WorldWideScience

Sample records for park site 36cn164

  1. Parking regulations on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2010-01-01

    The site surveillance service is also responsible for supervising compliance with the parking regulations on the CERN site. In that context, it ensures that the following rules are complied with on the CERN car park: Vehicles may not be left on a CERN car park for longer than 5 consecutive working days. However, CERN users are entitled to leave their vehicles parked at CERN for a longer period in the car park near Building 588 , subject to completing the application form "Demande d'autorisation pour un stationnement de longue durée" (application for a long-term parking permit) and sending it to the Reception and Access Control Service (access.surveillance@cern.ch) prior to departure.   Parking spaces, which are in short supply in many crowded areas of the CERN site, must not be occupied by abandoned vehicles/wrecks. The service organizes the disposal of such vehicles. Any CERN users wishing to get rid of a private vehicle parked on one of the CERN car pa...

  2. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Carr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  3. Rainwater harvesting potential sites at margalla hills national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, B.; Mushtaq, N.; Sial, M.

    2013-01-01

    Life without water is not possible. Adoption of modern lifestyle and increase in population is leading to a water scarce world. The demand of world population cannot be met , which is resulting in increased groundwater abstraction. The world is facing water crisis and Pakistan is no exception. Urban areas of Pakistan are affected badly where extraction is higher while the construction of pavements has disturbed groundwater infiltration. The Federal Capital of Pakistan, Islamabad, is located in Pothohar region of the country and faces severe water shortages, particularly during summers. Extensive drilling by public and private users lowers groundwater table. Satellite imagery of LANDSAT 7 ETM+ and ASTER DEM 30m resolution were used to construct the site suitability map for groundwater recharge of Margalla Hills National Park. Factors considered included land cover, drainage density, elevation and slope. Suitable weight ages were assigned to these factors according to their influence on infiltration in the study area. Groundwater recharge at Margalla Hills National Park will be effective in dealing with water crisis in Islamabad as it will raise groundwater table of the adjacent areas. (author)

  4. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An operator...

  5. A visitor motivational typology at Mapungubwe National Park and World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe P. Hermann

    2016-05-01

    Research purpose: This study aimed to develop a general visitor profile and to describe the motivational factors for visiting the park in order to support the development of tourism at MNP. Motivation of the study: A tourism management plan is required for the park; however, any planning associated planning requires an assessment of tourist behaviour and needs. Research design, approach and method: An online questionnaire was distributed to a database of visitors to MNP during March−April 2013. A total of 486 responses were received. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics through frequencies and means. Motivator constructs were analysed through a factor analysis. Main findings: The study both confirmed and contradicted previous findings from other national parks in terms of visitor profiles and motivations. Most crucially, this study identified a new motivational factor for visiting national parks, which advances the need to manage the heritage aspect of world heritage sites distinctly from national parks. Managerial implications: The results indicated that visitors to MNP were older and better educated compared to visitors at other national parks. These visitors included predominantly first-time visitors. In addition these visitors are mainly motivated by the need for a nature experience, although the park is not a Big 5 reserve, findings also identified heritage and education as a unique motivational factor for this park. Contribution added: The study promotes the requirement of a unique park-specific tourism management strategy for MNP as the market base of this park is demographically distinct. In addition, the park should improve the promotion of its status as a World Heritage asset in relation to its natural attributes in order to attract greater numbers of heritage tourists. Although the park features exceptional natural features, the reserve is not a Big 5 reserve and this may result in dissatisfaction with the major group of visitors seeking a

  6. Al-Zubarah Archaeological Park as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz; Thuesen, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    includes large-scale excavation and heritage work that will develop the site of al-Zubarah into a heritage park, which is at present on the UNESCO World Heritage provisional list. The poster paper presents the strategies for the heritage master plan, including procedures for site management, preservation...

  7. Wilderness stewardship challenges in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja Krüger

    2007-01-01

    The location of the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park wilderness areas along an international border and within a World Heritage Site and Transfrontier Conservation Area, provides unique opportunities and challenges for the stewardship of these areas. Although the wilderness areas were proclaimed more than 30 years ago, wilderness-specific planning, management and monitoring...

  8. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores... -managed. Note: Possible actions to minimize adverse impacts regarding site or material characteristics can...

  9. Comparative simulation of wind park design and siting in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youcef Ettoumi, Fatiha; Adane, Abd El Hamid; Benzaoui, Mohamed Lassaad; Bouzergui, Nabila

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, five typical regions of Algeria where wind is strong enough are selected. These regions usually intended for traditional agriculture are, centred around the towns of Guelma, El Oued, Tindouf, Touggourt and Tamanrasset. To make wind energy conversion available as an alternative energy source for the populations living in such countries, nine types of small and medium wind turbines constructed by American and European manufacturers are studied for their suitability. To account for the wind variations with height, four possible heights of the pylon holding the turbines are considered: 10, 20, 40 and 60 m. In each of the five locations and at each pylon height, wind energy converted by the turbines, is cumulated over the year and computed. Depending on the site and their size, most of these turbines are found to produce about 1000-10,000 MWh of electricity per year at 60 m of altitude and can easily satisfy the electricity need in irrigation and its household applications in rustic and arid regions. A quick glance of the results of the above computation shows that the choice of pylons of 20 m height yields a trade-off between the production of electrical energy and the requirements of economy. Owing to the sporadic wind variations, wind energy conversion systems can only be used as an auxiliary source. In particular, these systems can advantageously be coupled to stand-alone photovoltaic conversion systems in remote locations or connected to the electric mains in urban zones. (author)

  10. Bryant Park as a Site of Production: Revenue and Social Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Kaufman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bryant Park is New York City's only 100% privately funded and managed 'public' park, making it an oft looked-to model of public-private partnerships. This paper examines the everyday workings of the park using ethnographic and archival data, and criminological and urban theory. These details help us understand how Bryant produces a theme-park-like social order in its built environment, landscaping, management, and programming of the park. I suggest that social control functions through five governing principles: visibility, classification, predictability, vulnerability, and empowerment. Everything is neatly classified, from people to activities to trash. Vulnerable design elements like flowers are chosen to suggest the park is cared for. Park-goers are meant to feel not controlled, but in-control; safe, comfortable, and empowered.This elaborate manipulation of semiotics and space serves to produce surplus value for multiple corporate interests involved in and around the park. I argue that the park operates as a site of production of revenue for these corporate interests. I explain how the park is created and marketed as a product itself, which park-goers have an unwitting share in producing. Thus New York’s elite-business community benefits from this nominally public park. Bryant Park es el único parque “público” de la ciudad de Nueva York de financiación y gestión 100% privada, lo que lo convierte a menudo en un ejemplo de partenariados público-privados. Este artículo analiza el funcionamiento cotidiano del parque, utilizando datos etnográficos y de archivo, así como teoría criminológica y urbana. Estos detalles nos ayudan a comprender cómo Bryant produce un orden social dentro del parque en el entorno creado, paisajismo, gestión y programación del parque. Se sugiere que el control social funciona a través de cinco principios de gobierno: visibilidad, clasificación, predicción, vulnerabilidad y empoderamiento. Todo est

  11. Topographic change detection at select archeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert; Dealy, Timothy P.; Bedford, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Human occupation in Grand Canyon, Arizona, dates from at least 11,000 years before present to the modern era. For most of this period, the only evidence of human occupation in this iconic landscape is provided by archeological sites. Because of the dynamic nature of this environment, many archeological sites are subject to relatively rapid topographic change. Quantifying the extent, magnitude, and cause of such change is important for monitoring and managing these archeological sites. Such quantification is necessary to help inform the continuing debate on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of Grand Canyon National Park, are affecting site erosion rates, artifact transport, and archeological resource preservation along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is inherent in the Grand Canyon region, continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Thus, this subject is of considerable interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Understanding the causes and effects of archeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors, including the location, timing, and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rates of change, and the relative contribution of potential causes. These potential causes include sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather and overland flow patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term regional climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar techniques, and building upon three previous surveys of archeological sites performed in 2006 and 2007, we

  12. Topographic Change Detection at Select Archeological Sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Minasian, Diane L.; Kayen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Topographic change of archeological sites within the Colorado River corridor of Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) is a subject of interest to National Park Service managers and other stakeholders in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. Although long-term topographic change resulting from a variety of natural processes is typical in the Grand Canyon region, a continuing debate exists on whether and how controlled releases from Glen Canyon Dam, located immediately upstream of GCNP, are impacting rates of site erosion, artifact transport, and the preservation of archeological resources. Continued erosion of archeological sites threatens both the archeological resources and our future ability to study evidence of past cultural habitation. Understanding the causes and effects of archaeological site erosion requires a knowledge of several factors including the location and magnitude of the changes occurring in relation to archeological resources, the rate of the changes, and the relative contribution of several potential causes, including sediment depletion associated with managed flows from Glen Canyon Dam, site-specific weather patterns, visitor impacts, and long-term climate change. To obtain this information, highly accurate, spatially specific data are needed from sites undergoing change. Using terrestrial lidar data collection techniques and novel TIN- and GRID-based change-detection post-processing methods, we analyzed topographic data for nine archeological sites. The data were collected using three separate data collection efforts spanning 16 months (May 2006 to September 2007). Our results documented positive evidence of erosion, deposition, or both at six of the nine sites investigated during this time interval. In addition, we observed possible signs of change at two of the other sites. Erosion was concentrated in established gully drainages and averaged 12 cm to 17 cm in depth with maximum depths of 50 cm. Deposition was concentrated at specific

  13. Bryant Park as a Site of Production: Revenue and Social Control

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Kaufman

    2015-01-01

    Bryant Park is New York City's only 100% privately funded and managed 'public' park, making it an oft looked-to model of public-private partnerships. This paper examines the everyday workings of the park using ethnographic and archival data, and criminological and urban theory. These details help us understand how Bryant produces a theme-park-like social order in its built environment, landscaping, management, and programming of the park. I suggest that social control functions through five g...

  14. Facilitating the Development and Evaluation of a Citizen Science Web Site: A Case Study of Repeat Photography and Climate Change in Southwest Alaska's National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Karina C.; Newman, Gregory; Thompson, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    Interviews with national park visitors across the country revealed that climate change education through place-based, hands-on learning using repeat photographs and technology is appealing to park visitors. This manuscript provides a summary of the development of a repeat photography citizen science Web site for national parks in Southwest Alaska.…

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Nevada Test Site Development Corporations's Desert Rock Sky Park at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1300) (EA) which analyzes the potential environmental effects of developing operating and maintaining a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site, between Mercury Camp and U.S. Highway 95 and east of Desert Rock Airport. The EA evaluates the potential impacts of infrastructure improvements necessary to support fill build out of the 512-acre Desert Rock Sky Park. Two alternative actions were evaluated: (1) Develop, operate and maintain a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site, and (2) taking no action. The purpose and need for the commercial industrial park are addressed in Section 1.0 of the EA. A detailed description of the proposed action and alternatives is in section 2.0. Section 3.0 describes the affected environment. Section 4.0 the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternative. Cumulative effects are addressed in Section 5.0. Mitigation measures are addressed in Section 6.0. The Department of Energy determined that the proposed action of developing, operating and maintaining a commercial/industrial park in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site would best meet the needs of the agency.

  16. Site surveillance and maintenance program for Palos Park: Report for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1988-04-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Park Forest Preserve area for CY 1987 are presented. The monitoring program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the original radiological characterization of the site. This study had determined that hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) migrated from the burial ground and was present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to (1) determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. The program was designed to study the migration of non-radiological hazardous waste constituents that may have been buried with the radioactive waste. This was done by analyzing borehole water samples for selected heavy metals and organic compounds and analyzing quarterly water samples from the Red Gate Woods picnic well for inorganic constituents. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic well continued to show the same pattern of elevated levels in the winter and low concentrations in the summer, but the magnitude of the current winter peak was significantly less than in earlier years. 16 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  17. Politicidal Violence and the Problematics of Localized Memory at Civilian Massacre Sites: The Cheju 4.3 Peace Park and the Kŏch'ang Incident Memorial Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Wright

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two South Korean sites dedicated to the remembrance of Korean War–era civilian massacres, the Cheju 4.3 Peace Park and the Kŏch’ang Incident Memorial Park. Specifically, the article explores the sites’ localized, victim-centric epistemology as one that counters nationalist discourses and narratives that privilege the state. While acknowledging that these sites offer a physical mnemonic space for challenging the hegemonic “June 25” (yugio narrative, the author suggests that, in their narrow spatial and ideological orientation, these sites cumulatively fall short of offering a cohesive narrative of the politicidal, anti-Communist state-building project of which they are a consequence. Though of tremendous value in restoring victims’ honor, critiquing human rights abuses of the Republic of Korea, and giving a voice to marginalized groups, these spaces fail to provide historical clarity to a distorted era of South Korea’s past. In addressing this problematic, the article examines the role of family bereavement associations, narrative constructions, and the silencing of the National Guidance League Incident at these locations.

  18. Hanford National Environmental Research Park (NERP): a descriptive summary of the site and site-related research programs, 1952--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, B.E.; Rickard, W.H.

    1977-11-01

    The Hanford National Environmental Research Park site is described in general terms and major plant communities and special habitats are discussed. Important bird, mammal, and fish populations are listed. Current research programs on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and radioecology are reviewed briefly. A list is included of some 100 publications that report results of research studies in detail

  19. Understanding motivation of visitors at dark tourism sites : Case study of August 7th Memorial Park, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gaya, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the fascination of death and disaster has influenced the tourism scene and today, millions of visitors from all over the world travel to sites of death and disaster. This study aims to identify what motivates tourists to visit sites of death and disaster in order to understand better visitor behavior at such sites and specifically the August 7th Memorial Park, Kenya; which was the site of a 1998 terrorist bomb attack that caused the deaths of 218 people and injured thousands more. ...

  20. An inventory of terrestrial mammals at national parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Talancy, Neil W.; Sauer, John R.; Nichols, James D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  1. Bonegilla Heritage Park: Contesting and Co-ordinating a Public History Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dellios

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, efforts to publically commemorate the former migrant training and reception centre of Bonegilla, while intermittent, have increased. I am referring to: reunions and anniversaries, state and national heritage listings, the erection of museum displays, temporary and touring exhibitions, the on-site Heritage Park, and forms of popular culture. For the national audience, as well as several ethnic communities, Bonegilla now plays a role in the collective imagination of the post-war period and the migrant journey. Furthermore, the nature of Bonegilla’s public representation has evolved since the late 1980s. Bonegilla has become much more than a place of personal migrant memory, and its previous negative connotations in the public arena have been erased. This public evolution is linked to much wider processes in our national history. This article thus explores the contestation and co-ordination of collective memories—that is, multiple narratives of Bonegilla’s past, which, while in constant dialogue with each other, are framed and sanctioned by the limits of Australian multiculturalism and heritage discourses. While the earliest efforts to commemorate Bonegilla might be typified as ‘participatory’ and vernacular, they might now be described in reference to ‘retrospective commemoration’, in which Bonegilla’s public history is framed by state-sanctioned narratives and other attendant discursive frameworks.

  2. Assessing recreation impacts to cliffs in Shenandoah National Park: Integrating visitor observation with trail and recreation site measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K.T.; Lawson, S.R.; Marion, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The rock outcrops and cliffs of Shenandoah National Park provide habitat for several rare and endangered plant and animal species, including the federally endangered Shenandoah Salamander (Plethodon shenandoah; Ludwig et al., 1993). The location of the well-known park tour road, Skyline Drive, along the ridgeline provides exceptional access to many outcrops and cliffs throughout the park for a large number of the park?s 1.2 million annual visitors. Consequently, visitor use of cliff areas has led to natural resource impacts, including marked decreases in size and vigor of known rare plant populations. Despite the clear ecological value and potential threats to the natural resources at cliff areas, managers possess little information on visitor use of cliff sites and presently have no formal planning document to guide management. Thus, a park wide study of cliff sites was initiated during the 2005 visitor use season. As part of this research effort, our study used an integrative approach to study recreational use and visitor-caused resource impacts at one of the more heavily visited cliff sites in the park: Little Stony Man Cliffs (LSMC). In particular, this study integrated data from resource impact measurements and visitor use observation to help assess the effects of recreational use on the natural resources of LSMC. Procedures derived from campsite and trail impact studies were used to measure and characterize the amount of visitor-caused resource impacts on LSMC (Marion & Leung, 2001; Marion, 1995). Visitor use observations were conducted on top of LSMC to document and characterize the type and amount of recreational use the cliffs receive and the behaviors of recreationists that may contribute to cliff-top resource impacts. Resource impact measurement data show trampling disturbance present at LSMC, characterized by vegetation loss, exposed soil, and root exposure. Documentation of informal trails, soil erosion, tree damage, and tree stumps provide further

  3. A spatial modeling approach to identify potential butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L.M.; Van Manen, F.T.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; DePoy, M.

    2006-01-01

    Incorporation of disease resistance is nearly complete for several important North American hardwood species threatened by exotic fungal diseases. The next important step toward species restoration would be to develop reliable tools to delineate ideal restoration sites on a landscape scale. We integrated spatial modeling and remote sensing techniques to delineate potential restoration sites for Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) trees, a hardwood species being decimated by an exotic fungus, in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), Kentucky. We first developed a multivariate habitat model to determine optimum Butternut habitats within MCNP. Habitat characteristics of 54 known Butternut locations were used in combination with eight topographic and land use data layers to calculate an index of habitat suitability based on Mahalanobis distance (D2). We used a bootstrapping technique to test the reliability of model predictions. Based on a threshold value for the D2 statistic, 75.9% of the Butternut locations were correctly classified, indicating that the habitat model performed well. Because Butternut seedlings require extensive amounts of sunlight to become established, we used canopy cover data to refine our delineation of favorable areas for Butternut restoration. Areas with the most favorable conditions to establish Butternut seedlings were limited to 291.6 ha. Our study provides a useful reference on the amount and location of favorable Butternut habitat in MCNP and can be used to identify priority areas for future Butternut restoration. Given the availability of relevant habitat layers and accurate location records, our approach can be applied to other tree species and areas. ?? 2006 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  4. Engineering evaluation of a formerly utilized MED/AEC site. Site A and Plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This engineering evaluation report (EER) addresses one of these MED/AEC sites known as Site A/Plot M, located in Palos Park, Illinois. The EER describes in technical detail a number of options for remedial action that could be taken with respect to the contamination at Site A/Plot M and presents estimates of the costs associated with these options. A companion document, Environmental Analysis Report on a Formerly Utilized MED/AEC Site, Site A and Plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois (ANL/ES-79), has also been prepared. It describes in detail the existing site environment and evaluates the environmental impacts of the various remedial options discussed in this report. This EER contributes to a better understanding of the mitigation or resolution of environmental problems posed by the subject MED/AEC site and serves as a basis for determining whether or not remedial actions are warranted. The knowledge derived from the evaluation of a number of remedial options should be helpful in the final disposition of other MED/AEC sites located elsewhere

  5. Parks & benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...

  6. Harmony Park: A Decision Case on Gardening on a Brownfield Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Ashley Marie Raes; Presley, DeAnn Ricks; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Attanayake, Chammi; Martin, Sabine; Thien, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    In March of 2009, Mr. John Holloway and his neighbors in the Harmony Park district of Kansas City, MO, were excited to begin gardening on a vacant city lot in their neighborhood. The neighborhood, like many in urban areas, had once been residential interspersed with small establishments including restaurants, shops, and businesses such as auto…

  7. Bed and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yuji; Ando, Chieko

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe bed (nest) and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, south-eastern Gabon. During an eight-month study 44 bed sites and 506 beds were found. Among these, 38.6% of bed sites and 4.1% of beds were reused. We analyzed the monthly frequency of bed-site reuse in relation to rainfall, fruit abundance, and fruit consumption by the gorillas. The different frequency of bed-site reuse in the rainy and dry seasons was not significant. More bed-site reuse was observed during the fruiting season than during the non-fruiting season. Results from fecal analysis suggested that gorillas ate more fruit in the fruiting season than in the non-fruiting season. The frugivorous diet of western gorillas may possibly cause gorillas to stay in some areas and, consequently, reuse their bed sites. Reuse of bed sites by gorillas suggests their frequent return to an area where preferred fruit is readily available. A higher percentage of arboreal beds may also affect bed-site reuse, because of the shortage of bed material.

  8. Reuse of East Tennessee Technology Park (Former K-25 Site) on the Oak Ridge Reservation: Progress, Problems, and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawarecki, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is the former K-25 site on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. ETTP is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning to support reuse by the private sector. The DOE initiated a re-industrialization program in 1996, forming the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET) to provide a means of leasing unused facilities at ETTP to private sector businesses. In 2003 under a changed policy direction, DOE implemented an Accelerated Cleanup Plan to remediate ETTP, as many of the buildings are contaminated with radiological constituents (including enriched uranium) and a variety of hazardous substances. In anticipation of transition of the site to a private sector industrial park and to support a nearby residential development, the City of Oak Ridge has taken title to the fire station and a portion of the utilities on site. Acquisition of the water and wastewater utilities by the city has been challenging. The city has embarked on a three-phase process that will enable it to provide electricity to the site and take ownership of on-site electric utilities. Title transfers of potentially contaminated property require an Environmental Baseline Survey and a Covenant Deferral. Two businesses that lease facilities from CROET desire to own the lightly contaminated buildings that they occupy. To date DOE has not enabled these transfers to take place due to indemnification questions and what company options are regarding the remnant contamination. There is significant potential for heritage tourism attractions at ETTP, including a railway station museum and commemoration of the U-shaped K-25 building. DOE is part of International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Decommissioning Network. The site's successes are models for re-utilization of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world. The 'lessons learned' at ETTP enhance IAEA's understanding of the difficulties encountered as nuclear

  9. Transformation of Frontier National Parks into Tourism Sites. The North Andean Patagonia Experience (1934-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Vejsbjerg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism policies for peripheral regions of Argentina reinforced the inner-colonialism of the national territories during the period between the 1930 and the 1950 decades. Two models for tourism development (elite and social tourism were contrasted in the first national park created in South America, the Nahuel Huapi National Park, and its correlated centre San Carlos de Bariloche.The main results obtained were: 1 The cultural landscape and the activity linked to the leisure and free time were used strategically for the citizens’ education; 2 In its beginnings, nature conservation was associated with the imposition of the frontier itself and; 3 Populating policies constituted a problematic factor for the development of tourism.

  10. Appreciating a World Heritage Site using Multisensory Elements: A Case Study in Kinabalu Park, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainol R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature based tourism products offer valuable experience to visitors which can only be appreciated or stimulated using sensory elements. Visual, sound, taste, smell, touch and mobility are sensory elements that are able to enhance visitors’ experience in any particular destination. However, some destinations might not provide all the elements. Therefore this study’s objective is to assess the role of multisensory experience in appreciating the natural heritage of Kinabalu Park. Participant observation is used to carry out the assessment. Findings show visitors are able to appreciate Kinabalu Park using five main sensory elements namely visual, sound, smell, feelings and mobility. The only one that is not available is taste. This is parallel to the products offered in Kinabalu Park which do not allow visitors to pluck any branches or taste any of its forest products. Multisensory elements enhance visitors experience through the senses which will be memorable in years to come. Learning will take place not immediately but through recalling of memories.

  11. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in high altitude sites of the Patagonian Altoandina region in Nahuel Huapi National Park (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvana Velázquez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in National Parks is essential for the establishment of policies for conservation. The aim of this study was to characterize the AMF communities in the Patagonian Altoandina region in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina. We surveyed AMF spores associated with the rhizospheres of 9 plant species in the Patagonian Steppe (PS, Challhuaco Hill (ChH, Catedral Hill (CH, and Tronador Hill (TH regions and detected a total of 27 Glomeromycota species. Acaulospora laevis was dominant at all sites. The AMF community was dominated by Acaulosporaceae, as regards the number of species and contribution of each one to the total number of spores. Three Glomeromycota families were detected at PS, the site with the lowest elevation; whereas five to six families were detected at ChH, CH, and TH. Cluster analysis indicated that the AMF communities were grouped according to habitat. We concluded that certain patterns of the AMFcommunity structure detected were equivalent to those of high-altitude environments from other studies, while others were unique to the Patagonian region; thus suggesting that historical influences like dispersion and speciation played a critical role in shaping AMF community composition in such high-altitude environments.

  12. Evaluation of Terrestrial LIDAR for Monitoring Geomorphic Change at Archeological Sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Brown, Kristin M.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of terrestrial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) for monitoring geomorphic change at archeological sites located within Grand Canyon National Park, Ariz. Traditionally, topographic change-detection studies have used total station methods for the collection of data related to key measurable features of site erosion such as the location of thalwegs and knickpoints of gullies that traverse archeological sites (for example, Pederson and others, 2003). Total station methods require survey teams to walk within and on the features of interest within the archeological sites to take accurate measurements. As a result, site impacts may develop such as trailing, damage to cryptogamic crusts, and surface compaction that can exacerbate future erosion of the sites. National Park Service (NPS) resource managers have become increasingly concerned that repeated surveys for research and monitoring purposes may have a detrimental impact on the resources that researchers are trying to study and protect. Beginning in 2006, the Sociocultural Program of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) initiated an evaluation of terrestrial LIDAR as a new monitoring tool that might enhance data quality and reduce site impacts. This evaluation was conducted as one part of an ongoing study to develop objective, replicable, quantifiable monitoring protocols for tracking the status and trend of variables affecting archeological site condition along the Colorado River corridor. The overall study consists of two elements: (1) an evaluation of the methodology through direct comparison to geomorphologic metrics already being collected by total station methods (this report) and (2) an evaluation of terrestrial LIDAR's ability to detect topographic change through the collection of temporally different datasets (a report on this portion of the study is anticipated early in 2009). The main goals of the first

  13. Maryon Park

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, Giasco

    2018-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Maryon Park is the place Michelangelo Antonioni chose, in 1966, to shoot the scenes that would become cult images from his film "Blow Up", and deservedly so. The park is located in Charlton, southeast of London, a place that's hardly changed since Antonioni shot there. I first went there to shoot a series of photos on March 7 and 8, 2007. I returned again on March 7, 2014. I called the series “Maryon Park”. I used a medium format, six by seven inch col...

  14. National Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...

  15. Dynamic multistate site occupancy models to evaluate hypotheses relevant to conservation of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol L.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Schmutz, Joel A.; MacCluskie, Margaret C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of multistate site occupancy models offers great opportunities to frame and solve decision problems for conservation that can be viewed in terms of site occupancy. These models have several characteristics (e.g., they account for detectability) that make them particularly well suited for addressing management and conservation problems. We applied multistate site occupancy models to evaluate hypotheses related to the conservation and management of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Denali National Park, Alaska, and provided estimates of transition probabilities among three occupancy states for nesting areas (occupied with successful reproduction, occupied with unsuccessful reproduction, and unoccupied). Our estimation models included the effect of potential recreational activities (hikers) and environmental covariates such as a snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) index on transition probabilities among the three occupancy states. Based on the most parsimonious model, support for the hypothesis of an effect of potential human disturbance on site occupancy dynamics was equivocal. There was some evidence that potential human disturbance negatively affected local colonization of territories, but there was no evidence of an effect on reproductive performance parameters. In addition, models that assume a positive relationship between the hare index and successful reproduction were well supported by the data. The statistical approach that we used is particularly useful to parameterize management models that can then be used to make optimal decisions related to the management of Golden Eagles in Denali. Although in our case we were particularly interested in managing recreational activities, we believe that such models should be useful to for a broad class of management and conservation problems.

  16. The environment and vegetation of the flux measurement site near Skukuza, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Scholes

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The SAFARI-2000 intensive study site is located 13 km WSW of Skukuza. Detailed measurements of the exchanges of energy, water, carbon dioxide and other substances between the savanna and the atmosphere have been made there since April 2000. This paper provides basic information regarding the climate, soils and vegetation at the site. The site is located near the top of a gentle rise in an undulating granitic landscape. Most of the data were collected within a 300 m square centred on the flux tower situated at 25@01.184' S, 31@29.813' E and oriented true north. The tower stands exactly on the ecotone between a ridgetop broad-leafed Combretum savanna on sandy soil and a midslope fme-leafed Acacia savanna on clayey soil. The ecotone is marked by a 10 m wide band of sedges. The tree basal area within the sample square was 6.8 mVha (@ 1.0 standard error, the tree density 128 @ 16 plants/ha and the tree crown cover 24 @ 4 . Shrubs, defined as woody plants greater than 0.5 m but less than 2.5 m tall, contributed a further 7.6 crown cover. The basal area weighted mean height of the trees was 9 m, and the maximum height 13m. Nineteen woody plant species were recorded within the square, with 70 of the woody plant basal area dominated by Combretum apiculatum, Sclerocarya birrea and Acacia nigrescens. The rooted basal area of grasses was 7.1 @ 0.6 and in June 2000 the grass standing crop was 400 g DM m2.

  17. Optimal site selection for sitting a solar park using multi-criteria decision analysis and geographical information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andreas; Skarlatos, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    Among the renewable power sources, solar power is rapidly becoming popular because it is inexhaustible, clean, and dependable. It has also become more efficient since the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells has increased. Following these trends, solar power will become more affordable in years to come and considerable investments are to be expected. Despite the size of solar plants, the sitting procedure is a crucial factor for their efficiency and financial viability. Many aspects influence such a decision: legal, environmental, technical, and financial to name a few. This paper describes a general integrated framework to evaluate land suitability for the optimal placement of photovoltaic solar power plants, which is based on a combination of a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing techniques, and multi-criteria decision-making methods. An application of the proposed framework for the Limassol district in Cyprus is further illustrated. The combination of a GIS and multi-criteria methods produces an excellent analysis tool that creates an extensive database of spatial and non-spatial data, which will be used to simplify problems as well as solve and promote the use of multiple criteria. A set of environmental, economic, social, and technical constrains, based on recent Cypriot legislation, European's Union policies, and expert advice, identifies the potential sites for solar park installation. The pairwise comparison method in the context of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to estimate the criteria weights in order to establish their relative importance in site evaluation. In addition, four different methods to combine information layers and check their sensitivity were used. The first considered all the criteria as being equally important and assigned them equal weight, whereas the others grouped the criteria and graded them according to their objective perceived importance. The overall suitability of the study

  18. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    significant reductions in emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The Vancouver, Washington area and neighboring Portland, Oregon are leaders in adoption of PEVs in the United States1. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the FVNHS facility would be a benefit for both FVNHS fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned plug-in electric vehicles benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the FVNHS site to identify the optimal station placement for electric vehicle supply equipment. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and FVNHS for participation in this study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and FVNHS personnel

  19. Spatial and Temporal Land Cover Changes in the Simen Mountains National Park, a World Heritage Site in Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menale Wondie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The trend of land cover (LC and land cover change (LCC, both in time and space, was investigated at the Simen Mountains National Park (SMNP, a World Heritage Site located in northern Ethiopia, between 1984 and 2003 using Geographical Information System (GIS and remote sensing (RS. The objective of the study was to generate spatially and temporally quantified information on land cover dynamics, providing the basis for policy/decision makers and resource managers to facilitate biodiversity conservation, including wild animals. Two satellite images (Landsat TM of 1984 and Landsat ETM+ of 2003 were acquired and supervised classification was used to categorize LC types. Ground Control Points were obtained in field condition for georeferencing and accuracy assessment. The results showed an increase in the areas of pure forest (Erica species dominated and shrubland but a decrease in the area of agricultural land over the 20 years. The overall accuracy and the Kappa value of classification results were 88 and 85%, respectively. The spatial setting of the LC classes was heterogeneous and resulted from the biophysical nature of SMNP and anthropogenic activities. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the existing LC and LCC in connection with wildlife habitat, conservation and management of SMNP.

  20. Important geosites and parks in the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Dolomites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nossing, L.; Forti, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the geological complexity of the south Tyrol, the Dolomites play a fundamental role, as they are now included in the UNESCO World Heritage (2009) because of their exceptional beauty and unique landscape, together with numerous scientific discoveries. The name of Dolomite comes from the famous mineral dolomite (double calcium magnesium carbonate) discovered by Déodat De Dolomieu in 1789. The dolomitic rocks constitute a large area of the Triassic mountains and many studies have contributed to the discovery of the fundamental stratotypes for the signature of the Permian/Triassic boundary. The steep walls of the Permian volcanic formations and the Sciliar Mountain have always been a great attraction for scientists from all over the world to study the open book of nature in the Dolomites. We will illustrate three sites: 1. The Bula Geotrail. A geological trail through one of the best-preserved sedimentary series in which we can observe one of the most important stratotypes to touch the Permian/Triassic boundary. 2. The Siusi-Alpe di Siusi Geological Trail. This trail starts just above the Permian/Triassic boundary and is characterized by some unique basaltic columnar formations and other significant outcrops of Lower and Medium Triassic. 3. The Bletterbach Geopark. In this sequence the stratotype, which represents the boundary, is a dark coloured continuous layer (organic matter) 5cm thick, and contains some paleobotanical evidence which is unique in the world. The preservation and added value of the natural and geological patrimony of a region through guided and documented trails are at the origin of a new kind of tourism: geotourism. The modern tourist is more and more interested and stimulated by getting to knowing nature in depth. The trails are the best instruments for scientific divulgation and education, allowing a better understanding of the landscape and stimulating new discoveries. (Author)

  1. Important geosites and parks in the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Dolomites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossing, L.; Forti, S.

    2016-10-01

    In the geological complexity of the south Tyrol, the Dolomites play a fundamental role, as they are now included in the UNESCO World Heritage (2009) because of their exceptional beauty and unique landscape, together with numerous scientific discoveries. The name of Dolomite comes from the famous mineral dolomite (double calcium magnesium carbonate) discovered by Déodat De Dolomieu in 1789. The dolomitic rocks constitute a large area of the Triassic mountains and many studies have contributed to the discovery of the fundamental stratotypes for the signature of the Permian/Triassic boundary. The steep walls of the Permian volcanic formations and the Sciliar Mountain have always been a great attraction for scientists from all over the world to study the open book of nature in the Dolomites. We will illustrate three sites: 1. The Bula Geotrail. A geological trail through one of the best-preserved sedimentary series in which we can observe one of the most important stratotypes to touch the Permian/Triassic boundary. 2. The Siusi-Alpe di Siusi Geological Trail. This trail starts just above the Permian/Triassic boundary and is characterized by some unique basaltic columnar formations and other significant outcrops of Lower and Medium Triassic. 3. The Bletterbach Geopark. In this sequence the stratotype, which represents the boundary, is a dark coloured continuous layer (organic matter) 5cm thick, and contains some paleobotanical evidence which is unique in the world. The preservation and added value of the natural and geological patrimony of a region through guided and documented trails are at the origin of a new kind of tourism: geotourism. The modern tourist is more and more interested and stimulated by getting to knowing nature in depth. The trails are the best instruments for scientific divulgation and education, allowing a better understanding of the landscape and stimulating new discoveries. (Author)

  2. Black and Brown Bear Activity at Selected Coastal Sites in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment Using Noninvasive Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Steve; Smith, Tom; Lewis, Tania

    2009-01-01

    A number of efforts in recent years have sought to predict bear activity in various habitats to minimize human disturbance and bear/human conflicts. Alaskan coastal areas provide important foraging areas for bears (Ursus americanus and U. arctos), particularly following den emergence when there may be no snow-free foraging alternatives. Additionally, coastal areas provide important food items for bears throughout the year. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA) in southeastern Alaska has extensive coastal habitats, and the National Park Service (NPS) has been long interested in learning more about the use of these coastal habitats by bears because these same habitats receive extensive human use by park visitors, especially kayaking recreationists. This study provides insight regarding the nature and intensity of bear activity at selected coastal sites within GLBA. We achieved a clearer understanding of bear/habitat relationships within GLBA by analyzing bear activity data collected with remote cameras, bear sign mapping, scat collections, and genetic analysis of bear hair. Although we could not quantify actual levels of bear activity at study sites, agreement among measures of activity (for example, sign counts, DNA analysis, and video record) lends support to our qualitative site assessments. This work suggests that habitat evaluation, bear sign mapping, and periodic scat counts can provide a useful index of bear activity for sites of interest.

