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  1. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian of Alberta, Canada.

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    Jordan C Mallon

    Full Text Available Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2 landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  2. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  3. Tourism and recreation system planning in Alberta provincial parks

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    Paul F.J. Eagles; Angela M. Gilmore; Luis X. Huang; Denise A. Keltie; Kimberley Rae; Hong Sun; Amy K. Thede; Meagan L. Wilson; Jennifer A. Woronuk; Ge Yujin

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, system planning in parks and protected areas concentrated on biogeographical concepts, while neglecting tourism and recreation. The existing system plan for parks and protected areas in Alberta, Canada, divides the province into six natural regions based on a geographic classifi cation system (Grassland, Parkland, Foothills, Rocky Mountains, Boreal...

  4. Feeding height stratification among the herbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbivore coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has been a topic of great interest, stemming from the paradoxically high diversity and biomass of these animals in relation to the relatively small landmass available to them. Various hypotheses have been advanced to account for these facts, of which niche partitioning is among the most frequently invoked. However, despite its wide acceptance, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. This study uses the fossil assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta as a model to investigate whether niche partitioning facilitated herbivorous dinosaur coexistence on Laramidia. Specifically, the question of feeding height stratification is examined in light of the role it plays in facilitating modern ungulate coexistence. Results Most herbivorous dinosaur species from the Dinosaur Park Formation were restricted to feeding no higher than approximately 1 m above the ground. There is minimal evidence for feeding height partitioning at this level, with ceratopsids capable of feeding slightly higher than ankylosaurs, but the ecological significance of this is ambiguous. Hadrosaurids were uniquely capable of feeding up to 2 m quadrupedally, or up to 5 m bipedally. There is no evidence for either feeding height stratification within any of these clades, or for change in these ecological relationships through the approximately 1.5 Ma record of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Conclusions Although we cannot reject the possibility, we find no good evidence that feeding height stratification, as revealed by reconstructed maximum feeding heights, played an important role in facilitating niche partitioning among the herbivorous dinosaurs of Laramidia. Most browsing pressure was concentrated in the herb layer, although hadrosaurids were capable of reaching shrubs and low-growing trees that were out of reach from ceratopsids, ankylosaurs, and other small herbivores, effectively dividing the

  5. Feeding height stratification among the herbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Evans, David C; Ryan, Michael J; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-04-04

    Herbivore coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has been a topic of great interest, stemming from the paradoxically high diversity and biomass of these animals in relation to the relatively small landmass available to them. Various hypotheses have been advanced to account for these facts, of which niche partitioning is among the most frequently invoked. However, despite its wide acceptance, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. This study uses the fossil assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta as a model to investigate whether niche partitioning facilitated herbivorous dinosaur coexistence on Laramidia. Specifically, the question of feeding height stratification is examined in light of the role it plays in facilitating modern ungulate coexistence. Most herbivorous dinosaur species from the Dinosaur Park Formation were restricted to feeding no higher than approximately 1 m above the ground. There is minimal evidence for feeding height partitioning at this level, with ceratopsids capable of feeding slightly higher than ankylosaurs, but the ecological significance of this is ambiguous. Hadrosaurids were uniquely capable of feeding up to 2 m quadrupedally, or up to 5 m bipedally. There is no evidence for either feeding height stratification within any of these clades, or for change in these ecological relationships through the approximately 1.5 Ma record of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Although we cannot reject the possibility, we find no good evidence that feeding height stratification, as revealed by reconstructed maximum feeding heights, played an important role in facilitating niche partitioning among the herbivorous dinosaurs of Laramidia. Most browsing pressure was concentrated in the herb layer, although hadrosaurids were capable of reaching shrubs and low-growing trees that were out of reach from ceratopsids, ankylosaurs, and other small herbivores, effectively dividing the herbivores in terms of relative

  6. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta, Canada.

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    Jordan C Mallon

    Full Text Available Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis

  7. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  8. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Consequences of a refuge for the predator-prey dynamics of a wolf-elk system in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.

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    Goldberg, Joshua F; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bardsley, John

    2014-01-01

    Refugia can affect predator-prey dynamics via movements between refuge and non-refuge areas. We examine the influence of a refuge on population dynamics in a large mammal predator-prey system. Wolves (Canis lupus) have recolonized much of their former range in North America, and as a result, ungulate prey have exploited refugia to reduce predation risk with unknown impacts on wolf-prey dynamics. We examined the influence of a refuge on elk (Cervus elaphus) and wolf population dynamics in Banff National Park. Elk occupy the Banff townsite with little predation, whereas elk in the adjoining Bow Valley experience higher wolf predation. The Banff refuge may influence Bow Valley predator-prey dynamics through source-sink movements. To test this hypothesis, we used 26 years of wolf and elk population counts and the Delayed Rejection Adaptive Metropolis Markov chain Monte Carlo method to fit five predator-prey models: 1) with no source-sink movements, 2) with elk density-dependent dispersal from the refuge to the non-refuge, 3) with elk predation risk avoidance movements from the non-refuge to the refuge, 4) with differential movement rates between refuge and non-refuge, and 5) with short-term, source-sink wolf movements. Model 1 provided the best fit of the data, as measured by Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). In the top model, Banff and Bow Valley elk had median growth rates of 0.08 and 0.03 (95% credibility intervals [CIs]: 0.027-0.186 and 0.001-0.143), respectively, Banff had a median carrying capacity of 630 elk (95% CI: 471.9-2676.9), Bow Valley elk had a median wolf encounter rate of 0.02 (95% CI: 0.013-0.030), and wolves had a median death rate of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.146-0.335) and a median conversion efficiency of 0.07 (95% CI: 0.031-0.124). We found little evidence for potential source-sink movements influencing the predator-prey dynamics of this system. This result suggests that the refuge was isolated from the non-refuge.

  10. Asthma-related productivity losses in Alberta, Canada

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    Nguyen X Thanh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nguyen X Thanh, Arto Ohinmaa, Charles YanInstitute of Health Economics, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaObjectives: To estimate the number and cost of asthma-related productivity loss days due to absenteeism and presenteeism (at work but not fully functioning in Alberta in 2005.Methods: Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, this study focused on people of working age (18–64 years, who reported having an asthma diagnosis. Total asthma-related disability days, including in-bed days and activity-restricted days, were estimated by multiplying the difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions by a multiple linear regression, with the number of asthmatics in the population. Number of productivity loss days was a sum between the number of in-bed days (absenteeism and the number of activity-restricted days multiplied by a reduction in functional level (presenteeism, adjusted for five working days per week. Other data from Alberta or Canadian published literature, such as a reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, a labor participation rate of 73%, and an average wage of $158 per day in 2005, were also used for analyses.Results: The prevalence of asthma was estimated at 8.5% among approximately 2.1 million people of working age in Alberta in 2005. The difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics was 0.487 (95% CI: 0.286–0.688 in a period of two weeks or 12.7 (7.5–17.9 in one year. With the reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, the number of asthma-related productivity loss days was estimated from 442 (259–624 to 533 (313–753 thousand, respectively. The corresponding cost was from $70 ($41–$99 to $84 ($49–$119 million. Of these, the presenteeism accounted for 42% to 52%.Conclusions: The results suggest that an improvement in the controlling of asthma could have a

  11. Regional habitat needs of a nationally listed species, Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, in Alberta, Canada

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    Jeffrey R. Ball

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that affect the distribution and abundance of species is critical to developing effective management plans for conservation. Our goal was to quantify the distribution and abundance of Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis, a threatened old-forest associate in Alberta, Canada. The Canada Warbler has declined across its range, including in Alberta where habitat loss and alteration from urban expansion, forestry, and energy development are changing the forest landscape. We used 110,427 point count survey visits from 32,287 unique survey stations to model local-level (150-m radius circular buffers and stand-level (564-m radius circular buffers habitat associations of the Canada Warbler. We found that habitat supporting higher densities of Canada Warblers was locally concentrated yet broadly distributed across Alberta's boreal forest region. Canada Warblers were most commonly associated with older deciduous forest at the local scale, particularly near small, incised streams, and greater amounts of deciduous forest at the stand scale. Predicted density was lower in other forest types and younger age classes measured at the local scale. There was little evidence that local-scale fragmentation (i.e., edges created by linear features influenced Canada Warbler abundance. However, current forestry practices in the province likely will reduce the availability of Canada Warbler habitat over time by cutting old deciduous forest stands. Our results suggest that conservation efforts aimed at Canada Warbler focus on retaining large stands of old deciduous forest, specifically stands adjacent to streams, by increasing the width of deciduous retention buffers along streams during harvest and increasing the size and number of old forest residual patches in harvested stands.

  12. Euoplocephalus tutus and the diversity of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA.

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    Victoria M Arbour

    Full Text Available Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park, and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus.

  13. Albedo of a hybrid poplar plantation in central Alberta, Canada

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    Price, D. T.; Bernier, P. Y.; Orchansky, A.; Thomas, B.

    2012-04-01

    Canada's boreal forest resources are coming under increasing pressure from competing land-uses, including establishment of protected areas, and losses of harvestable forest to mining and oil and gas exploration. In the prairie region, concerns about lack of wood supply for pulpmills and potential opportunities for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation, have spurred interest in afforestation of marginal agricultural land, notably with fast-growing hybrid poplars (HP). However, global modelling studies suggest that a shift from grassland or crops to forest cover in temperate and boreal regions could result in reduced surface albedo, particularly in winter, causing an increase in radiative forcing and reducing any climate mitigation benefits due to net GHG removal. We report on seven growing seasons of measurements of short-wave canopy albedo using tower-mounted instruments, along with eddy covariance measurements of carbon, water and energy balance, at a site in central Alberta planted with HP cuttings in spring 2005. The data show little systematic change in average albedo as vegetation has changed from bare ground to a plantation of 6 m trees. Reasons for this include very wide (3 m) spacing between the trees, and snow cover which often persists for 4-5 months and is highly visible below the bare canopies during winter. While measurements should continue as the trees grow larger, we postulate that extensive afforestation with HP is unlikely to have major effects on regional-scale surface albedo compared to the agricultural systems they replace. Normal rotation lengths are 15-20 years, hence even if older plantations have significantly lower winter albedo, their contribution to the regional average would be relatively small because they will cover only a small fraction of the landscape (e.g., compared to forests of boreal conifers or temperate broadleaved species).

  14. Canada's first competitive electricity market: the Alberta experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, D.

    1997-01-01

    The restructuring of the electric power industry as experienced in the province of Alberta was discussed. Alberta's electric industry structure today is comprised of a power pool and open access transmission. The forces for change, the evolution of the new structure, the new Electric Utilities Act that defined restructuring, features of the restructured industry, the organization and functions of the Alberta Power Pool and the Transmission Administrator, the day-to-day functioning of the Power Pool, the price setting mechanism, access to the transmission system, the legislated financial hedges, the timeline for the retirement of the existing generation system, and anticipated future developments were described

  15. Glacial Meltwater Contirbutions to the Bow River, Alberta, Canada

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    Bash, E. A.; Marshall, S. J.; White, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    Assessment of glacial melt is critical for water resource management in areas which rely on glacier-fed rivers for agricultural and municipal uses. Changes in precipitation patterns coupled with current glacial retreat are altering the glacial contribution to river flow in areas such as the Andes of South America and the high ranges of Asia, as well as the Rockies of Western Canada. Alberta’s Bow River has its headwaters in the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rockies and contributes to the Nelson drainage system feeding into Hudson Bay. The Bow River basin contains several population centers, including the City of Calgary, and is heavily taxed for agricultural use. The combined effects of rapid glacial retreat in the Canadian Rockies, higher drought frequency, and increased demand are likely to heighten water stress in Southern Alberta. However, there has been little focus to date on the extent and importance of glacial meltwater in the Bow River. The Bow River contains 74.5 km2 of glacier ice, which amounts to only 0.29% of the basin. While this number is not high compared to some glacierized areas, Hopkinson and Young (1998) report that in dry years, glacier melt can provide up to 50% of late summer flows at a station in the upper reaches of the river system. We extend this work with an assessment of monthly and annual glacial contributions to the Bow River farther downstream in Calgary. Our analysis is based on mass balance, meteorological, and hydrological data that has been collected at the Haig Glacier since 2001. This data is used in conjunction with glacier coverage and hypsometric data for the remainder of the basin to estimate seasonal snow and glacial meltwater contributions to the Bow River from the glacierized fraction of the catchment. The results of this study show the percentage of total flow attributed to glacial melt to be highly variable. Glacier runoff contributes up to an order of magnitude more water to the Bow River per unit area of

  16. Bloody Lucky: the careless worker myth in Alberta, Canada.

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    Barnetson, Bob; Foster, Jason

    2012-01-01

    As the Canadian province of Alberta has adopted neoliberal prescriptions for government, it has increasingly attributed workplace injuries to worker carelessness. Blaming workers for their injuries appears to be part of a broader strategy (which includes under-reporting injury levels and masking ineffective state enforcement with public condemnation of injurious work) to contain the potential political consequences associated with unsafe workplaces. This reflects the state's sometimes conflicting goals of maintaining the production process and the political legitimacy of the government and the capitalist social formation. This case study considers the political dynamics of occupational health and safety in Alberta to understand the escalating use of the careless worker myth over time. Alberta's emphasis on employer self-regulation has resulted in a large number of annual workplace injuries. The 2008 "Bloody Lucky" safety awareness campaign intensified this attribution of blame via gory videos aimed at young workers. This case study examines the validity of this attribution to reveal that this campaign provides workers, particularly young workers, with inaccurate information about injury causation, which may impede their ability and motivation to mitigate workplace risks.

  17. An inventory and risk-based prioritization of Steep Creek Fans in Alberta, Canada

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    Holm Kris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2013, heavy rainfall caused flooding on most rivers in the province of Alberta, Canada, producing one of Canada’s most expensive natural disasters with about $6 billion (CDN in damage. Flooding inundated several municipalities including downtown Calgary, the fourth-largest city in Canada. Debris flows and debris floods caused extensive highway closures and damages to development on alluvial fans. Following these events, the Government of Alberta requested an inventory of all fans intersecting municipal development, major roads and highways in Alberta. Such fans may be subject to debris flow, debris flood (mud flows, and/or flood hazards. The study area spans the entirety of the Alberta Rocky Mountains, approximately 51,000 km2 (7% of Alberta. We characterize 710 fans in terms of hazard level and presence and types of elements at risk. We statistically analyse watershed attributes to predict the dominant fan hydrogeomorphic process types. All fans under provincial jurisdiction are assigned priority ratings based on hazard levels and the presence and value of elements at risk. The prioritization is risk-based as it considers both hazards and potential consequences. Of the fans prioritized, 13% intersected parcels containing land and residential developments with an assessed value of $2.4 billion (CDN, and the remainder were crossed by roads, pipelines or transmission lines. We present the study results on an interactive, searchable web application that can support ongoing hazard and risk assessments and risk reduction planning.

  18. Methods for producing and upgrading liquid hydrocarbons from Alberta coal. [Canada - Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Production of synthetic crude oils by co-processing coal and heavy oil or bitumen has been the subject of research efforts in Alberta since 1979. This booklet describes the treatment that is necessary for these crude oils to become suitable as feedstocks for refineries as evolved in research projects. Sections are headed: hydroprocessing of coal-based liquids; functional group analysis; isotopic studies of co-processing schemes; chemistry of coal liquefaction; co-processing process development; molecular interactions between heavy oil and coal species during co-processing; combined processing of coal, heavy oil and natural gas; and coprocessing of coal and bitumen with molten halide catalysts. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Potential for enhanced geothermal systems in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Hannes; Weides, Simon; Babadagli, Tayfun; Zimmermann, Günter; Moeck, Inga; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    The province of Alberta has a high demand of thermal energy for both industrial and residential applications. Currently, the vast majority of the heat used in these applications is obtained by burning natural gas. Geothermal energy production from deep aquifer systems in the sedimentary basin could provide an alternative sustainable source of heat that would significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To date there has been no geothermal field development in Alberta because the average geothermal gradient was considered to be too low for economic geothermal energy generation. However, with new technologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), it may be possible to develop geothermal resources from the sedimentary rocks in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). A numerical feasibility study based on a regional geological model and existing and newly gained data was conducted to identify scenarios for geothermal energy production in the region. In central Alberta, three Devonian carbonate formations (Cooking Lake, Nisku, Wabamun) and the Cambrian Basal Sandstone Unit were identified as the highest geothermal potential zones. Thermal-hydraulic reservoir simulations for a 5 km × 5 km site in the city of Edmonton were performed to evaluate reservoir development concepts for these four potential target formations; therefore, hydraulic fracturing treatments were also simulated. Different utilization concepts are presented for possible applications of geothermal energy generation in residential, industrial and agricultural areas. The Cooking Lake formation and the Basal Sandstone Unit are potentially the most promising reservoirs because the most heat can be extracted and the applications for the heat are widespread although the costs are higher than utilizing the shallower formations. Reservoir stimulation considerably improves the economics in all formations

  20. Network analysis of inter-organizational relationships and policy use among active living organizations in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loitz, Christina C; Stearns, Jodie A; Fraser, Shawn N; Storey, Kate; Spence, John C

    2017-08-09

    Coordinated partnerships and collaborations can optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of service and program delivery in organizational networks. However, the extent to which organizations are working together to promote physical activity, and use physical activity policies in Canada, is unknown. This project sought to provide a snapshot of the funding, coordination and partnership relationships among provincial active living organizations (ALOs) in Alberta, Canada. Additionally, the awareness, and use of the provincial policy and national strategy by the organizations was examined. Provincial ALOs (N = 27) answered questions regarding their funding, coordination and partnership connections with other ALOs in the network. Social network analysis was employed to examine network structure and position of each ALO. Discriminant function analysis determined the extent to which degree centrality was associated with the use of the Active Alberta (AA) policy and Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20) strategy. The funding network had a low density level (density = .20) and was centralized around Alberta Tourism Parks and Recreation (ATPR; degree centralization = 48.77%, betweenness centralization = 32.43%). The coordination network had a moderate density level (density = .31), and was low-to-moderately centralized around a few organizations (degree centralization = 45.37%, betweenness centrality = 19.92%). The partnership network had a low density level (density = .15), and was moderate-to-highly centralized around ATPR. Most organizations were aware of AA (89%) and AC 20/20 (78%), however more were using AA (67%) compared to AC 20/20 (33%). Central ALOs in the funding network were more likely to use AA and AC 20/20. Central ALOs in the coordination network were more likely to use AC 20/20, but not AA. Increasing formal and informal relationships between organizations and integrating disconnected or peripheral organizations could increase the capacity of the

  1. Network analysis of inter-organizational relationships and policy use among active living organizations in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Loitz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated partnerships and collaborations can optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of service and program delivery in organizational networks. However, the extent to which organizations are working together to promote physical activity, and use physical activity policies in Canada, is unknown. This project sought to provide a snapshot of the funding, coordination and partnership relationships among provincial active living organizations (ALOs in Alberta, Canada. Additionally, the awareness, and use of the provincial policy and national strategy by the organizations was examined. Methods Provincial ALOs (N = 27 answered questions regarding their funding, coordination and partnership connections with other ALOs in the network. Social network analysis was employed to examine network structure and position of each ALO. Discriminant function analysis determined the extent to which degree centrality was associated with the use of the Active Alberta (AA policy and Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20 strategy. Results The funding network had a low density level (density = .20 and was centralized around Alberta Tourism Parks and Recreation (ATPR; degree centralization = 48.77%, betweenness centralization = 32.43%. The coordination network had a moderate density level (density = .31, and was low-to-moderately centralized around a few organizations (degree centralization = 45.37%, betweenness centrality = 19.92%. The partnership network had a low density level (density = .15, and was moderate-to-highly centralized around ATPR. Most organizations were aware of AA (89% and AC 20/20 (78%, however more were using AA (67% compared to AC 20/20 (33%. Central ALOs in the funding network were more likely to use AA and AC 20/20. Central ALOs in the coordination network were more likely to use AC 20/20, but not AA. Conclusions Increasing formal and informal relationships between organizations and integrating disconnected or

  2. Frasnian-Famennian boundary near Jasper, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldsetzer, H.; Goodfellow, W.D.; McLaren, D.; Orchard, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The extinction event at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary cannot be associated with a first-order event, whether impact, volcanic or other. However, data from Alberta and western Australia suggest a sudden flooding of cratonic areas by anoxic water as the immediate or second-order cause. In the Rocky Mountains near Jasper, Alberta abrupt sedimentological, geochemical and faunal changes occur between bioturbated dolomitic siltstones below and thinly laminated, very pyritic, argillaceous lime mudstones above. The siltstones which overlie thick subtidal sediments that infilled Middle Frasnian reef topography, were deposited in shallow, well oxygenated water and contain a Frasnian gigas Zone conodont fauna. In contrast, the overlying lime mudstones which pass upward into beds with Famennian triangularis Zone conodonts, represent deposition under strongly anoxic conditions; the contained pyrite has anomalously high delta/sup 34/S values suggesting prolonged bacterial reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The abrupt change to anoxic conditions could have been triggered by an ocean turn-over event as a result of which cratonic areas were flooded with anoxic water. This in turn would have caused a sharp reduction of the biomass and large-scale faunal extinctions.

  3. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  4. Epidemiology and genotype analysis of sapovirus associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in Alberta, Canada: 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaoli L; Lee, Bonita E; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Preiksaitis, Jutta K

    2009-02-15

    This study describes the epidemiology and circulating strains of sapovirus associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in Alberta, Canada, from 2004 to 2007. Sapovirus was an important cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, accounting for 43 (17.6%) of 244 outbreaks in which all samples tested were negative for norovirus. All 4 human sapovirus genotypes, GI, GII, GIV, and GV, were found in samples during these outbreaks. The greatest amount of sapovirus-associated outbreak activity occurred in 2007, after the emergence of genotype GIV in December 2006. The majority of sapovirus-associated outbreaks in Alberta during this period (27 [62.8%] of 43) occurred in hospitals, community long-term care facilities, and senior lodges. Adults>65 years of age were the age group most commonly affected.

  5. The ineffable disease: exploring young people's discourses about HIV/AIDS in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Olson, Kärin

    2009-06-01

    The ongoing epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Western societies (in particular in North America), where most of the population knows about the disease and how it is transmitted, suggests that providing information is not enough to change unsafe conduct. More complex psychosocial processes, mainly still unexplored, seem to underlie the translation of health knowledge about the disease and the infection into safe practices. In this article we explore the discourse of young people in Alberta about HIV/AIDS and discuss ways in which this information might be used to shape preventive strategies. We conducted eight focus groups with young people 18 to 25 years of age living in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and analyzed the data using psychosocial discourse analysis. The results confirm the role of young people's interpersonal exchanges in determining HIV/AIDS preventive conduct and show the importance of social discourses about HIV/AIDS in mediating the impact of preventive campaigns on young people's attitudes and beliefs.

