Family Potyviridae), is the most serious disease of Prunus. Most cultivated Prunus species are highly susceptible and conventional breeding has not produced highly resistant and commercially acceptable varieties. Success in developing virus-resistant herbaceous crops through genetic engineering led us to investigate this approach for resistance to PPV. Our programme aims to develop a biotechnological approach to PPV control that is effective and shown to be environmentally safe. The programme began with the cloning of the PPV coat protein (CP) gene and the development of a transformation system for plum (Prunus domestica). The CP construct was first tested in Nicotiana benthamiana in which it proved effective in producing transgenic plants with varying levels of CP expression. Some of these plants, particularly low PPV CP expressers, were resistant to PPV, or recovered from initial infection. Based on these results plum was transformed using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system and both low and high PPV CP-expressing transgenic plum lines were obtained. These were inoculated with PPV by bud grafts in the greenhouse. Line C-5 proved to be highly resistant. It contained multiple copies of the insert, produced low levels of PPV CP mRNA, no detectable CP and the insert appeared to be methylated. These characteristics all suggest that the resistance of the C-5 clone is based on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Field tests of C-5 and other transgenic lines in Poland, Romania and Spain have demonstrated that such trees when inoculated by bud-grafts allow a low level of PPV multiplication, from which they rapidly recover. C-5 plants exposed to natural infection for 3 years did not become infected, whereas control trees were infected in the first year. Hybrid plums having the C-5 PPV CP insert inherited from C-5 are virus-resistant, demonstrating the usefulness of C-5 as a parent in developing

  19. Ácaros plumícolas (Acari: Astigmata) em aves do Cerrado do Distrito Federal, Brasil


    Kanegae,Mieko Ferreira; Valim,Michel; Fonseca,Marcelo Andrade da; Marini,Miguel Ângelo; Freire,Nicolau Maués Serra


    O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os ácaros plumícolas em aves do cerrado. O mesmo foi realizado na Fazenda Água Limpa (FAL), Distrito Federal, Brasil, entre janeiro e agosto de 2002. As aves foram capturadas com rede de neblina e anilhadas. Foram amostradas 696 aves pertencentes a 83 espécies e 25 famílias de Passeriformes e não-Passeriformes. Foram encontrados ácaros plumícolas pertencentes a cinco famílias: Analgidae, Trouessartiidae, Proctophyllodidae, Avenzoariidae e Psoroptoididae. O...

  20. Occurrence and characterization of plum pox virus strain D isolates from European Russia and Crimea. (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Prikhodko, Yuri; Mitrofanova, Irina


    Numerous plum pox virus (PPV) strain D isolates have been found in geographically distant regions of European Russia and the Crimean peninsula on different stone fruit hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of their partial and complete genomes suggests multiple introductions of PPV-D into Russia. Distinct natural isolates from Prunus tomentosa were found to bear unique amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of the coat protein (CP) that may contribute to the adaptation of PPV-D to this host. Serological analysis using the PPV-D-specific monoclonal antibody 4DG5 provided further evidence that mutations at positions 58 and 59 of the CP are crucial for antibody binding.

  1. The Current Status of Germplum Database: a Tool for Characterization of Plum Genetic Resources in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Harta


    Full Text Available In Romania, Prunus genetic resources are kept in collections of varieties, populations and biotypes, mainly located in research and development institutes or fruit growing stations and, in the last years, by some private enterprises. Creating the experimental model for the Germplum database based on phenotypic descriptors and SSR molecular markers analysis is an important and topical objective for the efficient characterization of genetic resources and also for establishing a public-private partnership for the effective management of plum germplasm resources in Romania. The technical development of the Germplum database was completed and data will be added continuously after characterizing each new accession.

  2. Influence of Copigment derived from Tasmannia Pepper Leaves on Davidson’s Plum Anthocyanins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; López-de-Dicastillo Bergamo, Carolina Ana; Payet, René Marc


    . An addition of a variety of phenolic acids significantly increased color intensity indicating the formation of copigmentation complexes. Commercial chlorogenic acid as well as extract from a native Australian herb rich in chlorogenic acid, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata, R. Br.), were both tested...... in model soft drink solutions subjected to light irradiation and heat treatment. In both cases the addition of the copigment resulted in a lasting increase in color intensity. In conclusion, Davidson’s plum extract can successfully be utilized as a source of natural food color. Extract from Tasmania pepper...

  3. Determination of Some Quality Criteria of the Kefir Produced with Molasses and Plum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kök Taş


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the quality characteristics of kefir by developing different flavours in order to increase its consumption. Plum (10% and molasses (7.5% which are rich in phenolic contents are used to produce kefir in different flavours. Chemical analysis (pH, titratable acidity, dry matter and colour, microbial analysis (total microorganism, Lactobacillus spp, Lactococcus spp. and yeast counts, total antioxidant activity (by ORAC method, total amount of phenolic contents and sensorial properties of all kefir samples were carried out at the 1st, 7th and 14th days of storage. Consequently, the results of pH, titratable acidity and dry matter in the kefir samples were determined to change between the values 4.11-4.39; 0.22-0.30 and 11.9-17.02% respectively, during the storage. In the colour analysis, the redness colour parameter of the kefir sample produced using molasses was determined to be higher compared to the other kefir samples. At the first day of storage, the total antioxidant contents of the control group kefir, plum- added kefir and molasses-added kefir samples were determined as 13.30; 16.80 and 17.35 µmol ml-1; and the total phenolic contents as 945.70; 2535.8 and 2357.6 mg ml-1, respectively. Content of total microorganism in kefir samples varied between 8.91-9.80 log kob ml-1during the storage period. Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. contents of kefir produced using molasses were determined to have the highest values with 9.11 and 9.91 log kob ml-1, respectively, at the first day. Yeast content of the plum kefir and the molasses kefir samples including sugar was detected to be higher than that of the controlled kefir sample. According to the results of the sensory analysis, the kefir produced with plum was approved the most by the panelists. As a result of this study, two alternative products with quite high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were developed for consumers.

  4. Post-harvest diseases control of plums and nectarines with radurisation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thord-Gray, R.S; Broderick, H.T.; Strydom, G.J.


    The effects of heat and radurisation on Rhizopus stolonifer, Monillia fructicola and Botrytis cinerea were examined in inoculated plums and nectarines. Although the pathogens could be controlled by severe hot water treatment, unacceptable fruit damage occured. Similarly, irradiation doses of 2 kGy and above could control fungal development, but this treatment resulted in an unmarketable product. Combination treatment showed great promise. Mild heat treatment of 42 o C for 10 minutes followed by irradiation at doses of 0,75 kGy to 1,5 kGy effectively controlled fungal development with insignificant fruit damage

  5. Complete genome sequence of a novel Plum pox virus strain W isolate determined by 454 pyrosequencing. (United States)

    Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Speranskaya, Anna; Belenikin, Maxim; Melnikova, Natalia; Chirkov, Sergei


    The near-complete (99.7 %) genome sequence of a novel Russian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate Pk, belonging to the strain Winona (W), has been determined by 454 pyrosequencing with the exception of the thirty-one 5'-terminal nucleotides. This region was amplified using 5'RACE kit and sequenced by the Sanger method. Genomic RNA released from immunocaptured PPV particles was employed for generation of cDNA library using TransPlex Whole transcriptome amplification kit (WTA2, Sigma-Aldrich). The entire Pk genome has identity level of 92.8-94.5 % when compared to the complete nucleotide sequences of other PPV-W isolates (W3174, LV-141pl, LV-145bt, and UKR 44189), confirming a high degree of variability within the PPV-W strain. The isolates Pk and LV-141pl are most closely related. The Pk has been found in a wild plum (Prunus domestica) in a new region of Russia indicating widespread dissemination of the PPV-W strain in the European part of the former USSR.


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    Catita Plopa


    Full Text Available Establishing an accurate diagnosis in terms of viral for propagation of fruit tree is very important, it represents the most effective method of protection against viruses. Based on these considerations the primary objective of this study is to detect viruses with the highest incidence in plum by biological and ELISA serological methods, to a number of 85 samples taken from 17 varieties. Serologic testing on DAS-ELISA diagnosed 3 positive samples to Plum pox virus (PPV, 2 positives sample to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV and one positive sample to Prune dwarf virus (PDV. There were not positive samples to Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. The tests conducted on woody indicator plants by grafting on protect conditions and after 3-24 months assured of diagnosis for PPV, PDV, PNRSV and ACLSV viruses. The biological indicators: ‘GF 305’, ‘Tuleu dulce’ and ‘Vânăt de Italia’, have shown symptoms for PNRSV for two samples.On biological indicator ‘Vânăt de Italia’ and ‘Tuleu dulce’ not appeared symptoms for ‘Centenar’variety tested for PPV, although the symptoms were obvious on ‘GF 305’ indicator, but viral infection was confirmed by ELISA test. Symptoms that indicate the presence of PDV occurred by ‘Vânăt de Italia’ biological indicator.

  7. Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Leaves of the Plum Tree (Prunus domestica). (United States)

    Erhart, Theresia; Mittelberger, Cecilia; Vergeiner, Clemens; Scherzer, Gerhard; Holzner, Barbara; Robatscher, Peter; Oberhuber, Michael; Kräutler, Bernhard


    In cold extracts of senescent leaves of the plum tree (Prunus domestica ssp. domestica), six colorless non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were characterized, named Pd-NCCs. In addition, several minor NCC fractions were tentatively classified. The structure of the most polar one of the NCCs, named Pd-NCC-32, featured an unprecedented twofold glycosidation pattern. Three of the NCCs are also functionalized at their 3 2 -position by a glucopyranosyl group. In addition, two of these glycosidated NCCs carry a dihydroxyethyl group at their 18-position. In the polar Pd-NCC-32, the latter group is further glycosidated at the terminal 18 2 -position. Four other major Pd-NCCs and one minor Pd-NCC were identified with five NCCs from higher plants known to belong to the 'epi'-series. In addition, tentative structures were derived for two minor fractions, classified as yellow chlorophyll catabolites, which represented (formal) oxidation products of two of the observed Pd-NCCs. The chlorophyll catabolites in leaves of plum feature the same basic structural pattern as those found in leaves of apple and pear trees. © 2016 The Authors. Chemistry & Biodiversity Published by Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Breeding in peach, cherry and plum: from a tissue culture, genetic, transcriptomic and genomic perspective

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    Basilio Carrasco


    Full Text Available This review is an overview of traditional and modern breeding methodologies being used to develop new Prunus cultivars (stone fruits with major emphasis on peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. To this end, common breeding tools used to produce seedlings, including in vitro culture tools, are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms of inheritance of many important agronomical traits are described. Recent advances in stone fruit transcriptomics and genomic resources are providing an understanding of the molecular basis of phenotypic variability as well as the identification of allelic variants and molecular markers. These have potential applications for understanding the genetic diversity of the Prunus species, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenesis. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs molecular markers are described as useful tools to describe genetic diversity in peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. Additionally, the recently sequenced peach genome and the public release of the sweet cherry genome are discussed in terms of their applicability to breeding programs

  9. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions. (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina


    This study investigates the effect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak ( Quercus sessiflora and Quercus robur ) chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The effects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory) and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins) and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  10. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions

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    Maria Balcerek


    Full Text Available This study investigates the eff ect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak (Quercus sessifl ora and Quercus robur chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The eff ects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  11. Physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla) kernel oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaby, M.; Amza, T.; Onivogui, G.; Zou, X.Q.; Jin, Q.Z.


    This study examined the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of oils extracted from gingerbread plum kernels grown in two different areas (Niger and Guinea). The oil contents were found to be significantly different (P = 0.05); 56% and 60% for gingerbread plum kernels originated from Niger (GPKN) and guinea (GPKG), respectively. GPKG showed the highest levels for physical parameters such as iodine, saponification, free fatty acid, acid and peroxide values when compared with GPKN. The major monounsaturated fatty acid in both GPKN and GPKG was oleic acid (42.46 and 41.43%, respectively) while the polyunsaturated fatty acids consisted of linoleic and arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid was at higher levels (17.67 and 21.72% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively) than those in common vegetable oils. Results from antioxidant activity essays showed that GPKG is more active than GPKN in DPPH radical scavenging, ß-carotene and phenolic contents while GPKN showed the highest values for reducing power and flavonoid. Of the 11 sterol compounds found in this study, 24-hydroxy-24-methyl cholesterol, clerosterol and sitosterol accounted for 68.5% and 66.33% in GPKN and GPKG, respectively. Finally, all tocopherol vitamers (except ?-tocopherol) were present in GPKN and GPKG with a-tocopherol being the main element in both samples. (Author)

  12. NASA's Hydrogen Outpost: The Rocket Systems Area at Plum Brook Station (United States)

    Arrighi, Robert S.


    "There was pretty much a general knowledge about hydrogen and its capabilities," recalled former researcher Robert Graham. "The question was, could you use it in a rocket engine? Do we have the technology to handle it? How will it cool? Will it produce so much heat release that we can't cool the engine? These were the questions that we had to address." The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center, referred to historically as the Lewis Research Center, made a concerted effort to answer these and related questions in the 1950s and 1960s. The center played a critical role transforming hydrogen's theoretical potential into a flight-ready propellant. Since then NASA has utilized liquid hydrogen to send humans and robots to the Moon, propel dozens of spacecraft across the universe, orbit scores of satellite systems, and power 135 space shuttle flights. Rocket pioneers had recognized hydrogen's potential early on, but its extremely low boiling temperature and low density made it impracticable as a fuel. The Lewis laboratory first demonstrated that liquid hydrogen could be safely utilized in rocket and aircraft propulsion systems, then perfected techniques to store, pump, and cleanly burn the fuel, as well as use it to cool the engine. The Rocket Systems Area at Lewis's remote testing area, Plum Brook Station, played a little known, but important role in the center's hydrogen research efforts. This publication focuses on the activities at the Rocket Systems Area, but it also discusses hydrogen's role in NASA's space program and Lewis's overall hydrogen work. The Rocket Systems Area included nine physically modest test sites and three test stands dedicated to liquid-hydrogen-related research. In 1962 Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter Karl Abram claimed, "The rocket facility looks more like a petroleum refinery. Its test rigs sprout pipes, valves and tanks. During the night test runs, excess hydrogen is burned from special stacks in the best

  13. Lethality of reduced-risk insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in blueberries with emphasis on their curative activity (United States)

    Ongoing regulatory changes are eliminating or restricting the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in fruit crops in the USA, and current IPM programs for plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L, need to address these changes. To assist in this ...


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    Miloš Nikolić


    Full Text Available In this study, drying kinetics of autochthonous variety Požegača plum was examined in a laboratory dryer at three temperatures. The whole plum fruits, together with the kernels were subjected to the drying process. The effect of drying has been examined at temperatures of 55, 60 and 75 °C, with a constant air velocity of 1.1 m s-1. The corresponding experimental results were tested using six nonlinear regression models. Coefficient of determination (R2, standard regression error (SSE, model correlation coeficient (Vy, as well as the maximum absolute error (ΔY showed that the logaritmic model was in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. During drying of plums, the effective diffusivity was found to be between 5.6×10-9 for 55 °C and 8.9×10-9 m2s-1 at 75 °C, respectively. The physical characteristics of fresh (length 39.64 mm and width 29.15 mm and dried (length 37.52 mm and width 22.85 mm plum fruit were determined. Finally, by chemical analysis, the contents of micro-and macro-elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, B and N, F, K, Ca, Mg and S in the skin and flesh of the dried product, prunes, has been established.

  15. The usefulness of intermediate products of plum processing for alcoholic fermentation and chemical composition of the obtained distillates. (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Patelski, Piotr; Sapińska, Ewelina; Księżopolska, Mirosława


    In this study, an evaluation of intermediate products of plum processing as potential raw materials for distillates production was performed. Effects of composition of mashes on ethanol yield, chemical composition and taste, and flavor of the obtained spirits were determined. The obtained results showed that spontaneous fermentations of the tested products of plum processing with native microflora of raisins resulted in lower ethanol yields, compared to the ones fermented with wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus. The supplementation of mashes with 120 g/L of sucrose caused an increase in ethanol contents from 6.2 ± 0.2 ÷ 6.5 ± 0.2% v/v in reference mashes (without sucrose addition, fermented with S. bayanus) to ca. 10.3 ± 0.3% v/v, where its highest yields amounted to 94.7 ± 2.9 ÷ 95.6 ± 2.9% of theoretical capacity, without negative changes in raw material originality of distillates. The concentrations of volatile compounds in the obtained distillates exceeding 2000 mg/L alcohol 100% v/v and low content of methanol and hydrocyanic acid, as well as their good taste and aroma make the examined products of plum processing be very attractive raw materials for the plum distillates production. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Krymsk®1 (VVA-1), A dwarfing rootstock suitable for high density plum orchards in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.; Balkhoven-Baart, J.M.T.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Steeg, van der P.A.H.


    Krymsk®:1 (Prunus tomentosa × Prunus cerasifera) was selected by Gennady Eremin at the Krymsk Breeding Station in Russia in 1966. Since 1994, it has been tested as a rootstock for several plum cultivars in The Netherlands. Graft compatibility was good for scion cultivars ‘Avalon’, ‘Excalibur’,

  17. Thehe Evaluation of Phytochemical Compounds of Fruits in some Plum and Prune Cultivars and Genotypes

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    zahra falati


    Full Text Available Introduction: Plums (Prunus spp. as one of the most popular stone fruits, have low calories and high nutritional value. Over the past decades global production of European and Japanese plums reached from 6,110,870 tons in 1990 to 11,528,337 tons in 2013. In the same period plum production in Iran reached from 118,936 tons to 305,262 tons. Great variety of plum fruits caused differences in chemical composition as well. Plum fruits are rich in bioactive compounds or biochemicals such as vitamins (A, C and E, anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds which have high antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: This research was done in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Horticultural Research Station at College of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Tehran University in 2013-2015. Fruit quality characteristics such as vitamin C content, color traits of the fruit skin and flesh, the content of carotenoids, anthocyanins, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of 16 plum and prune cultivars and genotypes were evaluated. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance showed significant differences in terms of all measured factors. The highest L* index (brightness of fruit skin was observed in 'Tanasgol" and "Compooti" and then in "Golden Drop" and "Shams" cultivars and the lowest level of that was measured in "Sugar" and "Gogeh Sabz" cultivars. "Black Star" and "Gogeh Germez" Showed the highest brightness of fruit flesh among examined cultivars and the lowest brightness of fruit flesh was investigated in "Sugar". A* color index of skin and flesh of fruit also showed significant differences among investigated cultivars and the highest level of that in "Ozarak" cultivar was observed. "Gogeh Sabz" and "Golden Drop" also had the lowest level of this index. "Gogeh Germez" had the highest of a*color index of fruit flesh and "Japanese" cultivar was in second place. The lowest level of this index was measured in "Ozarak" and "Shams

  18. Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of the Skierniewice isolate of plum pox virus (PPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wypijewski, K.; Musial, W.; Augustyniak, J.; Malinowski, T.


    The coat protein (CP) gene of the Skierniewice isolate of plum pox virus (PPV-S) has been amplified using the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the gene and the deduced amino-acid sequences of PPV-S CP were compared with those of other PPV strains. The nucleotide sequence showed very high homology to most of the published sequences. The motif: Asp-Ala-Gly (DAG), important for the aphid transmissibility, was present in the amino-acid sequence. Our isolate did not react in ELISA with monoclonal antibodies MAb06 supposed to be specific for PPV-D. (author). 32 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry. (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna


    Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR.


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    Nela Tălmaciu


    Full Text Available Observations were made in 2015 in a plum fruit tree orchards of Pietrărie stationary from Bârnova belonging Iasi County. For the collection were used the soil traps Barber, the wet type. Six traps have been used in which was placed a solution of formalin concentrate 3-4%. They were made a total of seven harvests of traps on the following dates: 28.05; 30.05; 15.06; 12.07; 26.07; 10.08 and 23.08. For each collection were selected and then identified species of beetles collected. The determination was made by using manuals for the determination wrote by Panin S and Ritter E. or the Internet sources. Biggest species abundance were: Dermestes laniarius L., Cyaninis cyanea L., Polydrosus sericeus Schall., Coccinella septempunctata L. and Amara aenea Dejean.

  1. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

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    N. Salem


    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  2. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

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    Đorđević Milena


    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  3. Identification of immunogenic hot spots within plum pox potyvirus capsid protein for efficient antigen presentation. (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, M Rosario; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Roncal, Fernando; Domínguez, Elvira; García, Juan Antonio


    PEPSCAN analysis has been used to characterize the immunogenic regions of the capsid protein (CP) in virions of plum pox potyvirus (PPV). In addition to the well-known highly immunogenic N- and C-terminal domains of CP, regions within the core domain of the protein have also shown high immunogenicity. Moreover, the N terminus of CP is not homogeneously immunogenic, alternatively showing regions frequently recognized by antibodies and others that are not recognized at all. These results have helped us to design efficient antigen presentation vectors based on PPV. As predicted by PEPSCAN analysis, a small displacement of the insertion site in a previously constructed vector, PPV-gamma, turned the derived chimeras into efficient immunogens. Vectors expressing foreign peptides at different positions within a highly immunogenic region (amino acids 43 to 52) in the N-terminal domain of CP were the most effective at inducing specific antibody responses against the foreign sequence.

  4. Plum pox virus and sharka: a model potyvirus and a major disease. (United States)

    García, Juan Antonio; Glasa, Miroslav; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry


    Plum pox virus (PPV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. PPV diversity is structured into at least eight monophyletic strains. First discovered in Bulgaria, PPV is nowadays present in most of continental Europe (with an endemic status in many central and southern European countries) and has progressively spread to many countries on other continents. Typical of potyviruses, the PPV genome is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), with a protein linked to its 5' end and a 3'-terminal poly A tail. It is encapsidated by a single type of capsid protein (CP) in flexuous rod particles and is translated into a large polyprotein which is proteolytically processed in at least 10 final products: P1, HCPro, P3, 6K1, CI, 6K2, VPg, NIapro, NIb and CP. In addition, P3N-PIPO is predicted to be produced by a translational frameshift. PPV causes sharka, the most damaging viral disease of stone fruit trees. It also infects wild and ornamental Prunus trees and has a large experimental host range in herbaceous species. PPV spreads over long distances by uncontrolled movement of plant material, and many species of aphid transmit the virus locally in a nonpersistent manner. A few natural sources of resistance to PPV have been found so far in Prunus species, which are being used in classical breeding programmes. Different genetic engineering approaches are being used to generate resistance to PPV, and a transgenic plum, 'HoneySweet', transformed with the viral CP gene, has demonstrated high resistance to PPV in field tests in several countries and has obtained regulatory approval in the USA. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Rooting and acclimatization of the Japanese plum tree, cv. América

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    Juliana de Magalhães Bandeira


    Full Text Available Rooting and acclimatization are limiting steps in plant micropropagation, especially in woody plant species. This study aimed to evaluate the IAA and IBA effect on the in vitro rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated shoots of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. América. Shoots from 3 to 4 cm long were inoculated in MS medium with half salt and vitamin concentrations (MS/2 added with IAA and IBA (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg L-1. After a 20-day period in in vitro cultivation, the shoots were evaluated, and then transferred to a greenhouse, and evaluated after 30 days. At the end of the in vitro cultivation period, no significant interactions were observed for number of roots per shoot and rooting percentage, but a significant effect was recorded for auxin type only, for which shoots grown in media added with IBA showed high values - 0.87 and 41.95%, respectively. A linear increase response from 1.45 to 5.75 cm was verified for root length of shoots cultivated in IBA medium; however, no significant effect was observed, and a 0.86 cm average root length per shoot grown in medium added with IAA was found. After 30 days of acclimatization period, the largest survival percentage was obtained from shoots cultivated in medium with 1 mg L-1 of IBA and IAA (88% and 92%, respectively. Although, IBA provided the highest in vitro rooting, most of the surviving shoots were those originated in IAA-added medium, probably because IBA promoted longer fibrous roots, less appropriate for transplant and soil fixation, as they are easily damaged. It was concluded that in vitro rooting with the addition of the highest IAA concentration (1 mg L-1 provided the greatest plant survival during the acclimatization period of the Japanese plum cv. América.

  6. Effects and safety of daily ingestion of plum extract on blood pressure: randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlledparallelgroup comparison study

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    Mie Nishimura


    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is an increasing health issue in Japan. Plums are widely consumed in Japan and are reported to have various health benefits, including improvements to blood flow. However, clinical trials investigating the effects of plum extract on blood pressure have not yet been conducted. Therefore, we evaluated the effects and safety of plum extract on blood pressure in this randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled parallel group comparison study. Methods: Seventy-four healthy Japanese subjects with systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥130 and <160 mmHg were randomly divided into test and placebo groups. Subjects were given either plum extract-processed food (3.0 g of plum extract, containing 30 mg of mumefural and 1.119 g of citric acid or placebo food daily for 12 weeks. Physical examinations, blood measurements, and medical interviews were performed at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 and at 2 weeks after the intake period. Results: SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP did not significantly differ between the groups. However, in subjects with grade I hypertension, DBP was significantly lower in the active test food group than in the placebo food group at week 12 and at 2 weeks after the intake period. An exploratory subgroup analysis revealed that plum extract improved DBP in subjects with normal to high obesity/class I obesity at week 12. Moreover, plum extract had positive effects on fatigue and bowel movements as determined by visual analog scale questionnaire evaluation. No abnormal changes or severe adverse events were observed in the physical examinations, blood measurements, or medical interviews in this trial. Conclusion: These results suggest that plum extract is safe for long-term intake and improves DBP in subjects with grade I hypertension.

  7. The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher's Life (by Parker J. Palmer) (United States)

    Hurt Middlecamp, Reviewed By Catherine


    Most of us would willingly - perhaps even passionately - tackle the question of what we should teach our students. Similarly, we are likely to engage in a conversation about how we teach and our preferences for organizing classroom time and structures. Although the question of why we teach may be raised less often (and perhaps with a hint of sarcasm), this too is a question to which most can offer a thoughtful response. An entirely different matter, however, is the question of who is the person teaching. This who involves the inner realms of one's heart, mind, and soul. How does our identity affect the teaching and learning processes? As we teach, what paths are we following intellectually, emotionally, or even spiritually? How do these paths influence our relationship to our content and to our students? With an engaging honesty, Parker Palmer pursues these questions in The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of A Teacher's Life. At the outset he points out (p 4): I have no quarrel with the what or how or why questions - except when they are posed as the only questions worth asking. All of them can yield important insights into teaching and learning. But none of them opens up the territory I want to explore in this book: the inner landscape of the teaching self. One might well question why those of us teaching chemistry should be interested in examining ourselves as part of the teaching equation. Isn't scientific knowledge supposed to be as objective as we can make it? Isn't it better for us to check our emotional or intellectual baggage at the classroom door, rather than to taint the content with our biases? Or perhaps more directly stated, is it not more practical and a better use of our time to simply deal with the realities of the day-to-day classroom issues? Admittedly these are fair questions. However, to become stuck on them is to miss the opportunities for reflection and growth as teachers that Palmer's book offers. Simply put, people teach

  8. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia. (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O


    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly of ‘Angeleno’ and ‘Lamoon’ Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina

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    Máximo González


    De novo transcriptome assembly was performed using CLC Genome Workbench software and a total of 54,584 unique contigs were generated, with an N50 of 1343 base pair (bp and a mean length of 829 bp. This work contributed with a specific Japanese plum skin transcriptome, providing two libraries of contrasting fruit skin color phenotype (yellow and red and increasing substantially the GB of raw data available until now for this specie.

  10. Ocorrência precoce da mosca das frutas em ameixas Incidence of the southamerican fruit fly on plums

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    Luiz Antonio Salles


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar qual o estágio fenológico mais precoce da fruta de ameixeira em que ocorreria o ataque de mosca das frutas Anastrepha fraterculus. Os estudos foram conduzidos em plantas adultas de ameixeira, expondo-se fêmeas grávidas da mosca das frutas, confinadas em gaiolas com frutos protegidos do ataque natural. Cinco cultivares de ameixeira foram estudados (Amarelinha, Pluma 7, Reubennel, Santa Rosa e Wade. Essa praga ataca frutos de qualquer um dos cultivares logo nos primeiros estádios do desenvolvimento, quando os mesmos têm somente cerca de 2 a 3cm de diâmetro.The incidence of the southamerican fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, on plum cultivars is reported. The objective of this study was to know the earliest fruit phase that fly attack could occur. Fertilized females were confined with fruits in plum trees in an orchard. Five plums cultivars were studied: Amarelinha; Pluma 7; Reubennel; Santa Rosa and Wade. This pest attack fruits during first stages of their development, mainly they have only from 2 to 3 centimeters of diameter.

  11. Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku

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    Kwo-Hwa Chen


    Full Text Available Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique.

  12. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of plum pox virus from the Volga Basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus. (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Prikhodko, Yuri; Predajňa, Lukáš; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Shneyder, Yuri; Zhivaeva, Tatiana; Subr, Zdeno; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry


    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental virus disease of stone fruit trees worldwide. PPV isolates have been assigned into seven distinct strains, of which PPV-C regroups the genetically distinct isolates detected in several European countries on cherry hosts. Here, three complete and several partial genomic sequences of PPV isolates from sour cherry trees in the Volga River basin of Russia have been determined. The comparison of complete genome sequences has shown that the nucleotide identity values with other PPV isolates reached only 77.5 to 83.5%. Phylogenetic analyses clearly assigned the RU-17sc, RU-18sc, and RU-30sc isolates from cherry to a distinct cluster, most closely related to PPV-C and, to a lesser extent, PPV-W. Based on their natural infection of sour cherry trees and genomic characterization, the PPV isolates reported here represent a new strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-CR (Cherry Russia) is proposed. The unique amino acids conserved among PPV-CR and PPV-C cherry-infecting isolates (75 in total) are mostly distributed within the central part of P1, NIa, and the N terminus of the coat protein (CP), making them potential candidates for genetic determinants of the ability to infect cherry species or of adaptation to these hosts. The variability observed within 14 PPV-CR isolates analyzed in this study (0 to 2.6% nucleotide divergence in partial CP sequences) and the identification of these isolates in different localities and cultivation conditions suggest the efficient establishment and competitiveness of the PPV-CR in the environment. A specific primer pair has been developed, allowing the specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of PPV-CR isolates.