  3. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  4. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Sagarmatha National Park, a World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Garrard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC changes that occurred during 1992–2011 in Sagarmatha National Park, a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site in the Himalayas of eastern Nepal, were evaluated using multitemporal satellite imagery in combination with land use data and sociological information gathered from semistructured interviews and workshops. We asked study participants about LULC changes, the causes of each change, and the likely duration of its effects, and used this information to produce high-resolution maps of local perceptions of LULC change. Satellite image analysis revealed that above 6000 m there has been a decrease in the area covered by snow and ice and a consequent expansion of glacial lakes and areas covered by rock and soil. Between 3000 and 6000 m, forest and farmland are decreasing, and areas under grazing, settlement, and shrubland are increasing. Such LULC changes within the protected area clearly indicate the prevailing danger of land degradation. Results from the interviews and workshops suggest that people tended to detect LULC change that was acute and direct, but were less aware of slower changes that could be identified by satellite imagery analysis. Most study participants said that land use changes were a result of rapid economic development and the consequent pressure on natural resources, especially in the tourism industry and especially below 6000 m elevation, as well as limitations to protected area management and a period of civil war. Human influence coupled with climate change may explain the changes at higher elevations, whereas anthropogenic activities are solely responsible in lower areas. Although global factors cannot be mitigated locally, many of the local drivers of LULC change could be addressed with improved management practices that aid local conservation and development in this high mountain ecosystem. A broader interdisciplinary approach to LULC change

  5. THE SCHOOL PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FISCHER, JOHN H.

    TO ASSIST IN DESEGREGATION, VARIOUS MODELS FOR THE SCHOOL PARK ARE PROPOSED--(1) ASSEMBLING ALL STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS OF A SMALL OR MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY ON A SINGLE CAMPUS, (2) SERVING ONE SECTION OF A LARGE CITY, (3) CENTERING ALL SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR A SINGLE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON A SINGLE SITE, AND (4) ESTABLISHING RINGS OF SCHOOL PARKS ABOUT…

  6. A preliminary report on settlement layout and gold melting at Thula Mela, a Late Iron Age site in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kusel

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at a Late Iron Age stone-walled hill site, Thula Mela, near the Luvuvhu River in the Pafuri area of the Kruger National Park, have produced evidence of gold melting. The recovery of two fragments of pottery crucibles with the remains of slag and gold globules and three gold beads from a test trench in a midden at Thula Mela represents the first direct evidence of indigenous gold melting in South Africa. From radiocarbon dates it was established that this site was occupied between the fifteenth and early seventeenth century AD.

  7. Park Facilities, Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained by field GPS observation, Published in 2010, Not Applicable scale, Chippewa County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Park Facilities dataset current as of 2010. Boundaries were determined from parcel mapping lines & site specific items, such as shelter locations, were obtained...

  8. A Novel Approach to Site Selection: Collaborative Multi-Criteria Decision Making through Geo-Social Network (Case Study: Public Parking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Neisani Samani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many potential factors that are involved in the decision making process of site selection, which makes it a challenging issue. This paper addresses the collaborative decision making concept through a geo-social network to predict site selection for public parking in Tehran, Iran. The presented approach utilized the analytic hierarchy process (AHP as a multi-criteria decision method (MCDM for weighting the criteria, which was completed in two stages; once by 50 experts, and then by three different levels of users, including 50 experts, 25 urban managers, and 150 pubic citizens, with respect to the case study area. The fuzzy majority method aggregates the archived results of AHP to determine the preferred locations that are suitable for public parking. The proposed method was implemented using a telegram bot platform. Two main advantages of the collaborative decision making scenario for public urban site selection are the fair distribution of the selected locations and the high satisfaction of users, which increased from 65% to 85%. This study presents an application for site selection based on multi-criteria decision making in a geo-social network context.

  9. Report of the investigation of the accident at the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO Trailer Park on Rainier Mesa at Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen persons were injured, one fatally, when the ground upon which they were working collapsed, forming a subsidence crater in the recording trailer park of the MIDAS MYTH/MILAGRO nuclear weapons effects test on Rainier Mesa at the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site on February 15, 1984. Those persons injured were contractor and laboratory employees from Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo), Pan American World Services, Inc. (PANAM), and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report presents the results of an investigation into the causes, effects, and response to the accident. 42 figures

  10. Are TODs Over-Parked?

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Adkins, Arlie; Sullivan, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the proposition that TOD, and specifically housing near suburban rail stops, is “over-parked†in the U.S. This is done by comparing parking generation rates for 31 housing complexes near rail stops in the San Francisco Bay Area and Portland, Oregon with on-site parking supplies and with ITE parking generation rates. Factors that explain parking demand for transit-oriented housing are also investigated, both statistically and through case analyses. The re...

  11. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the Seaway Industrial Park, Tonawanda, New York. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Cottrell, W.D.; Dickson, H.W.

    1978-05-01

    The results of a radiological survey of the Seaway Industrial Park, Tonawanda, New York, are presented in this report. The site is adjacent to the former Haist property, which was used to receive residues from uranium processing during the period 1944--46. In 1974 approximately 6000 yd 3 of this residue was transported to Seaway, where it was used as landfill. The survey was undertaken to determine radiation levels and the extent of radioactive materials on the Seaway property, as well as the extent of movement of radioactive residues by natural means such as surface run-off. The survey included measurement of: external gamma radiation on and near the site; beta-gamma radiation at the surface in the most contaminated areas; radium and uranium concentrations in the soil; concentrations of radium, uranium, and thorium in water samples collected from the drainage areas; and radium concentrations in mud samples taken from the drainage areas. The results indicate that the residues on the site do not pose any immediate health hazards. However, potential health hazards could result from some uses of the site. In particular, if buildings were to be built in certain areas on the site, significant concentrations of radon daughters could develop in these structures. 16 figs, 3 tables

  12. 77 FR 3499 - Sony Electronics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Selectremedy Park Ridge, NJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,501M] Sony Electronics, Inc... Electronics, Inc., SEL Headquarters, including on-site leased workers of SelectRemedy, StaffMark, and Payrolling.com , San Diego, California (TA-W-71,501); Sony Electronics, Inc., including on-site leased...

  13. C2-C6 background hydrocarbon concentrations monitored at a roof top and green park site, in Dublin City centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, R T; Broderick, B M

    2007-09-01

    A 5 week monitoring campaign was carried out in Dublin City centre, to establish which site gave a more accurate background city centre estimation: a roof-top or green field site. This background represented a conservative estimate of HC exposure in Dublin City centre, useful for quantifying health effects related to this form of pollution and also for establishing a local background relative to the four surrounding main roads when the wind direction is travelling towards each road with the background receptor upwind. Over the entire monitoring campaign, the lowest concentrations and relative standard deviations were observed at the green field site, regardless of time of day or meteorological effects.

  14. Park It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  15. Site- and Species-Specific Influences on Sub-Alpine Conifer Growth in Mt. Rainier National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myesa Legendre-Fixx

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the factors that influence the climate sensitivity of treeline species is critical to understanding carbon sequestration, forest dynamics, and conservation in high elevation forest/meadow ecotones. Using tree cores from four sub-alpine conifer species collected from three sides of Mt. Rainier, WA, USA, we investigated the influences of species identity and sites with different local climates on radial growth–climate relationships. We created chronologies for each species at each site, determined influential plant-relevant annual and seasonal climatic variables influencing growth, and investigated how the strength of climate sensitivity varied across species and location. Overall, similar climate variables constrained growth on all three sides of the mountain for each of the four study species. Summer warmth positively influenced radial growth, whereas snow, spring warmth, previous summer warmth, and spring humidity negatively influenced growth. We discovered only a few subtle differences in the climate sensitivity of co-occurring species at the same site and between the same species at different sites in pairwise comparisons. A model including species by climate interactions provided the best balance between parsimony and fit, but did not lead to substantially greater predictive power relative to a model without site or species interactions. Our results imply that at treeline in moist temperate regions like Mt. Rainier, the same climatic variables drive annual variation in growth across species and locations, despite species differences in physiology and site differences in mean climates.

  16. Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The “subject property” is comprised of a parcel of land within the Kirtland Military Reservation, Bernalillo County, New Mexico, as shown on the map in Appendix B of this document. The land requirement for the parking lot addition to the 9940 Main Complex is approximately 2.7 acres. The scope of this Supplemental Environmental Baseline Survey (SEBS) is for the parking lot addition land transfer only. For details on the original 9940 Main Complex see Environmental Baseline Survey, Land Use Permit Request for the 9940 Complex PERM/0-KI-00-0001, August 21, 2003, and for details on the 9940 Complex Expansion see Environmental Baseline Survey, Proposed Land Use Permit Expansion for 9940 DETS Complex, June 24, 2009. The 2.7-acre parcel of land for the new parking lot, which is the subject of this EBS (also referred to as the “subject property”), is adjacent to the southwest boundary of the original 12.3- acre 9940 Main Complex. No testing is known to have taken place on the subject property site. The only activity known to have taken place was the burial of overhead utility lines in 2014. Adjacent to the subject property, the 9940 Main Complex was originally a 12.3-acre site used by the Department of Energy (DOE) under a land use permit from the United States Air Force (USAF). Historical use of the site, dating from 1964, included arming, fusing, and firing of explosives and testing of explosives systems components. In the late 1970s and early 1980s experiments at the 9940 Main Complex shifted toward reactor safety issues. From 1983 to 1988, fuel coolant interaction (FCI) experiments were conducted, as were experiments with conventional high explosives (HE). Today, the land is used for training of the Nuclear Emergency Response community and for research on energetic materials. In 2009, the original complex was expanded to include four additional 20-acre areas: 9940 Training South, 9940 Training East, T-Range 6, and Training West Landing Zone. The proposed use of

  17. Fish and other faunal remains from a Late Iron Age site on the Letaba River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Plug

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish remains from Late Iron Age sites in the Transvaal are relatively scarce. It seems as if the people did not utilize the riverine resources extensively. Therefore the unique assemblage of large numbers of fish bones on a Late Iron Age site, provides some insight into the fish population of a section of the Letaba River a few hundred years ago. The presence of other faunal remains provides some information on prehistoric utilization of the environment in general. Hunting strategies and aspects of herding can also be deduced from the faunal remains.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  19. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  20. Comparison of Two Surface Contamination Sampling Techniques Conducted for the Characterization of Two Pajarito Site Manhattan Project National Historic Park Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Technical Area-18 (TA-18), also known as Pajarito Site, is located on Los Alamos National Laboratory property and has historic buildings that will be included in the Manhattan Project National Historic Park. Characterization studies of metal contamination were needed in two of the four buildings that are on the historic registry in this area, a “battleship” bunker building (TA-18-0002) and the Pond cabin (TA-18-0029). However, these two buildings have been exposed to the elements, are decades old, and have porous and rough surfaces (wood and concrete). Due to these conditions, it was questioned whether standard wipe sampling would be adequate to detect surface dust metal contamination in these buildings. Thus, micro-vacuum and surface wet wipe sampling techniques were performed side-by-side at both buildings and results were compared statistically. A two-tail paired t-test revealed that the micro-vacuum and wet wipe techniques were statistically different for both buildings. Further mathematical analysis revealed that the wet wipe technique picked up more metals from the surface than the microvacuum technique. Wet wipes revealed concentrations of beryllium and lead above internal housekeeping limits; however, using an yttrium normalization method with linear regression analysis between beryllium and yttrium revealed a correlation indicating that the beryllium levels were likely due to background and not operational contamination. PPE and administrative controls were implemented for National Park Service (NPS) and Department of Energy (DOE) tours as a result of this study. Overall, this study indicates that the micro-vacuum technique may not be an efficient technique to sample for metal dust contamination.

  1. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  2. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  3. On the importance of stratigraphic control for vertebrate fossil sites in Channel Islands National Park, California, USA: Examples from new Mammuthus finds on San Miguel Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Muhs, Daniel R.; McGeehin, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary vertebrate fossils, most notably mammoth remains, are relatively common on the northern Channel Islands of California. Well-preserved cranial, dental, and appendicular elements of Mammuthus exilis (pygmy mammoth) and Mammuthus columbi (Columbian mammoth) have been recovered from hundreds of localities on the islands during the past half-century or more. Despite this paleontological wealth, the geologic context of the fossils is described in the published literature only briefly or not at all, which has hampered the interpretation of associated 14C ages and reconstruction of past environmental conditions. We recently discovered a partial tusk, several large bones, and a tooth enamel plate (all likely mammoth) at two sites on the northwest flank of San Miguel Island, California. At both localities, we documented the stratigraphic context of the fossils, described the host sediments in detail, and collected charcoal and terrestrial gastropod shells for radiocarbon dating. The resulting 14C ages indicate that the mammoths were present on San Miguel Island between ∼20 and 17 ka as well as between ∼14 and 13 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present), similar to other mammoth sites on San Miguel, Santa Cruz, and Santa Rosa Islands. In addition to documenting the geologic context and ages of the fossils, we present a series of protocols for documenting and reporting geologic and stratigraphic information at fossil sites on the California Channel Islands in general, and in Channel Islands National Park in particular, so that pertinent information is collected prior to excavation of vertebrate materials, thus maximizing their scientific value.

  4. Mercury in tree swallow food, eggs, bodies, and feathers at Acadia National Park, Maine, and an EPA superfund site, Ayer, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Jerry R; Haines, Terry A; Halteman, William A

    2007-03-01

    We monitored nest boxes during 1997-1999 at Acadia National Park, Mt. Desert Island, ME and at an old-field site in Orono, ME to determine mercury (Hg) uptake in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs, tissues, and food boluses. Also, in 1998-1999 we monitored nest boxes at Grove Pond and Plow Shop Pond at a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site in Ayer, MA. We recorded breeding success at all locations. On average among locations, total mercury (THg) biomagnified 2 to 4-fold from food to eggs and 9 to 18-fold from food to feathers. These are minimum values because the proportion of transferable methyl mercury (MeHg) of the THg in insects varies (i.e., 35%-95% of THg) in food boluses. THg was highest in food boluses at Aunt Betty Pond at Acadia, whereas THg in eggs was highest at the Superfund site. A few eggs from nests at each of these locations exceeded the threshold (i.e., 800-1,000 ng/g, wet wt.) of embryotoxicity established for Hg. Hatching success was 88.9% to 100% among locations, but five eggs failed to hatch from 4 of the 11 clutches in which an egg exceeded this threshold. MeHg in feathers was highest in tree swallows at Aunt Betty Pond and the concentration of THg in bodies was related to the concentration in feathers. Transfer of an average of 80%-92% of the Hg in bodies to feathers may have enhanced nestling survival. Residues of Hg in tissues of tree swallows in the Northeast seem higher than those of the Midwest.

  5. Environmental analysis of a formerly utilized MED/AEC site: Site A and plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This environmental analysis report describes the existing site environment and evaluates the environmental impacts of 8 options for remedial action, including allowing buried waste to remain undisturbed. Conformity or conflict with governmental statutes, regulations and standards was determined, especially with regard to compliance with contamination criteria and guidelines. The program of measurements, documentation, and control to demonstrate compliance with these criteria and guidelines was identified.

  6. Environmental analysis of a formerly utilized MED/AEC site: Site A and plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This environmental analysis report describes the existing site environment and evaluates the environmental impacts of 8 options for remedial action, including allowing buried waste to remain undisturbed. Conformity or conflict with governmental statutes, regulations and standards was determined, especially with regard to compliance with contamination criteria and guidelines. The program of measurements, documentation, and control to demonstrate compliance with these criteria and guidelines was identified

  7. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  8. Water-chemistry and on-site sulfur-speciation data for selected springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1994-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Cunningham, Kirk M.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Xu, Yong; DeMonge, Jennifer M.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-two water analyses are reported for samples collected at 8 hot springs and their overflow drainages, two geysers, and two ambient-temperature acid streams in Yellowstone National Park during 1994-95. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of the initial research investigations on sulfur redox speciation in the hot springs of Yellowstone and to document chemical changes in overflows that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. The sulfur redox speciation research is a collaboration between the State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Four hot springs, Ojo Caliente, Azure, Frying Pan, and Angel Terrace, were studied in detail. Analyses were performed adjacent to the sampling site or in an on-site mobile lab truck constructed by the USGS, or later in a USGS laboratory. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, D.O., and dissolved H2S were determined adjacent to the sample source at the time of sampling. Alkalinity and F- were determined on-site on the day of sample collection. Thiosulfate and polythionates were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by ion chromatography (IC). Other major anions (Cl-, SO4 2-, Br-) also were determined on-site by IC within two days of sample collection. Ammonium, Fe(II), and Fe(total) were determined on-site by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry within two days of sample collection. Later in the USGS laboratory, densities were determined. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Li, Na, and K were determined by flame atomic absorption and emission (Na, K) spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Trace concentrations of Al and Mg were determined by Zeeman-corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Three important conclusions from the sampling and analyses are: (1

  9. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  10. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  11. 75 FR 11169 - Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project; Reedsport OPT Wave Park; LLC Notice of Scoping Meetings and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12713-002] Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project; Reedsport OPT Wave Park; LLC Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site...: Reedsport OPT Wave Park, LLC. e. Name of Project: Reedsport OPT Wave Park Project. [[Page 11170

  12. Water-Chemistry and On-Site Sulfur-Speciation Data for Selected Springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Schoonen, Martin A.A.; Xu, Yong

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-eight water analyses are reported for samples collected from 19 hot springs and their overflow drainages and one ambient-temperature acid stream in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 1996-98. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations on microbially mediated sulfur oxidation in stream waters and sulfur redox speciation in hot springs in YNP and chemical changes in overflow drainages that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. The research on sulfur redox speciation in hot springs is a collaboration with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, Northern Arizona University, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). One ambient-temperature acidic stream system, Alluvium Creek and its tributaries in Brimstone Basin, was studied in detail. Analyses were performed adjacent to the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory truck, or later in a USGS laboratory, depending on stability and preservability of the constituent. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), and dissolved H2S were determined on-site at the time of sampling. Alkalinity and F were determined within a few days of sample collection by titration and by ion-selective electrode, respectively. Concentrations of S2O3 and SxO6 were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by ion chromatography (IC). Concentrations of Cl, SO4, and Br were determined by IC within a few days of sample collection. Concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(total) were determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry within a few days of sample collection. Densities were determined later in the USGS laboratory. Concentrations of Li, Na, and K were determined by flame atomic absorption (Li) and emission (Na, K) spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As(total), B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Trace

  13. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  14. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  15. Understanding parking habits at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    The SMB department is setting up a monitoring system in certain CERN car parks in order to evaluate their occupancy rates and subsequently make them easier to use.    Vehicle registration plate readers (red triangles) are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Le Cèdres car park (in orange) and of the Building 4 and 5 one (in blue). The 2 other car parks (Building 40 in violet and “high-voltage” in green) will be equipped at a later stage. Vehicle registration plate readers are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. The information collected by these readers will allow the occupancy levels of these car parks to be analysed throughout the day, establishing periods of peak usage and the pattern of vehicle movements. “We have been experiencing parking problems at CERN for several years n...

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Open Days: information on CERN parking

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The organising team for the Open Days (28-29 September) would like to inform you that some parking sites in Meyrin and Prévessin will have to be kept free as of 18 September for the installation of tents and marquees.   Next week, CERN Management will address parking concerns and give you more information on other parking possibilities. The Open Day organising team thanks you for your cooperation and apologises for any inconvenience.

  18. Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    A major planning effort for Chicago's largest park provided an opprotunity yto examine outdoor recreation use patterns and preferences among a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Results from on-site surveys of 898 park users (217 Black, 210 Latino, 182 Asian, and 289 White) showed that park users shared a core set of interests, preferences, and concerns...

  19. Big Bend National Park: Acoustical Monitoring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    During the summer of 2010 (September October 2010), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Big Bend National Park (BIBE) at four sites deployed for approximately 30 days each. The baseline data collected during this period will he...

  20. Ecological planning proposal for Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet, W. F.; Cooks, J.

    1990-05-01

    This article discusses an application of the ecological planning model proposed by Van Riet and Cooks. The various steps outlined in this model have been applied to Kruger National Park in South Africa. The natural features of Kruger National Park, which form the basis of such an ecological planning exercise and from which the various land use categories, values, and zoning classes can be determined, are discussed in detail. The suitability of each of the various features is analyzed and a final zoning proposal for Kruger National Park is suggested. Furthermore a method for selecting a site for a new camp is illustrated by referring to the site for the new Mopane rest camp which is now under construction in the Kruger National Park. The conclusion is reached that the proposed ecological planning model can be used successfully in planning conservation areas such as Kruger National Park and for the selection of the most desirable sites for the establishment of new rest camps. Its suitability as a practical model in such planning exercises is proven by the fact that the siting proposals of two new camps based on this model have been accepted by the National Parks Board, the controlling body of Kruger National Park.

  1. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Silva Lana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas, in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park.

  2. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park. PMID:25793193

  3. Protecting resources: Assessing visitor harvesting of wild morel mushrooms in two national capital region parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth S. Barron; Marla R. Emery

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal reports have sparked concerns that morel mushroom populations may be declining at National Park sites in the greater Washington, D.C. area. The research reported here focuses on two of these parks, Catoctin Mountain Park (CATO) and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (CHOH). Oral histories conducted with 41 harvesters in 2005 and 2007 had...

  4. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  5. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  6. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.

  7. Interview with Steve Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…

  8. Lake Turkana National Parks Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Lake Turkana is the largest, most northerly and most saline of Africa's Rift Valley lakes and an outstanding laboratory for the study of plant and animal communities. The three National Parks are a stopover for migrant waterfowl and are major breeding grounds for the Nile crocodile and hippopotamus. The Koobi Fora deposits are rich in pre-human, mammalian, molluscan and other fossil remains and have contributed more to the understanding of Quaternary palaeoenvironments than any other site on ...

  9. Sound and noise in urban parks

    OpenAIRE

    António P. O. Carvalho; Ricardo A. F. Cleto

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to study the soundscape of city gardens and urban parks using a sample of ten sites in Oporto, Portugal to analyze their soundscape through the acoustic characterization of the park's exterior and interior noise levels (LAeq, LA10, LA50 and LA90) and by a socio-acoustic survey to the visitors to check their perception of acoustic quality. The measurements showed gardens/parks with interior noise levels from 47 to 61 dB(A) (with exterior noise levels up to 67 dB(A...

  10. 36 CFR 7.22 - Grand Teton National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a notice of any change of fees. (x) All livestock are considered as mature animals at six months of... sites within the Park. (2) Except in group campsites and backcountry sites, camping is limited to six... private lands in the Craighead Subdivision. (ii) The unplowed portion of the Teton Park Road to the piece...

  11. Exploration of Science Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Huibing; Sun Nengli

    2005-01-01

    Science parks have developed gready in the world, whereas empirical researches have showed that science parks based on linear model cannot guarantee the creation of innovation. Hi-tech innovation is derived from flow and management of information. The commercial and social interactions between in-parks and off-park firms and research institutions act as the key determinant for innovation.Industrial clustering is the rational choice for further developing Chinese science parks and solving some problems such as the lack of dear major industries and strong innovation sense, etc.

  12. Blind comparisons of shear-wave velocities at closely-spaced sites in San Jose, California: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, May 3, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asten, Michael W.; Boore, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities within several hundred meters of Earth's surface are important in specifying earthquake ground motions for engineering design. Not only are the shearwave velocities used in classifying sites for use of modern building codes, but they are also used in site-specific studies of particularly significant structures. Many are the methods for estimating sub-surface shear-wave velocities, but few are the blind comparisons of a number of the methods at a single site. The word "blind" is important here and means that the measurements and interpretations are done completely independent of one another. Stephen Hartzell of the USGS office on Golden, Colorado realized that such an experiment would be very useful for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods, and he and Jack Boatwright of the USGS office in Menlo Park, California, in cooperation with Carl Wentworth of the Menlo Park USGS office found a convenient site in the city of San Jose, California. The site had good access and space for conducting experiments, and a borehole drilled to several hundred meters by the Santa Clara Valley Water District was made available for downhole logging. Jack Boatwright asked David Boore to coordinate the experiment. In turn, David Boore persuaded several teams to make measurements, helped with the local logistics, collected the results, and organized and conducted an International Workshop in May, 2004. At this meeting the participants in the experiment gathered in Menlo Park to describe their measurements and interpretations, and to see the results of the comparisons of the various methods for the first time. This Open-File Report describes the results of that workshop. One of the participants, Michael Asten, offered to help the coordinator prepare this report. Because of his lead role in pulling the report together, Dr. Asten is the lead author of the paper to follow and is also the lead Compiler for the Open-File Report.It is important to

  13. Environmental Baseline Survey for Proposed Land Use Permit Modification for Expansion of the Dynamic Explosive Test Site (DETS) 9940 Main Complex Parking Lot.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W.

    2016-02-01

    The approach was to perform a document search, supplemented by a visual site inspection, to identify potential environmental contamination associated with the property. Factors evaluated included hazardous substances; petroleum products and derivatives; environmental restoration sites; areas of concern; storage tanks; oil/water separators; grease traps; wash racks; waste tanks; pesticides; military munitions/ordnance; medical or bio-hazardous waste; radioactive waste; solid/municipal waste; indoor air quality; groundwater; wastewater treatment, collection, and disposal/discharge; drinking water quality; utilities; asbestos; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); radon; lead-based paint; cultural resources; floodplains; and natural/biological resources.

  14. Parking Navigation for Alleviating Congestion in Multilevel Parking Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kenmotsu, Masahiro; Sun, Weihua; Shibata, Naoki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Ito, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Finding a vacant parking space in a large crowded parking facility takes long time. In this paper, we propose a navigation method that minimizes the parking time based on collected real-time positional information of cars. In the proposed method, a central server in the parking facility collects the information and estimates the occupancy of each parking zone. Then, the server broadcasts the occupancy data to the cars in the parking facility. Each car then computes a parking route with the sh...

  15. Estimation of PAHs dry deposition and BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) study at Urban, Industry Park and rural sampling sites in central Taiwan, Taichung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Foo; Lu, Chungsying; Bai, Hsunling

    2004-05-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas phase and particle bound were measured simultaneously at industrial (INDUSTRY), urban (URBAN), and rural areas (RURAL) in Taichung, Taiwan. And the PAH concentrations, size distributions, estimated PAHs dry deposition fluxes and health risk study of PAHs in the ambient air of central Taiwan were discussed in this study. Total PAH concentrations at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL sampling sites were found to be 1650 +/- 1240, 1220 +/- 520, and 831 +/- 427 ng/m3, respectively. The results indicated that PAH concentrations were higher at INDUSTRY and URBAN sampling sites than the RURAL sampling sites because of the more industrial processes, traffic exhausts and human activities. The estimation dry deposition and size distribution of PAHs were also studied. The results indicated that the estimated dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs were 58.5, 48.8, and 38.6 microg/m2/day at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL, respectively. The BaP equivalency results indicated that the health risk of gas phase PAHs were higher than the particle phase at three sampling sites of central Taiwan. However, compared with the BaP equivalency results to other studies conducted in factory, this study indicated the health risk of PAHs was acceptable in the ambient air of central Taiwan.

  16. Pulsars at Parkes

    OpenAIRE

    Manchester, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The first pulsar observations were made at Parkes on March 8, 1968, just 13 days after the publication of the discovery paper by Hewish and Bell. Since then, Parkes has become the world's most successful pulsar search machine, discovering nearly two thirds of the known pulsars, among them many highly significant objects. It has also led the world in pulsar polarisation and timing studies. In this talk I will review the highlights of pulsar work at Parkes from those 1968 observations to about ...

  17. THE COMPETITIVENESS FACTORS OF INDUSTRIAL PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kóródi László

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 2013 Romania shows the bigger economic development than in the last years and increases the GDP by 3,5%, that was the most significant growth in the EU. The biggest contributing sector to this expansion is the industry. This sector contributed the most with 2,3% to this growth. The importance of the industry in a country’s development not only the Romania`s case, but for other economies too. More and more authors emphasise the importance of Industrial parks, they act as pull factors. The effects of the industrial placements like the industrial parks are multiple regarding a region’s development and competitiveness. The most of these benefits are well known already, but the competitiveness of the industrial parks is not a frequent theme, tough this will contribute to the competitiveness of the region. What are the basic and decisive factors that influence the final decision of the companies to choose a particular industrial park? While analysing the competitiveness factors of industrial parks I intend to emphasize the reasons and factors that influences companies in their decision to appear in the industrial parks that they are resident in. The purpose of this paper is to present all the important factors in the same place that make an industrial park competitive. First I want to present the factors that were identified by now based on theoretical, and practical experiences starting from some second hand information. The caracteristics of the successful parks will br presented with the well-kown examples, and also with caese not known to everybody. Some of the reasons why industrial companies chooses a park are well kown, for example the placement, the good accesibility, for which is essential a good infrastructure. Another decisive factor is the suport of the state and the local autorities, the most important factors are tax and other costs relief. There are more things that influance companies in choosing their sites.

  18. iPark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Fantini, Ernesto Nicolas; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    where the geo-spatial aspect is not just a tag on other content, but is the primary content, e.g., a city street map with up-to-date road construction data. Along these lines, the iPark system aims to turn volumes of GPS data obtained from vehicles into information about the locations of parking spaces...

  19. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels

    2018-01-01

    system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...

  20. Bicycle Parking and Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    . This article contributes with new insights into parking and locking - ‘moorings’ - to cycling literature. It presents an ethnography of ‘design moorings’ and practices associated with parking and locking bikes. The main case study is the very pro-cycling city of Copenhagen. Yet to explore what is unique about...

  1. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  2. Resident support for a landfill-to-park transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; David B. Klenosky; Stephanie A. Snyder; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Globally, landfills are being transformed into other uses because land resources scarce, property values are increasing, and governments seek to reduce urban blight and adaptively reuse space. Park planners and city managers are likely to find that gauging public perceptions of a landfill-to-park project transformation and promoting such sites to potential visitors as...

  3. Parks and their users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with urban parks and their use(rs. It focuses on usage-spatial relationships from two different angles. Firstly, it discusses the actual uses mapped in places, using repeated observation on different days, times and weather conditions. Secondly, it addresses designers’ views and beliefs about usage and design of urban parks. However, the paper shows that designers’ beliefs and awareness about uses in places, in some aspects, differ from actual use. It stresses the use of empirical knowledge about usage-spatial relationships, which can be gained by using observation and behavioural mapping, in decision-making processes for parks design.

  4. Versailles' park taasavatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Osa Pariisi lähedase Versailles' lossi pargist avati jaanuari alguses uuesti publikule. 17.-18. sajandi prantsuse stiilis park suleti avalikkusele detsembris 1999 pärast parki laastanud hiigeltormi, mis murdis ligemale 10000 puud.

  5. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  6. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  7. Allegheny County Parks Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size and shape of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  8. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  9. Nonmethane hydrocarbons in the rural southeast United States national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Zika, Rod G.; Farmer, Charles; Ray, John D.

    2001-02-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made at three rural sites in the southeast U.S. national parks: Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky; Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee; and Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. In 1995 the three locations were sampling sites for the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) Nashville Intensive, and the measurements of VOCs for Shenandoah were also made under contract with the National Park Service. Starting in 1996, the National Park Service added the other two parks to the monitoring contract. Hydrocarbon measurements made during June through September for the years 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed in this study. Source classification techniques based on correlation coefficient, chemical reactivity, and ratioing were developed and applied to these data. The results show that anthropogenic VOCs from automobile exhaust appeared to be dominant at Mammoth Cave National Park, and at Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, but other sources were also important at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park. Correlation and ratio analysis based on chemical reactivity provides a basis for source-receptor relationship. The most abundant ambient VOCs varied both in concentration and order depending on park and year, but the following VOCs appeared on the top 10 list for all three sites: isoprene (6.3 to 18.4 ppbv), propane (2.1 to 12.9 ppbv), isopentane (1.3 to 5.7 ppbv), and toluene (1.0 to 7.2 ppbv). Isoprene is naturally emitted by vegetation, and the others are produced mainly by fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. Propylene-equivalent concentrations were calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the hydroxyl radical and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contributions to ozone formation.

  10. 36 CFR 6.8 - National Park Service solid waste responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.8 National Park Service solid waste responsibilities. (a) Beginning one year after January 23, 1995, a Superintendent will not permit or allow a person to dispose of solid waste at a National Park Service operated...

  11. 26 CFR 1.103-9 - Interest on bonds to finance industrial parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest on bonds to finance industrial parks. 1... Interest on bonds to finance industrial parks. (a) General rule. (1) Under section 103(c)(5), interest paid... finance the acquisition or development of land as the site for an industrial park (referred to in this...

  12. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  13. Performance of engineered soil and trees in a parking lot bioswale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingfu Xiao; Gregory McPherson

    2011-01-01

    A bioswale integrating an engineered soil and trees was installed in a parking lot to evaluate its ability to reduce storm runoff, pollutant loading, and support tree growth. The adjacent control and treatment sites each received runoff from eight parking spaces and were identical except that there was no bioswale for the control site. A tree was planted at both sites...

  14. Follow-up on the migration of birds of prey at the Baie-des-Sables wind park site : preliminary report; Suivi de la migration des oiseaux de proie sur le site d'implantation du parc eolien de Baie-des-Sables : rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Boulianne, F.; Bujold, J.; Ouellet, J.F. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    Cartier Wind Power plans to install a wind turbine array at Baie-des-Sables in the Gaspe Peninsula. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on the thousands of birds of prey that fly along Quebec's St. Lawrence River each year. Their migration patterns were evaluated through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season. The proposed 109.5 MW wind turbine park in Baie-des-Sables was presented to the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. In order to complete a feasibility study for this project, it was necessary to document and characterize the spring migration pattern of birds of prey in the area. An inventory of raptors was carried out between March 31 and May 23, 2005. This current study supplemented an existing inventory from a previous study carried out in the spring of 2004. This current study included data on dates of observations of the migratory birds during the monitoring period. Nine species of birds of prey were identified. Overall, 448 individual birds were observed over a total period of 92 hours. With 137 sightings of the red-tailed hawk and 95 sightings of the rough-legged hawk, these 2 species were the most frequently indexed species, accounting for 51.8 per cent of the sightings. No evidence of nesting particular to birds of prey was observed at the site. The flight patterns of the birds were also observed with reference to height and direction of flight. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig., 3 appendices.

  15. Outdoor Recreation Sites Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The RECSITES data layer contains a wide range of recreational sites in Vermont. This point data layer includes parks, ski areas, boat access points, and many other...

  16. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  17. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  18. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  19. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Station, a dry deciduous forest within Ankarafantsika National. Park. We set Sherman ... dry deciduous forests compared to research in the eastern rainforests (Goodman et al. .... the ground, this rat was observed on both the ground and trees. We tentatively .... Conservation International, Washington DC. Carleton, M. D. ...

  20. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We often observed domestic mammals such as cattle, cats and dogs in the forest at Ampijoroa. Although the primary forest in Ampijoroa is managed by Madagascar National Parks, local people leave these domestic animals in the forest. Introduced animals may be a threat to endemic animals. Cattle can be transmitters of ...

  1. Modelling parking behaviour considering heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, G.A.; Ibeas Portilla, A.; Alonso Oreña, B.; Olio, L. del

    2016-07-01

    Most of motorized trips in cities of middle and small size are made in public transport and mainly in private vehicle, this has caused a saturation in parking systems of the cities, causing important problems to society, one of the most important problems is high occupancy of public space by parking systems. Thus, is required the estimation of models that reproduce users’ behaviour when they are choosing for parking in cities, to carry out transport policies to improve transport efficiency and parking systems in the cities. The aim of this paper is the specification and estimation of models that simulate users’ behaviour when they are choosing among alternatives of parking that there are in the city: free on street parking, paid on street parking, paid on underground parking and Park and Ride (now there isn´t). For this purpose, is proposed a multinomial logit model that consider systematic and random variations in tastes. Data of users’ behaviour from the different alternatives of parking have been obtained with a stated preference surveys campaign which have been done in May 2015 in the principal parking zones of the city of Santander. In this paper, we provide a number of improvements to previously developed methodologies because of we consider much more realism to create the scenarios stated preference survey, obtaining better adjustments. (Author)

  2. Gleaning and Dreaming on Car Park Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Croft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin. Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin, the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.

  3. Mount Rainier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  4. Enhancing Visitor Experiences Using Thematic Interpretation in Park Guiding Service in Sarawak National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Victor Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing visitor experiences is arguably the primary and most important goal for interpretation by many protected area managers and tourism business. However, little research has been conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia to directly quantify the effects of thematic interpretation has on tourist experiences. Drawing on the TORE-model of interpretation and through the inception of Park Guiding Training and Licensing System in Sarawak since 2007, this quantitative study examines the effectiveness of thematic interpretive guided tours delivered by park guides at Bako National Park, Sarawak, with the assumption that it will further enhance visitor experiences. A descriptive analysis and Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis of sub-indicators of the global evaluation of interpretation of site, and sub-indicators of elaboration surveyed from visitors of purposively sampled park guides revealed a strong measurement and correlation coefficients of visitors’ overall quality of thematic intepretive guided tours effecting visitor satisfaction and experiences. These findings provide empirical evidence that good thematic interpretive guided tour makes a positive impacts on visitor experiences, thus making training of tourism businesses' employees as park guides as a good investment. The suggestions for further research in influencing visitor attitude and shaping visitor behaviour are offered.