  6. Arsenic fractionation and mineralogical characterization of sediments in the Cold Lake area of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Muhammad Babar, E-mail: mjaved@ualberta.ca; Kachanoski, Gary, E-mail: gary.kachanoski@mun.ca; Siddique, Tariq, E-mail: tariq.siddique@ualberta.ca

    2014-12-01

    Elevated arsenic (As > 0.01 mg L{sup −1}) in some domestic well water in the Cold Lake area of Alberta, Canada is of great concern for public health. To determine possible sources of groundwater As, sediments (n = 135) collected from five different locations (up to ∼ 300 m depth) in the area were characterized. Total As concentrations in the sediments varied from ∼ 1 to 35 mg kg{sup −1}. Sediments derived from shale contained high As (∼ 13 mg kg{sup −1}; n = 14), particularly the shale of Lea Park formation where maximum average As was ∼ 32 mg kg{sup −1} (n = 2). Unoxidized sediments of Grand Centre (24.9 ± 4.2 mg kg{sup −1} As) and Bonnyville (19.9 ± 1.8 mg kg{sup −1} As) formations also contained high As. Sequential extraction procedure (SEP) revealed the dominance of exchangeable and specifically adsorbed As (6 to 46% of total As) in the sediments of varying As concentrations (0.8 to 35.4 mg kg{sup −1} As). The high As sediments (> 7 mg kg{sup −1} As) also contained significant amount of sulfide bound As (11 to 34% of total As), while low As (< 7 mg kg{sup −1} As) sediments had crystalline oxide minerals bound As (25 to 75% of total As) as major phases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses confirmed the presence of pyrite, and μ-XRD analysis signaled the presence of arsenopyrite in sediments containing ∼ 20 mg kg{sup −1} As. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis suggested dominance of arsenite (AsIII; ∼ 60 to 90% of total As) in all the sediments. These findings may help to devise strategies to investigate mechanisms of As release into the groundwater. - Highlights: • High arsenic was found in sediments derived from shale. • Arsenic was mainly found in exchangeable and sulfide bound phases. • Pyrite and arsenopyrite minerals were found in high arsenic sediments. • Sulfide minerals in the sediments could be the potential source of groundwater As.

  7. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu L Bourbonnais

    Full Text Available Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife

  8. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others

  9. [Comparing the perspectives of primary care doctors in the Canary Islands and Alberta (Canada)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtani-Chugani, Vinita; López-Hijazo, Asunción; Manca, Donna; Sanz-Alvarez, Emilio

    2012-05-01

    To examine the advantages and disadvantages of two different Health Care Systems from the perspective of Primary Care (PC) physicians. Qualitative research based on the analysis of documents written as diaries for the study. Primary Care in the Canary Islands (Spain) and Alberta (Canada) CONTEXT AND PARTICIPANTS: Intentional sample to identify different profiles of physicians. Participants were asked to write a document describing their work activities, including the impact of the organisational system and on their personal life. Two representatives of the health care system were asked to write a detailed description about how PC is organised in their country. Nine diaries were collected (5 from the Canary Islands and 4 from Alberta). Ritchie & Spencer framework was used for the analysis. In Alberta, physicians have access to more complementary tests; they can offer hospital care; they have to sort out administrative work; they can choose were to work; and can specialise in different types of health care services. In the Canary Islands physicians can have paid holidays and the administrative issues do not depend on them, patients have a physician assigned and seem to have more institutional support. The results of this study allow us to constructively analyse the role of PC physicians, assess the advantages and re-think the disadvantages related to how we work in order to learn from other health care systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Partnerships in Sustainable Tourism Development: The Case of Canmore, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianne Draper

    1992-01-01

    A variety of formal and informal "partnerships" have evolved in the course of planning for the first two of several large-scale, multi-million dollar private sector tourism development projects proposed for the small town of Canmore, adjacent to Banff National Park, Canada. This paper briefly identifies the major impetuses for and the nature of these...

  11. Hazardous Alcohol Use in 2 Countries: A Comparison Between Alberta, Canada and Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Sanchez-Ramirez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This article aimed to compare alcohol consumption between the populations of Queensland in Australia and Alberta in Canada. Furthermore, the associations between greater alcohol consumption and socio-demographic characteristics were explored in each population. Methods Data from 2500 participants of the 2013 Alberta Survey and the 2013 Queensland Social Survey were analyzed. Regression analyses were used to explore the associations between alcohol risk and socio-demographic characteristics. Results A higher rate of hazardous alcohol use was found in Queenslanders than in Albertans. In both Albertans and Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was associated with being between 18 and 24 years of age. Higher income, having no religion, living alone, and being born in Canada were also associated with alcohol risk in Albertans; while in Queenslanders, hazardous alcohol use was also associated with common-law marital status. In addition, hazardous alcohol use was lower among respondents with a non-Catholic or Protestant religious affiliation. Conclusions Younger age was associated with greater hazardous alcohol use in both populations. In addition, different socio-demographic factors were associated with hazardous alcohol use in each of the populations studied. Our results allowed us to identify the socio-demographic profiles associated with hazardous alcohol use in Alberta and Queensland. These profiles constitute valuable sources of information for local health authorities and policymakers when designing suitable preventive strategies targeting hazardous alcohol use. Overall, the present study highlights the importance of analyzing the socio-demographic factors associated with alcohol consumption in population-specific contexts.

  12. Determinants of fire activity during the last 3500 yr at a wildland-urban interface, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emma L.; Courtney Mustaphi, Colin J.; Gall, Amber; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Vermaire, Jesse C.; Moser, Katrina A.

    2016-11-01

    Long-term records of wildfires and their controlling factors are important sources of information for informing land management practices. Here, dendrochronology and lake sediment analyses are used to develop a 3500-yr fire and vegetation history for a montane forest in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. The tree-ring record (AD 1771-2012) indicates that this region historically experienced a mixed-severity fire regime, and that effective fire suppression excluded widespread fire events from the study area during the 20th century. A sediment core collected from Little Trefoil Lake, located near the Jasper townsite, is analyzed for subfossil pollen and macroscopic charcoal (>150 μm). When comparing the tree-ring record to the 3500-yr record of sediment-derived fire events, only high-severity fires are represented in the charcoal record. Comparisons between the charcoal record and historical climate and pollen data indicate that climate and vegetation composition have been important controls on the fire regime for most of the last 3500 yr. Although fire frequency is presently within the historical range of variability, the fire return interval of the last 150 yr is longer than expected given modern climate and vegetation conditions, indicating that humans have become the main control on fire activity around Little Trefoil Lake.

  13. Evaluation of geothermal energy as a heat source for the oilsands industry in Northern Alberta (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M.; Gray, A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Babadagli, T.; Walsh, N.; Weides, S.; Verveda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The extraction and processing of bitumen from the oilsands of Northern Alberta requires very large amounts of heat that is obtained by burning natural gas. At current levels, the gas used represents 6% of Canada's natural gas production. Geothermal energy could potentially provide this heat, thereby reducing both the financial costs and environmental impact of the oilsands industry. The Helmholtz Alberta Initiative is evaluating this application of geothermal energy through an integrated program of geology, geophysics, reservoir simulation and calculations of the cost benefit. A first stage in this evaluation is refining estimates of subsurface temperature beneath Northern Alberta. This has involved three stages: (1) Corrected industrial thermal data have been used to revise estimates of the upper crustal temperatures beneath the oilsands regions in Alberta. The geothermal gradient map produced using heat flow and thermal conductivity for the entire Phanerozoic column suggests that the overall gradient of the entire column is less than the gradients calculated directly from industry measurements. (2) Paleoclimatic corrections must be applied , since this region has experienced a significant increase in surface temperatures since the end of the last ice age causing a perturbation of shallow heat flow. For this reason, estimates of geothermal gradient based on shallow data are not necessarily characteristic of the whole sedimentary column and can lead to errors in temperature prediction at depth. (3) Improved measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity of the crystalline basement rocks (average = 2.9±0.8 W/m K). Thermal conductivity exhibits significant spatial variability and to a large degree controls the temperature conditions in the Precambrian crystalline basement rocks and its heat content at given heat flow-heat generation. When these steps are used to calculate subsurface temperatures, it can be shown that the temperatures required for geothermal

  14. 76 FR 44604 - Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY... availability of the Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact... resident Canada geese. Action is needed at this time to manage the restored wetlands at the Park. The Plan...

  15. Development and implementation of the compensation plan for pharmacy services in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Rene R; Whissell, Jeff G; Hughes, Christine A; Schindel, Theresa J

    To describe experiences with development and implementation of a compensation plan for pharmacy services delivered by pharmacists in community pharmacies. Community pharmacy practice in Alberta, Canada. Pharmacists in Alberta have one of the most progressive scopes of practice in North America. They have authority to prescribe drugs independently, administer drugs by injection, access electronic health records, and order laboratory tests. A publicly funded compensation plan for pharmacy services was implemented in 2012. Principles that guided development of the compensation plan aimed to 1) ensure payment for pharmacy services, 2) support pharmacists in using their full scope of practice, 3) enable the development of long-term relationships with patients, 4) facilitate expansion of services delivered by pharmacists, and 5) provide access to pharmacy services for all eligible Albertans. Services covered by the compensation plan include care planning, prescribing, and administering drugs by injection. The guiding principles were used to evaluate experiences with the compensation plan. Claims for pharmacy services covered by the compensation plan increased from 30,000 per month in July 2012 to 170,000 per month in March 2016. From September 2015 to August 2016, 1226 pharmacies submitted claims for services provided by 3901 pharmacists. The number of pharmacists with authorization to prescribe and administer injections continued to increase following implementation of the plan. Alberta's experiences with the development and implementation of the compensation plan will be of interest to jurisdictions considering implementation of remunerated pharmacy services. The potential impact of the plan on health and economic outcomes, in addition to the value of the services as perceived by the public, patients, pharmacists, and other health care providers, should also be explored. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of season, temperature and humidity on the incidence of epistaxis in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Classical dogma holds that epistaxis is more common in winter months but there is significant variability reported in the literature. No study has yet examined the effect of season, humidity and temperature on epistaxis in a location with as severe weather extremes as seen in Alberta, Canada. The objective of the study is to evaluate for an effect of these meteorological factors on the incidence of epistaxis in Alberta. Method A retrospective review of consecutive adult patients presenting to the Emergency room (ER) in Edmonton and Calgary, Alberta over a three-year period was performed. Daily temperature and humidity data was recorded from the respective airports. Statistical analysis with Pearson’s correlation coefficient was performed. Results 4315 patients presented during the study period. Mean daily temperatures ranged from a low of -40°C to a high of +23°C. A significant negative correlation was found for mean monthly temperature with epistaxis (Pearson’s r = -0.835, p = 0.001). A significant correlation was also present for daily temperature and epistaxis presentation (Pearson’s r = -0.55, p = 0.018, range 1.8 to 2.2 events/day). No correlation was identified with humidity and no significant seasonal variation was present. Conclusions A negative correlation was found to exist for both daily and mean monthly temperature with rates of epistaxis. A seasonal variation was seen in Edmonton but not in Calgary. No correlation was found for humidity when compared to both presentation rates and admissions. PMID:24755112

  17. Habitat associations with counts of declining Western Grebes in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara E. Erickson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past several decades, numbers of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis have declined throughout their breeding and wintering ranges in North America. We estimated Western Grebe abundance and documented habitat factors between 2007 and 2009 from 43 lakes in Alberta, Canada where Western Grebes historically have occurred, to (1 compare Western Grebe abundance with the relative probability of persistence, and (2 identify habitat correlates of grebe abundance. The relative probability of Western Grebe persistence was correlated with abundance in the study area, although only 19% of the variation in persistence probability was explained by abundance. Western Grebe abundance was positively correlated with the shoreline extent of emergent bulrush (Scirpus lacustris, which is consistent with past studies and underlies the importance of protecting emergent vegetation in efforts to conserve Western Grebes. Grebe abundance also was positively correlated with a longer shoreline perimeter, but was inversely correlated with the amount of forested backshore, which occurred on lakes primarily at the northern margins of Western Grebe range. The amount of backshore development was positively associated with Western Grebe abundance, which might reflect a preference for similar lake characteristics by humans and grebes. These relationships are important to consider in the context of implementing and managing recovery of the Western Grebe in Alberta.

  18. Information literacy skills and training of licensed practical nurses in Alberta, Canada: results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadson, Kelley; Phillips, Leah Adeline

    2018-06-01

    Although information literacy skills are recognized as important to the curriculum and professional outcomes of two-year nursing programs, there is a lack of research on the information literacy skills and support needed by graduates. To identify the information literacy skills and consequent training and support required of Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) in Alberta, Canada. An online survey using a random sample of new graduates (graduated within 5 years) from the registration database of the College of Practical Nurses of Alberta (CLPNA). There was a 43% response rate. Approximately 25-38% of LPNs felt they were only moderately or to a small extent prepared to use evidence effectively in their professional practice. LPNs use the internet and websites most frequently, in contrast to library resources that are used least frequently. Developing lifelong learning skills, using information collaboratively, and locating and retrieving information are areas where LPNs desire more effective or increased training. The results suggest there are significant gaps in the preparedness and ability of LPNs to access and apply research evidence effectively in the workplace. There are several areas in which the training provided by Librarians appears either misaligned or ineffective. © 2018 Health Libraries Group.

  19. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia in Calgary, Alberta, Canada: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Christine Shysh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML was determined in the Calgary Metropolitan Area, a major Canadian city. Methods Data from all patients diagnosed with AML between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from a single, centralized cancer cytogenetics laboratory for bone marrow samples, the sole diagnostic facility of its kind in Southern Alberta. Results The calculated incidence rate was 2.79 cases per 100,000 person-years with a median age of 60, slightly lower than previously published data. The age-standardized incidence rate for Canada was 3.46 cases per 100,000 person-years. The higher value is reflective of Calgary’s younger population compared to the rest of Canada. Higher male incidence and greatest incidence occurring at approximately the age of 85 is similar to data from other developed countries. The lower incidence rates and median age of diagnosis, in comparison with that of other high-income nations, may be due to differences in the proportion of aging citizens in the population. Conclusion This is the first published incidence rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML in Canada across all age groups.

  20. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  1. Managing regional cumulative effects of oil sands development in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaling, H.; Zwier, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an approach to regional cumulative effects management using the case of oil sands development in Alberta, Canada. The 17 existing, approved, or planned projects, all concentrated in a relatively small region, pose significant challenges for conducting and reviewing cumulative effects assessment (CEA) on a project-by-project basis. In response, stakeholders have initiated a regional cumulative effects management system that is among the first such initiatives anywhere. Advantages of this system include (1) more efficient gathering and sharing of information, including a common regional database, (2) setting acceptable regional environmental thresholds for all projects, (3) collaborative assessment of similar cumulative effects from related projects, (4) co-ordinated regulatory review and approval process for overlapping CEAs, and (5) institutional empowerment from a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy administered by a public authority. This case provides a model for integrating project-based CEA with regional management of cumulative effects. (author)

  2. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  3. Énergie et environnement: l’exploitation des sables bitumineux en Alberta (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Héritier

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Découverts dans les années 1930, les secteurs de sables bitumineux (ou pétrolifères de l’Ouest canadien sont caractérisés par une intense exploitation, accélérée et stimulée depuis la décennie 1990, liée à l’explosion de la demande mondiale et aux prix élevés du baril de pétrole. Grâce à cette activité, l’Alberta est devenue l’une des provinces les plus dynamiques du Canada. L’exploitation, concédée à des entreprises pétrolières nationales et internationales, contribue à stimuler à la fois l’économie et la démographie de la province, où les revenus et les conditions économiques générales sont devenus particulièrement attractifs. Dans le même temps l’Alberta et le Canada se trouvent en situation délicate par rapport aux engagements internationaux, l’exploitation et la production du pétrole ayant des effets environnementaux importants tels que l’augmentation de la production de gaz à effets de serre, alors que les économies locales et régionales fondent leurs projets de croissance sur les revenus dégagés par cette exploitation.

  4. Perspectives on grizzly bear management in Banff National Park and the Bow River Watershed, Alberta: A Q methodology study

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Emily Carter

    2006-01-01

    Conserving populations of large carnivores such as grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) requires not only biophysical research, but also an understanding of the values and beliefs of the people involved with and affected by carnivore management. I used Q methodology to examine views of stakeholders concerning grizzly bear management in the Banff-Bow Valley region of Alberta, Canada. In recent years, decision-making about bears in this region has been characterized by acrimonious disputes over scienti...

  5. Climate change scenarios for Canada's national parks : a users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Wun, N.; Scott, D.; Barrow, E.

    2003-01-01

    A screening level impact assessment has shown that the implications of climate change for Canada's national parks are considerable. Climate change scenarios will be an important component in examining the potential climate change impacts and the implications of adaptation strategies. Most climate change scenarios are based on vulnerability, impact and adaptation research. This user's manual describes the development of 3 types of climate change scenarios including scenarios from global climate models (GCMs), bioclimate scenarios and daily scenarios for use by Parks Canada. The manual offers advice to first-time climate change scenario users in choosing and interpreting climate change, bioclimate and daily scenarios. It also addresses the theoretical and practical foundations of each climate scenario and shows how to access data regarding the various scenarios. Hands-on exercises are included as an interpretive aid. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 19 figs

  6. Full genome analysis of enterovirus D-68 strains circulating in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabbaraju, Kanti; Wong, Sallene; Drews, Steven J; Tipples, Graham; Tellier, Raymond

    2016-07-01

    A widespread outbreak of enterovirus (EV)-D68 that started in the summer of 2014 has been reported in the USA and Canada. During the course of this outbreak, EV-D68 was identified as a possible cause of acute, unexplained severe respiratory illness and a temporal association was observed between acute flaccid paralysis with anterior myelitis and EV-D68 detection in the upper respiratory tract. In this study, four nasopharyngeal samples collected from patients in Alberta, Canada with a laboratory diagnosis of EV-D68 were used to determine the near full-length genome sequence directly from the specimens. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to study the genotypes and pathogenesis of the circulating strains. Our results support the contention that mutations in the VP1 gene and other regions of the genome causing altered antigenicity, as well as lack of immunity in the younger population, may be responsible for the increased severe respiratory disease outbreaks of EV-D68 worldwide. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The distribution of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada) and associated aqueous geochemistry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Nightingale, Michael; Becker, Veith; Kingston, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen; Millot, Romain; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Development of unconventional energy resources such as shale gas and coalbed methane has generated some public concern with regard to the protection of groundwater and surface water resources from leakage of stray gas from the deep subsurface. In terms of environmental impact to and risk assessment of shallow groundwater resources, the ultimate challenge is to distinguish: (a) natural in-situ production of biogenic methane, (b) biogenic or thermogenic methane migration into shallow aquifers due to natural causes, and (c) thermogenic methane migration from deep sources due to human activities associated with the exploitation of conventional or unconventional oil and gas resources. We have conducted a NSERC-ANR co-funded baseline study investigating the occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater of Alberta (Canada), a province with a long record of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon exploration. Our objective was to assess the occurrence and sources of methane in shallow groundwaters and to also characterize the hydrochemical environment in which the methane was formed or transformed through redox processes. Ultimately our aim was to determine whether methane was formed in-situ or whether it migrated from deeper formations into shallow aquifers. Combining hydrochemical and dissolved and free geochemical gas data from 372 groundwater samples obtained from 186 monitoring wells of the provincial groundwater observation well network (GOWN) in Alberta, it was found that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater in Alberta and is predominantly of biogenic origin. The highest concentrations of dissolved biogenic methane (> 0.01 mM or > 0.2 mg/L), characterized by δ13CCH4 values deep thermogenic gas that had migrated in significant amounts into shallow aquifers either naturally or via anthropogenically induced pathways. This study shows that the combined interpretation of aqueous geochemistry data in concert with the chemical and isotopic composition of dissolved and

  8. Spatial and temporal occurrence of bacterial pathogens in rural water supplies, Southern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, V.; Graham, T. A.; Read, S.; Ziebell, K.; Muckle, A.; Thomas, J.; Selinger, B.; Kienzle, S.; Lapp, S. L.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J.

    2002-12-01

    Southern Alberta has the highest rate of gastrointestinal illness in the province, and some of the highest infection rates in Canada. The region has extensive field crop irrigation system supporting a rapidly expanding animal agriculture industry. Recently, there has been much public concern about the safety and quality of water in this region, particularly with respect to drinking water supplies for farm residences and rural communities, where water treatment may be less than optimal. We have tested raw river and irrigation water in the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta for the presence of bacterial pathogens (E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp ) as well as made counts of total and faecal coliforms over the last two years (2000-2001). E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. isolations and coliform counts peak in raw water from this system during the summer months. E. coli O157:H7 was only isolated from 27/1624 (1.7%) and Salmonella was isolated from 158/1624 (9.7%) of raw water samples over the two year period. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. S. Rublislaw was the most common Salmonella serovar isolated in both years. While this serovar is rarely associated with human or animal disease in Alberta, other Salmonella serovars isolated, such as Typhimurium, are commonly disease-associated. This poster presents initial analyses of the spatial and temporal properties of pathogen occurrences in the Oldman Basin in 2000 and 2001. Seasonal variability in the occurrence of pathogens is particularly interesting and of concern. Early results demonstrate the pathogen occurrences peak during the height of the summer recreation season; posing a substantial infection risk for the public and tourism populations. Human consumption of inadequately treated water in this

  9. Assessment of climate change effects on Canada's National Park system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffling, Roger; Scott, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated for Canada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonal temperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050 and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems and people. Important, widespread changes relate to marine and freshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern and upward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combined East coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosion and deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic uplift negates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individual parks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migrate lakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroy the fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. For example: we could not form conclusions about glacial mass balance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for the East Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty.

  10. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Andrew C R; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply) and top-down (mortality risk from roads) factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk) for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk) for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration) have the highest potential utility.

  11. Public perceptions of key performance indicators of healthcare in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Herbert C; Harvey, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    To examine the relationship between public perceptions of key performance indicators assessing various aspects of the health-care system. Cross-sequential survey research. Annual telephone surveys of random samples of adult Albertans selected by random digit dialing and stratified according to age, sex and region (n = 4000 for each survey year). The survey questionnaires included single-item measures of key performance indicators to assess public perceptions of availability, accessibility, quality, outcome and satisfaction with healthcare. Cronbach's α and factor analysis were used to assess the relationship between key performance indicators focusing on the health-care system overall and on a recent interaction with the health-care system. The province of Alberta, Canada during the years 1996-2004. Four thousand adults randomly selected each survey year. Survey questions measuring public perceptions of healthcare availability, accessibility, quality, outcome and satisfaction with healthcare. Factor analysis identified two principal components with key performance indicators focusing on the health system overall loading most strongly on the first component and key performance indicators focusing on the most recent health-care encounter loading most strongly on the second component. Assessments of the quality of care most recently received, accessibility of that care and perceived outcome of care tended to be higher than the more general assessments of overall health system quality and accessibility. Assessments of specific health-care encounters and more general assessments of the overall health-care system, while related, nevertheless comprise separate dimensions for health-care evaluation.