  13. A Functional Link between RNA Replication and Virion Assembly in the Potyvirus Plum Pox Virus. (United States)

    Gallo, Araiz; Valli, Adrian; Calvo, María; García, Juan Antonio


    Accurate assembly of viral particles in the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV) has been shown to depend on the contribution of the multifunctional viral protein HCPro. In this study, we show that other viral factors, in addition to the capsid protein (CP) and HCPro, are necessary for the formation of stable PPV virions. The CP produced in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves from a subviral RNA termed LONG, which expresses a truncated polyprotein that lacks P1 and HCPro, together with HCPro supplied in trans , was assembled into virus-like particles and remained stable after in vitro incubation. In contrast, deletions in multiple regions of the LONG coding sequence prevented the CP stabilization mediated by HCPro. In particular, we demonstrated that the first 178 amino acids of P3, but not a specific nucleotide sequence coding for them, are required for CP stability and proper assembly of PPV particles. Using a sequential coagroinfiltration assay, we observed that the subviral LONG RNA replicates and locally spreads in N. benthamiana leaves expressing an RNA silencing suppressor. The analysis of the effect of both point and deletion mutations affecting RNA replication in LONG and full-length PPV demonstrated that this process is essential for the assembly of stable viral particles. Interestingly, in spite of this requirement, the CP produced by a nonreplicating viral RNA can be stably assembled into virions as long as it is coexpressed with a replication-proficient RNA. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of coupling encapsidation to other viral processes to secure a successful infection. IMPORTANCE Viruses of the family Potyviridae are among the most dangerous threats for basically every important crop, and such socioeconomical relevance has made them a subject of many research studies. In spite of this, very little is currently known about proteins and processes controlling viral genome encapsidation by the coat protein. In the case of Plum pox virus (genus

  14. New model for colour kinetics of plum under infrared vacuum condition and microwave drying. (United States)

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Alaei, Behnam


    Quality of dried foods is affected by the drying method and physiochemical changes in tissue. The drying method affects properties such as colour. The colour of processed food is one of the most important quality indices and plays a determinant role in consumer acceptability of food materials and the processing method. The colour of food materials can be used as an indirect factor to determine changes in quality, since it is simpler and faster than chemical methods. The study focused on the kinetics of colour changes of plum slices, under infrared vacuum and microwave conditions. Drying the samples was implemented at the absolute pressures of 20 and 60 kPa, drying temperatures of 50 and 60°C and microwave power of 90, 270, 450 and 630 W. Colour changes were quantified by the tri-stimulus L* (whiteness/darkness), a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) model, which is an international standard for color measurement developed by the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE). These values were also used to calculate total colour change (∆E), chroma, hue angle, and browning index (BI). A new model was used for mathematical modelling of colour change kinetics. The drying process changed the colour parameters of L*, a*, and b*, causing a colour shift toward the darker region. The values of L* and hue angle decreased, whereas the values of a*, b*, ∆E, chroma and browning index increased during exposure to infrared vacuum conditions and microwave drying. Comparing the results obtained using the new model with two conventional models of zero-order and first-order kinetics indicated that the new model presented more compatibility with the data of colour kinetics for all colour parameters and drying conditions. All kinetic changes in colour parameters can be explained by the new model presented in this study. The hybrid drying system included infrared vacuum conditions and microwave power for initial slow drying of plum slices and provided the desired

  15. Sam Thompson, Stewart Parker, and the lineage of northern Irish dramaDOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2010n58p179

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    Marilynn Richtarik


    Full Text Available Northern Irish dramatist Stewart Parker (1941-1988 wrote plays typically valued for their wit, intellectual content, and formal experimentation. Nonetheless, he was profoundly influenced as a young man by a very different sort of playwright. Sam Thompson (1916-1965, who began his working life in the Belfast shipyards, squarely confronted Northern Irish sectarianism in his plays. His sense of the political potential of drama left an enduring mark on Parker, who organized and edited Thompson's manuscripts several years after his untimely death. Although their dramatic writings bear little resemblance to each other, the two writers should be regarded as united in a common Northern Irish dramatic tradition by virtue of their shared socialist outlook, belief in the importance of individual stands against conformity, and sense of theatre's social mission.

  16. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum. (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa


    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection. (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio


    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  18. Analysis of the epitope structure of Plum pox virus coat protein. (United States)

    Candresse, Thierry; Saenz, Pilar; García, Juan Antonio; Boscia, Donato; Navratil, Milan; Gorris, Maria Teresa; Cambra, Mariano


    Typing of the particular Plum pox virus (PPV) strain responsible in an outbreak has important practical implications and is frequently performed using strain-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Analysis in Western blots of the reactivity of 24 MAbs to a 112-amino-acid N-terminal fragment of the PPV coat protein (CP) expressed in Escherichia coli showed that 21 of the 24 MAbs recognized linear or denaturation-insensitive epitopes. A series of eight C-truncated CP fragments allowed the mapping of the epitopes recognized by the MAbs. In all, 14 of them reacted to the N-terminal hypervariable region, defining a minimum of six epitopes, while 7 reacted to the beginning of the core region, defining a minimum of three epitopes. Sequence comparisons allowed the more precise positioning of regions recognized by several MAbs, including those recognized by the 5B-IVIA universal MAb (amino acids 94 to 100) and by the 4DG5 and 4DG11 D serogroup-specific MAbs (amino acids 43 to 64). A similar approach coupled with infectious cDNA clone mutagenesis showed that a V74T mutation in the N-terminus of the CP abolished the binding of the M serogroup-specific AL MAb. Taken together, these results provide a detailed positioning of the epitopes recognized by the most widely used PPV detection and typing MAbs.

  19. Differentially expressed genes in healthy and plum pox virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Žilová, M; Šubr, Z


    Viruses use both material and energy sources of their hosts and redirect the production of disposable compounds in order to make viral replication more efficient. Metabolism of infected organisms is modified by these enhanced requirements as well by their own defense response. Resulting complex story consists of many regulation events on various gene expression levels. Elucidating these processes may contribute to the knowledge on virus-host interactions and to evolving new antiviral strategies. In our work we applied a subtractive cloning technique to compare the transcriptomes of healthy and plum pox virus (PPV)-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Several genes were found to be induced or repressed by the PPV infection. The induced genes were mainly related to general stress response or photosynthesis, several repressed genes could be connected with growth defects evoked by the infection. Interestingly, some genes usually up-regulated by fungal or bacterial infection were found repressed in PPV-infected plants. Potential involvement of particular differently expressed genes in the process of PPV infection is discussed.

  20. Molecular, ultrastructural, and biological characterization of Pennsylvania isolates of Plum pox virus. (United States)

    Schneider, William L; Damsteegt, Vernon D; Gildow, Fred E; Stone, Andrew L; Sherman, Diana J; Levy, Laurene E; Mavrodieva, Vessela; Richwine, Nancy; Welliver, Ruth; Luster, Douglas G


    Plum pox virus (PPV) was identified in Pennsylvania in 1999. The outbreak was limited to a four-county region in southern Pennsylvania. Initial serological and molecular characterization indicated that the isolates in Pennsylvania belong to the D strain of PPV. The Pennsylvania isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, electron microscopy, host range, and vector transmission to determine how these isolates related to their previously studied European counterparts. Genetically, Pennsylvania (PPV-Penn) isolates were more closely related to each other than to any other PPV-D strains, and isolates from the United States, Canada, and Chile were more closely related to each other than to European isolates. The PPV-Penn isolates exist as two clades, suggesting the possibility of multiple introductions. Electron microscopy analysis of PPV-Penn isolates, including cytopathological studies, indicated that the virions were similar to other Potyvirus spp. PPV-Penn isolates had a herbaceous host range similar to that of European D isolates. There were distinct differences in the transmission efficiencies of the two PPV-Penn isolates using Myzus persicae and Aphis spiraecola as vectors; however, both PPV-Penn isolates were transmitted by M. persicae more efficiently than a European D isolate but less efficiently than a European M isolate.

  1. Biotechnological strategies and tools for Plum pox virus resistance: trans-, intra-, cis-genesis, and beyond (United States)

    Ilardi, Vincenza; Tavazza, Mario


    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka, the most devastating and economically important viral disease affecting Prunus species. It is widespread in most stone fruits producing countries even though eradication and quarantine programs are in place. The development of resistant cultivars and rootstocks remains the most ecologically and economically suitable approach to achieve long-term control of sharka disease. However, the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm along with some intrinsic biological features of stone fruit trees pose limits for efficient and fast breeding programs. This review focuses on an array of biotechnological strategies and tools, which have been used, or may be exploited to confer PPV resistance. A considerable number of scientific studies clearly indicate that robust and predictable resistance can be achieved by transforming plant species with constructs encoding intron-spliced hairpin RNAs homologous to conserved regions of the PPV genome. In addition, we discuss how recent advances in our understanding of PPV biology can be profitably exploited to develop viral interference strategies. In particular, genetic manipulation of host genes by which PPV accomplishes its infection cycle already permits the creation of intragenic resistant plants. Finally, we review the emerging genome editing technologies based on ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered nucleases and how the knockout of host susceptibility genes will open up next generation of PPV resistant plants. PMID:26106397

  2. Tracking the potyviral P1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during plum pox virus infection. (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Glasa, M; Šubr, Z W

    The P1 protein is derived from the N terminus of potyvirus-coded polyprotein. In addition to the proteolytic activity essential for its maturation, it probably participates in suppression of host defense and/or in virus replication. Clear validation of the P1 in vivo function(s), however, is not yet available. We applied an infectious cDNA clone of plum pox virus (PPV), where the P1 was N-fused with a hexahistidine tag, to trace this protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during the PPV infection. Immunoblot analysis with the anti-his antibody showed a diffuse band corresponding to the molecular weight about 70-80 kDa (about twice larger than expected) in the root samples from early stage of infection. This signal culminated on the sixth day post inoculation, later it rapidly disappeared. Sample denaturation by boiling in SDS before centrifugal clarification was essential, indicating strong affinity of P1-his to some plant compound sedimenting with the tissue and cell debris.

  3. New highly divergent Plum pox virus isolates infecting sour cherry in Russia. (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Zakubanskiy, Alexander; Osipov, Gennady


    Unusual Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates (named Tat isolates) were discovered on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in Russia. They failed to be recognized by RT-PCR using commonly employed primers specific to the strains C or CR (the only ones that proved able to infect sour cherry) as well as to the strains M and W. Some of them can be detected by RT-PCR using the PPV-D-specific primers P1/PD or by TAS-ELISA with the PPV-C-specific monoclonal antibody AC. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3'-terminal genomic region assigned the Tat isolates into the cluster of cherry-adapted strains. However, they grouped separately from the C and CR strains and from each other as well. The sequence divergence of the Tat isolates is comparable to the differences between the known PPV strains. They may represent new group(s) of cherry-adapted isolates which do not seem to belong to any known strain of the virus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Plum pox virus capsid protein suppresses plant pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie; Candresse, Thierry


    The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by immune receptors launches defence mechanisms referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens must suppress PTI pathways via the action of effectors to efficiently colonize their hosts. So far, plant PTI has been reported to be active against most classes of pathogens, except viruses, although this defence layer has been hypothesized recently as an active part of antiviral immunity which needs to be suppressed by viruses for infection success. Here, we report that Arabidopsis PTI genes are regulated upon infection by viruses and contribute to plant resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV). Our experiments further show that PPV suppresses two early PTI responses, the oxidative burst and marker gene expression, during Arabidopsis infection. In planta expression of PPV capsid protein (CP) was found to strongly impair these responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis, revealing its PTI suppressor activity. In summary, we provide the first clear evidence that plant viruses acquired the ability to suppress PTI mechanisms via the action of effectors, highlighting a novel strategy employed by viruses to escape plant defences. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  6. Robust RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Plum pox virus under variable abiotic and biotic conditions. (United States)

    Di Nicola, Elisa; Tavazza, Mario; Lucioli, Alessandra; Salandri, Laura; Ilardi, Vincenza


    Some abiotic and biotic conditions are known to have a negative impact on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), thus representing a potential concern for the production of stable engineered virus resistance traits. However, depending on the strategy followed to achieve PTGS of the transgene, different responses to external conditions can be expected. In the present study, we utilized the Nicotiana benthamiana–Plum pox virus (PPV) pathosystem to evaluate in detail the stability of intron-hairpin(ihp)-mediated virus resistance under conditions known to adversely affect PTGS. The ihp plants grown at low or high temperatures were fully resistant to multiple PPV challenges, different PPV inoculum concentrations and even to a PPV isolate differing from the ihp construct by more than 28% at the nucleotide level. In addition, infections of ihp plants with viruses belonging to Cucumovirus, Potyvirus or Tombusvirus, all known to affect PTGS at different steps, were not able to defeat PPV resistance. Low temperatures did not affect the accumulation of transgenic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), whereas a clear increase in the amount of siRNAs was observed during infections sustained by Cucumber mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Our results show that the above stress factors do not represent an important concern for the production,through ihp-PTGS technology, of transgenic plants having robust virus resistance traits.

  7. Optimization of technological procedure for amygdalin isolation from plum seeds (Pruni domesticae semen) (United States)

    Savic, Ivan M.; Nikolic, Vesna D.; Savic-Gajic, Ivana M.; Nikolic, Ljubisa B.; Ibric, Svetlana R.; Gajic, Dragoljub G.


    The process of amygdalin extraction from plum seeds was optimized using central composite design (CCD) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The effect of time, ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, and temperature on the amygdalin content in the extracts was estimated using both mathematical models. The MLP 4-3-1 with exponential function in hidden layer and linear function in output layer was used for describing the extraction process. MLP model was more superior compared with CCD model due to better prediction ability. According to MLP model, the suggested optimal conditions are: time of 120 min, 100% (v/v) ethanol, solid-to liquid ratio of 1:25 (m/v) and temperature of 34.4°C. The predicted value of amygdalin content in the dried extract (25.42 g per 100 g) at these conditions was experimentally confirmed (25.30 g per 100 g of dried extract). Amygdalin (>90%) was isolated from the complex extraction mixture and structurally characterized by FT-IR, UV, and MS methods. PMID:25972881

  8. Optimization of technological procedure for amygdalin isolation from plum seeds (Pruni domesticae semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan M Savic


    Full Text Available The process of amygdalin extraction from plum seeds was optimized using central composite design (CCD and multilayer perceptron (MLP. The effect of time, ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio and temperature on the amygdalin content in the extracts was estimated using both mathematical models. The MLP 4-3-1 with exponential function in hidden layer and linear function in output layer was used for describing the extraction process. MLP model was more superior compared with CCD model due to better prediction ability. According to MLP model, the suggested optimal conditions are: time of 120 min, 100% (v/v ethanol, solid-to liquid ratio of 1:25 (m/v and temperature of 34.4 °C. The predicted value of amygdalin content in the dried extract (25.42 g per 100 g at these conditions was experimentally confirmed (25.30 g per 100 g of dried extract. Amygdalin (>90% was isolated from the complex extraction mixture and structurally characterized by FT-IR, UV and MS methods.

  9. Microencapsulation of plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. phenolics by spray drying technology and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI


    Full Text Available Abstract To improve the stability of the phenolic extracts from plum fruit (Prunus salicina Lindl., the microencapsulation conditions of spray drying were optimized by the response surface method. The Box-Behnken experimental results indicated the optimal conditions involved an inlet air temperature of 142.8 °C, a core material content of 23.7% and a feed solids content of 11.7%. The maximum microencapsulating efficiency was 87.7% at optimal conditions. Further, the physicochemical properties of the microcapsule powders were improved overall due to the addition of the coating agents. There were no statistically significant differences in phenolic content of the obtained microcapsules for the first 40 days of storage at 25 °C in dark condition (p > 0.05, and the retention rate of total phenol remained above 85% after 60 days. Microcapsules can be potentially developed as a source of natural pigment or functional food based on the advantages of rich phenolic compounds and red color.

  10. Incompatible pollen tubes in the plum style and their impact on fertilization success

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    Đorđević Milena


    Full Text Available The pistils of plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. ‘Čačanska Lepotica’ were self- and cross-pollinated in order to investigate occurrence of incompatible pollen tubes in the style, and their impact on fertilization success. The investigation also included open pollination variant. The highest percentage of these stopped the growth in the upper third of the style. Under cross-pollination variant, 15.4% and 12.1% of pollen tubes observed in the upper part of the style in the first and the second years of study, respectively, were found incompatible. In view of the above parameters, in the self- pollination variant, 15.0% and 17.0% of pollen tubes were found incompatible by years. As for the open pollination, percentages of incompatible pollen tubes in the upper part of the style by years were 14.0% and 14.4%, respectively. The occurrence of incompatible pollen tubes did not influence the fertilization success in these pollination variants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064-Development and preservation of genetic potential of temperate zone fruits

  11. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Merrimack River and Plum Island Sound, Massachusetts (Mean High Water) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  12. The Solar Wind from Pseudostreamers and their Environs: Opportunities for Observations with Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter (United States)

    Panasenco, O.; Velli, M.; Panasenco, A.; Lionello, R.


    may be observed by Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter.

  13. Genomic Sequencing of Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. Mutants Provides a New Model for Rosaceae Fruit Ripening Studies

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    Angel Fernandez i Marti


    Full Text Available It has recently been described that the Japanese plum “Santa Rosa” bud sport series contains variations in ripening pattern: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric and non-climacteric types. This provides an interesting model to study the role of ethylene and other key mechanisms governing fruit ripening, softening and senescence. The aim of the current study was to investigate such differences at the genomic level, using this series of plum bud sports, with special reference to genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, signal transduction, and sugar metabolism. Genomic DNA, isolated from leaf samples of six Japanese plum cultivars (“Santa Rosa”, “July Santa Rosa”, “Late Santa Rosa”, “Sweet Miriam”, “Roysum”, and “Casselman”, was used to construct paired-end standard Illumina libraries. Sequences were aligned to the Prunus persica genome, and genomic variations (SNPs, INDELS, and CNV's were investigated. Results determined 12 potential candidate genes with significant copy number variation (CNV, being associated with ethylene perception and signal transduction components. Additionally, the Maximum Likelihood (ML phylogenetic tree showed two sorbitol dehydrogenase genes grouping into a distinct clade, indicating that this natural group is well-defined and presents high sequence identity among its members. In contrast, the ethylene group, which includes ACO1, ACS1, ACS4, ACS5, CTR1, ERF1, ERF3, and ethylene-receptor genes, was widely distributed and clustered into 10 different groups. Thus, ACS, ERF, and sorbitol dehydrogenase proteins potentially share a common ancestor for different plant genomes, while the expansion rate may be related to ancestral expansion rather than species-specific events. Based on the distribution of the clades, we suggest that gene function diversification for the ripening pathway occurred prior to family extension. We herein report all the frameshift mutations in genes involved in sugar transport

  14. Genomic Sequencing of Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) Mutants Provides a New Model for Rosaceae Fruit Ripening Studies. (United States)

    Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Saski, Christopher A; Manganaris, George A; Gasic, Ksenija; Crisosto, Carlos H


    It has recently been described that the Japanese plum "Santa Rosa" bud sport series contains variations in ripening pattern: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric and non-climacteric types. This provides an interesting model to study the role of ethylene and other key mechanisms governing fruit ripening, softening and senescence. The aim of the current study was to investigate such differences at the genomic level, using this series of plum bud sports, with special reference to genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, signal transduction, and sugar metabolism. Genomic DNA, isolated from leaf samples of six Japanese plum cultivars ("Santa Rosa", "July Santa Rosa", "Late Santa Rosa", "Sweet Miriam", "Roysum", and "Casselman"), was used to construct paired-end standard Illumina libraries. Sequences were aligned to the Prunus persica genome, and genomic variations (SNPs, INDELS, and CNV's) were investigated. Results determined 12 potential candidate genes with significant copy number variation (CNV), being associated with ethylene perception and signal transduction components. Additionally, the Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree showed two sorbitol dehydrogenase genes grouping into a distinct clade, indicating that this natural group is well-defined and presents high sequence identity among its members. In contrast, the ethylene group, which includes ACO1, ACS1, ACS4, ACS5, CTR1, ERF1, ERF3, and ethylene-receptor genes, was widely distributed and clustered into 10 different groups. Thus, ACS, ERF, and sorbitol dehydrogenase proteins potentially share a common ancestor for different plant genomes, while the expansion rate may be related to ancestral expansion rather than species-specific events. Based on the distribution of the clades, we suggest that gene function diversification for the ripening pathway occurred prior to family extension. We herein report all the frameshift mutations in genes involved in sugar transport and ethylene biosynthesis detected as well

  15. Nutritional and functional characteristics of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla: an underutilized oilseed

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    Zhou, H. M.


    Full Text Available The In-vitro protein digestibility, protein nutritional quality and functional characteristics (protein solubility, water/oil binding capacity, emulsifying capacity and foaming capacity of gingerbread plum and peanut seed flour were studied. Among the nutritional parameters, the proportion of essential amino acids to total amino acids (E/T, amino acid scores (AAS and protein efficiency ratio (PER were studied. Defatted gingerbread plum seed meal (DGPSM showed a high nutritional quality with PER and AAS values of 2.35 and 65.53 respectively. The solubility profile of DGPSM was similar to that of defatted peanut meal (DPM, with minimum solubility observed at pH 4 and maximum solubility at pH 10 and higher. Water and oil holding capacities were 3.01 and 3.12; 2.96 and 3.11 g/g for DGPSM and DPM respectively. DGPSM showed good foaming capacity (145 mL /100 mL and stability (110 mL /100 mL even after 60 min at room temperature. The emulsifying capacity of DGPSM was 29%. Bulk densities were 0.30 and 0.28 g/mL for DGPSM and DPM respectively. Finally, DGPSM was easily hydrolyzed by trypsin in vitro. These results show that DGPSM has functional properties that may find applications in the food industry.La digestibilidad de proteínas in vitro, la calidad nutricional de proteínas y las características funcionales (solubilidad de proteínas, capacidad de enlace agua/aceite, capacidad emulsionante y capacidad espumante de harina de semillas de ciruela de pan de jengibre y de cacahuete fueron estudiadas. Entre los parámetros nutricionales, la relación aminoácidos esenciales/aminoácidos totales (E/T, el perfil de aminoácidos (AAS y el coeficiente de eficacia proteica (PER fueron estudiadas. Harina de semillas de ciruela de pan de jengibre (DGPSM mostraron una alta calidad nutricional con unos valores de PER y de AAS de 2.35 y 65.53 respectivamente. El perfil de solubilidad de DGPSM fue similar al de la harina desengrasada de cacahuete (DPM, con una m

  16. Study On The Influence Of Different Drying Modes Over The Chemical Composition Of Organic Fruits Of Some Plum Cultivars


    GEORGIEV, Diyan; GEORGIEVA, Mariya; BRASHLYANOVA, Boryana; Karabadzhov, Ognyan


    The change of some biochemical indicators of fruits of some plum cultivars was followed under the influence of different equipments and drying modes. In the first variant for the process of drying was used an alternative energy source – solar energy, and in the second one – a heat pump.The highest dry matter content was found in the fresh fruits of Mirabelle de Nancy – 25.50 %. In the alternative source of drying of fruits, Gabrovska cultivar had the highest content of biological active subst...

  17. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

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    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  18. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro


    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  19. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

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    Miletić Rade


    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  20. Housing the Citizen-Consumer in Post-war Britain: The Parker Morris Report, Affluence and the Even Briefer Life of Social Democracy. (United States)

    Kefford, Alistair


    This article examines debates about the design and provision of post-war housing within the papers and report of the Parker Morris committee. It does so to show how the models of citizens' rights and expectations which underpinned post-war welfare provision were transformed by mass affluence and the dynamic sphere of commercial consumption. Parker Morris's deliberations demonstrate that, as early as the 1950s, the citizen-subject was reimagined as a consuming individual, with requirements based on their expressive needs and consuming desires, and that this had far-reaching consequences for social democratic systems of universal welfare provision. The introduction of consumerist imperatives into publicly defined models of citizens' needs enhanced the political and cultural authority of the commercial domain, prompted a heightened role for commercial experts and market logics within public governance, and served to devalue socialized forms of provision in favour of consumer choice in the private market. The article thus engages with the growing scholarship on the politics of mass consumerism by showing how the material and emotional comforts of post-war affluence came to be constructed as critical to social democratic citizenship and selfhood. Situating this uneasy entanglement of social democratic rights with consumer satisfaction as part of a wider trajectory of political change, the piece suggests that Parker Morris marks an early but significant moment in the transition from post-war welfarism and social democracy to the consumer- and market-oriented forms of governance which came to dominate British politics and society in the latter part of the twentieth century.

  1. Molecular characterization of Plum pox virus Rec isolates from Russia suggests a new insight into evolution of the strain. (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Mitrofanova, Irina


    Field isolates of Plum pox virus (PPV), belonging to the strain Rec, have been found for the first time in Russia. Full-size genomes of the isolates K28 and Kisl-1pl from myrobalan and plum, respectively, were sequenced on the 454 platform. Analysis of all known PPV-Rec complete genomes using the Recombination Detection Program (RDP4) revealed yet another recombination event in the 5'-terminal region. This event was detected by seven algorithms, implemented in the RDP4, with statistically significant P values and supported by a phylogenetic analysis with the bootstrap value of 87%. A putative PPV-M-derived segment, encompassing the C-terminus of the P1 gene and approximately two-thirds of the HcPro gene, is bordered by breakpoints at positions 760-940 and 1838-1964, depending on the recombinant isolate. The predicted 5'-distal breakpoint for the isolate Valjevka is located at position 2804. The Dideron (strain D) and SK68 (strain M) isolates were inferred as major and minor parents, respectively. Finding of another recombination event suggests more complex evolutionary history of PPV-Rec than previously assumed. Perhaps the first recombination event led to the formation of a PPV-D variant harboring the PPV-M-derived fragment within the 5'-proximal part of the genome. Subsequent recombination of its descendant with PPV-M in the 3'-proximal genomic region resulted in the emergence of the evolutionary successful strain Rec.

  2. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

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    Carolina Font i Forcada


    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  3. Influence of combined pretreatments on color parameters during convective drying of Mirabelle plum ( Prunus domestica subsp. syriaca) (United States)

    Dehghannya, Jalal; Gorbani, Rasoul; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak


    Discoloration and browning are caused primarily by various reactions, including Maillard condensation of hexoses and amino components, phenol polymerization and pigment destruction. Convective drying can be combined with various pretreatments to help reduce undesired color changes and improve color parameters of dried products. In this study, effects of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration as a pretreatment before convective drying on color parameters of Mirabelle plum were investigated. Variations of L* (lightness), a* (redness/greenness), b* (yellowness/blueness), total color change (ΔE), chroma, hue angle and browning index values were presented versus drying time during convective drying of control and pretreated Mirabelle plums as influenced by ultrasonication time, osmotic solution concentration and immersion time in osmotic solution. Samples pretreated with ultrasound for 30 min and osmotic solution concentration of 70% had a more desirable color among all other pretreated samples, with the closest L*, a* and b* values to the fresh one, showing that ultrasound and osmotic dehydration are beneficial to the color of final products after drying.

  4. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.


    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  5. Protecting trees against virus diseases in the 21st century: genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance - from concept to product (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the early twentieth century. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...

  6. Effect of Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose-Beeswax Composite Edible Coatings Formulated with or without Antifungal Agents on Physicochemical Properties of Plums during Cold Storage

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    Sule Gunaydin


    Full Text Available The influence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose- (HPMC- beeswax (BW composite edible coatings formulated with or without food additives with antifungal properties on physicochemical and sensory properties of plums (Prunus salicina cv. “Friar” stored for 11 and 22 d at 1°C followed by a shelf life period of 5 d at 20°C was evaluated. Food preservatives selected from previous research included potassium sorbate (PS, sodium methyl paraben (SMP, and sodium ethyl paraben (SEP. Emulsions had 7% of total solid content and were prepared with glycerol and stearic acid as plasticizer and emulsifier, respectively. All the coatings reduced plum weight and firmness loss and coated fruit showed higher titratable acidity, soluble solids content, and hue angle values at the end of the storage period. In addition, physiological disorders such as flesh browning and bleeding were reduced in coated samples compared to uncoated controls. Paraben-based coatings were the most effective in controlling weight loss and the SMP-based coating was the most effective in maintaining plum firmness. Respiration rate, sensory flavor, off-flavors, and fruit appearance were not adversely affected by the application of antifungal coatings. Overall, these results demonstrated the potential of selected edible coatings containing antifungal food additives to extend the postharvest life of plums, although further studies should focus on improving some properties of the coatings to enhance gas barrier properties and further increase storability.

  7. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L) (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  8. Effects of Raindrop Shape Parameter on the Simulation of Plum Rains (United States)

    Mei, H.; Zhou, L.; Li, X.; Huang, X.; Guo, W.


    The raindrop shape parameter of particle distribution is generally set as constant in a Double-moment Bulk Microphysics Scheme (DBMS) using Gama distribution function though which suggest huge differences in time and space according to observations. Based on Milbrandt 2-mon(MY) DBMS, four cases during Plum Rains season are simulated coupled with four empirical relationships between shape parameter (μr) and slope parameter of raindrop which have been concluded from observations of raindrop distributions. The analysis of model results suggest that μr have some influences on rainfall. Introducing the diagnostic formulas of μr may have some improvement on systematic biases of 24h accumulated rainfall and show some correction ability on local characteristics of rainfall distribution. Besides,the tendency to improve strong rainfall could be sensitive to μr. With the improvement of the diagnosis of μr using the empirically diagnostic formulas, μr increases generally in the middle- and lower-troposphere and decreases with the stronger rainfall. Its conclued that, the decline in raindrop water content and the increased raindrop mass-weighted average terminal velocity directly related to μr are the direct reasons of variations in the precipitation.On the other side, the environmental conditions including relative humidity and dynamical parameters are the key indirectly causes which has close relationships with the changes in cloud particles and rainfall distributions.Furthermore,the differences in the scale of improvement between the weak and heavy rainfall mainly come from the distinctions of response features about their variable fields respectively. The extent of variation in the features of cloud particles in warm clouds of heavy rainfall differs greatly from that of weak rainfall, though they share the same trend of variation. On the conditions of weak rainfall, the response of physical characteristics to μr performed consistent trends and some linear features

  9. "The Day All of the Different Parts of Me Can Come Along": Intersectionality and U.S. Third World Feminism in the Poetry of Pat Parker and Willyce Kim. (United States)

    Van Ausdall, Mimi Iimuro


    This article brings to light the poetry of Pat Parker and Willyce Kim, two key figures within the 1970s and '80s women in print movement. While Parker and Kim have been rightly placed within African-American and Asian-American histories, respectively, and working-class and lesbian-feminist literary histories, their work is most fully understood within the context of U.S. Third World Feminism. Through close readings of poetic form and content in addition to engagement with current debates about intersectionality as a methodology, the article links Kim and Parker's works to central contributions of U.S. Third World Feminism such as intersectionality and power across and within difference that continue to influence feminist theory today.

  10. Assessing Wetland Hydroperiod and Soil Moisture With Remote Sensing: A Demonstration for the NASA Plum Brook Station Year 2 (United States)

    Brooks, Colin; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura; Endres, Sarah; Battaglia, Michael; Shuchman, Robert


    Primary Goal: Assist with the evaluation and measuring of wetlands hydroperiod at the PlumBrook Station using multi-source remote sensing data as part of a larger effort on projecting climate change-related impacts on the station's wetland ecosystems. MTRI expanded on the multi-source remote sensing capabilities to help estimate and measure hydroperiod and the relative soil moisture of wetlands at NASA's Plum Brook Station. Multi-source remote sensing capabilities are useful in estimating and measuring hydroperiod and relative soil moisture of wetlands. This is important as a changing regional climate has several potential risks for wetland ecosystem function. The year two analysis built on the first year of the project by acquiring and analyzing remote sensing data for additional dates and types of imagery, combined with focused field work. Five deliverables were planned and completed: 1) Show the relative length of hydroperiod using available remote sensing datasets 2) Date linked table of wetlands extent over time for all feasible non-forested wetlands 3) Utilize LIDAR data to measure topographic height above sea level of all wetlands, wetland to catchment area radio, slope of wetlands, and other useful variables 4) A demonstration of how analyzed results from multiple remote sensing data sources can help with wetlands vulnerability assessment 5) A MTRI style report summarizing year 2 results. This report serves as a descriptive summary of our completion of these our deliverables. Additionally, two formal meetings were held with Larry Liou and Amanda Sprinzl to provide project updates and receive direction on outputs. These were held on 2/26/15 and 9/17/15 at the Plum Brook Station. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a multivariate statistical technique used to identify dominant spatial and temporal backscatter signatures. PCA reduces the information contained in the temporal dataset to the first few new Principal Component (PC) images. Some advantages of PCA

  11. The influence of virus infections on antioxidant levels in the genetically modified plum variety "Honeysweet" (Prunus domestica L.