  5. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

    Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

  6. Problems and Prospects of Curbside Parking in Lahore: PolicyImplications for Effective Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALMAN SABIR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lahore is a fast-growing metropolis experiencing rapid growth in people and vehicle population. This unprecedented growth has led to urban sprawl, dependency on motorized transport, and increased parking space demands throughout the city limits. Off-street parking supply is insufficient and the demand is met mainly by roadside parking with and without any authorization. Parking on the roads and sidewalks has resulted in reduction in traffic capacity, traffic speed variation, accidents and disruption in smooth flow of traffic. Though the government has adopted measures in the past to streamline roadside parking activities, these efforts have proved counter-productive. This paper provides a critical analysis of the existing parking situation in Lahore based on detailed surveys and interviews. It presents an assessment of the functional performance of selected parking sites located at various roads. The findings not only provide significant evidence of the problems caused by haphazard curbside parking but also highlight its prospects if managed properly. The paper argues that absence of by-laws governing curbside parking, weak institutions, and inadequate public transport are the main causes of prevailing parking crisis. It concludes that development of curbside parking regulations in line with urban transport policy is a first step towards managing existing and future curbside parking resources in Lahore.

  7. Problems and Prospects of Curbside Parking in Lahore: Policy Implications for Effective Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabir, S.

    2017-01-01

    Lahore is a fast-growing metropolis experiencing rapid growth in people and vehicle population. This unprecedented growth has led to urban sprawl, dependency on motorized transport, and increased parking space demands throughout the city limits. Off-street parking supply is insufficient and the demand is met mainly by roadside parking with and without any authorization. Parking on the roads and sidewalks has resulted in reduction in traffic capacity, traffic speed variation, accidents and disruption in smooth flow of traffic. Though the government has adopted measures in the past to streamline roadside parking activities, these efforts have proved counter-productive. This paper provides a critical analysis of the existing parking situation in Lahore based on detailed surveys and interviews. It presents an assessment of the functional performance of selected parking sites located at various roads. The findings not only provide significant evidence of the problems caused by haphazard curbside parking but also highlight its prospects if managed properly. The paper argues that absence of by-laws governing curbside parking, weak institutions, and inadequate public transport are the main causes of prevailing parking crisis. It concludes that development of curbside parking regulations in line with urban transport policy is a first step towards managing existing and future curbside parking resources in Lahore. (author)

  8. Mathematical model of parking space unit for triangular parking area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrini, Intan; Sundari, Teti; Iskandar, Taufiq; Halfiani, Vera; Munzir, Said; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Parking space unit (PSU) is an effective measure for the area size of a vehicle, including the free space and the width of the door opening of the vehicle (car). This article discusses a mathematical model for parking space of vehicles in triangular shape area. An optimization model for triangular parking lot is developed. Integer Linear Programming (ILP) method is used to determine the maximum number of the PSU. The triangular parking lot is in isosceles and equilateral triangles shape and implements four possible rows and five possible angles for each field. The vehicles which are considered are cars and motorcycles. The results show that the isosceles triangular parking area has 218 units of optimal PSU, which are 84 units of PSU for cars and 134 units of PSU for motorcycles. Equilateral triangular parking area has 688 units of optimal PSU, which are 175 units of PSU for cars and 513 units of PSU for motorcycles.

  9. A Survey of Intelligent Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Faheem; S.A. Mahmud; G.M. Khan; M. Rahman; H. Zafar

    2013-01-01

    The industrialization of the world, increase in population, slow paced city development and mismanagement of the available parking space has resulted in parking related problems. There is a dire need for a secure, intelligent, efficient and reliable system which can be used for searching the unoccupied parking facility, guidance towards the parking facility, negotiation of the parking fee, along with the proper management of the parking facility. Intelligent Parking Service is a part of Intel...

  10. parkITsmart: minimization of cruising for parking

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiaras, Christos; Hobi, Livio; Hofstetter, Fabian; Liniger, Samuel; Stiller, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Finding a parking space in urban areas is a daily challenge for drivers across the world, due to the increasing amount of vehicles and the limited amount of parking spaces. Drivers who are looking for a parking space in peak hours are often forced to drive around city blocks until they spot a free parking space. This process is termed in literature “cruising for parking” and is proven to (a) cost a lot of time and gas for drivers, (b) generate unnecessary traffic load, and (c) affect the envi...

  11. The today nuclear park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.; Marignac, Y.; Tassart, J.

    2000-03-01

    This economic analysis of the nuclear industry, takes stock on the french nuclear park, the nuclear materials flux, the operating and in construction from 1970 to 1998 reactors, the storage and the wastes reprocessing. The second part proposes many scenario in function of the reactors lifetime and the industrial policy of fuel reprocessing. This analysis shows the interest of extending the power plants lifetime and evaluates the consequences of a reprocessing-recycling policy facing the stop of such a policy in 2010. (A.L.B.)

  12. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  13. Orlice Nature Park - environmental themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this abstract is to outline the main characteristics of Orlice Nature Park and of the procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and to evaluate public interest in the nature park and in nature protection in general. Orlice Nature Park was instituted in 1996. The function of the park is to protect the character of the area of landscape around the River Orlice. Orlice Natural Park covers an area of 115 sq. km. The main environmental risks to the park are: intensive agriculture, forest mono-culture, industry, transport, channel improvement, the building of holiday cottages, sport, and recreation. Among the conflicts of interest in the park are: nature protection, water management, building constrictions, business, fishery, water sports and recreation. During the process of Environmental Impact Assessment in Hradec Kralove, the public voiced its opinion against the building of a supermarket within the grounds of of the nature park. In this case the public showed its interest in the value of nature and landscape, the value of human health and the value of plant species. In general, the public and the local media show an interest in the park only in exceptional circumstances. (author)

  14. Contents of heavy metals in urban parks and university campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Because the city park has become an important place for people's daily leisure, and the university campus is one of the most densely populated areas of the city, their environmental pollution is critical for the health and safety of the residents. In this paper, two kinds of evaluation methods were used to evaluate the content of Cu, Zn, As and Pb in soils of city parks and university campus in Xiangtan. The results showed that only Juhuatang Park was a non-polluted area, and the other 7 sampling sites were lightly polluted; Analysis shows the heavy metal contents of soil in city parks are closely related to vehicle emissions, agriculture and irrigation, combustion of household waste, living area and commercial shops, the use of fossil fuels, industrial waste gas and waste residue and other human activities.

  15. Parking Spoorzone Delft : Addressing expected parking challenges 2015-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccot, C.; Groenendijk, L.; Rot, M.; Van der Meijs, P.; Rakers, T.; Negenborn, R.R.; Annema, J.A.; Pel, A.; Vleugel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This project is carried out on request of the BVOW, the interest group of the neighbourhoods Olofsbuurt and Westerkwartier in Delft, in order to propose solutions for the parking issue of Spoorzone Delft expected between 2015 and 2017. They are worried that parking disturbances will emerge in their

  16. Parking taxes : evaluating options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Containment barrier at Pride Park, Derby, England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, P.; Esnault, A.; Braithwaite, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Pride Park site at Derby occupies 96ha of derelict land close to the city centre. Approximately one third of the site was a closed landfill with a further third being an old gas works site. The remainder comprised former heavy engineering works and gravel pit workings. The River Derwent bounds the site on two sides. The objectives of the remediation strategy for the site included minimising off-site disposal of contaminated soils and ensuring that contaminants do not migrate into the adjacent river. The eastern part of the site, including the landfill and gasworks sites, was therefore contained by a 600mm wide bentonite cement vertical cut-off wall, with HDPE membrane, sealed by 1m into the underlying mudstone. The cut-off wall is some 3km long and a maximum 10m deep. The works were complicated by the need to construct the wall around 36 existing underground services. The paper briefly covers the background to the remediation of the site, describes the construction process and discusses design considerations in relation to the durability requirements of the containment barrier in the potentially aggressive environment

  18. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  19. Smart parking management and navigation system

    KAUST Repository

    Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space

  20. CERN in the park

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN will be the centre of debate at a 'Café scientifique' on Monday 29 April. The aim of the Cafés scientifiques, which are organised by the association of Bancs Publics, is to kindle discussion between ordinary people and specialists in a scientific field. This Monday, Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council, Hans Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing at CERN, Gilbert Guignard, a physicist at CERN, and Ruhal Floris, who teaches mathematical didactics at the University of Geneva, will explain the usefulness and contributions to science of the world's biggest laboratory for particle physics. What is CERN for? Monday 29 April at 18.30 Musée d'histoire des sciences, Geneva (in the park Perle du Lac) Entry free Wine and buffet after the discussion

  1. Yellowcake National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagget, D.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration for and mining of uranium ore is going on within 10 miles of the Grand Canyon National Park. The current rush started in 1980, when a Denver-based company, Energy Fuels Nuclear, took over a claim in Hack Canyon and uncovered a very rich deposit of uranium ore. Recent explorations have resulted in some 1300 claims in the area around the Grand Canyon, many of them in the Arizona Strip, the land between the Canyon and Utah. The center of current controversy is the 1872 Mining Law. Replacement of the law with a leasing system similar to that used for leasable minerals such as coal, oil shale, oil and gas, potash, and phosphate is advocated. 1 figure

  2. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.4 Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984. (a) No person may operate...

  3. 77 FR 19687 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION..., 1416 9th Street, Room 902, Sacramento, CA 95814, telephone (916) 653-8893. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... associated funerary objects were removed from ten sites located in northeastern San Diego County, CA. This...

  4. 77 FR 15389 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ...: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION..., 1416 9th Street, Room 902, Sacramento, CA 95814, telephone (916) 653-8893. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... associated funerary objects were removed from the Cole Creek site (CA-LAK-425), Lake County, CA. This notice...

  5. 77 FR 15801 - Notice of Inventory Completion: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...: California Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION..., 1416 9th Street, Room 902, Sacramento, CA 95814, telephone (916) 653-8893. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... associated funerary objects were removed from the Morris Mound site (CA-SAC-199) in Sacramento County, CA...

  6. Hemlock resources at risk in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristine D. Johnson; Fred P. Hain; Katherine S. Johnson; Felton Hastings

    2000-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) is the dominant species in a variety of sites in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Hemlock covers approximately 3820 acres (1528 hectares) or one percent of the Park, which at 524,856 acres is the largest area managed as wilderness in the eastern United States. Since timber was never harvested in about...

  7. 78 FR 38072 - General Management Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Guadalupe Mountains National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...[aacute]squez, at the Park Headquarters/Pine Springs Visitor Center: 400 Pine Canyon Drive, Salt Flat, TX...]squez, Superintendent, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, HC 60, Box 400, Salt Flat, TX 79847-9400.... Campsites and horse corrals would be closed and their sites revegetated. The limited amount of new...

  8. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  9. Herpetofaunal inventories of the National Parks of South Florida and the Caribbean: Volume I. Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Crockett, Marquette E.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Percival, H. Frankin

    2004-01-01

    Amphibian declines and extinctions have been documented around the world, often in protected natural areas. Concern for this alarming trend has prompted the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service to document all species of amphibians that occur within U.S. National Parks and to search for any signs that amphibians may be declining. This study, an inventory of amphibian species in Everglades National Park, was conducted during 2000 to 2003. The goals of the project were to create a georeferenced inventory of amphibian species, use new analytical techniques to estimate proportion of sites occupied by each species, look for any signs of amphibian decline (missing species, disease, die-offs, etc.), and to establish a protocol that could be used for future monitoring efforts. Several sampling methods were used to accomplish all of these goals. Visual encounter surveys and anuran vocalization surveys were conducted in all habitats throughout the park to estimate the proportion of sites or proportion of area occupied (PAO) by each amphibian species in each habitat. Opportunistic collections, as well as some drift fence and aquatic funnel trap data were used to augment the visual encounter methods for highly aquatic or cryptic species. A total of 562 visits to 118 sites were conducted for standard sampling alone, and 1788 individual amphibians and 413 reptiles were encountered. Data analysis was done in program PRESENCE to provide PAO estimates for each of the anuran species. All but one of the amphibian species thought to occur in Everglades National Park was detected during this project. That species, the Everglades dwarf siren (Pseudobranchus axanthus belli), is especially cryptic and probably geographically limited in its range in Everglades National Park. The other three species of salamanders and all of the anurans in the park were sampled adequately using standard herpetological sampling methods. PAO estimates were produced for each species of anuran

  10. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Mei; Ye Tian; Dongping Li

    2012-01-01

    Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS) often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs). By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constru...

  11. Vision-Based Parking-Slot Detection: A Benchmark and A Learning-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing automatic parking systems in the field of intelligent vehicles. However, how to effectively and efficiently locating parking-slots using a vision-based system is still an unresolved issue. Even more seriously, there is no publicly available labeled benchmark dataset for tuning and testing parking-slot detection algorithms. In this paper, we attempt to fill the above-mentioned research gaps to some extent and our contributions are twofold. Firstly, to facilitate the study of vision-based parking-slot detection, a large-scale parking-slot image database is established. This database comprises 8600 surround-view images collected from typical indoor and outdoor parking sites. For each image in this database, the marking-points and parking-slots are carefully labeled. Such a database can serve as a benchmark to design and validate parking-slot detection algorithms. Secondly, a learning-based parking-slot detection approach, namely P S D L , is proposed. Using P S D L , given a surround-view image, the marking-points will be detected first and then the valid parking-slots can be inferred. The efficacy and efficiency of P S D L have been corroborated on our database. It is expected that P S D L can serve as a baseline when the other researchers develop more sophisticated methods.

  12. Influence of Parking Price on Parking Garage Users’ Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Simićević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parking charge is a powerful tool for solving parking and traffic congestion problems. In order to achieve the expected effects without any adverse impact it is necessary to understand well the users’ responses to this policy. This paper, based on a sample of interviewed parking garage users, has developed binary logit model for identification and quantification of characteristics of users and trips, on which the acceptance of parking price is dependent. In addition, multinomial logit model has been made in order to predict what the users will opt for when faced with an increase in parking price. For the first time the parameter “shorten duration” has been introduced which has shown to be the most significant in making behaviour-related decisions. The results show that the users with the purpose work are the most sensitive to an increase in parking charge, what can be deemed positive for policy makers. However, great sensitivity of the users with the purpose shopping should cause their concern. The results of the multinomial model show that they would not discontinue coming into the area after all.

  13. The bird species of pandam wildlife park and the surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of time of day as well as vegetation variables on bird species diversity in the park and surrounding farmlands was also conducted. 10 transects in each study site were surveyed twice between during the dry season and vegetation variables (trees, fingers, finger-rings two- hand, grazing, farming, canopy cover, ...

  14. Architectural heritage or theme park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Solà-Morales

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing parallelism between the perception and the consumer use of theme parks and architectural heritage gives rise to a reflection about the fact that the architectural object has been turned into a museum piece, stripped  of its original value and its initial cultural substance to become images exposed to multiple gazes, thus producing what the author calis the "Theme Park effect", with consequences on protected architecture.

  15. Exploring en-route parking type and parking-search route choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Sholomo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of an on-going research investigating the joint choice of parking type, parking facility and cruising-for-parking route. The importance of this issue derives from the significant share of cruising-for-parking traffic in urban areas, the relevance of parking po...

  16. Wireless based Smart Parking System using Zigbee

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Asyrani Bin Sulaiman; Mohd Fareez Bin Mohd Afif; Mohd Azlishah Bin Othman; Mohamad Harris Bin Misran; Maizatul Alice Binti Meor Said

    2013-01-01

    One of main issues of developing big parking space for shopping complexes, office complexes and other types of building that requires large parking space is to notify the visitors of occupied and nonoccupied parking space. Most of the visitors might spending up to 30 to 45 minutes just to find an empty parking space. In most recent technology, some parking lot system offered a system that could automatically count when the car entering the empty car space and blocking an infrared signal thus ...

  17. Public parks as urban tourism in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiati, M. P.; Lestari, N. S.; Wiastuti, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable urban tourism development should provide better places for people to live in and for people to visit. Jakarta as the capital city has a potential for its urban tourism. Thus, urban tourism attribute such as Public Park should be in high- quality to cope with the needs of urban people and outside visitors. The purpose of this study is to investigate Public Park attributes and to analyze its compliance refer to Public Park that eventually supports sustainable urban tourism. This paper used a qualitative approach. Primary data obtain from direct field observation in seven Public Parks in Jakarta; Menteng Park, Suropati Park, Situ Lembang Park, Ayodhya Park, Cattleya Park, Kodok Park, and Langsat Park. Observation checks list use as guidance. The result provides an assessment of Public Park based on four categories; the accessibility, park activities, safety, and user. The implication of this study offers recommendations to enhance Public Park so that it complies with good public park design- attributes and with the obligations of sustainable urban tourism in Jakarta.

  18. Parking management : strategies, evaluation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    Parking facilities are a major cost to society. Current planning practices are based on the assumption that parking should be abundant and provided free, with costs borne indirectly. This report examined parking management strategies related to integrated parking plans. Problems with current parking planning practices were reviewed. The costs of parking facilities were examined, as well as the savings that can accrue from improved management techniques. Strategies included shared parking; remote parking and shuttle services; walking and cycling improvements; improved enforcement and control; and increasing the capacity of existing parking facilities. Parking pricing methods, financial incentives and parking tax reforms were reviewed. Issues concerning user information and marketing were examined. Overflow parking plans were evaluated. Three illustrative examples of parking management programs were outlined, along with details of implementation, planning and evaluation procedures. It was concluded that cost-effective parking management programs can often reduce parking requirements by 20 to 40 per cent compared with conventional planning requirements, in addition to providing economic, social and environmental benefits. 32 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Roadworks around the "Les Cèdres" car park

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    Diversions will be in place on Route Scherrer and Route Bohr from 4 to 31 July.   As we announced in a previous article, the SMB department is currently installing vehicle registration plate readers at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. Please note that, due to the installation work involved: access to Buildings 50 and 52 via Route Scherrer (passing under the Building 50 walkway) will be closed from 4 to 8 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Scherrer will be closed from 4 to 14 July, access to the Les Cèdres car park via Route Bohr will be closed from 16 to 31 July, Route Bohr will be closed between Route Greinacher and Route Bell from 16 to 31 July. Please also note that, following the completion of the work, the Les Cèdres car park will operate as a one-way system, with entry only from Route Scherrer and exit only onto Route Bohr. Thank you for your understand...

  20. Smart parking management and navigation system

    KAUST Repository

    Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2017-11-09

    Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space; determine a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the wireless signal; and identify a presence of a vehicle located at the parking space based at least in part on the RSSI. In another example, a method includes receiving a wireless signals from a base station controller and a parking controller located at a parking space; determining RSSIs from the wireless signals; and determining a location of the mobile computing device in a parking facility based at least in part on the RSSIs. In another example, a RSSI can be received, a parking occupancy can be determined using the RSSI, and an electronic record can be updated based on the parking occupancy.

  1. Learning from Millennium Park, Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guen, T. [American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Terry Guen Design Associates, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper identified the value of creating green space for public use in an urban area in support of a sustainable environment. The inauguration of Chicago's Millennium Park in July 2004 marked a landmark civic achievement in greening an industrial urban centre. The Park was constructed on a 25-acre, previously vacant 100 year old rail property. In 2001, the first phase of the Park opened with the construction of the garages, train bridge, and infrastructure for future sculptural pieces. The green roof landscaping involved soil and drainage pathways, planting 11 acres of lawn and trees, and building a skating rink and restaurants. Phase 2 included new construction of donor enhancements. Among many benefits, this project stimulated investment in adjacent private development. This paper outlined the historic motivation for the park as a cultural and aesthetic benefit for the public. It reviewed the construction costs, the multiple sources of funding, and the multidisciplinary effort involving public agencies and private supporters. The landscape team included experts in soil, irrigation, planting, design and plant selection. Millennium Park has proven that current design and construction industries have the technical and physical ability to create cultural spaces of interest. 6 figs.

  2. Field guide to the geology of the Denali National Park Road and the Parks Highway from Cantwell to Healy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hults, Chad P.; Capps, Danny L.; Brease, Phil F.

    2013-01-01

    The Denali National Park & Preserve area provides one of the few opportunities in Alaska for road-side access to good rock outcrops. The rocks and surficial deposits exposed in the Denali area span from the Paleozoic to the Quaternary. It is a structurally complex area that contains a history of rifting, accretion, and orogeny. There is evidence of multiple metamorphic events in the Mesozoic, mountain building in the Tertiary, and faulting in the present day. The region is the site of active faulting along one of the largest intra-continental fault systems, the Denali Fault system, which was the locus of a 7.9 M earthquake in 2002. This guidebook describes the key outcrops viewable along the Denali Park Road from the entrance to the Eielson Visitor Center, and along the Parks Highway from Healy to Cantwell.

  3. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Vivian X. Y.; Dafforn, Katherine A.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Kelaher, Brendan P.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ) where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina) in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management. PMID:26086427

  4. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Vivian X Y; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Kelaher, Brendan P; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-01-01

    Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ) where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina) in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management.

  5. Sediment Contaminants and Infauna Associated with Recreational Boating Structures in a Multi-Use Marine Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian X Y Sim

    Full Text Available Multi-use marine parks achieve conservation through spatial management of activities. Zoning of marine parks in New South Wales, Australia, includes high conservation areas and special purpose zones (SPZ where maritime activities are concentrated. Although such measures geographically constrain anthropogenic impacts, we have limited understanding of potential ecological effects. We assessed sediment communities and contaminants adjacent to boating infrastructure (boat ramps, jetties and a marina in a SPZ from the Clyde Estuary in Batemans Marine Park. Metal concentrations and fines content were elevated at boating structures compared to reference sites. Species richness was higher at sites with boating structures, where capitellid polychaetes and nematodes dominated the communities. Changes associated with boating structures were localised and did not extend beyond breakwalls or to reference sites outside the SPZ. The study highlights the benefits of appropriate zoning in a multi-use marine park and the potential to minimise stress on pristine areas through the application of spatial management.

  6. Science parks as knowledge organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    gained agrowing importance in the new economy. If we shift focus to organizationtheory discussions on new knowledge and innovation has specialized in relationto the process of creation, managing, organizing, sharing, transferring etc. ofknowledge. The evaluation of science parks has to relate......Recent studies of the impact of science parks have questioned traditionalassumption about the effect of the parks on innovation and economic growth.Most studies tend to measure the effect by rather traditional measures, revenue,survival of new firms, without taking into account, that knowledge has...... to the changed role ofknowledge in the creation of economic growth. With the help of the concept ofthe ba from Nonanka, the article discuss if or how traditional organized scienceparks can become central actors in the new knowledge production or has to beviewed as an outdated institution from the industrial...

  7. Smart parking management system with decal electronics system

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Wicaksono, Irmandy

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.

  8. Smart parking management system with decal electronics system

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-21

    Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.

  9. Perceived Health Benefits and Willingness to Pay for Parks by Park Users: Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Henderson-Wilson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whilst a growing body of evidence demonstrates people derive a range of health and wellbeing benefits from visiting parks, only a limited number of attempts have been made to provide a complementary economic assessment of parks. The aim of this exploratory study was to directly estimate the perceived health and wellbeing benefits attained from parks and the economic value assigned to parks by park users in Victoria, Australia. The research employed a mixed methods approach (survey and interviews to collect primary data from a selection of 140 park users: 100 from two metropolitan parks in Melbourne and 40 from a park on the urban fringe of Melbourne, Victoria. Our findings suggest that park users derive a range of perceived physical, mental/spiritual, and social health benefits, but park use was predominantly associated with physical health benefits. Overall, our exploratory study findings suggest that park users are willing to pay for parks, as they highly value them as places for exercising, socialising, and relaxing. Importantly, most people would miss parks if they did not exist. The findings aim to provide park managers, public health advocates, and urban policy makers with evidence about the perceived health and wellbeing benefits of park usage and the economic value park visitors place on parks.

  10. San Francisco SFpark and parking information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    SFpark is a demonstration of a new approach to parking management that : will evaluate the effectiveness of demand-responsive pricing and real-time : information on parking availability for reducing congestion and greenhouse gas : emissions and provi...

  11. Caraboidea distribution in different forest stands Chrea National Park, Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadid, Z.; Gahdeb, C.; Ghalem, M.; Haddar, L.; Boughrara, H.

    2013-01-01

    T he distribution of the ground beetles in different forests of the national park of Chrea (Blida, Algerie) using pitfall traps was investigated . A total of 29 species of Caraboidea , in seven families, were collected, with the chestnut and holm oak forests were the most diversified sites with 16 species each. The family Pterostichidae is the richest with nine specie s. The distribution of the species of Caraboidea was influenced by the site altitude, since the site vegetation composition and fluctuations are dependent on several ecological parameters. (author)

  12. Public feelings and environmental impacts from uranium mining inside Kakadu National Park and around Grand Canyon National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Kvasnicka, J.

    1989-01-01

    There are two uranium mines in the Northern Territory of Australia, Ranger and Nabarlek. The Ranger mine, the only producing operation, is located in the Kakadu National Park, which has been listed on the United Nations' World Heritage list. The park is dedicated to preserving the Australian aboriginal culture: It contains several aboriginal villages and historic sites. Uranium mining in the park has been accepted quite well by the public and the aborigines. Employees of the Ranger mine and their relatives have established a public information program that includes tours of the mining and milling operations. There is no environmental impact to the area from the mining and milling of uranium at the Ranger site. The region around the Grand Canyon contains many highgrade uranium deposits. The ore is contained in unique breccia pipe formations. The pipes, which resemble a cylinder with a diemter of ∼ 100 m and a height of ∼ 300 m, originated as limestone solution cavities located ∼ 400 m below the plateau. There are several exposed deposits along the canyon walls, but no mining operations are allowed within the park boundaries. While the real environmental impact is insignificant, the perceived impact is tremendous. Many special-interest groups have attempted to halt the mining operations. No valid environmental impacts have been predicted or observed as a result of the current mining operations. However, one mine has been delayed for religious reasons by a local tribe or native Americans

  13. Protect Czech park from development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Křenová, Zdeňka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 531, č. 7595 (2016), s. 448-448 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Protect Czech park Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sci ences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  14. Renovated Parks Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.

  15. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  16. Seremban Urban Park, Malaysia: a Preference Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maulan, Suhardi

    2002-01-01

    Unlike the West, where many studies have explored how peopleâ s needs are fulfilled by urban parks, Malaysia has received very little attention from researchers. One reason for this is the fact that Malaysia has only a short public park tradition. Although folk art and stories have chronicled a long history of gardens and other parks, these spaces were only accessible to royal family members and autocrats. In Malaysia, the concept of free public parks is relatively recent, having been introd...

  17. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Swanand S .Vaze; Rohan S. Mithari

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  18. Evaluating urban parking policies with agent-based model of driver parking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.; Benenson, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an explicit agent-based model of parking search in a city. In the model, “drivers” drive toward their destination, search for parking, park, remain at the parking place, and leave. The city’s infrastructure is represented by a high-resolution geographic information system (GIS)

  19. The on-street parking premium and car drivers' choice between street and garage parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, M.B.W.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.; Rietveld, P.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to estimate the effect of parking prices on car drivers' choice between street and garage parking. Our key identifying assumption is that the marginal benefit of parking duration does not depend on this choice. The endogeneity of parking duration is acknowledged in the

  20. A Practical Application of Statistical Gap Analysis in National Park Management in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre González, Juan Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available If the tourism growth predicted materialized as tourism for Costa Rica protected areas would see major increases. A study conducted in Volcan Poas National Park and Volcan Turrialba National Park two of Costa Rica leading volcanic crater parks was undertaken to make available to national parks and protected areas managers, a procedure, that could be use: to measure using an adapted form of the expectations disconfirmation theory the satisfaction of visitors to Costa Rica national parks, and to evaluate if the results could be used for establishing the areas of the park infrastructure, services and recreational options that needed improvement and management decisions to enhance visitor's satisfaction. The sample included 1414 surveys The findings indicates that the procedure adapted base on the expectations-disconfirmation model was proven helpful in: a getting the information to help “zero in”, the man-agement decisions in the short and medium term and for the development of the Tourist Management Plans that is to say being developed in the 2 sites, b guiding park managers in the resource allocation process, under the conditions of scarcity that are so common in developing countries, c facilitating regular monitoring of the conditions, with a simple and quick methodology that can be used for “day to day” decisions and more sophisticated statistical analysis d identifying the areas in the management of protected areas that need further analysis and in that way is contributing to the development of the long term socio-economic research programs in national parks, e the “real” importance of the information and education activities in national parks, combination of activities that seems to be critical to enhance “consumer satisfaction” among the visitors to national parks everywhere and particularly as a means of understanding whether visitors needs and expectations are met, whether they receive what they should and as a context for

  1. What's Ahead for our National Parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jean Craighead

    1972-01-01

    To insure the future of our National Parks, sweeping changes must be made. Encroaching civilization at the expense of nature has forced National Park officials to consider alternatives to future development - limiting number of visitors, facilities outside the parks and curtailing vehicular traffic. (BL)

  2. SmartPark Technology Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of FMCSAs SmartPark initiative is to determine the feasibility of a technology for providing truck parking space availability in real time to truckers on the road. SmartPark consists of two phases. Phase I was a field operational test ...

  3. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking...

  4. Evaluation of Radon Pollution in Underground Parking Lots by Discomfort Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Bu-Olayan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent studies of public underground parking lots showed the influence of radon concentration and the probable discomfort caused by parking cars. Materials and Methods Radon concentration was measured in semi-closed public parking lots in the six governorates of Kuwait, using Durridge RAD7radon detector (USA. Results The peak radon concentration in the parking lots of Kuwait governorates was relatively higher during winter (63.15Bq/m3 compared to summer (41.73 Bq/m3. Radon in the evaluated parking lots revealed a mean annual absorbed dose (DRn: 0.02mSv/y and annual effective dose (HE: 0.06mSv/y.  Conclusion This study validated the influence of relative humidity and temperature as the major components of discomfort index (DI. The mean annual absorbed and effective dose  of radon in the evaluated parking lots were found below the permissible limits. However, high radon DRn and HE were reported when the assessment included the parking lots, the surrounding residential apartments, and office premises. Furthermore, the time-series analysis indicated significant variations of the seasonal and site-wise distribution of radon concentrations in the indoor evaluated parking lots of the six Kuwait governorates

  5. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  6. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...

  7. Implementation of ergonomics in the management of parking increasing the quality of living parking park in mall Robinson Denpasar city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutapa, I. K.; Sudiarsa, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    The problems that often arise in the area of Denpasar City mostly caused by parking problems at the centers of activities such as shopping centers. The problems that occur not only because of the large number of vehicles that parked but also the result of the condition of parking officers who have not received attention, there is no concern about the physical condition of parking attendants because doing night guard duty. To improve the quality of parking officer, ergonomic parking lot is improved through the application of appropriate technology with systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory approach. The general objective of the research is to know the implementation of ergonomics in parking management on the improvement of the quality of parking officer in Robinson shopping center. The indicator of the quality of the parking officer work is the decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue, workload, boredom and increasing work motivation. The study was conducted using the same subject design, involving 10 subjects as a simple random sample. Intervention is done by arrangement of ergonomic basement motorcycle parking. Measurements done before and after repair. Washing out (WO) for 14 days. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively, tested normality (shapirowilk) and homogeneity (Levene Test). For normal and homogeneous distribution data, different test with One Way Anova, different test between Period with Post Hoc. Normally distributed and non-homogeneous data, different test with Friedman Test, different test between periods using Wilcoxon test. Data were analyzed with significance level of 5%. The results showed that the implementation of ergonomic in the management of parking area of the court decreased musculoskeletal complaints by 15.10% (p management of the parking lot improves the quality of the parking officer work from: (1) decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, (2) decrease of melting rate, (3) decrease of parking workload

  8. Terror Park: A future theme park in 2100

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the future, tourism and entertainment could be displayed as spectacles of horror, where consumers are offered and opportunity to revisit the tragedies of the past. Current displays of death where the past is exhibited and consumed as fun, scary and as entertainment productions are widespread. The movie industry provides horror to all ages, children can be exposed to the goulash past in various forms, such as the popular book series ‘Horrible Histories’. Theme parks, rides and roller-coaste...

  9. Rural Latino youth park use: characteristics, park amenities, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brain E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-06-01

    Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity.

  10. PENGGUNAAN METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM PEMILIHAN LOKASI MANGROVE PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustika Mustika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demak district is a district that has quite a lot of mangrove forests, beautiful expanse of mangrove is a natural potential that can be developed as a regional tourism assets. Mangrove Park is one of the utilization of conservation area into tourism areas of education and recreation The Selection of Planning site locations required an appropriate location in the terms of land use, The appropriate land is a land that has a Mangrove area which still leafy, natural (unprocessed and intended as a tourism area, an easy accessibility, the network infrastructure is also needed in the election of location in order to support the available facilities in the building. In addition, the view of the inside and outside of the site that will be a tourism place attraction. Decision Support System can be used as a tool to help the site selection process that involves many criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP can be used to analyze which support the decision to choose a location. Phases of AHP used in this research is the identification of causes, preparation of hierarchy, prioritization, consistency, and the priority weight. From the Implementation of the method on the study case successfully find the best location for mangrove park, it is in the village Bedono it has the highest total global priorities 1.2349. Keywords: Site Location, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Mangrove Park Kabupaten Demak adalah kabupaten yang memiliki hutan mangrove yang cukup banyak, hamparan mangrove yang indah merupakan potensi alam yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai aset pariwisata daerah. Mangrove Park adalah salah satu bentuk pemanfaatan kawasan konservasi menjadi kawasan wisata edukasi dan rekreasi. Pemilihan lokasi tapak perencanaan diperlukan sebuah lokasi yang tepat dari segi peruntukan lahan, lahan yang tepat adalah lahan yang memiliki area Mangrove yang masih rimbun, alami (belum diolah dan diperuntukkan sebagai kawasan wisata, aksebilitas yang mudah dijangkau, jaringan

  11. Follow-up on the migration of birds of prey at L'Anse-a-Valleau wind park site : preliminary report; Suivi de la migration des oiseaux de proie sur le site d'implantation du parc eolien de l'Anse-a-Valleau : rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M.; Beauchesne, J.A.; Boulianne, F.; Bujold, J.; Ouellet, J.F. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    Cartier Wind Power plans to install a wind turbine array at L'Anse-a-Valleau in the Gaspe Peninsula. This study evaluated the impact of the proposed wind turbine array on the thousands of birds of prey that fly along Quebec's St. Lawrence River each year. Their migration patterns were evaluated through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season. The proposed 100.5 MW wind turbine park in L'Anse-a-Valleau was presented to the Quebec Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks. In order to complete a feasibility study for this project, it was necessary to document and characterize the spring migration pattern of birds of prey in the area. An inventory of raptors was carried out between April 1 and May 14, 2005. This current study supplemented an existing inventory from a previous study carried out in the spring of 2003. This current study included data on dates of observations of the migratory birds over a 12 day period in L'Anse-a-Valleau as well as Lac du Grand Etang. During the 12 day observation period, bird watching took place for about four hours a day, from 10:00 to 15:00, given favourable weather conditions such as absence of rain and good visibility. Overall, 14 birds of prey were observed over a period of 44 hours. With 5 sightings, the red-tailed hawk was the most frequently observed species during this study. Very few signs of migration were noticed in L'Anse-a-Valleau. The results indicate that this region is not on the migratory path of birds of prey during their flight on the south side of the Saint-Lawrence River. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs., 3 appendices.

  12. Changing perspectives in urban park management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Chung-shing; Marafa, Lawal M.; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    managers in Hong Kong have encountered different challenges over time, and the quest for changing park managerial strategies. In 2004, a set of indicators for urban park management in Hong Kong was produced as part of a Master's research. Local park managers were asked about their views on the respective......Urban parks provide numerous benefits to our society. In densely populated metropolises such as Hong Kong, urban parks are in high demand. A variety of indicators can be used as tools for improving park planning and management. Facing a dynamic society and increasing user expectations, urban park...... importance and performance (I–P) of the indicators. In 2012, a follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with the managers to study if their views regarding these indicators and their performance had changed. Results from the 2004 and 2012 surveys revealed changing perceptions regarding both I...

  13. Heavy metal concentrations of selected public parks of Istanbul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Goksel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cities, especially larger metropolises, parks are very important recreational areas where people usually have closer contact with flora. Therefore, the pollution level in the parks can have a greater effect on human health. Heavy metals are ubiquitous with the environment, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic activities, and humans are exposed to them through various pathways. Essentially, these areas are assumed to be less exposed to routine contaminants, but especially in metropolises, this assumption could prove false considering these areas are stuck within the confines of a city full of pollutant activity such as intense traffic. In this study; the relationships between heavy metal pollution levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and the pH and electrical conductivity (EC of soil samples were investigated from the parks on the Asian side of Istanbul. For this purpose, the most frequently visited 16 parks were selected as sampling sites. In the second part of the study, linear correlation is used for the data analysis.