  12. Prioritizing Sites for Protection and Restoration for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos in Southwestern Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C R Braid

    Full Text Available As the influence of human activities on natural systems continues to expand, there is a growing need to prioritize not only pristine sites for protection, but also degraded sites for restoration. We present an approach for simultaneously prioritizing sites for protection and restoration that considers landscape patterns for a threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in southwestern Alberta, Canada. We considered tradeoffs between bottom-up (food resource supply and top-down (mortality risk from roads factors affecting seasonal habitat quality for bears. Simulated annealing was used to prioritize source-like sites (high habitat productivity, low mortality risk for protection, as well as sink-like sites (high habitat productivity, high mortality risk for restoration. Priority source-like habitats identified key conservation areas where future developments should be limited, whereas priority sink-like habitats identified key areas for mitigating road-related mortality risk with access management. Systematic conservation planning methods can be used to complement traditional habitat-based methods for individual focal species by identifying habitats where conservation actions (both protection and restoration have the highest potential utility.

  13. Density-based reflectivity in seismic exploration for coal in Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C.; Lyatsky, H.V. (University of Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1991-01-01

    At a coal field in central Alberta, Canada, the acoustic reflectivity of shallow coal seams was found to be dominated by the density contrast between coal and host bentonitic sediments. Sonic logs and a check-shot survey showed that the compressional-wave velocity is almost constant through the coal zone and the overlying sediments, and ranges in value between 2000 m/s and 2350 m/s over different parts of the coal field. The average coal density is 1400 kg/m{sup 3}, whereas the density of the sediments is about 2200 kg/m{sup 3}. Results are illustrated using logs from a typical drillhole in the coal field. At this location, the time reflectivity sequence based on both the density and sonic logs is very similar to that obtained when the density log only is used, with a constant velocity assumed through the coal zone. At another drillhole location in the coal field, where reflection seismic data had been acquired, a synthetic seismogram generated from the density log closely matches the stacked seismic section. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Response of Sphagnum fuscum to Nitrogen Deposition: A Case Study of Ombrogenous Peatlands in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitt, D.H.; Wieder, K.; Halsey, L.A.; Turetsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands cover about 30% of northeastern Alberta and are ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen deposition. In polluted areas of the UK, high atmospheric N deposition (as a component of acid deposition) has been considered among the causes of Sphagnum decline in bogs (ombrogenous peatlands). In relatively unpolluted areas of western Canada and northern Sweden, short-term experimental studies have shown that Sphagnum responds quickly to nutrient loading, with uptake and retention of nitrogen and increased production. Here we examine the response of Sphagnum fuscum to enhanced nitrogen deposition generated during 34 years of oil sands mining through the determination of net primary production (NPP) and nitrogen concentrations in the upper peat column. We chose six continental bogs receiving differing atmospheric nitrogen loads (modeled using a CALPUFF 2D dispersion model). Sphagnum fuscum net primary production (NPP) at the high deposition site (Steepbank - mean of 600 g/m2; median of 486 g/m2) was over three times as high than at five other sites with lower N deposition. Additionally, production of S. fuscum may be influenced to some extent by distance of the moss surface from the water table. Across all sites, peat nitrogen concentrations are highest at the surface, decreasing in the top 3 cm with no significant change with increasing depth. We conclude that elevated N deposition at the Steepbank site has enhanced Sphagnum production. Increased N concentrations are evident only in the top 1-cm of the peat profile. Thus, 34 years after mine startup, increased N-deposition has increased net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum without causing elevated levels of nitrogen in the organic matter profile. A response to N-stress for Sphagnum fuscum is proposed at 14-34 kg ha-1 yr-1. A review of N-deposition values reveals a critical N-deposition value of between 14.8 and 15.7 kg ha -1 yr-1 for NPP of Sphagnum species.

  15. Positioning pharmacists' roles in primary health care: a discourse analysis of the compensation plan in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine A; Breault, Rene R; Hicks, Deborah; Schindel, Theresa J

    2017-11-23

    A comprehensive Compensation Plan for pharmacy services delivered by community pharmacists was implemented in Alberta, Canada in July 2012. Services covered by the Compensation Plan include care planning services, prescribing services such as adapting prescriptions, and administering a drug or publicly-funded vaccine by injection. Understanding how the Compensation Plan was framed and communicated provides insight into the roles of pharmacists and the potential influence of language on the implementation of services covered by the Compensation Plan by Albertan pharmacists. The objective of this study is to examine the positioning of pharmacists' roles in documents used to communicate the Compensation Plan to Albertan pharmacists and other audiences. Publicly available documents related to the Compensation Plan, such as news releases or reports, published between January 2012 and December 2015 were obtained from websites such as the Government of Alberta, Alberta Blue Cross, the Alberta College of Pharmacists, the Alberta Pharmacists' Association, and the Blueprint for Pharmacy. Searches of the Canadian Newsstand database and Google identified additional documents. Discourse analysis was performed using social positioning theory to explore how pharmacists' roles were constructed in communications about the Compensation Plan. In total, 65 publicly available documents were included in the analysis. The Compensation Plan was put forward as a framework for payment for professional services and formal legitimization of pharmacists' changing professional roles. The discourse associated with the Compensation Plan positioned pharmacists' roles as: (1) expanding to include services such as medication management for chronic diseases, (2) contributing to primary health care by providing access to services such as prescription renewals and immunizations, and (3) collaborating with other health care team members. Pharmacists' changing roles were positioned in alignment with the

  16. Positioning pharmacists’ roles in primary health care: a discourse analysis of the compensation plan in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Hughes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A comprehensive Compensation Plan for pharmacy services delivered by community pharmacists was implemented in Alberta, Canada in July 2012. Services covered by the Compensation Plan include care planning services, prescribing services such as adapting prescriptions, and administering a drug or publicly-funded vaccine by injection. Understanding how the Compensation Plan was framed and communicated provides insight into the roles of pharmacists and the potential influence of language on the implementation of services covered by the Compensation Plan by Albertan pharmacists. The objective of this study is to examine the positioning of pharmacists’ roles in documents used to communicate the Compensation Plan to Albertan pharmacists and other audiences. Methods Publicly available documents related to the Compensation Plan, such as news releases or reports, published between January 2012 and December 2015 were obtained from websites such as the Government of Alberta, Alberta Blue Cross, the Alberta College of Pharmacists, the Alberta Pharmacists’ Association, and the Blueprint for Pharmacy. Searches of the Canadian Newsstand database and Google identified additional documents. Discourse analysis was performed using social positioning theory to explore how pharmacists’ roles were constructed in communications about the Compensation Plan. Results In total, 65 publicly available documents were included in the analysis. The Compensation Plan was put forward as a framework for payment for professional services and formal legitimization of pharmacists’ changing professional roles. The discourse associated with the Compensation Plan positioned pharmacists’ roles as: (1 expanding to include services such as medication management for chronic diseases, (2 contributing to primary health care by providing access to services such as prescription renewals and immunizations, and (3 collaborating with other health care team members

  17. A Multi-Faceted Debris-Flood Hazard Assessment for Cougar Creek, Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A destructive debris flood occurred between 19 and 21 June 2013 on Cougar Creek, located in Canmore, Alberta. Cougar Creek fan is likely the most densely developed alluvial fan in Canada. While no lives were lost, the event resulted in approximately $40 M of damage and closed both the Trans-Canada Highway (Highway 1 and the Canadian Pacific Railway line for a period of several days. The debris flood triggered a comprehensive hazard assessment which is the focus of this paper. Debris-flood frequencies and magnitudes are determined by combining several quantitative methods including photogrammetry, dendrochronology, radiometric dating, test pit logging, empirical relationships between rainfall volumes and sediment volumes, and landslide dam outburst flood modeling. The data analysis suggests that three distinct process types act in the watershed. The most frequent process is normal or “clearwater” floods. Less frequent but more damaging are debris floods during which excessive amounts of bedload are transported on the fan, typically associated with rapid and extensive bank erosion and channel infilling and widening. The third and most destructive process is interpreted to be landslide dam outbreak floods. This event type is estimated to occur at return periods exceeding 300 years. Using a cumulative magnitude frequency technique, the data for conventional debris floods were plotted up to the 100–300s year return period. A peak-over-threshold approach was used for landslide dam outbreak floods occurring at return periods exceeding 300 years, as not all such events were identified during test trenching. Hydrographs for 6 return period classes were approximated by using the estimated peak discharges and fitting the hydrograph shape to integrate to the debris flood volumes as determined from the frequency-magnitude relationship. The fan volume was calculated and compared with the integrated frequency-magnitude curve to check of the validity of

  18. Salmonella enteritidis infections associated with foods purchased from mobile lunch trucks--Alberta, Canada, October 2010-February 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    During October 2010-February 2011, an outbreak of 91 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in Alberta, Canada, was investigated by a local public health department (Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone). Index cases initially were linked through a common history of consumption of food purchased from mobile food-vending vehicles (lunch trucks) operating at worksites in Alberta. Further investigation implicated one catering company that supplied items for the lunch trucks and other vendors. In 85 cases, patients reported consumption of food prepared by the catering company in the 7 days before illness. Six patients were employees of the catering company, and two food samples collected from the catering company were positive for SE. Foods likely were contaminated directly or indirectly through the use of illegally sourced, SE-contaminated eggs at the implicated catering facility and by catering employees who were infected with SE. Public health interventions put into place to control the outbreak included screening employees for Salmonella, excluding those infected from food-handling duties, and training employees in safe food-handling procedures. No further outbreak cases were identified after full implementation of the interventions. This investigation highlights the potential for lunch trucks to be a source of foodborne illness and the need for robust regulatory compliance monitoring of lunch trucks and their food suppliers.

  19. Origin and geochemistry of saline spring waters in the Athabasca oil sands region, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, Anita E.; Mayer, Bernhard; Grasby, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Saline groundwater enters the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers in the AOSR via springs. • High TDS is due to subsurface dissolution of Devonian evaporites and carbonates. • Low δ 18 O values, and 3 H and 14 C data suggest some Laurentide glacial meltwater input. • Bacterial sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and CH 4 oxidation were identified. • Metal and PAH contents are reported; bitumen does not appear to be major influence. - Abstract: The geochemistry of saline spring waters in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR) in Alberta (Canada) discharging from Devonian carbonate rocks into the Athabasca and Clearwater rivers was characterized for major ions, trace elements, dissolved gases, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, stable isotope analyses of H 2 O, SO 4 , dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Sr, and CH 4 were used to trace the sources of spring waters and their dissolved solutes, and to identify subsurface processes affecting water chemistry. The spring waters had δ 18 O values as low as −23.5‰, suggesting they are composed of up to 75% Laurentide glacial meltwater. Tritium and radiocarbon age-dating results, analyzed for three spring waters, supported a glacial origin. The high salinity of the spring waters (TDS 7210–51,800 mg/L) was due to dissolution of Devonian evaporite and carbonate deposits in the subsurface. Spring waters were affected by bacterial (dissimilatory) sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and methane oxidation. Trace elements were present in spring waters at varying concentrations, with only one spring containing several predominant oil sands metals (As, Fe, Mo, Ni, Se, Zn) suggesting bitumen as a source. Five springs contained elements (Al, As, B, Fe, Se) at concentrations exceeding water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Seven PAHs were detected in spring waters (total PAH concentrations ranged from 7.3 to 273.6 ng/L), but most springs contained a maximum of two PAHs

  20. Air emissions from sour-gas processing plants and dairy-cattle reproduction in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, H M; Soskolne, C L; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Lissemore, K D; Coppock, R W; Guidotti, T L

    2003-02-15

    The dispersion of air pollutants from all 231 licensed sour-gas processing plants in Alberta, Canada, was modeled on a monthly basis over a 10-year period (1985-1994). Exposure estimates for sulfur dioxide (SO(2)-used as a surrogate for exposure to combusted emissions) then were assigned to 1382 provincial dairy farms using a geographical-information system. Individual average and peak exposure for periods prior to each of 15 months of age and conception (four exposure-averaging periods for each of two dispersion models) were estimated for 163,988 primiparous female dairy-cattle between 1986 and 1994. Monthly or annual average farm-site exposure estimates likewise were assigned to associated herd-level data sets for the biologically relevant period of interest for each of three additional reproductive outcomes: monthly herd-average calving interval, stillbirth risk, and twinning risk. In one of the main-effects models, the maximum (i.e., peak) monthly sour-gas exposure experienced by individual-animals from birth to conception was associated with an increased time to first-calving in the very-highest exposure category (hazard ratio=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.92). This equates to a decreased hazard (lambda) of calving (in each month subsequent to 22 months of age) for the highest-exposure animals (lambda=0.170) versus the zero-exposure animals (lambda=0.198) in a model with referent values for agro-ecological region and season of birth. The dose-response was not consistent across the full range of exposure categories. There was significant (P=0.003) interaction of emissions with agro-ecological region. After accounting for the interaction, a more-consistent dose-response was evident for some (but not all) agro-ecological regions. This suggests that any effect of emissions on dairy-heifer reproduction is subject to modification by features of soil type, vegetative cover, and/or climate. The increase in monthly herd-average calving interval on farms exposed to the very

  1. Human perspectives and conservation of grizzly bears in Banff National Park, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Emily C; Rutherford, Murray B; Gibeau, Michael L

    2012-06-01

    Some conservation initiatives provoke intense conflict among stakeholders. The need for action, the nature of the conservation measures, and the effects of these measures on human interests may be disputed. Tools are needed to depolarize such situations, foster understanding of the perspectives of people involved, and find common ground. We used Q methodology to explore stakeholders' perspectives on conservation and management of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in Banff National Park and the Bow River watershed of Alberta, Canada. Twenty-nine stakeholders participated in the study, including local residents, scientists, agency employees, and representatives of nongovernmental conservation organizations and other interest groups. Participants rank ordered a set of statements to express their opinions on the problems of grizzly bear management (I-IV) and a second set of statements on possible solutions to the problems (A-C). Factor analysis revealed that participants held 4 distinct views of the problems: individuals associated with factor I emphasized deficiencies in goals and plans; those associated with factor II believed that problems had been exaggerated; those associated with factor III blamed institutional flaws such as disjointed management and inadequate resources; and individuals associated with factor IV blamed politicized decision making. There were 3 distinct views about the best solutions to the problems: individuals associated with factor A called for increased conservation efforts; those associated with factor B wanted reforms in decision-making processes; and individuals associated with factor C supported active landscape management. We connected people's definitions of the problem with their preferred solutions to form 5 overall problem narratives espoused by groups in the study: the problem is deficient goals and plans, the solution is to prioritize conservation efforts (planning-oriented conservation advocates); the problem is flawed

  2. Prevalence of digital dermatitis in young stock in Alberta, Canada, using pen walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C; Orsel, K; Barkema, H W

    2017-11-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD), an infectious bacterial foot lesion prevalent in dairy cattle worldwide, reduces both animal welfare and production. This disease was recently identified in replacement dairy heifers, with implications including increased risk of DD and decreased milk production in first lactation, poor reproductive performance, and altered hoof conformation. Therefore, a simple and effective method is needed to identify DD in young stock and to determine risk factors for DD in this group so that effective control strategies can be implemented. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of DD in young stock (based on pen walks); and (2) identify potential risk factors for DD in young stock. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 dairy farms in Alberta, Canada; pen walks were used to identify DD (present/absent) on the hind feet of group-housed, young dairy stock. A subset of 583 young stock on 5 farms were selected for chute inspection of feet to determine the accuracy of pen walks for DD detection. Pen walks as a means of identifying DD lesions on the hind feet in young stock had sensitivity and specificity at the animal level of 65 and 98%, with positive and negative predictive values of 94 and 83%, respectively, at a prevalence of 37%. At the foot level, pen walks had sensitivity and specificity of 62 and 98%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 92 and 88%, respectively, at a prevalence of 26%. Pen walks identified DD in 79 [2.9%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.3-3.6%] of 2,815 young stock on 11 (39%; 95% CI: 22-59%) of 28 farms, with all 79 DD-positive young stock ≥309 d of age. Apparent within-herd prevalence estimates ranged from 0 to 9.3%, with a mean of 1.4%. True within-herd prevalence of DD in young stock, calculated using the sensitivity and specificity of the pen walks, ranged from 0 to 12.6%, with a mean of 1.4%. On the 11 DD-positive farms, the proportion of young stock >12 mo of age

  3. Fluvial to tidal transition zone facies in the McMurray Formation (Christina River, Alberta, Canada), with emphasis on the reflection of flow intensity in bottomset architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinius, A. W.; Jablonski, B. V J; Fustic, M.; Strobl, R.; Van den Berg, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    An outcrop of the McMurray Formation along the Christina River (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated to better understand depositional processes and setting. The succession is formed by large-scale tabular sets of unidirectional trough cross-stratification. Many of these sets are characterized by

  4. The Provision of Post-Secondary Education and Vocational Training in the Province of Alberta, Canada. Coombe Lodge Working Paper. Information Bank Number 2034.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, D. T.

    This paper, written as the result of a two-month study visit to Alberta during May and June, 1984, attempts to describe the broad provision for education and vocational training in the postsecondary system. The paper is organized in five sections. It begins with an overview of the educational system of Canada as a whole, including the role of the…

  5. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  6. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns in trace element deposition to lakes in the Athabasca oil sands region (Alberta, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A.; Kirk, Jane L.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Wiklund, Johan A.; Wang, Xiaowa; Gleason, Amber; Evans, Marlene S.

    2017-12-01

    The mining and processing of the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) has been occurring for decades; however, a lack of consistent regional monitoring has obscured the long-term environmental impact. Here, we present sediment core results to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns in trace element deposition to lakes in the Athabasca oil sands region. Early mining operations (during the 1970s and 1980s) led to elevated V and Pb inputs to lakes located quality guidelines, and no spatial or temporal trends were observed in the frequency of guideline exceedence. Our results demonstrate that early mining efforts had an even greater impact on trace element cycling than has been appreciated previously, placing recent monitoring efforts in a critical long-term context.

  8. Information needs, sources, and decision-making by hatching egg and broiler chicken producers: A qualitative study in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R Michele; Russell, Margaret; Inglis, Tom; Mitevski, Darko; Hall, David

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sources and use of information from hatching egg and broiler chicken producers, their constraints, and unmet information needs can help define future research agendas. This report presents the results from a qualitative study using interviews of 11 hatching egg producers and 12 broiler producers in Alberta, Canada. Patterns were reported and described using thematic analysis. Producers recognized that there were numerous sources of information available to them for managing disease in their flocks. Complex disease issues such as early mortality were discussed, but many producers did not believe they had any influence over the outcomes and did not see a benefit from additional information to improve outcomes. Producers described their experience, trust in the information source, and the usefulness of the information for decision-making as necessary for information uptake.

  9. Cumulative impact of 40 years of industrial sulfur emissions on a forest soil in west-central Alberta (Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prietzel, Joerg; Mayer, Bernhard; Legge, Allan H.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of 40 years of sulfur (S) emissions from a sour gas processing plant in Alberta (Canada) on soil development, soil S pools, soil acidification, and stand nutrition at a pine (Pinus contorta x Pinus banksiana) ecosystem was assessed by comparing ecologically analogous areas subjected to different S deposition levels. Sulfur isotope ratios showed that most deposited S was derived from the sour gas processing plant. The soil subjected to the highest S deposition contained 25.9 kmol S ha -1 (uppermost 60 cm) compared to 12.5 kmol S ha -1 or less at the analogues receiving low S deposition. The increase in soil S pools was caused by accumulation of organic S in the forest floor and accumulation of inorganic sulfate in the mineral soil. High S inputs resulted in topsoil acidification, depletion of exchangeable soil Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ pools by 50%, podzolization, and deterioration of N nutrition of the pine trees

  10. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humez, P.; Mayer, B.; Ing, J.; Nightingale, M.; Becker, V.; Kingston, A.; Akbilgic, O.; Taylor, S.

    2016-01-01

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10 mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged − 69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n = 63) in free gas and − 65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n = 26) in dissolved gas. δ"1"3C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ"1"3C values in concert with average δ"2H_C_H_4 values of − 289 ± 44‰ (n = 45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO_2 reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically > 500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100–250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed. - Highlights: • Analysis of gas geochemical data from 186 monitoring wells in

  11. Occurrence and origin of methane in groundwater in Alberta (Canada): Gas geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humez, P., E-mail: phumez@ucalgary.ca [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Mayer, B.; Ing, J.; Nightingale, M.; Becker, V.; Kingston, A. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Akbilgic, O. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); UTHSC-ORNL Center for Biomedical Informatics, 910 Madison Avenue, Memphis, TN, 38104 (United States); Taylor, S. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    To assess potential future impacts on shallow aquifers by leakage of natural gas from unconventional energy resource development it is essential to establish a reliable baseline. Occurrence of methane in shallow groundwater in Alberta between 2006 and 2014 was assessed and was ubiquitous in 186 sampled monitoring wells. Free and dissolved gas sampling and measurement approaches yielded comparable results with low methane concentrations in shallow groundwater, but in 28 samples from 21 wells methane exceeded 10 mg/L in dissolved gas and 300,000 ppmv in free gas. Methane concentrations in free and dissolved gas samples were found to increase with well depth and were especially elevated in groundwater obtained from aquifers containing coal seams and shale units. Carbon isotope ratios of methane averaged − 69.7 ± 11.1‰ (n = 63) in free gas and − 65.6 ± 8.9‰ (n = 26) in dissolved gas. δ{sup 13}C values were not found to vary with well depth or lithology indicating that methane in Alberta groundwater was derived from a similar source. The low δ{sup 13}C values in concert with average δ{sup 2}H{sub CH4} values of − 289 ± 44‰ (n = 45) suggest that most methane was of biogenic origin predominantly generated via CO{sub 2} reduction. This interpretation is confirmed by dryness parameters typically > 500 due to only small amounts of ethane and a lack of propane in most samples. Comparison with mud gas profile carbon isotope data revealed that methane in the investigated shallow groundwater in Alberta is isotopically similar to hydrocarbon gases found in 100–250 meter depths in the WCSB and is currently not sourced from thermogenic hydrocarbon occurrences in deeper portions of the basin. The chemical and isotopic data for methane gas samples obtained from Alberta groundwater provide an excellent baseline against which potential future impact of deeper stray gases on shallow aquifers can be assessed. - Highlights: • Analysis of gas geochemical data from 186

  12. Effects of shallow natural gas well structures and associated roads on grassland songbird reproductive success in Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Yoo

    Full Text Available Grassland songbird populations across North America have experienced dramatic population declines due to habitat loss and degradation. In Canada, energy development continues to fragment and disturb prairie habitat, but effects of oil and gas development on reproductive success of songbirds in North American mixed-grass prairies remains largely unknown. From 2010-2012, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, we monitored 257 nests of two ground-nesting grassland songbird species, Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus. Nest locations varied with proximity to and density of conventional shallow gas well structures and associated roads in forty-two 258-ha mixed-grass prairie sites. We estimated the probabilities of nest success and clutch size relative to gas well structures and roads. There was little effect of distance to or density of gas well structure on nest success; however, Savannah sparrow experienced lower nest success near roads. Clutch sizes were lower near gas well structures and cattle water sources. Minimizing habitat disturbance surrounding gas well structures, and reducing abundance of roads and trails, would help minimize impacts on reproductive success for some grassland songbirds.