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    Jiri Sochor


    Full Text Available It is well-known that polyphenolic compounds are found abundantly in fruit, but various kinds of diseases  lower these levels. This work measures total polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and the levels of specific important antioxidants in fruits of the genetically modified (GM plum variety HoneySweet, trees  which were previously inoculated with a range of different virus infections.  These were the Plum Pox virus (PPV, Prune Dwarf virus (PDV and Apple Chlorotic Leaf-Spot virus (ACLSV. Uninoculated trees were used as controls. Antioxidant activity was measured using four different photometric  methods – DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DMPD (N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine, ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and FRAP (Ferric reducing antioxidant power. Total polyphenol content was measured using the Folin–Ciocalteau method. The profiles of 10 specific antioxidant constituents in the fruits of the GM plum variety HoneySweet were detected and analyzed, since these are of interest for their role in human diets and could play a role in the resistance of plants to viruses. Detection was made using HPLC with UV-VIS detection.  They were: gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, rutin and quercetin. The compound with the highest concentration was chlorogenic acid (587 mg/100 g, and that with the lowest was p-coumaric acid (0.95 mg/100 g. Of the four methods of antioxidant activity used, in three the lowest levels of antioxidant activity were seen where the PPV virus was combined with ACLSV, and in three the highest levels were seen in the un-inoculated control without any infection. The highest values of total polyphenols were seen in the control (65.3 mg/100 g, followed by infection of PPV, then treatment PPV, PDV and ACLSV, then treatment PPV and PDV and finally the lowest levels were seen in treatment PPV and ACLSV (44.2 mg/100 g, which

  12. NMR fingerprinting as a tool to evaluate post-harvest time-related changes of peaches, tomatoes and plums. (United States)

    Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Luchinat, Claudio


    The time-related changes of three agricultural products, coming from two distribution routes, have been followed using NMR fingerprinting to monitor metabolic variations occurring during several days of cold storage. An NMR profiling approach was employed to evaluate the variations in metabolic profile and metabolite content in three different agricultural products highly consumed in Italy (peaches, tomatoes and plums) coming from Tuscanian farms and how they change with time after collection. For each product, we followed the time-related changes during cold storage along three different collection periods. We monitored the variations in metabolic fingerprint and the trend of a set of metabolites, focusing our attention on nutritive and health-promoting metabolites (mainly, essential amino acids and antioxidants) as well as metabolites that contribute to the taste. Concurrently, for comparison, the time-dependent changes of the same kind of products coming from large-scale distribution have been also analyzed under the same conditions. In this second category, only slight variations in the metabolic fingerprint and metabolite levels were seen during cold storage. Unsupervised and supervised multivariate statistics was also employed to enlighten the differences between the three collections. In particular it seems that the metabolic fingerprint of large-scale distribution products is quite similar in the early, middle and late collection, while peaches and plums locally collected are markedly different among the three periods. The metabolic profiles of the agricultural products belonging to these two different distribution routes are intrinsically different, and they show different changes during the time of cold storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Plum Rootstocks on the Content of Reducing Sugars in the Annual Shoots of Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’

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    Dēķena Dzintra


    Full Text Available The lack of suitable plum rootstocks for Baltic conditions has become a problem during recent years due to changing climatic conditions. Rapid temperature fluctuations between freezing and thawing are occurring more frequently. The winter-hardiness of rootstocks is essential for overwintering of trees in such conditions. The content of accumulated reducing sugars is an important physiological factor influencing wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugars was investigated during two winter seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in one-year-old ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus x rossica Erem. hybrid plum shoots from two orchards planted in 2001 at Pūre Horticultural Research Centre (Latvia and Polli Horticultural Research Centre (Estonia. Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks: ‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’ cuttings, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, ‘Hamyra’ and eight seedling rootstocks: ‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’ seedlings, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobаlan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata. Trees were planted at 5×3 m spacing in four replications per rootstock with three trees per plot. Shoot samples were harvested five times during the winter period. The concentration of reducing sugars (mg g-1 dry weight was determined with Bertran’s method. Significant differences in concentration of reducing sugar were found between samples coming from different locations and in two seasons. The maximum concentration of reducing sugar was found in December or January depending on growing location and meteorological conditions

  14. Charles River (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  15. Dawn-dusk asymmetry induced by the Parker spiral angle in the plasma dynamics around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (United States)

    Behar, E.; Tabone, B.; Nilsson, H.


    When interacting, the solar wind and the ionised atmosphere of a comet exchange energy and momentum. Our aim is to understand the influence of the average Parker spiral configuration of the solar wind magnetic field on this interaction. We compare the theoretical expectations of an analytical generalised gyromotion with Rosetta observations at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A statistical approach allows one to overcome the lack of upstream solar wind measurement. We find that additionally to their acceleration along (for cometary pick-up ions) or against (for solar wind ions) the upstream electric field orientation and sense, the cometary pick-up ions are drifting towards the dawn side of the coma, while the solar wind ions are drifting towards the dusk side of the coma, independent of the heliocentric distance. The dynamics of the interaction is not taking place in a plane, as often assumed in previous works.

  16. Epistaxis during nasotracheal intubation: a randomized trial of the Parker Flex-Tip™ nasal endotracheal tube with a posterior facing bevel versus a standard nasal RAE endotracheal tube. (United States)

    Earle, Rosie; Shanahan, Enda; Vaghadia, Himat; Sawka, Andrew; Tang, Raymond


    Nasotracheal intubation is a widely performed technique to facilitate anesthesia induction during oral, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries. The technique poses several risks not encountered with oropharyngeal intubation, most commonly epistaxis due to nasal mucosal abrasion. The purpose of this study was to test whether the use of the Parker Flex-Tip™ (PFT) nasal endotracheal tube (ETT) with a posterior facing bevel reduces epistaxis when compared with the standard nasal RAE ETT with a leftward facing bevel. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II patients undergoing oral or maxillofacial surgery with nasotracheal intubation were recruited. Patients were randomized to either a standard nasal RAE ETT or a PFT nasal ETT. The ETT was thermosoftened and lubricated for both study groups prior to insertion, and the size of the tube was chosen at the discretion of the attending anesthesiologist. The primary outcome was the incidence of epistaxis, with a secondary outcome of epistaxis severity (scored as none, mild, moderate, or severe). An investigator measured both outcomes five minutes after intubation was completed. Mild or moderate epistaxis was experienced by 22 of 30 (73%) patients in the PFT group compared with 21 of 30 (70%) patients in the standard nasal RAE ETT group (absolute risk reduction, 3%; 95% confidence interval, -19 to 25; P = 0.78). There were no occurrences of severe epistaxis in either group. There was no difference in the incidence or severity of epistaxis following nasal intubation using the Parker Flex-Tip nasal ETT when compared with a standard nasal RAE ETT. This trial was registered at, identifier: NCT02315677.


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    Július Rozák


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  18. The biosynthesis of polysaccharides. Incorporation of d-[1-14C]glucose and d-[6-14C]glucose into plum-leaf polysaccharides (United States)

    Andrews, P.; Hough, L.; Picken, J. M.


    1. The utilization of specifically labelled d-glucose in the biosynthesis of plum-leaf polysaccharides has been studied. After these precursors had been metabolized in plum leaves, the polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves, and their monosaccharide constituents isolated and purified. 2. Both the specific activities and the distribution of 14C along the carbon chains of the monosaccharides were determined. Significant 14C activity was found in units of d-galactose, d-glucose, d-xylose and l-arabinose, but their specific activities varied widely. The labelling patterns suggest that in the leaves the other monosaccharides all arise directly from d-glucose without any skeletal change in the carbon chain, other than the loss of a terminal carbon atom in the synthesis of pentoses. 3. The results indicated that within the leaf there are various precursor pools for polysaccharide synthesis and that these pools are not in equilibrium with one another. PMID:14342252



    Július Rozák; Zdenka Gálová


    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen a...

  20. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums. (United States)

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís


    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  1. Family-based linkage and association mapping reveals novel genes affecting Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Pagny, Gaëlle; Paulstephenraj, Pauline S; Poque, Sylvain; Sicard, Ophélie; Cosson, Patrick; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Caballero, Mélodie; Chague, Aurélie; Gourdon, Germain; Negrel, Lise; Candresse, Thierry; Mariette, Stéphanie; Decroocq, Véronique


    Sharka is a devastating viral disease caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees and few sources of resistance are known in its natural hosts. Since any knowledge gained from Arabidopsis on plant virus susceptibility factors is likely to be transferable to crop species, Arabidopsis's natural variation was searched for host factors essential for PPV infection. To locate regions of the genome associated with susceptibility to PPV, linkage analysis was performed on six biparental populations as well as on multiparental lines. To refine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, a genome-wide association analysis was carried out using 147 Arabidopsis accessions. Evidence was found for linkage on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5 with restriction of PPV long-distance movement. The most relevant signals occurred within a region at the bottom of chromosome 3, which comprises seven RTM3-like TRAF domain-containing genes. Since the resistance mechanism analyzed here is recessive and the rtm3 knockout mutant is susceptible to PPV infection, it suggests that other gene(s) present in the small identified region encompassing RTM3 are necessary for PPV long-distance movement. In consequence, we report here the occurrence of host factor(s) that are indispensable for virus long-distance movement. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca). (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique


    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Heterologous RNA-silencing suppressors from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses support plum pox virus infection. (United States)

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Calvo, María; Carbonell, Alberto; García, Juan Antonio; Valli, Adrian


    HCPro, the RNA-silencing suppressor (RSS) of viruses belonging to the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae, is a multifunctional protein presumably involved in all essential steps of the viral infection cycle. Recent studies have shown that plum pox potyvirus (PPV) HCPro can be replaced successfully by cucumber vein yellowing ipomovirus P1b, a sequence-unrelated RSS from a virus of the same family. In order to gain insight into the requirement of a particular RSS to establish a successful potyviral infection, we tested the ability of different heterologous RSSs from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses to substitute for HCPro. Making use of engineered PPV chimeras, we show that PPV HCPro can be replaced functionally by some, but not all, unrelated RSSs, including the NS1 protein of the mammal-infecting influenza A virus. Interestingly, the capacity of a particular RSS to replace HCPro does not correlate strictly with its RNA silencing-suppression strength. Altogether, our results suggest that not all suppression strategies are equally suitable for efficient escape of PPV from the RNA-silencing machinery. The approach followed here, based on using PPV chimeras in which an under-consideration RSS substitutes for HCPro, could further help to study the function of diverse RSSs in a 'highly sensitive' RNA-silencing context, such as that taking place in plant cells during the process of a viral infection.

  4. O-GlcNAc modification of the coat protein of the potyvirus Plum pox virus enhances viral infection. (United States)

    Pérez, José de Jesús; Udeshi, Namrata D; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Ciordia, Sergio; Juárez, Silvia; Scott, Cheryl L; Olszewski, Neil E; Hunt, Donald F; García, Juan Antonio


    O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic protein modification which has been studied mainly in metazoans. We reported previously that an Arabidopsis thaliana O-GlcNAc transferase modifies at least two threonine residues of the Plum pox virus (PPV) capsid protein (CP). Now, six additional residues were shown to be involved in O-GlcNAc modification of PPV CP. CP O-GlcNAcylation was abolished in the PPV CP7-T/A mutant, in which seven threonines were mutated. PPV CP7-T/A infected Nicotiana clevelandii, Nicotiana benthamiana, and Prunus persica without noticeable defects. However, defects in infection of A. thaliana were readily apparent. In mixed infections of wild-type arabidopsis, the CP7-T/A mutant was outcompeted by wild-type virus. These results indicate that CP O-GlcNAcylation has a major role in the infection process. O-GlcNAc modification may have a role in virion assembly and/or stability as the CP of PPV CP7-T/A was more sensitive to protease digestion than that of the wild-type virus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New insights into the history of domesticated and wild apricots and its contribution to Plum pox virus resistance. (United States)

    Decroocq, Stéphane; Cornille, Amandine; Tricon, David; Babayeva, Sevda; Chague, Aurélie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Karychev, Raul; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Kostritsyna, Tatiana; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Weisheng; Geng, Wenjuan; Liao, Kang; Asma, Bayram M; Akparov, Zeynal; Giraud, Tatiana; Decroocq, Véronique


    Studying domesticated species and their wild relatives allows understanding of the mechanisms of population divergence and adaptation, and identifying valuable genetic resources. Apricot is an important fruit in the Northern hemisphere, where it is threatened by the Plum pox virus (PPV), causing the sharka disease. The histories of apricot domestication and of its resistance to sharka are however still poorly understood. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype a collection of 230 wild trees from Central Asia and 142 cultivated apricots as representatives of the worldwide cultivated apricot germplasm; we also performed experimental PPV inoculation tests. The genetic markers revealed highest levels of diversity in Central Asian and Chinese wild and cultivated apricots, confirming an origin in this region. In cultivated apricots, Chinese accessions were differentiated from more Western accessions, while cultivated apricots were differentiated from wild apricots. An approximate Bayesian approach indicated that apricots likely underwent two independent domestication events, with bottlenecks, from the same wild population. Central Asian native apricots exhibited genetic subdivision and high frequency of resistance to sharka. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of cultivated apricot and point to valuable genetic diversity in the extant genetic resources of wild apricots. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Allelic variation at the rpv1 locus controls partial resistance to Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Poque, S; Pagny, G; Ouibrahim, L; Chague, A; Eyquard, J-P; Caballero, M; Candresse, T; Caranta, C; Mariette, S; Decroocq, V


    Sharka is caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees. In orchards, the virus is transmitted by aphids and by grafting. In Arabidopsis, PPV is transferred by mechanical inoculation, by biolistics and by agroinoculation with infectious cDNA clones. Partial resistance to PPV has been observed in the Cvi-1 and Col-0 Arabidopsis accessions and is characterized by a tendency to escape systemic infection. Indeed, only one third of the plants are infected following inoculation, in comparison with the susceptible Ler accession. Genetic analysis showed this partial resistance to be monogenic or digenic depending on the allelic configuration and recessive. It is detected when inoculating mechanically but is overcome when using biolistic or agroinoculation. A genome-wide association analysis was performed using multiparental lines and 147 Arabidopsis accessions. It identified a major genomic region, rpv1. Fine mapping led to the positioning of rpv1 to a 200 kb interval on the long arm of chromosome 1. A candidate gene approach identified the chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase (cPGK2) as a potential gene underlying the resistance. A virus-induced gene silencing strategy was used to knock-down cPGK2 expression, resulting in drastically reduced PPV accumulation. These results indicate that rpv1 resistance to PPV carried by the Cvi-1 and Col-0 accessions is linked to allelic variations at the Arabidopsis cPGK2 locus, leading to incomplete, compatible interaction with the virus.

  7. The influence of different types of pesticides on elemental profiles of some fruit trees: Apple and plum (United States)

    Gheboianu, Anca Irina; Setnescu, Tanta; Setnescu, Radu; Culicov, Otilia; Zinicovscaia, Inga


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the elemental content of various samples from apple and plum orchard - located in Dambovita and Arges Counties - (soil, bark and leaves) and to characterize the influence of different types of pesticides commonly used in orchards. For this purpose, the effect of pesticide/ natural fertilizer couples was studied by characterization of treated and untreated soil composition. Heavy metals were also used as tracers for pesticides concentration monitoring, aiming to get information about their overall concentration and eventually, their critical accumulation into some parts of the studied plants (which shall not exceed the limits regulated by Romanian law and UE directives for pesticides use in fruit-grower). Solid samples were analyzed by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and instrumental nuclear activation methods (INAA). Moreover, soil properties (pH and electrical conductivity) were determined in order to characterize agricultural soils and to analyze relationships between heavy metal contents and soil properties. Multivariate data analysis was performed to identify a common source for heavy metals. Correlations between the concentrations of heavy metals in the analyzed samples and pesticides used in these areas were found.

  8. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  9. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  10. Final-Independent Confirmatory Survey Report For The Reactor Building, Hot Laboratory, Primary Pump House, And Land Areas At The Plum Brook Reactor Facility, Sandusky, Ohio DCN:2036-SR-01-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Erika N.


    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  11. NRDA-processed CTD data from the 25 Foot Parker in the Gulf of Mexico, Cruise 1 Leg 1, collected from 2010-10-25 to 2010-10-26, associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NCEI Accession 0130283) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements were collected aboard the 25 Foot Parker, Cruise UV1 to determine physical oceanographic parameters of the...

  12. Descrição do girino de Lysapsus laevis (Parker, com notas sobre o ambiente, hábitos e desenvolvimento (Anura, Hylidae, Pseudinae Description of the tadpole of Lysapsus laevis (Parker, with notes on the habitat, habits, and development (Anura, Hylidae, Pseudinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Caramaschi


    Full Text Available O girino de Lysapsus laevis (Parker, 1935 é descrito e figurado, com base em exemplares coletados na Vila Surumu, Estado de Roraima, Brasil. No estágio 37, o girino possui 61,4 mm de comprimento total; corpo triangular em vista lateral, ovóide em vistas dorsal e ventral, correspondendo a 28% do comprimento total; olhos laterais, parcialmente visíveis em vistas dorsal e ventral; disco oral ânteroventral, pequeno; fórmula dentária, 2(2/3(1; espiráculo curto, sinistro; tubo anal longo, largo, direito, mediano; em vida, dorso do corpo verde, ventre branco iridescente; musculatura caudal e nadadeiras verdes; terço anterior da nadadeira caudal e tubo anal com manchas irregulares iridescentes; metade distal da cauda cinza a cinza escuro; íris bronze. Notas sobre o ambiente, hábitos e desenvolvimento são apresentadas.The tadpole of Lysapsus laevis (Parker, 1935 is described and figured, based on specimens from Vila Surumu, State of Roraima, northern Brazil. In stage 37, the tadpole attains 61.4 mm in total length; body triangular in lateral view, ovoid in dorsal and ventral views, corresponding to 28% of the total length; eyes lateral, partially visible in dorsal and ventral views; oral disc anteroventral, small; labial tooth row formula, 2(2/3(1; spiracle short, sinistral; anal tube large, wide, medium; in life, dorsum of body green, venter iridescent white; caudal musculature and fins green; anterior third of caudal fin and anal tube with irregular iridescent stains; distal half of tail gray to dark gray; iris bronze. Notes on the habitat, habits, and development are provided.

  13. Quality Of Cloudy Plum Juice Produced From Fresh Fruit Of Prunus Domestica L. – The Effect Of Cultivar And Enzyme Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrzeźniak Monika


    Full Text Available The quality of cloudy juices produced from two plum cultivars varied in chemical characteristics and native polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity, and was studied in relation to specific pectinolytic activity of enzyme preparations used for fresh fruit maceration before pressing. Process effectiveness expressed as juice yield, turbidity and the rate of transfer of anthocyanins and polyphenols were determined for five different enzyme preparations, whose activity was also analysed. Juice yields obtained after 1 hour mash maceration (50 ºC, 100 g·t−1 were between 86.6 and 95.4%. The anthocyanins content of the obtained juices strongly depended on the cultivar and ranged from 26 to 50 mg·L−1 for ‘Promis’, and from 269 to 289 mg·L−1 for ‘Čačanska Najbolja’, which could be related to the differences in the measured PPO activity (175.4 and 79.8 nkat·g−1, respectively. The type of enzyme preparation strongly affected the degradation rate of anthocyanins during juice processing. Peonidin-3-rutinoside proved to be the most stable during plum juice production in contrast to cyanidin-3-glucoside. Irrespectively of the cultivar, the juice prepared with the mixture of Rohapect PTE + Rohament PL (2 : 1 showed the highest turbidity among the investigated combinations. The results suggest that for the production of cloudy plum juice use of a preparation with low pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase activities and high pectin lyase activity could be recommended.

  14. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch)


    Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi; Manuel Rubio; Nadali Babaeian; Alfonso Albacete; Pedro Martínez-Gómez


    Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar “Garrigues” onto the “GF305” peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting “Garrigues” onto “GF305” prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resista...

  15. Biological and morphological properties of myrobalan plum as the basis for the identification of cultivars and expertizing the concerning differentiation, homogeneity and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Павлюк


    Full Text Available The authors presents the results of the collectional, primary and promotional investigation of the myrobalan plum large-fruited introduced and "tome cultivars under the conditions of the Ukraine's Southern Polissya and Northern Lisosteppe. On the background of the best standard cv

  16. Ion-channel genosensor for the detection of specific DNA sequences derived from Plum Pox Virus in plant extracts. (United States)

    Malecka, Kamila; Michalczuk, Lech; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy


    A DNA biosensor for detection of specific oligonucleotides sequences of Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in plant extracts and buffer is proposed. The working principles of a genosensor are based on the ion-channel mechanism. The NH2-ssDNA probe was deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface to form an amide bond between the carboxyl group of oxidized electrode surface and amino group from ssDNA probe. The analytical signals generated as a result of hybridization were registered in Osteryoung square wave voltammetry in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- as a redox marker. The 22-mer and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences derived from PPV and DNA samples from plants infected with PPV were used as targets. Similar detection limits of 2.4 pM (31.0 pg/mL) and 2.3 pM (29.5 pg/mL) in the concentration range 1-8 pM were observed in the presence of the 22-mer ssDNA and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences of PPV, respectively. The genosensor was capable of discriminating between samples consisting of extracts from healthy plants and leaf extracts from infected plants in the concentration range 10-50 pg/mL. The detection limit was 12.8 pg/mL. The genosensor displayed good selectivity and sensitivity. The 20-mer partially complementary DNA sequences with four complementary bases and DNA samples from healthy plants used as negative controls generated low signal.

  17. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima


    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  18. Tempo-Spatial Dynamics of Adult Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Semiochemical-Baited Trap Captures in Blueberries. (United States)

    Hernandez-Cumplido, Johnattan; Leskey, Tracy C; Holdcraft, Robert; Zaman, Faruque U; Hahn, Noel G; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar


    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), has become an important pest of highbush blueberries in the northeastern United States. Here, we conducted experiments in 2010-2013 to compare the efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for C. nenuphar versus conventional (beating cloth) sampling methods in blueberries, and to understand the seasonal abundance and distribution of C. nenuphar adults within and among blueberry fields using these traps. Black pyramid traps baited with the C. nenuphar aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid and the fruit volatile benzaldehyde caught three to four times more adults than unbaited traps without causing an increase in injury to berries in neighboring bushes. Numbers of adult weevils caught in traps correlated with those on bushes (beating cloth samples), indicating that trap counts can predict C. nenuphar abundance in the field. Early in the season, traps placed 20 m from field edges near a forest caught higher C. nenuphar numbers than traps placed at farther distances, suggesting movement of overwintered weevils from outside fields. Using a trapping network across multiple fields in an organic farm, we found evidence of C. nenuphar aggregation in "hotspots"; early in the season, C. nenuphar numbers in traps were higher in the middle of fields, and there was a correlation between these numbers and distance from the forest in 2013 but not in 2012. These results show that semiochemical-baited traps are effective in capturing C. nenuphar adults in blueberries, and that these traps should be placed in the interior of fields preferably, but not exclusively, near wooded habitats to maximize their efficacy. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  19. Reduced reproductive function in wild baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) related to natural consumption of the African black plum (Vitex doniana). (United States)

    Higham, James P; Ross, Caroline; Warren, Ymke; Heistermann, Michael; MacLarnon, Ann M


    Several authors have suggested that the consumption of plant compounds may have direct effects on wild primate reproductive biology, but no studies have presented physiological evidence of such effects. Here, for two troops of olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria, we show major seasonal increases in levels of fecal progesterone metabolites in females, and provide evidence that this is linked to the consumption of natural plant compounds. Increases in fecal progestogen excretion occurred seasonally in all females, in all reproductive states, including lactation. Detailed feeding data on the study animals showed that only one food species is consumed by both troops at the time of observed progestogen peaks, and at no other times of the year: the African black plum, Vitex doniana. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of high concentrations of progestogen-like compounds in V. doniana. Together with published findings linking the consumption of a related Vitex species (Vitex agnus castus) to increased progestogen levels in humans, our data suggest that natural consumption of V. doniana was a likely cause of the observed increases in progestogens. Levels of progestogen excretion in the study baboons during periods of V. doniana consumption are higher than those found during pregnancy, and prevent the expression of the sexual swelling, which is associated with ovulatory activity. As consortship and copulatory activity in baboons occur almost exclusively in the presence of a sexual swelling, V. doniana appears to act on cycling females as both a physiological contraceptive (simulating pregnancy in a similar way to some forms of the human contraceptive pill) and a social contraceptive (preventing sexual swelling, thus reducing association and copulation with males). The negative effects of V. doniana on reproduction may be counter-balanced by the wide-range of medicinal properties attributed to plants in this genus. This is

  20. Comparison of different methods of RNA isolation for plum pox virus detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. (United States)

    Faggioli, F; Pasquini, G; Barba, M


    The diagnosis of plum pox virus (PPV) is still considered one of the most important aspects of the "sharka" problem. In fact, different studies demonstrated an uneven distribution of the virus in infected trees due to a high variability in virus concentration. These aspects complicate the PPV diagnosis. To date, biological, serological and molecular assays have been successively developed in order to obtain sensitive and efficient PPV detection techniques. In particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique seems to be promising and can be considered the most sensitive and reliable one. Preparation of viral RNA is still a fundamental step in reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique, especially when applied to large scale testing, i.e., for certification purposes. In order to find the most rapid and efficient procedure, we have compared three different procedures of extraction of viral RNA to be processed RT-PCR. Their common characteristics is their capacity to extract the RNA from a small amount of plant tissue without organic solvents in the extraction fluid. The procedures were as follows: an immuno-capture (IC) method using a specific antiserum, a silica-capture (SC) method using a non-specific matrix, and a simple and rapid RNA extraction (RE) method. They all were followed by one-tube RT-PCR. The obtained results show that all the three techniques allowed a successful amplification and detection of PPV in tested samples except the SC-PCR method which proved less effective. In fact, the IC-PCR and RE-PCR methods amplified and detected PPV in all isolates tested, while the SC-PCR method was able to reveal the presence of the virus in apricot and infected control samples only.

  1. Differential RNAi responses of Nicotiana benthamiana individuals transformed with a hairpin-inducing construct during Plum pox virus challenge. (United States)

    Montes, Christian; Castro, Álvaro; Barba, Paola; Rubio, Julia; Sánchez, Evelyn; Carvajal, Denisse; Aguirre, Carlos; Tapia, Eduardo; DelÍ Orto, Paola; Decroocq, Veronique; Prieto, Humberto


    Gene silencing and large-scale small RNA analysis can be used to develop RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategies for Plum pox virus (PPV), a high impact disease of Prunus spp. In this study, a pPPViRNA hairpin-inducing vector harboring two silencing motif-rich regions of the PPV coat protein (CP) gene was evaluated in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) plants. Wild-type NB plants infected with a chimeric PPV virus (PPV::GFP) exhibited affected leaves with mosaic chlorosis congruent to GFP fluorescence at 21 day post-inoculation; transgenic lines depicted a range of phenotypes from fully resistant to susceptible. ELISA values and GFP fluorescence intensities were used to select transgenic-resistant (TG-R) and transgenic-susceptible (TG-S) lines for further characterization of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by large-scale small RNA sequencing. In infected TG-S and untransformed (WT) plants, the observed siRNAs were nearly exclusively 21- and 22-nt siRNAs that targeted the whole PPV::GFP genome; 24-nt siRNAs were absent in these individuals. Challenged TG-R plants accumulated a full set of 21- to 24-nt siRNAs that were primarily associated with the selected motif-rich regions, indicating that a trans-acting siRNAs process prevented viral multiplication. BLAST analysis identified 13 common siRNA clusters targeting the CP gene. 21-nt siRNA sequences were associated with the 22-nt siRNAs and the scarce 23- and 24-nt molecules in TG-S plants and with most of the observed 22-, 23-, and 24-nt siRNAs in TG-R individuals. These results validate the use of a multi-hot spot silencing vector against PPV and elucidate the molecules by which hairpin-inducing vectors initiate RNAi in vivo.

  2. On the Limitations of Taylor’s Hypothesis in Parker Solar Probe’s Measurements near the Alfvén Critical Point (United States)

    Bourouaine, Sofiane; Perez, Jean C.


    In this Letter, we present an analysis of two-point, two-time correlation functions from high-resolution numerical simulations of Reflection-driven Alfvén Turbulence near the Alfvén critical point r c. The simulations model the turbulence in a prescribed background solar wind model chosen to match observational constraints. This analysis allows us to investigate the temporal decorrelation of solar wind turbulence and the validity of Taylor’s approximation near the heliocentric distance r c, which Parker Solar Probe (PSP) is expected to explore in the coming years. The simulations show that the temporal decay of the Fourier-transformed turbulence decorrelation function is better described by a Gaussian model rather than a pure exponential time decay, and that the decorrelation frequency is almost linear with perpendicular wave number k ⊥ (perpendicular with respect to the background magnetic field {{\\boldsymbol{B}}}0). Based on the simulations, we conclude that Taylor’s approximation cannot be used in this instance to provide a connection between the frequency ω of the time signal (measured in the probe frame) and the wavevector k ⊥ of the fluctuations because the frequency k ⊥ V sc (V sc is the spacecraft speed) near r c is comparable to the estimated decorrelation frequency. However, the use of Taylor’s approximation still leads to the correct spectral indices of the power spectra measured at the spacecraft frame. In this Letter, based on a Gaussian model, we suggest a modified relationship between ω and k ⊥, which might be useful in the interpretation of future PSP measurements.

  3. Approaches for enhancing in situ detection of enterocin genes in thermized milk, and selective isolation of enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium from Baird-Parker agar. (United States)

    Vandera, Elpiniki; Tsirka, Georgia; Kakouri, Athanasia; Koukkou, Anna-Irini; Samelis, John


    Enterococci are naturally selected for growth in thermized ewes'/goats' milk mixtures used for traditional cooked hard cheese processing in Greece. A culture-independent PCR-based approach was applied to detect the presence of enterocin-encoding genes in naturally culture-enriched thermized milk (TM). Portions of TM (63 °C, 30 s) collected from a commercial cheese plant before addition of starters were fermented at 37 °C for 48 h to facilitate growth of indigenous enterococci. The multiple enterocin-producing (m-Ent+) Enterococcus faecium KE82 and the nisin A-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104 served as bacteriocin-positive inocula in separate TM treatments. The PCR results revealed a constant presence of the enterocin A, B and P genes in TM fermented naturally at 37 °C. Eleven out of 42 (26.2%) lactic isolates from the enriched TM cultures without inoculation were Ent+ E. faecium assigned to three biotypes. Biotype I (4 isolates) included single entA possessors, whereas biotype II (5 isolates) and biotype III (2 isolates) were m-Ent+ variants profiling entA-entB-entP and entA-entB genes, respectively. Biotype II displayed the strongest antilisterial activity in vitro. Surprisingly, 85.7% (6/7) of the m-Ent+ E. faecium were selectively isolated from Baird-Parker agar, reflecting their natural resistance to 0.01% tellurite contained in the egg yolk supplement. No cytolysin-positive E. faecalis or other Ent+ Enterococcus spp. were isolated. In conclusion, commercially thermized Greek milk is a natural pool or 'reservoir' of antagonistic Ent+ or m-Ent+ E. faecium strains that can be easily detected and recovered by applying this PCR-based approach to naturally fermented milks or cheese products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid diagnostic detection of plum pox virus in Prunus plants by isothermal AmplifyRP(®) using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. (United States)

    Zhang, Shulu; Ravelonandro, Michel; Russell, Paul; McOwen, Nathan; Briard, Pascal; Bohannon, Seven; Vrient, Albert


    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most destructive viral disease known as plum pox or Sharka disease in stone fruit trees. As an important regulated pathogen, detection of PPV is thus of critical importance to quarantine and eradication of the spreading disease. In this study, the innovative development of two AmplifyRP(®) tests is reported for a rapid isothermal detection of PPV using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. In an AmplifyRP(®) test, all specific recombination and amplification reactions occur at a constant temperature without thermal cycling and the test results are either recorded in real-time with a portable fluorescence reader or displayed using a lateral flow strip contained inside an amplicon detection chamber. The major improvement of this assay is that the entire test from sample preparation to result can be completed in as little as 20min and can be performed easily both in laboratories and in the field. The results from this study demonstrated the ability of the AmplifyRP(®) technique to detect all nine PPV strains (An, C, CR, D, EA, M, Rec, T, or W). Among the economic benefits to pathogen surveys is the higher sensitivity of the AmplifyRP(®) to detect PPV when compared to the conventional ELISA and ImmunoStrip(®) assays. This is the first report describing the use of such an innovative technique to detect rapidly plant viruses affecting perennial crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Plum pox virus accumulates mutations in different genome parts during a long-term maintenance in Prunus host plants and passage in Nicotiana benthamiana. (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Kamencayová, M; Glasa, M; Subr, Z


    Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates of the strain PPV-M prevalently infect peaches under natural conditions in Middle Europe. Comparison of complete genome sequences obtained from subisolates of a PPV-M isolate maintained experimentally over a 6-year period in different Prunus host species and passaged in Nicotiana benthamiana was performed with the aim to highlight the mutations potentially connected with the virus-host adaptation. The results showed that the lowest number of non-silent mutations was accumulated in PPV-M maintained in peach (original host species), approximately two times higher diversity was recorded in plum, apricot and N. benthamiana, indicating the genetic determination of the PPV host preference. The sequence variability of Prunus subisolates was distributed more or less evenly along the PPV genome and no amino acid motif could be outlined as responsible for the host adaptation. In N. benthamiana the mutations were accumulated notably in the P1 and P3 genes indicating their non-essentiality in the infection of this experimental host plant.