  14. Sovremennoje iskusstvo v angliskom parke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Performance-kunsti rühmituse Virus (Alan Holligan, Stewart Bennett ja Ewan Robertson Edinburghist) projekt "Sekkumine - kaasaegne kunst inglise pargis" toimub Väliskunsti muuseumis, Mikkeli muuseumis ja selle ümbruses. Inspiratsiooniks on Kadrioru park ning parginäitused Mikkeli ja Väliskunsti muuseumis. Radical Loyalty projektist, millele pani aluse Chris Evans (Glasgow) 2002. a. ja mille raames plaanitakse skulptuuripargi rajamist Järvakandisse. Evansi projekt presentatsiooni formaadis toimub Mikkeli muuseumis video ja fotode abil

  15. Feasibility of Wind Energy Parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The paper discuss the feasibility of wind energy parks including aspects of supply and demand of energy, costs of generation and risks of investment associated. The paper introduce to the situation of wind energy in the word and specifically in Spain, describes the legal framework in promotion of renewables in Spain, the analysis of revenues and the risk of this business in the european market

  16. An Evaluation of Snorkeling Experience in Pulau Payar Marine Park, Kedah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Nurbaidura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine Parks in Malaysia receive almost 7.4 million tourists for the past ten years from all over the world. Continuous growth in the number of tourists and mass tourism has resulted in uncontrolled number of tourists, sometimes surpassing the carrying capacity of the site. Due to the lack of control and enforcement, many tour boat operators are bringing snorkelers to small fragile sites at the same timeframe. Such situation has resulted in reduced quality of tourist experience and satisfaction level, among others, as they need to cram in with others at the designated snorkeling areas. Taking Pulau Payar Marine Park for an example, this study evaluates the snorkeling experience of 259 selected respondents in the marine park. The results employed Importance-satisfaction analysis (ISA and Gap analysis on both satisfaction and importance level. The research result showed that the perceived mean is less than the expected mean for all attributes except for ‘lack of crowd’ and ‘fish feeding activity’. Over sixty eight percent were satisfied with their snorkeling experience but there are several issues need to be managed by the Marine Park Department. Suggestions, such as limiting the number of visitors to the park, improving public facilities and solid waste management of the park to protect the island and its sustainability were introduced. This study highlights the importance of site management in environmentally sensitive areas, for resort and tour operators towards developing better service quality for a better tourist experience.

  17. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in western U.S. National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Kimberly J.; Hafner, William D.; Campbell, Donald H.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Landers, Dixon H.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003−2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)) and four historic-use pesticides (HUPs) (dieldrin, α-HCH, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) were commonly measured at all sites, during all years. The mean coefficient of variation for pesticide concentrations was 15% for site replicate samples, 41% for intrapark replicate samples, and 59% for interannual replicate samples. The relative pesticide concentration profiles were consistent from year to year but unique for individual parks, indicating a regional source effect. HUP concentrations were well-correlated with regional cropland intensity when the effect of temperature on snow-air partitioning was considered. The mass of individual CUPs used in regions located one-day upwind of the parks was calculated using air mass back trajectories, and this was used to explain the distribution of CUPs among the parks. The percent of the snowpack pesticide concentration due to regional transport was high (>75%) for the majority of pesticides in all parks. These results suggest that the majority of pesticide contamination in U.S. national parks is due to regional pesticide use in North America.

  18. GENOTOXICITY OF BIOREMEDIATED SOILS FROM THE REILLY TARSITE, ST. LOUIS PARK, MINNESOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in vitro approach was used to measure the genotoxicity of creosote-contaminated soil before and after four bioremediation processes. The soil was taken from the Reilly Tar site, a closed Superfund site in Saint Louis Park, Minnesota. The creosote soil was bioremediated in bios...

  19. Determinates of clustering across America's national parks: An application of the Gini coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Geoffrey Lacher; Matthew T.J. Brownlee

    2012-01-01

    The changes in the clustering of visitation across National Park Service (NPS) sites have not been well documented or widely studied. This paper investigates the changes in the dispersion of visitation across NPS sites with the Gini coefficient, a popular measure of inequality used primarily in the field of economics. To calculate the degree of clustering nationally,...

  20. Traveler information and tourism : assessment of traveler information and 511 impacts upon tourist destinations and national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-08

    The study focused on traveler information systems in tourism areas and the impacts of those traveler information efforts. Case studies were conducted on four sites: Acadia National Park and Bar Harbor, Maine; Branson, Missouri; the I-81 Corridor in t...

  1. Proper zonation – an essential tool for the future conservation of the Šumava National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenová, Zdeňka; Hruška, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2012), s. 62-72 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : zonation * management of national park * transboundary protected area * Natura 2000 * Ramsar site Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Configuration study of large wind parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Stefan

    2003-07-01

    In this thesis, layouts of various large-scale wind parks, using both AC as well as DC, are investigated. Loss modelling of the wind park components as well as calculations of the energy capture of the turbines using various electrical systems are performed, and the energy production cost of the various park configurations is determined. The most interesting candidate for a DC transmission based wind park was investigated more in detail, the series DC wind park. Finally, the power quality impact in the PCC (point of common coupling) was studied. It was found that from an energy capture point of view, the difference in energy production between various wind turbine systems is very small. Of all the investigated wind park configurations, the wind park with the series connected DC wind turbines seems to have the best potential to give the lowest energy production cost, if the transmission distance is longer then 10-20 km. Regarding the series DC wind park it was found that it is the most difficult one to control. However, a control algorithm for the series park and its turbines was derived and successfully tested. Still, several more details regarding the control of the series wind park has to be dealt with.

  3. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs. By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constructed. A mathematical program was formulated to determine the guiding parking reliability of VMS. The procedures were applied to a numerical example, and the factors that affect guiding reliability were analyzed. The quantitative changes of the parking berths and the display conditions of VMS were found to be the most important factors influencing guiding reliability. The parking guiding VMS achieved the best benefit when the parking supply was close to or was less than the demand. The combination of a guiding parking reliability model and parking choice behavior offers potential for PGIS operators to reduce traffic congestion in central city areas.

  4. Balancing Biography and Institutional History: Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Cushing

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available When a young naturalist opened his new wildlife park at Wyoming on the NSW Central Coast in the late 1950s, he gave it his own name: Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park. Through the park, Worrell made a significant contribution to environmental education, the development of knowledge of captive animal care and display and the provision of antivenoms for the bites of a range of dangerous creatures. More than this, it was the geographic and emotional centre of Worrell’s world: the fulfilment of a childhood dream, a home for his family and a site for forming new personal and professional relationships. In preparation for the jubilee of the park, its history is being written by two academics from the University of Newcastle. An attractive means of creating the necessary narrative structure and human interest to ensure the wide appeal of this history is to follow Worrell’s lead and place his life at the centre of this institutional history. This is the direction suggested by the written sources on the park and it is accentuated by many of our oral informants who organise their memories of the park around Worrell. To what extent can an institutional history be a biography of the person at the heart of that institution? Is it possible to disentangle the life from the institution? This article offers some preliminary answers to these questions through a case study of the writing of a history of Eric Worrell’s Australian Reptile Park.

  5. Denali Park wolf studies: Implications for Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Meier, Thomas J.; Burch, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1987) recommends re-establishment of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park. Bills proposing wolf re-establishment in the Park have been introduced into the U.S. House and Senate. However, several questions have been raised about the possible effects of wolf re-establishment on other Yellowstone Park fauna, on human use of the Park and on human use of surrounding areas. Thus the proposed wolf re-establishment remains controversial.Information pertinent to some of the above questions is available from a current study of wolf ecology in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, which we began in 1986. Although Denali Park differs from Yellowstone in several ways, it is also similar enough in important respects to provide insight into questions raised about wolf re-establishment in Yellowstone.

  6. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  7. Advanced parking management systems : a cross-cutting study : taking the stress out of parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This study examines advanced parking management systems (APMSs) in three venues: airports, central business districts, and transit park-and-ride locations. Specifically, the systems examined in this study provide directional and space availability in...

  8. Mercury in fishes from 21 national parks in the Western United States: inter- and intra-park variation in concentrations and ecological risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Willacker, James J.; Flanagan Pritz, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant and human activities have increased atmospheric Hg concentrations 3- to 5-fold during the past 150 years. This increased release into the atmosphere has resulted in elevated loadings to aquatic habitats where biogeochemical processes promote the microbial conversion of inorganic Hg to methylmercury, the bioavailable form of Hg. The physicochemical properties of Hg and its complex environmental cycle have resulted in some of the most remote and protected areas of the world becoming contaminated with Hg concentrations that threaten ecosystem and human health. The national park network in the United States is comprised of some of the most pristine and sensitive wilderness in North America. There is concern that via global distribution, Hg contamination could threaten the ecological integrity of aquatic communities in the parks and the wildlife that depends on them. In this study, we examined Hg concentrations in non-migratory freshwater fish in 86 sites across 21 national parks in the Western United States. We report Hg concentrations of more than 1,400 fish collected in waters extending over a 4,000 kilometer distance, from Alaska to the arid Southwest. Across all parks, sites, and species, fish total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 9.9 to 1,109 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww) with a mean of 77.7 ng/g ww. We found substantial variation in fish THg concentrations among and within parks, suggesting that patterns of Hg risk are driven by processes occurring at a combination of scales. Additionally, variation (up to 20-fold) in site-specific fish THg concentrations within individual parks suggests that more intensive sampling in some parks will be required to effectively characterize Hg contamination in western national parks. Across all fish sampled, only 5 percent had THg concentrations exceeding a benchmark (200 ng/g ww) associated with toxic responses within the fish themselves. However, Hg concentrations in 35 percent

  9. Climate change scenario data for the national parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents daily scenario data obtained from monthly time scale climate change scenarios. The scenarios were applied to a stochastic weather generator, a statistical tool that simulates daily weather data for a range of climates at a particular location. The weather generators simulate weather that is statistically similar to observed climate data from climate stations. They can also generate daily scenario data for monthly time scales. This low cost computational method offers site-specific, multi-year climate change scenarios at a daily temporal level. The data is useful for situations that rely on climate thresholds such as forest fire season, drought conditions, or recreational season length. Data sets for temperature, precipitation and frost days was provided for 3 national parks for comparative evaluations. Daily scenarios for other parks can be derived using global climate model (GCM) output data through the Long Ashton Research Station (LARS) weather generator program. tabs

  10. Birds, Lower Sangay National Park, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sangay National Park is located at the mid-eastern Andean foothills of the Cordillera Oriental ofEcuador. We present a preliminary avifauna inventory corresponding to the lower zone of the Sangay NationalPark (SNP. One-hundred and twenty-seven bird species belonging to 39 families were recorded, includingnoteworthy records that represent range extensions for four species, Phaetornis hispidus (Gould 1846 (WhitebeardedHermit, Ramphastos ambiguus Swainson 1823 (Black-mandibled Toucan, Phylloscartes orbitalis(Cabanis 1873 (Spectacled Bristle Tyrant, and Microcerculus bambla (Boddaert 1783 (Wing-banded Wren.We also obtained information on threatened species such as Aburria aburri (Lesson 1828 (Wattled Guan,Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould 1860 (Ecuadorian Piedtail, and Dendroica cerulea (Wilson 1810 (CeruleanWarbler and reproductive data on one species, Patagioenas speciosa (Gmelin 1789 (Scaled Pigeon. To ourknowledge this is a first ornithological survey carried out at this specific site of the SNP.

  11. The inauguration of Robert-Bourassa Park at James Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiquette, M.

    1997-01-01

    Robert Bourassa's contributions to the hydroelectric development at James Bay were acknowledged with the inauguration of a park in the ex-prime minister's name. Phase 1 of the James Bay hydroelectric project constituted the world's biggest construction site, employing more than 180,000 people from beginning to project completion. The James Bay project allowed Hydro-Quebec to gain one of the world's largest electric power utilities and to gain significant competitive edge over its competitors. The Robert Bourassa Park contains a picnic area and a visitor interpretation centre which describes the history of the project. A sequence of 5 signposts summarize the contributions that Robert Bourassa made to the megaproject which cost over $20.6 billion. The complex consists of 65 turbines which produce 15,235 megawatts of electricity. 1 fig

  12. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  13. Ecological Resilience of Small Urban Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JasmaniI, Zanariah Binti

    consists of several sub-variables or attributes. The attributes of physical characteristics include park size, land use, park shape, proximity to a road and the presence of a water element. Elements relating to vegetation diversity, such as the presence and share of native and exotic species, presence....... Birds and butterflies react differently to various park maintenance practices (e.g. mowing). Based on the overall results, findings and discussion of the key features for bird and butterfly richness and abundance, study IV proposes nine recommendations for small urban parks to improve their ecological...

  14. Mode choice and shopping mall parking

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy, Fulya Yüksel; Ersoy, Fulya Yuksel

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I analyze individuals' mode choice decisions and shopping mall's parking space pricing behavior. Individuals have three choices: first they may come to the mall by car in which case they have to park, second they may come by public transportation, or they do not visit the mall and go for their outside option. The mall determines the price of the good and the parking fee after the government sets public transportation fare. I find that the equilibrium parking fees are always le...

  15. Park Accessibility Impacts Housing Prices in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing prices are determined by a variety of factors, including the features of the building and the neighborhood environment, and a potential buyer decides to buy a house after reviewing these factors and concluding that it is worth the price. We used Hedonic Price Methods to find the relationship between monetary value of house and access conditions to urban parks. Two meaningful results were discovered in this study: first, as the distance from the park increases, the value of the park inherent in the housing price decreases; second, the greater walking accessibility, to the park, the higher the park value inherent in housing prices. Despite presenting shorter distances to walk and more entrances, poorly accessible zones were deemed as such due to the necessity of crossing an arterial road. This indicates that the results can define accessibility not as the Euclidian distance but as the shortest walking distance while considering crossroads and park entrances. The results of this study have significant implications for urban park economic impact analyses in Seoul. Also, the increase in housing prices closer to parks supports the idea that access is dependent on the residents’ socioeconomic status. Lastly, the results of this study can improve walking accessibility to the park.

  16. A Peruvian family with a novel PARK2 mutation: Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Torres, Luis; Mata, Ignacio F; Mazzetti, Pilar; Rivas, Diana; Cosentino, Carlos; Inca-Martinez, Miguel; Cuba, Juan M; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Leverenz, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mutations in PARK2 result in autosomal recessive young onset Parkinson’s disease (YOPD). Although there have been a number of reports on the clinical characteristics of PARK2-related PD, there is limited information available on the associated neuropathologic changes. Design We describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of a Peruvian family with YOPD. The proband and one unaffected sibling were screened for PARK2 dosage and point mutations. One affected sibling had detailed neuropathologic examination. Setting Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas (INCN) in Lima, Peru Results The proband and two of her four siblings developed YOPD and both parents were unaffected. The clinical course has been characterized by akinetic-rigid parkinsonism predominantly affecting the lower limbs and dyskinesias. Analysis of PARK2 showed that the proband is compound heterozygous for a novel acceptor splice site mutation in intron 5 (IVS5-1G>A) and an exon 7 deletion. Neuropathologic assessment of an affected sibling revealed severe neuronal loss in the substantia nigra (SN) and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunopositive fibers in the striatum. No Lewy body pathology was observed using standard histology or immunohistochemistry for α-synuclein. Conclusions Consistent with most neuropathologic reports of patients with PARK2 mutations, we did not observe Lewy body inclusions, despite marked SN degeneration and severe dopaminergic denervation of the striatum. These data describe a novel splice site mutation and further extend the clinicopathological characterization of PARK2-associated PD. PMID:25817512

  17. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service p...

  18. Smart Parking Management Pilot Project: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan; Rodier, Caroline; Eaken, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents early findings from an application of advanced parking technologies to maximize existing parking capacity at the Rockridge BART station, which was launched in December 2004 in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The smart parking system includes traffic sensors that count the number of vehicles entering and exiting the parking lots at the station. A reservation system allows travelers to reserve spaces by Internet, personal digital assistant (PDA), phone, and cell phone. The...

  19. 75 FR 71079 - Site Renumbering Notice; Foreign-Trade Zone 29-Louisville, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Interstate 65, Shepherdsville, Bullitt County; Site 7 (191 acres)--Henderson County Riverport Authority... Park, 376 Zappos Blvd., Shepherdsville, Bullitt County [formerly part of Site 6]; and, Site 13 (6 acres...

  20. Ijsselmij exploits a large wind park of 7. 5 MW in the Noordoostpolder, Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauta, Y

    1988-07-01

    The energy industry Ijsselmij constructed in 1987, along the Westermeerdijk north of Urk, Netherlands, a wind park of 7.5 MW. The wind park, built on the landside of the dike, consists of 25 wind turbines with a rotor diameter of 25 m and a capacity of 300 kW each. The total investment was about 21 million Dutch guilders. The park generates more than 10 million kWh annually supplied to the public electricity grid. The site selection, the foundations, the wind turbines, the electric connection, control unit to generate data, the economic feasibility and some aspects concerning noise pollution and bird damage are discussed. Finally technical data on the wind park are given. 9 figs.

  1. 36 CFR 7.39 - Mesa Verde National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mesa Verde National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.39 Mesa Verde National Park. (a) Visiting of... the admission of commercial automobiles and buses to Mesa Verde National Park, contained in § 5.4 of...

  2. A city park on top of shops and a dike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, P.C.; Voorendt, M.Z.; van der Zwet, C; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    The Roof Park ('Dakpark’) is an elevated park on a former railway yard in the Delfshaven quarter in Rotterdam. The park is located on top of the roof of a new shopping centre, which includes a parking garage (hence its name, ‘dak’ means ‘roof’). The park is the

  3. Preferences, benefits, and park visits: a latent class segmentation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes and predicts segments of urban park visitors to support park planning and policy making. A latent class analysis is used to identify segments of park users who differ regarding their preferences for park characteristics, benefits sought in park visits, and sociodemographics.

  4. 75 FR 51752 - Foreign-Trade Zone 72-Indianapolis, IN; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... within a grantee's ``service area'' in the context of the Board's standard 2,000-acre activation limit... the following sites: Site 1: (4,832 acres) within the Indianapolis International Airport complex; Site... acres) within the Park 100 Business Park, located at 71st Street and Interstate 465, Indianapolis...

  5. Impacts of national parks on tourism: a case study from a prominent alpine national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzner, M.

    2008-01-01

    National parks and other categories of protected areas are often assumed to enhance regional economic development due to park tourism. The current study attempts to estimate the impact of the Hohe Tauern national park (Austria) on tourism by exploring whether and to what extent the national park may have had an influence on tourism development. For most national park communities, the results suggest that the establishment of the national park had some impact by enforcing an already positive trend or by weakening or reversing a negative trend of tourism. However, breakpoint tests exhibit turning points up to several years after the establishment of the park, indicating that taking a national park as the basis for tourism development is a medium to long term development strategy. In the short term, the impact of a national park on tourism is not measurable. Tourism increased by 1 to 3% annually after the breakpoint, indicating that the establishment of a national park has to be incorporated into the tourism and development strategy of a region right from the start. The causal relationship between the establishment of the national park and tourism development may be weak, in particular in communities where the difference between the actual and the forecast numbers of overnight stays is small. Marketing national park tourism and building up a brand or distinctive label may therefore contribute to regional development particularly in the long term. [it

  6. Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Soils II Comparison of Urban Park Soils Between Two Cities with Different City and Industrial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAI, Yutaka

    1981-01-01

    A comparative investigation on the state of heavy metal contamination in park soils of two cities with different city and industrial activities was carried out. Sakai and Kishiwada, both situated in southern Osaka Prefecture, were chosen as the investigated cities which had similar natural conditions but different human activities. Park soils were regarded as suitable sites for the investigation of heavy metal problem in urban environments. Samples were taken at 34 parks distributed widely in...

  7. Photometric Assessment of Night Sky Quality over Chaco Culture National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Wei; Duriscoe, Dan M.; White, Jeremy M.; Meadows, Bob; Anderson, Sharolyn J.

    2018-06-01

    The US National Park Service (NPS) characterizes night sky conditions over Chaco Culture National Historical Park using measurements in the park and satellite data. The park is located near the geographic center of the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico and the adjacent Four Corners state. In the park, we capture a series of night sky images in V-band using our mobile camera system on nine nights from 2001 to 2016 at four sites. We perform absolute photometric calibration and determine the image placement to obtain multiple 45-million-pixel mosaic images of the entire night sky. We also model the regional night sky conditions in and around the park based on 2016 VIIRS satellite data. The average zenith brightness is 21.5 mag/arcsec2, and the whole sky is only ~16% brighter than the natural conditions. The faintest stars visible to naked eyes have magnitude of approximately 7.0, reaching the sensitivity limit of human eyes. The main impacts to Chaco’s night sky quality are the light domes from Albuquerque, Rio Rancho, Farmington, Bloomfield, Gallup, Santa Fe, Grants, and Crown Point. A few of these light domes exceed the natural brightness of the Milky Way. Additionally, glare sources from oil and gas development sites are visible along the north and east horizons. Overall, the night sky quality at Chaco Culture National Historical Park is very good. The park preserves to a large extent the natural illumination cycles, providing a refuge for crepuscular and nocturnal species. During clear and dark nights, visitors have an opportunity to see the Milky Way from nearly horizon to horizon, complete constellations, and faint astronomical objects and natural sources of light such as the Andromeda Galaxy, zodiacal light, and airglow.

  8. Capacity and levels of utilization of tourism potentials of Yankari and Cross River National Parks – implications for optimistic ecotourism development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PC Ngoka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of sustainable tourism constitutes an essential component of Nigeria’s agenda for attaining sustainable development by the year 2020. The level of utilization of existing tourism capacities of national parks can affect the attainment of this goal. The present study examined capacity and levels of utilization of tourism potentials of Yankari National Park (YNP and Cross River National Park (CRNP. Mean visitor holding capacity (MVHC of each park over the period 2002 – 2006 was determined. Further, mean visitation of the parks during the study period was obtained from records of tourism visitation of the parks. From these, capacity utilizations were determined. Cross sectional survey of levels of utilization of attractions in each park was conducted using questionnaire. YNP recorded 49.3% capacity utilization; while CRNP had 3.5%. Both parks witnessed varying levels of utilization of their existing potentials. In YNP, game viewing and warm spring bathing had high levels of utilization (91% and 64% respectively. Old iron smelting sites and Dukkey Wells recorded low levels of utilization (1.0% each. In CRNP, rainforest experience and cave adventure had high utilization levels (93.3% and 68.3% respectively. Neither park had optimum use of its potentials. Updating of parks’ tourism infrastructure and creation of better awareness of the parks as tourist destinations were recommended for beefing up capacity and levels of utilization of the parks.

  9. 45 CFR 3.23 - Parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.23 Parking. (a) A person may not stand (vehicle... sign, crosswalk, or traffic control signal; (5) In a double-parked position; (6) At a curb painted...

  10. Parking guidance - modelling, simulation and impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, E.; Noort, M. van; Veen, J.L. van der

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent parking services that help drivers with reservation of a parking spot, navigation and automated payment have reached the deployment phase. These services may provide significant benefits to drivers and municipalities. Drivers may experience an increase in comfort and lower and more

  11. Modelling Space Appropriation in Public Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostermann, F.O.; Timpf, S.; Wachowicz, Monica; Bodum, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable park management encompasses the requirement to provide equal opportunities for access and usage of the park, regardless of age, gender or nationality of the visitors. It thereby presents opportunities as well as problems for today’s heterogeneous global cities. The research presented

  12. Family structure and park use among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A; Das, Kirti V

    2012-11-01

    Despite the increasingly diversified family structure in the U.S., little research examines differences in park use between nontraditional and traditional family structures. This study examines family-structure differences in parent park use. It was hypothesized that working single parents and dual-worker parents have lower levels of park use than parents in two-parent, single-worker families. Data from a 2010 park-use survey in three urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis MN (N=261 parents) were analyzed in 2012. Multiple variables of park use were developed, including recalled measures over the past 3 days and over the past year. Family-structure differences in these variables were examined using multivariate regression analyses. After controlling for spatial clustering effects and confounding factors, working single parents reported 32.6% (pparents in two-parent, single-worker families. Dual-worker parents did not report fewer park visits in the past 3 days than parents in two-parent, single-worker families, yet the length of time they spent in parks during these visits was 41.5% (psingle parents and dual-worker parents is needed in descriptive and intervention research aiming to promote park use among families with children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  14. The external cruising costs of parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inci, E.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Kobus, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Existing work emphasizes the importance of traffic congestion externalities, but typically ignores cruising-for-parking externalities. We estimate the marginal external cruising costs of parking—that is, the time costs that an additional parked car imposes on drivers by inducing them to cruise for

  15. Full-Automatic Parking registration and payment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry; Jørgensen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    As part of ITS Platform North Denmark, a full-automatic GNSS-based parking payment (PP) system was developed (PP app). On the basis of the parking position and parking time, the PP app can determine the price of parking and collect the amount from the car owner’s bank account. The driver...... is informed about any initiation of PP via SMS message. If the driver finds the payment erroneous, it can be cancelled via SMS message. Parking attendants can check if the car in question has an ongoing payment for parking. To handle the problems with GNSS-based positioning in densely built-up areas......, an advanced map matching algorithm was integrated in the PP app. 24 of the participating vehicles used the PP app, and 58 parking payments were carried out without errors. In a few cases, the wrong parking area was selected. This was due to lack of information in the map rather than errors in the map matching...

  16. Modelling of fire spread in car parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, L.M.; Lemaire, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, design codes assume that in a car park fire at most 3-4 vehicles are on fire at the same time. Recent incidents in car parks have drawn international attention to such assumptions and have raised questions as to the fire spreading mechanism and the resulting fire load on the structure.

  17. Domestic parking estimation using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.

  18. Markov chain of distances between parked cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seba, Petr

    2008-01-01

    We describe the distribution of distances between parked cars as a solution of certain Markov processes and show that its solution is obtained with the help of a distributional fixed point equation. Under certain conditions the process is solved explicitly. The resulting probability density is compared with the actual parking data measured in the city. (fast track communication)

  19. Mapping wilderness character in Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Tricker; Peter Landres; Jennifer Chenoweth; Roger Hoffman; Scott Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Olympic Wilderness was established November 16, 1988 when President Ronald Reagan signed the Washington Park Wilderness Act. A total of 876,447 acres or 95% of Olympic National Park (OLYM) was designated as wilderness and became a part of the National Wilderness Preservation System, wherein wilderness character would be preserved. The purpose of this project was to...

  20. Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana. ... four main motivations of tourists who visited the park, namely adventure, education, ... Park were influenced by varied combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors.

  1. The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique genetic ... The feral goats from Tankwa Karoo National Park in the Northern Cape, South Africa, ... Park and former Tankwa goats, now kept on a private farm were genotyped, ...

  2. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-10-31

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.

  3. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.

  4. Capacity Analysis Of Parking Lot And Volume Of Vehicle Toward Sustainable Parking Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sugiyanto; Guntur Octavianto, Andrew; Guntur Aritonang, Edison; Nova Imaduddin, Malya; Dedi; Rilaningrum, Magfira

    2017-10-01

    The development of human's population is having effect on the increase of facilities and transportation needs. One of the primary problems is the availability of parking area. This has occurred in Universitas Indonesia (UI), mainly in Salemba Campus. The availability of land is not as equal as the number of vehicles, which are to be parked, that is why the convenience of students, lecturers and employees at UI is unsatisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to know the level of parking convenience that is affected by the capacity of parking lots and the volume of vehicles in UI Salemba Campus. The results of this research indicate Salemba campus's parking index. The motor index is still in the category of medium (index 0.945) and the car parking index has less category with a parking index 0.485. While with the location of research object being behind the UI Salemba campus, the results obtained were both the motor and the car are still in the category of “enough” with the parking index of, that is 0.657 for the motor and 0.777 for the car. So theoretically, the parking management at Salemba Campus is in an unsustainable parking degree because, if there is no long-term solution, it will increase congestion in the surrounding area and intensify the dissatisfaction of existing parking users.

  5. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  6. Fear of crime in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maruthaveeran, Sreetheran; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attributes which evoke ‘fear of crime’ and to determine the defensive behaviour among the urban park users. Findings are based on qualitative studies undertaken in the city of Kuala Lumpur among the park and non-park users (N = 19) by means of semi......-structured in-depth interviews. The interview consists of respondents from various age, gender and race. The results revealed universal similarities to other cultures on fear of crime in urban green spaces. This study has highlighted eight themes on the attributes which evoke fear among the residents of Kuala...... behaviour towards crime in urban parks but this was only observed among the women. This paper has also highlighted the implications on park planning and management from the comments given by the respondents. Though the aspect of fear towards crime in urban green spaces is not a major focus in Malaysia...

  7. Conditions for the management of carrying capacity in the parks of Parks&Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    Growth in the number of visitors is an upcoming problem in nature parks. Nature parks are at the same time facing increasing demand, falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions. To ensure a balancing of nature protection and economic utilization the concept...... stakeholders, balancing use and protection preferably based on scientific and/or experiential cognition. The conditions for the management of carrying capacity for the 8 nature parks in the EC Baltic Project Parks&Benefits are analysed in the report. 1. Part focus on the methodology, concentrated...... on the comparison of the common conditions related to the international nature protection obligations in the parks, primarily expressed through the management under the EU Natura2000-program. In part 2, a comparison of the 8 parks concerning extent, land use composition, population in and around the park...

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    SAYANTI BANERJEE,; PALLAVI CHOUDEKAR,; M.K.MUJU

    2011-01-01

    Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and g...

  9. Sustainable urban spaces: Ecological parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçak Erdoğan Onur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly depleted resources with technological and economic developments which increased in recent years has led to deterioration of the natural balance in the world. Urban ecosystems is considerably changed, especially with population growth and intensive construction in the city. This situation, as such in all other areas, urban ecosystems are also increasing their sustainability concerns. More compatible solution with the natural process in landscape design and management have to be brought. This article describes the conceptual structure of ecological park that has become a tool for sustainable urban target in community that matured of environmental awareness. Also planning, design and management principles are explained by supporting with application examples. The obtained results within the framework, it is aimed to create a source for similar applications that will lead to spread in our country. In addition, it is put forward suggestions for dissemination of such practices.

  10. The Upper Danube Nature Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosedla, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    When in 1980 the Upper Danube Nature Park was founded as one of 65 nature sanctuaries in Germany there was great diversity of opinions concerning its intended character. The protected region consisting of a geologically outstanding landscape within central Europe is covering the first 80 km the upper Danube where the young river shortly after it's source in the Black Forest is breaking through the narrow canyons of the Jurassic rock plateau of the so-called Suebian Alps and also locates the subterranean passage where the stream is submerging from the surface for nearly ten miles. Since the purpose of nature preservation according to German las is closely combined with the rather contradicting aim of offering an attractive recreation area thus facing the immense impacts of modern mass tourism there are numerous problems which in the course of years have resulted in an intricate patterns of subtle management methods coping with the growing awareness of the ecological balance. (author)

  11. Photovoltaics at Point Pelee Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Case study of an Ontario Hydro-installed photovoltaic system at Point Pelee Park, a bird sanctuary located on Lake Erie, is described. The system consists of a 1080 W photovoltaic array used to supply electricity to one of the washrooms. The cost for installing the system was $30,000 which was considerably cheaper than the $100,000 estimate for an underground power line. The independent system is the only source of energy for the washroom, therefore it was necessary to reduce the total electrical demand required by the facility. Electricity was used for the water pump, chlorinator and lighting. Motion sensors were installed to further reduce electrical demand. Washroom heaters were converted to propane. 2 figs.

  12. Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene C. Hargrove

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biocultural conservation and research initiative of Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve was born in a remote part of South America and has rapidly expanded to attain regional, national, and international relevance. The park and the biosphere reserve, led by Ricardo Rozzi and his team, have made significant progress in demonstrating the way academic research supports local cultures, social processes, decision making, and conservation. It is a dynamic hive of investigators, artists, writers, students, volunteers, and friends, all exploring ways to better integrate academia and society. The initiative involves an informal consortium of institutions and organizations; in Chile, these include the University of Magallanes, the Omora Foundation, and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, and in the United States, the University of North Texas, the Omora Sub-Antarctic Research Alliance, and the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas. The consortium intends to function as a hub through which other institutions and organizations can be involved in research, education, and biocultural conservation. The park constitutes one of three long-term socio-ecological research sites in Chile of the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity.

  13. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Tumacacori National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Anning, Pamela; Docherty, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    , and birds for a park of its size. This richness is due in part to the ecotone between ecological provinces (Madrean and Sonoran), the geographic distribution of the three units (23 km separates the most distant units), and their close proximity to the Santa Cruz River. The mesic life zone along the river, including rare cottonwood/willow forests and adjacent mesquite bosque at the Tumacacori unit, is representative of areas that have been destroyed or degraded in many other locations in the region. Additional elements such as the semi-desert grassland vegetation community are also related to high species richness for some taxonomic groups. This report includes lists of species recorded by us (or likely to be recorded with additional effort) and maps of study sites. We also suggest management implications and ways to maintain or enhance the unique biological resources of Tumacacori NHP: limit development adjacent to the park, exclude cattle and off-road vehicles, develop an eradication plan for non-native species, and hire a natural resource specialist. These recommendations are intended to assist park staff with addressing many of the goals set out in their most recent natural resources management plan. This study is the first step in a long-term process of compiling information on the biological resources of Tumacacori NHP and its surrounding areas, and our findings should not be viewed as the final authority on the plants and animals of the park. Therefore, we also recommend additional inventory and monitoring studies and identify components of our effort that could be improved upon, either through the application of new techniques (e.g., use of genetic markers) or by extending the temporal and/or spatial scope of our research.

  14. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program, Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Kevin D.; Drake, J.; Strassman, Andrew C.; Hoy, Erin E.; Menard, Shannon; Jakusz, J.W.; Dieck, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Vegetation Inventory Program (VIP) is an effort to classify, describe, and map existing vegetation of national park units for the NPS Natural Resource Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program. The NPS VIP is managed by the NPS Biological Resources Management Division and provides baseline vegetation information to the NPS Natural Resource I&M Program. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Vegetation Characterization Program lends a cooperative role in the NPS VIP. The USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, NatureServe, and NPS Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CUVA) have completed vegetation classification and mapping of CUVA.Mappers, ecologists, and botanists collaborated to identify and describe vegetation types within the National Vegetation Classification Standard (NVCS) and to determine how best to map them by using aerial imagery. The team collected data from 221 vegetation plots within CUVA to develop detailed descriptions of vegetation types. Data from 50 verification sites were also collected to test both the key to vegetation types and the application of vegetation types to a sample set of map polygons. Furthermore, data from 647 accuracy assessment (AA) sites were collected (of which 643 were used to test accuracy of the vegetation map layer). These data sets led to the identification of 45 vegetation types at the association level in the NVCS at CUVA.A total of 44 map classes were developed to map the vegetation and general land cover of CUVA, including the following: 29 map classes represent natural/semi-natural vegetation types in the NVCS, 12 map classes represent cultural vegetation (agricultural and developed) in the NVCS, and 3 map classes represent non-vegetation features (open-water bodies). Features were interpreted from viewing color-infrared digital aerial imagery dated October 2010 (during peak leaf-phenology change of trees) via digital onscreen three-dimensional stereoscopic workflow systems in geographic

  15. 2014 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Koontz, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The National Park System covers more than 84 million acres and is comprised of more than 401 sites across the Nation. These lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) serve as recreational destinations for visitors from across the Nation and around the world. On vacations or on day trips, NPS visitors spend time and money in the gateway communities surrounding NPS sites. Spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway economies. The NPS has been measuring and reporting visitor spending and economic effects for the past 25 years. The 2012 analysis marked a major revision to the NPS visitor spending effects analyses, with the development of the Visitor Spending Effects model (VSE model) which replaced the previous Money Generation Model (see Cullinane Thomas et al. (2014) for a description of how the VSE model differs from the previous model). This report provides updated VSE estimates associated with 2014 NPS visitation.