  13. Stupid to the last drop : how Alberta is bringing environmental armageddon to Canada and doesn't seem to care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, W.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the book was to demonstrate the province's growing disregard for the environment. The author argued that despite global concerns over climate change, Alberta is recklessly proceeding with the uncontrolled development of its fossil fuel resources. The book explored the environmental and socio-economic impacts of oil sands development in Alberta, and included details of the day-to-day lives of oil sands workers, and descriptions of communities impacted by large-scale development. A history of oil sands development in the region was presented, and political issues related to Canada's sale of its resources to the United States were examined. The impact of oil sands development on Alberta's agricultural sector was also examined. figs.

  14. Inclusion's Confusion in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Chris; Williamson, W. John

    2014-01-01

    This hermeneutic paper interprets a recent series of reforms to inclusive education policy undertaken by the ministry of education in the province of Alberta, Canada. A 2007 Alberta Education review of the 16,000 student files in the province that school boards had claimed met the criteria for severe disability codification status -- the level of…

  15. The prevalence and determinants of use of vitamin D supplements among children in Alberta, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-10-16

    Limited cutaneous synthesis due to low sun exposure and inadequate dietary intake makes vitamin D supplementation a necessity for many Canadian children. Identification of the factors associated with supplement use is necessary for public health awareness campaigns, but they have not been identified previously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and the determinants of the use of vitamin D supplements among children in the province of Alberta, Canada. In 2014, a representative sample of grade five students (10-11 y) in Alberta (n = 2686) was surveyed. Data on dietary intake and use of vitamin D supplements were obtained using a modified Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire. Mixed effect multiple logistic regression was employed to identify the key correlates of supplement use. Use of vitamin D supplements by children was 29.45 % although only 11.83 % took supplements daily. Children who resided in a metropolitan area (OR = 1.32; 95 % CI:1.06-1.65), were more physically active (2nd tertile: OR = 1.39; 95 % CI:1.09-1.78 and 3rd tertile: OR = 1.70; 95 % CI:1.33-2.16), or whose parents completed college (OR = 1.35; 95 % CI:1.05-1.74) were more likely to take vitamin D supplements. Prevalence of use was highest among those who had a high vitamin D diet and those with under/normal body weight status, although supplement use was not statistically associated with either dietary vitamin D intake or weight status. A considerable proportion of children did not take vitamin D supplements. Region of residence, physical activity level and parental education were determinants of supplement use, independent of child's gender, household income, weight status and dietary practices. We suggest prioritizing public health efforts to support strategies to make parents aware of the importance of providing the correct dose of vitamin D supplements for their children to meet dietary recommendations.

  16. Do "Virtual" and "Outpatient" Public Health Tuberculosis Clinics Perform Equally Well? A Program-Wide Evaluation in Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Long

    Full Text Available Meeting the challenge of tuberculosis (TB elimination will require adopting new models of delivering patient-centered care customized to diverse settings and contexts. In areas of low incidence with cases spread out across jurisdictions and large geographic areas, a "virtual" model is attractive. However, whether "virtual" clinics and telemedicine deliver the same outcomes as face-to-face encounters in general and within the sphere of public health in particular, is unknown. This evidence is generated here by analyzing outcomes between the "virtual" and "outpatient" public health TB clinics in Alberta, a province of Western Canada with a large geographic area and relatively small population.In response to the challenge of delivering equitable TB services over long distances and to hard to reach communities, Alberta established three public health clinics for the delivery of its program: two outpatient serving major metropolitan areas, and one virtual serving mainly rural areas. The virtual clinic receives paper-based or electronic referrals and generates directives which are acted upon by local providers. Clinics are staffed by dedicated public health nurses and university-based TB physicians. Performance of the two types of clinics is compared between the years 2008 and 2012 using 16 case management and treatment outcome indicators and 12 contact management indicators.In the outpatient and virtual clinics, respectively, 691 and 150 cases and their contacts were managed. Individually and together both types of clinics met most performance targets. Compared to outpatient clinics, virtual clinic performance was comparable, superior and inferior in 22, 3, and 3 indicators, respectively.Outpatient and virtual public health TB clinics perform equally well. In low incidence settings a combination of the two clinic types has the potential to address issues around equitable service delivery and declining expertise.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria That Cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michele Anholt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Trueperella pyogenes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida, and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica (p < 0.001 and P. multocida (p = 0.002. Compared to previous studies, this study suggests an increasing trend of resistance in BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.

  18. Cultural keystone species in oil sands reclamation, Fort McKay, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, A.; Straker, J. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    This presentation discussed a reclamation project conducted in Fort McKay, Alberta that was designed to address some of the social and cultural concerns related to oil sands mining in the region. Conventional reclamation practices in the region have demonstrated a lack of communication and participation from surrounding communities. The project was designed to address future land use plans and to include cultural values in the reclamation process. An integrative approach was used to address community landscapes issues and to explore methods of reclaiming the social and ecological components impacted by oil sands development. Traditional environmental knowledge was also incorporated into the program's design. Cultural keystone species (CKS) were used to provide a culturally relevant compass to guide people engaging in long-term reclamation and land use planning. Cultural keystone species were defined as salient species that significantly shape the cultural identity of a people. Keystone species in the region include the beaver; the moose; the ratroot; and cranberries and blueberries. Challenges to the program included the fact that the scale of oil sands disturbances are so immense that some community recommendations for reclaiming CKS may be impractical. tabs., figs.

  19. The role of Canada's national parks in a changed climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopoukhine, N.

    1991-01-01

    There is a requirement to manage national parks for completeness or wholeness, to maintain a functional ecosystem with all its parts, including processes, and to maintain biological diversity. Climate change has the potential to affect vegetation distribution, and will not merely manifest itself as a change in zones, but will be characterized by a flora with new dominants. Canadian national parks within the Prairie provinces are on or near ecotones, the transition from forest to tundra and grasslands. Forest fire frequency and severity is likely to increase, with the potential of transforming the boreal forest into remnant units. A flexible national system of designating areas must be devised to provide protection for the ephemeral biological systems which will be transformed and moved in response to climatic change. The adoption of adaptive management is critical, and should include monitoring, communication, protection through networks, and park service leadership. Benign neglect management must be replaced with management for wilderness. 15 refs

  20. Source Apportionment of Background PAHs in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (Alberta, Canada) Using Molecular Level Radiocarbon Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jautzy, Josué J; Ahad, Jason M E; Hall, Roland I; Wiklund, Johan A; Wolfe, Brent B; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2015-08-04

    The downstream accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), an ecologically important landscape, is a key issue of concern given the rapid development of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada. In addition to PAHs derived from industrial activity (i.e., oil sands mining) within the Athabasca watershed, however, forest fires and erosion of fossil fuel deposits within both the Athabasca and Peace watersheds are two potentially important natural sources of PAHs delivered to the PAD. Consequently, evaluating the environmental impact of mining activities requires a quantitative understanding of natural, background PAHs. Here, we utilize molecular-level natural-abundance radiocarbon measurements on an amalgamated sediment record from a Peace River flood-susceptible oxbow lake in the northern Peace sector of the PAD to quantitatively discriminate sources of naturally occurring alkylated PAHs (fossil and modern biomass). A radiocarbon mass balance quantified a predominantly natural petrogenic source (93% petrogenic, 7% forest fire) for alkylated PAHs during the past ∼50 years. Additionally, a significant petrogenic component determined for retene, a compound usually considered a biomarker for softwood combustion, suggests that its use as a unique forest fire indicator may not be suitable in PAD sediments receiving Peace watershed-derived fluvial inputs.

  1. Super Network on the Prairie The Discursive Framing of Broadband Connectivity by Policy Planners and Rural Residents in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bakardjieva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of the SuperNet, an infrastructure project designed and sponsored by the provincial government of Alberta, Canada with the objective of providing broadband connectivity to public facilities, businesses and residences in rural communities. The data were collected through individual interviews, focus groups, and town hall meetings in the course of a collaborative research initiative (The SuperNet Research Alliance that investigated the social construction of the broadband network from multiple perspectives. The objective of the paper is to examine in parallel the discourses in which the concept of broadband connectivity acquired meaning and substance at the levels of 1 provincial government and industry policy planners and 2 the residents of the rural communities who were the intended beneficiaries of the SuperNet. Using actor-network theory as a departure point, this analysis takes stock of the framing devices employed in the two sets of discourses and of the distinctive worldviews that generated them. It looks for the meeting points and the disjunctions between the grand visions and the grounded projections underlying the positions taken by the two respective categories of actors. Differences in the interpretation and appropriation of broadband among rural Albertans themselves are discerned and related to social factors characterizing different situations within rural areas. Rural broadband connectivity thus emerges not so much as a one-dimensional access equalizer for rural people, but as a complex mediator of opportunity, participation and identity.

  2. In situ fossil seedlings of a Metasequoia-like taxodiaceous conifer from Paleocene river floodplain deposits of central Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falder, A B; Stockey, R A; Rothwell, G W

    1999-06-01

    Fossil seeds and seedlings of a Metasequoia-like taxodiaceous conifer occur in Paleocene deposits at the Munce's Hill and Gao Mine localities of central Alberta, Canada. Compression/impression specimens are preserved in upright growth positions among seedlings of the cercidiphyllaceous dicot Joffrea speirsii Crane & Stockey. There are a large number of seeds, a few of which were buried while germinating and show a radicle or short primary root. More than 500 Metasequoia-like seedlings have been identified that have two linear cotyledons with parallel margins and rounded tips. Three specimens have been found that display three cotyledons. Slightly older seedlings show decussate pairs of leaves attached to the stem distal to the cotyledons. Still older seedlings have axillary branches that show varying sizes and numbers of opposite leaves arranged in a single plane distal to the opposite pairs. These specimens reveal that both Joffrea and this extinct taxodiaceous conifer were early colonizers of North American floodplain communities at the beginning of the Tertiary.

  3. Investigation of Primary Recovery in Low-Permeability Oil Formations: A Look at the Cardium Formation, Alberta (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaderi S.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tight oil formations (permeability < 1 mD in Western Canada have recently emerged as a reliable resource of light oil supply owing to the use of multifractured horizontal wells. The Cardium formation, which contains 25% of Alberta’s total discovered light oil (according to Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, consists of conventional and unconventional (low-permeability or tight play areas. The conventional play areas have been developed since 1957. Contrarily, the development of unconventional play is a recent event, due to considerably poorer reservoir properties which increases the risk associated with capital investment. This in turn implies the need for a comprehensive and critical study of the area before planning any development strategy. This paper presents performance results from the low permeability portions of the Cardium formation where new horizontal wells have been drilled and stimulated in multiple stages to promote transverse hydraulic fractures. Development of the tight Cardium formation using primary recovery is considered. The production data of these wells was first matched using a black oil simulator. The calibrated model presented was used for performance perditions based on sensitivity studies and investigations that encompassed design factors such as well spacing, fracture properties and operational constraints.

  4. Static and Dynamic Anisotropic Muduli of a Shale Sample from Southern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez Martinez, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kofman, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent interest in unconventional reservoirs broadly motivates our work in laboratory measurements of seismic anisotropy. Seismic anisotropy is the variation in speed of a wave as a function of its direction of propagation and particle polarization. When assuming an isotropic model of Earth during conventional seismic processing in areas with evidence of anisotropy a poor resolution images or erroneous localization of geological structures with strong dipping is produced. Ignoring anisotropy in unconventional reservoirs leads, for example, leads to erroneous estimation of horizontal stresses, wellbore stress as well as wellbore stability during hydraulic fracturing In this sense, laboratory measurements are an important tool to study seismic anisotropy since they provide information on the anisotropy intrinsic to the rock material itself. This is important to know as this contributes to the observed seismic anisotropy that is influenced by stress states and fractures. In this work, assuming a transversally isotropic medium (VTI), elastic anisotropic moduli of a dry shale from Southern Alberta are estimated as a function of confining pressure. Estimation of elastic constants and dynamic bulk moduli in a VTI medium involves recording P and S travel times by using pulse transmission method in a minimum of three different directions. These are often taken for the sake of convenience to be perpendicular (P0o and S0o), parallel (P90o and SH90o), and oblique (P45o and SH45o) to the layering of the material with the assumption that the perpendicular and parallel directions align with the principal anisotropic axes. The pulse transmission method involves generating and recording P and S ultrasonic waves traveling through a sample. Static Bulk moduli is estimated by measuring the volumetric deformation (strain) for a given confining pressure (stress) by using strain gauges directly bonded on the sample in two different directions: perpendicular to bedding and parallel to

  5. Cultural keystone species in oil sands mine reclamation, Fort McKay, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, A.; Straker, J. [Stantec Ltd., Sidney, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Cultural keystone species (CKS) shape the cultural identify of people through the roles they have in diet, material and spiritual practices. The use of the CKS concept is regarded as a method of addressing linked social and ecological issues. This paper presented the results of using the CKS model in the indigenous community of Fort McKay, Alberta to address, social, ecological and spiritual values in regional mine-land reclamation. Fort McKay is at the epicenter of the existing mine developments. Its residents regard human and environmental health to be be linked and therefore experience the effects of development and subsequent reclamation on both cultural and ecological levels. The community is actively engaged in working with the local mining companies on issues of mine reclamation design. In order to hold meaning to the local people, oil sand operators used the CKS concept in their reclamation efforts to take into account ecological functionality and also address the linked social factors. Five CKS were identified through a literature review and extensive community interviews. The list includes moose, cranberry, blueberry, ratroot and beaver. These 5 CKS were used to focus discussions and make recommendations for relevant land reclamation within Fort McKay traditional territory. The project has influenced the way both the community and oil sands operators engage with reclamation. Lessons learned from this process will help direct reclamation activities on other portions of traditional territory, while offering guidance to other regional developers for addressing cultural values in reclamation on their leases. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Frequency of low-value care in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Finlay A; Lin, Meng; Bakal, Jeff; Dean, Stafford

    2018-05-01

    To determine how frequently 10 low-value services highlighted by Choosing Wisely are done and what factors influence their provision. This is a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected health data from five linked data sets from 2012 to 2015 in the Canadian province of Alberta to determine the frequency with which 10 low-value services were provided. Between 2012 and 2015, 162 143 people (4% of all 3 814 536 adult Albertans and 5% of the 3  423 135 who saw a physician at least once in that time frame) received at least one of the 10 low-value services, including 29.8% of Albertans older than 75 years (57 811 of 194 068). The proportion of adults receiving low-value services ranged from carotid artery imaging in 0.1% of asymptomatic adults without cerebrovascular disease, to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in 55.5% of men 75 years or older without a history of prostate cancer. Although age, Charlson scores and frequency of primary care visits were associated with low-value service provision, the directions of the association differed across services; however, higher socioeconomic status, increased frequency of specialist contact and higher ratio of specialists to primary care physicians in the patient's region were associated with an increased risk of receiving all of the low-value services we examined. The low-value services which resulted in the greatest costs to the healthcare system were cervical cancer screening in women older than 65 without history of cervical dysplasia or genital cancer, PSA testing in men older than 75 without history of prostate cancer and preoperative stress testing/cardiac imaging before non-cardiac surgery. Even within a universal coverage healthcare system, the proportion of patients receiving low-value services varied widely (from <0.1% to 56%). Increased use was associated with higher socioeconomic status, increased frequency of specialist contact and higher ratio of specialists to primary care

  7. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  8. Social-Ecological Thresholds in a Changing Boreal Landscape: Insights from Cree Knowledge of the Lesser Slave Lake Region of Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Parlee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK of the Lesser Slave Lake Cree, this paper shares understanding of how resource development has affected water, fish, forests, and wildlife as well as the well-being of Cree communities in the Lesser Slave Lake region of Alberta, Canada. In addition to descriptive observations of change, the narratives point to social-ecological thresholds or tipping points in the relationship of Cree harvesters to local lands and resources. Specifically, the study speaks to the echoing effects of ecological loss and degradation on traditional livelihood practices over the last 100 years highlighting the complexity of cumulative effects as well as the challenges of balancing resource development in the region with alternative land uses including those valued by Alberta's Aboriginal peoples.

  9. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Peng, Gary; Ahmed, Hafiz; Zhou, Qixing; Turnbull, George

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields. PMID:27447676

  10. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Fang Hwang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields.

  11. A 10-yr record of stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation at Calgary, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Haidong; Mayer, Bernhard; Krouse, H. Roy; Harris, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    Short-term (0.5-3 d) precipitation samples were collected from January 1992 to December 2001 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen ( 2 H/ 1 H) and oxygen ( 18 O/ 16 O) for these samples were determined. The 10-yr amount-weighted average δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of precipitation were -136.1 per mill and -17.9 per mill, respectively. Consistent with IAEA established practice, the following local meteoric water line (LMWL) for Calgary was derived using amount-weighted monthly average δ 2 H and δ 18 O values: δ 2 H = 7.68 δ 18 O -0.21 (r 2 = 0.96, n= 104) . The correlation equation between δ 2 H and δ 18 O values from individual samples was found to be δ 2 H = 7.10 δ 18 O -13.64 (r 2 = 0.95, n= 839) , which is different from the LMWL, exhibiting lower slope and intercept values. A comparison of δ 2 H and δ 18 O correlation equations with temperature during precipitation events showed a trend of decreasing slopes and intercepts with increasing temperature. Our data suggest that this is caused by incorporation of moisture derived from evaporation from water bodies and soils along the storm paths and by secondary evaporation between the cloud base and the ground during precipitation events. These processes compromise the usefulness of d-excess values as an indicator for the meteorological conditions in the maritime source regions. The δ 18 O temperature dependence at Calgary was found to be ∼ 0.44 per mill/deg C. The study shows that short-term sampling of individual precipitation events yields valuable information, which is not obtainable by the widely used monthly collection programs

  12. A 10-yr record of stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation at Calgary, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haidong; Mayer, Bernhard; Harris, Stuart; Krouse, H. Roy

    2004-04-01

    Short-term (0.5 3 d) precipitation samples were collected from January 1992 to December 2001 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O) for these samples were determined. The 10-yr amount-weighted average δ2H and δ18O values of precipitation were -136.1‰ and -17.9‰, respectively. Consistent with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established practice, the following local meteoric water line (LMWL) for Calgary was derived using amount-weighted monthly average δ2H and δ18O values: δ2H = 7.68 δ18O -0.21 (r2= 0.96, n= 104). The correlation equation between δ2H and δ18O values from individual samples was found to be δ2H = 7.10 δ18O -13.64 (r2= 0.95, n= 839), which is different from the LMWL, exhibiting lower slope and intercept values. A comparison of δ2H and δ18O correlation equations with temperature during precipitation events showed a trend of decreasing slopes and intercepts with increasing temperature. Our data suggest that this is caused by incorporation of moisture derived from evaporation from water bodies and soils along the storm paths and by secondary evaporation between the cloud base and the ground during precipitation events. These processes compromise the usefulness of d-excess values as an indicator for the meteorological conditions in the maritime source regions. The δ18O temperature dependence at Calgary was found to be 0.44‰°C1. The study shows that short-term sampling of individual precipitation events yields valuable information, which is not obtainable by the widely used monthly collection programs.

  13. Top-down Estimates of Greenhouse Gas Intensities and Emissions for Individual Oil Sands Facilities in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S. M.; Staebler, R. M.; Hayden, K. L.; Mittermeier, R. L.; McLaren, R.; Baray, S.; Darlington, A.; Worthy, D.; O'Brien, J.

    2017-12-01

    The oil sands (OS) region of Alberta contributes approximately 10% to Canada's overall anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Such emissions have traditionally been estimated through "bottom-up" methods which seek to account for all individual sources of GHGs within a given facility. However, it is recognized that bottom-up approaches for complex industrial facilities can be subject to uncertainties associated with incomplete or inaccurate emission factor and/or activity data. In order to quantify air pollutant emissions from oil sands activities an aircraft-based measurement campaign was performed in the summer of 2013. The aircraft measurements could also be used to quantify GHG emissions for comparison to the bottom up emissions estimates. Utilizing specific flight patterns, together with an emissions estimation algorithm and measurements of CO2 and methane, a "top-down" estimate of GHG intensities for several large surface mining operations was obtained. The results demonstrate that there is a wide variation in emissions intensities (≈80 - 220 kg CO2/barrel oil) across OS facilities, which in some cases agree with calculated intensities, and in other cases are larger than that estimated using industry reported GHG emission and oil production data. When translated to annual GHG emissions, the "top-down" approach results in a CO2 emission of approximately 41 Mega Tonnes (MT) CO2/year for the 4 OS facilities investigated, in contrast to the ≈26 MT CO2/year reported by industry. The results presented here highlight the importance of using "top-down" approaches as a complimentary method in evaluating GHG emissions from large industrial sources.

  14. A 10-year population based study of 'opt-out' HIV testing of tuberculosis patients in Alberta, Canada: national implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Long

    Full Text Available Compliance with the recommendation that all tuberculosis (TB patients be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has not yet been achieved in Canada or globally.The experience of "opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients in the Province of Alberta, Canada is described over a 10-year period, 2003-2012. Testing rates are reported before and after the introduction of the "opt-out" approach. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity are described and demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of TB patients who were newly diagnosed versus previously diagnosed with HIV are compared. Genotypic clusters, defined as groups of two or more cases whose isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis had identical DNA fingerprints over the 10-year period or within 2 years of one another, were analyzed for their ability to predict HIV co-infection.HIV testing rates were 26% before and 90% after the introduction of "opt-out" testing. During the "opt-out" testing years those 64 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to have been tested. In those tested the prevalence of HIV was 5.6%. In the age group 15-64 years, risk factors for HIV were: age (35-64 years, Canadian-born Aboriginal or foreign-born sub-Saharan African origin, and combined respiratory and non-respiratory disease. Compared to TB patients previously known to be HIV positive, TB patients newly discovered to be HIV positive had more advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 counts; higher viral loads at diagnosis. Large cluster size was associated with Aboriginal ancestry. Cluster size predicted HIV co-infection in Aboriginal peoples when clusters included all cases reported over 10 years but not when clusters included cases reported within 2 years of one another."Opt-out" HIV testing of TB patients is effective and well received. Universal HIV testing of TB patients (>80% of patients tested has immediate (patients and longer-term (TB/HIV program planning benefits.