  6. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Morabbi Najafabad


    Full Text Available Objectives: Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples. Materials and Methods: Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC, Reducing Power Assay (RPA, Chain Breaking Activity (CBA, and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH,Nitric Oxide (NO,Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide(O2- radicals inhibition. Results: The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977. Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p

  7. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS method with multiple reactions monitoring mode for quantification of vanillin and syringaldehyde in plum brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešević Vele


    Full Text Available An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method with multiple reactions monitoring mode (MRM has been developed and validated for quantification of vanillin and syringaldehyde in plum brandy. The method showed good linearity (0.05 to 10 mgL−1 and low limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ were 11.6 µgL−1 and 38.2 µgL−1 for vanillin, and 12.7 µgL−1 and 42.0 µgL−1 for syringaldehyde, respectively. The overall intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 4.21%, and the overall recovery over 93.0%. The correlation coefficients (R2 of the calibration curves were higher than 0.9999. In order to evaluate if the method is suitable for use as a routine analytical tool, in 31 Serbian plum brandy samples vanillin and syringaldehide were determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172053

  8. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino


    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  9. [Efficacy on hemiplegic spasticity treated with plum blossom needle tapping therapy at the key points and Bobath therapy: a randomized controlled trial]. (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Jianhua; Shi, Yan; Zheng, Liya


    To evaluate the efficacy on hemiplegic spasticity after cerebral infarction treated with plum blossom needle tapping therapy at the key points and Bobath therapy. Eighty patients were collected, in compliance with the inclusive criteria of hemiplegic spasticity after cerebral infarction, and randomized into an observation group and a control group, 40 cases in each one. In the control group, Bobath manipulation therapy was adopted to relieve spasticity and the treatment of 8 weeks was required. In the observation group, on the basis of the treatment as the control group, the tapping therapy with plum blossom needle was applied to the key points, named Jianyu (LI 15), Jianliao (LI 14), Jianzhen (SI 9), Hegu (LI 4), Chengfu (BL 36), Zusanli (ST 36), Xiyangguan (GB 33), etc. The treatment was given for 15 min each time, once a day. Before treatment, after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and Barthel index (BI) were adopted to evaluate the motor function of the extremity and the activity of daily life in the patients of the two groups separately. The modified Ashworth scale was used to evaluate the effect of anti-spasticity. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, FMA: scores and BI scores were all significantly increased as compared with those before treatment in the two groups: (both PBobath therapy effectively relieves hemiplegic spasticity in the patients of cerebral infarction and improves the motor function of extremity and the activity of daily life.

  10. Kinetic analysis on the non-isothermal degradation of plum stone waste by thermogravimetric analysis and integral master-plots method. (United States)

    Ceylan, Selim


    In this study, pyrolysis of plum stone was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in a nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 40 °C min(-1). Pyrolysis characteristics and the thermal-decomposition rate were significantly affected by variation in the heating rate. However, the heating rate slightly affected the total yield of the volatile matters. Activation energy of the pyrolysis reaction was evaluated by model-free methods, Friedman and Kissingere-Akahirae-Sunose. Results of the Master-Plots method indicated that the most probable reaction model function was the nth order reaction model function as f(x) = (1-x) (3.11), A = 8.02x10(12) under a mean activation energy of 150.61 kJ mol(-1). Proximate and ultimate analysis showed that plum stone can be considered as a favourable source for energy production owing to its low moisture and ash content, and high volatile matter ratio and moderate heating value. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Residual determination and risk assessment of buprofezin in plum (Prunus domestica) grown in open-field conditions following the application of three different formulations. (United States)

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Han Sol; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Lee, Young-Jun; Chung, Hyung Suk; Lieu, Truong; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shin, Ho-Chul; Im, Geon-Jae; Hong, Su Myeong; Shim, Jae-Han


    This study was conducted to characterize the residual level and perform a risk assessment on buprofezin formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, and suspension concentrate over various treatment schedules in plum (Prunus domestica). The samples were extracted with an AOAC quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe, 'QuEChERS', method after major modifications. As intrinsic interferences were observed in blank plum samples following dispersive-solid phase extraction (consisting of primary secondary amine and C 18 sorbents), amino cartridges were used for solid-phase extraction. Analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography with diode array detection and confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method showed excellent linearity with determination coefficient (R 2  = 1) and satisfactory recoveries (at two spiking levels, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg) between 90.98 and 94.74% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤8%. The limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) was considerably lower than the maximum residue limit (2 mg/kg) set by the Codex Alimentarius. Absolute residue levels for emulsifiable concentrates were highest, perhaps owing to the dilution rate and adjuvant. Notably, all formulation residues were lower than the maximum residue limit, and safety data proved that the fruits are safe for consumers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Preliminary Valuation of “Y” and “V”-Trellised Canopies for Mechanical Harvesting of Plums, Sweet Cherries and Sour Cherries for the Fresh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabcewicz Jacek


    Full Text Available Plums, sweet cherry, and sour cherry trees were spaced 4.5 m × 1.5 m to be trained to “Y” and “V”-trellising systems for mechanical harvesting, with a canopy contact harvester, attending to obtain fruits meeting the requirements of the fresh fruit market. The applied trellising systems were compared with the standard central leader system at the same spacing. The most of trellised trees grew less vigorously than the standard trees, and after 3 years of training, the trees were suitable for mechanical harvesting with the harvester designed at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice. The trellised trees were able to set as many fruitlets as those grown in the form of central leader and gave a comparable yield, but differences between cultivars were significant. Light interception in the third year after planting was lower for trees of sour cherry and plum growing in the “Y”-20° and “V” in comparison to the trees with central leader. Illumination of trellised canopies at the level of 0.7 and 1.5 m was the most favorable in “V” system when compared to control and “Y” training systems. Cost of construction for the trellising systems of stone fruits calculated per 1 ha was two times higher when compared with the standard system.

  13. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products. (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen


    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to dried plums of „prune‟ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.) and maintenance of normal bowel function (ID 1164, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    . The proposed target population is the general population. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two human intervention studies showed an effect of dried plums on bowel function, that one study with considerable limitations showed an effect of dried plums on stool consistency......, but not on other measures of bowel function, that another study with considerable limitations did not show an effect of dried plums on bowel function when compared to dried apple, and that there is good evidence for plausible mechanisms by which some components of prunes may contribute to the claimed effect...

  15. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic image tiles, Merrimack River and Plum Island Sound, Massachusetts, June 2011 (NODC Accession 0103944) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains both true color (RGB) and infrared (IR) ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping...

  16. 10 Years of Student Questions about the Sun and Solar Physics: Preparing Graduate Students to Work with Parker Solar Probe Data (United States)

    Gross, N. A.; Hughes, W. J.; Wiltberger, M. J.


    The NSF funded CISM Space Weather Summer School is designed for graduate students who are just starting in space physics. It provides comprehensive conceptual background to the field. Insights about student understanding and learning from this summer school can provide valuable information to graduate instructors and graduate student mentors. During the school, students are invited to submit questions at the end of the lecture component each day. The lecturers then take the time to respond to these questions. We have collected over 4000 student questions over the last 15 years. A significant portion of the summer school schedule is devoted to solar physics and solar observations, and the questions submitted reflect this. As researchers prepare to work with graduate students who will analyze the data from the Parker Solar Probe, they should be aware of the sorts of questions these students will have as they start in the field. Some student questions are simply about definitions: - What is a facula/prominence/ribbon structure/arcade? - What is a Type 3 radio burst? - How is a solar flare defined? How is it different from a CME/energetic particle event? - What is the difference between "soft" and "hard" X-rays?Other student questions involve associations and correlations. - Why are solar flares associated with CME's? - Are all magnetic active regions associated with sunspots? - How does a prominence eruption compare to a CME? - Why do energetic particles follow the magnetic field lines but the solar wind does not? - Why are radio burst (F10.7 flux) associated with solar flares (EUV Flux)?Others can be topics of current research. - What is the source of the slow solar wind? - Why is there a double peak in the sunspot number the solar maximum? - Why is the corona hotter than the solar surface. What is the mechanism of coronal heating? The goal of this paper is to identify and categorize these questions for the community so that graduate educators can be aware of them

  17. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  19. Retention of storage quality and post-refrigeration shelf-life extension of plum (Prunus domestica L.) cv. Santa Rosa using combination of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coating and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Wani, Ali M.; Dar, Mohd A.


    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coatings alone and in combination with gamma irradiation was tested for maintaining the storage quality and extending shelf-life of plum. Matured green plums were CMC coated at levels 0.5–1.0% w/v and gamma irradiated at 1.5 kGy. The treated fruit including control was stored under ambient (temperature 25±2 °C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temperature 3±1 °C, RH 80%) conditions. In fruits treated with individual treatments of 1.0% w/v CMC; 1.5 kGy irradiation and combination of 1.0% w/v CMC and 1.5 kGy irradiation, no decay was recorded up to 11, 17 and 21 days of ambient storage. Irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy gave 8 days extension in shelf-life of plum compared to 5 days by 1.0% w/v CMC coating following 45 days of refrigeration. All combinatory treatments of CMC coating and irradiation proved beneficial in maintaining the storage quality as well as delaying the decaying of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% but, combination of CMC at 1.0% w/v and 1.5 kGy irradiation was found significantly (p≤0.05) superior to all other treatments in maintaining the storage quality and delaying the decaying of plum. CMC coating of plums at 1.0% w/v followed by irradiation at 1.5 kGy resulted in chlorophyll retention of 19.4% after 16 days compared to 10% in control after 8 days of ambient storage. Under refrigerated conditions, same treatment gave retention of 67.6% in chlorophyll compared to 10.6% in control after 35 days of storage. The above combinatory treatment resulted in extension of 11 days in shelf-life of plum during post-refrigerated storage at 25±2 °C, RH 70% following 45 days of refrigeration. Based on microbial analysis, irradiation alone at 1.5 kGy and in combination with 1.0% w/v CMC resulted in 2.0 and 1.8 log reduction in yeast and mold count of plum fruit after 20 and 35 days of ambient and refrigerated storage, thereby ensuring consumer safety. - Highlights: • Irradiation and CMC alone at 1.5 k

  20. Improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of date plum, persimmon and mulberry on UVB-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Shin, Jae Young; Fang, Chong Zhou; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of Date Plum, Persimmon and Mulberry (γ-DPME) on UVB induced skin damage. The samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 10 kGy. γ-DPME treatment tended to decrease UVB-induced immune cell infiltration and erthyderma index than the groups treated with non-gamma-irradiated DPME (n-DPME) and L-ascobic acid (AA). In addition, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased skin thickness, melanin index and mast cell infiltration in UVB-irradiated skin. Moreover, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased the compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and immune cell infiltration than n-DPME group. These results show that gamma irradiation can be used to increase the physiological activities of DPME.

  1. Modificação da atmosfera na qualidade pós-colheita de ameixas cv. Reubennel Modified atmosphere on postharvest quality of plums cv. Reubennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim


    Full Text Available Ameixas, de modo geral, têm curto período de conservação pós-colheita, havendo necessidade de otimizar as condições de colheita e de armazenamento. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes modificadores de atmosfera, durante o armazenamento refrigerado, na qualidade pós-colheita de ameixas cv. Reubennel. Frutas no estádio de maturação meio-maduro foram submetidas aos seguintes modificadores de atmosfera: filmes de polietileno de 12,5 e 15µm de espessura e cera à base de carnaúba e avaliadas após 10; 20; 30 e 40 dias de armazenamento a 0ºC e UR de 90-95%. Avaliaram-se a perda de massa, cor, firmeza da polpa, pH, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação SS/AT, incidência de podridões, escurecimento interno e características sensoriais. Essas avaliações foram realizadas 3 dias após a retirada das frutas da câmara fria. Verificou-se que a cera à base de carnaúba GARFRESH N (BL9,5, sem diluição, e filmes de polietileno de 12,5 e 15µm reduziram a perda de massa, porém são impróprios para a modificação da atmosfera, em ameixas cv. Reubennel durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Ameixas cv. Reubennel mantêm a qualidade quando armazenadas durante 30 dias a 0ºC sem atmosfera modificada.Plums quickly loose postharvest quality, which makes imperative to optimize harvest and storage conditions. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of various atmosphere modifiers on the postharvest quality of cold storage plums, cv. Reubennel. Semi-mature fruits were stored under the following atmosphere modifiers conditions: polyethylene films 12,5 or 15µm of thickness; or carnauba wax. After submitted to these conditions the fruits were stored for 10, 20, 30 and 40 days in a cold room at 0ºC and 90-95% RH. Three days after taken out from the cold storage, the fruits were evaluated about: weight loss; color; firmness; pH; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; SS/TA ratio; incidence of

  2. Role of the 25-26 nt siRNA in the resistance of transgenic Prunus domestica graft inoculated with plum pox virus. (United States)

    Kundu, Jiban Kumar; Briard, Pascal; Hily, Jean Michel; Ravelonandro, Michel; Scorza, Ralph


    The reaction of a genetically engineered plum clone (C5) resistant to plum pox virus (PPV) by graft inoculation with the virus was evaluated. The resistance in this clone has been demonstrated to be mediated through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). A single C5 plant out of 30 plants inoculated with PPV M strain by double chip-budding showed mild diffuse mosaic 'Sharka' symptom at the bottom section of the scion. The upper leaves of this PPV-infected C5 plant remained symptomless and the virus was not detected in them by either DAS-ELISA or RT-PCR. An RNA silencing associated small interfering RNA duplex, siRNA (21-26 nt), was detected in non-inoculated C5 plants and in the portions of inoculated C5 plant in which PPV could not be detected. In the PPV-infected portion of the C5 plant and in C6 PPV susceptible plants only the approximately 21-22 nt siRNAs was detected. Cytosine-methylation was confirmed in C5 plants both uninfected and showing PPV symptoms. The 25-26 nt siRNA normally present in C5 was absent in PPV-infected C5 tissues confirming the critical role of this siRNA in the resistance of clone C5 to PPV infection. We also show that this PPV infection was limited and transient. It was only detected in one plant at one of four post-dormancy sampling dates and did not appear to affect the overall PPV resistance of the C5 clone.

  3. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  4. Solar-wind predictions for the Parker Solar Probe orbit. Near-Sun extrapolations derived from an empirical solar-wind model based on Helios and OMNI observations (United States)

    Venzmer, M. S.; Bothmer, V.


    Context. The Parker Solar Probe (PSP; formerly Solar Probe Plus) mission will be humanitys first in situ exploration of the solar corona with closest perihelia at 9.86 solar radii (R⊙) distance to the Sun. It will help answer hitherto unresolved questions on the heating of the solar corona and the source and acceleration of the solar wind and solar energetic particles. The scope of this study is to model the solar-wind environment for PSPs unprecedented distances in its prime mission phase during the years 2018 to 2025. The study is performed within the Coronagraphic German And US SolarProbePlus Survey (CGAUSS) which is the German contribution to the PSP mission as part of the Wide-field Imager for Solar PRobe. Aim. We present an empirical solar-wind model for the inner heliosphere which is derived from OMNI and Helios data. The German-US space probes Helios 1 and Helios 2 flew in the 1970s and observed solar wind in the ecliptic within heliocentric distances of 0.29 au to 0.98 au. The OMNI database consists of multi-spacecraft intercalibrated in situ data obtained near 1 au over more than five solar cycles. The international sunspot number (SSN) and its predictions are used to derive dependencies of the major solar-wind parameters on solar activity and to forecast their properties for the PSP mission. Methods: The frequency distributions for the solar-wind key parameters, magnetic field strength, proton velocity, density, and temperature, are represented by lognormal functions. In addition, we consider the velocity distributions bi-componental shape, consisting of a slower and a faster part. Functional relations to solar activity are compiled with use of the OMNI data by correlating and fitting the frequency distributions with the SSN. Further, based on the combined data set from both Helios probes, the parameters frequency distributions are fitted with respect to solar distance to obtain power law dependencies. Thus an empirical solar-wind model for the inner

  5. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon life history investigations (United States)

    Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad; Hemingway, Rulon J.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.


    Predation by nonnative fishes is one factor that has been implicated in the decline of juvenile salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Impoundment of much of the Snake and Columbia rivers has altered food webs and created habitat favorable for species such as Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu. Smallmouth Bass are common throughout the Columbia River basin and have become the most abundant predator in lower Snake River reservoirs (Zimmerman and Parker 1995). This is a concern for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (hereafter, subyearlings) that may be particularly vulnerable due to their relatively small size and because their main-stem rearing habitats often overlap or are in close proximity to habitats used by Smallmouth Bass (Curet 1993; Tabor et al. 1993). Concern over juvenile salmon predation spawned a number of large-scale studies to quantify its effect in the late 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s (Poe et al. 1991; Rieman et al. 1991; Vigg et al. 1991; Fritts and Pearsons 2004; Naughton et al. 2004). Smallmouth Bass predation represented 9% of total salmon consumption by predatory fishes in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River, from 1983 through 1986 (Rieman et al. 1991). In transitional habitat between the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River and McNary Reservoir, juvenile salmon (presumably subyearlings) were found in 65% of Smallmouth Bass (>200 mm) stomachs and comprised 59% of the diet by weight (Tabor et al. 1993). Within Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River, Naughton et al. (2004) showed that monthly consumption (based on weight) ranged from 5% in the upper reaches of the reservoir to 11% in the forebay. However, studies in the Snake River were conducted soon after Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (NMFS 1992). During this time, Fall Chinook Salmon abundance was at an historic low, which may explain why consumption rates were relatively low compared to those from studies conducted in the

  6. River Corridor Easements (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  7. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K


    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  8. A GRASS GIS application for vertical sorting of sediments analysis in River Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Minelli


    Full Text Available The extreme versatility in different research fields of GRASS GIS is well known. A tool for the vertical sorting of sediments in river dynamics analysis is illustrated in this work.In particular, a GRASS GIS python module has been written which implements a forecasting sorting model by Blom&Parker (2006 to analyze river bed composition’s evolution in depth in terms of grainsize.The module takes a DEM and information relative to the bed load transport composition as input. It works in two different and consecutive phases: the first one uses the GRASS capabilities in analyzing geometrical features of the river bed along a chosen river reach, the second phase is the "numerical" one and implements the forecasting model itself, then executes statistical analyses and draws graphs, by the means of matplotlib library.Moreover, a specific procedure for the import of a laser scanner cloud of points is implemented, in case the raster DEM map is not available.At the moment, the module has been applied using flumes data from Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (Minneapolis, MN and some first results have been obtained, but the "testing" phase on other flume’s data is still in progress. Moreover the module has been written for GRASS 65 on a Ubuntu Linux machine, even if the debugging of a GRASS 64, Windowsversion, is also in progress.The final aim of this work is the application of the model on natural rivers, but there are still some drawbacks. First of all the need of a high resolution DEM in input, secondly the number and type of data in input (for example the bed load composition in volume fraction per each size considered which is not easily obtainable, so the best solution is represented by testing the model on a well instrumented river reach to export in future the forecasting method to un-instrumented reaches.

  9. Diverse amino acid changes at specific positions in the N-terminal region of the coat protein allow Plum pox virus to adapt to new hosts. (United States)

    Carbonell, Alberto; Maliogka, Varvara I; Pérez, José de Jesús; Salvador, Beatriz; León, David San; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen


    Plum pox virus (PPV)-D and PPV-R are two isolates from strain D of PPV that differ in host specificity. Previous analyses of chimeras originating from PPV-R and PPV-D suggested that the N terminus of the coat protein (CP) includes host-specific pathogenicity determinants. Here, these determinants were mapped precisely by analyzing the infectivity in herbaceous and woody species of chimeras containing a fragment of the 3' region of PPV-D (including the region coding for the CP) in a PPV-R backbone. These chimeras were not infectious in Prunus persica, but systemically infected Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana when specific amino acids were modified or deleted in a short 30-amino-acid region of the N terminus of the CP. Most of these mutations did not reduce PPV fitness in Prunus spp. although others impaired systemic infection in this host. We propose a model in which the N terminus of the CP, highly relevant for virus systemic movement, is targeted by a host defense mechanism in Nicotiana spp. Mutations in this short region allow PPV to overcome the defense response in this host but can compromise the efficiency of PPV systemic movement in other hosts such as Prunus spp.

  10. The Cucumber vein yellowing virus silencing suppressor P1b can functionally replace HCPro in Plum pox virus infection in a host-specific manner. (United States)

    Carbonell, Alberto; Dujovny, Gabriela; García, Juan Antonio; Valli, Adrian


    Plant viruses of the genera Potyvirus and Ipomovirus (Potyviridae family) use unrelated RNA silencing suppressors (RSS) to counteract antiviral RNA silencing responses. HCPro is the RSS of Potyvirus spp., and its activity is enhanced by the upstream P1 protein. Distinctively, the ipomovirus Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) lacks HCPro but contains two P1 copies in tandem (P1aP1b), the second of which functions as RSS. Using chimeras based on the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), we found that P1b can functionally replace HCPro in potyviral infections of Nicotiana plants. Interestingly, P1a, the CVYV protein homologous to potyviral P1, disrupted the silencing suppression activity of P1b and reduced the infection efficiency of PPV in Nicotiana benthamiana. Testing the influence of RSS in host specificity, we found that a P1b-expressing chimera poorly infected PPV's natural host, Prunus persica. Conversely, P1b conferred on PPV chimeras the ability to replicate locally in cucumber, CVYV's natural host. The deleterious effect of P1a on PPV infection is host dependent, because the P1aP1b-expressing PPV chimera accumulated in cucumber to higher levels than PPV expressing P1b alone. These results demonstrate that a potyvirus can use different RSS, and that particular RSS and upstream P1-like proteins contribute to defining the virus host range.

  11. Transient expression of the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein using a plum pox virus-based vector in Nicotiana benthamiana. (United States)

    Kamencayová, M; Košík, I; Hunková, J; Subr, Z W


    PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus (IAV) was cloned in a plum pox virus (PPV) genome-based vector and attempts to express it in biolistically transfected Nicotiana benthamiana plants were performed. The vector-insert construct replicated in infected plants properly and was stable during repeated passage by mechanical inoculation, as demonstrated by disease symptoms and immunoblot detection of PPV capsid protein, while PB1-F2-specific band was more faint. We showed that it was due its low solubility. Modification of sample preparation (denaturation/solubilization preceding the centrifugation of cell debris) led to substantial signal enhancement. Maximal level of PB1-F2 expression in plants was observed 12 days post inoculation (dpi). Only 1% SDS properly solubilized the protein, other detergents were much less efficient. Solubilization with 8M urea released approximately 50% of PB1-F2 from the plant tissues, thus the treatment with this removable chaotropic agent may be a good starting point for the purification of the protein for eventual functional studies in the future.

  12. Application of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil as Vapor on Postharvest Storage of Plum Fruit cv. ‘Golden Drop’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra FAKHAR


    Full Text Available Increased interest in theuse of natural compounds instead of chemicals is due to concerns about the effect of synthetic ingredients on humans’ health and over environment. Therefore, in this study essential oil from Ocimum basilicum as a natural and safe compound, was applied at three levels (100, 200 and 300 μl/l as vapor and its effects on postharvest quality and storage life of ‘Golden Drop’ plums was evaluated. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at +1 °C and 80-85% relative humidity for 42 days. During the storage period, samplings were carried out every week and to simulate market condition, they were kept at room temperate for 24 h. Then some of the qualitative and quantitative traits, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants, as well as color (L*,  hue angle were measured. Results showed that the basil essential oil contributed to a better maintenance of

  13. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p body strength. Body composition and BMD improvements were not observed. TRAP-5b decreased in the RT group (p body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation.

  14. A plant small polypeptide is a novel component of DNA-binding protein phosphatase 1-mediated resistance to plum pox virus in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Castelló, María José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Navarrete-Gómez, Marisa; Daniel, Jacques; Granot, David; Vera, Pablo


    DNA-binding protein phosphatases (DBPs) have been identified as a novel class of plant-specific regulatory factors playing a role in plant-virus interactions. NtDBP1 from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was shown to participate in transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to virus infection in compatible interactions, and AtDBP1, its closest relative in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has recently been found to mediate susceptibility to potyvirus, one of the most speciose taxa of plant viruses. Here, we report on the identification of a novel family of highly conserved small polypeptides that interact with DBP1 proteins both in tobacco and Arabidopsis, which we have designated DBP-interacting protein 2 (DIP2). The interaction of AtDIP2 with AtDBP1 was demonstrated in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and AtDIP2 was shown to functionally interfere with AtDBP1 in yeast. Furthermore, reducing AtDIP2 gene expression leads to increased susceptibility to the potyvirus Plum pox virus and to a lesser extent also to Turnip mosaic virus, whereas overexpression results in enhanced resistance. Therefore, we describe a novel family of conserved small polypeptides in plants and identify AtDIP2 as a novel host factor contributing to resistance to potyvirus in Arabidopsis.

  15. Effect of management (organic vs conventional) on volatile profiles of six plum cultivars (Prunus salicina Lindl.). A chemometric approach for varietal classification and determination of potential markers. (United States)

    Cuevas, F J; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Arroyo, F; Daza, A; Ruiz-Moreno, M J


    The volatile profiles of six plum cultivars ('Laetitia', 'Primetime', 'Sapphire', 'Showtime', 'Songold' and 'Souvenir') produced under two management systems (conventional and organic) and harvested in two consecutive years were obtained by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Twenty-five metabolites were determined, five of which (pentanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octanol, eucalyptol and 2-pentylfuran) are reported for the first time in Prunus salicina Lindl. Hexanal stood out as a major volatile compound affected by the management system. In addition, partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) achieved an effective classification of genotypes based on their volatile profiles. A high classification accuracy model was obtained with a sensitivity of 97.9% and a specificity of 99.6%. Furthermore, the application of a dual criterion, based on a method of variable selection, VIP (variable importance in projection) and the results of a univariate analysis (ANOVA), allowed the identification of potential volatile markers in 'Primetime', 'Showtime' and 'Souvenir' genotypes (cultivars not characterised to date). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. From 32 ounces to zero: a medical geographic study of dispensing a cultivated batch of "plum" cannabis flowers to medical marijuana patients in Washington State. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Zumbrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Sullivan, Mark; Mayer, Jonathan D


    The medicinal use of cannabis is a growing phenomenon in the U.S. predicated on the success of overcoming specific spatial challenges and establishing particular human-environment relationships. This article takes a medical geographic "snapshot" of an urban site in Washington State where qualifying chronically ill and debilitated patients are delivered locally produced botanical cannabis for medical use. Using interview, survey, and observation, this medical geographic research project collected information on the social space of the particular delivery site and tracked the production cost, reach, and health value of a 32-ounce batch of strain-specific medical cannabis named "Plum" dispensed over a four-day period. A convenience sample of 37 qualifying patients delivered this batch of cannabis botanical medicine was recruited and prospectively studied with survey instruments. Results provide insight into patients' self-rated health, human-plant relationships, and travel-to-clinic distances. An overall systematic geographic understanding of the medical cannabis delivery system gives a grounded understanding of the lengths that patients and care providers go, despite multiple hurdles, to receive and deliver treatment with botanical cannabis that relieves diverse symptoms and improves health-related quality-of-life.

  17. Numerical model of the lowermost Mississippi River as an alluvial-bedrock reach: preliminary results (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Mohrig, D. C.; Parker, G.


    Recent field studies reveal that the river bed of the Lower Mississippi River is characterized by a transition from alluvium (upstream) to bedrock (downstream). In particular, in the downstream 250 km of the river, fields of actively migrating bedforms alternate with deep zones where a consolidated substratum is exposed. Here we present a first version of a one-dimensional numerical model able to capture the alluvial-bedrock transition in the lowermost Mississippi River, defined herein as the 500-km reach between the Old River Control Structure and the Gulf of Mexico. The flow is assumed to be steady, and the cross-section is divided in two regions, the river channel and the floodplain. The streamwise variation of channel and floodplain geometry is described with synthetic relations derived from field observations. Flow resistance in the river channel is computed with the formulation for low-slope, large sand bed rivers due to Wright and Parker, while a Chezy-type formulation is implemented on the floodplain. Sediment is modeled in terms of bed material and wash load. Suspended load is computed with the Wright-Parker formulation. This treatment allows either uniform sediment or a mixture of different grain sizes, and accounts for stratification effects. Bedload transport rates are estimated with the relation for sediment mixtures of Ashida and Michiue. Previous work documents reasonable agreement between these load relations and field measurements. Washload is routed through the system solving the equation of mass conservation of sediment in suspension in the water column. The gradual transition from the alluvial reach to the bedrock reach is modeled in terms of a "mushy" layer of specified thickness overlying the non-erodible substrate. In the case of a fully alluvial reach, the channel bed elevation is above this mushy layer, while in the case of partial alluvial cover of the substratum, the channel bed elevation is within the mushy layer. Variations in base

  18. Allegheny County Major Rivers (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  19. Flowing with Rivers (United States)

    Anderson, Heather


    This article describes a lesson in which students compare how artists have depicted rivers in paintings, using different styles, compositions, subject matter, colors, and techniques. They create a watercolor landscape that includes a river. Students can learn about rivers by studying them on site, through environmental study, and through works of…

  20. Plum Pox Virus 6K1 Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Targets the Viral Replication Complex at the Early Stage of Infection. (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming


    The potyviral RNA genome encodes two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed by three viral protease domains into 11 mature proteins. Extensive molecular studies have identified functions for the majority of the viral proteins. For example, 6K2, one of the two smallest potyviral proteins, is an integral membrane protein and induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-originated replication vesicles that target the chloroplast for robust viral replication. However, the functional role of 6K1, the other smallest protein, remains uncharacterized. In this study, we developed a series of recombinant full-length viral cDNA clones derived from a Canadian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate. We found that deletion of any of the short motifs of 6K1 (each of which ranged from 5 to 13 amino acids), most of the 6K1 sequence (but with the conserved sequence of the cleavage sites being retained), or all of the 6K1 sequence in the PPV infectious clone abolished viral replication. The trans expression of 6K1 or the cis expression of a dislocated 6K1 failed to rescue the loss-of-replication phenotype, suggesting the temporal and spatial requirement of 6K1 for viral replication. Disruption of the N- or C-terminal cleavage site of 6K1, which prevented the release of 6K1 from the polyprotein, either partially or completely inhibited viral replication, suggesting the functional importance of the mature 6K1. We further found that green fluorescent protein-tagged 6K1 formed punctate inclusions at the viral early infection stage and colocalized with chloroplast-bound viral replicase elements 6K2 and NIb. Taken together, our results suggest that 6K1 is required for viral replication and is an important viral element of the viral replication complex at the early infection stage. Potyviruses account for more than 30% of known plant viruses and consist of many agriculturally important viruses. The genomes of potyviruses encode two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into 11 mature

  1. An Evidence-Based Approach to Plum Pox Virus Detection by DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR in Dormant Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Olmos


    Full Text Available An evidence-based approach, such as those developed in clinical and veterinary medicine, was applied to the detection of Plum pox virus (PPV during the dormant period. A standardized methodology was used for the calculation of parameters of the operational capacity of DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR in wintertime. These methods are routinely handled to test the sanitary status of plants in national or international trading and in those cases concerning export-import of plant materials. Diagnosis often has to be performed during the dormant period, when plant material is commercialized. Some guidelines to interpret diagnostic results of wintertime are provided in an attempt to minimize risks associated with the methods and over-reliance on the binary outcome of a single assay. In order to evaluate if a complementary test increased the confidence of PPV diagnosis when discordant results between DASI-ELISA and RT-PCR are obtained, NASBA-FH also was included. Likelihood ratios of each method were estimated based on the sensitivity and specificity obtained in wintertime. Subsequently, a Bayesian approach was performed to calculate post-test probability of PPV infection in spring. Results of evidence-based approach show that different PPV prevalences require different screening tests. Thus, at very low PPV prevalence levels DASI-ELISA should be used as the election method, whilst at the highest PPV prevalence levels RT-PCR should be performed. NASBA-FH could be used at medium prevalences to clarify discordances between DASIELISA and RT-PCR.