  16. Mercury in lichens of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Bubach, D.; Arribere, M.; Nacional de Cuyo Universidad, Bariloche

    2004-01-01

    Mercury and other elements of interest are determined in lichens collected in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Pooled samples are analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mercury contents in Usnea sp. collected from undisturbed sites range from 0.0558 ± 0.0083 to 1.38 ± 0.18 μg x g -1 . Other potential pollutants are identified by the analysis of Usnea sp. samples, namely Sb, As, Br, Zn, and Se. Previous experiments with foliose and fruticose lichens are also discussed. The analysis of mercury contents of foliose lichens sampled from urban and periurban sites of Bariloche city, and from undisturbed regions, demonstrate that the atmosphere of Bariloche city is enriched in mercury compared to the surroundings. The result is confirmed by transplantation experiments from undisturbed zones to urban sites. (author)

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of applications of the PARK program system; Unsicherheits- und Sensitivitaetsanalyse von Anwendungen des Programmsystems PARK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luczak-Urlik, D.; Bleher, M.; Jacob, P.; Mueller, H. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Hofer, E.; Krzykacz, B. [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH (Greece)

    1997-11-01

    The (PARK) program package for assessment and abatement of off-site radiological consequences of nuclear accidents establishes radiologic analyses and prognoses on the basis of the measured data obtained by the IMIS system for ambient radiation monitoring. A probabilistic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis has been performed of the PARK-based mean specific activities of fodder and food and the potential radiation exposure of the population. Uncertainties were expressed in model input parameters, i.e. in measured values and radioecologic parameters via subjective probability distributions, within the framework of various emission scenarios (nuclide spectra describing two release modes, dry and wet deposition, and at three times over a one-year period). The resulting output data distributions were determined by Monte Carlo simulations. As a rule, the results of the analyses depend on the selected emission scenario. Measured values proved to be the major source of uncertainties (especially from in-situ soil activity measurements), and also the activity transfer data from fodder to food. As for wet deposition, uncertainties were added by the parameters used for determination of the interception factors. As the measuring stations cannot correlate their measured gamma dose rates with meteorologic data (precipitations), derived information relating to larger areas such as a ``Kreis`` (administrative district) is very much subject to uncertainties. The uncertainties of the PARK results are increasing with assessed increases in rainfall. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Programmsystem zur Abschaetzung und Begrenzung radiologischer Konsequenzen (PARK) erstellt radiologische Analysen und Prognosen aufgrund von Messdaten, welche im Rahmen des Integrierten Mess- und Informationssystems zur Ueberwachung der Umweltradioaktivitaet (IMIS) erhoben werden. Es wurde eine probabilistische Unsicherheits- und Sensitivitaetsanalyse fuer die in PARK berechneten mittleren spezifischen Aktivitaeten

  18. 1993 recreational vehicle (RV) park census in Beatty and Pahrump, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, L.E.; Housel, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the second annual study of seasonal nonpermanent residents in the towns of Beatty and Pahrump in southern Nye County, Nevada, situs county of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The study used a census of recreational vehicle (RV) park managers to enumerate and characterize in demographic terms nonpermanent residents staying in RV parks. The questionnaire sought information from RV park managers which ordinarily would come from a household survey. The main objective was to study open-quotes snowbirdsclose quotes, the households of older couples who stay for a month or more each winter. The findings suggest that snowbirds are a majority of the seasonal influx of nonpermanent residents to RV parks in Pahrump. In contrast, a group called open-quotes seasonal travelersclose quotes, similar demographically but who stay less than a month, dominate the seasonal nonpermanent population in Beatty's RV parks. The study also tentatively identified the seasonality of nonpermanent resident occupancy. Because only RV parks were contacted, the study left unanswered the question of how many snowbirds live in other types of accommodations in Beatty and Pahrump

  19. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  20. Effects of the Coastal Park Environment Attributes on Its Admission Fee Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Erda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the effect of those recognized nature-and-activity-based attributes on the level of park’s admission fee charges using a panel data of 29 coastal recreation parks in Dalian city of China. A total of seven different Hedonic pricing model specifications are used in the estimating process. The results indicate that a numerous attributes have statistically significant effects (α≤ 0.10 on the level of park admission fee charges. In terms of the economic valuation, the marine sightseeing results in the highest value of Marginal Willingness to Pay (MWTP of $6.4 as its quality rank improves to a designated higher level. As expected that the park congestion has a negative effect on the MWTP (-$0.47 and overall park’s rankings have a positive effect ($0.05 on park’s MWTP. However, many recreation activities accommodated by the park sites exhibit a relatively weak effect on the park entrance fee charges. One possible reason is perhaps owing to the single admission package fee policy adopted by the park management..

  1. Potential Advantages of Underground Nuclear Parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Carl W.; Elkins, Ned Z.; Kunze, Jay F.; Mahar, James M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we argue that an underground nuclear park (UNP) could potentially lead to lower capital and operating cost for the reactors installed in the UNP compared to the traditional approach, which would be to site the reactors at the earth's surface at distributed locations. The UNP approach could also lead to lower waste management cost. A secondary benefit would be the increased margins of safety and security that would be realized simply as a consequence of siting the reactors underground. Lowered capital and operating cost for a UNP relative to traditional reactor siting is possible through the aggregate effect of the elimination of containment structures, in-place decommissioning, reduced physical security costs, reduced weather-related costs, reduced cost of liability insurance and reduced unit-cost for the nth reactor made possible through the continuous construction of multiple reactors at the same underground location. Other cost reductions might be possible through the transfer of the capital cost for part of the underground construction from the reactor owners to the owners of the UNP. Lower waste management cost is possible by siting the UNP at a location where there are geological and hydrological conditions suitable for hosting both the reactors and the repository for the waste from those reactors. After adequate storage and cooling, and assuming direct disposal, this would enable the spent fuel from the reactors to be transported directly to the repository and remain entirely underground during the transport process. Community concerns and transportation costs would be significantly reduced relative to current situations where the reactors are separated from the repository by long distances and populated areas. The concept for a UNP in bedded salt is used to develop a rough order of magnitude cost estimate for excavation of the reactor array portion of a UNP. Excavation costs appear to be only a small fraction of the overall power plant costs

  2. Analysis on Time Window of Shared Parking in Hospitals Based on Parking Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are essential components of a city; huge traffic demand is generated and attracted, causing contradiction between parking supply and demand. By sharing parking berths, limited space can serve more demand which is beneficial to alleviating parking problems. Aimed at improving the capacity of shared parking, the paper analyzes four parking groups in typical hospitals, which are medical staff, outpatients, emergency patients, and visiting groups. The parking demand of medical staff is rigid. For outpatients and visiting groups, longer walking distance is acceptable and more attention is paid to parking fee. By contrast, emergency patients can accept shorter walking distance and focus more on convenience due to urgency. Under this circumstance, parking behaviors selection models are established by means of Multinomial Logit Model. On this basis, time value is adopted to calculate the tolerance of alterative parking time. Moreover, this paper explores the variation of time window, under different parking impedance. A case study is conducted and suggests that start and end point of a certain time window can be influenced by external factors.

  3. On park design : looking beyond the wars

    OpenAIRE

    Oneka, M.

    1996-01-01


    The present book opens with an account of a buffalo hunt in the company of soldiers in one of the national parks in Uganda. One buffalo was hit close to the heart but fled away as if it was not fatally wounded. The soldiers seeing it flee, fired more rounds of ammunition at it until, with limbs broken, the buffalo fell down. This account is used to demonstrate some of the ravages of wars on parks. It is argued that most parks around the world are destined to perish because of defec...

  4. NURE and the National Park Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Under the National Resource Evaluation (NURE), massive amounts of geological, geochemical, and geophysical data, covering the entire conterminous 48 states and Alaska, are being collected and made public. In addition to NURE goals, these data are applicable to various other researches on and in the vicinity of lands controlled by the National Park Service. Airborne geophysical and hydrogeochemical survey NURE data have been made public for the majority of the area in the combined Mt. McKinley National Park and Denali National Monument. Besides indicating potential raw material deposits, these data are also useful for geologic mapping, water quality, pollution and othe geological, biological, and environmental studies in the park

  5. Spatial analysis related to the location characteristics of park supply. Case study: Music Park and Pendawa Park, Bandung City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Akbar, R.; Maryati, S.; Natalivan, P.

    2018-05-01

    Public space plays a role in defining the character of a city and is a valuable asset for a city and one of the indicators in assessing whether a city is considered successful or not. In the context of urban sociology, high-quality public spaces with well-maintained environments can improve the quality of the heterogeneous life of urban social communities by creating economic, social, or environmental value-added. Urban societies tend to be heterogeneous, individualistic, and characterized by high competition that often causes conflicts. Another reason for conflicts is the relatively high social differentiation because of the level of religious differences, customs, languages, and sociocultural aspects brought by immigrants from various regions. In the context of space, the city is a system that does not stand alone because internally the city is a unified system of functional activities in it. Meanwhile, externally, the city is influenced by its surrounding environment. As part of the public space, park has an important role in the environmental, aesthetic, recreational, psychological, social, educational, and economic aspects of the city. Public space can be understood as open spaces in urban areas, where everyone regardless their interests and backgrounds can be intersectional and have social contact and serve as an “urban regenerator” including educational functions through innovation and technological intervention. Moreover, park can also absorb carbon dioxide emissions, produce oxygen, improve air and water quality, regulate the microclimate, reduce noise, protect soil and water, and maintain biodiversity. However, many things cause the function of parks to decrease. One reason relates to the distribution of parks related to the characteristics of their location. Research has not seen many studies on the characteristics of locations in the planning of public space. The provision of public space should consider these location characteristics. This study

  6. Widespread occurrence and potential for biodegradation of bioactive contaminants in Congaree National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Battaglin, William A.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Henning, Frank; Hladik, Michelle L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Journey, Celeste A.; Riley, Jeffrey W.; Romanok, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants with designed molecular bioactivity, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, originate from human and agricultural sources, occur frequently in surface waters, and threaten the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Congaree National Park in South Carolina (USA) is a vulnerable park unit due to its location downstream of multiple urban and agricultural contaminant sources and its hydrologic setting, being composed almost entirely of floodplain and aquatic environments. Seventy-two water and sediment samples were collected from 16 sites in Congaree National Park during 2013 to 2015, and analyzed for 199 and 81 targeted organic contaminants, respectively. More than half of these water and sediment analytes were not detected or potentially had natural sources. Pharmaceutical contaminants were detected (49 total) frequently in water throughout Congaree National Park, with higher detection frequencies and concentrations at Congaree and Wateree River sites, downstream from major urban areas. Forty-seven organic wastewater indicator chemicals were detected in water, and 36 were detected in sediment, of which approximately half are distinctly anthropogenic. Endogenous sterols and hormones, which may originate from humans or wildlife, were detected in water and sediment samples throughout Congaree National Park, but synthetic hormones were detected only once, suggesting a comparatively low risk of adverse impacts. Assessment of the biodegradation potentials of 8 14C-radiolabeled model contaminants indicated poor potentials for some contaminants, particularly under anaerobic sediments conditions.

  7. Viewing lava safely: an epidemiology of hiker injury and illness in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W; Heggie, Tracey M

    2004-01-01

    To report the injuries and illnesses encountered by wilderness hikers in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park attempting to hike to active lava flows and to investigate the roles that demographics, prior hiking experience, hiking behavior, and preparedness play in hiker vulnerability to injury and illness. During an 8-week period, daily on-site exit interviews of lava hikers were conducted by a uniformed park ranger and park volunteer. Information about the hiker's home residence, wilderness hiking experience, preparedness, health status, and health problems encountered during the hike was collected from a total of 804 hikers. A high rate of injury and illness was found among the study population. Scrapes and abrasions (59%), blisters (51%), and muscle strains and sprains (47%) were the most common injuries. Dehydration (77%) and respiratory irritation (46%) were the most common illnesses. Lower extremities were the most common site of injuries, and beginning hikers were the most vulnerable to injury and illness. Many hikers were inexperienced tourists willing to disregard warning signs and enter high-risk areas. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park is one of 22 US national park units with volcanic resources. The injuries and illnesses reported by the study group identify the impact that this type of environment can have on the safety of wilderness users in areas with similar resources. Recreating in remote and severe areas has inherent risks, but the high rate of injuries and illnesses sustained by the hikers of this study can potentially be reduced through the development of more direct risk management methods.

  8. A study on the determination of the natural park's sustainable tourism potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Mehmet; Zeren, Ilknur; Sevik, Hakan; Cakir, Cansel; Akpinar, Huseyin

    2018-02-23

    The surface site of Yesilyuva Nature Park encompasses natural, social, economic, and cultural characteristics and has become a marker of the region's natural and cultural heritage. To support the preservation of this site, promotional activities should be planned. In this study, because of tourism and related opinions of residents and visitors alike in terms of their natural determination, an important cultural and historical feature is aimed at evaluating the tourism potential of Yesilyuva Nature Park. This framework is designed to establish prospective tourism sustainability. As a result, Yesilyuva Nature Park's natural and cultural properties have been determined to be suitable for sustainable tourism activities using geographic information systems (GIS). This protection in the field, which balances sustainability and landscape design, will provide for the development of tourism activities. In the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis and survey, residents and visitors reported that the most important feature of the Yesilyuva Nature Park was its natural beauty. Visitors often come to observe traditional and natural life and to engage in tourism activities. All the data, which includes maps derived from GIS, represents landscape planning for sustainable tourism areas in Yesilyuva Nature Park.

  9. 77 FR 19702 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: California Department of Parks and Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the appropriate tribes, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of unassociated... Department of Parks and Recreation that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C... San Diego Museum of Man. One artifact from site CA-SDI-913, a ceramic bow pipe, is in the possession...

  10. Variability in pesticide deposition and source contributions to snowpack in western U.S. national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty-six seasonal snowpack samples were collected at remote alpine, subarctic, and arctic sites in eight Western U.S. national parks during three consecutive years (2003−2005). Four current-use pesticides (CUPs) (dacthal (DCPA), chlorpyrifos, endosulfans, and γ-hexachlorocyclohe...

  11. Estimating the Recreational-Use Value for Hiking in Bellenden Ker National Park, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nillesen, E.E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    The recreational-use value of hiking in the Bellenden Ker National Park, Australia has been estimated using a zonal travel cost model. Multiple destination visitors have been accounted for by converting visitors' own ordinal ranking of the various sites visited to numerical weights, using an

  12. National Parks of New York Harbor Traveler Information System : Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    The purpose of this planning project is to analyze alternatives and design a Traveler Information System (TIS) that will enhance the experience of visitors to the NYNH parks and other sites managed by federal, state and local partners. The system wil...

  13. Soil and air temperatures for different habitats in Mount Rainier National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Greene; Mark Klopsch

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports air and soil temperature data from 10 sites in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State for 2- to 5-year periods. Data provided are monthly summaries for day and night mean air temperatures, mean minimum and maximum air temperatures, absolute minimum and maximum air temperatures, range of air temperatures, mean soil temperature, and absolute...

  14. The Relationship between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Snorkeling Satisfaction in Pulau Payar Marine Park, Kedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbaidura Salim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its popularity and lucrative business opportunity, snorkeling has become the predominant activity in many marine parks. Continuous growth in the number of tourists and mass tourism has resulted in uncontrolled number of tourists, sometimes to pass over the carrying capacity of the site. Due to the lack of control and enforcement, many tour boat operators are seen bringing snorkelers to small fragile sites at the same timeframe. Such situation has resulted in reduced quality of tourist experience and satisfaction level as they need to cram in with others at the designated snorkeling areas. This study analyzes the influence of tourist demographic profile on the satisfaction level with snorkeling experience in the Pulau Payar Marine Park, a small coral island in Malaysia. A total of 259 snorkelers answered the survey that forms the basis of this paper. The results tested using t-tests and ANOVA, show significant differences between satisfaction level and respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics. Findings of the study indicated that only origin and education level positively associated with visitor satisfaction. Several issues, such as limiting the numbers of boats to be allowed at the site and facilities management such as toilets, changing rooms and solid waste management were among issues need to be considered by the Marine Park Department, in order to protect the island and its sustainability. This study highlights the importance of site management, in environmentally sensitive areas, for marine park managers and tour operators toward developing strategic marketing mixes for the different market segments.

  15. Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking

    OpenAIRE

    Shiuh-Jer Huang; Yu-Sheng Hsu

    2017-01-01

    On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be u...

  16. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  17. Commercial truck parking and other safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Commercial truck parking is a safety issue, since trucks are involved in approximately 10% of all fatal accidents on interstates and : parkways in Kentucky. Drivers experience schedule demands and long hours on the road, yet they cannot easily determ...

  18. Motorcycle noise in a park environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Blue Ridge Parkway National Park provided an environment where sound level : measurements could be made for numerous motorcycle pass-by events. Data were examined : for five motorcycle categories: cruiser, sport, dual purpose, touring, and : mope...

  19. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  20. Educating for biodiversity conservation in urban parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to propose a procedure for learning about biodiversity in urban parks, as a contribution for educating conservation of natural resources. The procedure was named “Diagnosis of biodiversity conservation status in urban parks”. It comprises for stages describing the physic, geographic, socio-historic, and cultural study of the park as well as a taxonomic inventory of species, its distribution, presence in Cuba, and menaces they are subjected to. This facilitates to carry out educative activities. The introduction of the procedure is thought of from an ethno-biological and interdisciplinary perspective for training students in biological, geographical, historical, cultural and ethnological procedures, seeking a holistic approach to environment. The effectiveness of the proposal was appraised by accounting the experience of a class at “Casino Campestre” park in Camagüey City. Key words: biodiversity, urban parks, procedures, conservation training

  1. Park asendas Manhattanil logistika / Rivo Sarapik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    New Yorgis Manhattani edelaosas rajati vanale raudteele, kümne meetri kõrgusele tänava kohale High Line Park. Arhitektid: Diller Scotidio + Renfro. New York Times valis pargi 2009. aasta arhitektuurialaste triumfide hulka New York Citys

  2. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariwite, Roderick [Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, NV (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  3. Cal State Park Boundaries 2011/2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a GIS version of California State Park (CSP) operational boundaries and does not represent official property boundary determinations. This GIS version is...

  4. Minnesota State Park Trails and Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile covers the trails in the State of Minnesota Parks, Recreation Areas, and Waysides as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department...

  5. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... point of origin of the tour, will be accorded admission to the park. (b) Colorado whitewater boat trips... conduct of a commercial or business activity in the park. (iii) An operation is commercial if any fee... will not interfere with park management or impair park resources. (i) Any permit issued will be valid...

  6. Vesuvium national park; Il Parco Nazionale del Vesuvio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iozzolino, I. [Naples Univ. (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The presented paper deal with the future of Vesuvium National Park. A brief history of the park institution is stated together with geo-physical, floristical, and faunistical aspects. Some considerations are reported about human activities and economic aspects in park area. Furthermore, future problems in park management are pointed out.

  7. 76 FR 77131 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steve Iobst, Deputy Superintendent, Yellowstone National Park, (307) 344-2002... material way the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or...

  8. A Walk in the Semantic Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob; Zerny, Ian

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions.......To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions....

  9. Data Analytics for Smart Parking Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Nicola; Turi, Leo; Toigo, Enrico; Martinez, Borja; Rossi, Michele

    2016-09-23

    We consider real-life smart parking systems where parking lot occupancy data are collected from field sensor devices and sent to backend servers for further processing and usage for applications. Our objective is to make these data useful to end users, such as parking managers, and, ultimately, to citizens. To this end, we concoct and validate an automated classification algorithm having two objectives: (1) outlier detection: to detect sensors with anomalous behavioral patterns, i.e., outliers; and (2) clustering: to group the parking sensors exhibiting similar patterns into distinct clusters. We first analyze the statistics of real parking data, obtaining suitable simulation models for parking traces. We then consider a simple classification algorithm based on the empirical complementary distribution function of occupancy times and show its limitations. Hence, we design a more sophisticated algorithm exploiting unsupervised learning techniques (self-organizing maps). These are tuned following a supervised approach using our trace generator and are compared against other clustering schemes, namely expectation maximization, k-means clustering and DBSCAN, considering six months of data from a real sensor deployment. Our approach is found to be superior in terms of classification accuracy, while also being capable of identifying all of the outliers in the dataset.

  10. Data Analytics for Smart Parking Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Piovesan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider real-life smart parking systems where parking lot occupancy data are collected from field sensor devices and sent to backend servers for further processing and usage for applications. Our objective is to make these data useful to end users, such as parking managers, and, ultimately, to citizens. To this end, we concoct and validate an automated classification algorithm having two objectives: (1 outlier detection: to detect sensors with anomalous behavioral patterns, i.e., outliers; and (2 clustering: to group the parking sensors exhibiting similar patterns into distinct clusters. We first analyze the statistics of real parking data, obtaining suitable simulation models for parking traces. We then consider a simple classification algorithm based on the empirical complementary distribution function of occupancy times and show its limitations. Hence, we design a more sophisticated algorithm exploiting unsupervised learning techniques (self-organizing maps. These are tuned following a supervised approach using our trace generator and are compared against other clustering schemes, namely expectation maximization, k-means clustering and DBSCAN, considering six months of data from a real sensor deployment. Our approach is found to be superior in terms of classification accuracy, while also being capable of identifying all of the outliers in the dataset.

  11. Performance comparison of wind park configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Stefan

    2003-07-01

    In this report, layouts of various large-scale wind parks, both AC as well as DC, are investigated. Loss modelling of the wind park components as well as calculations of the energy capture of the turbines using various electrical systems are performed, and the energy production cost of the various park configurations is determined. It was found that from an energy capture point of view, the difference in energy production between various wind turbine systems is very small. In addition, a study of the suitability of various DC/DC-converters is made. Three DC/DC-converters, Boost, Full Bridge and Full Bridge Isolated Boost, are found to be interesting candidates as the 'transformer' component in potential DC-based wind parks. Of all the investigated wind park configurations, the wind park with the series connected DC wind turbines seems to have the best potential to give the lowest energy production cost, if the transmission distance is longer then 10-20 km.

  12. Current situation and countermeasures of port logistics park information construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Improve work efficiency of logistics park department, and drive the economy of the park and its surrounding areas. Design/methodology/approach: Analyze the information development situation and existent questions of current national logistics park, and design proper scheme to meet the demand of port logistics park. Findings: Proposed an information construction implementation plan using technology of the Internet of things which can be applied to port logistics park. Designed a scheme for the park information construction and explained the system's implementation strategy and implementation steps. Practical implications: The proposed construction program is particularly suitable for the northwest port logistics parks in China, and also has reference function to other logistics park construction. Originality/value: Group the information construction of the logistics park into four levels, three types of users, and two requirements. The scheme is innovative and comprehensive, which can ensure the development of port logistics park.

  13. The Solutions to the Problem of Temporary Vehicle Parking in the City. The Analysis of Vehicle Parking Time and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ričardas Mockus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of solving the problems of temporary parking of vehicles in the city by using the automatic parking systems are considered. The investigation of vehicle parking is described and the comparison of the ramp-type and automated parking lots is presented.Article in Lithuanian

  14. A Brief History of Kafue National Park, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Mwima

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.

  15. Land-use planning risk estimates for a chemical industrial park in China - A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xinsheng; Wu, Zongzhi; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2018-01-01

    A chemical industrial park (CIP) can centralize the management of companies and facilitate mutual communication between different businesses. Due to these advantages, an increasing number of chemical companies are forced into CIP, especially in developing countries such as China. Thus, the land......-site risk levels are still low and within the acceptable region, the study concludes that the authorities should review carefully and monitor the risk level in case of future development activities around and within the chemical industrial park, e.g. preserving a buffer zone should be considered. For future...

  16. Estimating the Recreational-Use Value for Hiking in Bellenden Ker National Park, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nillesen, E.E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    The recreational-use value of hiking in the Bellenden Ker National Park, Australia has been estimated using a zonal travel cost model. Multiple destination visitors have been accounted for by converting visitors' own ordinal ranking of the various sites visited to numerical weights, using an expected-value approach. The value of hiking and camping in this national park was found to be $AUS 250,825 per year, or $AUS 144,45 per visitor per year, which is similar to findings from other studies v...

  17. Abundance and natural food resources of birds in Manusela National Park, Seram, Central Mollucas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAHYU WIDODO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to know the abundance and natural food resources of birds in the Manusela National Park, Seram (Ceram, Central Moluccas. The observations were done by “line-transect methods”, which in observe 70.50 hours totality. The results were found 51 species of birds in area of the national parks and 4 of all, namely red lory (Eos bornea, papuan hornbill (Rhyticeros plicatus, shining starling (Aplonis metallica, and grey-necked friarbird (Philemon subcorniculatus were abundant. Fourty seven species of plants were known useful for 19 species of birds as the natural food resources, nesting-sites and roosting trees.

  18. SLAC site design aesthetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-10-01

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a single mission laboratory dedicated to basic research in high energy particle physics. SLAC site also houses Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) which is a multi-mission laboratory for research using beams of ultraviolet light and low energy photons as emitted tangentially from SLAC colliding beam facilities. This paper discusses various aspects of SLAC site design aesthetics under the following headings: (1) imposed footprint of SLAC, (2) description of selected site, (3) use of earth cover for radiation and sight screens, (4) use of landscaping for cosmetic purposes, (5) use of exterior paint colors to soften SLAC impact on neighbors, (6) relocation of SLAC main entrance, (7) relocation of SLAC collider arcs and experimental hall, (8) parking lots and storage yards, and (9) land use zoning at SLAC

  19. Finding the Value of Urban Parking : An Analysis of the Impacts of Smart Parking Systems on Congestion and Land Values in Downtown Houston, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    For this report, researchers have examined smart parking, which is a parking management tool that uses various technologies to aid drivers in efficiently locating and paying for available parking. Smart parking systems allow drivers to know where the...

  20. 78 FR 59914 - Foreign-Trade Zone 160-Anchorage, Alaska; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...: Site 1 (56.89 acres)--the Port of Anchorage and Port of Anchorage Industrial Park, 1075 Dock Rd., 1076... acres)--619 East Ship Creek Ave., Anchorage; Site 6 (12.2 acres)-- Douglas Management Company, 660...

  1. Geologic and geotechnical investigation of the Windsor Park subdivision North Las Vegas, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnert, L.M.; Werle, J.L.; Stilley, A.N.; Olsen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Windsor Park subdivision in North Las Vegas, Nevada has received widespread attention for damage to the homes and infrastructure from fissures, land subsidence and adverse soil conditions. Between March and July, 1992, Converse Consultants Southwest, Inc. conducted a geologic and geotechnical investigation for the Windsor Park Revitalization Project. The purpose of the work was to investigate the probable factors contributing to the reported damage and distress in the area, evaluate the potential for future damage, and assess the feasibility of possible mitigation and repair. The site is constructed on the juncture of at least two subsidence-related fault scarps, and earth fissures have been extensively mapped in the Windsor Park and surrounding area. A total of twenty-one trenches and fifteen borings were located within the subdivision and around the perimeter to observe subsurface geologic features and to collect samples for laboratory testing. The primary causes of damage within the development were found to be (1) earth fissuring and (2) expansive clays. The risk of future damage to structures at the Windsor Park site was also evaluated. A high potential for fissuring was found at the site, and future structural distress in the area will likely be similar to past damage. Although engineering upgrades will reduce the risk posed by underlying expansive clays, they cannot totally eliminate the risk from fissuring. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Comparative effects of climate on ecosystem nitrogen and soil biogeochemistry in U.S. national parks. FY 2001 Annual Report (Res. Rept. No. 94)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, R.; Edmonds, R.; Scherbarth, L.; Urbanczyk, K.; Van Miegroet, H.; Zak, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the USGS Global Change program funded research for a network of Long-Term Reference Ecosystems initially established in national parks and funded by the National Park Service. The network included Noland Divide, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee; Pine Canyon, Big Ben National park, Texas; West Twin Creek, Olympic National Park, Washingtona?? Wallace Lake, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan; and the Asik watershed, Noatak National Preserve, Alaska. The watershed ecosystem model was used since this approach permits additional statistical power in detection of trends among variables, and the watershed in increasingly a land unit used in resource management and planning. The ecosystems represent a major fraction of lands administered by the National Park Service, and were chosen generally for the contrasts among sites. For example, tow of the site, Noland and West Twin, are characterized by high precipitation amounts, but Noland receives some of the highest atmospheric nitrogen (N) inputs in North America. In contrast, Pine Canyon and Asik are warm and cold desert sites respectively. The Asik watershed receives treeline) of the boreal biome in the North America while Wallace is at the southern ecotone between boreal and northern hardwoods. The research goal for these sites is to gain a basic understanding of ecosystem structure and function, and the response to global change especially atmospheric inputs and climate.

  3. A Planetary Park system for the Moon and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda

    Deutschland International space exploration programs foresee the establishment of human settlements on the Moon and on Mars within the next decades, following a series of robotic precursor missions. These increasing robotic visits and eventual human exploration and settlements may have an environmental impact on scientifically important sites and sites of natural beauty in the form of contamination with microorganisms and spacecraft parts, or even pollution as a consequence of in situ resource use. This concern has already been reflected in the Moon Treaty, "The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies" of the United Nations, which follows the Outer Space Treaty of the UN. However, so far, the Moon Treaty has not been ratified by any nation which engages in human space programs or has plans to do so. Planetary protection guidelines as formulated by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) are based on the Outer Space Treaty and follow the objectives: (i) to prevent contamination by terrestrial microorganisms if this might jeopardize scientific investi-gations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, and (ii) to protect the Earth from the potential hazard posed by extraterrestrial material brought back to the Earth. As a consequence, they group exploratory missions according to the type of mission and target body in five different categories, requesting specific means of cleaning and sterilization. However, the protection of extraterrestrial environments might also encompass ethical and other non-instrumental reasons. In order to allow intense scientific research and exploitation, and on the other hand to preserve regions of the Moon for research and use by future generations, we proposed the introduction of a planetary (or lunar) park system, which would protect areas of scientific, historic and intrinsic value under a common scheme. A similar placePlaceNamePlanetary PlaceTypePark system could be established on Mars well

  4. Assessment of Nonnative Invasive Plants in the DOE Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, S.J.

    2002-11-05

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Environmental Research Park at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is composed of second-growth forest stands characteristic of much of the eastern deciduous forest of the Ridge and Valley Province of Tennessee. Human use of natural ecosystems in this region has facilitated the establishment of at least 167 nonnative, invasive plant species on the Research Park. Our objective was to assess the distribution, abundance, impact, and potential for control of the 18 most abundant invasive species on the Research Park. In 2000, field surveys were conducted of 16 management areas on the Research Park (14 Natural Areas, 1 Reference Area, and Walker Branch Watershed) and the Research Park as a whole to acquire qualitative and quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of these taxa. Data from the surveys were used to rank the relative importance of these species using the ''Alien Plant Ranking System, Version 5.1'' developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Microstegium (Microstegium vimineum) was ranked highest, or most problematic, for the entire Research Park because of its potential impact on natural systems, its tendency to become a management problem, and how difficult it is to control. Microstegium was present in 12 of the 16 individual sites surveyed; when present, it consistently ranked as the most problematic invasive species, particularly in terms of its potential impact on natural systems. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) and Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) were the second- and third-most problematic plant species on the Research Park; these two species were present in 12 and 9 of the 16 sites surveyed, respectively, and often ranked second- or third-most problematic. Other nonnative, invasive species, in decreasing rank order, included kudzu (Pueraria montma), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), Chinese lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneara), and other species representing a variety of life forms and growth

  5. Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

  6. Urban parks as green walls or green magnets? Interracial relations in neighborhood boundary parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    1998-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal (Solecki and Welch, 1995) describes how urban parks that lie between racially different neighborhoods can become "green walls" or barriers to use and appreciation. Although this phenomenon is well grounded in the experience of many who plan for, manage, and live near parks in racially and ethnically segregated cities, an...

  7. The Myth of "Rosa Parks the Tired." Teaching about Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    Retells the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery (Alabama) bus boycott to reflect more accurately the cultural and historical background of the boycott and the conscious decision made by Mrs. Parks. Accurate examination of the story actually enhances a child's ability to identify with the issues and the protagonists. (SLD)

  8. Bark in the Park: A Review of Domestic Dogs in Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michael A.; Fitzsimons, James A.; Wescott, Geoffrey; Miller, Kelly K.; Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Schneider, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of domestic dogs Canis familiaris in public open spaces is increasingly controversial. In our review of the literature, we located 133 publications of various types (papers, reports etc.) that examine some aspect of dogs in parks and open spaces (50 % focussed solely on dogs). There has been an exponential growth in the cumulative number of articles ( R 2 = 0.96; 82 % published since 1997); almost all pertain to temperate latitudes (97 %) and most to the northern hemisphere (62 %). Most articles focus on impacts on wildlife (51 %), zoonotic diseases (17 %), and people's perceptions regarding dogs (12 %). Articles mostly describe problems associated with dogs, while reports of low compliance with dog regulations are common. We outline six major findings regarding dogs in parks: (1) there is a paucity of information on dogs in parks, particularly in relation to their interactions with wildlife and regarding their management; (2) published studies are mainly restricted to a handful of locations in developed countries; (3) sectors of societies hold different views over the desirability of dogs in parks; (4) the benefits and risks of dogs to humans and park values are poorly documented and known; (5) dogs represent a notable disease risk in some but not all countries; and (6) coastal parks are over-represented in the literature in terms of potential negative impacts. Park managers globally require better information to achieve conservation outcomes from dog management in parks.

  9. Co-existence of Coral Reef Conservation and Tourism at Pigeon Island National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishanthi Marian Perera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPigeon islands National Park (PINP is one of the three Marine National Parks in Sri Lanka with coral reefs being the major habitat protected. A study was undertaken at PINP with the objective of understanding the challenges encountered and opportunities available for managing the park addressing both coral reef conservation and increasing tourism potential. Field visits, formal and informal group discussions, expert opinions, web based information and literature surveys were the methodology utilized.  Despise the impose of an entrance fee in May 2011,  146,375 tourists visited the 471 ha park within 40 month period indicating that one hectare of coral reefs can earn more revenue than larger terrestrial parks with charismatic species such as elephants.  Foreign tourist arrivals had increased from 11.9% in 2011 to 25.13% by 2014.  Visitor reviews indicates that their experience was either excellent (46% or very good (30% due to abundance of marine life, while12% had either a poor or a terrible visitor experience at the site owing to overcrowding, reef damage and high price. With only 21% of live coral cover in 2013, it is evident that the reef is being degraded, indicating that a Protected Area which emphasizes on collecting user-fee revenues can lose sight of its primary conservation objectives and is not undertaking sustainable tourism.  Park management effectiveness is not at desirable level (43%, mainly due to non- implementation of a scientifically based management plan. A continuous monitoring programme to check the health of the reef is need, while the introduction of a multi-tiered user fee structures can enhance the economic reruns.  Incorporating PINP into wider Seascape/landscape management through utilizing Special Area Management approach needed to be promoted. Key Words: Coral Reefs; Pigeon Island National Park; Management Effectiveness; Sustainable Tourism; Stakeholders     

  10. Quality of public urban parks for physical activity practice in Bucaramanga, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Camila Ramirez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p480   The characteristics of parks (availability, accessibility, conservation, quality, safety, etc. are important predictors of their use for physical activity practices. The aim of this study was to verify the association among the socioeconomic level of neighborhoods, the characteristics and quality of urban public parks for physical activity in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Cross-sectional study, conducted in 2015, in which 10 parks with structures for physical activity were evaluated. The socioeconomic level of the district was evaluated based on the neighborhoods around the parks and classified in “low” and “high”. The number of residents in the surrounding area of parks were evaluated with Geographic Information System (GIS, site characteristics and quality with the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC and the Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA, respectively. The association was analyzed with Mann Whitney U test and Spearman correlation (rho on STATA 14 and the significance level was maintained at 5%. A positive association was found between the socioeconomic level and the presence of walking paths (marginal, p=0.056, accessibility (rho=0.875; p=0.001 and general quality of parks (rho=0.657; p=0.039. The low socioeconomic level was associated with the presence of sports courts (p=0.032. These results can guide the actions of public managers for the modification of the built environment and structures of the parks for physical activity.

  11. Estimating the recreational-use value for hiking in Bellenden Ker National Park, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, Eleonora; Wesseler, Justus; Cook, Averil

    2005-08-01

    The recreational-use value of hiking in the Bellenden Ker National Park, Australia has been estimated using a zonal travel cost model. Multiple destination visitors have been accounted for by converting visitors' own ordinal ranking of the various sites visited to numerical weights, using an expected-value approach. The value of hiking and camping in this national park was found to be dollar AUS 250,825 per year, or dollar AUS 144,45 per visitor per year, which is similar to findings from other studies valuing recreational benefits. The management of the park can use these estimates when considering the introduction of a system of user pays fees. In addition, they might be important when decisions need to be made about the allocation of resources for maintenance or upgrade of tracks and facilities.

  12. Associations between park characteristics and perceived restorativeness of small public urban green spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschardt, Karin Kragsig; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.