  15. Temperature and heat flux changes at the base of Laurentide ice sheet inferred from geothermal data (evidence from province of Alberta, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demezhko, Dmitry; Gornostaeva, Anastasia; Majorowicz, Jacek; Šafanda, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Using a previously published temperature log of the 2363-m-deep borehole Hunt well (Alberta, Canada) and the results of its previous interpretation, the new reconstructions of ground surface temperature and surface heat flux histories for the last 30 ka have been obtained. Two ways to adjust the timescale of geothermal reconstructions are discussed, namely the traditional method based on the a priori data on thermal diffusivity value, and the alternative one including the orbital tuning of the surface heat flux and the Earth's insolation changes. It is shown that the second approach provides better agreement between geothermal reconstructions and proxy evidences of deglaciation chronology in the studied region.

  16. Contributing towards a conceptual model of soil-landscape co-evolution: observations from historic mining sites in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; Naeth, Anne; Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    At the former Diplomat Mine near Forestburg, Alberta, Canada we find a diverse soil landscape which can help to conceptualize factors and processes controlling initial pedogenesis and soil distribution on very young landforms in prairie environments. Due to differing reclamation practices in the 1950s and landslides occurring after spoil dumping, four areas can be distinguished by GoogleMaps/LiDAR evaluation and onsite field survey: (i) not-mined, (ii) stock piled and unreclaimed, (iii) stock piled and reclaimed and (iv) affected by post-mining geomorphodynamics and quasi-natural redeposition. The parent material for areas (ii) to (iv) was initially dumped by spreaders but only (ii) didn't undergo further change. Landscape (iii) has seen levelling of the piles by heavy machinery. Features of landscape (iv) are formed by reshaping the originally dumped and levelled structures. This last landscape unit marks the rim of the former mine adjacent to the river valley. In practice, mining activities formed new valley slopes. In contrast to the naturally developed slopes the mine slopes were less stable. Vegetation, which could have hindered slope wash erosion, was missing after dumping the spoil slopes. Slopes were very steep (or practically undercut) and therefore, substrates were naturally re-located by mass movements such as sliding and slumping. Characteristic sliding and slumping structures can be identified in the close-ups of the LiDAR images. Both processes, mass movement and slope wash erosion, may have overlapped. Landscape (ii) is the most contrasting one. Dumped stock piles formed elongated, curved and steep ridges. These landforms do not have a natural analogue but clearly show their technological origin. Most interesting are differences in vegetation. South and southwest facing slopes are covered with grassland whereas north and northeast facing slopes are covered with aspen trees. Some of the ditches are filled with water and form small elongated ponds. The

  17. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  18. Hours spent and energy expended in physical activity domains: Results from The Tomorrow Project cohort in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge of adult activity patterns across domains of physical activity is essential for the planning of population-based strategies that will increase overall energy expenditure and reduce the risk of obesity and related chronic diseases. We describe domain-specific hours of activity and energy expended among participants in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Methods The Past Year Total Physical Activity Questionnaire was completed by 15,591 Tomorrow Project® participants, between 2001 and 2005 detailing physical activity type, duration, frequency and intensity. Domain-specific hours of activity and activity-related energy expenditure, expressed as a percent of total energy expenditure (TEE) (Mean (SD); Median (IQR)) are reported across inactive (<1.4), low active (1.4 to 1.59), active (1.6 to 1.89) and very active (≥ 1.9) Physical Activity Level (PAL = TEE:REE) categories. Results In very active women and amongst all men except those classified as inactive, activity-related energy expenditure comprised primarily occupational activity. Amongst inactive men and women in active, low active and inactive groups, activity-related energy expenditure from household activity was comparable to, or exceeded that for occupational activity. Leisure-time activity-related energy expenditure decreased with decreasing PAL categories; however, even amongst the most active men and women it accounted for less than 10 percent of TEE. When stratified by employment status, leisure-time activity-related energy expenditure was greatest for retired men [mean (SD): 10.8 (8.5) percent of TEE], compared with those who were fully employed, employed part-time or not employed. Transportation-related activity was negligible across all categories of PAL and employment status. Conclusion For the inactive portion of this population, active non-leisure activities, specifically in the transportation and occupational domains, need to be considered for inclusion in daily routines

  19. Palaeoenvironmental drivers of vertebrate community composition in the Belly River Group (Campanian) of Alberta, Canada, with implications for dinosaur biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Thomas M; Evans, David C

    2016-11-15

    The Belly River Group of southern Alberta is one of the best-sampled Late Cretaceous terrestrial faunal assemblages in the world. This system provides a high-resolution biostratigraphic record of terrestrial vertebrate diversity and faunal turnover, and it has considerable potential to be a model system for testing hypotheses of dinosaur palaeoecological dynamics, including important aspects of palaeoecommunity structure, trophic interactions, and responses to environmental change. Vertebrate fossil microsites (assemblages of small bones and teeth concentrated together over a relatively short time and thought to be representative of community composition) offer an unparalleled dataset to better test these hypotheses by ameliorating problems of sample size, geography, and chronostratigraphic control that hamper other palaeoecological analyses. Here, we assembled a comprehensive relative abundance dataset of microsites sampled from the entire Belly River Group and performed a series of analyses to test the influence of environmental factors on site and taxon clustering, and assess the stability of faunal assemblages both temporally and spatially. We also test the long-held idea that populations of large dinosaur taxa were particularly sensitive to small-scale environmental gradients, such as the paralic (coastal) to alluvial (inland) regimes present within the time-equivalent depositional basin of the upper Oldman and lower Dinosaur Park Formations. Palaeoenvironment (i.e. reconstructed environmental conditions, related to relative amount of alluvial, fluvial, and coastal influence in associated sedimentary strata) was found to be strongly associated with clustering of sites by relative-abundance faunal assemblages, particularly in relation to changes in faunal assemblage composition and marine-terrestrial environmental transitions. Palaeogeography/palaeolandscape were moderately associated to site relative abundance assemblage clustering, with depositional setting

  20. Emergence of a New Norovirus GII.4 Variant and Changes in the Historical Biennial Pattern of Norovirus Outbreak Activity in Alberta, Canada, from 2008 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasing, Maria E.; Preiksaitis, Jutta K.; Tellier, Raymond; Honish, Lance; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Pang, Xiaoli L.

    2013-01-01

    The public health impact of the emergence of new norovirus (NoV) strains is uncertain. A biennial pattern of alternating quiescent and epidemic levels of NoV outbreak activity associated with the emergence of new GII.4 variants was observed in Alberta, Canada, between July 2000 and June 2008. In this study, NoV genogroup I (GI) and GII strains isolated from 710 outbreak specimens in Alberta between July 2008 and January 2013 were characterized to update historical data. The seasonality and annual variation in NoV outbreak burden were analyzed over a 10-year period (July 2002 to June 2012). We found that GII.4-2006b had persisted as the predominant variant over three observation periods (July 2006 to June 2009) during which the biennial NoV outbreak pattern continued. The emergence of GII.4-2010 (winter 2009) was not associated with increased outbreak activity, and outbreak activity between July 2009 and June 2012 when GII.4-2010 predominated (67.5 to 97.7%) did not follow a biennial pattern. GII.4-2012 first emerged in Alberta in September 2011 and became predominant in observation period July 2012 to June 2013. NoV GI, relatively rare in past years, had a higher activity level (37.3%) as represented by GI.6 and GI.7 in the winter of 2012 to 2013. A higher proportion of GI outbreaks occurred in non-health care facility settings compared to GII. Our study suggests that factors other than new variants emergence contribute to the levels of NoV outbreak activity in Alberta. PMID:23637302

  1. The Role of Sustainability Resources of Large Greenhouse Gas Emitters: The Case of Corporations in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Hannouf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the global challenge of climate change, it becomes crucial to understand the factors that can guide carbon intensive companies to comply with environmental regulations through significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Using the natural-resource-based view, the argument in this paper is that focusing on sustainability-driven resources by companies is a way to meet environmental compliance and reduce GHG emissions while gaining differential competitive benefits. A specific analysis on Alberta case has discussed large GHG emitters’ environmental compliance mechanisms in the context of their sustainability resources. The aim is examining if large GHG emitters in Alberta related to corporations having sustainability resources are complying with the Specified Gas Emitters Regulation (SGER reduction requirement through cleaner-production driven internal mechanisms. The paper examines the existence of the sustainability resources in the reporting companies related to large GHG emitters responsible for 86% of total GHG reported by facilities with emissions above the threshold of 100 kilotonnes of GHG per year under SGER in Alberta. Corporations are found not using their sustainability resource potential to achieve internal reductions in GHG emissions throughout their facilities. Thus, some recommendations are presented for Alberta case as well as for environmental regulations in other jurisdictions that can potentially help policy makers improve their climate change regulations and achieve their global targets and enable companies to gain competitive advantage while meeting GHG reduction compliance.

  2. Regional Models of Diameter as a Function of Individual Tree Attributes, Climate and Site Characteristics for Six Major Tree Species in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan A. MacIsaac

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship of stem diameter to tree, site and stand characteristics for six major tree species (trembling aspen, white birch, balsam fir, lodgepole pine, black spruce, and white spruce in Alberta (Canada with data from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development Permanent Sample Plots. Using non-linear mixed effects modeling techniques, we developed models to estimate diameter at breast height using height, crown and stand attributes. Mixed effects models (with plot as subject using height, crown area, and basal area of the larger trees explained on average 95% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error of 2.0 cm (13.4% of mean diameter. Fixed effects models (without plot as subject including the Natural Sub-Region (NSR information explained on average 90% of the variation in diameter at breast height across the six species with a root mean square error equal to 2.8 cm (17.9% of mean diameter. Selected climate variables provided similar results to models with NSR information. The inclusion of nutrient regime and moisture regime did not significantly improve the predictive ability of these models.

  3. Assessing Lightning and Wildfire Hazard by Land Properties and Cloud to Ground Lightning Data with Association Rule Mining in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, DongHwan; Wang, Xin; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2017-10-23

    Hotspot analysis was implemented to find regions in the province of Alberta (Canada) with high frequency Cloud to Ground (CG) lightning strikes clustered together. Generally, hotspot regions are located in the central, central east, and south central regions of the study region. About 94% of annual lightning occurred during warm months (June to August) and the daily lightning frequency was influenced by the diurnal heating cycle. The association rule mining technique was used to investigate frequent CG lightning patterns, which were verified by similarity measurement to check the patterns' consistency. The similarity coefficient values indicated that there were high correlations throughout the entire study period. Most wildfires (about 93%) in Alberta occurred in forests, wetland forests, and wetland shrub areas. It was also found that lightning and wildfires occur in two distinct areas: frequent wildfire regions with a high frequency of lightning, and frequent wild-fire regions with a low frequency of lightning. Further, the preference index (PI) revealed locations where the wildfires occurred more frequently than in other class regions. The wildfire hazard area was estimated with the CG lightning hazard map and specific land use types.

  4. Bitumen and biocarbon : land use conversions and loss of biological carbon due to bitumen operations in the Boreal forests of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, P.; Cheng, R.

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed land use changes, biological carbon content, and the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by existing and future oil sands mining and in situ extraction in Alberta, Canada. The study focused on estimating changes to the natural ecosystems caused by open pit mines, tailings ponds, mine waste, overburden piles and other major infrastructure put in place by surface mining activities. The study showed that a total of 488,968 ha of peatlands, mineral wetlands, and upland forest ecosystems have undergone changes as a result of oil sands mining activities. Natural ecosystems that have undergone land use changes as a result of exploration wells, production wells, access roads, pipelines, and other infrastructure related to existing and potential in situ operations totalled 1,124,919 ha. If all 578.9 megatonnes of carbon produced by oil sands mines in Alberta were emitted, it is likely that 873.4 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would be released into the atmosphere. The average annual release of CO{sub 2} was estimated at 8.7 megatonnes over a 100 year period. 59 refs., 11 tabs., 12 figs.

  5. Ethnic disparities in children's oral health: findings from a population-based survey of grade 1 and 2 schoolchildren in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Congshi; Faris, Peter; McNeil, Deborah A; Patterson, Steven; Potestio, Melissa L; Thawer, Salima; McLaren, Lindsay

    2018-01-04

    Although oral health has improved remarkably in recent decades, not all populations have benefited equally. Ethnic identity, and in particular visible minority status, has been identified as an important risk factor for poor oral health. Canadian research on ethnic disparities in oral health is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic disparities in oral health outcomes and to assess the extent to which ethnic disparities could be accounted for by demographic, socioeconomic and caries-related behavioral factors, among a population-based sample of grade 1 and 2 schoolchildren (age range: 5-8 years) in Alberta, Canada. A dental survey (administered during 2013-14) included a mouth examination and parent questionnaire. Oral health outcomes included: 1) percentage of children with dental caries; 2) number of decayed, extracted/missing (due to caries) and filled teeth; 3) percentage of children with two or more teeth with untreated caries; and 4) percentage of children with parental-ratings of fair or poor oral health. We used multivariable regression analysis to examine ethnic disparities in oral health, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and caries-related behavioral variables. We observed significant ethnic disparities in children's oral health. Most visible minority groups, particularly Filipino and Arab, as well as Indigenous children, were more likely to have worse oral health than White populations. In particular, Filipino children had an almost 5-fold higher odds of having severe untreated dental problems (2 or more teeth with untreated caries) than White children. Adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and caries-related behavior variables attenuated but did not eliminate ethnic disparities in oral health, with the exception of Latin American children whose outcomes did not differ significantly from White populations after adjustment. Significant ethnic disparities in oral health exist in Alberta, Canada, even when adjusting for

  6. Diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette Oil Reservoir (Givetian-Frasnian), deep basin of west-central Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.P.; Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    1997-05-01

    The geology and diagenetic history of the Swan Hills Simonette oil field of west-central Alberta basin was described. Present-day burial depth is 3900 m; formation temperature is 93 degrees C. Highest porosites (20 per cent) occur in dolostones of the lagoon, ref, and fore-reef depositional environments but limestones still retain porosities up to five per cent. Hydrocarbons are present in saddle dolomite fluid inclusions. Oxygen isotopes for replacement dolomites and late calcite suggest that the carbonate-precipitating fluids were derived from the Precambrian basement or Paleozoic clastics sourced from the basement. Faults may have acted as vertical conduits for fluid migration.

  7. Geographic Inventory Framework (GiF) for estimating N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture in the province of Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, D. D.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    A Geographic Information Framework (GiF) has been created to estimate and map agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions of the province of Alberta, Canada. The GiF consists of a modelling component, a GIS component, and application software to communicate between the model, database and census data. For compatibility, GiF follows the IPCC Tier 1 method and contains census data for animal populations, crop areas, and farms for the main IPCC animal and plant types (dairy cows, cattle cows, pigs, sheep, poultry, other animals, grasses, legumes, other crops), and estimated N2O and CH4 emissions from manure management, enteric fermentation, direct soil emissions (with applied manure, synthetic fertilizer, crop residue degradation, biological fixation) and indirect soil emissions (with atmospheric deposition and leaching). Methane emissions from enteric fermentation (609.24 Gg) prevailed over those from manure (44.99 Gg), and nitrous oxide emission from manure (22.01 Gg) prevailed over those from soil (17.73 Gg), with cattle cows emitting most N2O and CH4, followed by plant N2O emissions, and pigs and dairy cows CH4 emissions. The GIS maps showed discernible pattern of N2O and CH4 emissions increasing from North and West to the central Alberta and then slightly declining to South and East, which could be useful to address various mitigation strategies. The framework allows easy replacement of Tier 1 emission factors by Tire 2 or 3 ones from process-based models. Future applying of the latter will allow accounting for CO2 source/sink strength of agricultural ecosystems, hence their complete GHG balance affected by soil, water, and climate.

  8. Extending stakeholder theory to promote resource management initiatives to key stakeholders: a case study of water transfers in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafreniere, Katherine C; Deshpande, Sameer; Bjornlund, Henning; Hunter, M Gordon

    2013-11-15

    Many attempts to implement resource management initiatives in Canadian and international communities have been resisted by stakeholders despite inclusion of their representatives in the decision-making process. Managers' failure to understand stakeholders' perspectives when proposing initiatives is a potential cause of this resistance. Our study uses marketing thought to enhance stakeholder theory by bringing in an audience-centric perspective. We attempt to understand how stakeholders perceive their interests in an organization and consequently decide how to influence that organization. By doing so, we investigate whether a disconnect exists between the perceptions of managers and those of stakeholders. Natural resource managers can utilize this knowledge to garner stakeholder support for the organization and its activities. We support this claim with findings from a water transfer plebiscite held in the Canadian province of Alberta. Sixteen personal interviews employing narrative inquiry were conducted to document voters' (i.e., irrigators') interpretations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of wolf pack movements prior to kills as read from tracks in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ont., Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, Jan Hilco

    1977-01-01

    From data, gathered by the author and his students, during a wolf study in Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada, six kills of white-tailed deer by wolf packs are described. Case histories are reconstructed by means of interpreting tracks. In one case a wolf was also killed, this animal turned out to

  10. Diseases and parasites in wolves of the Riding Mountain National Park region, Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Sallows, Tim; Forbes, Graham J; Wagner, Brent; Paquet, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    We examined wolf (Canis lupus) blood and fecal samples from the Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) region of Manitoba, Canada. In 601 fecal samples collected during two study periods in RMNP and the Duck Mountain Provincial Park and Forest (DMPPF) we found gastrointestinal helminth eggs from Alaria sp. (15.5%), Capillaria sp. (1.0%), taeniid tapeworms (30.8%), Toxascaris sp. (1.7%), Toxocara sp. (0.2%), Trichuris sp. (2.2%), and Moniezia sp. (0.5%). In addition, we found Demodex sp. (0.2%) and the protozoal cysts/oocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (37.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (1.2%), coccidia (Isospora sp. or Eimeria sp.) (1.7%), and Giardia sp. (29.5%). No fecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV, n=387) was detected. All 18 blood samples collected in RMNP showed CPV exposure and eight of 18 blood samples indicated canine distemper virus (CDV) exposure. One wolf died from CDV. Our results are consistent with previous findings on pathogens affecting wolves and with high Giardia sp. prevalence in wolves inhabiting agricultural regions.

  11. Is there an association between spatial access to parks/green space and childhood overweight/obesity in Calgary, Canada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potestio Melissa L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increase in childhood obesity is expected to add significantly to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We used multivariate multilevel analysis to examine associations between parks/green space and childhood overweight/obesity across communities in Calgary, Canada, a city characterized by intensified urban sprawl and high car use. Methods Body Mass Index was calculated from measured height and weight data obtained from 6,772 children (mean age = 4.95 years attending public health clinics for pre-school vaccinations. Each child's home postal code was geocoded using ESRI ArcGIS 9.2. We examined four measures of spatial access to parks/green space (based on Geographic Information Systems: 1 the number of parks/green spaces per 10,000 residents, 2 the area of parks/green space as a proportion of the total area within a community, 3 average distance to a park/green space, and 4 the proportion of parks/green space service area as a proportion of the total area within a community. Analyses were adjusted for dissemination area median family income (as a proxy for an individual child's family income community-level education, and community-level proportion of visible minorities. Results In general, parks/green space at the community level was not associated with overweight/obesity in Calgary, with the exception of a marginally significant effect whereby a moderate number of parks/green spaces per 10,000 residents was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity. This effect was non-significant in adjusted analyses. Conclusion Our null findings may reflect the popularity of car travel in Calgary, Canada and suggest that the role built environment characteristics play in explaining health outcomes may differ depending on the type of urban environment being studied.

  12. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of geostatistical techniques of porosity prediction from the seismic and logging data: a case study from the Blackfoot Field, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, S. P.; Singh, K. H.; Singh, N. P.

    2018-05-01

    In present study, three recently developed geostatistical methods, single attribute analysis, multi-attribute analysis and probabilistic neural network algorithm have been used to predict porosity in inter well region for Blackfoot field, Alberta, Canada, an offshore oil field. These techniques make use of seismic attributes, generated by model based inversion and colored inversion techniques. The principle objective of the study is to find the suitable combination of seismic inversion and geostatistical techniques to predict porosity and identification of prospective zones in 3D seismic volume. The porosity estimated from these geostatistical approaches is corroborated with the well log porosity. The results suggest that all the three implemented geostatistical methods are efficient and reliable to predict the porosity but the multi-attribute and probabilistic neural network analysis provide more accurate and high resolution porosity sections. A low impedance (6000-8000 m/s g/cc) and high porosity (> 15%) zone is interpreted from inverted impedance and porosity sections respectively between 1060 and 1075 ms time interval and is characterized as reservoir. The qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that of all the employed geostatistical methods, the probabilistic neural network along with model based inversion is the most efficient method for predicting porosity in inter well region.

  14. Using administrative data to estimate time to breast cancer diagnosis and percent of screen-detected breast cancers – a validation study in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Li, M; Yang, J; Winget, M

    2015-05-01

    Appropriate use of administrative data enables the assessment of care quality at the population level. Our objective was to develop/validate methods for assessing quality of breast cancer diagnostic care using administrative data, specifically by identifying relevant medical tests to estimate the percentage screen/symptom-detected cancers and time to diagnosis. Two databases were created for all women diagnosed with a first-ever breast cancer in years 2007-2010 in Alberta, Canada, with dates of medical tests received in years 2006-2010. One purchased database had test results and was used to determine the 'true' first relevant test of a cancer diagnosis. The other free administrative database had test types but no test results. Receiver operating characteristic curves and concordance rates were used to assess estimates of percent screen/symptom-detected breast cancers; Log-rank test was used to assess time to diagnosis obtained from the two databases. Using a look-back period of 4-6 months from cancer diagnosis to identify relevant tests resulted in over 94% concordance, sensitivity and specificity for classifying patients into screen/symptom-detected group; good agreement between the distributions of time to diagnosis was also achieved. Our findings support the use of administrative data to accurately identify relevant tests for assessing the quality of breast cancer diagnostic care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia from the Oldman Formation (Campanian, Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Evans

    Full Text Available The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma, Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution.