  2. Virus variants with differences in the P1 protein coexist in a Plum pox virus population and display particular host-dependent pathogenicity features. (United States)

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Salvador, Beatriz; Carbonell, Alberto; Sáenz, Pilar; León, David San; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Delgadillo, Ma Otilia; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen


    Subisolates segregated from an M-type Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate, PPV-PS, differ widely in pathogenicity despite their high degree of sequence similarity. A single amino acid substitution, K109E, in the helper component proteinase (HCPro) protein of PPV caused a significant enhancement of symptom severity in herbaceous hosts, and notably modified virus infectivity in peach seedlings. The presence of this substitution in certain subisolates that induced mild symptoms in herbaceous hosts and did not infect peach seedlings suggested the existence of uncharacterized attenuating factors in these subisolates. In this study, we show that two amino acid changes in the P1 protein are specifically associated with the mild pathogenicity exhibited by some PS subisolates. Site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that both substitutions, W29R and V139E, but especially W29R, resulted in lower levels of virus accumulation and symptom severity in a woody host, Prunus persica. Furthermore, when W29R and V139E mutations were expressed concomitantly, PPV infectivity was completely abolished in this host. In contrast, the V139E substitution, but not W29R, was found to be responsible for symptom attenuation in herbaceous hosts. Deep sequencing analysis demonstrated that the W29R and V139E heterogeneities already existed in the original PPV-PS isolate before its segregation in different subisolates by local lesion cloning. These results highlight the potential complexity of potyviral populations and the relevance of the P1 protein of potyviruses in pathogenesis and viral adaptation to the host. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  3. Genome Sequence Analysis of New Isolates of the Winona Strain of Plum pox virus and the First Definitive Evidence of Intrastrain Recombination Events. (United States)

    James, Delano; Sanderson, Dan; Varga, Aniko; Sheveleva, Anna; Chirkov, Sergei


    Plum pox virus (PPV) is genetically diverse with nine different strains identified. Mutations, indel events, and interstrain recombination events are known to contribute to the genetic diversity of PPV. This is the first report of intrastrain recombination events that contribute to PPV's genetic diversity. Fourteen isolates of the PPV strain Winona (W) were analyzed including nine new strain W isolates sequenced completely in this study. Isolates of other strains of PPV with more than one isolate with the complete genome sequence available in GenBank were included also in this study for comparison and analysis. Five intrastrain recombination events were detected among the PPV W isolates, one among PPV C strain isolates, and one among PPV M strain isolates. Four (29%) of the PPV W isolates analyzed are recombinants; one of which (P2-1) is a mosaic, with three recombination events identified. A new interstrain recombinant event was identified between a strain M isolate and a strain Rec isolate, a known recombinant. In silico recombination studies and pairwise distance analyses of PPV strain D isolates indicate that a threshold of genetic diversity exists for the detectability of recombination events, in the range of approximately 0.78×10(-2) to 1.33×10(-2) mean pairwise distance. RDP4 analyses indicate that in the case of PPV Rec isolates there may be a recombinant breakpoint distinct from the obvious transition point of strain sequences. Evidence was obtained that indicates that the frequency of PPV recombination is underestimated, which may be true for other RNA viruses where low genetic diversity exists.

  4. An efficient viral vector for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees and its induced resistance to Plum pox virus via silencing of a host factor gene. (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming


    RNA silencing is a powerful technology for molecular characterization of gene functions in plants. A commonly used approach to the induction of RNA silencing is through genetic transformation. A potent alternative is to use a modified viral vector for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to degrade RNA molecules sharing similar nucleotide sequence. Unfortunately, genomic studies in many allogamous woody perennials such as peach are severely hindered because they have a long juvenile period and are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. Here, we report the development of a viral vector derived from Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), a widespread fruit tree virus that is endemic in all Prunus fruit production countries and regions in the world. We show that the modified PNRSV vector, harbouring the sense-orientated target gene sequence of 100-200 bp in length in genomic RNA3, could efficiently trigger the silencing of a transgene or an endogenous gene in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. We further demonstrate that the PNRSV-based vector could be manipulated to silence endogenous genes in peach such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E isoform (eIF(iso)4E), a host factor of many potyviruses including Plum pox virus (PPV). Moreover, the eIF(iso)4E-knocked down peach plants were resistant to PPV. This work opens a potential avenue for the control of virus diseases in perennial trees via viral vector-mediated silencing of host factors, and the PNRSV vector may serve as a powerful molecular tool for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Salicylic acid-mediated and RNA-silencing defense mechanisms cooperate in the restriction of systemic spread of plum pox virus in tobacco. (United States)

    Alamillo, Josefa M; Saénz, Pilar; García, Juan Antonio


    Plum pox virus (PPV) is able to replicate in inoculated leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, but is defective in systemic movement in this host. However, PPV produces a systemic infection in transgenic tobacco expressing the silencing suppressor P1/HC-Pro from tobacco etch virus (TEV). In this work we show that PPV is able to move to upper non-inoculated leaves of tobacco plants expressing bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) that degrades salicylic acid (SA). Replication and accumulation of PPV is higher in the locally infected leaves of plants deficient in SA or expressing TEV P1/HC-Pro silencing suppressor. Accumulation of viral derived small RNAs was reduced in the NahG transgenic plants, suggesting that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco. Besides, expression of SA-mediated defense transcripts, such as those of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins PR-1 and PR-2 or alternative oxidase-1, as well as that of the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NtRDR1, is induced in response to PPV infection, and the expression patterns of these defense transcripts are altered in the TEV P1/HC-Pro transgenic plants. Long-distance movement of PPV is highly enhanced in NahG x P1/HC-Pro double-transgenic plants and systemic symptoms in these plants reveal that the expression of an RNA-silencing suppressor and the lack of SA produce additive but distinct effects. Our results suggest that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco, and that silencing suppressors, such as P1/HC-Pro, also alter the SA-mediated defense. Both an RNA-silencing and an SA-mediated defense mechanism could act together to limit PPV infection.

  6. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller Webb Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi


    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar “Garrigues” onto the “GF305” peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting “Garrigues” onto “GF305” prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ and the gibberellins GA3 and GA4; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, and jasmonic acid (JA. PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA3 and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting “Garrigues” almond onto the PPV-inoculated “GF305” peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA3 and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR, which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M isolates.

  7. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch). (United States)

    Dehkordi, Azam Nikbakht; Rubio, Manuel; Babaeian, Nadali; Albacete, Alfonso; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro


    Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar "Garrigues" onto the "GF305" peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting "Garrigues" onto "GF305" prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resistance is constitutive and not induced by the virus. To unravel the phytohormone signaling of this mechanism, we analyzed the following phytohormones belonging to the principal hormone classes: the growth-related phytohormones cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) and the gibberellins GA₃ and GA₄; and the stress-related phytohormones ethylene acid precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA). PPV inoculation produced a significant increase in GA₃ and ABA in peach, and these imbalances were related to the presence of chlorosis symptoms. However, grafting "Garrigues" almond onto the PPV-inoculated "GF305" peach produced the opposite effect, reducing GA₃ and ABA contents in parallel to the elimination of symptoms. Our results showed the significant implication of SA in this induced resistance in peach with an additional effect on tZ and JA concentrations. This SA-induced resistance based in the decrease in symptoms seems to be different from Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR), which are based in other reactions producing necrosis. Further studies are necessary, however, to validate these results against PPV-D isolates in the more aggressive Marcus-type (PPV-M) isolates.

  8. River basin administration (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  9. Operation of river systems. The Otra river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, A.; Vaskinn, K.A.; Wathne, M.; Heggenes, J.; Saltveit, S.J.


    The purpose of the project described in this report was to prepare an operative tool for making decisions about the operation of the power system on the river Otra (Norway) with regard to how this operation might affect the various users of the river system. Above all this affects fish, outdoor life and esthetic values. The connection between water quality and volume of discharge has been examined in a sub project. How suitable parts of the river are as habitats for trout has been simulated on a computer. From field investigation it is concluded that near the Steinfoss power station the physical conditions for trout depend on the operation of the river system. Outdoor life is not much affected downstream Vikeland. 11 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  10. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River... held over certain waters of the Patuxent River adjacent to Patuxent River, Maryland from September 1...

  11. Resistance to Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is associated with down-regulation of two MATHd genes. (United States)

    Zuriaga, Elena; Romero, Carlos; Blanca, Jose Miguel; Badenes, Maria Luisa


    Plum pox virus (PPV), causing Sharka disease, is one of the main limiting factors for Prunus production worldwide. In apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) the major PPV resistance locus (PPVres), comprising ~ 196 kb, has been mapped to the upper part of linkage group 1. Within the PPVres, 68 genomic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance were identified within 23 predicted transcripts according to peach genome annotation. Taking into account the predicted functions inferred from sequence homology, some members of a cluster of meprin and TRAF-C homology domain (MATHd)-containing genes were pointed as PPV resistance candidate genes. Here, we have characterized the global apricot transcriptome response to PPV-D infection identifying six PPVres locus genes (ParP-1 to ParP-6) differentially expressed in resistant/susceptible cultivars. Two of them (ParP-3 and ParP-4), that encode MATHd proteins, appear clearly down-regulated in resistant cultivars, as confirmed by qRT-PCR. Concurrently, variant calling was performed using whole-genome sequencing data of 24 apricot cultivars (10 PPV-resistant and 14 PPV-susceptible) and 2 wild relatives (PPV-susceptible). ParP-3 and ParP-4, named as Prunus armeniaca PPVres MATHd-containing genes (ParPMC), are the only 2 genes having allelic variants linked in coupling to PPV resistance. ParPMC1 has 1 nsSNP, while ParPMC2 has 15 variants, including a 5-bp deletion within the second exon that produces a frameshift mutation. ParPMC1 and ParPMC2 are adjacent and highly homologous (87.5% identity) suggesting they are paralogs originated from a tandem duplication. Cultivars carrying the ParPMC2 resistant (mutated) allele show lack of expression in both ParPMC2 and especially ParPMC1. Accordingly, we hypothesize that ParPMC2 is a pseudogene that mediates down-regulation of its functional paralog ParPMC1 by silencing. As a whole, results strongly support ParPMC1 and/or ParPMC2 as host susceptibility genes required for PPV infection which

  12. Quantifying the impact of daily and seasonal variation in sap pH on xylem dissolved inorganic carbon estimates in plum trees. (United States)

    Erda, F G; Bloemen, J; Steppe, K


    In studies on internal CO2 transport, average xylem sap pH (pH(x)) is one of the factors used for calculation of the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the xylem sap ([CO2 *]). Lack of detailed pH(x) measurements at high temporal resolution could be a potential source of error when evaluating [CO2*] dynamics. In this experiment, we performed continuous measurements of CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and stem temperature (T(stem)), complemented with pH(x) measurements at 30-min intervals during the day at various stages of the growing season (Day of the Year (DOY): 86 (late winter), 128 (mid-spring) and 155 (early summer)) on a plum tree (Prunus domestica L. cv. Reine Claude d'Oullins). We used the recorded pH(x) to calculate [CO2*] based on T(stem) and the corresponding measured [CO2]. No statistically significant difference was found between mean [CO2*] calculated with instantaneous pH(x) and daily average pH(x). However, using an average pH(x) value from a different part of the growing season than the measurements of [CO2] and T(stem) to estimate [CO2*] led to a statistically significant error. The error varied between 3.25 ± 0.01% under-estimation and 3.97 ± 0.01% over-estimation, relative to the true [CO2*] data. Measured pH(x) did not show a significant daily variation, unlike [CO2], which increased during the day and declined at night. As the growing season progressed, daily average [CO2] (3.4%, 5.3%, 7.4%) increased and average pH(x) (5.43, 5.29, 5.20) decreased. Increase in [CO2] will increase its solubility in xylem sap according to Henry's law, and the dissociation of [CO2*] will negatively affect pH(x). Our results are the first quantifying the error in [CO2*] due to the interaction between [CO2] and pH(x) on a seasonal time scale. We found significant changes in pH(x) across the growing season, but overall the effect on the calculation of [CO2*] remained within an error range of 4%. However, it is possible that the error could be more

  13. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA under the control of the rolC promoter confers systemic disease resistance to plum pox virus without preventing local infection. (United States)

    Pandolfini, Tiziana; Molesini, Barbara; Avesani, Linda; Spena, Angelo; Polverari, Annalisa


    Homology-dependent selective degradation of RNA, or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), is involved in several biological phenomena, including adaptative defense mechanisms against plant viruses. Small interfering RNAs mediate the selective degradation of target RNA by guiding a multicomponent RNAse. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNAs within two complementary regions separated by an intron elicits PTGS with high efficiency. Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka disease in Drupaceae, although it can also be transmitted to herbaceous species (e.g. Nicotiana benthamiana). Once inside the plant, PPV is transmitted via plasmodesmata from cell to cell, and at longer distances, via phloem. The rolC promoter drives expression in phloem cells. RolC expression is absent in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. The aim of the present study was to confer systemic disease resistance without preventing local viral infection. In the ihprolC-PP197 gene (intron hair pin rolC PPV 197), a 197 bp sequence homologous to the PPV RNA genome (from base 134 to 330) was placed as two inverted repeats separated by the DNA sequence of the rolA intron. This hairpin construct is under the control of the rolC promoter.N. benthamiana plants transgenic for the ihprolC-PP197 gene contain siRNAs homologous to the 197 bp sequence. The transgenic progeny of ihprolC-PP197 plants are resistant to PPV systemic infection. Local infection is unaffected. Most (80%) transgenic plants are virus free and symptomless. Some plants (20%) contain virus in uninoculated apical leaves; however they show only mild symptoms of leaf mottling. PPV systemic resistance cosegregates with the ihprolC-PP197 transgene and was observed in progeny plants of all independent transgenic lines analyzed. SiRNAs of 23-25 nt homologous to the PPV sequence used in the ihprolC-PP197 construct were detected in transgenic plants before and after inoculation. Transitivity of siRNAs was observed in

  14. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA under the control of the rolC promoter confers systemic disease resistance to plum pox virus without preventing local infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spena Angelo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homology-dependent selective degradation of RNA, or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS, is involved in several biological phenomena, including adaptative defense mechanisms against plant viruses. Small interfering RNAs mediate the selective degradation of target RNA by guiding a multicomponent RNAse. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNAs within two complementary regions separated by an intron elicits PTGS with high efficiency. Plum pox virus (PPV is the etiological agent of sharka disease in Drupaceae, although it can also be transmitted to herbaceous species (e.g. Nicotiana benthamiana. Once inside the plant, PPV is transmitted via plasmodesmata from cell to cell, and at longer distances, via phloem. The rolC promoter drives expression in phloem cells. RolC expression is absent in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. The aim of the present study was to confer systemic disease resistance without preventing local viral infection. Results In the ihprolC-PP197 gene (intron hair pin rolC PPV 197, a 197 bp sequence homologous to the PPV RNA genome (from base 134 to 330 was placed as two inverted repeats separated by the DNA sequence of the rolA intron. This hairpin construct is under the control of the rolC promoter.N. benthamiana plants transgenic for the ihprolC-PP197 gene contain siRNAs homologous to the 197 bp sequence. The transgenic progeny of ihprolC-PP197 plants are resistant to PPV systemic infection. Local infection is unaffected. Most (80% transgenic plants are virus free and symptomless. Some plants (20% contain virus in uninoculated apical leaves; however they show only mild symptoms of leaf mottling. PPV systemic resistance cosegregates with the ihprolC-PP197 transgene and was observed in progeny plants of all independent transgenic lines analyzed. SiRNAs of 23–25 nt homologous to the PPV sequence used in the ihprolC-PP197 construct were detected in transgenic plants before and after inoculation

  15. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka


    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from the persp......Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...

  16. Investing in river health. (United States)

    Bennett, J


    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  17. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015) (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  18. Qualidade de ameixas 'Laetitia' em função da temperatura e da atmosfera de armazenamento Quality of 'Laetitia' plums as affected by temperature and storage atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlani de Oliveira Alves


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura e de atmosferas de armazenamento sobre a manutenção da qualidade de ameixas 'Laetitia'. Os tratamentos avaliados constituíram-se na combinação de duas temperaturas (-0,5ºC e 0,5ºC, com três atmosferas de armazenamento: armazenamento refrigerado (AR, com 21,0 kPa de O2 + 0,03 kPa de CO2; atmosfera controlada (AC, com 1,0 kPa de O2 + 3,0 kPa de CO2; e AC, com 2,0 kPa de O2 + 5,0 kPa de CO2. Após 60 dias de armazenamento, foram avaliadas: taxas respiratória e de produção de etileno, acidez titulável (AT, firmeza de polpa, atributos de textura, índice de cor vermelha e ângulo 'hue' (hº da casca, e incidência de rachaduras, podridões e degenerescência da polpa. O armazenamento refrigerado a -0,5ºC resultou em menores valores para o índice de cor vermelha, taxa respiratória e de produção de etileno e incidência de frutos rachados. Em ambas as condições de AC, a temperatura de 0,5ºC resultou em menor índice de cor vermelha, cor da epiderme mais verde, maior firmeza de polpa e menor taxa de produção de etileno, tanto na abertura da câmara como após quatro dias em condição ambiente. As condições de AC retardaram o amadurecimento dos frutos e reduziram a incidência de degenerescência de polpa. O armazenamento em AC, com 2,0 kPa de O2 + 5,0 kPa de CO2, a 0,5ºC, proporcionou menor taxa respiratória e menor incidência de podridões na saída da câmara, mas maior AT e força para penetração da polpa, após quatro dias em condição ambiente. No entanto, o armazenamento da ameixa 'Laetitia', nas condições de AC avaliadas, por um período de 60 dias, não reduziu a incidência de degenerescência da polpa.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperature and storage atmospheres on the quality of 'Laetitia' plums. The treatments were obtained from the combination of two temperatures (-0.5ºC and 0.5ºC with three storage atmospheres: cold

  19. Preserving the Dnipro River

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Humanity inherited the true sense of proportion, synergy, and harmony from the natural environment. ..... In Ukraine, the middle and lower sections of the Dnipro have a drainage ... The following large cities are located in the Dnipro basin: in Russia, .... In Kherson Oblast and in river basins of some small rivers it is as high as ...

  20. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.


    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  1. Uranium in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.; Edmond, J.M.


    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 x 10 7 mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load

  2. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.


    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  3. Meenutusi sõidust Siberisse / Vaike Parker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parker, Vaike, 1927-2012


    Alar Kotli, Peeter Tarvase ja Vaike Parkeri komandeeringust Novosibirskisse ja Stalinskisse 1959. a. Eesmärgiks oli tutvustada sealseid kolleege eesti eramute, aedade ja mööbli kujundamise küsimustega

  4. Mis on maailma pealinn? / John Parker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parker, John


    Sõjast lõhestunud 1946. aastal arutasid poliitikud, kuhu paigutada Ühinenud Rahvaste Organisatsiooni peakorter. Teistest eristus selgelt üks linn, potsentsiaalne mitteametlik maailma pealinn - New York. Milline linn võiks olla järgmine maailma mitteametlik pealinn?

  5. Hunting camp. River Murray


    ? Bayliss, Charles, 1850-1897, photographer


    200 x 149 mm. A good photograph showing a group of aborigines (in European clothes) with two hunting dogs, holding spears and standing in front of rough wooden cabins; with the river in the background. Photograph unknown, possible Charles Bayliss.

  6. Wild and Scenic Rivers (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  7. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China]. (United States)

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding


    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  8. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River). (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  9. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel


    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  10. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  11. Haw River PFCs Data Set (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  12. Endodormência de gemas de pessegueiro e ameixeira em região de baixa ocorrência de frio Endodormancy of peach and plum tree buds in a region of low chill occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho


    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar a endodormência de gemas de pessegueiro cv. Chimarrita e ameixeira cv. Poli Rosa em uma região de baixa ocorrência de frio. Os ramos foram coletados em um pomar situado no município de Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná, no período de abril a agosto dos anos de 2007 e 2008. Na última coleta, um grupo adicional de ramos foi coletado e mantido em refrigerador à temperatura de 4 a 7°C, por 672 horas. A avaliação da endodormência foi realizada por meio do teste biológico de estacas de nós isolados, que foram mantidas em condições controladas de temperatura (25°C e fotoperíodo (16 h. Foi realizada a quantificação das horas de frio (HF e das unidades de frio (UF ocorridas na região. As duas espécies foram avaliadas separadamente, como dois experimentos distintos. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, com nove tratamentos para o pessegueiro e 11 tratamentos para a ameixeira, ambos com quatro repetições. Os dois anos foram analisados individualmente. A endodormência mais intensa das gemas de pessegueiro cv. Chimarrita ocorreu no mês de maio, nos dois anos avaliados. A endodormência mais intensa de gemas de ameixeira cv. Poli Rosa ocorreu no mês de maio em 2007 e se estendeu até o mês de junho em 2008.The objective of this research was to evaluate the dormancy dynamic of peach tree 'Chimarrita' and plum tree 'Poli Rosa' buds in a region of low chill occurrence. The stems were collected in an orchard in Fazenda Rio Grande, State of Parana, Brazil, from April to August of 2007 and 2008. In the last date, an additional group of stems was collected and maintained in a refrigerator (4 to 7°C by 672 hours. The evaluation of dormancy was observed by the biological test of single node cuttings under controlled conditions of temperature (25°C and photoperiod (16 h. The quantification of chilling hours (CH and the chilling units (CU occurred in the region were performed

  13. Stochastic Modelling of River Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Schaarup-Jensen, K.


    Numerical hydrodynamic river models are used in a large number of applications to estimate critical events for rivers. These estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties. In this paper, the problem to evaluate these estimates using probabilistic methods is considered. Stochastic models for ...... for river geometries are formulated and a coupling between hydraulic computational methods and numerical reliability methods is presented....

  14. The Gediz River fluvial archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; Gorp, van W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Scaife, R.


    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River

  15. Geomorphic classification of rivers (United States)

    J. M. Buffington; D. R. Montgomery


    Over the last several decades, environmental legislation and a growing awareness of historical human disturbance to rivers worldwide (Schumm, 1977; Collins et al., 2003; Surian and Rinaldi, 2003; Nilsson et al., 2005; Chin, 2006; Walter and Merritts, 2008) have fostered unprecedented collaboration among scientists, land managers, and stakeholders to better understand,...

  16. Savannah River Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This is a monthly progress report from the Savannah River Laboratory for the month of January 1993. It has sections with work in the areas of reactor safety, tritium processes and absorption, separations programs and wastes, environmental concerns and responses, waste management practices, and general concerns

  17. Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    An introduction to the Alligator Rivers Region is presented. It contains general information regarding the physiography, climate, hydrology and mining of the region. The Alligator Rivers Region is within an ancient basin, the Pine Creek Geosyncline, which has an area of approximately 66000 km 2 . The Geosyncline has a history of mineral exploitation dating back to 1865, during which time 16 metals have been extracted (silver, arsenic, gold, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tin, tantalum, uranium, tungsten, zinc). Uranium exploration in the Pine Creek Geosyncline was stimulated by the discovery in 1949 of secondary uranium mineralisation near Rum June, 70 km south-east of Darwin. This was followed by a decade of intense exploration activity resulting in the discoveries of economic uranium ore bodies at Rum Jungle and in the upper reaches of the South Alligator River Valley. All the known major uranium deposits of the East Alligator River uranium field have been discovered since 1969. The present known resources of the Geosyncline are approximately 360 000 tonnes of contained U 3 O 8 . 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Discover the Nile River (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009


    Bordering on the Fantastic. As the longest river on earth, the Nile passes through 10 countries. Presented through a wide range of activities and a winning array of games, it's also unsurpassed at taking young minds into exploring the world of water, as well as natural and man made wonders.

  19. Two Pontic rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes; Jensen, Marit


    The accounts of the landscape around the Iris (Yeşilirmak) and the Thermodon (Terme) given by ancient authors are diverse and often contradictory. The Periegesis of the World by Dionysius of Alexandria, a didactic poem written in the early IInd c. A.D., established an image of the two rivers that...

  20. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.


    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.

  1. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.


    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  2. Resistance to Plum pox virus strain C in Arabidopsis thaliana and Chenopodium foetidum involves genome-linked viral protein and other viral determinants and might depend on compatibility with host translation initiation factors. (United States)

    Calvo, María; Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; García, Juan Antonio


    Research performed on model herbaceous hosts has been useful to unravel the molecular mechanisms that control viral infections. The most common Plum pox virus (PPV) strains are able to infect Nicotiana species as well as Chenopodium and Arabidopsis species. However, isolates belonging to strain C (PPV-C) that have been adapted to Nicotiana spp. are not infectious either in Chenopodium foetidum or in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this interesting host-specific behavior, we have constructed chimerical clones derived from Nicotiana-adapted PPV isolates from the D and C strains, which differ in their capacity to infect A. thaliana and C. foetidum. With this approach, we have identified the nuclear inclusion a protein (VPg+Pro) as the major pathogenicity determinant that conditions resistance in the presence of additional secondary determinants, different for each host. Genome-linked viral protein (VPg) mutations similar to those involved in the breakdown of eIF4E-mediated resistance to other potyviruses allow some PPV chimeras to infect A. thaliana. These results point to defective interactions between a translation initiation factor and the viral VPg as the most probable cause of host-specific incompatibility, in which other viral factors also participate, and suggest that complex interactions between multiple viral proteins and translation initiation factors not only define resistance to potyviruses in particular varieties of susceptible hosts but also contribute to establish nonhost resistance.

  3. Single amino acid changes in the 6K1-CI region can promote the alternative adaptation of Prunus- and Nicotiana-propagated Plum pox virus C isolates to either host. (United States)

    Calvo, María; Malinowski, Tadeusz; García, Juan Antonio


    Plum pox virus (PPV) C is one of the less common PPV strains and specifically infects cherry trees in nature. Making use of two PPV-C isolates that display different pathogenicity features, i.e., SwCMp, which had been adapted to Nicotiana species, and BY101, which had been isolated from cherry rootstock L2 (Prunus lannesiana) and propagated only in cherry species, we have generated two infective full-length cDNA clones in order to determine which viral factors are involved in the adaptation to each host. According to our results, the C-P3(PIPO)/6K1/N-CI (cylindrical inclusion) region contains overlapping but not coincident viral determinants involved in symptoms development, local viral amplification, and systemic movement capacity. Amino acid changes in this region promoting the adaptation to N. benthamiana or P. avium have trade-off effects in the alternative host. In both cases, adaptation can be achieved through single amino acid changes in the NIapro protease recognition motif between 6K1 and CI or in nearby sequences. Thus, we hypothesize that the potyvirus polyprotein processing could depend on specific host factors and the adaptation of PPV-C isolates to particular hosts relies on a fine regulation of the proteolytic cleavage of the 6K1-CI junction.

  4. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de plantas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. Effect of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus sofrena, Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kersten


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl., coletadas de plantas tratadas com bórax e sulfato de zinco e controle, executado em quatro épocas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em viveiros, sob condição de nebulização artificial intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram a influência de cultivar, época e concentração de IBA, não sendo verificado efeito de bórax ou sulfato de zinco na percentagem de estacas enraizadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus salicina, Lindl. collected from plants treated with borax and zinc sulfate, in four periods. The experiments were conducted in a nursery with intermitent artificial mist conditions. The results showed a positive effect of cultivars, periods and IBA concentrations, and there was no effect of either borax or zinc sulfate on rooting of branch cuttings.

  5. Sapucai River Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.L.; Rosa, M.J.


    The Sapucai River Project is a gold, ilmenite, monazite and zircon alluvial deposit. It is located on Sapucai River valley in the south of Minas Gerais State. The reserves are 28.000.000 m 3 of pay bed. The production will be 1.400.000 m 3 /year and the mine's life 20 years. A cutterhead suction dredge will do the overburden removal. The pay bed will be mined with an underwater bucket-wheel dredge. The ROM will be concentrated in a washing plant. The gold will be recovered by leaching method. The other heavy minerals will be recovered by electrostatic, magnetic and gravitic methods. SAMITRI believes that it's possible to implant and operate the Project without ecological damage. (author) [pt

  6. Geomorphology and River Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Engineering-dominated practices, visible in a "command and control" outlook on natural systems, have induced enormous damage to the environment. Biodiversity losses and declining provision of ecosystem services are testimony to the non-sustainable outcomes brought about by such practices. More environmentally friendly approaches that promote a harmonious relationship between human activities and nature are required. Moves towards an "ecosystem approach" to environmental management require coherent (integrative scientific guidance. Geomorphology, the study of the form of the earth, provides a landscape template with which to ground this process. This way of thinking respects the inherent diversity and complexity of natural systems. Examples of the transition toward such views in environmental practice are demonstrated by the use of science to guide river management, emphasising applications of the River Styles framework.

  7. Heat dispersion in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, T.L.


    One of the tasks of the Sonderforschungsbereich 80 is to study the dispersion of heat discharged into rivers and other bodies of water and to develop methods which permit prediction of detrimental effects caused by the heated discharges. In order to help the SFB 80 to specify this task, Dr. Shaw, lecturer of Civil Engineering at the Bristol University, conducted a literature survey on heat-dispersion studies during the two months which he spent as a visiting research fellow with the SFB 80 at the University of Karlsruhe in the summer of 1973. The following report is the outcome of this survey. It gives Dr. Shaw's assessment of the present state of knowledge - based almost exclusively on literature in the English language - and compares this with the knowledge required by river planners. The apparent discrepancy leads to suggestions for future research. Selected references as well as a representative bibliography can be found at the end of the report. (orig.) [de

  8. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River... (United States)


    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. The following areas consisting of the water, waterway bottom, and adjacent riparian zone of...

  9. Onilahy River, Madagascar (United States)


    Near the southern tip of Madagascar, the Onilahy River (23.5S, 44E) drains a near barren landscape, the result of rapid deforestation for quick profits from the lumber industry with no regard to the environmental impact. At the turn of the century, the island was a lush tropical paradise with about 90 percent of the surface forested. Now, at the close of the century, only about 10 percent of the forests remain in inaccessible rugged terrain.

  10. Charles River Crossing (United States)


    duration, deck sections will be prefabricated off-site and delivered just-in-time for assembly and installation. The schedule assumes that the parts of...on one side (the side which abuts the existing bridges) there will be the appearance that the new bridges cantilever off the existing bridges. (See...many events that takes place on the Charles River such as crew racings and the “Head of the Charles”. Prefabricated off 19  ANCHORAGE GROUP, LTD

  11. AHP 45: Review: River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།


    Full Text Available Zon thar rgyal says that inspiration for River came with the arrival of his second child (a son, which made his daughter very uncomfortable. "At first, I just wanted to make a simple movie for children as a gift for my daughter,"6 he said during an interview in Lha sa. Later, however, the film became more elaborate with the addition of a grandfather, creating a story that embraces three generations.