    2013-01-01

    of nine small public urban green spaces (SPUGS) in the dense city of Copenhagen. Furthermore, we investigate whether there is a difference in preferences for park characteristics amongst average users and the most stressed users of SPUGS. We conducted an on-site questionnaire survey where respondents......Urban green space in dense city areas is a limited resource. However, previous research indicates that such areas have a positive influence on mental restoration. As stress is a common problem in cities, we test to see whether park characteristics are associated with the perceived restorativeness...... answered the perceived restorativeness scale (PRS). All SPUGS were analysed using the eight perceived sensory dimensions (PSDs) which describe different park characteristics. The analyses were conducted to see whether the PSDs were present or not and to determine how strong or weak they were. For the first...

  13. Engaging and Empowering the National Park Service to apply Earth Observations to Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, A.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2015, the NASA DEVELOP National Program has partnered with the National Park Service (NPS) engaging more than 120 program participants, working on over 22 projects across approximately 27 unique park units. These projects examined a variety of cultural and environmental concerns facing the NPS including landscape disturbance, invasive species mapping, archaeological site preservation, and water resources monitoring. DEVELOP, part of NASA's Applied Sciences' Capacity Building program, conducts 10-week feasibility projects which demonstrate the utility of NASA's Earth observations as an additional tool for decision-making processes. This presentation will highlight several of these projects and discuss the progress of capacity building working with individual, regional, and institutional elements within the National Park Service.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Investigation of the Importance of Park Features for Promoting Regular Physical Activity in Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Veitch, Jenny; Crawford, David; Carver, Alison; Timperio, Anna

    2017-11-02

    Parks in the US and Australia are generally underutilised, and park visitors typically engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). Better understanding park features that may encourage visitors to be active is important. This study examined the perceived importance of park features for encouraging park-based PA and examined differences by sex, age, parental-status and participation in PA. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by local residents ( n = 2775) living near two parks (2013/2015). Demographic variables, park visitation and leisure-time PA were self-reported, respondents rated the importance of 20 park features for encouraging park-based PA in the next fortnight. Chi-square tests of independence examined differences in importance of park features for PA among sub-groups of local residents (sex, age, parental-status, PA). Park features ranked most important for park-based PA were: well maintained (96.2%), feel safe (95.4%), relaxing atmosphere (91.2%), easy to get to (91.7%), and shady trees (90.3%). All subgroups ranked 'well maintained' as most important. Natural and built environment features of parks are important for promoting adults' park-based PA, and should be considered in park (re)design.

  15. Semi-automatic parking slot marking recognition for intelligent parking assist systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Gi Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a semi-automatic parking slot marking-based target position designation method for parking assist systems in cases where the parking slot markings are of a rectangular type, and its efficient implementation for real-time operation. After the driver observes a rearview image captured by a rearward camera installed at the rear of the vehicle through a touchscreen-based human machine interface, a target parking position is designated by touching the inside of a parking slot. To ensure the proposed method operates in real-time in an embedded environment, access of the bird's-eye view image is made efficient: image-wise batch transformation is replaced with pixel-wise instantaneous transformation. The proposed method showed a 95.5% recognition rate in 378 test cases with 63 test images. Additionally, experiments confirmed that the pixel-wise instantaneous transformation reduced execution time by 92%.

  16. The sources, impact and management of car park runoff pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian; Coulon, Frédéric; Fairley, Martin

    2014-12-15

    Traffic emissions contribute significantly to the build-up of diffuse pollution loads on urban surfaces with their subsequent mobilisation and direct discharge posing problems for receiving water quality. This review focuses on the impact and mitigation of solids, metals, nutrients and organic pollutants in the runoff deriving from car parks. Variabilities in the discharged pollutant levels and in the potentials for pollutant mitigation complicate an impact assessment of car park runoff. The different available stormwater best management practices and proprietary devices are reported to be capable of reductions of between 20% and almost 100% for both suspended solids and a range of metals. This review contributes to prioritising the treatment options which can achieve the appropriate pollutant reductions whilst conforming to the site requirements of a typical car park. By applying different treatment scenarios to the runoff from a hypothetical car park, it is shown that optimal performance, in terms of ecological benefits for the receiving water, can be achieved using a treatment train incorporating permeable paving and bioretention systems. The review identifies existing research gaps and emphasises the pertinent management practices as well as design issues which are relevant to the mitigation of car park pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Another reptile translocation to a national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Branch

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available On 4 May 1988 a sub-adult (50 mm snout-vent length, 42 mm tail Jones' girdled lizard Cordylus tropidosternum jonesi was collected in a pile of wood being off-loaded at the new restcamp in the Karoo National Park, Beaufort West. The wood had been transported by lorry from the Kruger National Park. The specimen is deposited in the herpetological collection of the Port Elizabeth Museum (PEM R 4584. Jones' girdled lizard is a small, arboreal cordylid that shelters under tree bark and in hollow logs. It is common and widely-distributed in the Kruger National Park (Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983, The Reptiles of the Kruger National Park, 3rd edition. Pretoria: National Parks Board and adjacent lowveld, being replaced in northern Zimbabwe and East Africa by the nominate race. Hewitt & Power (1913, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3: 147-176, 1913 reported a similar translocation of the species to Kimberley in association with timber brought to the diamond mining camps. One of us noted recently the ease and danger of the unwitting spread of commensal reptile species into conservation areas (Branch 1978, Koedoe 30: 165, and this is confirmed by this additional example. We recommend that should similar shipments of wood be considered essential, then they be fumigated to prevent the translocation of other alien organisms that may potentially have more dangerous consequences.

  18. The Park of Renewable Energy geoethical project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Sibi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Park of Renewable Energy is an environmental technology park in the middle of Italy that has an innovative integrated system for the production of renewable energy. Recently, the Park launched a public invitation: to become part of a great widespread community for the production of renewable energy, and to promote energy conservation and a sustainable lifestyle. This empowerment process that turns consumers into energy producers – and also into those who convey the culture of sustainability – might, over time, give life to a community that actually lives according to the geoethical principles of biosustainability. The route for the identification and dissemination of the Park of Renewable Energy community is an interesting example of the generative process, whereby rather than doggedly pursuing a predetermined objective, such as a model to be implemented, the actors involved, “look for directions and values that are inherent in the means available” [Bateson 2000], including communication networks and methodologies of social participation. The community components focus their attention on the action and relationship effects, rather than on ways to reach a predefined goal. In this perspective, the Park of Renewable Energy experience aims to become an interesting object of observation and reflection for its green ethics. This ecological approach promises unexpected new creations: there is a chance we will at last see the birth of a sustainable form of social organization adapted to the human community.

  19. National parks, ecological integrity and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopoukhine, N.

    1990-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on the national parks of Canada are discussed. There is a requirement to protect and manage national parks to maintain a functioning ecosystem with all its parts and processes. An active management regime is necessary, with objectives of ecological diversity/integrity clearly stated. The national parks located in the Canadian Prairie provinces are on or near transitions from forest to tundra and grasslands, and are likely to exhibit the most dramatic changes. The change in vegetation of such parks and in others will not manifest itself simply as a shift of zones but will be accompanied by a flora with new dominants. The boreal forest within the Prairie provinces is fire dependent and has the potential of being transformed into remnant units should post-fire germination be hampered by climatic change. A rapid change in climate would render national parks unable to provide protection of representative elements of Canada's landscapes as presently known. A threefold increase in the area dedicated to protection is a basic component of the sustainable development prescription. All government and private lands dedicated to protection should be forged into a network, to provide core protection for immigrating and emigrating communities and individual species displaced by a changing climate. 20 refs., 2 figs

  20. Two-Way Interpretation about Climate Change: Preliminary Results from a Study in Select Units of the United States National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forist, B. E.; Knapp, D.

    2014-12-01

    Much interpretation in units of the National Park System, conducted by National Park Service (NPS) rangers and partners today is done in a didactic, lecture style. This "one-way" communication runs counter to research suggesting that long-term impacts of park interpretive experiences must be established through direct connections with the visitor. Previous research in interpretation has suggested that interpretive experiences utilizing a "two-way" dialogue approach are more successful at facilitating long-term memories than "one-way" approaches where visitors have few, if any, opportunities to ask questions, offer opinions, or share interests and experiences. Long-term memories are indicators of connections to places and resources. Global anthropogenic change poses critical threats to NPS sites, resources, and visitor experiences. As climate change plays an ever-expanding role in public, political, social, economic, and environmental discourse it stands to reason that park visitors may also be interested in engaging in this discourse. Indeed, NPS Director Jonathan Jarvis stated in the agency's Climate Change Action Plan 2012 - 2014 that, "We now know through social science conducted in parks that our visitors are looking to NPS staff for honest dialogue about this critical issue." Researchers from Indiana University will present preliminary findings from a multiple park study that assessed basic visitor knowledge and the impact of two-way interpretation related to climate change. Observations from park interpretive program addressing climate change will be presented. Basic visitor knowledge of climate change impacts in the select parks as well as immediate and long-term visitor recollections will be presented. Select units of the National Park System in this research included Cape Cod National Seashore, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Cascades National Park, Shenandoah National Park, and Zion National Park.

  1. Potential of the Kakadu National Park Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Committee reviewed the potential of the Kakadu National Park region in the Northern Territory with particular reference to the nature of the resources available for exploitation and the impact of utilisation of these resources, particularly mining and tourism. Individual chapters discuss the Park, tourism, mineral resources (particularly the environmental and economic impacts of the Ranger Uranium Mine and the potential impacts of mining the Koongarra and Jabiluka deposits), the town of Jabiru, commercial fishing, other issues (the scientific resource, crocodiles, introduced species and fire), and park management and control (including a review of the role of the Office of the Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region). A number of recommendations are made and the dissenting report of three of the Committee's members is included.

  2. Vascular plant and vertebrate species richness in national parks of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay

    2013-01-01

    species richness. Plant species richness should be included with other variables such as area and climate when considering strategies to manage and conserve species in US National Parks. It is not always appropriate to draw conclusions about analyses of taxonomic surrogates from one area to another. Two patterns evident from the linear regressions were the increase in species richness with the increase of park area and with increase of vascular plant species richness. To test whether there were differences in these patterns among networks, we used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Differences among networks were detected only in bird species richness versus plant species richness and for all taxa except mammals for vertebrate species richness versus park area. Some of these results may be due to small sample size among networks, and therefore, low statistical power. Other factors that could have contributed to these results were differences in average park area and habitat heterogeneity among networks, latitudinal gradients, low variation in mean annual precipitation, and different use of vegetation by migratory species. Based on these results we recommend that management of biodiversity be approached from local and site specific criteria rather than applying management directives derived from other regions of the US. It is also recommended that analyses similar to those presented here be conducted for all national parks, once data become available for all networks in the US, to gain a better understanding of how vascular plant species richness, area, and vertebrate species richness are related in the US.

  3. Pahoa geothermal industrial park. Engineering and economic analysis for direct applications of geothermal energy in an industrial park at Pahoa, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    This engineering and economic study evaluated the potential for developing a geothermal industrial park in the Puna District near Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii. Direct heat industrial applications were analyzed from a marketing, engineering, economic, environmental, and sociological standpoint to determine the most viable industries for the park. An extensive literature search produced 31 existing processes currently using geothermal heat. An additional list was compiled indicating industrial processes that require heat that could be provided by geothermal energy. From this information, 17 possible processes were selected for consideration. Careful scrutiny and analysis of these 17 processes revealed three that justified detailed economic workups. The three processes chosen for detailed analysis were: an ethanol plant using bagasse and wood as feedstock; a cattle feed mill using sugar cane leaf trash as feedstock; and a papaya processing facility providing both fresh and processed fruit. In addition, a research facility to assess and develop other processes was treated as a concept. Consideration was given to the impediments to development, the engineering process requirements and the governmental support for each process. The study describes the geothermal well site chosen, the pipeline to transmit the hydrothermal fluid, and the infrastructure required for the industrial park. A conceptual development plan for the ethanol plant, the feedmill and the papaya processing facility was prepared. The study concluded that a direct heat industrial park in Pahoa, Hawaii, involves considerable risks.

  4. Protocol for Monitoring Fish Assemblages in Pacific Northwest National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkman, Samuel J.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Rivers and streams that drain from Olympic, Mount Rainier, and North Cascades National Parks are among the most protected corridors in the lower 48 States, and represent some of the largest tracts of contiguous, undisturbed habitat throughout the range of several key fish species of the Pacific Northwest. These watersheds are of high regional importance as freshwater habitat sanctuaries for native fish, where habitat conditions are characterized as having little to no disturbance from development, channelization, impervious surfaces, roads, diversions, or hydroelectric projects. Fishery resources are of high ecological and cultural importance in Pacific Northwest National Parks, and significantly contribute to economically important recreational, commercial, and tribal fisheries. This protocol describes procedures to monitor trends in fish assemblages, fish abundance, and water temperature in eight rivers and five wadeable streams in Olympic National Park during summer months, and is based on 4 years of field testing. Fish assemblages link freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. They also serve as focal resources of national parks and are excellent indicators of ecological conditions of rivers and streams. Despite the vital importance of native anadromous and resident fish populations, there is no existing monitoring program for fish assemblages in the North Coast and Cascades Network. Specific monitoring objectives of this protocol are to determine seasonal and annual trends in: (1) fish species composition, (2) timing of migration of adult fish, (3) relative abundance, (4) age and size structure, (5) extent of non-native and hatchery fish, and (6) water temperature. To detect seasonal and annual trends in fish assemblages in reference sites, we rely on repeated and consistent annual sampling at each monitoring site. The general rationale for the repeated sampling of reference sites is to ensure that we account for the high interannual variability in fish

  5. Changing levels of heavy metal accumulation in birds at Tumacacori National Historic Park along the Upper Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Lester, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    National Parks and other protected areas can be influenced by contamination from outside their boundaries. This is particularly true of smaller parks and those in riparian ecosystems, a habitat that in arid environments provides critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds. Animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at Tumacacori National Historic Park (TUMA) along the upper Santa Cruz River watershed in southern Arizona. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows at Tumacacori National Historic Park, (2) quantify hematocrit values, body conditions (that is, residual body mass), and immune conditions of Song Sparrows in the park (3) compare our findings with prior studies at the park to assess the extent of heavy metal accumulation in birds at downstream sites after the 2009 wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (4) quantify concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows among six study sites throughout the upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study design would allow us to more accurately assess song sparrow condition and blood parameters among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure, and how each location could have contributed to heavy metal levels of birds in the park.

  6. Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park, Montezuma County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado was established in 1906 to preserve and protect the artifacts and dwelling sites, including the famous cliff dwellings, of the Ancestral Puebloan people who lived in the area from about A.D. 550 to A.D. 1300. In 1978, the United Nations designated the park as a World Heritage Site. The geology of the park played a key role in the lives of these ancient people. For example, the numerous (approximately 600) cliff dwellings are closely associated with the Cliff House Sandstone of Late Cretaceous age, which weathers to form deep alcoves. In addition, the ancient people farmed the thick, red loess (wind-blown dust) deposits on the mesa tops, which because of its particle size distribution has good moisture retention properties. The soil in this loess cover and the seasonal rains allowed these people to grow their crops (corn, beans, and squash) on the broad mesa tops. Today, geology is still an important concern in the Mesa Verde area because the landscape is susceptible to various forms of mass movement (landslides, debris flows, rockfalls), swelling soils, and flash floods that affect the park's archeological sites and its infrastructure (roads, septic systems, utilities, and building sites). The map, which encompasses an area of about 100 mi2 (260 km2), includes all of Mesa Verde National Park, a small part of the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation that borders the park on its southern and western sides, and some Bureau of Land Management and privately owned land to the north and east. Surficial deposits depicted on the map include: artificial fills, alluvium of small ephemeral streams, alluvium deposited by the Mancos River, residual gravel on high mesas, a combination of alluvial and colluvial deposits, fan deposits, colluvial deposits derived from the Menefee Formation, colluvial deposits derived from the Mancos Shale, rockfall deposits, debris flow deposits, earthflow deposits, translational and rotational landslide

  7. Improvement of Theme Park Marketing Mode:A Case Study of Theme Parks in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; LI; Gaoli; XIONG

    2013-01-01

    Construction of theme park has been launched since the early 1990s in Chengdu City,but ended up as a losing proposition after its short-term prosperity because of similar scale and similarity with those in other cities.As more international well-known theme parks entering the market,theme parks in Chengdu have been faced with the transition,and novel concepts are also introduced into the operation of these parks.To adapt to the market,it is imperative to make marketing strategies and combine marketing elements.Through analyzing current development of local theme parks and introducing successful marketing modes of domestic and overseas theme parks,a favorable marketing mode for theme parks in Chengdu was defined on the basis of fully exploring Ba-Shu culture(Ba and Shu are two ancient kingdoms in the history of Sichuan).By defining a favorable theme,focusing more on visitors’experience,devoting more in developing new products,adopting flexible price strategies,and integrating advertisement marketing,internet marketing,and other marketing methods,outstanding brands will be formed,and tourism cultures with distinguished features of Chengdu will be created.

  8. IMPORTANT INFORMATION - Flagstaff Car-Park and Park-and-Ride (P+R)

    CERN Document Server

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    As part of the new arrangements following the arrival of the tram-line at CERN, an Automatic Number-Plate Recognition (ANPR) system has been installed restricting access to the Flagstaff Car-park and the Park-and-Ride (P+R) zone according to the conditions set out below: Holders of a valid P+R user card may enter the car-park at all hours but may only park in the area specifically designated as the P+R zone. P+R user cards can be purchased from the Fondation des Parkings de Genève (http://www.ge.ch/parkings/abonnements.html)   Members of CERN personnel and of contractors' personnel, whatever their status, may freely access the Flagstaff Car-Park at all hours, as long as their vehicle is duly registered with CERN, but they may not use the P+R zone, which is reserved for holders of P+R user cards. Please check that your vehicle number-plates are properly registered via AdaMS (http://cern.ch/adams). If this is not the case, the following action must be taken: - for private or co...

  9. Electronuclear Park, Privatization and Civil Strict Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Gerard Camille

    2008-01-01

    The civil strict liability regime of the electronuclear industry is a fundamental variable for preventing risk. Because prices of other energies as oil or gas are becoming higher and unpredictable, nuclear power becomes cost-effective and may favour the partial privatization of nuclear parks. By considering theoretical traditional liability models, we study the conditions that ensure the most efficient safety level when comparing natural monopoly situation and Bertrand duopoly. Our results are that natural monopoly is safer than duopoly only when strict liability is fully applied. We define conditions that neutralize risk for applying some privatization plan to nuclear park

  10. Scour Forecasting for Offshore Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Peres Akrawi

    In an effort to minimize the costs of offshore wind parks, the present research deals with optimizing a certain aspect of the support structure, namely the approach to scour. Scour is the phenomenon of seabed changes in the vicinity of the support structure that arises when the support structure......, scour forecasts facilitate the comparison between a scour design based on either deployment of scour-protection or enhanced structural design. The broad goal is to develop a method that produces accurate scour forecasts for offshore wind parks. The present research investigates more specifically which...

  11. Noise from cooling towers of power parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, J.; Moore, F.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study is presented of the noise pollution problem for large power parks proposed for the future. Such parks might have an area of about 75 sq. miles, and a generating capacity up to 48000 MW. A comparative analysis has been done for natural and mechanical-draft wet towers as the major sources of acoustic power. Noise radiation from single isolated towers as well as from a dispersed array of towers has been considered for both types of cooling systems. Major noise attenuation effects considered are due to the atmospheric absorption and A-weighting. Conditions of 60F and 70 percent relative humidity in a still atmosphere have been assumed

  12. USGS considers moving Menlo Park programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt has instructed the U.S. Geological Survey to examine options to relocate staff and programs at the agency's 16-acre Menlo Park Facilities within 5 years. The agency was directed on August 21 to submit a preliminary action plan by September 25.A memo from USGS Director Gordon Eaton states that Babbitt is concerned about high real estate costs in the Menlo Park area and the need for the agency to locate near other Interior and federal offices.

  13. Hortobágy National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Gyarmathy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available National parks and protected areas have an important role in protecting starry sky and the undisturbed nighttime environment. Hortobágy which is one of the darkest areas in Hungary, became an International Dark Sky Parks recently. Its significance is mostly related to the protection of the high biodiversity which is endangered by the effects of light pollution. A special monitoring program has been started to survey the nocturnal species and also to monitor the quality of the night sky using   digital cameras. Stargazing night walks are frequently organized. There is a high interest by the general public to attend these night adventures.

  14. Force Measurements on a VAWT Blade in Parked Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Goude

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The forces on a turbine at extreme wind conditions when the turbine is parked is one of the most important design cases for the survivability of a turbine. In this work, the forces on a blade and its support arms have been measured on a 12 kW straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine at an open site. Two cases are tested: one during electrical braking of the turbine, which allows it to rotate slowly, and one with the turbine mechanically fixed with the leading edge of the blade facing the main wind direction. The force variations with respect to wind direction are investigated, and it is seen that significant variations in forces depend on the wind direction. The measurements show that for the fixed case, when subjected to the same wind speed, the forces are lower when the blade faces the wind direction. The results also show that due to the lower forces at this particular wind direction, the average forces for the fixed blade are notably lower. Hence, it is possible to reduce the forces on a turbine blade, simply by taking the dominating wind direction into account when the turbine is parked. The measurements also show that a positive torque is generated from the blade for most wind directions, which causes the turbine to rotate in the electrically-braked case. These rotations will cause increased fatigue loads on the turbine blade.

  15. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Drougka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST, spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred.

  16. Numerical simulation of cooling effect of vegetation enhancement in a subtropical urban park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, An-Shik; Juan, Yu-Hsuan; Wen, Chih-Yung; Chang, Chao-Jui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cooling efficacy from vegetation implanted in a urban public park is studied. • Three cases showing various types of greening in the park renewal were conducted. • On-site measurements were also conducted to validate the CFD simulation results. • The increase of GCR are linear with PET comfort area percentage. • Results can be used as a guideline for the green sustainability. - Abstract: Vegetation covers in urban parks are very useful for providing a cool microclimate which mitigates urban heat islands (UHIs). The objectives of this investigation are to therefore conduct on-site measurements and computational fluid dynamic simulations to evaluate the cooling efficacy from vegetation planted in a public park in Taipei, which is a subtropical city in Taiwan. The thermo-flow characteristics are predicted and compared with the measured air velocity and temperature data by using ultrasonic anemometers and an infrared camera to validate the computer modeling, including the sophisticated configurations of trees. Computations are also conducted to resolve the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) profiles for assessing the thermal comfort state at the pedestrian level of the outdoor environment. To investigate the impacts of park renewal on the urban microclimate, three pavilions and supplementary green areas are added to the simulation, and the results reveal that there is a better cooling effect in the park with a higher green coverage ratio (GCR). Moreover, the simulations find that the increased tree coverage ratio can more than compensate for loss of coverage of grasses, resulting in an overall decrease in average temperature. The relationship between thermal comfortable area and green coverage ratio tends to be nonlinear in nature. However, it would be more convenient for applications to adopt the linear regression analysis for determining the correlation between the GCR and PET for the percentage of areas that are comfortable (C

  17. Hazardous and Industrial Wastes Management: a Case Study of Khazra Industrial Park, Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Increasing hazardous industrial wastes and lack of necessary regulations for management of them have led to serious problems in some parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of collection, transportation, recycling, and disposal of hazardous industrial wastes in the Khazra Industrial Park of Kerman, Iran. Materials & Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was done using questionnaires and local visits during year 2009. In this questionnaire, some information about the industrial wastes, production, storage on site , collection, transformation, sorting, recycling, and disposal were recorded. Results:   In the Khazra Industrial Park, 71,600 kg/day of different industrial waste is produced. The biggest proportion of waste includes metals, and construction and demolition waste which are about 16,500 tons a year. The smallest proportion is non-iron metal waste, which is produced at a rate of 8 tons per year. 88.7 percent of the active industries at the Khazra Industrial Park produce solid industrial waste. Most of the industrial units do not use a united and coordinated system for storing waste and have no specific place for temporary storage inside the industrial park. The majority of industrial waste collection, which is about 59.8%, is done by private contractors. The industrial units transfer their waste separately, and just 9 industrial units recycle their waste. Disposal of these wastes is mainly done by selling to trading agencies. Each day, 3 tons of hazardous industrial waste is produced in this park. The highest production belongs to the oil factory (Keyhan Motor. Conclusions: According to the results, the Khazra Industrial Park needs a unified system for storing, transporting and collecting the sorted waste, and it also needs to have a transportation station with basic facilities. The wastes of most industrial units at the Khazra Industrial Park have the

  18. Parks, Place and Pedagogy - Education Partnerships with the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.; Nash, B.; Klawiter, M.; Huntoon, J. E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Gochis, E. E.; MiTEP

    2011-12-01

    The Michigan Teaching Excellence Program (MITEP) is a multi-year program of teacher leadership development that empowers science teachers in Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, and Jackson to lead their schools and districts through the process of improving science teaching and learning. A component of this program is facilitated through partnership between academia, K-12 educators, and the National Park Service (NPS) that aims to develop place-based education strategies that improve diversity and Earth Science literacy. This tangible education method draws upon both the sense of place that National Parks offer and the art of interpretation employed by the park service. Combined, these deepen cognitive process and provide a more diverse reflection of what place means and the processes behind shaping what we see. Our partnerships present participants the opportunity to intern in a Midwest national park for 3-8 weeks during their third year in the program. In summer 2011, eleven teachers from the Grand Rapids school district participated in this innovative way of learning and teaching Earth Science. One goal was to develop geological interpretive materials desired and needed for the parks. Secondly, and important to place-based educational methodologies, these deliverables will be used as a way of bringing the parks to urban classrooms. Participants lived in the parks and worked directly with both national park and Michigan Tech staff to create lesson plans, podcasts, media clips, video, and photographic documentation of their experiences. These lesson plans will be hosted in the Views of the National Park website in an effort to provide innovative teaching resources nationally for teachers or free-choice learners wishing to access information on Midwest national parks. To the benefit of park staff, working with teachers from urban areas offered an opportunity for park staff to access diverse learners in urban settings unable to visit the park. The foundation has been laid for

  19. Kelp forest monitoring 1993 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, D.; Walder, R.; Gorodezky, L.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1993-06-01

    The 1993 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algea, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using Sea Data batheothermographs, and HOBOTEMP temperature loggers. Temperature loggers were installed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artifical recruitment modules at nine sites. In 1993, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocysts pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. The 13 sites with kelp forests consisted of 10 mature and three young kelp forests. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins. Sea urchins wasting syndrome appears to have caused mass mortality of purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus, at two Santa Barbara Island sites.

  20. Kultusjoonisflm "South Park" on päral

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Tänasest "Kosmoses" animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker ja Matt Stone : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  1. Metal concentrations from permeable pavement parking lot in Edison, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Park Access by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the block group population that is within and beyond an easy walking distance (500m) of a park entrance. Park entrances were included...

  3. Vegetation - Anza-Borrego Desert State Park [ds165

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Anza Borrego Desert State Park (ABDSP) Vegetation Map depicts vegetation within the Park and its surrounding environment. The map was prepared by the Department...

  4. More Effective Use of Urban Space by Autonomous Double Parking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Estepa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new capabilities of autonomous cars can be used to mitigate to a large extent safety concerns and nuisance traditionally associated with double parking. In this paper double parking for autonomous cars is proposed as a new approach to temporarily increase parking capacity in locations in clear need for extra provision when best alternatives cannot be found. The basic requirements, operation, and procedures of the proposed solution are outlined. A curbside parking has been simulated implementing the suggested double parking operation and important advantages have been identified for drivers, the environment, and the city. Double parking can increase over 50% the parking capacity of a given area. Autonomous car owners would (at least double their probabilities of finding parking compared to traditional drivers, saving cruising time and emissions. However, significant work and technological advances are still needed in order to make this feasible in the near future.

  5. Environmental aspects of parking garages. Living in a compact city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, J.F.W.; Suverkoop, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of environmental aspects of parking garages in the Netherlands with respect to environmental legislation and regulations, focusing on noise pollution, lighting aspects (of cars and the parking buildings), air quality, and fire safety [nl

  6. 36 CFR 7.56 - Acadia National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intersection north to the gate at Penobscot Mountain Parking Area) and connecting roads as follows: Paradise... from the parking area at the north end of Eagle Lake down the east side of the lake to connection with...

  7. Tools for valuing tree and park services

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    Arborists and urban foresters plan, design, construct, and manage trees and parks in cities throughout the world. These civic improvements create walkable, cool environments, save energy, reduce stormwater runoff, sequester carbon dioxide, and absorb air pollutants. The presence of trees and green spaces in cities is associated with increases in property values,...

  8. Learning Physics in a Water Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Cecilia; Rubido, Nicolás; Martí, Arturo C.

    2014-01-01

    Entertaining and educational experiments that can be conducted in a water park, illustrating physics concepts, principles and fundamental laws, are described. These experiments are suitable for students ranging from senior secondary school to junior university level. Newton's laws of motion, Bernoulli's equation, based on the conservation of…

  9. Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey JOSEPH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence is a vision in which various devices come together and process information from multiple sources in order to exert control on the physical environment. In addition to computation and control, communication plays a crucial role in the overall functionality of such a system. Wireless Sensor Networks are one such class of networks, which meet these criteria. These networks consist of spatially distributed sensor motes which work in a co-operative manner to sense and control the environment. In this work, an implementation of an energy-efficient and cost-effective, wireless sensor networks based vehicle parking system for a multi-floor indoor parking facility has been introduced. The system monitors the availability of free parking slots and guides the vehicle to the nearest free slot. The amount of time the vehicle has been parked is monitored for billing purposes. The status of the motes (dead/alive is also recorded. Information like slot allocated, directions to the slot and billing data is sent as a message to customer’s mobile phones. This paper extends our previous work 1 with the development of a low cost sensor mote, about one tenth the cost of a commercially available mote, keeping in mind the price sensitive markets of the developing countries.

  10. New Hyde Park Public Library; A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassau Library System, Garden City, NY.

    In the fall of 1974, the Nassau County Library System conducted a study of the New Hyde Park Public Library at the request of that library's directing board. Relevant documents and statistics were reviewed, building usage was studied, and the library staff and community organizations were questioned. The library was analyzed in terms of the…

  11. The spanish radiotherapy park: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, Manuel J.

    2001-01-01

    The present article has as objective to provide a general overview on the spanish radiotherapy park, presenting how was its start and evolution until the current state. Considering only the units of teletherapy and the accelerators. Actually in Spain there is 28 units of Cobalt therapy, in functioning during the last two decades, being advised a rapid substitution to accelerators

  12. case study of ramat park benin city

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    SETTLEMENT: CASE STUDY OF RAMAT PARK BENIN CITY. E. S. Okonofua1, R. ... region on a daily basis. The movement of ... with major road networks [2]. In order to ease ... led to series of research and development of traffic noise models.

  13. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    .... America is fortunate to have a long history of conservation pioneers, like President Theodore Roosevelt... National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day, America... and vitality of all Americans. In no place is America's natural and historic legacy more evident than...

  14. Security issues in a parking facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Abraham; Lew, I Paul

    2009-01-01

    Active security supported by passive security measures which are part of the physical design of a parking facility are essential to preventing crimes from happening wherever and whenever possible, the authors maintain. In the article, they focus on design elements which can be most effective in discouraging potential perpetrators.

  15. Optimized power generation in offshore wind parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Filho, J. de; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity generation on offshore wind parks has an increasing economic importance - the European Commission foresees that 12% of the wind energy will be produced on offshore installations by 2020, and this share is likely to increase further in the following years. However, the continuously

  16. Park design between community and professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, Marlies; Steenhuis, Marinke

    2015-01-01

    The Zevenkamp district in eastern Rotterdam conceals a specimen of Dutch landscape architecture from the early 1980s - the Wollefoppenpark and Noordelijk Wijkpark, a structure of green spaces connecting the district with the open polder landscape. The park was designed as a robust framework that

  17. Autonomous Robot Navigation In Public Nature Park

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Christian; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2005-01-01

    This extended abstract describes a project to make a robot travel autonomously across a public nature park. The challenge is to detect and follow the right path across junctions and open squares avoiding people and obstacles. The robot is equipped with a laser scanner, a (low accuracy) GPS, wheel...

  18. the Avian Park Service Learning Centre story

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ukwanda Centre for Rural Health (UCRH) opened in 2001, followed 10 years later by the establishment of the Ukwanda Rural Clinical School in one of the rural health districts of the Western Cape. This paper relates the journey of the Faculty with the underserviced community of Avian Park through the provision of ...

  19. An Environmental Ethic for Parks and Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Leo

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an environmental ethic for parks and recreation professionals who are often on the wrong side of the environmental controversy because they lack a professional ethic. This article provides a guide for implementing an environmental ethic, noting that philosophy of service must be grounded in ecological principles, not merchant values. (SM)

  20. Bodie State Historic Park. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers in organizing and preparing a field trip to Bodie State Historic Park (California). Although it is intended to assist in the trip to Bodie, it also provides information for organizing group tours or family outings to other areas. Activities include before, during, and after visit exercises focusing on the…

  1. PARK2 orchestrates cyclins to avoid cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2014), s. 527-528 ISSN 1061-4036 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : PARK2 * G1/S-phase cyclin * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 29.352, year: 2014

  2. Declining national park visitation: An economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Stevens; Thomas A. More; Marla. Markowski-Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Visitation to the major nature-based national parks has been declining. This paper specifies an econometric model that estimates the relative impact of consumer incomes, travel costs, entry fees and other factors on per capita attendance from 1993 to 2010. Results suggest that entrance fees have had a statistically significant but small impact on per capita attendance...

  3. Multiple-Layer Parking with Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enter, Aernout; Fleurke, Sjoert; Rudas, Imre J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article a multilayer parking system with screening of size n = 3 is studied with a focus on the time-dependent particle density. We prove that the asymptotic limit of the particle density increases from an average density of 1/3 on the first layer to the value of (10 − √5 )/19 ≈ 0.4086 in

  4. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  5. Park World Tour Hiinas / Timo Sild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sild, Timo, 1988-

    2012-01-01

    Reisikiri Eesti sportlaste osalemisest septembris Hiinas korraldatud Park World Tour orienteerumisvõistlustel - Changchunis toimunud kahepäevasel Vasa orienteerumisfestivalil, Chongqingi lähistel toimunud Hiina meistrivõistlustel orienteerumissprindis ja Wanshengis toimunud lühiraja Hiina meistrivõistlustel ning Bekingi botaanikaaias toimunud keskkooli ja ülikooli meistrivõistlustel

  6. 75 FR 20885 - National Park Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... hope at the Statue of Liberty to the harrowing Battle of Gettysburg and the quest for freedom on the... Part II The President Proclamation 8498--National Park Week, 2010 Proclamation 8499--National... / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President [[Page 20887

  7. On park design : looking beyond the wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oneka, M.

    1996-01-01


    The present book opens with an account of a buffalo hunt in the company of soldiers in one of the national parks in Uganda. One buffalo was hit close to the heart but fled away as if it was not fatally wounded. The soldiers seeing it flee, fired more rounds of ammunition at it until, with

  8. Reducing Rockfall Risk in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Greg M.; Collins, Brian D.

    2014-07-01

    Yosemite National Park preserves some of the world's most spectacular geological scenery, including icons such as Half Dome and El Capitan. The glacially sculpted granite walls of Yosemite Valley attract 4 million visitors a year, but rockfalls from these cliffs pose substantial hazards (Figure 1).

  9. Adoption of wireless internet parks: An empirical study in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Weerakkody, V

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the adoption of free wireless internet parks (iPark) by Qatari citizens as means of accessing electronic services from public parks. The Qatar government has launched the iPark concept with a view of providing free internet access for all citizens while enjoying the outdoors. By offering free wireless Internet access, the Qatari government encourages its citizen's to actively participate in the global information society with a view of bridging the digital divide. Using a ...

  10. PALESTINE AUTOMOTIVE LICENSE IDENTITY RECOGNITION FOR INTELLIGENT PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    ANEES ABU SNEINEH; WAEL A. SALAH

    2017-01-01

    Providing employees with protection and security is one of the key concerns of any organization. This goal can be implemented mainly by managing and protecting employees’ cars in the parking area. Therefore, a parking area must be managed and organized with smart technologies and tools that can be applied and integrated in an intelligent parking system. This paper presents the tools based on image recognition technology that can be used to effectively control various parts of a parking sys...

  11. Elgon/Kibale National Parks carbon sequestration projects

    OpenAIRE

    Face Foundation

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record In Uganda we are collaborating with the Uganda Wildlife Authority (UWA), one of whose tasks is to manage the country's national parks. We are jointly implementing forest restoration projects in Mount Elgon National Park and Kibale National Park. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  12. Relevance of Industrial and Science Parks to Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we reviewed the impact of Industrial and Science Parks on industrial ... and stimulate the development of small and medium size enterprises as a base for ... In order to achieve these, emphasis should be on establishing Industrial and ... transfer, industrial park, Science Park, industrial development, innovation, ...