  16. Investigating the Effect of Livestock Grazing and Associated Plant Community Shifts on Carbon and Nutrient Cycling in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewins, D. B.; Chuan, S.; Stolnikova, E.; Bork, E. W.; Carlyle, C. N.; Chang, S. X.

    2015-12-01

    Grassland ecosystems are ubiquitous across the globe covering an estimated 40 % of Earth's terrestrial landmass. These ecosystems are widely valued for providing forage for domestic livestock and a suite of important ecosystem goods and services including carbon (C) storage. Despite storing more than 30 % of soil C globally, the effect of both livestock grazing and the associated change in plant community structure in response to grazing on C and nutrient cycling remains uncertain. To gain a quantitative understanding of the direct and indirect effects of livestock grazing on C and nutrient cycling, we established study sites at 15 existing site localities with paired long-term grazing (ca. 30 y) and non-grazed treatments (totaling 30 unique plant communities). Our sites were distributed widely across Alberta in three distinct grassland bioclimatic zones allowing us to make comparisons across the broad range of climate variability typical of western Canadian grasslands. In each plant community we decomposed 5 common plant species that are known to increase or decrease in response to grazing pressure, a unique plant community sample, and a cellulose paper control. We measured mass loss, initial lignin, C and N concentrations at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of field incubation. In addition we assayed hydrolytic and oxidative extracellular enzymes associated with for C (n= 5 hydrolytic; phenoloxidase and peroxidase) and nutrients (i.e. N and P; n=1 ea.) cycling from each litter sample at each collection. Our results suggest that by changing the plant community structure, grazing can affect rates of decomposition and associated biogeochemical cycling by changing plant species and associated litter inputs. Moreover, measures of microbial function are controlled by site-specific conditions (e.g. temperature and precipitation), litter chemistry over the course of our incubation.

  17. Spatial distribution of mercury and other trace elements in recent lake sediments from central Alberta, Canada: An assessment of the regional impact of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanei, H.; Goodarzi, F.; Outridge, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    These have been growing concerns over the environmental impacts of the coal-fired power plants in the western Canadian province of Alberta, which collectively comprise one of the largest point sources of Hg and other trace elements nationally. The overall cumulative impact of the power plants since the beginning of their activities several decades ago has been a critical question for industry, government agencies, and the research community. This paper aims to delineate the cumulative geographic extent of impact by investigating the spatial distribution of mercury and other trace elements of environmental concern in nine freshwater lakes, which cover the large area surrounding the coal-fired power plants in central Alberta, Canada. 210-Lead dating was used in conjunction with physical evidence of deposited fly ash to determine the sediments' age and hence the depths corresponding to the onset of coal-fired power generation in 1956. Total mean concentrations and fluxes of elements of environmental concern with integrated values since 1956 were then determined. The concentration values do not reflect the catastrophic oil spill at Lake Wabamun in 2005. The post-1956 flux rates of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, W, and Zn were generally highest in sediment cores obtained from two lakes adjacent to power plants. However, the variable prevailing wind directions played an important role in determining the aerial distribution of Hg and other trace elements to the southeast and to the west of the power plants. Post-1956 fluxes of most elements declined downwind (westward), consistent with strong easterly winds transporting metal pollution further to the west of the power plants. However, spatial interpolation of the data suggested a major southern extension to the area of maximum metal deposition, which has not been sampled by this or previous studies in the region. An atmospheric model estimate of total Hg flux in 2007 near the Genesee power plant was

  18. Mobile membrane introduction tandem mass spectrometry for on-the-fly measurements and adaptive sampling of VOCs around oil and gas projects in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, E.; Gill, C.; Bell, R.; Davey, N.; Martinsen, M.; Thompson, A.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The release of hydrocarbons into the environment can have significant environmental and economic consequences. The evolution of smaller, more portable mass spectrometers to the field can provide spatially and temporally resolved information for rapid detection, adaptive sampling and decision support. We have deployed a mobile platform membrane introduction mass spectrometer (MIMS) for the in-field simultaneous measurement of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. In this work, we report instrument and data handling advances that produce geographically referenced data in real-time and preliminary data where these improvements have been combined with high precision ultra-trace VOCs analysis to adaptively sample air plumes near oil and gas operations in Alberta, Canada. We have modified a commercially available ion-trap mass spectrometer (Griffin ICX 400) with an in-house temperature controlled capillary hollow fibre polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer membrane interface and in-line permeation tube flow cell for a continuously infused internal standard. The system is powered by 24 VDC for remote operations in a moving vehicle. Software modifications include the ability to run continuous, interlaced tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments for multiple contaminants/internal standards. All data are time and location stamped with on-board GPS and meteorological data to facilitate spatial and temporal data mapping. Tandem MS/MS scans were employed to simultaneously monitor ten volatile and semi-volatile analytes, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX), reduced sulfur compounds, halogenated organics and naphthalene. Quantification was achieved by calibrating against a continuously infused deuterated internal standard (toluene-d8). Time referenced MS/MS data were correlated with positional data and processed using Labview and Matlab to produce calibrated, geographical Google Earth data-visualizations that enable adaptive sampling protocols

  19. Assessment in Alberta: Dimensions of Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Frank G.

    The assessment programs of Alberta Education (Canada) are described, and the principles that guide these programs are reviewed. Alberta is committed to authentic assessment in its three major assessment programs: (1) the Diploma Examinations Program for certification in specific courses at the end of high school; (2) the Achievement Testing…

  20. Hydrometeorological conditions preceding wildfire, and the subsequent burning of a fen watershed in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Matthew C.; Thompson, Dan K.; Sherwood, James H.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2018-01-01

    The destructive nature of the ˜ 590 000 ha Horse river wildfire in the Western Boreal Plain (WBP), northern Alberta, in May of 2016 motivated the investigation of the hydrometeorological conditions that preceded the fire. Historical climate and field hydrometeorological data from a moderate-rich fen watershed were used to (a) identify whether the spring 2016 conditions were outside the range of natural variability for WBP climate cycles, (b) explain the observed patterns in burn severity across the watershed, and (c) identify whether fall and winter moisture signals observed in peatlands and lowland forests in the region are indicative of wildfire. Field hydrometeorological data from the fen watershed confirmed the presence of cumulative moisture deficits prior to the fire. Hydrogeological investigations highlighted the susceptibility of fen and upland areas to water table and soil moisture decline over rain-free periods (including winter), due to the watershed's reliance on supply from localized flow systems originating in topographic highs. Subtle changes in topographic position led to large changes in groundwater connectivity, leading to greater organic soil consumption by fire in wetland margins and at high elevations. The 2016 spring moisture conditions measured prior to the ignition of the fen watershed were not illustrated well by the Drought Code (DC) when standard overwintering procedures were applied. However, close agreement was found when default assumptions were replaced with measured duff soil moisture recharge and incorporated into the overwintering DC procedure. We conclude that accumulated moisture deficits dating back to the summer of 2015 led to the dry conditions that preceded the fire. The infrequent coinciding of several hydrometeorological conditions, including low autumn soil moisture, a modest snowpack, lack of spring precipitation, and high spring air temperatures and winds, ultimately led to the Horse river wildfire spreading widely and

  1. Ungulate management in national parks of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarais, S.; Cornicelli, L.; Kahn, R.; Merrill, E.; Miller, C.; Peek, J.M.; Porter, W.F.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Enabling legislation—that which gives appropriate officials the authority to implement or enforce the law—impacts management of ungulates in national parks of Canada and the United States (U.S.). The initial focus of such legislation in both countries centered on preserving natural and culturally significant areas for posterity. Although this objective remains primary, philosophies and practices have changed. A Canadian vision for ungulate management emerged during the latter half of the 20th century to protect and maintain or restore the ecological integrity of representative samples of the country’s 39 distinct landscapes, and to include provisions for traditional hunting and fishing practices representative of past cultural impacts on the environment. The current ungulate management approach in the U.S. relies on natural (ecological) processes, as long as normal conditions are promoted and there is no impairment of natural resources. Emphasizing natural processes as the basis has been a challenge because ecosystem dynamics are complex and management is multi-jurisdictional. Additionally, natural regulation typically will not prevent ungulates from reaching and sustaining densities that are incompatible with preservation or restoration of native flora and fauna, natural processes, or historical landscapes.

  2. Prescribed burning effects on summer elk forage availability in the subalpine zone, Banff National Park, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachro, L L; Strong, W L; Gates, C C

    2005-11-01

    The effects of prescribed burning on forage abundance and suitability for elk (Cervus elaphus) during the snow-free season was evaluated in east-central Banff National Park, Canada. Six coniferous forest and mixed shrub-herb plant communities (n=144 plots), and 5223ha of burned (n=131) vegetation Burning coniferous forest stands reduced woody biomass, and increased herbaceous forage from 146 to 790 kg/ha. Increases commonly occurred in the percent cover of hairy wild rye (Leymus innovatus (Beal) Pigler) and fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub.). The herbaceous components of mixed shrub-herb communities increased from 336-747 kg/ha to 517-1104 kg/ha in response to burning (Por=220% (Pburned vegetation-types were assessed as low and moderate, respectively. Potential summer carrying capacity, based on forage availability, increased from eight to 28 elk/100 km2 within burned areas, whereas spring grazing potential rose from 13 to 45 elk/100 km2. Most of the increase (73%) was attributable to changes within burned Engelmann Spruce stands, which composed 58% of the burned area.

  3. Assessing the effects of oil sands related ozone precursor emissions on ambient ozone levels in the Alberta oil sands region, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunny; Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Spink, David; Cosic, Biljana; Davies, Mervyn; Jung, Jaegun

    2017-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether, and the extent to which, increased ground-level ozone (O3) precursor emissions from oil sands development have impacted ambient air quality in the north-eastern Alberta, Canada, over the period 1998 to 2012. Temporal trends in emissions of O3 precursors (NOx and VOC) and ambient air concentrations of O3 precursors, and O3 were examined using the Theil-Sen statistical analysis method. Statistically significant correlations between NOx emissions and ambient NOx concentrations were found mainly near surface (open-pit) mining areas where mine fleets are a large source of NOx emissions. No statistically significant trends in the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hr average O3 at any of the continuous and passive ambient air monitoring stations were found. A significant long-term decrease in monthly averaged O3 is observed at some ambient monitoring sites in summer. A visual examination of long-term variations in annual NOx and VOC emissions and annual 4th highest daily maximum 8-hr O3 concentrations does not reveal any indication of a correlation between O3 concentrations and O3 precursor emissions or ambient levels in the study area. Despite a significant increase in oil sands NOx emissions (8%/yr), there is no statistically significant increase in long-term O3 concentrations at any of monitoring stations considered. This suggests that there is surplus NOx available in the environment which results in a titration of ambient O3 in the areas that have ambient monitoring. The limited ambient O3 monitoring data distant from NOx emission sources makes it impossible to assess the impact of these increased O3 precursor levels on O3 levels on a regional scale. As a precautionary measure, the increasing oil sands development O3 precursor emissions would require that priority be given to the management of these emissions to prevent possible future O3 ambient air quality issues.

  4. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dibenzothiophenes in wetland sediments and aquatic insects in the oil sands area of northeastern Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Mark; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Crosley, Robert; Brownlee, Brian G

    2008-01-01

    An immense volume of tailings and tailings water is accumulating in tailings ponds located on mine leases in the oil sands area of Alberta, Canada. Oil sands mining companies have proposed to use tailings- and tailings water-amended lakes and wetlands as part of their mine remediation plans. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are substances of concern in oil sands tailings and tailings water. In this study, we determined concentrations of PAHs in sediments, insect larvae and adult insects collected in or adjacent to three groups of wetlands: experimental wetlands to which tailings or tailings water had been purposely added, oil sands wetlands that were located on the mine leases but which had not been experimentally manipulated and reference wetlands located near the mine leases. Alkylated PAHs dominated the PAH profile in all types of samples in the three categories of wetlands. Median and maximum PAH concentrations, especially alkylated PAH concentrations, tended to be higher in sediments and insect larvae in experimental wetlands than in the other types of wetlands. Such was not the case for adult insects, which contained higher than expected levels of PAHs in the three types of ponds. Overlap in PAH concentrations in larvae among pond types suggests that any increase in PAH levels resulting from the addition of tailings and tailings water to wetlands would be modest. Biota-sediment accumulation factors were higher for alkylated PAHs than for their parent counterparts and were lower in experimental wetlands than in oil sands and reference wetlands. Research is needed to examine factors that affect the bioavailability of PAHs in oil sands tailings- or tailings water-amended wetlands.

  5. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D based on the revised 2010 dietary guidelines are not being met by children in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Willows, Noreen; Yuan, Yan; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Canadian children have been shown to be not meeting the revised (2010) dietary recommended intake (DRI) for vitamin D through diet alone. However, no study has evaluated whether diet and supplementation together are supporting Canadian children in meeting the DRIs for vitamin D intake. This study assessed the adequacy of vitamin D intake through diet and supplements among Albertan children and the determinants of meeting dietary guidelines. 2686 grade 5 students aged 10 to 11 years in Alberta, Canada were surveyed. We hypothesized that less than 50% of children would meet the DRI. Vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The adequacy of vitamin D intake was estimated using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 400 IU (International Units) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 600 IU. Random effect multiple logistic regression was used to identify correlates of meeting DRIs. Forty five percent of children met the EAR and 22% met the RDA for vitamin D. When vitamin D intake from diet alone was considered, only 16% and 2% met the EAR and RDA, respectively. Parental education, household income and physical activity were positively correlated with meeting DRIs, and students attending metropolitan area schools were more likely to meet the EAR than students attending rural area schools (OR = 1.28; P = .043). The majority of children did not meet the DRI for vitamin D. Health promotion strategies aiming to improve the vitamin D status of Albertan children are necessary given the importance of vitamin D for children's health and development. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lake-sediment record of PAH, mercury, and fly-ash particle deposition near coal-fired power plants in Central Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barst, Benjamin D; Ahad, Jason M E; Rose, Neil L; Jautzy, Josué J; Drevnick, Paul E; Gammon, Paul R; Sanei, Hamed; Savard, Martine M

    2017-12-01

    We report a historical record of atmospheric deposition in dated sediment cores from Hasse Lake, ideally located near both currently and previously operational coal-fired power plants in Central Alberta, Canada. Accumulation rates of spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs), an unambiguous marker of high-temperature fossil-fuel combustion, in the early part of the sediment record (pre-1955) compared well with historical emissions from one of North America's earliest coal-fired power plants (Rossdale) located ∼43 km to the east in the city of Edmonton. Accumulation rates in the latter part of the record (post-1955) suggested inputs from the Wabamun region's plants situated ∼17-25 km to the west. Increasing accumulation rates of SCPs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hg coincided with the previously documented period of peak pollution in the Wabamun region during the late 1960s to early 1970s, although Hg deposition trends were also similar to those found in western North American lakes not directly affected by point sources. A noticeable reduction in contaminant inputs during the 1970s is attributed in part to technological improvements and stricter emission controls. The over one hundred-year historical record of coal-fired power plant emissions documented in Hasse Lake sediments has provided insight into the impact that both environmental regulations and changes in electricity output have had over time. This information is crucial to assessing the current and future role of coal in the world's energy supply. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A retrospective analysis of real-world use of the eaTracker® My Goals website by adults from Ontario and Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieffers, Jessica R L; Haresign, Helen; Mehling, Christine; Hanning, Rhona M

    2016-09-15

    Little is known about use of goal setting and tracking tools within online programs to support nutrition and physical activity behaviour change. In 2011, Dietitians of Canada added "My Goals," a nutrition and physical activity behaviour goal setting and tracking tool to their free publicly available self-monitoring website (eaTracker® ( http://www.eaTracker.ca/ )). My Goals allows users to: a) set "ready-made" SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-related) goals (choice of n = 87 goals from n = 13 categories) or "write your own" goals, and b) track progress using the "My Goals Tracker." The purpose of this study was to characterize: a) My Goals user demographics, b) types of goals set, and c) My Goals Tracker use. Anonymous data on all goals set using the My Goals feature from December 6/2012-April 28/2014 by users ≥19y from Ontario and Alberta, Canada were obtained. This dataset contained: anonymous self-reported user demographic data, user set goals, and My Goals Tracker use data. Write your own goals were categorized by topic and specificity. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between user demographics and a) goal topic areas and b) My Goals Tracker use. Overall, n = 16,511 goal statements (75.4 % ready-made; 24.6 % write your own) set by n = 8,067 adult users 19-85y (83.3 % female; mean age 41.1 ± 15.0y, mean BMI 28.8 ± 7.6kg/m(2)) were included for analysis. Overall, 33.1 % of ready-made goals were from the "Managing your Weight" category. Of write your own goal entries, 42.3 % were solely distal goals (most related to weight management); 38.6 % addressed nutrition behaviour change (16.6 % had unspecific general eating goals); 18.1 % addressed physical activity behaviour change (47.3 % had goals without information on exercise amount and type). Many write your own goals were poor quality (e.g., non-specific (e.g., missing

  8. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  9. Alberta propylene upgrading prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    A very significant byproduct recovery and purification scheme is at present being prepared by TransCanada Midstream (TCMS). Alberta Economic Development commissioned an independent study to identify propylene supply options while proceeding with the evaluation of various propylene derivatives with regard to their fit with the Alberta context. Identification of chemical companies with derivative interests was also accomplished. By 2005, it is estimated that 280 kilo-tonnes of propylene will be available on an annual basis from byproduct sources. Those sources are oil sands upgraders, ethylene plants and refineries. The ranges of impurities and supply costs vary between the different sources. An option being considered involves pipeline and rail receipt with a major central treating and distillation facility for the production of polymer grade (PG) propylene with propane and other smaller byproducts. Special consideration was given to three chemicals in this study, namely: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and acrylic acid (AA). Above average growth rates were identified for these chemicals: demand is growing at 6 to 7 per cent a year for both PP and ACN, while demand for AA grows at 8 per cent annually. Two other possibilities were identified, propylene oxide (PO) and phenol. The study led to the conclusion that low capital and operating costs and shipping costs to the Pacific Rim represent advantages to the development of propylene derivatives in the future in Alberta. 4 refs., 87 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Exploring the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries: a natural experiment in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, L; Patterson, S; Thawer, S; Faris, P; McNeil, D; Potestio, M L; Shwart, L

    2017-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is common and can be serious. Dental caries is preventable, and community water fluoridation is one means of prevention. There is limited current research on the implications of fluoridation cessation for children's dental caries. Our objective was to explore the short-term impact of community water fluoridation cessation on children's dental caries, by examining change in caries experience in population-based samples of schoolchildren in two Canadian cities, one that discontinued community water fluoridation and one that retained it. We used a pre-post cross-sectional design. We examined dental caries indices (deft [number of decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth] and DMFT [number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth]) among grade 2 schoolchildren in 2004/05 and 2013/14 in two similar cities in the province of Alberta, Canada: Calgary (cessation of community water fluoridation in 2011) and Edmonton (still fluoridated). We compared change over time in the two cities. For Calgary only, we had a third data point from 2009/10, and we considered trends across the three points. We observed a worsening in primary tooth caries (deft) in Calgary and Edmonton, but changes in Edmonton were less consistent and smaller. This effect was robust to adjustment for covariates available in 2013/14 and was consistent with estimates of total fluoride intake from biomarkers from a subsample. This finding occurred despite indication that treatment activities appeared better in Calgary. The worsening was not observed for permanent teeth. For prevalence estimates only (% with >0 deft or DMFT), the three data points in Calgary suggest a trend that, though small, appears consistent with an adverse effect of fluoridation cessation. Our results suggest an increase in dental caries in primary teeth during a time period when community fluoridation was ceased. That we did not observe a worsening for permanent teeth in the comparative analysis could

  11. A retrospective analysis of real-world use of the eaTracker® My Goals website by adults from Ontario and Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. L. Lieffers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about use of goal setting and tracking tools within online programs to support nutrition and physical activity behaviour change. In 2011, Dietitians of Canada added “My Goals,” a nutrition and physical activity behaviour goal setting and tracking tool to their free publicly available self-monitoring website (eaTracker® ( http://www.eaTracker.ca/ . My Goals allows users to: a set “ready-made” SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-related goals (choice of n = 87 goals from n = 13 categories or “write your own” goals, and b track progress using the “My Goals Tracker.” The purpose of this study was to characterize: a My Goals user demographics, b types of goals set, and c My Goals Tracker use. Methods Anonymous data on all goals set using the My Goals feature from December 6/2012-April 28/2014 by users ≥19y from Ontario and Alberta, Canada were obtained. This dataset contained: anonymous self-reported user demographic data, user set goals, and My Goals Tracker use data. Write your own goals were categorized by topic and specificity. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between user demographics and a goal topic areas and b My Goals Tracker use. Results Overall, n = 16,511 goal statements (75.4 % ready-made; 24.6 % write your own set by n = 8,067 adult users 19-85y (83.3 % female; mean age 41.1 ± 15.0y, mean BMI 28.8 ± 7.6kg/m2 were included for analysis. Overall, 33.1 % of ready-made goals were from the “Managing your Weight” category. Of write your own goal entries, 42.3 % were solely distal goals (most related to weight management; 38.6 % addressed nutrition behaviour change (16.6 % had unspecific general eating goals; 18.1 % addressed physical activity behaviour change (47.3 % had goals without information on exercise amount and type. Many write your own

  12. Insight conference proceedings : Alberta power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference addressed issues dealing with Alberta's restructured electric power industry and new policies from the perspective of Alberta's independent power industry. It covered lessons learned from electric industry restructuring, transmission strategies, transmission frameworks, competitive markets, power costs, energy prices, and power outages. Interconnected power systems between Alberta and British Columbia were also reviewed along with grid reinforcement requirements. Markets and restructuring efforts in other jurisdictions such as Quebec and Maritime Canada were briefly reviewed. The move to deregulate the industry has played an important role in restructuring a vertically integrated industry into power generation, transmission and distribution. High electricity prices eventually resulted in re regulation of the industry and a synergy between wholesale and retail markets. Five of the 17 papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Alberta outlook: cash and energy team wins business for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, H

    1975-12-01

    The increase in Alberta's gross provincial product over the past decade from $3.9-billion in 1964 to $12-billion last year is largely due to its energy industries. Coal, oil, and gas make up almost all of the 48 percent of the net value of production that comes under the heading of mining. The financial success of the province stems from a happy combination of far-sighted government leadership; the strong tradition of local entrepreneurship; and the interest shown by world financiers in Alberta's energy opportunies. Energy-generated Albertan capital is moving out to seek energy-related opportunities in surrounding areas of the U.S. and Canada. An analysis of the $1.5-billion ethylene complex centered in the Red Deer Area shows that some benefits include ethane extraction, ethylene production, and pipeline products produced for export to improve balance of payments, create new jobs, and produce large revenues for the corporate partners. A tabulation of 57 energy-related projects under construction in Alberta, mid-1975, is given with some financial data. There exists a need for foreign capital, but the Energy Minister of Canada has stated that it is Alberta that will decide what oil, gas, and other energy investments from foreign sources will be acceptable in that province, and what export arrangements can be made. Some specific joint energy developments are discussed, but it is understood that any joint venture will be assessed on a project-by-project basis. (MCW)