  12. Columbia River pathway report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the river-pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project is estimating radiation doses that could have been received by the public from the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the river-pathway dose reconstruction effort sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the area from above the Hanford Site at Priest Rapids Dam to below the site at McNary Dam from January 1964 to December 1966. Of the potential sources of radionuclides from the river, fish consumption was the most important. Doses from drinking water were lower at Pasco than at Richland and lower at Kennewick than at Pasco. The median values of preliminary dose estimates calculated by HEDR are similar to independent, previously published estimates of average doses to Richland residents. Later phases of the HEDR Project will address dose estimates for periods other than 1964--1966 and for populations downstream of McNary Dam. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  13. The river ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descy, J.P.; Lambinon, J.


    From the standpoint of the ecologist, a river is an ecosystem characterized by its biocoenosis, in dynamic equilibrium with the abiotic environment. This ecosystem can be envisaged at the structural level by examining its physical, chemical and biological properties, together with the relationships existing between these compartments. The biocoenotic structure of a river is relatively complex: it manifests, among other specific features, the presence of plankton communities which show marked space-time variations. The function of the river ecosystem can be approximated by a study of the relationships between the biotic and abiotic components: primary production, secondary production, recycling of organic matter, etc. Lotic environments are subject to frequent disturbance from various forms of man-made pollution: organic pollution, eutrophization, thermal pollution, mineral pollution, contamination by organic and mineral micropollutants, as well as by radionuclides, mechanical pollution and physical degradation. The biocoenotic effects of these forms of pollution may be evaluated, in particular, using biological indicators (bioindicators): these are either able to show the overall impact of the pollution on the biocoenosis or else they permit the detection and evaluation of certain pollutant forms. (author)

  14. Are cicadas (Diceroprocta apache) both a "keystone" and a "critical-link" species in lower Colorado River riparian communities? (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.


    Apache cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Diceroprocta apache Davis) densities were estimated to be 10 individuals/m2 within a closed-canopy stand of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) in a revegetated site adjacent to the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona. Coupled with data drawn from the literature, I estimate that up to 1.3 cm (13 1/m2) of water may be added to the upper soil layers annually through the feeding activities of cicada nymphs. This is equivalent to 12% of the annual precipitation received in the study area. Apache cicadas may have significant effects on ecosystem functioning via effects on water transport and thus act as a critical-link species in this southwest desert riverine ecosystem. Cicadas emerged later within the cottonwood-willow stand than in relatively open saltcedar-mesquite stands; this difference in temporal dynamics would affect their availability to several insectivorous bird species and may help explain the birds' recent declines. Resource managers in this region should be sensitive to the multiple and strong effects that Apache cicadas may have on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  15. Structure of parasites community in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (Cichlidae), a host from the Amazon River system in northern Brazil. (United States)

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito


    The aim of this paper was to investigate the component communities of parasites in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis from a tributary of the Amazon River system, in Northern Brazil. In 32 fish examined, 902,551 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Sciadicleithrum geophagi, Posthodiplostomum sp., Clinostomum marginatum, Echinorhynchus paranensis, Neoechinorhynchus pterodoridis, and Dolops longicauda. I. multifiliis was the dominant and abundant parasite species. The ectoparasites presented aggregate dispersion, but the endoparasites showed random dispersion pattern. Mean species richness was 4.0 ± 1.5 parasites, mean Brillouin diversity (HB) was 0.33 ± 0.28, mean evenness was 0.15 ± 0.13, and Berger-Parker dominance (d) was 0.85 ± 0.17. The species richness of parasites and HB were positively correlated with the length of hosts. There was positive correlation between the abundance of P. pillulare and length and weight, between the abundance of I. multifiliis and weight, as well as between the abundance of E. paranensis and N. pterodoridis and the length of hosts. Body condition of the hosts was not affected by moderate parasitism. The low diversity of endoparasites indicates that C. orbicularis is a host with low position in the food web. This is the first record of all these parasites for C. orbicularis.

  16. 78 FR 28492 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled, ``Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and...

  17. 78 FR 18277 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... proposes to issue a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston... Country Splash is scheduled to take place on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston...

  18. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf


    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  19. Saga of Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.H.


    An epic struggle in the US Congress between what the author calls the forces of transcendence and the forces of experience over development of a breeder reactor for electric power generation is described in this article. The project was started by President Nixon, survived repeated attacks under President Carter, and ironically succumbed under a strong supporter, President Reagan, as a result of an unlikely coalition of conservative organizations and Republican politicians. The broader meanings of the demise of the Clinch River project are examined on several levels, examining the significance for the nation's energy future and for the nation's political future

  20. Lowland river systems - processes, form and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. L.; Kronvang, B.; Sand-Jensen, K.


    Present day river valleys and rivers are not as dynamic and variable as they used to be. We will here describe the development and characteristics of rivers and their valleys and explain the background to the physical changes in river networks and channel forms from spring to the sea. We seek...... to answer two fundamental questions: How has anthropogenic disturbance of rivers changed the fundamental form and physical processes in river valleys? Can we use our understanding of fl uvial patterns to restore the dynamic nature of channelised rivers and drained fl oodplains in river valleys?...

  1. Energy from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This chapter discusses the role energy from rivers and oceans may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of using energy from rivers and oceans, hydropower assessment including resources, technology and costs, and environmental and regulatory issues, ocean thermal energy conversion including technology and costs and environmental issues, tidal power, and wave power

  2. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)


    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  3. Geomorphology and river dynamics of the lower Copper River, Alaska (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.


    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges.Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005–07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36–37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36–37 during average flow periods.The U.S. Geological Survey’s Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  4. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  5. Global relationships in river hydromorphology (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Lion, C.; Allen, G. H.; Durand, M. T.; Schumann, G.; Beighley, E.; Yang, X.


    Since the widespread adoption of digital elevation models (DEMs) in the 1980s, most global and continental-scale analysis of river flow characteristics has been focused on measurements derived from DEMs such as drainage area, elevation, and slope. These variables (especially drainage area) have been related to other quantities of interest such as river width, depth, and velocity via empirical relationships that often take the form of power laws. More recently, a number of groups have developed more direct measurements of river location and some aspects of planform geometry from optical satellite imagery on regional, continental, and global scales. However, these satellite-derived datasets often lack many of the qualities that make DEM=derived datasets attractive, including robust network topology. Here, we present analysis of a dataset that combines the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database of river location, width, and braiding index with a river database extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM and the HydroSHEDS dataset. Using these combined tools, we present a dataset that includes measurements of river width, slope, braiding index, upstream drainage area, and other variables. The dataset is available everywhere that both datasets are available, which includes all continental areas south of 60N with rivers sufficiently large to be observed with Landsat imagery. We use the dataset to examine patterns and frequencies of river form across continental and global scales as well as global relationships among variables including width, slope, and drainage area. The results demonstrate the complex relationships among different dimensions of river hydromorphology at the global scale.

  6. River-Based Experiential Learning: the Bear River Fellows Program (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Shirley, B.; Roark, M. F.


    The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Outdoor Recreation, and Parks and Recreation programs at Utah State University (USU) have partnered to offer a new, unique river-based experiential learning opportunity for undergraduates called the Bear River Fellows Program. The program allows incoming freshmen Fellows to experience a river first hand during a 5-day/4-night river trip on the nearby Bear River two weeks before the start of their first Fall semester. As part of the program, Fellows will navigate the Bear River in canoes, camp along the banks, interact with local water and environmental managers, collect channel cross section, stream flow, vegetation cover, and topological complexity data, meet other incoming freshmen, interact with faculty and graduate students, develop boating and leadership skills, problem solve, and participate as full members of the trip team. Subsequently, Fellows will get paid as undergraduate researchers during their Fall and Spring Freshman semesters to analyze, synthesize, and present the field data they collect. The program is a collaborative effort between two USU academic units and the (non-academic) division of Student Services and supports a larger National Science Foundation funded environmental modelling and management project for the lower Bear River, Utah watershed. We have advertised the program via Facebook and emails to incoming USU freshmen, received 35 applications (60% women), and accepted 5 Fellows into the program (3 female and 2 male). The river trip departs August 14, 2012. The poster will overview the Bear River Fellows Program and present qualitative and preliminary outcomes emerging from the trip and Fellows' work through the Fall semester with the field data they collect. We will also undertake more rigorous and longer longitudinal quantitative evaluation of Program outcomes (for example, in problem-solving and leadership) both in Spring 2013 and in subsequent 2013 and 2014 offerings of the

  7. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.


    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  8. River history and tectonics. (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, C


    The analysis of crustal deformation by tectonic processes has gained much from the clues offered by drainage geometry and river behaviour, while the interpretation of channel patterns and sequences benefits from information on Earth movements before or during their development. The interplay between the two strands operates at many scales: themes which have already benefited from it include the possible role of mantle plumes in the breakup of Gondwana, the Cenozoic development of drainage systems in Africa and Australia, Himalayan uplift in response to erosion, alternating episodes of uplift and subsidence in the Mississippi delta, buckling of the Indian lithospheric plate, and changes in stream pattern and sinuosity along individual alluvial channels subject to localized deformation. Developments in remote sensing, isotopic dating and numerical modelling are starting to yield quantitative analyses of such effects, to the benefit of geodymamics as well as fluvial hydrology. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  9. Robotics at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.


    A Robotics Technology Group was organized at the Savannah River Laboratory in August 1982. Many potential applications have been identified that will improve personnel safety, reduce operating costs, and increase productivity using modern robotics and automation. Several active projects are under way to procure robots, to develop unique techniques and systems for the site's processes, and to install the systems in the actual work environments. The projects and development programs are involved in the following general application areas: (1) glove boxes and shielded cell facilities, (2) laboratory chemical processes, (3) fabrication processes for reactor fuel assemblies, (4) sampling processes for separation areas, (5) emergency response in reactor areas, (6) fuel handling in reactor areas, and (7) remote radiation monitoring systems. A Robotics Development Laboratory has been set up for experimental and development work and for demonstration of robotic systems


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highest monthly hydropower yields were recorded in September for Ovia, Ikpoba and Edion Rivers and in August for Orlie River. On annual basis, Ovia River, recorded the highest power yield of 61.619MW (suggesting that Ovia river may be suitable for a Medium hydropower scheme, 10MW-100MW) with the highest ...

  11. Assessment of river plan changes in Terengganu River using RS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The database can help in the appropriate understanding of river plan change and know ... The data collected from Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) database.

  12. 78 FR 17087 - Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard... on the New River in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft... States during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race. On March 23, 2013, Fort Lauderdale...

  13. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River... (United States)


    ... Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection... response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with... code: C-14J, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the River Forest Dry Cleaners Site...

  14. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought from the hydrological viewpoint is a continuation of the meteorological drought that cause of the lack of surface water such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. This analysis, which is generally on the surface streams, reservoirs, lakes and groundwater, takes place as hydrological drought considered and studied. So the data on the quantity of flow of the rivers in this study is of fundamental importance. This data are included, level, flow, river flow is no term (5. Overall the hydrological drought studies are focused on annual discharges, maximum annual discharge or minimum discharge period. The most importance of this analysis is periodically during the course of the analysis remains a certain threshold and subthresholdrunoff volume fraction has created. In situations where water for irrigation or water of a river without any reservoir, is not adequate, the minimum flow analysis, the most important factor to be considered (4. The aim of this study is evaluatingthe statistical distributions of drought volume rivers data from the Urmia Lake’s rivers and its return period. Materials and Methods: Urmia Lake is a biggest and saltiest continued lake in Iran. The Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important basins in Iran region which is located in the North West of Iran. With an extent of 52700 square kilometers and an area equivalent to 3.21% of the total area of the country, This basin is located between the circuit of 35 degrees 40 minutes to 38 degrees 29 minutes north latitude and the meridian of 44 degrees 13 minutes to 47 degrees 53 minutes east longitude. In this study used the daily discharge data (m3s-1 of Urmia Lake Rivers. Extraction of river drought volume The drought durations were extracted from the daily discharge of 13 studied stations. The first mean year was calculated for each 365 days using the Eq 1 (14. (1 (For i=1,2,3,…,365 That Ki is aith mean year, Yijis ith day discharge in jth

  15. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  16. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River... (United States)


    ... go adrift. Immediately after completion of the emergency mooring, the lockmaster of the first lock... of approach to unattended, normally open automatic, movable span bridges, the factor of river flow...

  17. Anastomosing Rivers are Disequilibrium Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavooi, E.; Haas, de T.; Kleinhans, M.G.; Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.


    Anastomosing rivers have multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins. Various theories have been proposed to explain this pattern, including an increased discharge conveyance and sediment transport capacity of multiple channels, or, alternatively, a tendency to avulse due to upstream

  18. Missouri River, Natural Resources Bibliography. (United States)


    1971. Thermal study of the 366. CUNDAY TW, BROOKS KN. 1981. Calibrating Missouri River in North Dakota using infrared and verifying the SSARR North and South 1612. SCHUELER RL, SULLIVAN JK. 1967. Quantifying Dakota using NOAA-5 infrared data. In: current and potential commercial fishery...use survey, 1984. South Dakota River. Journal of the Waterways Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Pierre, 101( WW2 ):119-33. SD. Interim report. South

  19. Continuum Model for River Networks (United States)

    Giacometti, Achille; Maritan, Amos; Banavar, Jayanth R.


    The effects of erosion, avalanching, and random precipitation are captured in a simple stochastic partial differential equation for modeling the evolution of river networks. Our model leads to a self-organized structured landscape and to abstraction and piracy of the smaller tributaries as the evolution proceeds. An algebraic distribution of the average basin areas and a power law relationship between the drainage basin area and the river length are found.

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: RVRMILES (River Mile Marker Lines) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for river miles along the Hudson River. Vector lines in this data set represent river mile markers. This data set...

  1. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.


    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  2. Aplicação pré-colheita de reguladores vegetais visando retardar a maturação de ameixas 'Laetitia' Preharvest spraying with plant regulators aiming fruit maturity delay of 'Laetitia' plums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano André Steffens


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de reguladores vegetais e da data de colheita sobre a maturação de ameixas 'Laetitia'. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: controle, aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG; 125mg L-1, 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP; 70µg L-1 e ácido giberélico (GA3; 100mg.L-1, em combinação com duas datas de colheita (11/01/2007 e 25/01/2007. O GA3 foi aplicado 14 dias antes da primeira colheita, enquanto AVG e 1-MCP foram aplicados sete dias antes da primeira colheita. O experimento seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os reguladores de crescimento, em geral, retardaram as alterações da cor da epiderme e mantiveram a textura dos frutos, com os maiores valores de resistências à compressão e à penetração de polpa. A força necessária para a ruptura da epiderme foi maior no tratamento com 1-MCP. O tratamento controle apresentou os maiores teores de sólidos solúveis (SS. O atraso na colheita reduziu a textura dos frutos, a acidez titulável e o teor de SS, mas proporcionou frutos mais vermelhos. No entanto, nos frutos tratados com os reguladores, a evolução da maturação foi retardada.The objective this research was to evaluate the effects of preharvest spraying with plant regulators and harvest date on the fruit maturity of 'Laetitia' plums. The treatments evaluated were: control (untreated, aminoethoxyvinylglycine [AVG; at 125mg (a.i. L-1], giberellic acid [GA3; at 100mg (a.i. L-1] and 1-Methylcyclopropene [1-MCP; at 70µg (a.i. L-1], combined with two harvest dates (01/11/2007 and 01/25/2007. The GA3 was sprayed 14 days before the first harvest, while AVG and 1-MCP were sprayed 7 days before the first harvest. The experiment followed the randomized block design with four replications. In general, the plant regulators delayed changes in skin color and preserved fruit texture, providing the highest resistances values for flesh compression and fresh penetration. The force for skin

  3. Comportamento de duas cultivares de pessegueiro com interenxerto da ameixeira 'Januária' Behavior of two peach cultivars with 'Januária' as a Japanese plum interstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Os efeitos da utilização de interenxerto (filtro da ameixeira 'Januária' (Prunus salicina L. foram verificados em duas cultivares de pessegueiro (Prunus persica L., Tropical e Ouromel-2. O porta-enxerto básico utilizado foi o pessegueiro 'Okinawa'. Foram avaliadas duas safras, respectivamente, na 4ª e 5ª folha de plantas enxertadas e estabelecidas no campo em 1994. O uso do enxerto intermediário diminuiu o vigor das plantas -- perímetro e área da secção do tronco, perímetro das pernadas e comprimento dos entrenós -- e aumentou o peso do fruto e a produção por planta, em comparação com as copas-controle enxertadas diretamente no 'Okinawa'. A eficiência produtiva, o índice de fertilidade, o florescimento e a frutificação efetiva foram incrementados com o uso do filtro. A interenxertia com ameixeira 'Januária' apresenta adequadas características de compatibilidade com o pessegueiro, como forma de compactar as copas e aumentar a produtividade e o tamanho do fruto.The effects of interstock with 'Januária' Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L. were verified in the performance of peach (Prunus persica L. cultivars Tropical and Ouromel-2. The basic rootstock used was 'Okinawa' peach. Two crops were evaluated at fourth and fifth leaves of plants established in 1994. The interstock caused decrease of the vigour of the plants -- perimeter and cross-sectional area of the trunk, perimeter of the primary branches and length of the internodes -- and increased fruit weight and production per plant, in comparison to the plant control without interstock budded on 'Okinawa'. Yield efficiency, fertility index, flowering and fruit set were increased with 'Januária' interstock. This interstock process presents an adequate characteristic of compatibility for the peach tree, as a form of compacting the plants, increasing the productivity and the fruit size.

  4. A Rejang River rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Li Lim


    Full Text Available A 30-year-old Iban woman presented to a rural primary healthcare clinic located along the Batang Rejang in Sarawak. She had a 2-day history of rash, which started over her trunk and later spread to her face and limbs. What started out as individual erythematous maculopapular spots later coalesced to form larger raised blotches. The rash was extremely pruritic and affected her sleep, and hence her visit. The rash was preceded by high grade, persistent fever that was temporarily relieved by paracetamol. She also complained of malaise, arthralgia and myalgia. Her appetite had been poor since the onset of the fever. She lived in a long house at the edge of the jungle. Although she did not have a history of going into the jungle to forage, she went regularly to the river to wash clothes. Clinically, she appeared lethargic and had bilateral conjunctival injection. Her left anterior cervical lymph nodes were palpable. There were erythematous macules measuring 5 to 15 mm distributed over her whole body but predominantly over the chest and abdominal region (Figure 1. An unusual skin lesion was discovered at the right hypochondriac region. This lesion resembled a cigarette burn with a necrotic centre (Figure 2. There was no evidence of hepato-splenomegaly. Examination of the other systems was unremarkable. On further questioning, the patient admitted being bitten by a ‘kutu babi’ or mite 3 days before the onset of her fever.

  5. Upper Illinois River basin (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.


    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  6. Connectivity in river deltas (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.


    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  7. River rating complexity (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.


    Accuracy of streamflow data depends on the veracity of the rating model used to derive a continuous time series of discharge from the surrogate variables that can readily be collected autonomously at a streamgage. Ratings are typically represented as a simple monotonic increasing function (simple rating), meaning the discharge is a function of stage alone, however this is never truly the case unless the flow is completely uniform at all stages and in transitions from one stage to the next. For example, at some streamflow-monitoring sites the discharge on the rising limb of the hydrograph is discernably larger than the discharge at the same stage on the falling limb of the hydrograph. This is the so-called “loop rating curve” (loop rating). In many cases, these loops are quite small and variation between rising- and falling-limb discharge measurements made at the same stage are well within the accuracy of the measurements. However, certain hydraulic conditions can produce a loop that is large enough to preclude use of a monotonic rating. A detailed data campaign for the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri during a multi-peaked flood over a 56-day period in 2015 demonstrates the rating complexity at this location. The shifting-control method used to deal with complexity at this site matched all measurements within 8%.

  8. Turbulent forces within river plumes affect spread (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee


    When rivers drain into oceans through narrow mouths, hydraulic forces squeeze the river water into buoyant plumes that are clearly visible in satellite images. Worldwide, river plumes not only disperse freshwater, sediments, and nutrients but also spread pollutants and organisms from estuaries into the open ocean. In the United States, the Columbia River—the largest river by volume draining into the Pacific Ocean from North America—generates a plume at its mouth that transports juvenile salmon and other fish into the ocean. Clearly, the behavior and spread of river plumes, such as the Columbia River plume, affect the nation's fishing industry as well as the global economy.

  9. Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching (United States)

    Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.


    In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the

  10. The River Danube: An Examination of Navigation on the River (United States)

    Cooper, R. W.

    One of the definitions of Navigation that gets little attention in this Institute is (Oxford English Dictionary), and which our French friends call La Navigation. I have always found this subject fascinating, and have previously navigated the Rivers Mekong, Irrawaddy, Hooghly, Indus, Shatt-al-Arab, Savannah and RhMainKanal (RMDK) and the River Danube, a distance of approximately 4000 km. This voyage has only recently become possible with the opening of the connecting RMDK at the end of 1992, but has been made little use of because of the civil war in the former Yugoslavia.

  11. The influence of basin slope and fluvial flow on deltaic built-up processes off mountainous, seasonal rivers (United States)

    Bárcenas, Patricia; Macías, Jorge; Fernández-Salas, Luis Miguel; López-González, Nieves; José Lobo, Francisco


    The construction and evolution of submarine deltaic deposits are influenced by a combination of allogenic factors, such as fluvial flow (Q), and autogenic factors, such as basin slope (BS). Numerical simulations of turbidity currents are used to propose a morphodynamic model that quantifies the effect of both the slope and river input variations on the development of small deltaic environments in the northern shelf of the Alborán Sea, western Mediterranean Basin, that are linked to short and mountainous fluvial systems controlled by a seasonal Mediterranean climate. Traditionally, this type of model has been used for simulating hyperpycnal flows (Parker et al. (1986), Kubo (2004), Khan et al. (2005) & Morales et al. (2009)). In this study, the turbidity-HySEA model has been used taken into account the parameter settings and the numerical resolution specified in Bárcenas (2013) and Morales et al. (2009), respectively. These simulations were performed along a time period of eight days under two different fluvial flow conditions (constant and variable flow during the simulation period). Two different types of bathymetric profiles have been considered: a) piecewise linear profile and b) real bathymetric profiles from EM3000D multibeam echosounder data obtained off the present-day and artificial mouths of the Adra River. Five morphometric parameters were measured for each simulation (time and slope necessary for the formation of the topset, offlap break distance to the coastline, distal boundary depth and submarine delta length). The numerical experiments performed demonstrate the nonlinear relationship between the input variables (Q and BS) and the measured morphometric parameters. The morphodynamic of the sedimentary wedges considering the sediment dispersion and the offlap-break distance to the coastline can be represented by two extreme cases with many intermediate cases in between. The first case would be conditioned by proximal sedimentation while in the second

  12. Nelson River and Hudson Bay (United States)


    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R


    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  14. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  15. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  16. Physical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  17. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  18. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  19. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  20. Charles River Fish Contaminant Survey, April 2001 (United States)

    Report summarizing a biological monitoring component of the Clean Charles River 2005 initiative through the monitoring & analysis of fish within the lower Charles River basin, implemented by the EPA New England Regional Laboratory in the late fall of 1999.

  1. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  2. River restoration - Malaysian/DID perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Darus


    Initially the river improvement works in Malaysia was weighted on flood control to convey a certain design flood with the lined and channelized rivers. But in late 2003 did has makes the approaches that conservation and improvement of natural function of river, i.e. river environment and eco-system should be incorporated inside the planning and design process. Generally, river restoration will focus on four approaches that will improve water quality, which is improving the quality of stormwater entering the river, maximizing the quantity of the urban river riparian corridor, stabilizing the riverbank, and improving the habitat within the river. This paper outlined the appropriate method of enhancing impairment of water quality from human activities effluent and others effluent. (Author)

  3. Savannah River Site Environmental Implentation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report describes the organizational responsibilities for the Savannah River Site Environmental program. Operations, Engineering and projects, Environment, safety, and health, Quality assurance, and the Savannah River Laboratory are described

  4. 76 FR 25545 - Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display, Little River, Little River, SC (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display, Little River, Little River, SC AGENCY: Coast... zone on the waters of Little River in Little River, South Carolina during the Blue Crab Festival... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive notice of the Blue Crab Festival Fireworks Display...

  5. 78 FR 41689 - Safety Zone; Skagit River Bridge, Skagit River, Mount Vernon, WA (United States)


    ... submerged automobiles and floating bridge debris in the Skagit River. Following the initial response and...-AA00 Safety Zone; Skagit River Bridge, Skagit River, Mount Vernon, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone around the Skagit River Bridge...

  6. Many rivers to cross. Cross border co-operation in river management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, J.A.; Wiering, M.A.


    River basin management is a key concept in contemporary water policy. Since the management of rivers is best designed and implemented at the scale of the river basin, it seems obvious that we should not confine ourselves to administrative or geographical borders. In other words, river basin

  7. 75 FR 51945 - Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... of the St. Mary's River, a tributary of the Potomac River. This action is necessary to provide for.... Navy helicopter located near St. Inigoes, Maryland. This safety zone is intended to protect the...

  8. Geochemistry of some Brazilian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira-Nordemann, L.M.


    Concentrations of the totality of the dissolved salts and sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and uranium were measured in ten rivers belonging to three hydrografic basins located in Northeastern Brazil. Activity ratios U 234 /U 238 were also measured. A correlation was done between the results obtained and the geological and climatic context of these regions. Sodium is the most abundant element in the waters, except for rivers flowing in callcareous regions for which calcium is predominant. The concentrations of the major cations are function of the regional lithology whereas water salinity depends on climatic factors. (Author) [pt

  9. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.S. Cearlock


    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  10. RiverCare: towards self-sustaining multifunctional rivers (United States)

    Augustijn, Denie; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne


    Rivers are inherently dynamic water systems involving complex interactions among hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. In many deltas around the world lowland rivers are intensively managed to meet objectives like safety, navigation, hydropower and water supply. With the increasing pressure of growing population and climate change it will become even more challenging to reach or maintain these objectives and probably also more demanding from a management point of view. In the meantime there is a growing awareness that rivers are natural systems and that, rather than further regulation works, the dynamic natural processes should be better utilized (or restored) to reach the multifunctional objectives. Currently many integrated river management projects are initiated all over the world, in large rivers as well as streams. Examples of large scale projects in the Netherlands are 'Room for the River' (Rhine), the 'Maaswerken' (Meuse), the Deltaprogramme and projects originating from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). These projects include innovative measures executed never before on this scale and include for example longitudinal training dams, side channels, removal of bank protection, remeandering of streams, dredging/nourishment and floodplain rehabilitation. Although estimates have been made on the effects of these measures for many of the individual projects, the overall effects on the various management objectives remains uncertain, especially if all projects are considered in connection. For all stakeholders with vested interests in the river system it is important to know how that system evolves at intermediate and longer time scales (10 to 100 years) and what the consequences will be for the various river functions. If the total, integrated response of the system can be predicted, the system may be managed in a more effective way, making optimum use of natural processes. In this way, maintenance costs may be reduced, the system remains more natural

  11. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.


    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  12. The science and practice of river restoration (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.


    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  13. 33 CFR 117.1058 - Snake River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.1058 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1058 Snake River. (a) The draw of the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad bridge across the Snake River at mile 1.5 between Pasco and Burbank is...

  14. River as a part of ground battlefield (United States)

    Vračar, Miodrag S.; Pokrajac, Ivan; Okiljević, Predrag


    The rivers are in some circumstances part of the ground battlefield. Microseisms induced at the riverbed or ground at the river surrounding might be consequence of military activities (military ground transports, explosions, troop's activities, etc). Vibrations of those fluid-solid structures are modeled in terms of solid displacement and change of fluid pressure. This time varying fluid pressure in river, which originates from ground microseisms, is possible to detect with hydrophones. Therefore, hydroacoustic measurements in rivers enables detecting, identification and localization various types of military noisy activities at the ground as and those, which origin is in the river water (hydrodynamics of water flow, wind, waves, river vessels, etc). In this paper are presented river ambient noise measurements of the three great rivers: the Danube, the Sava and the Tisa, which flows in north part of Serbia in purpose to establish limits in detection of the ground vibrations in relatively wide frequency range from zero to 20 kHz. To confirm statement that the river is a part of ground battlefield, and that hydroacoustic noise is possible to use in detecting and analyzing ground microseisms induced by civil or military activities, some previous collected data of hydroacoustic noise measurement in the rivers are used. The data of the river ambient noise include noise induced by civil engineering activities, that ordinary take place in large cities, noise that produced ships and ambient noise of the river when human activities are significantly reduced. The poly spectral method was used in analysis such events.

  15. Role of vegetation on river bank accretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas Luna, A.


    There is rising awareness of the need to include the effects of vegetation in studies dealing with the morphological response of rivers. Vegetation growth on river banks and floodplains alters the river bed topography, reduces the bank erosion rates and enhances the development of new floodplains

  16. Hydraulic characteristics of the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.; Appel, David H.


    Traveltime, dispersion, water-surface and streambed profiles, and cross-section data were collected for use in application of flow and solute-transport models to the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Dye clouds subjected to increasing and decreasing flow rates (unsteady flow) showed that increasing flows shorten the cloud and decreasing flows lengthen the cloud. After the flow rate was changed and the flow was again steady, traveltime and dispersion characteristics were determined by the new rate of flow. Seven stage/streamflow relations identified the general changes of stream geometry throughout the study reach. Channel cross sections were estimated for model input. Low water and streambed profiles were developed from surveyed water surface elevations and water depths. (USGS)

  17. Seleção de clones de ameixeira para o sul do estado de Minas Gerais Selection of clones of plums for the south of the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Darlan Ramos


    Full Text Available Um dos sérios problemas enfrentados pelos fruticultores é o reduzido número de cultivares disponíveis regionalmente. Nesse aspecto, a produção de novos materiais genéticos é uma alternativa viável e necessária para minimizar este entrave. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar diferentes clones de ameixeira visando à obtenção de plantas com alta produtividade e frutos de boa qualidade, com maturação escalonada e adaptados às condições climáticas do sul de Minas Gerais. Foram selecionadas plantas de um antigo pomar comercial, localizado no Município de Wenceslau Braz - MG. Estas plantas estavam vegetando e produzindo em condições totalmente adversas, sem quaisquer tratos culturais. Após identificação, foram coletados dados fenológicos de coloração da flor, épocas de brotação e floração. Nos frutos, foram avaliados: época de maturação (início e fim, tamanho, forma, descrição da película, descrição da polpa, ocorrência de pragas e doenças. Após um período de avaliação de dois ciclos produtivos (1996-1997 e 1997-1998, foram selecionados clones com características favoráveis, principalmente com relação às épocas de floração e maturação dos frutos e adaptação ambiental. A maturação mais precoce ocorreu na seleção VI, enquanto a colheita se prolongou mais nas seleções I, VII, VIII e XI.One of the serious problems faced by fruit growers is the low quantity of available cultivars regionally. The production of new genetic materials is a feasible and necessary alternative to minimize this obstacle. This work aimed to select different genetic materials of plums in order to obtain high productivity plants and high quality fruits, with assigned maturation and adapted to the climatic conditions for the Southern region of the state of Minas Gerais. Plants of an old orchard were selected, located in the district of Wenceslau Braz, Minas Gerais State, which were vegetating and producing in

  18. 33 CFR 165.150 - New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River. (United States)


    ... River, Mill River. 165.150 Section 165.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area: The... 303°T to point D at the west bank of the mouth of the Mill River 41°18′05″ N, 72°54′23″ W thence south...

  19. 77 FR 47331 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl... (United States)


    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl... navigable waters of New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the..., Quinnipiac River, and Mill River RNA. The proposed amendment would give the Captain of the Port Sector Long...