  13. SmartPark Technology Demonstration Project, Phase II: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of FMCSA's SmartPark project was to determine the feasibility of a technology for providing truck parking space availability information in real time to truckers on the road. SmartPark consisted of two phases. Phase I was a field operatio...

  14. Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and simulation of 120 capacity automobile parking control system using up/down decade counters. ... leave(s) the parking lot through the exit gate the counter counts down, and the DC motor circuitry drives the entry gate open to allow access for the same number of automobiles that leave(s) the parking lot.

  15. 36 CFR 910.33 - Off-street parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for parking spaces is as follows: (1) Hotel: One parking space for each four sleeping rooms or suites; (2) Places of public assemblage other than hotels: (i.e., arena, armory, theater, auditorium...; (3) Retail, trade, and service establishments: one parking space for each 750 square feet of gross...

  16. THE PROBLEM OF INTERCEPTING PARKING SYSTEMS DESIGN IN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hetsovych

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Consistent determination of the main problems concerning the system of intercepting parking – lot design with the purpose of transport systems improvement downtown is grounded. The given approach allows to fully satisfy the demand for parking-lots of urban transport systems in combination with the system of downtown parkings and the capacity of the highway network.

  17. Tourism package preferences of West Virginia state park visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gravley; John Dengler; Roy Ramthun; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the activity and spending behavior of visitors to Pipestem State Park in West Virginia. This state park is being used as a case study area to determine whether a new fish stocking program accompanied by appropriate marketing activities can increase park visitation by anglers and other sports-oriented people. The research was...

  18. 36 CFR 7.14 - Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... possession of any form of fish bait other than artificial flies or lures on any park stream while in... nonresident license issued by either State may fish throughout the park irrespective of State boundaries... the park boundary are open to fishing in accordance with the Cherokee Fish and Game Management...

  19. Air quality effects of urban trees and parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak; Gordon Heisler

    2010-01-01

    Parks are significant parts of the urban landscape and comprise about 6% of city and town areas in the conterminous United States. These urban parks are estimated to contain about 370 million trees with a structural value of approximately $300 billion. The number of park trees varies by region of the country, but they can produce significant air quality effects in and...

  20. Recreational user attitudes towards management strategies of Allegany State Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Nisengard; Miklos Gratzer

    1998-01-01

    This project examines attitudes towards management strategies of four Allegany State Park recreational user groups: cabin users, recreational vehicle users, tent users, and day users. It investigates recreational user group attitude differences, and attitude change over a ten year time period, in regard to the following park management strategy categories: park...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    for Solar Power Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

  2. 40 CFR 52.1135 - Regulation for parking freeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. (3) The phrase commercial parking space means a space used for parking a vehicle in a commercial..., garage, building or structure, or combination or portion thereof, on or in which motor vehicles are..., the total quantity of commercial parking spaces available for use at the same amounts as were...

  3. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... fleet. Also, the location of the current maintenance shop impedes traffic flow and removes potential... new Sunrise Vehicle Maintenance Shop on the north side of the Sunrise parking lot. DATES: Comments... increasing parking capacity and improving traffic flow in at Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort. Parking capacity...

  4. 36 CFR 1280.12 - Is parking available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Market Street (in Philadelphia) and the National Archives at New York City do not have onsite parking... Section 1280.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA... on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.12 Is parking available? (a) The National Archives Building. There is...

  5. 36 CFR 7.33 - Voyageurs National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.33 Voyageurs National Park. (a) Fishing. Unless otherwise... intersection with the Black Bay to Moose Bay portage, across Locator, War Club, Quill, Loiten, and Shoepack... management, weather, and park management objectives. (4) Maps showing the designated routes are available at...

  6. Water quality and quantity of selected springs and seeps along the Colorado River corridor, Utah and Arizona: Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Spence, John R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Berghoff, Kevin; Plowman, Terry I.; Peart, Dale B.; Roth, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted an intensive assessment of selected springs along the Colorado River Corridor in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park in 1997 and 1998, for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the water quality and quantity of the resource. This study was conducted to establish baseline data for the future evaluation of possible effects from recreational use and climate change. Selected springs and seeps were visited over a study period from 1997 to 1998, during which, discharge and on-site chemical measurements were made at selected springs and seeps, and samples were collected for subsequent chemical laboratory analysis. This interdisciplinary study also includes simultaneous studies of flora and fauna, measured and sampled coincidently at the same sites. Samples collected during this study were transported to U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where analyses were performed using state-of-the-art laboratory technology. The location of the selected springs and seeps, elevation, geology, aspect, and onsite measurements including temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance, were recorded. Laboratory analyses include determinations for alkalinity, aluminum, ammonium (nitrogen), antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromide, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, holmium, iodine, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nitrate (nitrogen), nitrite (nitrogen), phosphate, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, rhenium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, silica, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfate, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, tungsten

  7. Correspondence of perceived vs. objective proximity to parks and their relationship to park-based physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczynski Andrew T

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parks are key environmental resources for encouraging population-level physical activity (PA. In measuring availability of parks, studies have employed both self-reported and objective indicators of proximity, with little correspondence observed between these two types of measures. However, little research has examined how the degree of correspondence between self-reported and objectively-measured distance to parks is influenced by individual, neighborhood, and park-related variables, or which type of measure is more strongly related to physical activity outcomes. Methods We used data from 574 respondents who reported the distance to their closest park and compared this with objective measurements of proximity to the closest park. Both indicators were dichotomized as having or not having a park within 750 m. Audits of all park features within this distance were also conducted and other personal characteristics and neighborhood context variables (safety, connectedness, aesthetics were gleaned from participants' survey responses. Participants also completed detailed seven-day PA log booklets from which measures of neighborhood-based and park-based PA were derived. Results Agreement was poor in that only 18% of respondents achieved a match between perceived and objective proximity to the closest park (kappa = 0.01. Agreement was higher among certain subgroups, especially those who reported engaging in at least some park-based PA. As well, respondents with a greater number of parks nearby, whose closest park had more features, and whose closest park contained a playground or wooded area were more likely to achieve a match. Having a ball diamond or soccer field in the closest park was negatively related to achieving a match between perceived and objective proximity. Finally, engaging in at least some park-based PA was not related to either perceived or objective proximity to a park, but was more likely when a match between and

  8. Metal assessment in urban park soils in Sao Paulo 1. Ibirapuera Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Pavese, Arthur C.; Gumiero, Felipe C.; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Sigolo, Joel B.

    2007-01-01

    In the last years urban soils received increasing attention by scientists, leading to studies focused on their description and investigation all over the world, due to the increasing metal pollution derived from incinerators, industrial waste, atmospheric deposition of dust and aerosols, and other activities. Metal contamination in Sao Paulo public parks is an important environmental question and there is little information on this subject. As part of a project which aims metal assessment in urban park soils from Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm) from Ibirapuera park of Sao Paulo. Ibirapuera park is one of the biggest and most visited parks of the city of Sao Paulo, receiving during the weekends more than 400,000 visitors. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) were used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed concentration levels of the analyzed elements higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). For As, Ba, Cr and Sb, in some samples the concentrations were even higher than the Prevention values reported by CETESB. The high concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn in the Ibirapuera park top soils suggest an anthropogenic source and indicate a potential damage to soil quality. (author)

  9. How and why is aquatic quality changing at Nahanni National Park Reserve, NWT, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Douglas R; Catto, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Nahanni National Park Reserve is located at southwestern NWT-Yukon border. One of the first UNESCO World Heritage sites, Nahanni lies within Taiga Cordillera and Taiga Shield Ecozones. Base and precious metal mining occurred upstream of Nahanni prior to park establishment. Nahanni waters, sediments, fish, and caribou have naturally elevated metals levels. Baseline water, sediment and fish tissue quality data were collected and analyzed throughout Nahanni during 1988-91 and 1992-97. These two programs characterized how aquatic quality variables are naturally varying in space and time, affected by geology, stream flow, seasonality, and extreme meteorological and geological events. Possible anthropogenic causes of aquatic quality change were examined. Measured values were compared to existing Guidelines and site-specific objectives were established.

  10. The utility of state parks as a conservation tool for isolated and ephemeral wetlands: A case study from the southern Blue Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. H.; Baldwin, R.; Pitt, A. L.; Baldwin, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    were deeper on average than park pools. We found significant differences in total taxonomic richness, invertebrate tolerance values and wetland depth between park and non-park wetlands. We relied heavily on local ecological knowledge (LEK) for identification and information on wetlands within parks. Furthermore, state parks played a vital role in the development of this project and our study was enriched as a result of utilizing state park personnel and their LEK. We were also able to interact with the public during our site visits and this two-way dialogue between scientists and the general public was useful for educating citizens about the importance of isolated/ephemeral wetlands and helped us better understand public perceptions of wetlands. State parks provided a number of study sites, various personnel who were knowledgeable about the locations and dynamics of wetlands and an a priori framework for conservation at the local scale which can help bolster conservation efforts at larger scales. We posit that state parks are an under-utilized but extremely important resource for filling the gaps in conservation.

  11. 36 CFR 3.9 - May I operate my personal watercraft (PWC) in park waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... watercraft (PWC) in park waters? 3.9 Section 3.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE...) in park waters? (a) A person may operate a PWC only in park areas where authorized by special... on park waters is subject to the following conditions: (1) No person may operate a PWC unless each...

  12. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades K-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  13. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 2-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  14. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  15. Widespread occurrence and potential for biodegradation of bioactive contaminants in Congaree National Park, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M; Battaglin, William A; Clark, Jimmy M; Henning, Frank P; Hladik, Michelle L; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Journey, Celeste A; Riley, Jeffrey W; Romanok, Kristin M

    2017-11-01

    Organic contaminants with designed molecular bioactivity, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals, originate from human and agricultural sources, occur frequently in surface waters, and threaten the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Congaree National Park in South Carolina (USA) is a vulnerable park unit due to its location downstream of multiple urban and agricultural contaminant sources and its hydrologic setting, being composed almost entirely of floodplain and aquatic environments. Seventy-two water and sediment samples were collected from 16 sites in Congaree National Park during 2013 to 2015, and analyzed for 199 and 81 targeted organic contaminants, respectively. More than half of these water and sediment analytes were not detected or potentially had natural sources. Pharmaceutical contaminants were detected (49 total) frequently in water throughout Congaree National Park, with higher detection frequencies and concentrations at Congaree and Wateree River sites, downstream from major urban areas. Forty-seven organic wastewater indicator chemicals were detected in water, and 36 were detected in sediment, of which approximately half are distinctly anthropogenic. Endogenous sterols and hormones, which may originate from humans or wildlife, were detected in water and sediment samples throughout Congaree National Park, but synthetic hormones were detected only once, suggesting a comparatively low risk of adverse impacts. Assessment of the biodegradation potentials of 8 14 C-radiolabeled model contaminants indicated poor potentials for some contaminants, particularly under anaerobic sediments conditions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3045-3056. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; Enrique Medianero, Alicia Ibáñez

    2008-01-01

    Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long) more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, represent...

  17. Welcome to the Manhattan Project National Historical Park!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The making of the Manhattan Project National Historical Park took more than five times longer than the Manhattan Project itself. The first efforts to preserve some of the Manhattan Project properties at Los Alamos began in 1999. Fifteen years later, Congress enacted legislation to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park in late 2014. This session will recount the how the park came into being and what to expect when you visit the park at Los Alamos, NM, Oak Ridge, TN, and Hanford, WA. Welcome to the Manhattan Project National Historical Park!

  18. Using Cellular Automata for Parking Recommendations in Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Gwo-Jiun

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose an innovative adaptive recommendation mechanism for smart parking. The cognitive RF module will transmit the vehicle location information and the parking space requirements to the parking congestion computing center (PCCC) when the driver must find a parking space. Moreover, for the parking spaces, we use a cellular automata (CA) model mechanism that can adjust to full and not full parking lot situations. Here, the PCCC can compute the nearest parking lot, the parking lot status and the current or opposite driving direction with the vehicle location information. By considering the driving direction, we can determine when the vehicles must turn around and thus reduce road congestion and speed up finding a parking space. The recommendation will be sent to the drivers through a wireless communication cognitive radio (CR) model after the computation and analysis by the PCCC. The current study evaluates the performance of this approach by conducting computer simulations. The simulation results show the strengths of the proposed smart parking mechanism in terms of avoiding increased congestion and decreasing the time to find a parking space. PMID:25153671

  19. Generalizing ecological site concepts of the Colorado Plateau for landscape-level applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Colorado Plateau is an iconic landscape of the American West— containing dozens of national parks, monuments, historic sites, and several UNESCO World Heritage Sites— including some of the Nation’ s most recognizable landmarks, such as the Grand Canyon and the Arches National Park. The concentra...

  20. 78 FR 78380 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Bowie, AZ....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Fort... completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native...

  1. 78 FR 78378 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Grant... Historic Site has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian...

  2. Remote sensing techniques and geographic information systems for wetland conservation and management: monitoring scrub encroachment in Biebrza National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.M.; Piórkowski, H.; Bartoszuk, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Biebrza National Park in Poland is one of the most precious wetland areas in Europe. It was established in 1993 and designated Ramsar site in 1995. Despite its protection status, the open wetland landscape is currently being threatened by the encroachment of shrubs and trees, assumed to have a

  3. Evaluating multiple dimensions of visitors' tradeoffs between access and crowding at Arches National Park using indifference curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Lawson; Robert E. Manning

    2001-01-01

    Tradeoffs are an inherent part of many of the decisions faced by outdoor recreation managers. For example, decisions concerning the social carrying capacity of popular attraction sites involve tradeoffs between limiting visitor use to ensure a high quality experience and allowing high levels of visitor use to ensure that large numbers of visitors retain access to park...

  4. PALESTINE AUTOMOTIVE LICENSE IDENTITY RECOGNITION FOR INTELLIGENT PARKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANEES ABU SNEINEH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing employees with protection and security is one of the key concerns of any organization. This goal can be implemented mainly by managing and protecting employees’ cars in the parking area. Therefore, a parking area must be managed and organized with smart technologies and tools that can be applied and integrated in an intelligent parking system. This paper presents the tools based on image recognition technology that can be used to effectively control various parts of a parking system. An intelligent automotive parking system is effectively implemented by integrating image processing technologies and an Arduino controller. Results show that intelligent parking is successfully implemented based on car ID image capture to meet the need for managing and organizing car parking systems.

  5. Perception Environmental Awareness and Green Areas: The Case Botanical Garden City Park in Sinop / MT, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovia Cecilia Rauber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the environmental perception of a group of residents of two neighborhoods surrounding the Botanical Garden City Park in Sinop-MT, revealing their relationship with the area as well as their involvement in proposing alternatives for the conservation of the Park. With this aim a study on the Botanical Garden Municipal Park was carried out, using the following procedures: documentary research in public agencies; site visits for description of the area and semi-structured interviews with a group of residents of two neighborhoods in the vicinity, Celeste Garden and the Botanical Garden. The presence of fauna, flora and springs that form Ribeirão Nilza within the park indicates the need for its conservation, and the residents consider the area important for the local micro weather, tourism, biodiversity conservation and also to develop researches, contributing significantly to the population's quality of life. Taking into account the above considerations, it is important to consider a new scenario, which aims to mobilize social participation, propitiating the people the feeling of belonging to what they conceive as the environment, giving rise to a participatory management by means of Environmental Education.

  6. Toxocara Spp. Eggs in Public Parks of Urmia City, West Azer¬baijan Province Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Charesaz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The visceral larva migrans (VLM is a syndrome observed in human infection with helminth larval eggs such as the Toxocara spp. that usually infects dogs and cats. Among the risk factors involved in the occurrence of VLM, partic­ularly importance of these animal populations, an investigation was carried out for the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks in the city of Urmia, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran."nMethods: Samples were collected from total 26 existing public parks in Urmia from December 2003 to March 2004. Soil samples were collected from 3-4 distinct sites in the same area. The floating material was analyzed under the light micro­scope."nResults: Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 8 samples of total 102 taken samples from 26 public parks showed a contami­nation rate of 7.8%. The number of observed Toxacara eggs in each microscopic field was varied from 1-8."nConclusion: Low rate of contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in Urmia parks might be due to lower dog population and cultural differences of present study in this city in comparison of other cities of the world.

  7. Birds of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGI STOYANOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The work is based mainly on personal field studies of the authors during different periods of time from the beginning of the 1980s until present. As a result, the Park's species list is extended to 208 bird species, 131 of them nesting in the mountain. We report 23 species for the first time for the Park's area. Analyses of proportion of species distribution among 13 habitat types revealed several patterns: 1 forest habitats held more species than expected; 2 number of species that nested in 1, 2 or 3 habitats was higher than expected; 3 proportion of species, that nested in 1, 2 or 3 habitats was higher in rock habitats, mountain pastures and running waters, and lower in broadleaf plantations.

  8. Non destructive testing in amusement park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Marrero, Humberto; Hernandez Torres, Debora; Sendoya Puente, Felix; Herrera Palma, Victoria; Suarez Guerra, Yarelis; Moreno Hernandez, Eduardo; Lopez Hernandez, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 began the installation of Chinese amusement parks at several places in Havana City. Structural security is one of the principal tasks that should be done, since the beginning of the services of these installations. The use on Non Destructive Testing Techniques (NDT), has to be development and implemented in order to avoid the possibility of failure during services with a consequence threat to safety for the public presented. In this work it is shown the results of application of NDT techniques and recommendations for the quality control of the different welds and mechanical components presented. Techniques as Visual Examination, Liquid Penetrant and Ultrasonic have been used for these purposes in order to obtain a structural diagnostic in the amusement parks. There are also exposed the use and implementation of international recommendations and Standards, which are very rigorous in its applications for the case of recreation industry. This is a consequence to its social service fundamentally to children and teenage people. (Author)

  9. Livermore Big Trees Park Soil Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConachie, W.A.; Failor, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will sample and analyze soil in the Big Trees Park area in Livermore, California, to determine if the initial level of plutonium (Pu) in a soil sample taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in September 1993 can be confirmed. Nineteen samples will be collected and analyzed: 4 in the area where the initial EPA sample was taken, 2 in the nearby Arroyo Seco, 12 in scattered uncovered soil areas in the park and nearby school, and 1 from the sandbox of a nearby apartment complex. Two quality control (QC) samples (field duplicates of the preceding samples) win also be collected and analyzed. This document briefly describes the purpose behind the sampling, the sampling rationale, and the methodology

  10. Sprucing up the site - update

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As mentioned in a previous article the Bulletin will be publishing regular short updates following the consolidation work going on around the CERN sites: All internal lighting is being replaced in the office buildings on the Prevessin site. Work has started in building 866 and will move to 864 and 865 later. New energy-efficient lights are being installed, which will reduce electricity consumption by 30 -50%, and in the common areas like corridors the lighting will be switched on by motion sensors. Also in the Prevessin site, the lines in the car parks are being repainted. This will continue in the Meyrin site later. Work has started in Building 30 to completely refurbish the AT Auditorium.

  11. Mall di Central Park Kuala Namu

    OpenAIRE

    Mauliza, Eny

    2016-01-01

    This shopping center is designed in the business district of Kuala Namu Central Park, where there is a hotel and an office in it. This shopping center was built in the area Kualanamu Aerotropolis plan, and the theme is recreation. Application of recreational theme in this shopping center in order to create a special attraction for tourists and people passing through the area this shopping center, causing a desire to visit. The increase in tourists coming to North Sumatra, the ...

  12. The Value of Urban Parks in Lodz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olbińska Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An awareness of the role of public space is growing among the inhabitants of cities. This space is an integral part of our daily lives. It consists of places outside the home where we spend free time, i.e. the streets we walk on, the squares and greeneries where we meet, as well as playgrounds, parks and green areas where we rest and do sports. The quality of such space affects many aspects of human life.

  13. Trampoline Park and Home Trampoline Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmire, Kathryn E; Rogers, Steven C; Sturm, Jesse J

    2016-09-01

    Trampoline parks, indoor recreational facilities with wall-to-wall trampolines, are increasing in number and popularity. The objective was to identify trends in emergency department visits for trampoline park injuries (TPIs) and compare TPI characteristics with home trampoline injuries (HTIs). Data on trampoline injuries from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 2010 to 2014 were analyzed. Sample weights were applied to estimate yearly national injury trends; unweighted cases were used for comparison of injury patterns. Estimated US emergency department visits for TPI increased significantly, from 581 in 2010 to 6932 in 2014 (P = .045), whereas HTIs did not increase (P = .13). Patients with TPI (n = 330) were older than patients with HTI (n = 7933) (mean 13.3 vs 9.5 years, respectively, P trampoline parks and homes. Compared with HTIs, TPIs were less likely to involve head injury (odds ratio [OR] 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.89), more likely to involve lower extremity injury (OR 2.39; 95% CI, 1.91-2.98), more likely to be a dislocation (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.10-4.09), and more likely to warrant admission (OR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.61). TPIs necessitating hospital admission included open fractures and spinal cord injuries. TPI mechanisms included falls, contact with other jumpers, and flips. TPI patterns differed significantly from HTIs. TPIs are an emerging concern; additional investigation and strategies are needed to prevent injury at trampoline parks. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Motor-park people shift gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoli, C

    1992-01-01

    White, U.S. homosexual males were primarily affected in the early stages of the AIDS pandemic. Some Western researchers argued, however, that the syndrome originated in Africa. Strong political and social response to this notion resulted in only an anemic response to the growing AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. Nonetheless, the Stop AIDS Organization finally launched the Motor Park AIDS Education Program (MPAEP) in 1988, for health and education outreach to populations at risk of STDs and HIV infection. Specifically targeted are long-distance truck drivers, their young male assistants known as motor boys, and the barmaids, prostitutes, and homeless juveniles who frequent motor parks where these drivers rest while on the road. Many of these long-haul drivers have unprotected casual and commercial sex, both homosexual and heterosexual, take drugs, and suffer high rates of STDs. Marginalized, 75% illiterate, and speaking a variety of languages, these populations tend to be largely ignorant of the incurable nature of AIDS. Over 45% of motor park populations are estimated to be infected with an STD, or to have a future re-infection. These drivers are optimal vectors for the spread of HIV both internationally and within Nigeria. MPAEP workers work 6 days/week in the larger interstate motor parks to reach out to their predominantly male customers. They meet a host of primary health needs, and refer STD clients for testing and treatment. Drug use and homosexuality are 2 topics of discussion especially taboo in African society which have nonetheless been vigorously researched by MPAEP. Many drivers are unacknowledged bisexuals who have sex with their motor boys. Workers therefore explain the need to use condoms in same-sex activity without specifically mentioning homosexuality. Many Nigerians deny the existence of HIV and AIDS, are reluctant to speak about sex, and consider MPAEP workers to be intruders. Despite opposition in Muslim- dominated Northern Nigeria, however, program

  15. The trout fishery in Shenandoah National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    Populations of brook trout in streams of Shenandoah National Park were reduced drastically early in the past decade by a succession of unusually severe droughts and floods. The drying of stream beds, predation, and scouring were principal factors in the loss of fish. The park was closed to fishing in 1954 and 1955 to protect survivors. The small numbers of survivors quickly repopulated the streams after drought conditions abated. The stocking of hatchery-reared fingerling trout in selected waters failed to augment the recovery of populations. Survival and growth of young, wild trout were especially good. Their redistribution through miles of previously dry streams was rapid. The park was opened again to fishing in 1956 under regulations which restrict the take but afford an increase in sporting opportunity. Two streams were placed under fishing-for-fun-only regulations in 1961.The welfare of the trout populations is dependent mostly on the weather cycle . Fish may be abundant in wet years but very scarc e in dry ones. Thus, the stream must be managed a s marginal for trout.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar PV at the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of solar renewable energy generation at the Atlas Industrial Park. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV configurations. In addition, the study evaluates financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. A Walk in the Park: The Influence of Urban Parks and Community Violence on Physical Activity in Chelsea, MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y. Ou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximity to a park does not necessarily imply access or use, and the social environment may positively or negatively influence the positive intentions of the built environment. To investigate parks, park use and physical activity, and their associations with exposure to community violence, we interviewed residents (n = 354 of a densely populated urban community. Our findings indicate that proximity to any park is not associated with physical activity. However, proximity to the preferred park reported by residents to be conducive for physical activity (with walking paths, large fields, playgrounds for children and tennis courts was associated with physical activity. Conversely, knowledge of sexual assault or rape in the neighborhood is inversely associated with every type of physical activity (park-based, outdoor, and indoor. Our findings suggest that improvements to the built environment (parks, green spaces may be hindered by adverse social environments and both are necessary for consideration in the design of public health interventions.

  18. Redesign of Denggung Park as Sleman Urban Park based on Local Wisdom in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, I.; Fatimah, IS

    2017-10-01

    Sleman Regency is one of the administrative area in Special Region of Yogyakarta Province which has increased the pace of infrastructure development activities that undertaken by the central government affects another surrounding area. The pace of infrastructure development impacts such problems in Sleman Regency such as, increasingly limited public spaces and changes in understanding the value of local wisdom. Sleman Regency has a park located in central government which is Denggung Park. This park has low visitors and less of aesthetic value which require re-design to improve the quality as public space for cultural identity space. The base concept of Urban Park adopted the philosophy that connects to four components in Javanese mythology. The four components in Javanese mythology symbolize the journey of human life in the Javanese cosmological theory, there are Mount Merapi, Keraton, Krapyak Stage, and South seas. The design concept inspired from pattern of Yogyakarta traditional clothing namely, Batik Kawung which describe of Philosophy “Four of Brotherhood and Five of Central itself” by means synergize four items creating world nature and human as life catalyzer. This study uses descriptive and spatial analysis method. The result of this research is expected to be a design recommendation for Sleman Regency governance in the urban park development.

  19. Mercury in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Brandon M.; Willacker, James J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) concentrations were examined in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, the largest and one of the most remote units in the national park system. The goals of the study were to (1) examine the distribution of Hg in select lakes of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve; (2) evaluate the differences in Hg concentrations among fish species and with fish age and size; and (3) assess the potential ecological risks of Hg to park fishes, wildlife, and human consumers by comparing Hg concentrations to a series of risk benchmarks. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 616.4 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww), with a mean (± standard error) of 180.0 ±17.9 across the 83 individuals sampled. Without accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations varied by a factor of 10.9 across sites and species. After accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations were even more variable, differing by a factor of as much as 13.2 within a single species sampled from two lakes. Such inter-site variation suggests that site characteristics play an important role in determining fish Hg concentrations and that more intensive sampling may be necessary to adequately characterize Hg contamination in the park. Size-normalized Hg concentrations also differed among three species sampled from Tanada Lake, and Hg concentrations were strongly correlated with age. Furthermore, potential risks to park fish, wildlife, and human users were variable across lakes and species. Although no fish from two of the lakes studied (Grizzly Lake and Summit Lake) had Hg concentrations exceeding any of the benchmarks used, concentrations in Copper Lake and Tanada Lake exceeded conservative benchmarks for bird (90 ng/g ww in whole-body) and human (150 ng/g ww in muscle) consumption. In Tanada Lake, concentrations in most fishes also exceeded benchmarks for risk to moderate- and low-sensitivity avian consumers (180 and 270 ng/g ww in

  20. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot S Bass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves--called "ITT"--lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I-IV: Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha and landscape (gamma diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1 large size and wilderness character, 2 intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3 IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4 likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in

  1. IoT-Based Car's Parking Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiputra Albertus Ega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet-of-things-based technologies have advanced so much and helped public necessities. The use of IoT at a parking lot will help vehicle users to know the availability of a parking location through smartphones. This IoT-based parking system is created by using controllers, sensors, servers and cloud. Controllers and sensors will be placed on the ceiling of each parking slots to detect the presence of a car. Server collect the results of the sensors and store them in Cloud. System test is conducted by installing three sensor circuits and server in a parking lot. The tests consist of measuring time that required for data transmission and the rate of success of data transmission from the parking lot to the Cloud. Based on above tests, it is observed that the sensor circuit and Radio Frequency Identification are able to transmit the parking lot data without error. This system require maximum 1 min to update parking lot data. The process of obtaining data until the data being stored in Cloud takes 12 s and the process of acquiring parking condition data from Cloud to smartphone takes 30 s. The accuracy level of parking lot data transfer is 100 %.

  2. Geology of Joshua Tree National Park geodatabase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cossette, Pamela M.

    2015-09-16

    The database in this Open-File Report describes the geology of Joshua Tree National Park and was completed in support of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and in cooperation with the National Park Service (NPS). The geologic observations and interpretations represented in the database are relevant to both the ongoing scientific interests of the USGS in southern California and the management requirements of NPS, specifically of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR).Joshua Tree National Park is situated within the eastern part of California’s Transverse Ranges province and straddles the transition between the Mojave and Sonoran deserts. The geologically diverse terrain that underlies JOTR reveals a rich and varied geologic evolution, one that spans nearly two billion years of Earth history. The Park’s landscape is the current expression of this evolution, its varied landforms reflecting the differing origins of underlying rock types and their differing responses to subsequent geologic events. Crystalline basement in the Park consists of Proterozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks intruded by a composite Mesozoic batholith of Triassic through Late Cretaceous plutons arrayed in northwest-trending lithodemic belts. The basement was exhumed during the Cenozoic and underwent differential deep weathering beneath a low-relief erosion surface, with the deepest weathering profiles forming on quartz-rich, biotite-bearing granitoid rocks. Disruption of the basement terrain by faults of the San Andreas system began ca. 20 Ma and the JOTR sinistral domain, preceded by basalt eruptions, began perhaps as early as ca. 7 Ma, but no later than 5 Ma. Uplift of the mountain blocks during this interval led to erosional stripping of the thick zones of weathered quartz-rich granitoid rocks to form etchplains dotted by bouldery tors—the iconic landscape of the Park. The stripped debris filled basins along the fault zones.Mountain ranges

  3. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  4. Wind park of the Hannover-Braunschweigische Stromversorgungs-Aktiengesellschaft (HASTRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahnefeld; Fenske.

    1993-01-01

    In order to achieve the share of wind power in public electric power supply prognosticated for the year 2005 by the Enquete Commission it is necessary that favourable sites are utilized optimally with plants of medium size. The wind park of HASTRA serves as a reference plant. In the scope of this contribution the following subjects regarding this plant are mentioned: site and plant selection, licensing procedure, investments and profitability, energy economic aspects of wind power as well as operating experience and public acceptance. (BWI) [de

  5. Radiological survey results at Porter Street City Park, Beverly, Massachusetts (VB026)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Johnson, C.A.

    1992-08-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a radiological survey at the Porter Street City Park, Beverly, Massachusetts. The survey was performed in May 1991. The purpose of the survey was to determine if uranium from work performed under government contract at the former Ventron facility had migrated off-site to neighboring areas. The survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analyses. Results of the survey demonstrated no radionuclide concentrations or radiation measurements in excess of the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program guidelines

  6. Metal concentration in urban park soils of Sao Paulo 2. Buenos AiresPark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumiero, Felipe C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Pavese, Arthur; Sigolo, Joel B.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a project which aims metal concentration assessment in urban park soils of Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Buenos Aires park of Sao Paulo. This park is located in central region of the city, and is surrounded by avenues and streets, with different traffic volumes. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) were used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed concentration levels of the analyzed elements higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). These results suggest that these elements have anthropogenic origin and indicate a potential risk for soil quality. (author)

  7. The Open Space Sculptures Used in the Gençlik Park towards Visual Perception of Park Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Polat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks are the most important areas that allow recreational activities in our towns. Increasing the visual quality of urban parks provides positive impacts on urban quality. Besides the artistic and technical features of open space sculptures which are used for urban park designs are the visual perceptions and preferences of park users are also important. In the context of this study, six sculptures in Gençlik Park which is in the boundaries Ankara have been considered. The aim of the study, to measure the visual quality of the sculptures in the urban parks through park users and to reveal the relationship between visual landscape indicators (of being interesting, coherence, complexity, meaningfulness, and mystery and the visual quality. For this purpose, the six pieces in Ankara Youth Park of sculpture were evaluated the scope of research. According to the results of the study; it was realized that park users like sculptures visually. A statistically significant relationship was found between the visual quality of the sculptures and some landscape indicators (to be interesting, mystery and harmony. In addition to these, some suggestions were made regarding the use of sculptures in urban parks.

  8. An investigation of sulfur concentrations in soils and pine needles in Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Jones, E.A.; Bell, M.G.; Morgan, J.D.; Nelson, L.A.; Lundstrom, C.; Bowker, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    Sulfur measurements in different age groups of pinon pine needles and adjacent soil samples from ten sampling sites at Canyonlands National Park were determined using combustion elemental analysis and chromatographic techniques. The primary goal was to establish base-line levels for elemental sulfur in the Park. Sulfur levels in foliage and soils were evaluated using analysis of variance techniques. No significant differences were found in foliage sulfur concentrations among the 10 sampling sites; however, trees within sites were significantly different. Needles of different ages did not differ significantly in sulfur content. Average soil concentrations were very low, approximately 4% of the average needle concentrations. Soil sulfur concentrations also differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and at different depths in the soil. No statistical differences were evident in soils sampled at the four compass points (N,S,E,W) around each tree. These differences imply that large numbers of samples are needed to identify small effects from anthropogenic inputs of sulfur into the system, or that the effects must be large relative to the differences among sampling sites and individual trees in order to be detected

  9. Tree diversity in the tropical dry forest of Bannerghatta National Park in Eastern Ghats, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna S. Puttakame

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree species inventories, particularly of poorly known dry deciduous forests, are needed to protect and restore forests in degraded landscapes. A study of forest stand structure, and species diversity and density of trees with girth at breast height (GBH ≥10 cm was conducted in four management zones of Bannerghatta National Park (BNP in the Eastern Ghats of Southern India. We identified 128 tree species belonging to 45 families in 7.9 hectares. However, 44 species were represented by ≤ 2 individuals. Mean diversity values per site for the dry forest of BNP were: tree composition (23.8 ±7.6, plant density (100.69 ± 40.02, species diversity (2.56 ± 0.44 and species richness (10.48 ± 4.05. Tree diversity was not significantly different (P>0.05 across the four management zones in the park. However, the number of tree species identified significantly (P<0.05 increased with increasing number of sampling sites, but majority of the species were captured. Similarly, there were significant variations (p<0.05 between tree diameter class distributions. Juveniles accounted for 87% of the tree population. The structure of the forest was not homogeneous, with sections ranging from poorly structured to highly stratified configurations. The study suggests that there was moderate tree diversity in the tropical dry thorn forest of Bannerghatta National Park, but the forest was relatively young.

  10. Organic contamination of ground water at Gas Works Park, Seattle, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, G.L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located on the site of a coal and oil gasification plant that ceased operation in 1956. During operation, many types of wastes, including coal, tar, and oil, accumulated on-site. The park soil is currently (1986) contaminated with compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and cyanide. Analyses of water samples from a network of observation wells in the park indicate that these compounds are also present in the ground water. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were identified in ground water samples in concentrations as large as 200 mg/L. Concentrations of organic compounds were largest where ground water was in contact with a non-aqueous phase liquid in the soil. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid was present, concentrations were much smaller, even if the ground water was in contact with contaminated soils. This condition is attributed to weathering processes in which soluble, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are preferentially dissolved from the non-aqueous phase liquid into the ground water. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid is present, only stained soils containing relatively insoluble, high-molecular-weight compounds remain. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the soils may still remain large

  11. Exploring the Mode Change Behavior of Park-and-Ride Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahi Taphsir Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mode change behavior of park-and-ride (P&R users, which is of considerable significance to analyze the effectiveness of P&R site on the commuters’ travel mode change as well as the increase of public transport mode share. Data from an intercept interview survey conducted at different P&R facilities in Metropolitan Melbourne is used. A questionnaire containing revealed preference (RP and stated preference (SP questions is used to interview the individuals who park at the facility and catch public transport to go to city. This study firstly aims to know the factors affecting current travel behavior using RP data and secondly to investigate the importance of the factors on influencing the commuters’ decision of travel mode choice using the SP data. The empirical models using multinomial logistic regression reveal that travel time taken by transit vehicle and transfer time at P&R stations are the primary factors affecting individuals’ decision on choosing public transport whereas parking fare is the additional factor affecting commuters’ choice of driving. Based on the results of this study, the effectiveness of P&R scheme on commuters’ travel mode change is evaluated which would be helpful to shed lights on the future construction of P&R sites.