  14. Final report : scientific review and workshop on selenium at Alberta mountain coal mines held in Hinton, Alberta, Canada on June 28 and 29, 2005 by the Selenium Science Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaverkamp, J.F.; Adams, W.J.; Hodson, P.V.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Skorupa, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effects and approaches to the management of selenium in Alberta mountain coal mines were reviewed by a Selenium Science Panel to determine if any adverse ecological impacts have occurred or will occur related to discharges of selenium associated with coal mining. The Science Panel reviewed work that has been completed in Alberta as well as technical reports on surface water quality, the aquatic food web, and monitoring programs on fish and terrestrial wildlife. It then assessed whether studies conducted to date have fulfilled recommendations made at a previous workshop held in September 2000 regarding the management of selenium. The Science Panel noted considerable progress in studies proposed in a work plan developed soon after the 2000 workshop. Building upon this foundation of knowledge and other information contained in the scientific literature, the Science Panel noted some knowledge gaps and priority issues. In order to address these gaps and issues, the Panel's recommendations were presented in this report along with supporting rationale.12 refs., 5 appendices

  15. Vulnerability assessment of skiing-dependent businesses to the effects of climate change in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David Michael

    This qualitative study examines the potential positive and negative socio-economic impacts that may emerge from the long-term effects of climate change on skiing-dependent businesses in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada. My goal was to determine whether or not skiing-related tourism in the parks in the 2020s and 2050s is more or less socio-economically vulnerable to the effects of climate change on snow cover, temperatures and ski season length at ski resorts in the parks. My study explored the level of awareness and personal perceptions of 60 skiing-dependent business managers about how the impact of climate change on ski resorts may influence future socio-economics of ski tourism businesses. I employed a vulnerability assessment approach and adopted some elements of grounded theory. My primary data sources are interviews with managers and the outcome of the geographical factors index (GFI). Supporting methods include: an analysis and interpretation of climate model data and an interpretation of the economic analysis of skiing in the parks. The interview data were sorted and coded to establish concepts and findings by interview questions, while the GFI model rated and ranked 24 regional ski resorts in the Canadian Cordillera. The findings answered the research questions and helped me conclude what the future socio-economic vulnerability may be of skiing-dependent businesses in the parks. The interviews revealed that managers are not informed about climate change and they have not seen any urgency to consider the effects on business. The GFI revealed that the ski resorts in the parks ranked in the top ten of 24 ski resorts in the Cordillera based on 14 common geographical factors. The economic reports suggest skiing is the foundation of the winter economy in the parks and any impact on skiing would directly impact other skiing-dependent businesses. Research indicates that the effects of climate change may have less economic impact on skiing

  16. Adults' Knowledge of Child Development in Alberta, Canada: Comparing the Level of Knowledge of Adults in Two Samples in 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Vinturache, Angela; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Breitkreuz, Rhonda; Bukutu, Cecilia; Gibbard, Ben; Tough, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Parents and non-parental adults who interact with children influence child development. This study evaluates the knowledge of child development in two large and diverse samples of adults from Alberta in 2007 and 2013. Telephone interviews were completed by two random samples (1,443 in 2007; 1,451 in 2013). Participants were asked when specific…

  17. Our petroleum legacy: The Alberta story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1992-11-01

    Background information is presented on the importance of the petroleum industry in Alberta. Alberta holds over 70% of Canada's coal and natural gas reserves and, if bitumen is included, over 90% of Canada's established oil reserves. Alberta's major exports are dominated by crude oil and related products ($9.6 billion in 1990) and the oil and gas sector had $15.7 billion in revenues in 1991, over 4 times as much as the next most important sector, agriculture. About 140,000 Albertans are directly or indirectly employed in the oil and gas industry, about 11% of employed persons. The industry's capital spending in Alberta was $5.3 billion in 1991, and its total expenditures were about $15 billion, and during the 1980s the industry paid about $42 billion to the Alberta government in the form of taxes, royalties, and other fees. Other benefits of the oil and gas industry's presence in Alberta include those related to its employment of a skilled workforce, its advanced research capabilities, and economic spinoff effects from employment and technological development. The influence of recent events on the industry is outlined, including the effects of international energy commodity markets, deregulation, and higher exploration and development costs. The declining financial viability of the Alberta petroleum industry is noted and its future is discussed in the light of such factors as oil prices, markets, new technologies, environmental constraints, and the volume of new discoveries. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Differences in the importance of weather and weather-based decisions among campers in Ontario parks (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel J.; Gough, William A.

    2017-10-01

    Parks and protected areas represent an important resource for tourism in Canada, in which camping is a common recreational activity. The important relationship between weather and climate with recreation and tourism has been widely acknowledged within the academic literature. Howbeit, the need for activity-specific assessments has been identified as an on-going need for future research in the field of tourism climatology. Furthermore, very little is known about the interrelationships between personal characteristics and socio-demographics with weather preferences and behavioural thresholds. This study uses a stated climate preferences approach (survey responses) to explore differences in the importance of weather and related weather-based decisions among summer campers in Ontario parks. Statistically significant differences were found among campers for each of the four dependent variables tested in this study. Physically active campers placed greater importance on weather but were still more tolerant of adverse weather conditions. Older campers placed greater importance on weather. Campers travelling shorter distances placed greater importance on weather and were more likely to leave the park early due to adverse weather. Campers staying for longer periods of time were less likely to leave early due to weather and were willing to endure longer durations of adverse weather conditions. Beginner campers placed greater importance on weather, were more likely to leave early due to weather and recorded lower temporal weather thresholds. The results of this study contribute to the study of tourism climatology by furthering understanding of how personal characteristics such as gender, age, activity selection, trip duration, distance travelled, travel experience and life cycles affect weather preferences and decisions, focusing this time on recreational camping in a park tourism context.

  19. The future of distributed power in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobenic, J.

    2002-01-01

    Maxim Power Corporation is a provider of distributed energy and environmental solutions with a total of 55 MW of installed generating capacity in Canada, Europe and Asia, with 35 MW in Alberta. The 8 MW Taber facility in southern Alberta was described. Maxim operates 25 other small scale power generation stations (1 MW units) across 4 sites in southern Alberta. All the sites are interconnected at 25 kV and are eligible for distribution credits. The 3 MW EVI facility which utilizes solution gas was also described in the PowerPoint presentation. Maxim operates an additional 3 projects totaling 10 MW. The paper made reference to issues regarding market attributes for distributed power, policy framework and the transition to a competitive power market in Alberta. The chronology of events in Alberta's power market from August 2000 to June 2001 was outlined. The impacts of deregulation on distributed power include: (1) artificially low price environment from market intervention, (2) high efficiency cogeneration opportunities have been eliminated, (3) business failures and reduced investment, and (4) private investment not afforded the same alternative cost recovery mechanisms as the Alberta balancing pool. The presentation concluded with a report card for Alberta's deregulation, giving a grade F for both present and future opportunities for distributed power in Alberta. 2 figs

  20. A Re-Evaluation of the Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid Genus Chasmosaurus (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Dinosaur Park Formation of Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James A; Ryan, Michael J; Holmes, Robert B; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J

    2016-01-01

    The chasmosaurine ceratopsid Chasmosaurus is known from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Dinosaur Park Formation of southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Two valid species, Chasmosaurus belli and C. russelli, have been diagnosed by differences in cranial ornamentation. Their validity has been supported, in part, by the reported stratigraphic segregation of chasmosaurines in the Dinosaur Park Formation, with C. belli and C. russelli occurring in discrete, successive zones within the formation. An analysis of every potentially taxonomically informative chasmosaurine specimen from the Dinosaur Park Formation indicates that C. belli and C. russelli have indistinguishable ontogenetic histories and overlapping stratigraphic intervals. Neither taxon exhibits autapomorphies, nor a unique set of apomorphies, but they can be separated and diagnosed by a single phylogenetically informative character-the embayment angle formed by the posterior parietal bars relative to the parietal midline. Although relatively deeply embayed specimens (C. russelli) generally have relatively longer postorbital horncores than specimens with more shallow embayments (C. belli), neither this horncore character nor epiparietal morphology can be used to consistently distinguish every specimen of C. belli from C. russelli. Kosmoceratops is purportedly represented in the Dinosaur Park Formation by a specimen previously referred to Chasmosaurus. The reassignment of this specimen to Kosmoceratops is unsupported here, as it is based on features that are either influenced by taphonomy or within the realm of individual variation for Chasmosaurus. Therefore, we conclude that Kosmoceratops is not present in the Dinosaur Park Formation, but is instead restricted to southern Laramidia, as originally posited.

  1. How and why is aquatic quality changing at Nahanni National Park Reserve, NWT, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Douglas R; Catto, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Nahanni National Park Reserve is located at southwestern NWT-Yukon border. One of the first UNESCO World Heritage sites, Nahanni lies within Taiga Cordillera and Taiga Shield Ecozones. Base and precious metal mining occurred upstream of Nahanni prior to park establishment. Nahanni waters, sediments, fish, and caribou have naturally elevated metals levels. Baseline water, sediment and fish tissue quality data were collected and analyzed throughout Nahanni during 1988-91 and 1992-97. These two programs characterized how aquatic quality variables are naturally varying in space and time, affected by geology, stream flow, seasonality, and extreme meteorological and geological events. Possible anthropogenic causes of aquatic quality change were examined. Measured values were compared to existing Guidelines and site-specific objectives were established.

  2. Dante in Alberta: chronicle of an oil addicted civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Belkaid

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, Alberta, an heavenly province of Western Canada, is the theater of the biggest ecological crime of the moment in the form of oil exploitation. Alberta gathers all the aberrations and dramas that have been seen before in other oil producing countries, in particular in Africa, Middle-East and Asia: corruption, defiance of minority rights, terror threats, environment destruction etc

  3. Sediment trace metal profiles in lakes of Killarney Park, Canada from regional to continental influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belzile, Nelson; Chen Yuwei; Gunn, John M.; Dixit, Sushil S.

    2004-01-01

    The lakes in Killarney Provincial Park (KPP) located 40-60 km southwest of Sudbury, Ontario are beginning to recover after decades of being severely affected by acidification and atmospheric pollutants. Detailed profiles of acid-recoverable trace elements (As. Cd, Cu, Co. Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were obtained after aqua regia digestion and ICP-OES analysis of sediment cores taken from six Park lakes. Results permitted the identification of two types of profiles. The first type applies to elements such as Fe, Mn, As and Co for which historical deposition and recent recovery are strongly masked by diagenetic remobilization. The second type of profile applies to elements such as Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn on which the history of industrialisation in North America and mining activities in Sudbury can be superimposed. Based on sediment data of trace elements less affected by diagenetic remobilization (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), chemical recovery indices can be estimated from depth profiles. Indices of maximum (C p ) and surface (C s ) contamination were calculated by dividing the concentration of a given metal by the pre-industrial level. The ratio of the two indices provided a simple estimation of the chemical recovery of lakes that does not consider the influence of the watershed or the lake pH. Profiles of metals in sediment of KPP complement the water quality monitoring data and tend to indicate that this area is in transition from dominant influence of regional pollution sources to becoming controlled by continental atmospheric deposition. - Lakes in Killarney Park are in transition from being impacted by regional pollution to being controlled by continental atmospheric deposition

  4. Zap... Alberta is jolted by electric deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Of all Canadian provinces, Alberta has travelled the furthest along the electric deregulation road. On January 1, 2001, full retail competition came into effect. Wholesale electricity prices are set by the province through an auction process. The bids from purchasers are made through the Power Pool of Alberta against supply offers. Power prices increased from being amongst the lowest in the world to being amongst the highest in North America as a result of deregulation. Changes to the Electric Utilities Act were made recently by the Alberta government to try to mitigate the factors affecting power price increases. RBC Dominion Securities is of the opinion that the changes will not significantly impact the Alberta Pool Price. It is expected that the trend for power price increases to continue, despite some relief from relatively low-cost electricity being felt by other Canadian provinces as a result of the energy crisis in North America. Based on the Electric Competition Unfolds in Alberta report dated June 2, 2001 prepared by RBC Dominion Securities, this document examines the factors at play in electric price increases, assess the sustainability of current power prices in Alberta, and identify Canadian companies believed to be best positioned in the pipeline and gas and electric sectors to benefit from the high power prices in Alberta. Those companies were ATCO, Canadian Utilities, Westcoast Energy and TransCanada PipeLines, and TransAlta. 5 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  6. Efecto de la inoculación con rizobios procedentes de Alberta, Canadá, en sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, en condiciones de campo Effect of the inoculation with rhizobia from Alberta, Canada, in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J Bécquer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento de campo con el objetivo de medir el efecto de cepas de rizobio en las variables agronómicas del sorgo, en las condiciones ambientales de Sancti Spíritus, Cuba. Se utilizaron 10 cepas de Sinorhizobium meliloti, procedentes de ecosistemas ganaderos de Alberta, Canadá; así como cuatro cepas de referencia pertenecientes a diferentes géneros y especies de rizobio, que procedían de la colección de Agriculture and AgriFood Canada. La confección de los inóculos y la inoculación de las semillas se realizaron por métodos estándar. El diseño experimental fue de bloques al azar, con 16 tratamientos y cuatro réplicas. Se evaluó el peso seco aéreo, la longitud del tallo y la longitud de la panoja; además, se calculó el incremento del peso seco aéreo en los tratamientos inoculados con relación al control absoluto. Los resultados demostraron la capacidad de las cepas estudiadas de influir en las variables agronómicas, ya que los tratamientos seleccionados igualaron sus valores a los del control fertilizado y presentaron un incremento de más del 100% del peso seco aéreo, comparado con el control absoluto.A field trial was conducted with the objective of measuring the effect of rhizobium strains on the agronomic variables of sorghum under the environmental conditions of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. Ten Sinorhizobium meliloti strains, from livestock production ecosystems of Alberta, Canada, were used; as well as four reference strains belonging to different rhizobium genera and strains, which were from the collection of Agriculture and AgriFood Canada. The inoculi confection and seed inoculation were made by standard methods. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with 16 treatments and four replications. The dry aerial weight, stem length and ear length were evaluated; in addition, the increase of aerial dry weight was calculated in the inoculated treatments as compared to the absolute control. The results

  7. The Alberta oil sands story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This report serves as a detailed introduction to the Alberta oil sands and their development. It includes a description of the oil sands deposits, an outline of crude bitumen recovery and upgrading processes, the role of Alberta Energy Company in oil sands development, environmental aspects, manpower requirements for oil sands development, research needs, and further oil sands projects. Presently proven recoverable reserves in the oil sands amount to 26.5 billion bbl of synthetic crude. Production from the Syncrude plant (125,000 bbl/d capacity) is expected to begin in 1977, followed by a Shell Canada operation around 1980. The provincial government will participate in the oil sand industry through its joint venture participation in Syncrude and its 50% share in Alberta Energy Company; the latter company participates in related aspects of the Syncrude project, such as pipelines. The result of Alberta's participation in the industry will mean that, directly or indirectly, the province will realize 60% of the total profits. The job creation potential of oil sands projects is estimated to be extensive, with a direct and indirect work force supported by oil sands activities possibly reaching 180,000 persons by the year 2000. Research needs have been identified, particularly in the area of in-situ thermal recovery technology, and the creation of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority has been authorized in order to meet these needs. Although current reserves are sufficient to support 20-30 synthetic crude plants, a number of factors will limit expansion of the industry. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Implementation of the clean air strategy for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, H.S.; Angle, R.P. [Alberta Dept. of Environmental Protection, Alberta (Canada); Kelly, M. [Clean Air Strategic Alliance, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Air quality and its effects on the environment and human health have received considerable attention during the last three decades in Alberta, Canada. Among the issues receiving a high priority are acid deposition, smog and global warming. There are various sources of emissions to Alberta`s atmosphere, many of which relate to the extraction, processing, and burning of fossil fuels; pulp and paper manufacture; and transportation. There are also natural sources of contaminants, such as particulates from forest fires and methane from bogs. The extraction, processing and combustion of fossil fuels play an important role in Alberta`s economy. The province produces over 80 % of the oil and natural gas in Canada, and nearly half the coal. Low sulphur coal is used in power plants to supply more than 90 % of the electricity used in this province by nearly three million people. As a result, Alberta is responsible for about 27 % of the CO{sub 2}, 23 % of the nitrogen oxides, and 16 % of the SO{sub 2} emissions generated in Canada. Alberta`s air quality is monitored by the Government of Alberta at nine continuous, eight intermittent, over 250 static, and 12 precipitation monitoring stations. Parameters such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, particulates, and ion-content of precipitation are measured. Industry operates a large number of ambient and static SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S monitoring stations across Alberta, with monitoring costs estimated at 56-80 million USD annually. The unique features of the Clean Air Strategy for Alberta (CASA) have already been published elsewhere. This presentation discusses the mechanism and progress on its implementation. (author)

  9. Implementation of the clean air strategy for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, H S; Angle, R P [Alberta Dept. of Environmental Protection, Alberta (Canada); Kelly, M [Clean Air Strategic Alliance, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Air quality and its effects on the environment and human health have received considerable attention during the last three decades in Alberta, Canada. Among the issues receiving a high priority are acid deposition, smog and global warming. There are various sources of emissions to Alberta`s atmosphere, many of which relate to the extraction, processing, and burning of fossil fuels; pulp and paper manufacture; and transportation. There are also natural sources of contaminants, such as particulates from forest fires and methane from bogs. The extraction, processing and combustion of fossil fuels play an important role in Alberta`s economy. The province produces over 80 % of the oil and natural gas in Canada, and nearly half the coal. Low sulphur coal is used in power plants to supply more than 90 % of the electricity used in this province by nearly three million people. As a result, Alberta is responsible for about 27 % of the CO{sub 2}, 23 % of the nitrogen oxides, and 16 % of the SO{sub 2} emissions generated in Canada. Alberta`s air quality is monitored by the Government of Alberta at nine continuous, eight intermittent, over 250 static, and 12 precipitation monitoring stations. Parameters such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, particulates, and ion-content of precipitation are measured. Industry operates a large number of ambient and static SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S monitoring stations across Alberta, with monitoring costs estimated at 56-80 million USD annually. The unique features of the Clean Air Strategy for Alberta (CASA) have already been published elsewhere. This presentation discusses the mechanism and progress on its implementation. (author)

  10. Alberta's new oil boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforuk, A.

    1997-01-01

    A massive expansion of Canada's oil sands and the oil-mining business is underway. The prediction is that within five years there will be at least three, possibly six, huge new open pit mines north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. It was suggested that within 20 years, possibly half of Canada's oil supply will come from the oil sands industry which has already attracted $10 billion worth of developments. Unlike conventional crude, the oil sands contain bitumen, water, clay, minerals and lots of sands. Shallow deposits are mined like coal. Deeper formations make use of in-situ thermal recovery techniques. Extraction costs are presently at $15 per barrel, aiming for $12 by 1999. Return on investment is in double digits. Estimates of reserves in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, Peace River and Wabasca deposits go as high as 1.7 trillion barrels, or about twice as much as Saudi Arabia's conventional crude reserves. Syncrude has built a $5 billion production facility and two pipelines have already been proposed to transport the oil sands crude to midwestern US refineries. US refineries prize synthetic crude as excellent mixing stock. The major problem with oil sands is that unlike conventional oil, these reserves require an enormous amount of energy to exploit, which in turn means lots of foul air and greenhouse gases. There are many environmental unknowns, and without a clear management framework in sight the addition of two or three Syncrude-size operations has the potential to create a real and significant acid rain problem in the Western Canada Basin

  11. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  12. Feminization of Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae in the Oldman River, Alberta, (Canada Provides Evidence of Widespread Endocrine Disruption in an Agricultural Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce S. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sampled an abundant, native minnow (Longnose dace—Rhinichthys cataractae throughout the Oldman River, Alberta, to determine physiological responses and possible population level consequences from exposure to compounds with hormone-like activity. Sex ratios varied between sites, were female-biased, and ranged from just over 50% to almost 90%. Histological examination of gonads revealed that at the sites with >60% females in the adult population, there was up to 38% occurrence of intersex gonads in fish identified through visual examination of the gonads as male. In the majority of intersex gonad cases, there was a large proportion (approx., 50% of oocytes within the testicular tissue. In male dace, vitellogenin mRNA expression generally increased with distance downstream. We analyzed river water for 28 endocrine disrupting compounds from eight functional classes, most with confirmed estrogen-like activity, including synthetic estrogens and hormone therapy drugs characteristic of municipal wastewater effluent, plus natural hormones and veterinary pharmaceuticals characteristic of livestock production. The spatial correlation between detected chemical residues and effects to dace physiology indicate that multiple land uses have a cumulative impact on dace in the Oldman River and effects range from altered gene regulation to severely female-biased sex ratios.

  13. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jane Harms, N.; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Smits, Judit E.G.

    2010-01-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

  14. Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission annual report, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission has the responsibility of selling the Crown's royalty share of Alberta's crude and synthetic oil production; similar services are provided for natural gas. The Commission also markets crude oil on behalf of producers to North American and offshore consumers. The Commission's position as the largest crude oil marketer in Canada enables it to provide analyses of industry pricing and marketing trends to the Alberta government. 1993 marked the last full year of the Commission operating as Alberta's representative in the energy regulatory arena in Canada and the USA; due to restructuring, these functions will be transferred to the Ministry of Energy in early 1994. A brief overview is presented of crude oil markets in Canada and the USA. The Commission's receipts of light and medium royalty oil totalled 40.2 million bbl, down 11% from 1992, and receipts of heavy crude were 3.7 million bbl, down 42% from 1992. Revenue from crude oil sales was $800 million, down 25% from 1992. The Commission's natural gas activities in 1993 included price determination and information collection. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. A multi-level approach for investigating socio-economic and agricultural risk factors associated with rates of reported cases of Escherichia coli O157 in humans in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, D L; Louie, M; Chui, L; Doré, K; Grimsrud, K M; Martin, S W; Michel, P; Svenson, L W; McEwen, S A

    2009-10-01

    Using negative binomial and multi-level Poisson models, the authors determined the statistical significance of agricultural and socio-economic risk factors for rates of reported disease associated with Escherichia coli O157 in census subdivisions (CSDs) in Alberta, Canada, 2000-2002. Variables relating to population stability, aboriginal composition of the CSDs, and the economic relationship between CSDs and urban centres were significant risk factors. The percentage of individuals living in low-income households was not a statistically significant risk factor for rates of disease. The statistical significance of cattle density, recorded at a higher geographical level, depended on the method used to correct for overdispersion, the number of levels included in the multi-level models, and the choice of using all reported cases or only sporadic cases. Our results highlight the importance of local socio-economic risk factors in determining rates of disease associated with E. coli O157, but their relationship with individual risk factors requires further evaluation.