  20. 77 FR 67563 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl... (United States)


    ... 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the operation of tugs...) entitled Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

  1. 77 FR 23120 - Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount... (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount... establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Wando River and Cooper River in Mount Pleasant... River and Cooper River along the shoreline of Mount Pleasant, South Carolina. The Lowcountry Splash...

  2. 21 CFR 145.185 - Canned plums. (United States)


    ...), as for example, in the case of a mixture of brown sugar and honey, an appropriate statement would be “___ sirup of brown sugar and honey”, the blank to be filled in with the word “light”, “heavy”, or “extra...

  3. PIXE analysis of umeboshi (dried plum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, S.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.


    In recent years, the self-sufficiency ratio of food in Japan has gradually decreased and 60% of foods are now imported from abroad. Japanese people rely strongly upon imported food and should take care of their safety, but what is happening now is that soil pollution in country of origin grows into a serious problem and can affect imported food. Umeboshi is one of the traditional pickled food in Japan and very popular. In the case of umeboshi, more than 65% of it is imported. We analyzed imported umeboshi and domestic ones by using in-air PIXE system and submili-PIXE camera at Tohoku University. In this experiment, the concentrations of toxic heavy metals such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb were lower than standard values given by a food hygiene law. Concentrations of elements heavier than Ca show similar trend among each sample. On the other hand, lighter elements than Ca show large differences, which is related to food coloring or processing technique. (author)

  4. 77 FR 5381 - Plum Pox Compensation (United States)


    ... orchards, including direct marketers, and fruit tree nurseries. Compensation payments are provided to... stone fruit growers and direct marketers and in fruit tree nurseries, along with the effects of... economic losses experienced by grove owners, direct marketers, and nursery owners who are subject to an EAN...

  5. Produção de etileno em frutos de ameixeira ‘Prunus domestica’ sujeitos a duas temperaturas de conservação Ethylene production by ‘Prunus domestica’ plums during storage at two different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Rato


    quais era retirada uma amostra para monitorização da produção de etileno. Estudou-se ainda a evolução, da textura, da acidez, e do SSC (teor dos sólidos solúveis dos frutos durante a sua conservação frigorífica. Dos resultados obtidos verificou-se que a conservação dos frutos a 7 ºC não influencia significativamente a produção de etileno, 0,3 nl/g/h, quando comparado com os frutos não sujeitos ao frio. Os frutos conservados à temperatura de 1 ºC durante 14 dias produziram menores quantidades de etileno quando comparados com os restantes grupos. Um período de conservação de 2 dias a 7 ºC induziu nos frutos um aumento na produção de etileno quando comparados com os frutos não sujeitos ao frio. Em ambas as temperaturas de conservação, verificou-se uma antecipação no pico do climatérico, quando se comparam frutos com e sem conservação frigorífica.Low temperatures interacts with ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in many species. Exposure fruits to low temperatures promotes ethylene biosynthesis in a number of apple and pears cultivars because low temperatures stimulates ACC synthase activity after fruits being warmed up.. Some pears and apples varieties required a cold treatment to achieve good colour, acceptable texture and flavour. In ‘Prunus domestica’ plums cv ‘Raínha Claudia verde’, a climacteric fruit, there is little information about ripening process but we observed after a cold storage period a decrease in ethylene production upon rewarming. The longer the storage period the stronger the depress in ethylene biosynthesis. This cultivar is usually stored at 0-2 ºC, it has small commercial period because of its short postharvest life. In cold chambers fruits became soft very quickly and improper to commercialise. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different storage temperatures (1 ºC and 7 ºC ±1º during 0, 2, 5, 8, and 14 days in ethylene production upon rewarming of ‘Raínha Claudia Verde ‘plums

  6. Conservation of South African Rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Keeffe, JH


    Full Text Available The report presents the proceedings of a three-day workshop at Midmar Dam designed to establish a consensus view of river conservation and to provide professional conservationists, managers and planners with a set of guidelines. These indicate what...

  7. Stochastic modelling of river morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vuren, B.G.


    Modern river management has to reconcile a number of functions, such as protection against floods and provision of safe and efficient navigation, floodplain agriculture, ecology and recreation. Knowledge on uncertainty in fluvial processes is important to make this possible, to design effective

  8. Rebirth of the Cheat River (United States)

    The Cheat River in West Virginia is again a haven for whitewater rafting and smallmouth bass fishing after years of Clean Water Act funding and the efforts of a local non-profit group and others to control pollution from old abandoned mines.

  9. Sorting out river channel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.


    Rivers self-organize their pattern/planform through feedbacks between bars, channels, floodplain and vegetation, which emerge as a result of the basic spatial sorting process of wash load sediment and bed sediment. The balance between floodplain formation and destruction determines the width and

  10. Hydrological balance of Cauca River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corzo G, J.; Garcia, M.


    This thesis understand the superficial and underground hydrology of the C.c. River Basin; the purpose of this study is to obtain information related to the quantity and behavior of the water resource, in order to make the necessary recommendations for the adequate managing, the aquifer protection and thus be able to have valuable liquid

  11. River habitat assessment for ecological restoration of Wei River Basin, China. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Shuo; Li, Xiaoping; Wu, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Jia


    As an important composition component of river ecosystems, river habitats must undergo quality assessment to potentially provide scientific basis for river ecological restoration. Substrate composition, habitat complexity, bank erosion degree, river meandering degree, human activity intensity, vegetation buffer width, water quality, and water condition were determined as indicators for river habitat assessment. The comprehensive habitat quality index (CHQI) was established for the Wei River Basin. In addition, the indicator values were determined on the basis of a field investigation at 12 national hydrological stations distributed across the Wei, Jing, and Beiluo Rivers. The analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the indicator weights and thus distinguish the relative importance of the assessment indicator system. Results indicated that the average CHQIs for the Wei, Jing, and Beiluo Rivers were 0.417, 0.508, and 0.304, respectively. The river habitat quality for the three rivers was well. As for the whole river basin, the river habitat quality for 25% of the cross section was very well, the other 25% was well, and the 50% remaining was in critical state. The river habitat quality of the Jing River was better than that of the Wei and Beiluo Rivers.

  12. Interlinking of Rivers in India: Issues & Challenges


    MEHTA, Dharmendra; MEHTA, Naveen K.


    Abstract. The rivers in India are truly speaking not only life-line of masses but also for wild-life. The rivers play a vital role in the lives of the Indian people. The river systems help us in irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity as well as a source of livelihood for our ever increasing population. Some of the major cities of India are situated at the banks of holy rivers. Proper management of river water is the need of the hour. Indian agriculture largely d...

  13. The Amazon, measuring a mighty river (United States)



    The Amazon, the world's largest river, discharges enough water into the sea each day to provide fresh water to the City of New York for over 9 years. Its flow accounts for about 15 percent of all the fresh water discharged into the oceans by all the rivers of the world. By comparison, the Amazon's flow is over 4 times that of the Congo River, the world's second largest river. And it is 10 times that of the Mississippi, the largest river on the North American Continent.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km 2 Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal

  15. The impact of industries on surface water quality of River Ona and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of water from two rivers (River Ona and River Alaro) in Oluyole ... were higher in the industrial zones than those found in the upstream of both rivers. ... Key words: River Ona, River Alaro, industrial discharges, surface water quality.

  16. Investigation of geology and hydrology of the upper and middle Verde River watershed of central Arizona: a project of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative (United States)

    Woodhouse, Betsy; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Parker, John T.C.; Hoffmann, John P.


    The upper and middle Verde River watershed in west-central Arizona is an area rich in natural beauty and cultural history and is an increasingly popular destination for tourists, recreationists, and permanent residents seeking its temperate climate. The diverse terrain of the region includes broad desert valleys, upland plains, forested mountain ranges, narrow canyons, and riparian areas along perennial stream reaches. The area is predominantly in Yavapai County, which in 1999 was the fastest-growing rural county in the United States (Woods and Poole Economics, Inc., 1999); by 2050, the population is projected to more than double. Such growth will increase demands on water resources. The domestic, industrial, and recreational interests of the population will need to be balanced against protection of riparian, woodland, and other natural areas and their associated wildlife and aquatic habitats. Sound management decisions will be required that are based on an understanding of the interactions between local and regional aquifers, surface-water bodies, and recharge and discharge areas. This understanding must include the influence of climate, geology, topography, and cultural development on those components of the hydrologic system. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR), initiated a regional investigation of the hydrogeology of the upper and middle Verde River watershed. The project is part of the Rural Watershed Initiative (RWI), a program established by the State of Arizona and managed by the ADWR that addresses water supply issues in rural areas while encouraging participation from stakeholder groups in affected communities. The USGS is performing similar RWI investigations on the Colorado Plateau to the north and in the Mogollon Highlands to the east of the Verde River study area (Parker and Flynn, 2000). The objectives of the RWI investigations are to develop: (1) a single database

  17. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L.; Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R.


    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs

  18. Potential relationships between the river discharge and the precipitation in the Jinsha River basin, China (United States)

    Wang, Gaoxu; Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; He, Qifang; Bai, Yiran; Zhang, Ruoyu


    The relationships between the river discharge and the precipitation in the Jinsha River basin are discussed in this study. In addition, the future precipitation trend from 2011-2050 and its potential influence on the river discharge are analysed by applying the CCLM-modelled precipitation. According to the observed river discharge and precipitation, the annual river discharge at the two main hydrological stations displays good correlations with the annual precipitation in the Jinsha River basin. The predicted future precipitation tends to change similarly as the change that occurred during the observation period, whereas the monthly distributions over a year could be more uneven, which is unfavourable for water resources management.

  19. Incineration demonstration at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.; Becker, G.W.; Mersman, K.E.; Roberson, W.A.


    A full-scale incineration process for Savannah River Plant (SRP) low level beta-gamma combustible waste was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive wastes. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. Presently, the process is being upgraded by SRP to accept radioactive wastes. During a two-year SRP demonstration, the facility will be used to incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (<1 mR/hr at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes

  20. Large-scale river regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, G.


    Recent concern over human impacts on the environment has tended to focus on climatic change, desertification, destruction of tropical rain forests, and pollution. Yet large-scale water projects such as dams, reservoirs, and inter-basin transfers are among the most dramatic and extensive ways in which our environment has been, and continues to be, transformed by human action. Water running to the sea is perceived as a lost resource, floods are viewed as major hazards, and wetlands are seen as wastelands. River regulation, involving the redistribution of water in time and space, is a key concept in socio-economic development. To achieve water and food security, to develop drylands, and to prevent desertification and drought are primary aims for many countries. A second key concept is ecological sustainability. Yet the ecology of rivers and their floodplains is dependent on the natural hydrological regime, and its related biochemical and geomorphological dynamics. (Author)

  1. Savannah River Plant incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, K.E.


    A full-scale incineration process was demonstrated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) using nonradioactive waste. From October 1981 through September 1982, 15,700 kilograms of solid waste and 5.7 m 3 of solvent were incinerated. Emissions of off-gas components (NO/sub x/, SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were well below South Carolina state standards. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid waste and 7:1 for Purex solvent/lime slurry were achieved. The process has been relocated and upgraded by the Savannah River Plant to accept low-level beta-gamma combustibles. During a two-year demonstration, the facility will incinerate slightly radioactive ( 3 ) solvent and suspect level (< 1 mR/h at 0.0254 meter) solid wastes. This demonstration will begin in early 1984

  2. Naturalness and Place in River Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Fryirs


    Full Text Available An authentic approach to river rehabilitation emphasizes concerns for the natural values of a given place. As landscape considerations fashion the physical template upon which biotic associations take place, various geomorphic issues must be addressed in framing rehabilitation activities that strive to improve river health. An open-ended approach to river classification promotes applications that appreciate the values of a given river, rather than pigeonholing reality. As the geomorphic structure of some rivers is naturally simple, promoting heterogeneity as a basis for management may not always be appropriate. Efforts to protect unique attributes of river systems must be balanced with procedures that look after common features. Concerns for ecosystem functionality must relate to the behavioral regime of a given river, remembering that some rivers are inherently sensitive to disturbance. Responses to human disturbance must be viewed in relation to natural variability, recognizing how spatial relationships in a catchment, and responses to past disturbances, fashion the operation of contemporary fluxes. These fluxes, in turn, influence what is achievable in the rehabilitation of a given reach. Given the inherently adjusting and evolutionary nature of river systems, notional endpoints do not provide an appropriate basis upon which to promote concepts of naturalness and place in the rehabilitation process. These themes are drawn together to promote rehabilitation practices that relate to the natural values of each river system, in preference to applications of "cookbook" measures that build upon textbook geomorphology.

  3. Radiocesium dynamics in the Hirose River basin (United States)

    Kuramoto, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Arai, H.; Onuma, S.; Onishi, Y.


    A significant amount of radiocesium was deposited in Fukushima Prefecture during the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In river systems, radiocesium is transported to downstream in rivers. For the safe use of river and its water, it is needed to clarify the dynamics of radiocesium in river systems. We started the monitoring of the Hirose River from December 2015. The Hirose River is a tributary of the Abukuma River flowing into the Pacific Ocean, and its catchment is close to areas where a large amount of radiocesium was deposited. We set up nine monitoring points in the Hirose River watershed. The Water level and turbidity data are continuously observed at each monitoring point. We regularly collected about 100 liters of water at each monitoring point. Radiocesium in water samples was separated into two forms; the one is the dissolved form, and the other is the suspended particulate form. Radionuclide concentrations of radiocesium in both forms were measured by a germanium semiconductor detector. Furthermore, we applied the TODAM (Time-dependent One-dimensional Degradation And Migration) code to the Hirose River basin using the monitoring data. The objectives of the modeling are to understand a redistribution pattern of radiocesium adsorbed by sediments during flooding events and to determine the amount of radiocesium flux into the Abukuma River.

  4. Clinical cytogenetics in river buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zicarelli


    Full Text Available While autosomal numeric chromosome abnormalities are phenotipically visible (abnormal body conformation and easily eliminated during the normal breeding selection, sex numeric abnormalities (including the cases of free-martinism, as well as the structural chromosome aberrations, especially the balanced ones, are more tolerate by the animals (normal body conformation but are often responsible of low fertility (structural abnormalities or sterility (sex chromosome aberrations, especially in the females. Although river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n=50 chromosomes have been characterized......

  5. Chester River Study. Volume I, (United States)


    of the effects of agri- i6 IA -46 cultural activities on the aquatic system. This initial feet (24 meters). The soils of the basin area are the stocks themselves. The shell crystal struc- ture modification in oysters recalls to mind the eggshell thinning in birds mentioned earlier...with figures provided by Chestertown to the mouth of the River at Love the U.S. Soil Conservation Service as of 1967 (last Point (Table VII). year of

  6. Flambeau River Biofuels Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Robert J. [Flambeau River Biofuels, Inc., Park Falls, WI (United States)


    Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. (FRB) proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, Flambeau River Papers, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy – making Flambeau River Papers the first pulp and paper mill in North America to be nearly fossil fuel free – and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. FRB planned to replicate this facility at other paper mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility.

  7. Buck Creek River Flow Analysis (United States)

    Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John


    Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

  8. Misrepresenting the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Messerschmid


    Full Text Available This article advances a critique of the UN Economic and Social Commission for West Asia’s (ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan River Basin, as contained in its recently published Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. We argue that ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan Basin is marked by serious technical errors and a systematic bias in favour of one riparian, Israel, and against the Jordan River’s four Arab riparians. We demonstrate this in relation to ESCWA’s account of the political geography of the Jordan River Basin, which foregrounds Israel and its perspectives and narratives; in relation to hydrology, where Israel’s contribution to the basin is overstated, whilst that of Arab riparians is understated; and in relation to development and abstraction, where Israel’s transformation and use of the basin are underplayed, while Arab impacts are exaggerated. Taken together, this bundle of misrepresentations conveys the impression that it is Israel which is the main contributor to the Jordan River Basin, Arab riparians its chief exploiters. This impression is, we argue, not just false but also surprising, given that the Inventory is in the name of an organisation of Arab states. The evidence discussed here provides a striking illustration of how hegemonic hydro-political narratives are reproduced, including by actors other than basin hegemons themselves.

  9. 78 FR 19988 - Safety Zone; BWRC Spring Classic, Parker, AZ (United States)


    ...) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision authorizes an agency to... Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide the Coast Guard in...

  10. Circumvention of Parker's bound on galactic magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.; Maryland Univ., College Park


    There is a possibility that a magnetic monopole has been observed. The monopole density implied by the observation appears to violate bounds on the density of such particles derived from the total mass density of the Universe and from the existence of galactic magnetic fields. It is shown that the observation is not inconsistent with these bounds if the monopoles and antimonopoles are bound into positronium like states with principal quantum n high enough so that the Earth's magnetic field will break them apart, but small enough so that the weaker galactic magnetic field will not. A range of values for n are determined and show that lifetimes for such bound states are longer than the current age of the Universe. (author)

  11. Mälestused kolmest Nõmme majast / Vaike Parker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parker, Vaike, 1927-2012


    Autor meenutab elu ning inimesi Nõmmel, põhjalikumalt on juttu Nikolai von Glehni rajatud postkontori hoonest aadressil Jaama 14, K. Dulderile kuulunud ja F. H. Wendachi projekteeritud Jaama 11 asuvast hoonest ning E. Velbri projekteeritud Mängu 18 asuvast elamust

  12. Psychotropic prescribing in HIV | Parker | Southern African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of psychiatric medication in patients with HIV infection is a complex area, but given the high rates of psychiatric disorder in this population – possibly as high as 50%1 – it deserves further consideration. A number of issues need to be thought about, including the nature of both the psychiatric illness and the HIV ...

  13. Francis Wayland Parker's Morning Exercise and the Progressive Movement (United States)

    Schmitt, Natalie Crohn


    In the progressive era, the distinguished political scientist Robert Putnam explains, progressives invested heavily in "social capital," that is, in the stock of active connections, social networks, shared values, norms of reciprocity, trustworthiness, and friendship that bind people together (Putnam 2000, 395). They were, he argues,…

  14. Possible circumvention of Parker's bound on galactic magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.


    There is a possibility that a magnetic monople has observed. The monopole density implied by the observation appears to violate bounds on the density of such particles derived from the total mass density of the universe and from the existence of galactic magnetic fields. We show that the observation is not inconsistent with these bounds if the monopoles and antimonopoles are bound into positronium - like states with principal quantum n high enough so that the earth's magnetic field will break them apart, but small enough so that the weaker galactic mangetic field will not. We determine a range of values for n and show that lifetimes for such bound states are longer than the current age of the universe

  15. Synchronisation and stability in river metapopulation networks. (United States)

    Yeakel, J D; Moore, J W; Guimarães, P R; de Aguiar, M A M


    Spatial structure in landscapes impacts population stability. Two linked components of stability have large consequences for persistence: first, statistical stability as the lack of temporal fluctuations; second, synchronisation as an aspect of dynamic stability, which erodes metapopulation rescue effects. Here, we determine the influence of river network structure on the stability of riverine metapopulations. We introduce an approach that converts river networks to metapopulation networks, and analytically show how fluctuation magnitude is influenced by interaction structure. We show that river metapopulation complexity (in terms of branching prevalence) has nonlinear dampening effects on population fluctuations, and can also buffer against synchronisation. We conclude by showing that river transects generally increase synchronisation, while the spatial scale of interaction has nonlinear effects on synchronised dynamics. Our results indicate that this dual stability - conferred by fluctuation and synchronisation dampening - emerges from interaction structure in rivers, and this may strongly influence the persistence of river metapopulations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Priority River Metrics for Urban Residents of the Santa Cruz River Watershed (United States)

    Indicator selection is a persistent question in river and stream assessment and management. We employ qualitative research techniques to identify features of rivers and streams important to urban residents recruited from the general public in the Santa Cruz watershed. Interviews ...

  17. New River Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River). (United States)


    further downstream before merging with the Agua Fria River. 6 Site Geology 2.08 The geological formations present within the project area consist...sampling and in- situ density testing using the sand displacement 11 or large-scale water displacement method. Dozer trenches TT82-1 and TT82-6 were excavated...underlying the valley or may, due to its pervasiveness, represent an in situ weathering product of the buried bedrock. 4.18 Because of the magnitude

  18. Flood characteristics for the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.; Cunningham, M.K.


    The frequency and magnitude of flooding of the New River in the New River Gorge National River was studied. A steady-state, one-dimensional flow model was applied to the study reach. Rating curves, cross sections, and Manning's roughness coefficients that were used are presented in this report. Manning's roughness coefficients were evaluated by comparing computed elevations (from application of the steady-state, one-dimensional flow model) to rated elevations at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations and miscellaneous-rating sites. Manning's roughness coefficients ranged from 0.030 to 0.075 and varied with hydraulic depth. The 2-, 25-, and 100-year flood discharges were esti- mated on the basis of information from flood- insurance studies of Summers County, Fayette County, and the city of Hinton, and flood-frequency analysis of discharge records for the USGS streamflow-gaging stations at Hinton and Thurmond. The 100-year discharge ranged from 107,000 cubic feet per second at Hinton to 150,000 cubic feet per second at Fayette.

  19. Classification of Tropical River Using Chemometrics Technique: Case Study in Pahang River, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman


    River classification is very important to know the river characteristic in study areas, where this database can help to understand the behaviour of the river. This article discusses about river classification using Chemometrics techniques in mainstream of Pahang River. Based on river survey, GIS and Remote Sensing database, the chemometric analysis techniques have been used to identify the cluster on the Pahang River using Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA). Calibration and validation process using Discriminant Analysis (DA) has been used to confirm the HACA result. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) study to see the strong coefficient where the Pahang River has been classed. The results indicated the main of Pahang River has been classed to three main clusters as upstream, middle stream and downstream. Base on DA analysis, the calibration and validation model shows 100 % convinced. While the PCA indicates there are three variables that have a significant correlation, domination slope with R"2 0.796, L/D ratio with R"2 -0868 and sinuosity with R"2 0.557. Map of the river classification with moving class also was produced. Where the green colour considered in valley erosion zone, yellow in a low terrace of land near the channels and red colour class in flood plain and valley deposition zone. From this result, the basic information can be produced to understand the characteristics of the main Pahang River. This result is important to local authorities to make decisions according to the cluster or guidelines for future study in Pahang River, Malaysia specifically and for Tropical River generally. The research findings are important to local authorities by providing basic data as a guidelines to the integrated river management at Pahang River, and Tropical River in general. (author)

  20. Urban river design and aesthetics: A river restoration case study from the UK


    Prior, Jonathan


    This paper analyses the restoration of an urbanized section of the River Skerne where it flows through a suburb of Darlington, England; a project which was one of the first comprehensive urban river restorations undertaken in the UK. It is shown how aesthetic values were central to the identification of the River Skerne as a site for restoration, the production of restoration objectives, and a design vision of urban river renewal via restoration. Secondly, the means by which these aesthetic v...

  1. River flow controls on tides an tide-mean water level profiles in a tidel freshwater river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.


    [1] Tidal rivers feature oscillatory and steady gradients in the water surface, controlled by interactions between river flow and tides. The river discharge attenuates the tidal motion, and tidal motion increases tidal-mean friction in the river, which may act as a barrier to the river discharge.

  2. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)


    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  3. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.


    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  4. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)


    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  5. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.


    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separations operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  6. VT River Restoration Data in Lamoille County (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Documented river and riparian buffer restoration projects in Lamoille County, Vermont. Restoration includes buffer plantings (trees and shrubs),...

  7. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  8. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)


    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  9. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.


    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  10. Bathymetric surveys of the Neosho River, Spring River, and Elk River, northeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Missouri, 2016–17 (United States)

    Hunter, Shelby L.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod


    In February 2017, the Grand River Dam Authority filed to relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The predominant feature of the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project is Pensacola Dam, which impounds Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees (locally called Grand Lake) in northeastern Oklahoma. Identification of information gaps and assessment of project effects on stakeholders are central aspects of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process. Some upstream stakeholders have expressed concerns about the dynamics of sedimentation and flood flows in the transition zone between major rivers and Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees. To relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the hydraulic models for these rivers require high-resolution bathymetric data along the river channels. In support of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand River Dam Authority, performed bathymetric surveys of (1) the Neosho River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, (2) the Spring River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, and (3) the Elk River from Noel, Missouri, to the Oklahoma State Highway 10 bridge near Grove, Oklahoma. The Neosho River and Spring River bathymetric surveys were performed from October 26 to December 14, 2016; the Elk River bathymetric survey was performed from February 27 to March 21, 2017. Only areas inundated during those periods were surveyed.The bathymetric surveys covered a total distance of about 76 river miles and a total area of about 5 square miles. Greater than 1.4 million bathymetric-survey data points were used in the computation and interpolation of bathymetric-survey digital elevation models and derived contours at 1-foot (ft) intervals. The minimum bathymetric-survey elevation of the Neosho

  11. Comparative Research on River Basin Management in the Sagami River Basin (Japan and the Muda River Basin (Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Mei Sim


    Full Text Available In the world, river basins often interwoven into two or more states or prefectures and because of that, disputes over water are common. Nevertheless, not all shared river basins are associated with water conflicts. Rivers in Japan and Malaysia play a significant role in regional economic development. They also play a significant role as water sources for industrial, domestic, agricultural, aquaculture, hydroelectric power generation, and the environment. The research aim is to determine the similarities and differences between the Sagami and Muda River Basins in order to have a better understanding of the governance needed for effectively implementing the lessons drawn from the Sagami River Basin for improving the management of the Muda River Basin in Malaysia. This research adopts qualitative and quantitative approaches. Semi-structured interviews were held with the key stakeholders from both basins and show that Japan has endeavored to present policy efforts to accommodate the innovative approaches in the management of their water resources, including the establishment of a river basin council. In Malaysia, there is little or no stakeholder involvement in the Muda River Basin, and the water resource management is not holistic and is not integrated as it should be. Besides that, there is little or no Integrated Resources Water Management, a pre-requisite for sustainable water resources. The results from this comparative study concluded that full support and participation from public stakeholders (meaning the non-government and non-private sector stakeholders is vital for achieving sustainable water use in the Muda River Basin. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM approaches such as the introduction of payments for ecosystems services and the development of river basin organization in the Muda River Basin should take place in the spirit of political willingness.

  12. 78 FR 36658 - Safety Zone; Delaware River Waterfront Corp. Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Camden, NJ (United States)


    ... portion of the Delaware River from operating while a fireworks event is taking place. This temporary...-AA00 Safety Zone; Delaware River Waterfront Corp. Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Camden, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary...

  13. 78 FR 22423 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset, MA (United States)


    ... Operation Regulations; Taunton River, Fall River and Somerset, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is issuing a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Brightman Street Bridge across the Taunton River...

  14. River-tide dynamics : Exploration of nonstationary and nonlinear tidal behavior in the Yangtze River estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, L.; Van der Wegen, M.; Jay, D.A.; Matte, P.; Wang, Z.B.; Roelvink, J.A.; He, Q.


    River-tide dynamics remain poorly understood, in part because conventional harmonic analysis (HA) does not cope effectively with nonstationary signals. To explore nonstationary behavior of river tides and the modulation effects of river discharge, this work analyzes tidal signals in the Yangtze

  15. Rivers running deep : complex flow and morphology in the Mahakam River, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.


    Rivers in tropical regions often challenge our geomorphological understanding of fluvial systems. Hairpin bends, natural scours, bifurcate meander bends, tie channels and embayments in the river bank are a few examples of features ubiquitous in tropical rivers. Existing observation techniques

  16. 76 FR 24914 - Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River, Inc., Including Workers... (United States)


    ... Digital River Education Services acquired Journey Education Marketing (JEM) in August 2010. Some workers... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,975] Digital River Education Services, Inc., a Division of Digital River, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI...

  17. Return to the river: strategies for salmon restoration in the Columbia River Basin. (United States)

    Richard N. Williams; Jack A. Standford; James A. Lichatowich; William J. Liss; Charles C. Coutant; Willis E. McConnaha; Richard R. Whitney; Phillip R. Mundy; Peter A. Bisson; Madison S. Powell


    The Columbia River today is a great "organic machine" (White 1995) that dominates the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Even though natural attributes remain—for example, salmon production in Washington State's Hanford Reach, the only unimpounded reach of the mainstem Columbia River—the Columbia and Snake River mainstems are dominated...

  18. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of...

  19. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA (United States)


    ... scenario with potential for loss of life and property. Basis and Purpose The New Hope Chamber of Commerce... to protect life and property operating on the navigable waterways of the Delaware River in New Hope...-AA00 Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast...

  20. The Influence of Water Conservancy Projects on River Network Connectivity, A Case of Luanhe River Basin (United States)

    Li, Z.; Li, C.


    Connectivity is one of the most important characteristics of a river, which is derived from the natural water cycle and determine the renewability of river water. The water conservancy project can change the connectivity of natural river networks, and directly threaten the health and stability of the river ecosystem. Based on the method of Dendritic Connectivity Index (DCI), the impacts from sluices and dams on the connectivity of river network are deeply discussed herein. DCI quantitatively evaluate the connectivity of river networks based on the number of water conservancy facilities, the connectivity of fish and geographical location. The results show that the number of water conservancy facilities and their location in the river basin have a great influence on the connectivity of the river network. With the increase of the number of sluices and dams, DCI is decreasing gradually, but its decreasing range is becoming smaller and smaller. The dam located in the middle of the river network cuts the upper and lower parts of the whole river network, and destroys the connectivity of the river network more seriously. Therefore, this method can be widely applied to the comparison of different alternatives during planning of river basins and then provide a reference for the site selection and design of the water conservancy project and facility concerned.

  1. 77 FR 23658 - Six Rivers National Forest, Gasquet Ranger District, California, The Smith River National... (United States)


    ... National Forest, Gasquet Ranger District, California, The Smith River National Recreation Area [email protected] . Please insure that ``Smith River NRA Restoration and Motorized Travel Management'' occurs... UARs totaling 80 miles. The project encompasses the Smith River NRA and Gasquet Ranger District...

  2. Effects of urbanization on river morphology of the Talar River, Mazandarn Province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, Saleh; Moradi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Navratil, Oldrich; Hooke, Janet


    In the present study, we investigate the effects of urbanization growth on river morphology in the downstream part of Talar River, east of Mazandaran Province, Iran. Morphological and morphometric parameters in 10 equal sub-reaches were defined along a 11.5 km reach of the Talar River after land

  3. Sediment Size Distribution at Three Rivers with Different Types of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    sediment size distribution based on land use is very crucial in river maintenance. ... a basis for river catchment management study and can be used by river management .... small. In this case, the difference between upstream and downstream ...

  4. Sewage discharges and nutrient levels in Marimba River, Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sewage discharges and nutrient levels in Marimba River, Zimbabwe. ... Population distribution, land-use, industrial activity, urban agricultural ... River, one of the major inflow rivers into the Lake Chivero, Harare city\\'s main water supply source.

  5. River classification is important for reporting ecological status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River classification is important for reporting ecological status and for the general ecological management of river systems by partitioning natural variability. A priori river classification by abiotic variables and validation of classifications obtained.

  6. Inputs from Indian rivers to the ocean: A synthesis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; George, M.D.; SenGupta, R.

    ). Fluxes of chemical substances to the Indian Ocean from these rivers are computed to a first approximation. The major ion contents are inversely proportional to the river runoff especially for the rivers entering the Arabian Sea. On an average Indian...

  7. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.


    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  8. Flood of August 24–25, 2016, Upper Iowa River and Turkey River, northeastern Iowa (United States)

    Linhart, S. Mike; O'Shea, Padraic S.