  12. Organic contamination of ground water at Gas Works Park, Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, G.L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Gas Works Park, in Seattle, Washington, is located on the site of a coal and oil gasification plant that ceased operation in 1956. During operation, many types of wastes, including coal, tar, and oil, accumulated on-site. The park soil is currently (1986) contaminated with compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and cyanide. Analyses of water samples from a network of observation wells in the park indicate that these compounds are also present in the ground water. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds were identified in ground water samples in concentrations as large as 200 mg/L. Concentrations of organic compounds were largest where ground water was in contact with a non-aqueous phase liquid in the soil. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid was present, concentrations were much smaller, even if the ground water was in contact with contaminated soils. This condition is attributed to weathering processes in which soluble, low-molecular-weight organic compounds are preferentially dissolved from the non-aqueous phase liquid into the ground water. Where no non-aqueous phase liquid is present, only stained soils containing relatively insoluble, high-molecular-weight compounds remain. Concentrations of organic contaminants in the soils may still remain large.

  13. Restoration treatments in urban park forests drive long-term changes in vegetation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lea R; Handel, Steven N

    2016-04-01

    Municipalities are turning to ecological restoration of urban forests as a measure to improve air quality, ameliorate urban heat island effects, improve storm water infiltration, and provide other social and ecological benefits. However, community dynamics following urban forest restoration treatments are poorly documented. This study examines the long-term effects of ecological restoration undertaken in New York City, New York, USA, to restore native forest in urban park natural areas invaded by woody non-native plants that are regional problems. In 2009 and 2010, we sampled vegetation in 30 invaded sites in three large public parks that were restored 1988-1993, and 30 sites in three large parks that were similarly invaded but had not been restored. Data from these matched plots reveal that the restoration treatment achieved its central goals. After 15-20 years, invasive species removal followed by native tree planting resulted in persistent structural and compositional shifts, significantly lower invasive species abundance, a more complex forest structure, and greater native tree recruitment. Together, these findings indicate that successional trajectories of vegetation dynamics have diverged between restored forests and invaded forests that were not restored. In addition, the data suggest that future composition of these urban forest patches will be novel assemblages. Restored and untreated sites shared a suite of shade-intolerant, quickly-growing tree species that colonize disturbed sites, indicating that restoration treatments created sites hospitable for germination and growth of species adapted to high light conditions and disturbed soils. These findings yield an urban perspective on the use of succession theory in ecological restoration. Models of ecological restoration developed in more pristine environments must be modified for use in cities. By anticipating both urban disturbances and ecological succession, management of urban forest patches can be

  14. Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of the local hydrology of a porous concrete site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Although porous pavement use has been accepted as a successful stormwater management practice in warm climates, application in regions with colder climates, like New England, is still under investigation. The Randolph Park and Ride Site, which is the...

  15. Parking Sensing and Information System: Sensors, Deployment, and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao; Zhen; Qian; Rajagopal, Ram; Stiers, Todd; Flores, Christopher; Kavaler, Robert; Williams III, Floyd

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a smart parking sensing and information system that disseminates the parking availability information for public users in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The hardware framework of the system is built on advanced wireless sensor networks and cloud service over the Internet, and the system is highly scalable. The parking information provided to the users is set in the form of occupancy rates and expected cruising time. Both are obtained from our analytical algorithm ...

  16. Factors affecting quality of social interaction park in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunsong, N. I.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.

  17. Story of the Name of Restinga Jurubatiba National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Soffiati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This text recovers the story of an Integral Protection Conservation Unit situated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The Jurubatiba Shoal National Park (Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, the best preserved shoal area in the world. Responsible for proposing the park’s name, the author discourses about name options taken into consideration when the National Park was created and also briefly reports on the importance of this regional ecosystem.

  18. Envisioning Parking Strategies for the Post-Automobile City

    OpenAIRE

    Circella, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned). This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, ...

  19. Envisioning Parking Strategies in the Framework of Sustainable Urban Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Circella

    2010-01-01

    Parking policies and regulations are important tools in planning for the governance of urban mobility. The proper design and location of parking facilities, in fact, contributes to an efficient use of the transportation system (or it may reduce its efficiency, when these infrastructures are not properly planned). This paper discusses the role of parking as part of the policy packages for strategic planning aimed at increasing the sustainability of urban and metropolitan areas. In particular, ...

  20. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Dell; Pham Quang Thu; Dang Thanh Tan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from ...

  1. An interview with: Stephen Paliska on valet parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliska, S

    1993-04-01

    Stephen Paliska is general manager and co-founder, with his brother, Paul, of Professional Parking Services, Inc., based in Irvine, CA. The company has been in operation for eight years. PPS's 600 valets provide parking services for more than 80 clients, including hotels, shopping centers, restaurants, and hospitals. In this interview, Paliska discusses the benefits and some potential risks of valet parking and spells out how a training program for valet attendants should be carried out.

  2. The Internet Marketing of Disney Theme Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol J. Auster

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the portrayal of gender and race in the images on the official Disney websites used to market five theme parks: the Disneyland Parks in California, Paris, Tokyo, and Hong Kong, and the Magic Kingdom in Florida. This is important because of the growth of e-commerce, Disney’s global influence, and the potential impact on those who view the images. The 452 images that had Disney human characters, human-like characters, animals, cast members, or guests were coded for gender. The main gender hypothesis, that the percentage of male-dominated images would exceed the percentage of female-dominated images, was tested using gender disparity values, which measured the gap between the percentage of male-dominated and female-dominated images. The hypothesis tended to be supported overall, and for most of the resorts (e.g., Florida, lands (e.g., Adventureland, and activities (attractions, entertainment, dining for human characters, human-like characters, animals, and cast members, but not for guests. Furthermore, the hypotheses that gender disparity values would be highest for images of animals and lowest for images of guests was supported for all five resorts, six of eight lands, and all three activities. Additional analysis also revealed the preponderance of same-sex pairings in parent–child combinations in the images. With regard to race, while the images of some theme parks displayed more racial diversity among their guests than others, in some images, individuals of different races were shown interacting whereas in others they were not. Explanations for these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Woking Park PAFC CHP monitoring. Phase 1: Planning, installation and commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, P S; Fry, M R

    2003-07-01

    This report covers the planning, installation and commissioning of the first commercially operated fuel cell cogeneration system in the UK. The involvement of Woking Borough Council, its approach to energy efficiency, and the Woking Park site are discussed, and details are given of the PC25/C 200kW fuel cell which is manufactured in the US by UTC Fuel Cells. A description of the Woking Park fuel cell combined heat and power application is presented, and the project economics, specification and tendering are examined. The route taken to planning approval is traced, and installation procedures are outlined. The testing of the phosphoric type PC25 fuel cell cogeneration unit is described, and expected cost and project timescales are noted.

  4. An annotated check list of the land mammal fauna of the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Avery

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Some 4 000 Barn Owl pellets with small mammal remains have been collected over a period of nine years from two locations at the south end of the Langebaan lagoon. Two small samples of bones from archaeological sites on the Churchhaven peninsula provide evidence for past mammal occurrences. The remains of small mammals from the owl pellet collections provide an initial list of 18 species that occur within theWest Coast National Park. Subsequent conventional censusing by means of trapping and observational techniques to assess the small and large mammal species diversity of the area were conducted during 1989. This study documents the definite occurrence of 63 mammal species in the park, seven of which are exotics. The presence of a further five species requires confirmation. Interesting insight is gained into how direct censusing and owl pellet analyses augment each other in establishing the presence of small mammal taxa of an area.

  5. Maloti Drakensberg Transfrontier Park joint management: Sehlabathebe National Park (Lesotho) and the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Crowson

    2011-01-01

    On 8 April 2005, the first Joint Management Committee meeting was held at Qacha's Nek, Lesotho. This was to ensure co-operative management through joint management. The formation of a Joint Management Committee was part of the Bilateral Maloti Drakensberg Transfrontier Project agreement and consisted of officials from the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and...

  6. Learning physics in a water park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Cecilia; Rubido, Nicolás; Martí, Arturo C.

    2014-03-01

    Entertaining and educational experiments that can be conducted in a water park, illustrating physics concepts, principles and fundamental laws, are described. These experiments are suitable for students ranging from senior secondary school to junior university level. Newton’s laws of motion, Bernoulli’s equation, based on the conservation of energy, buoyancy, linear and non-linear wave propagation, turbulence, thermodynamics, optics and cosmology are among the topics that can be discussed. Commonly available devices like smartphones, digital cameras, laptop computers and tablets, can be used conveniently to enable accurate calculation and a greater degree of engagement on the part of students.

  7. Odonata of Maludam National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory A. Dow

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents records of Odonata collected in July 2012 in Maludam National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. A total of 48 species from nine families were collected. Three species were new to science, one of which has already been described as Prodasineura yulan Dow & Ngiam, which may be endemic to Maludam. In addition, Maludam is only the second locality recorded in Sarawak for four poorly known species: Pachycypha aurea, Macrogomphus decemlineatus, Brachygonia ophelia and Brachygonia puella. Two of these species, Macrogomphus decemlineatus and Brachygonia ophelia, are recorded for the first time in Sarawak in more than 100 years. 

  8. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. D Gertenbach

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the abiotic and biotic components of the Kruger National Park (KNP system has increased to such an extent, that it was possible to zonate the KNP into landscapes. A landscape was defined as an area with a specific geomorphology, climate, soil and vegetation pattern together with the associated fauna. On this basis 35 landscapes were identified and described in terms of the components mentioned in the definition. The objective of classification is that future management should be based on these landscapes. Relevant management considerations may change, but the landscape a@ a basic functional unit should not be negotiable.

  9. Preliminary Identification of Urban Park Infrastructure Resilience in Semarang Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzdalifah, Aji Uhfatun; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Park is one of the spot green infrastructure. There are two major characteristic of park, first Active parks and second passive park. Those of two open spaces have been significant on the fulfillment of urban environment. To maintenance the urban park, it is very importance to identify the characteristic of active and passive park. The identification also needs to fostering stakeholder effort to increase quality of urban park infrastructure. This study aims to explore and assess the characteristic of urban park infrastructure in Semarang City, Central Java. Data collection methods conduct by review formal document, field observation and interview with key government officer. The study founded that urban active parks infrastructure resilience could be defined by; Park Location, Garden Shape, Vegetation, Support Element, Park Function, and Expected Benefit from Park Existence. Moreover, the vegetation aspect and the supporting elements are the most importance urban park infrastructure in Semarang.

  10. A Framework for Mobile User Experiences in Theme Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus Møller

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework, which contributes to a better theoretical understanding of mobile user experience in theme parks that is not limited to (a) personal smartphones, (b) a specific theme park, or (c) specific mobile content. Thus, the paper contributes to the field of mobile user...... experience in theme parks within HCI. The identified aspects constituting the mobile user experience in theme parks are the environmental context, the social context, the functional context, the mobile interface, and of course the mobile content. The framework is developed based on five diverse case studies...

  11. IoT-Based Car's Parking Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiputra Albertus Ega; Khoswanto Handry; Sutjiadi Raymond; Lim Resmana

    2018-01-01

    Internet-of-things-based technologies have advanced so much and helped public necessities. The use of IoT at a parking lot will help vehicle users to know the availability of a parking location through smartphones. This IoT-based parking system is created by using controllers, sensors, servers and cloud. Controllers and sensors will be placed on the ceiling of each parking slots to detect the presence of a car. Server collect the results of the sensors and store them in Cloud. System test is ...

  12. Landscape of Industry: Transformation of (Eco Industrial Park through history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of industry has been changing over time. Industry has transformed and many tangents have emerged from the sporadic home-based cottage industries to geographically scattered large manufacturing industries to co-located industrial parks to environment friendly eco-industrial parks. Curiosity about the catalysts that bring about the transformation of industrial landscape is the motivation of this article. Through the narrative on Industrial Park and the gradual shift towards Eco-Industrial Park, this article aims to shed light on the context and conditions that act as catalysts for industrial transformations, so as to serve as a reference for predicting future changes in industrial landscape.

  13. Waverly, Virginia : community park, downtown revitalization, and entryway enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    Gilboy, Elizabeth Truex; Marshall, Ashleigh; Proctor, Nick; Talley, Stephen; Howell, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Waverly is a small town of approximately 2,300 residents, located in Southside Virginia’s Sussex County. Waverly has a history of pine tree and peanut farms, with several former mills in the area as well as a local Carver Peanut Museum. Land was donated for a town park – the Allen W. Gibson Jr. Community Park – and the town of Waverly and its Parks and Recreation Commission approached the Community Design Assistance Center (CDAC) at Virginia Tech for conceptual design assistance for the park ...

  14. New challenges for grizzly bear management in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Gunther, Kerry A.

    2016-01-01

    A key factor contributing to the success of grizzly bear Ursus arctos conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem has been the existence of a large protected area, Yellowstone National Park. We provide an overview of recovery efforts, how demographic parameters changed as the population increased, and how the bear management program in Yellowstone National Park has evolved to address new management challenges over time. Finally, using the management experiences in Yellowstone National Park, we present comparisons and perspectives regarding brown bear management in Shiretoko National Park.

  15. How to Mitigate Theme Park Crowding? A Prospective Coordination Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Crowding is a key factor in tourists’ experience in theme parks, and mitigating crowding makes parks more competitive. This study examines how to effectively mitigate crowding in theme parks. First, a Markov-based method is developed to predict the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists in the park. Then, a prospective coordination approach based on the tourist distribution prediction is proposed. To evaluate the performance of this approach, an experiment is constructed using an agent-based simulation platform. The results indicate that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing methods. Furthermore, we conduct two experiments and, based on the results, offer several recommendations for crowd management.

  16. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xinyi; Tschantz, Michael; Fu, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade–Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5–8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. - Highlights: • We applied real parking distribution data to estimate evaporative vapor generation. • We applied real hourly temperature data to estimate hourly incremental vapor generation rate. • Evaporative emission for Florence is estimated based on parking distribution and hourly rate. - A new approach is proposed to quantify the weighted evaporative vapor generation based on parking distribution with an hourly incremental vapor generation rate

  17. 78 FR 44596 - Minor Boundary Revision at Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Mariposa County, California, immediately adjacent to the current western boundary of Yosemite National Park.... The land is located in Mariposa County, California, immediately adjacent to the current western...

  18. Optimized combination model and algorithm of parking guidance information configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Operators of parking guidance and information (PGI systems often have difficulty in providing the best car park availability information to drivers in periods of high demand. A new PGI configuration model based on the optimized combination method was proposed by analyzing of parking choice behavior. This article first describes a parking choice behavioral model incorporating drivers perceptions of waiting times at car parks based on PGI signs. This model was used to predict the influence of PGI signs on the overall performance of the traffic system. Then relationships were developed for estimating the arrival rates at car parks based on driver characteristics, car park attributes as well as the car park availability information displayed on PGI signs. A mathematical program was formulated to determine the optimal display PGI sign configuration to minimize total travel time. A genetic algorithm was used to identify solutions that significantly reduced queue lengths and total travel time compared with existing practices. These procedures were applied to an existing PGI system operating in Deqing Town and Xiuning City. Significant reductions in total travel time of parking vehicles with PGI being configured. This would reduce traffic congestion and lead to various environmental benefits.

  19. Potential Economic and Development Prospects of Non Timber Forest Products in Community Agroforestry Land around Sibolangit Tourism Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oding Affandi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The communities who live around Sibolangit Tourism Park have developed nontimber forest products (NTFP in their own agroforestry lands. This research evaluates the potential economic and development prospects from NTFP development in the Park by examining: (1 type of NTFP and economic value from community agrofrestry land, (2 contribution of NTFPs on household income, (3 development prospects of NTFP-based agroforestry around Sibolangit Tourism Park. The research was conducted in two selected villages around Sibolangit Tourism Park: Sembahe Village and Batu Mbelin Village. The research took place over a period between June and August 2016. Research data was obtained from in-depth interviews and observations. A descriptive method was used to analyze and describe facts related to the research aims. The type of NTFPs cultivated by communities at the research sites include mangosteen, durian, garcinia, candlenut, lanzones, lansium, bitter bean, and areca nut (as their forestry component and ginger, turmeric, chili, papaya, etlingera, and banana (as the agriculture component. Most NTFPs are cultivated as a comercial product. The economic value of NTFPs in Batu Mbelin Village has reached Rp. 547,275,000/year or contribute 80.07% of total family income. Meanwhile, the economic value of NTFPs in Sembahe Village has reached Rp 682,100,000/year, contributing to 78.75% of total household income. Therefore, the prospects for supporting and expanding NTFP in agroforestry plots in and around Sibolangit Tourism Park has high potential for supporting household income

  20. A Gap Analysis of Employee Satisfaction within the National Parks: Anuenue National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bryan Daniel Kwai Sun

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing Clark and Estes' (2008) Gap Analysis Model, the purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge, motivation, and organization causes of and solutions for low employee satisfaction ratings at one particular park, referred to by its pseudonym, Anuenue (Hawaiian word for "Rainbow," and pronounced "Ah-noo-ay-noo-ay")…

  1. Metal assessment in urban park soils in Sao Paulo. 3. Aclimacao Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavese, Arthur C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Gumiero, Felipe C.; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2007-01-01

    As part of a project which aims metal assessment in urban park soils from Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Zn, Sb, Se, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Aclimacao park of Sao Paulo. Urban soils play an important role in maintaining the environmental quality as they can act as both source and sink for pollutants that can affect human health. Parks and playgrounds are where urban children spend most of their time outdoors and are also where children most frequently come in contact with soil. Aclimacao park is located at the central region of the city, in a residential area. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) were used for metal analysis. The results obtained for Zn were higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), but lower than the Prevention values. For Ba, Cr, and Sb, the results obtained showed concentration levels higher than Prevention value reported by CETESB. According to CETESB, metal concentration levels above the Prevention value can cause prejudicial alterations in soil and subterranean water quality. For As, in the 0-5 cm samples, the concentration levels were near or above the Intervention value for agricultural area reported by CETESB. (author)

  2. Cultural Diversity and the National Parks: Working Together for Change. The National Parks Community Partners Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Alan

    This guidebook was developed to assist in the creation of partnerships. It discusses some of the best practices and lessons learned in the program's first year, and gives novice community-based organizers a sense of how effective partnerships can be formed. The guidebook will help the more experienced organizers of National Park Service employees…

  3. 78 FR 22470 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ..., natural soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and park operations. Impacts associated with each of the... monitoring, including data regarding air quality, wildlife, soundscapes, and health and safety, were used in... impacts to wildlife, air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety, the NPS is...

  4. 76 FR 39048 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ..., natural soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and visitor accessibility. Impacts associated with each... oversnow vehicles on the park's soundscapes. NPS Approved Snowmobiles and Snowcoaches The Superintendent..., air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety, the NPS is proposing to continue...

  5. 78 FR 63069 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Yellowstone National Park; Winter Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... soundscapes, visitor use and experience, and park operations. Impacts associated with each of the alternatives..., soundscapes, and health and safety, were used in formulating the alternatives in the Plan/SEIS. Applies the... To mitigate impacts to wildlife, air quality, natural soundscapes, and visitor and employee safety...

  6. Parking in cites : How essential is parking for healthy central shopping areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Koetse, Mark; Woudenberg, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    A reason of concern with restrictive parking policies is that the cities will become less attractive as a destination of various trips so that some activities will relocate to other places. This holds true for example for shopping. When central shopping areas are difficult to visit, customer

  7. A City Parking Integration System Combined with Cloud Computing Technologies and Smart Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Her-Tyan; Chen, Bing-Chang; Wang, Bo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    The current study applied cloud computing technology and smart mobile devices combined with a streaming server for parking lots to plan a city parking integration system. It is also equipped with a parking search system, parking navigation system, parking reservation service, and car retrieval service. With this system, users can quickly find…

  8. Empirical evaluation of an on-street parking pricing scheme in the city center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Zhang, C.; Nissan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Parking pricing policies can be used as a policy instrument to steer the parking market and reduce the externalities caused by traffic in general and parking in particular. A more efficient management of parking demand can improve the utilization of the limited parking capacity at high-demand areas.

  9. A discrete choice approach to define individual parking choice behaviour for the Parkagent model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaliq, A.; Van Der Waerden, P.J.H.J.; Janssens, D.

    2017-01-01

    PARKAGENT is an agent based model for simulating parking search in the city. In PARKAGENT, the agents choose a parking spot based on the expected number of free parking spaces, distance to destination and length of parking space. For a true representation of underlying parking choice behaviour of

  10. 78 FR 53478 - Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement AGENCY: National Park... about this IC, contact Major Scott Fear, United States Park Police, 1100 Ohio Drive SW., Washington, DC... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The United States Park Police (USPP) is a unit of the National Park Service...

  11. Elephants of democracy : an unfolding process of resettlement in the Limpopo National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milgroom, J.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed paper will focus on the process of displacement taking place in the context of the creation of the Limpopo National Park in Mozambique. This park is part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which also includes the Kruger National Park (South Africa) and Gonarezhou National Park

  12. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel on park roads and... THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes. (a) Operating a motor vehicle is prohibited except on park roads, in parking areas and on routes and areas...

  13. Inventory of montane-nesting birds in Katmai and Lake Clark national parks and preserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service’s Inventory and Monitoring Program, biologists from the U. S. Geological Survey’s Alaska Science Center conducted an inventory of birds in montane regions of Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserves during 2004–2006. We used a stratified random survey design to allocate samples by ecological subsection. To survey for birds, we conducted counts at 468 points across 29, 10-km x 10-km (6.2-mi x 6.2-mi) sample plots in Katmai and 417 points across 25, 10-km x 10-km sample plots in Lake Clark. We detected 92 and 104 species in Katmai and Lake Clark, respectively, including 40 species of conservation concern. We detected three species not previously recorded in Katmai (Ring-necked Duck [Aythya collaris], Lesser Scaup [Aythya affinis], and White-tailed Ptarmigan [Lagopus leucurus]) and two species not previously recorded in Lake Clark (Northern Flicker [Colaptes auratus ] and Olive-sided Flycatcher [Contopus cooperi]). The most commonly detected species in both parks was Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla); Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca) and American Pipit (Anthus rubescens) were abundant and widely-distributed as well. We defined sites as low (100–350 m), middle (351–600 m), or high (601–1,620 m) elevation based on the distribution of vegetation cover, and similarly categorized the 34 most-commonly detected species based on the mean elevation of sample points at which they were detected. High elevation (i.e., alpine) sites were characterized by high percent cover of dwarf shrub and bare ground habitat and supported species like Rock Ptarmigan (L. mutus), American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica), Wandering Tattler (Tringa incana), Surfbird (Aphriza virgata), and Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis), all species of conservation concern. This inventory represents the first systematic survey of birds nesting in montane regions of both parks. Results from this inventory can form the foundation of

  14. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons below coal-tar-sealed parking lots and effects on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L.; Gosselink, L.; Bryer, P. [City Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Parking-lot pavement sealants recently have been recognized as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stream sediments in Austin, Texas. Laboratory and field studies have shown that PAHs in sediments can be toxic to aquatic organisms and can degrade aquatic communities. After identifying increases in concentrations of PAHs in sediments below seal-coated parking lots, we investigated whether the increases had significant effects on stream biota in 5 Austin streams. We sampled sediment chemistry and biological communities above and below the point at which stormwater runoff from the parking lots discharged into the streams, thus providing 5 upstream reference sites and 5 downstream treatment sites. Differences between upstream and downstream concentrations of total PAH ranged from 3.9 to 32 mg/kg. Analysis of the species occurrence data from pool and riffle habitats indicated a significant decrease in community health at the downstream sites, including decreases in richness, intolerant taxa, Diptera taxa, and density. In pool sediments, Chironomidae density was negatively correlated with PAH concentrations, whereas Oligochaeta density responded positively to PAH concentrations. In general, pool taxa responded more strongly than riffle taxa to PAHs, but riffle taxa responded more broadly than pool taxa. Increases in PAH sediment-toxicity units between upstream and downstream sites explained decreases in taxon richness and density in pools between upstream and downstream sites.

  15. Child safety in parks' playgrounds (a case study in Tehran’s sub-district parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Mirlouhi Falavarjani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsSafety is a complex concept and multidisciplinary science which is included some difference areas from industrial sectors to urban public arenas. Parks and playgrounds as important public places should be considered in terms of health and safety, especially for kids as prominent social vulnerable citizens. According to CPSC, 147 deaths havebeen reported for under 15 year old child during Jan 1990 to Aug 2000. Every 2.5 minute, kid suffers playground related accident. The main objective in this study is safety assessment ofplaygrounds among the selected parks.MethodsIn this case study, deductive approach and cross-sectional survey was followed, and some parks and playgrounds were selected among five urban counties in Tehran. Our volunteered samples were 160 parents. Playgrounds and related equipment were assessed in terms of safety, as well.ResultsOur findings show that more than 68% of playground equipment might create hazardous condition for kids. Lack of sustain maintenance for both of equipment and playground surface make some risky area for the mentioned group. Statistical analysis by SPSSWin 13 showed that more than 78 % of parents are worry about their child in terms of playground safetyproblems. Safety assessment of swings and slides showed that there are safety based problems in 89% of cases. Due to statistical reports of Tehran Emergency center, 10-12 and 8-10 year old kids suffer play based accident more than others. Reported traumas showed that face and skull and then feet suffered mechanical injury more than other limbs.ConclusionSurely, safety and health considerations are known as Municipality responsibilities, so for safety improvement in parks an integration safety system should be happened. HSE_MS seems a reliable approach for the mention goal. For improvement of exist parks and playground some related standard should be follows such as CPSC standards, EN 1176, and EN 1177. Also anthropometric data development

  16. Carbon reduction potentials of China's industrial parks: A case study of Suzhou Industry Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Lei, Yue; Wang, Haikun; Liu, Miaomiao; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Industrial parks are the economic engines for many China regions, but they also consume a great deal of energy and emit greenhouse gases. However, few empirical studies have examined these special communities. We selected SIP (Suzhou Industrial Park) as a case study. Carbon emissions from SIP were accounted from the consumption perspective to analyze their characteristics. Results showed total carbon emissions grew 85.2% from 2005 to 2010, and carbon intensity (carbon emissions per unit of GDP (gross domestic product)) decreased by 9%. Scenario analysis was then used to depict emissions trajectories under three different pathways. The total carbon emissions and per capita carbon emissions for SIP will undoubtedly increase in the near future under a business-as-usual scenario, improved-policy scenario, and low-carbon scenario; the carbon intensity will decrease by 38% under low-carbon scenario, but it will still be difficult to reach the national mitigation target. In addition, geographic-boundary-based accounting methodology was applied for comparison analysis, carbon emissions show a large gap of 42.4–65.1% from 2005 to 2010, due to failure to account for cross-boundary emissions from imported electricity. Therefore, comprehensive analysis from a consumption perspective is necessary to provide a fair and comprehensive tool for China's local decision-makers to evaluate carbon mitigation potentials. - Highlights: ► Carbon reduction potentials of industrial parks, which are important communities in China, were analyzed. ► Comprehensive carbon emission inventories were developed for a China's industrial park. ► Policies were recommended for industrial parks to achieve low-carbon development target. ► Consumption-based emission inventory is necessary for local government to evaluate carbon reduction potentials

  17. Environmental monitoring of a wind park during the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castonguay, M.; Caron, F.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy qualifies as green energy because of low gas emissions associated with energy production. However, in order to truly qualify as green, each phase of a wind energy project should be evaluated, including construction, the energy exploitation period, as well as the dismantling of the turbines. Environmental monitoring of wind turbine arrays during the construction and dismantling phases could reveal the environmental impact of a project. This article provided the example of a wind turbine array at l'Anse-a-Valleau, located in a forested territory on the north side of the Gaspe Peninsula along the St. Lawrence River in Quebec. The park was configured to have 67 wind turbines of 1.5 MW each, for a total of 100.5 MW. The project was evaluated at $164 million, with regional economic spending of $65.8 million. During the height of construction, the project employed 240 workers. Ten full-time jobs will be created for the operation phase, scheduled for the end of 2007. The environmental monitoring at the construction site is deemed both technical and social. Good working conditions and communication must be established between the environmental supervisor and the site manager. They must work jointly to ensure good conduct and progress of the work at the construction site. The environmental supervisor must have the necessary authority to stop work upon a breach of regulations in the deforesting phase, since 60 per cent of the territory is on public domain. Environmental monitoring also includes surveillance of the road construction, soil quality, transportation of equipment, air quality, noise pollution, and residual matter management. It was concluded that wind energy is a true form of green energy, and methods used by developers during construction demonstrate responsibility towards the environment. It was suggested that the key to success is to have good pre-planning and good communication between all parties concerned. 4 figs

  18. Floristic study of Kiasar National Park, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Ghahremaninejad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiyasar National Park is a mountainous region in Mazandaran province, Kiyasar district, 70 kilometers far from Sari city, with an area of approximately 9530 hectares. The altitude of the area ranges from 883 m to 2775 m in Shahdeg pick. This park is located in the central Alborz. The mean annual rainfall is 650 mm and the mean annual temperature is 12˚C. Based on classical methods of regional floristic studies, approximately 720 specimens were collected during 2007 through 2008. The total number of 378 identified plant species belonged to 321 genera and 73 families. The dicots with 320 species were the richest group, following by monocots with 49 species, gymnosperms with 4 species and pteridophytes with 5 species respectively. The largest families were Asteraceae (43 species, Lamiaceae (33 species, and the most diverse genera included Astragalus, Salvia and Stachys. There were 11 endemic species among the plants of the area. The life form of all plant species was determined via Raunkier,s method. Hemicryptophytes constituting 37% of the biological types were dominant, followed by therophytes and cryphtophytes with 31% and 16% respectively. The largest chorotype was Irano-Turanian, with 120 species.

  19. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  20. Defining Indicators and Standards for Tourism Impacts in Protected Areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan A.; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors’ perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors’ perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors’ quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors’ perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management.

  1. Defining indicators and standards for tourism impacts in protected areas: Cape Range National Park, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan A; Polley, Amanda

    2007-03-01

    Visitors' perceptions of impacts and acceptable standards for environmental conditions can provide essential information for the sustainable management of tourist destinations, especially protected areas. To this end, visitor surveys were administered during the peak visitor season in Cape Range National Park, on the northwest coast of Western Australia and adjacent to the iconic Ningaloo Reef. The central focus was visitors' perceptions regarding environmental conditions and standards for potential indicators. Conditions considered of greatest importance in determining visitors' quality of experience included litter, inadequate disposal of human waste, presence of wildlife, levels of noise, and access to beach and ocean. Standards were determined, based on visitors' perceptions, for a range of site-specific and non-site-specific indicators, with standards for facilities (e.g., acceptable number of parking bays, signs) and for negative environmental impacts (e.g., levels of littering, erosion) sought. The proposed standards varied significantly between sites for the facilities indicators; however, there was no significant difference between sites for environmental impacts. For the facilities, the standards proposed by visitors were closely related to the existing situation, suggesting that they were satisfied with the status quo. These results are considered in the context of current research interest in the efficacy of visitor-derived standards as a basis for protected area management.

  2. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  3. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  4. 'kids in parks' programme to the professional development of teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article considers the possible contribution of the 'kids in parks' programme offered at Golden Gate Highlands National Park to the professional development of teachers. Focus group interviews were held with teachers who participated in the programme, and an interview with open-ended questions was held with a ...

  5. Diverse recreation experiences at Denali National Park and Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Knotek; Alan Watson; Neal Christensen

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted at Denali National Park and Preserve in the 2004 summer use season to improve understanding of recreation visitor experiences in the remote southern portion of the park, including Mount McKinley and the surrounding mountains and glaciers. Descriptions of the experiences of visitors to the mountains and glaciers included elements of...

  6. New plant records for Tankwa Karoo National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffel P. Bester

    2012-11-01

    Conservation implications: Although the Tankwa Karoo National Park falls within the Succulent Karoo Biome (a biodiversity hotspot of international importance, information on its plant diversity is insufficient because it is an under-collected area. Results of this study will guide conservation and supply occurrence and distribution data required to compile management plans for the park.

  7. The Zubarah Archaeology and Heritage Park - State of Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz; Thuesen, Ingolf

    2010-01-01

    The Poster summarized the Masterplan for the Heritage Park in NW-Qatar and the componants of the Project presented at SMARTdoc Heritage Symposium in Philladelphia in November 2010......The Poster summarized the Masterplan for the Heritage Park in NW-Qatar and the componants of the Project presented at SMARTdoc Heritage Symposium in Philladelphia in November 2010...

  8. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Eastman Business Park in Rochester, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman Business Park EBP (formerly Eastman Business Kodak Park) is approximately 1,100 acres complex across nearly four miles through the City of Rochester and the Town of Greece. Although it has filed for bankruptcy on January 19, 2012 and is undergoin

  9. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  10. Tourists' motivations for visiting Kakum National Park, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Hospitality &Tourism Management, University of Cape Coast, Ghana E. ... The concept of matching in tourism requires that recreational opportunities offered in parks .... of tourism research, as it provides a useful strategy for identifying different groupings ..... of satisfaction: The case of Pirongia Forest Park.

  11. Participatory Interpretive Training for Tikal National Park, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Jurado, Magali

    1996-01-01

    Describes an interpretive training course for Tikal National Park, Guatemala to promote environmentally sound management of the region. Goals were to ensure that local knowledge and cultural norms were included in the design of interpretive materials, to introduce resource managers to park interpretation through course participation, and to train…

  12. Strategic and tactiocal planning for managing national park resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    2001-01-01

    Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resource management plan (RMP) every four years or less. These plans constitute a strategic agenda for a park. Later, tactical plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects over the planning horizon. Yet, neither planning stage incorporates much quantitative and analytical rigor and is devoid of...

  13. Wildlife conservation challenges in Okomu National Park, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looked at the challenges of conserving the Park's wildlife and other resources. The Park's record of arrests and prosecution from 1999 to 2011 was used as secondary data while a four point Likert-scale questionnaire was used to obtain primary data. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the arrests data and ...

  14. Solar and wind energy utilization at Sarawak Southern national parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahman, N.; Kolot, A.

    2006-01-01

    The intentions of renewable energy utilization in Sarawak national parks were to reduce the environmental impacts to the protected surrounding and to overcome fuel transportation problem, as most national parks in Sarawak are not viable for the state electricity grid connection. The study was conducted at three national parks in southern Sarawak; viz. Samusan, Tanjung Datu and Pulau Talang-Talang Besar National Park. The study focused on the effectiveness of the system implementation, energy load and associated problems. Both Samusan and Tanjung Datu National systems are hybrids, which consist of solar photovoltaic panels, wind turbine and diesel generators, whereas, Pulau Talang-Talang Besar National Park is a stand alone system of solar photovoltaic panels only. In addition, the inefficient energy usage was observed at Samusan National Park. The study have identified that lack of local expertise, spare parts availability, transportation and inefficient energy management as the major problems associated to the solar and wind energy system in all national parks studied. Albeit the problems mentioned, the study discovered that the systems were acceptably reliable and satisfactorily supply fraction of the energy requirements to the national parks communities

  15. Measuring preferences for parking facilities in old residential areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.W.J.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Toll, L.M.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems in restructuring old residential areas in European cities is parking. The narrow streets and lack of open spaces challenge city planners to find solutions to this problem. Insight in preferences regarding possible parking solutions may facilitate the development of restructure

  16. 36 CFR 7.45 - Everglades National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.45 Everglades National Park. (a) Information...-edible form of fresh or salt water aquatic life for the purpose of sale or barter. (4) Dipnet means a... outboard motor, water-jet or an enclosed propeller or impeller system, where persons ride standing, sitting...

  17. Tourism and recreation system planning in Alberta provincial parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F.J. Eagles; Angela M. Gilmore; Luis X. Huang; Denise A. Keltie; Kimberley Rae; Hong Sun; Amy K. Thede; Meagan L. Wilson; Jennifer A. Woronuk; Ge Yujin

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, system planning in parks and protected areas concentrated on biogeographical concepts, while neglecting tourism and recreation. The existing system plan for parks and protected areas in Alberta, Canada, divides the province into six natural regions based on a geographic classifi cation system (Grassland, Parkland, Foothills, Rocky Mountains, Boreal...

  18. Future Parking Demand at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.

  19. Future Developments for Science Parks: Attracting and Developing Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorin, Eduardo; Johansson, Sten G.; Klofsten, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, science parks have developed and improved their processes to offer better support to their tenants and promote the growth of the region in which they are located. Since regional growth is closely associated with groups of talented people, science parks carry out various activities at the company or individual level to attract and…

  20. Biodiversity Hotspots and Visitor Flows in Oulanka National Park, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon, K.; Cottrell, S.P.; Siikamaki, P.; Marwijk, van R.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oulanka National Park, Finland aims to ensure nature conservation while providing high quality visitor experiences. The growth of outdoor recreation and nature tourism, however, has fueled concern about consequent pressures on the natural resources of the park. This analysis assessed the spatial