    Major flooding occurred August 24–25, 2016, in the Upper Iowa River Basin and Turkey River Basin in northeastern Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region. About 8 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 4 p.m., August 24, at Decorah, Iowa, and about 6 inches of rain were recorded for the 24-hour period ending at 7 a.m., August 24, at Cresco, Iowa, about 14 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa. A maximum peak-of-record discharge of 38,000 cubic feet per second in the Upper Iowa River at streamgage 05388250 Upper Iowa River near Dorchester, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at six locations along the Upper Iowa River between State Highway 26 near the mouth at the Mississippi River and State Highway 76 about 3.5 miles south of Dorchester, Iowa, a distance of 15 river miles. Along the profiled reach of the Turkey River, a maximum peak-of-record discharge of 15,300 cubic feet per second at streamgage 05411600 Turkey River at Spillville, Iowa, occurred on August 24, 2016, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 1–2 percent. A maximum peak discharge of 35,700 cubic feet per second occurred on August 25, 2016, along the profiled reach of the Turkey River at streamgage 05411850 Turkey River near Eldorado, Iowa, with an annual exceedance-probability range of 0.2–1 percent. High-water marks were measured at 11 locations along the Turkey River between County Road B64 in Elgin and 220th Street, located about 4.5 miles northwest of Spillville, Iowa, a distance of 58 river miles. The high-water marks were used to develop flood profiles for the Upper Iowa River and Turkey River.

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Upper Mississippi River: Transport, processing, and effects on the river ecosystem (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Richardson, W.B.


    Existing research on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) can be organized into the following categories: (1) Long-term changes in nutrient concentrations and export, and their causes; (2) Nutrient cycling within the river; (3) Spatial and temporal patterns of river nutrient concentrations; (4) Effects of elevated nutrient concentrations on the river; and (5) Actions to reduce river nutrient concentrations and flux. Nutrient concentration and flux in the Mississippi River have increased substantially over the last century because of changes in land use, climate, hydrology, and river management and engineering. As in other large floodplain rivers, rates of processes that cycle nitrogen and phosphorus in the UMR exhibit pronounced spatial and temporal heterogeneity because of the complex morphology of the river. This spatial variability in nutrient processing creates clear spatial patterns in nutrient concentrations. For example, nitrate concentrations generally are much lower in off-channel areas than in the main channel. The specifics of in-river nutrient cycling and the effects of high rates of nutrient input on UMR have been less studied than the factors affecting nutrient input to the river and transport to the Gulf of Mexico, and important questions concerning nutrient cycling in the UMR remain. Eutrophication and resulting changes in river productivity have only recently been investigated the UMR. These recent studies indicate that the high nutrient concentrations in the river may affect community composition of aquatic vegetation (e. g., the abundance of filamentous algae and duckweeds), dissolved oxygen concentrations in off-channel areas, and the abundance of cyanobacteria. Actions to reduce nutrient input to the river include changes in land-use practices, wetland restoration, and hydrological modifications to the river. Evidence suggests that most of the above methods can contribute to reducing nutrient concentration in

  10. Radio cobalt in French rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrechts, A.; Baudin-Jaulent, Y.


    The isotopes 58 and 60 of cobalt present in liquid wastes from nuclear plants or from fuel reprocessing plant of Marcoule are fixed in the different compartments of French rivers. The activity levels of radio-cobalt vary according to the sampled compartments nature (bryophyta > immersed plants > sediment > fish). Elsewhere, laboratory experimentations show that the contamination of fish occurs essentially from the water way rather than from food. Cobalt is mainly fixed by kidneys; muscles is no more than 30 % of the total fish activity. (author)

  11. Savannah River Site dose control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.S.


    Health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) visited the Savannah River Site (SRS) as one of 12 facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) contractors with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). Their charter was to review, evaluate and summarize as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) techniques, methods and practices as implemented. This presentation gives an overview of the two selected ALARA practices implemented at the SRS: Administrative Exposure Limits and Goal Setting. These dose control methods are used to assure that individual and collective occupational doses are ALARA and within regulatory limits

  12. Inundation risk for embanked rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Strupczewski


    Full Text Available The Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA concentrates on probability distribution of peak flows of flood hydrographs. However, examination of floods that haunted and devastated the large parts of Poland lead us to revision of the views on the assessment of flood risk of Polish rivers. It turned out that flooding is caused not only by the overflow of the levee crest but also due to the prolonged exposure to high water on levees structure causing dangerous leaks and breaches that threaten their total destruction. This is because the levees are weakened by long-lasting water pressure and as a matter of fact their damage usually occurs after the culmination has passed the affected location. The probability of inundation is the total of probabilities of exceeding embankment crest by flood peak and the probability of washout of levees. Therefore, in addition to the maximum flow one should also consider the duration of high waters in a river channel. In the paper the new two-component model of flood dynamics: "Duration of high waters–Discharge Threshold–Probability of non-exceedance" (DqF, with the methodology of its parameter estimation was proposed as a completion to the classical FFA methods. Such a model can estimate the duration of stages (flows of an assumed magnitude with a given probability of exceedance. The model combined with the technical evaluation of the probability of levee breaches due to the duration (d of flow above alarm stage gives the annual probability of inundation caused by the embankment breaking. The results of theoretical investigation were illustrated by a practical example of the model implementation to the series of daily flow of the Vistula River at Szczucin. Regardless of promising results, the method of risk assessment due to prolonged exposure of levees to high water is still in its infancy despite its great cognitive potential and practical importance. Therefore, we would like to point out the need for and usefulness of

  13. The travail of River Bend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.


    This article looks at the attempts by Gulf States Utilities to get the River Bend Nuclear Plant into its rate base. The review begins with the initial filing of rate cases in Texas and Louisiana in 1986 and continues through many court cases and appeals all the way to the Texas Supreme Court. The preferred and preference shareholders now nominally control the company through election of 10 of 15 members of the company's board of directors. This case is used as an argument for deregulation in favor of competition

  14. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River- (United States)

    Kogure, K.


    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  15. Hydrogeological investigations of river bed clogging at a river bank filtration site along the River Warta, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybyłek Jan


    Full Text Available River bank filtration (RBF is a system that enriches groundwater resources by induced infiltration of river water to an aquifer. Problematic during operation of RBF systems is the deterioration of infiltration effectiveness caused by river bed clogging. This situation was observed in the Krajkowo well field which supplies fresh water to the city of Poznań (Poland during and after the long hydrological drought between the years 1989 and 1992. The present note discusses results of specific hydrogeological research which included drilling of a net of boreholes to a depth of 10 m below river bottom (for sediment sampling as well as for hydrogeological measurements, analyses of grain size distribution and relative density studies. The results obtained have allowed the recognition of the origin of the clogging processes, as well as the documentation of the clogged parts of the river bottom designated for unclogging activities.

  16. Balancing hydropower production and river bed incision in operating a run-of-river hydropower scheme along the River Po (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Dinh, Quang; Bizzi, Simone; Bernardi, Dario; Pavan, Sara; Castelletti, Andrea; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo


    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation, and flood risk mitigation. Reservoir operations are commonly planned in order to maximize these objectives. However reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes causing sediment deficit downstream, altering the flow regime, leading, often, to process of river bed incision: for instance the variations of river cross sections over few years can notably affect hydropower production, flood mitigation, water supply strategies and eco-hydrological processes of the freshwater ecosystem. The river Po (a major Italian river) has experienced severe bed incision in the last decades. For this reason infrastructure stability has been negatively affected, and capacity to derive water decreased, navigation, fishing and tourism are suffering economic damages, not to mention the impact on the environment. Our case study analyzes the management of Isola Serafini hydropower plant located on the main Po river course. The plant has a major impact to the geomorphic river processes downstream, affecting sediment supply, connectivity (stopping sediment upstream the dam) and transport capacity (altering the flow regime). Current operation policy aims at maximizing hydropower production neglecting the effects in term of geomorphic processes. A new improved policy should also consider controlling downstream river bed incision. The aim of this research is to find suitable modeling framework to identify an operating policy for Isola Serafini reservoir able to provide an optimal trade-off between these two conflicting objectives: hydropower production and river bed incision downstream. A multi-objective simulation-based optimization framework is adopted. The operating policy is parameterized as a piecewise linear function and the parameters optimized using an interactive response surface approach. Global and local

  17. Compromised Rivers: Understanding Historical Human Impacts on Rivers in the Context of Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wohl


    Full Text Available A river that preserves a simplified and attractive form may nevertheless have lost function. Loss of function in these rivers can occur because hydrologic and geomorphic processes no longer create and maintain the habitat and natural disturbance regimes necessary for ecosystem integrity. Recognition of compromised river function is particularly important in the context of river restoration, in which the public perception of a river's condition often drives the decision to undertake restoration as well as the decision about what type of restoration should be attempted. Determining the degree to which a river has been altered from its reference condition requires a knowledge of historical land use and the associated effects on rivers. Rivers of the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains in the United States are used to illustrate how historical land uses such as beaver trapping, placer mining, tie drives, flow regulation, and the construction of transportation corridors continue to affect contemporary river characteristics. Ignorance of regional land use and river history can lead to restoration that sets unrealistic goals because it is based on incorrect assumptions about a river's reference condition or about the influence of persistent land-use effects.

  18. Exploring Controls on Sinuousity, Terraces and River Capture in the Upper Dajia River, Taiwan (United States)

    Belliveau, L. C.; Ouimet, W. B.; Chan, Y. C.; Byrne, T. B.


    Taiwan is one of the most tectonically active regions in the world and is prone to landslides due to steep topography, large earthquakes and frequent typhoons. Landslides often affect and alter the river valleys beneath them, producing knickpoints on longitudinal river profiles, segmenting valleys into mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers and affecting river incision for tens to thousands of years. This study investigates the origin and evolution of complex channel morphologies, terraces and river capture along a 20km stretch of the Upper Da-Jia River in the Heping area of Taiwan. Through GIS analysis and field studies, we explore controls on river channel sinuousity, terrace development and river capture in relation to tectonic and climatic forcing, rock erodibility and landslides. High channel sinuousity is proposed as the result of a coupling between bank erosion and landslides. We discuss three types of landslide-induced meanders and increased sinuousity: (a) depositional-push meanders, (b) failure-zone erosional meanders, and (c) complex-erosional meanders. We also investigate spatial variation in channel morphology (slope, width) and the distribution and heights of river terraces within the Upper Da-Jia watershed associated with periods of widespread valley filling from landslide activity. Examples of river capture provide further evidence of the dynamic interactions between river incision, landslides and associated changes in channel morphology and terrace development within steep rapidly uplift, eroding and evolving mountain belts.

  19. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.


    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Limnology of the Touw River floodplain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Allanson, BR


    Full Text Available stream_source_info THE LIMNOLOGY OF THE TOUW RIVER FLOODPLAIN.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 41 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name THE LIMNOLOGY OF THE TOUW RIVER FLOODPLAIN.pdf.txt Content-Type text.../plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. 33 CFR 117.1087 - Fox River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fox River. 117.1087 Section 117.1087 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1087 Fox River. (a) The draws of the Canadian...

  2. Determination of characteristics maximal runoff Mountain Rivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovcharuk V and Todorova O

    Odessa State Environmental University, Ukraine. Received: 03 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2016 / Published online: 01 May 2016. ABSTRACT. This article has been examined maximum runoff of the rivers of the Crimean Mountains. The rivers flow through the western and eastern part of the northern slope Crimean ...

  3. Vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fieldwork to study the vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptilia levaillantoides was conducted on a farm in the Heidelberg district, Gauteng province, South Africa, during August 2009 to March 2011. Orange River Francolins possess a basic repertoire of seven calls and one mechanical sound. From 83 ...

  4. 33 CFR 117.385 - Snake River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake River. 117.385 Section 117.385 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Idaho § 117.385 Snake River. The drawspan of the U.S. 12 bridge...

  5. Advances in understanding river-groundwater interactions (United States)

    Brunner, Philip; Therrien, René; Renard, Philippe; Simmons, Craig T.; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks


    River-groundwater interactions are at the core of a wide range of major contemporary challenges, including the provision of high-quality drinking water in sufficient quantities, the loss of biodiversity in river ecosystems, or the management of environmental flow regimes. This paper reviews state of the art approaches in characterizing and modeling river and groundwater interactions. Our review covers a wide range of approaches, including remote sensing to characterize the streambed, emerging methods to measure exchange fluxes between rivers and groundwater, and developments in several disciplines relevant to the river-groundwater interface. We discuss approaches for automated calibration, and real-time modeling, which improve the simulation and understanding of river-groundwater interactions. Although the integration of these various approaches and disciplines is advancing, major research gaps remain to be filled to allow more complete and quantitative integration across disciplines. New possibilities for generating realistic distributions of streambed properties, in combination with more data and novel data types, have great potential to improve our understanding and predictive capabilities for river-groundwater systems, especially in combination with the integrated simulation of the river and groundwater flow as well as calibration methods. Understanding the implications of different data types and resolution, the development of highly instrumented field sites, ongoing model development, and the ultimate integration of models and data are important future research areas. These developments are required to expand our current understanding to do justice to the complexity of natural systems.

  6. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M


    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is focused primarily on support of the national defense, nonproliferation, and environmental cleanup. SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program.

  7. Climate influences on Vaal River flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 2, 2016 ... enriched NW-cloud bands over the Vaal River catchment, during the flood case study of January 2010. Comparison of. (Pacific) Southern Oscillation and east Atlantic influence on Vaal River discharge reveals the former drives evaporative losses while the latter provides an advance warning of flow ...

  8. Thinking big: linking rivers to landscapes (United States)

    Joan O’Callaghan; Ashley E. Steel; Kelly M. Burnett


    Exploring relationships between landscape characteristics and rivers is an emerging field, enabled by the proliferation of satellite date, advances in statistical analysis, and increased emphasis on large-scale monitoring. Landscapes features such as road networks, underlying geology, and human developments, determine the characteristics of the rivers flowing through...

  9. Environmental protection in the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, G.


    One of a series of articles on the work of the Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region (OSS) and its Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute (ARRRI), this discusses the environmental protection function of the OSS and the role of the ARRRI in achieving this

  10. Analysis of Cruise Tourism on Croatian Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zekić


    Full Text Available Cruise trips have been rising in popularity since the 1970sand are currently a trend in the tourism market. This is particularly true of river cruises, which record a constant growth in the number of ship calls. The general upward trend in the number of river cruise passengers and dockings is also present in Croatia. Prerequisites for the development of cruising on Croatian rivers include, in addition to other geographical features, also the length of navigable water ways, but a systematic approach to this issue is needed for further development. The authors investigate the level of development of infrastructure on Croatian rivers and analyse the passenger and ship traffic on them. Special attention is given to the importance of cruises for tourism on European rivers and worldwide. In accordance with the Croatian Tourism Development Strategy until 2020, the authors explore geographical and other conditions necessary for the development of river cruise tourism. The aim of the paper is to point to the importance of building infrastructure for accommodation of vessels sailing on Croatian rivers, and in particular to the need to improve tourism offer in river destinations.

  11. 33 CFR 117.263 - Banana River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River. 117.263 Section 117.263 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.263 Banana River. (a) The draw of the Mathers (SR...

  12. Policy and Practice – River Basins

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ms Suruchi Bhadwal

    nature of rivers in the northern belt- inextricably linked. Exacerbated water stress in some areas. Increasing demands – food and drinking water needs. Socioeconomics. CC Impacts. Glacier-fed basins in the. North. Glacier melt and river flooding,. GLOFs, landslides. Unique socio-cultural settings and political differences.

  13. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.


    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  14. 33 CFR 117.457 - Houston River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houston River. 117.457 Section 117.457 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.457 Houston River. The draw of the...

  15. Restoring Oaks in the Missouri River Floodplain (United States)

    Dan Dey; John Kabrick; Jennifer Grabner; Mike Gold


    Restoration of native vegetation and hydrologic regimes in the Mississippi and Missouri River floodplains is problematic because they are among the most altered ecosystems in North America (Noss et al. 1995), and because of the competing demands placed on these river ecosystems by commercial, private and social interests. Since the 1780s, more than half (53 percent) of...

  16. Experiments on sediment pulses in mountain rivers (United States)

    Y. Cui; T. E. Lisle; J. E. Pizzuto; G. Parker


    Pulses of sediment can be introduced into mountain rivers from such mechanisms as debris flows, landslides and fans at tributary confluences. These processes can be natural or associated with the activities of humans, as in the case of a pulse created by sediment derived from timber harvest or the removal of a dam. How does the river digest these pulses?

  17. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, M.


    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is focused primarily on support of the national defense, nonproliferation, and environmental cleanup. SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program

  18. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    Water quality (pH, suspended solids, chlorides, DO, BOD, reactive and total phosphorus, nitrates and boron) of River Damanganga which receives 0.2 mld of industrial waste into its fresh water zone through Pimparia River and 3.7 mld in its tidal zone...

  19. Yukon River King Salmon - Ichthyophonus Pilot Study (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.


    When king salmon enter the Yukon River on their spawning migration in mid June, over 25% of the population are infected with Ichthyophonus. The percent of infected fish remains relatively constant until the fish pass river mile 1,319 at Dawson, Y.T., then it drops to 13% when they reach river mile 1,745 at Whitehorse, Y.T. When the sexes are examined separately, slightly more females are infected than males (29% vs 22%). The percent of fish exhibiting clinical signs (diseased) is 2-3% when they enter the river, but increases to over 20% at river mile 715 near Tanana, AK. Disease prevalence within the population remains constant at >20% until fish pass Dawson, then the percent of diseased fish drops to <9% at Whitehorse. When the sexes are examined separately, male disease prevalence is highest at Tanana (22.6%) then gradually drops to just 12.9% at Whitehorse. Females however, continue to show an increase in disease prevalence peaking at river mile 1,081 near Circle, AK, at 36.4%, then dropping to just 5.3% at Whitehorse. Data on infection and disease collected from kings at Nenana on the Tanana River more closely resembles that seen at Whitehorse than the lower and middle Yukon River.

  20. Multielement analysis of water in Yodo River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Matsuda, Yatsuka


    Yodo River is a major source of water supplies in the Osaka district. Three tributaries including Katsura River flow into this river at close positions. It is known that the Katsura River is considerably polluted due to the sewage treatment in Kyoto City. Following the previous survey in September, 1970, a similar survey by neutron activation has been carried out on the pollution of the Yodo River in October, 1977, by increasing the number of sampling points. Because it is reported that the pollution of the Katsura River has been largely lowered from that in the previous survey, the purpose was to grasp the present situation of the water pollution of the Yodo River due to metal elemens and others, and further to examine in relation of material balance. The procedures used were, first, the evaporation and solidification of sample water, and then neutron activation analysis. The correlation among the concentrations of elements, the pattern of the concentrations of elements, the material balance along the Yodo River, etc. are described in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  1. 33 CFR 117.925 - Cooper River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.925 Section 117.925 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.925 Cooper River. The draw of the Seaboard...

  2. 33 CFR 117.713 - Cooper River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.713 Section 117.713 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.713 Cooper River. (a) The drawspans for the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.1095 - Root River. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Root River. 117.1095 Section 117.1095 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1095 Root River. (a) The draw of the Main Street...

  4. River meander modeling of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.; Boldt, Justin A.


    Natural river channels continually evolve and change shape over time. As a result, channel evolution or migration can cause problems for bridge structures that are fixed in the flood plain. A once-stable bridge structure that was uninfluenced by a river’s shape could be encroached upon by a migrating river channel. The potential effect of the actively meandering Wabash River on the Interstate 64 Bridge at the border with Indiana near Grayville, Illinois, was studied using a river migration model called RVR Meander. RVR Meander is a toolbox that can be used to model river channel meander migration with physically based bank erosion methods. This study assesses the Wabash River meandering processes through predictive modeling of natural meandering over the next 100 years, climate change effects through increased river flows, and bank protection measures near the Interstate 64 Bridge.

  5. Industrial pollution and the management of river water quality: a model of Kelani River, Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Gunawardena, Asha; Wijeratne, E M S; White, Ben; Hailu, Atakelty; Pandit, Ram


    Water quality of the Kelani River has become a critical issue in Sri Lanka due to the high cost of maintaining drinking water standards and the market and non-market costs of deteriorating river ecosystem services. By integrating a catchment model with a river model of water quality, we developed a method to estimate the effect of pollution sources on ambient water quality. Using integrated model simulations, we estimate (1) the relative contribution from point (industrial and domestic) and non-point sources (river catchment) to river water quality and (2) pollutant transfer coefficients for zones along the lower section of the river. Transfer coefficients provide the basis for policy analyses in relation to the location of new industries and the setting of priorities for industrial pollution control. They also offer valuable information to design socially optimal economic policy to manage industrialized river catchments.

  6. Radioactivity in Orontes river environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Abba, A.; Al-Hishari, M.; Berakdar, I.


    Syrian phosphate industry is considered to be one of the main sources of pollutants at the most important water resources of the middle region viz. Orontes river and Quttina lake. The main environmental concern associated with this industry in connection to radioactive contamination is the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U, 226 Ra and their daughters. The impact of this industry on Orontes environment has been investigated. Water, particulates, sediments and plants from seven locations along the Orontes River have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity. The results have shown a clear signal enhancement of natural radionuclides such as 226 Ra, 238 U and 210 Po in those samples collected from sites close to the factory. This enhancement was found to be due to phosphate factory discharges viz. Dust, liquid influents and phosphogypsum piles situated in the area. In addition, an increase in the concentrations of these radionuclides was also observed in other samples where the applications of phosphate fertilizers which contain relatively higher levels of 226 Ra (225 Bq/kg), 238 U (444 Bq/kg) and 210 (220 Bq/kg) being the main source of enhancement. However, the obtained levels of radioactivity are still lower than those reported in other areas in the world where similar source of contamination is presented. (author)

  7. The social connectivity of urban rivers (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Pinto, Pedro J.


    By social connectivity we refer to the communication and movement of people, goods, ideas, and culture along and across rivers, recognizing longitudinal, lateral, and vertical connectivity, much as has been described for other rivers for hydrology and ecology. We focus on rivers as they pass through cities, and the relationships between these rivers and city dwellers. Historically, the most important longitudinal connectivity function of rivers was their role as major transport routes and the simplification of formerly complex, irregular banks and beds, into straight, uniform shipping channels has resulted in a loss of lateral and vertical connectivity, notably the quotidian uses such as fishing, washing clothes, water supply, swimming and other recreation. The scale of the river itself, and its scale in comparison to the scale of the city, largely determine the river's social function and the degree to which it influences city form. River width affects the perception of 'closeness' of the other bank, ease of bridging the river, influence of the river on the city's street pattern, and type of waterfront uses that occur. Up to 15 m wide, people can converse, whereas across rivers 50 to 200 m wide, people are not recognizable but still clearly visible, instilling the banks with a 'lively' atmosphere. At widths over 200 m, people blur, yet moving vehicles and trees branches shaking in wind may still provide some dynamic elements to an otherwise static landscape composed of building facades. In exceptionally wide rivers, the city on the opposite bank is little more than a skyline, which often becomes a signature and symbol of regional identity. In contemplating how people use rivers, we can define a range of human activities in relation to height above the water (i.e., instream to banktop), a vertical dimension of human connectivity with rivers. Many uses occur on the top of the bank, such as quiet contemplation, walking, or cycling along a riverside trail, while

  8. Studies of Columbia River water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Johanson, P.A.; Baca, R.G.; Hilty, E.L.


    The program to study the water quality of the Columbia River consists of two separate segments: sediment and radionuclide transport and temperature analysis. Quasi-two dimensional (longitudinal and vertical directions) mathematical simulation models were developed for determining radionuclide inventories, their variations with time, and movements of sediments and individual radionuclides in the freshwater region of the Columbia River below Priest Rapids Dam. These codes are presently being applied to the river reach between Priest Rapids and McNary Dams for the initial sensitivity analysis. In addition, true two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral directions) models were formulated and are presently being programmed to provide more detailed information on sediment and radionuclide behavior in the river. For the temperature analysis program, river water temperature data supplied by the U. S. Geological Survey for six ERDA-sponsored temperature recording stations have been analyzed and cataloged on storage devices associated with ERDA's CDC 6600 located at Richland, Washington

  9. Preface to the volume Large Rivers (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Abad, Jorge D.


    The study and knowledge of the geomorphology of large rivers increased significantly during the last years and the factors that triggered these advances are multiple. On one hand, modern technologies became more accessible and their disseminated usage allowed the collection of data from large rivers as never seen before. The generalized use of high tech data collection with geophysics equipment such as acoustic Doppler current profilers-ADCPs, multibeam echosounders, plus the availability of geospatial and computational tools for morphodynamics, hydrological and hydrosedimentological modeling, have accelerated the scientific production on the geomorphology of large rivers at a global scale. Despite the advances, there is yet a lot of work ahead. Good parts of the large rivers are in the tropics and many are still unexplored. The tropics also hold crucial fluvial basins that concentrate good part of the gross domestic product of large countries like the Parana River in Argentina and Brazil, the Ganges-Brahmaputra in India, the Indus River in Pakistan, and the Mekong River in several countries of South East Asia. The environmental importance of tropical rivers is also outstanding. They hold the highest biodiversity of fluvial fauna and alluvial vegetation and many of them, particularly those in Southeast Asia, are among the most hazardous systems for floods in the entire world. Tropical rivers draining mountain chains such as the Himalaya, the Andes and insular Southeast Asia are also among the most heavily sediment loaded rivers and play a key role in both the storage of sediment at continental scale and the transference of sediments from the continent to the Ocean at planetary scale (Andermann et al., 2012; Latrubesse and Restrepo, 2014; Milliman and Syvitski, 1992; Milliman and Farsnworth, 2011; Sinha and Friend, 1994).

  10. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers. (United States)

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A


    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biotech/GM crops in horticulture: plum cv. HoneySweet resistant to plum pox virus (United States)

    Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. By 2011, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha. Only 114.507 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.490 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Currently, developing c...

  12. Trends in the occurrence of human and veterinary antibiotics in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijun, Zhou [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jianliang, Zhao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jifeng, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Li, Wang; Bin, Yang; Shan, Liu [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)


    The occurrence of four classes of 17 commonly used antibiotics (including fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and macrolides) was investigated in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Higher concentrations were detected for most antibiotics in the sediments of the Hai River than in the sediments of the other rivers. Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline in the three rivers were most frequently detected with concentrations up to 5770, 1290, 653 and 652 ng/g, respectively. High frequencies and concentrations of the detected antibiotics were often found in the downstream of large cities and areas influenced by feedlot and fish ponds. Good fitted linear regression equations between antibiotic concentration and sediment physicochemical properties (TOC, texture and pH) were also found, indicating that sediment properties are important factors influencing the distribution of antibiotics in the sediment of rivers. - Highlights: > Presence of four classes of commonly used antibiotics in the river sediments. > Higher concentrations in the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River. > Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline most frequently detected. > High antibiotic concentrations often found in the downstream of large cities. > River sediments are an important reservoir of antibiotics. - Higher concentrations of selected antibiotics were determined in the sediments of the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River.

  13. Trends in the occurrence of human and veterinary antibiotics in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lijun; Ying Guangguo; Zhao Jianliang; Yang Jifeng; Wang Li; Yang Bin; Liu Shan


    The occurrence of four classes of 17 commonly used antibiotics (including fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and macrolides) was investigated in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Higher concentrations were detected for most antibiotics in the sediments of the Hai River than in the sediments of the other rivers. Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline in the three rivers were most frequently detected with concentrations up to 5770, 1290, 653 and 652 ng/g, respectively. High frequencies and concentrations of the detected antibiotics were often found in the downstream of large cities and areas influenced by feedlot and fish ponds. Good fitted linear regression equations between antibiotic concentration and sediment physicochemical properties (TOC, texture and pH) were also found, indicating that sediment properties are important factors influencing the distribution of antibiotics in the sediment of rivers. - Highlights: → Presence of four classes of commonly used antibiotics in the river sediments. → Higher concentrations in the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River. → Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline most frequently detected. → High antibiotic concentrations often found in the downstream of large cities. → River sediments are an important reservoir of antibiotics. - Higher concentrations of selected antibiotics were determined in the sediments of the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River.

  14. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey


    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  15. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.


    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70 degrees C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams ampersand Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS

  16. Comparison of Therapeutic Effects between Plum-blossom Needle Tapping plus Cupping and Laser Irradiation in the Treatment of Acute Facial Palsy Patients With Concomitant Peri-auricular pain%梅花针叩刺放血与氦氖激光照射治疗面瘫急性期伴耳周疼痛的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠彦; 王艳香


    Objective To compare the therapeutic effects of plum-blossom needle therapy with cupping and laser irradiation in the treatment of acute facial paralysis with ipsilateral peri-auricular pain. Methods Sixty outpatients with acute facial paralysis and ipsilateral peri-auricular pain were divided into plum-blossom needle (treatment) group (n = 28) and laser-irradiation (control) group (n = 32). In the acute stage, patients of the treatment group were treated with plum-blossom needle tapping in combination with cupping at Yifeng (TE 17) and Wangu (GB 12), while those of the control group treated with He-Ne laser irradiation over the same two acupoints until the peri-auricular pain disappeared. The treatment was given once daily. Following disappearance of the pain, routine acupuncture treatment of Yifeng (TE 17). Wangu (GB 12), Dicang (ST 4), etc. Was given continuously to patients of the two groups, once daily for 20 times. The treatment times for healing ipsilateral peri-auricular pain, and the electromyogram (EMG, compound muscle action potential) of the ipsilateral musculus orbicularis oris were recorded. Scores of the facial nerve function were given to House-Brackmann Facial Nerve Grading System. Results The treatment times for healing peri-auricular pain in the treatment group and laser irradiation group were 2. 9 ± 1.0 and 6. 0 ± 2. 2 respectively (f = 6. 816,P = 0. 000). The scores of House-Brackmann scale of the paralyzed side in the treatment group and control group were (3. 3± 1. 5) points and (3. 3 ± 1. 4) points (P>0. 05) before the treatment? (1. 8 ± 1.1) points and (2. 5 ± 1. 2) points (P0. 05) during the first two weeks after onset, and (79. 2±11.3)% and (69. 8±17.9)%(P<0.05)three months after the treatment, respectively. Conclusion Plum-blossom needle tapping plus cupping is significantly superior to that of He-Ne laser irradiation in reducing the treatment sessions for relieving peri-auricular pain during acute stage, and improving facial and

  17. Magpie River Development: Environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, L.A.; Ashwood, K.R.


    The Magpie River development is located near Wawa, Ontario, 250 km north of Sault St. Marie. The unmanned and remotely controlled development consists of three power plants each with reservoir and associated control structures. The plants are equipped with identical single Kaplan units for a total installed capacity of 43 MW. Operation of the plants is automatic, and is governed by a set of Crown conditions, established by the government during project approval stage. The environmental assessment/approval process undertaken for the development is described. Concerns with the project included tourism impact at Magpie Falls, effects of drawdown at Esnagi Lake on recreational fisheries, water quality degradation, protection of riverine fisheries, and native rights. Mitigative measures to address these concerns are described. 7 tabs

  18. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph


    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  19. Reactor loops at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochaski, R.O.


    This report describes broadly the nine in-reactor loops, and their components, located in and around the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River. First an introduction and general description is given of the loops and their function, supplemented with a table outlining some loop specifications and nine simplified flow sheets, one for each individual loop. The report then proceeds to classify each loop into two categories, the 'main loop circuit' and the 'auxiliary circuit', and descriptions are given of each circuit's components in turn. These components, in part, are comprised of the main loop pumps, the test section, loop heaters, loop coolers, delayed-neutron monitors, surge tank, Dowtherm coolers, loop piping. Here again photographs, drawings and tables are included to provide a clearer understanding of the descriptive literature and to include, in tables, some specifications of the more important components in each loop. (author)

  20. Studies on Lyari river effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Hashmi, I.; Rashid, A.; Niaz, G.R.; Khan, F.


    The study was aimed to determining the physical (TS, TSS, TDS, TVS) and chemical (Cl, SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 3/, BOD/sub 5/ COD, DO) characteristics as well as heavy present in the Lyari river effluents so as to identify the extent of pollution. The average results of each parameter of twelve different sites were compared with that of National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), BOD/sub 5/ and COD levels were above the NEQS while the NH/sub 3/-N concentration was low. Concentrations of Cd and Zn were within the range while that of Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu were higher than the NEQS at times. This indicates that heavy pollution load is entering into the Arabian Sea creating tremendous harm especially to marine life. (author)