  16. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R. [Environmental Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  17. Alberta's clean energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the future of clean energy in Alberta. With the present economic growth of the oil sands industry in Alberta, it is expected that there will be very considerable increases in job opportunities and GDP in both Canada and US. The challenges include high-energy demand and reduction of the carbon footprint. Alberta has adopted certain approaches to developing renewable and alternate forms of energy as well as to increasing the efficiency of present energy use and raising environmental consciousness in energy production. Three areas where the effects of clean energy will be felt are energy systems, climate change, and regional impacts, for instance on land, water, and wildlife. Alberta's regulatory process is shown by means of a flow chart. Aspects of oil sands environmental management include greenhouse gas targets, air quality assurance, and water quality monitoring, among others. Steps taken by Alberta to monitor and improve air quality and water management are listed. In conclusion, the paper notes that significant amounts of money are being pumped into research and development for greenhouse gas and water management projects.

  18. Wind integration in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, W.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation described the role of the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) for Alberta's interconnected electric system with particular reference to wind integration in Alberta. The challenges of wind integration were discussed along with the requirements for implementing the market and operational framework. The AESO is an independent system operator that directs the reliable operation of Alberta's power grid; develops and operates Alberta's real-time wholesale energy market to promote open competition; plans and develops the province's transmission system to ensure reliability; and provides transmission system access for both generation and load customers. Alberta has over 280 power generating station, with a total generating capacity of 11,742 MW, of which 443 is wind generated. Since 2004, the AESO has been working with industry on wind integration issues, such as operating limits, need for mitigation measures and market rules. In April 2006, the AESO implemented a temporary 900 MW reliability threshold to ensure reliability. In 2006, a Wind Forecasting Working Group was created in collaboration with industry and the Canadian Wind Energy Association in an effort to integrate as much wind as is feasible without compromising the system reliability or the competitive operation of the market. The challenges facing wind integration include reliability issues; predictability of wind power; the need for dispatchable generation; transmission upgrades; and, defining a market and operational framework for the large wind potential in Alberta. It was noted that 1400 MW of installed wind energy capacity can be accommodated in Alberta with approved transmission upgrades. figs

  19. Non-conventional development in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precht, P.

    1998-01-01

    Alberta's oil sands have been recognized as a major strategic resource in Alberta's and Canada's energy and economic future. The oil sands cover an area of almost 77,000 square kilometres and contain approximately 1.7 trillion barrels of oil, of which 300 billion barrels are believed to be recoverable. Highlights of Alberta production from 1973 to 1997 were reviewed. The review showed that by 1997, production of bitumen and synthetic crude oil from the oil sands reached 520,000 barrels per day which is 33 per cent of Alberta's and 25 per cent of Canada's total liquid petroleum production. Activities in oil sands development were outlined, including land sales, historical capital spending, predicted capital spending, technological improvements, and production and price forecasts. Improvements in oil recovery have been accounted for by technological improvements such as multi-lateral drilling, steam assisted gravity drainage, hydrotransport, and synergies with existing facilities. Since 1993, there has been a sharp increase in oil sands land sales. A total investment of $18.8 billion has been announced for the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River deposits for the near future. Prospects for continuing vigorous development in oil sand extraction was predicted. 1 tab., 9 figs

  20. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dallas; Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  1. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  2. Magnetic susceptibility evolution and sedimentary environments on carbonate platform sediments and atolls, comparison of the Frasnian from Belgium and Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anne-Christine; Potma, Ken; Weissenberger, John A. W.; Whalen, Michael T.; Humblet, Marc; Mabille, Cédric; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2009-02-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements on carbonate rocks are considered as a proxy for impurities delivered to the carbonate environments. In the absence of strong climatic or tectonic variations, bulk MS values have been linked to sea level variations, because sea-level fall increases clastic supply and therefore increases in magnetic mineral deposition. In this paper we explore the relationship between the average magnitude of bulk MS, with shallowing-up sequences and facies evolution in different Devonian carbonate complexes. Similarities and differences between these parameters have been scrutinized in carbonate attached platform and detached platforms (mounds and/or atolls) from Belgium and Canada. In the carbonate attached platforms from Belgium and Canada, the MS patterns are directly related to depositional environment. Mean MS values increase from the most distal towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of the majority of fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. These trends are in agreement with theoretical background (MS increases with regression). In the Belgian detached platform, the average MS pattern generally shows an opposite behaviour to that observed in the attached carbonate platforms. Average MS decreases towards the most proximal facies and towards the top of a majority of the fourth-order shallowing-up sequences. This behaviour can be explained by the influence of sedimentary rate and water agitation during deposition. A high sedimentary rate will dilute the magnetic minerals in the atoll facies and the high water agitation during deposition may be expected to have prevented the deposition of the magnetic grains. So, the combination of these two effects will result in the observed low values in the atoll crown and lagoonal facies. In the Canadian detached platform, MS is mainly negative. This means that the limestones are very pure. The technique does not appear to be appropriate in these rocks. The variations of average MS

  3. FTA figures in Alberta-California gas price tiff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Canadian government and industry officials are considering a grievance procedure under the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement in a natural gas price conflict with California regulators. Industry groups and the federal and Alberta governments are considering action under the FTA and other possible responses to recent rulings by the California Public Utilities Commission. Other options being considered are appeals against the CPUC policy to the U.S. energy secretary and the governor of California or court challenges. Meantime, Alberta's government the new export volumes of gas sales to California will be approved only after existing contracts with the 190 Alberta producers have been filled

  4. Insight conference reports : Alberta power summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The 18 presentations at this conference covered a wide range of topics dealing with the Canada's electric power industry. Issues of particular concern included lessons learned from restructuring in Alberta, Ontario and New Brunswick, as well as credit risk management in the power sector, power marketing in Alberta, and transmission issues. The challenges facing the industry regarding climate change and the commitment made by Canada under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was also discussed with particular reference to emissions trading and the need to harmonize environmental policies between federal and provincial jurisdictions. The move to deregulate the industry played an important role in restructuring a vertically integrated industry into power generation, transmission and distribution. High electricity prices eventually resulted in re regulation of the industry and a synergy between wholesale and retail markets. Four of the 18 papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Dante in Alberta: chronicle of an oil addicted civilization; Dante en Alberta: chroniques d'une civilisation droguee au petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Belkaid

    2010-07-01

    According to the author, Alberta, an heavenly province of Western Canada, is the theater of the biggest ecological crime of the moment in the form of oil exploitation. Alberta gathers all the aberrations and dramas that have been seen before in other oil producing countries, in particular in Africa, Middle-East and Asia: corruption, defiance of minority rights, terror threats, environment destruction etc

  6. Outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma among children and adults: A case-crossover study in northern Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Brian H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have observed positive associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department (ED visits for asthma. However, few have examined the possible confounding influence of aeroallergens, or reported findings among very young children. Methods A time stratified case-crossover design was used to examine 57,912 ED asthma visits among individuals two years of age and older in the census metropolitan area of Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for the entire region were estimated from three fixed-site monitoring stations. Similarly, daily levels of aeroallergens were estimated using rotational impaction sampling methods for the period between 1996 and 2002. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for temperature, relative humidity and seasonal epidemics of viral related respiratory disease. Results Positive associations for asthma visits with outdoor air pollution levels were observed between April and September, but were absent during the remainder of the year. Effects were strongest among young children. Namely, an increase in the interquartile range of the 5-day average for NO2 and CO levels between April and September was associated with a 50% and 48% increase, respectively, in the number of ED visits among children 2 – 4 years of age (p Conclusion Our findings, taken together, suggest that exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of ED visits for asthma, particularly among young children and the elderly.

  7. Oil sands development and its impact on atmospheric wet deposition of air pollutants to the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynam, Mary M.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Barres, James A.; Morishita, Masako; Legge, Allan; Percy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of air pollutant deposition resulting from Athabasca oil sands development is necessary to assess risk to humans and the environment. To investigate this we collected event-based wet deposition during a pilot study in 2010–2012 at the AMS 6 site 30 km from the nearest upgrading facility in Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium deposition was (kg/ha) 1.96, 1.60 and 1.03, respectively. Trace element pollutant deposition ranged from 2 × 10"−"5 - 0.79 and exhibited the trend Hg < Se < As < Cd < Pb < Cu < Zn < S. Crustal element deposition ranged from 1.4 × 10"−"4 – 0.46 and had the trend: La < Ce < Sr < Mn < Al < Fe < Mg. S, Se and Hg demonstrated highest median enrichment factors (130–2020) suggesting emissions from oil sands development, urban activities and forest fires were deposited. High deposition of the elements Sr, Mn, Fe and Mg which are tracers for soil and crustal dust implies land-clearing, mining and hauling emissions greatly impacted surrounding human settlements and ecosystems. - Highlights: • Atmospheric event wet deposition was collected during a 21 month pilot study. • Major ion, anthropogenic and crustal element wet deposition was characterized. • Low precipitation depths attenuated major ion and anthropogenic element deposition. • Oil sands development, urban activities and forest fires contributed to deposition. - In the vicinity of oil sands, monitoring revealed that wet deposition of major ions (SO_4"2"−, NO_3"-, NH_4"+) was highest followed by S and Mg, the latter is a tracer for soil/crustal dust.

  8. Section 1: Alberta Power Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, R.; Quinn, D.

    1991-01-01

    A study was carried out to produce a compendium of electric and magnetic field levels that exist in Canada and to characterize and classify the sources of electric and magnetic fields. Alberta Power's contribution to this project was mainly to measure electric and magnetic fields produced by transmission lines in their service area in Alberta. Ten 240 kV transmission lines, ten 144 kV transmission lines, one 72 kV transmission line, two 25 kV distribution lines, two substations, and one residence were monitored for 60 Hz electric and magnetic field levels. For the 240 kV transmission lines, the electric field ranged from 0.4 kV/m to 1.9 kV/m and the magnetic field from 2.5 milligauss to 27 milligauss at the edge of the right-of-way. For 144 kV lines, the electric and magnetic fields ranged from 0.24-1.00 kV/m and 2.25-12.00 milligauss, respectively, at the edge of the right-of-way. 5 tabs

  9. Alberta's new competitive electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancher, L.

    1996-01-01

    The shape, speed and direction of further reforms in Alberta's electric power industry were forecast, following the introduction of a competitive framework for the industry, the first province to do so in Canada, effective January 1996. This study reviews the previously existing system ( a mix of investor-owned and municipally-owned utilities), as well as the proposed new structure as laid out in the new Electric Utilities Act, based on the three principles of unbundling, a competitive power pool and open system access transmission. The paper also reviewed some of the major issues that will have to be faced in the future, such as how to deal with market power and possible collusion between the generators to hold prices down, a problem that has been the well-known failing of the U.K. pool mechanism

  10. Preventing Domestic Violence in Alberta: A Cost Savings Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lana Wells; Casey Boodt; Herb Emery

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will...

  11. Does emergency department use and post-visit physician care cluster geographically and temporally for adolescents who self-harm? A population-based 9-year retrospective cohort study from Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Johnson, David W; Urichuk, Liana; Dong, Kathryn; Newton, Amanda S

    2016-07-11

    Clustering of adolescent self-harming behaviours in the context of health care utilization has not been studied. We identified geographic areas with higher numbers of adolescents who (1) presented to an emergency department (ED) for self-harm, and (2) were without a physician follow-up visit for mental health within 14 days post-ED visit. We extracted a population-based cohort of adolescents aged 15-17 years (n = 3,927) with ED visits during 2002-2011 in Alberta, Canada. We defined the case as an individual with one or more ED presentations for self-harm in the fiscal year of the analysis. Crude case rates were calculated and clusters were identified using a spatial scan. The rates decreased over time for ED visits for self-harm (differences: girls -199.6/100,000; p self-harm (differences: girls -108.3/100,000; p self-harm (relative risks [RRs]: 1.58 for cluster 1, 3.54 for cluster 2) and were without a 14-day physician follow-up (RRs: 1.78 for cluster 1, 4.17 for cluster 2). In 2010/2011, clusters in the North, Edmonton, and Central zones were identified for adolescents with and without a follow-up visit within 14 days following an ED visit for self-harm (p self-harm and rates of adolescents without a 14-day physician follow-up visit following emergency care for self-harm decreased during the study period. The space-time clusters identified the areas and years where visits to the ED by adolescents for self-harm were statistically higher than expected. These clusters can be used to identify locations where adolescents are potentially not receiving follow-up and the mental health support needed after emergency-based care. The 2010/2011 geographic cluster suggests that the northern part of the province still has elevated numbers of adolescents visiting the ED for self-harm. Prospective research is needed to determine outcomes associated with adolescents who receive physician follow-up following ED-based care for self-harm compared to those who do not.

  12. Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission has the responsibility of selling the Crown's royalty share of Alberta's crude and synthetic oil production; similar services are provided for natural gas. The Commission also markets crude oil on behalf of producers to North American and offshore consumers. The Commission's position as the largest crude oil marketeer in Canada enables it to provide analyses of industry pricing and marketing trends to the Alberta government. 1992 marked the end of chronically depressed natural gas prices and a significant reduction in natural gas surpluses. A brief overview is presented of crude oil markets in Canada and the USA. The Commission's receipts of light and medium royalty oil totalled 45.3 million bbl, unchanged from 1991, and receipts of heavy crude were 6.3 million bbl, up 4% from 1991. Revenue from crude oil sales was $1.1 billion, down from $1.64 billion in 1991. The Commission's natural gas activities in 1992 included price determination and information collection. 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Congestion management in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.

    2002-01-01

    The challenges facing Alberta regarding electricity market design and congestion management were described. The electricity market in the province consists of a central power pool, an open access transmission network, and a single pool price, unlike many other jurisdictions in North America which have adopted a location margin price (LMP) design with significant price differences between various locations within the power network. Alberta's transmission network is regulated and provides carrier functions. Power moves freely throughout Alberta's power pool network with no congestion, therefore the common pool price signals market participants throughout the entire network with no segregation into zones. Alberta is currently at a cross road in choosing between a single pool price model or a nodal price model. In the first instance, the province would have to strengthen the transmission network to maintain the market at a reasonable size. The alternative would permit Alberta to use market-based techniques to deal with the evolution of many smaller markets in the province, but these would be very small by North American standards and their ability to compete would be questionable

  14. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  15. Transmission : key to the Alberta market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2003-01-01

    AltaLink is Canada's first independent transmission company with 11,000 kilometres (km) of lines and 250 substations. It possesses a unique ownership structure with strong technical partners and financial capability. No major transmission system has been built in the last fifteen years in Alberta. The author examined the situation of power transmission in Alberta, indicating that developments should include capacity increase out of Fort McMurray, and better market integration with both British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. An efficient and effective market requires ample transmission capacity, which would allow for trade and competition, access for efficient generators, and access to regional markets. New transmission must be planned and achieved in a proactive manner. Generation developers must be assured that transmission will be available, and that tariffs and loss factors will be predictable and stable. figs

  16. Transmission issues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levson, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlined the major issues and concerns facing users of the transmission system in Alberta. They include congestion management issues that make investors uncertain about power generation. It is necessary to know the difference between which transmission price signals will be faced by low cost cogeneration at Fort McMurray and Cold Lake coal-fired generation near Edmonton compared to combined cycle gas generation near Calgary. Import and export policy tariffs are another concern. Most new generation opportunities in Alberta require access to export markets, but transmission facilities for export need policy support and appropriate tariffs. It was noted that the past actions of Alberta's Transmission Administrator and balancing pool may be distorting market signals for ancillary service markets, and that loss studies and calculations need upgrading

  17. Deregulation experiences in Alberta and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief introduction of Nexen Chemicals, one of the largest producers of sodium chlorate in the world, was offered, and a map displaying its locations throughout the world was displayed. Nexen is one of Canada's largest independent oil and gas producers, while Nexen Marketing is involved in the marketing of natural gas in North America. In January 2001, the deregulated market opened in Alberta. High natural gas prices, generation shortages, high prices in California and an upcoming provincial election all combined to complicate the situation. A high degree of volatility characterized the market. A chart displaying weekly average Alberta power and gas prices from Jan 2002 to 13 Oct 2002 was shown. In Ontario, the market opened in May 2002, and the demand growth rate was in the 1 to 2 per cent range. The author indicated that approximately 20 per cent of homeowners in Ontario have signed deals with retailers, contrary to Alberta where very few have done so. A similar chart displaying weekly average Ontario power prices was presented. The issues in Ontario are: consistency in policy, increase market transparency, transmission / distribution price flexibility, overall transmission / distribution to industrial consumers high, and increasing costs of the system operator. In Alberta, the issues are: government intent, congestion management issues, and billing settlement errors that continue. The opportunities offered by a deregulated market include process responsiveness which is rewarded, the ability to look in forward prices when prices fit margin requirement, and gives companies the opportunity to participate in the development of the market. Various charts were also displayed to further illustrate the market in both Alberta and Ontario. figs

  18. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Gonzales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to assess their potential for success. Structured decision-making tools, such as Bayesian belief networks, provide objective methods to assess different wildlife management scenarios by identifying the key components and relationships in an ecosystem. They can also catalyze dialogue with stakeholders and provide a record of the complex thought processes used in reaching a decision. We developed a Bayesian belief network for a proposed translocation of woodland caribou into a national park on the northeastern coast of Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. We tested scenarios with favourable (e.g., good physical condition of adult caribou and unfavourable (e.g., high predator densities conditions with low, medium, and high numbers of translocated caribou. Under the current conditions at Pukaskwa National Park, augmenting the caribou population is unlikely to recover the species unless wolf densities remain low (<5.5/1000 km2 or if more than 300 animals could be translocated.

  19. New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages for the Mazama tephra layer from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallett, D.J.; Hills, L.V.; Clague, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Charcoal fragments recovered from the Mazama air-fall tephra layer in cores from Dog and Cobb lakes, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, yielded accelerator mass spectrometry ages of 6720 ± 70 and 6760 ± 70 14 C years BP, respectively. These two new ages, together with other previously published radiocarbon ages on charcoal and twig fragments from Mazama air-fall deposits, indicate that the climatic eruption of Mount Mazama occurred 6730 ± 40 14 C years BP. (author)

  20. Long-term outlook for Alberta's primary petrochemical industry : panel discussion : sustainability, feedstocks, infrastructure, transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauzon, D.

    1997-01-01

    The long-term outlook for Dow Chemical's involvement in Alberta's petrochemical industry was discussed. Dow Chemical Canada is a company with annual sales of more than $20 billion that manufactures and supplies chemicals, plastics, energy, agricultural products, consumer goods and environmental services in 157 countries in the world. Alberta is the centre of growth and development for the Canadian petrochemical industry because of the proximity to feedstocks. Alberta is seen as a good, long-term source of ethane. Dow Chemical intends to continue being a major player in the further development of the industry in Alberta. As proof of that confidence, there are 11 capital projects in progress at Dow's Western Canada Operation, totaling $600 million. An important ingredient of the continuing success of the petrochemical industry in Alberta will be the willingness and ability of the federal and provincial governments to work in partnership with industry to develop support infrastructure and policies

  1. Southern Alberta system reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, A. [Alberta Electric System Operator, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    System planning for the Alberta Electric System Operator's (AESO) southern system was discussed in view of the growing interest in developing wind energy resources in the province. While Alberta currently has a total of 11,500 MW of installed wind power, southern Alberta has a very small capability for interconnecting additional wind resources. There are 3 main agencies involved in system planning for the southern region: (1) the Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC), (2) the AESO, and (3) the transmission facility owners. Transmission needs are studied by the AESO, who then applies to the AUC for approval. Transmission facility owners also apply to the AUC for approval to construct facilities. The AESO's roles are to operate the wholesale electricity market; plan the transmission system; arrange access for loads and generation; and oversee transmission system operation. The AESO is an independent agency with a public interest mandate. The AESO's queue management process has been designed to facilitate non-discriminatory system access. Development options currently being considered by the AESO include a 240 kV AC transmission line; a 500 kV AC transmission line; a 765 kV AC transmission line; a high voltage direct current (HVDC) system; and a voltage source converter (VSC) HVDC system. Radial and looped configurations are also being considered. The AESO is currently conducting a participant involvement program that involves open houses with the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) and other provincial stakeholders. tabs., figs.

  2. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  3. The perceived implications of an outsourcing model on governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles (P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  4. Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission has the responsibility of selling the Crown's royalty share of Alberta's crude and synthetic oil production; similar services are provided for natural gas. The Commission also markets crude oil on behalf of producers to North American and offshore consumers. The Commission's position as the largest crude oil marketeer in Canada enables it to provide analyses of industry pricing and marketing trends to the Alberta government. In 1991, the middle east crisis caused prices to spike at the commencement of the Gulf war, but these quickly stabilized. The Commission's receipts of light and medium royalty oil totalled 45.3 million bbl, down 1.5% from 1990, and receipts of heavy crude were 6.1 million bbl, up 5% from 1990. Revenue from crude oil sales was $1,642,244,000, down from $2,078,197,000 in 1990. Loss of the Montreal market through pipeline closure led to increased pressure on prices, particularly on heavy crudes. The Commission's natural gas activities in 1991 included price determination and information collection. 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. NOVA Corporation of Alberta annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Nova Corporation and its related businesses are involved in natural gas production, gas pipelines, consulting services, and upgrading of natural gas into chemicals and plastics. Nova owns Alberta Gas Transmission Division, the primary gas transportation system in Alberta, with 11,400 miles of pipeline and total deliveries in 1992 of 3.4 trillion ft 3 . Nova also owns 50% of Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd., one of Canada's largest carriers of exported gas, and 50% of TQM Pipeline Partnership, which transports natural gas in Quebec. Nova conducts its chemicals business through Novacor Chemicals Ltd., which has plants in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and the USA. Novacor's major petrochemicals are methanol, ethylene, propylene, and styrene and its major plastics are polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyethylene. Nova's gas-producing branch Novalta Resources produced 26 billion ft 3 of natural gas in 1992 and has proven reserves of 334 billion ft 3 . Nova's net income in 1992 was $164 million, compared to only $46 million in 1991. The company's operations, along with management discussion and analysis, are presented for 1992 and financial statements are included. 20 figs., 43 tabs

  6. A new species of in the Rhyacophila vagrita group (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) from Olympic National Park, Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan J; Giersch, J. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Rhyacophila vagrita Milne, 1936 was described from specimens collected in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. Ross (1950), while examining R. vagrita paratypes from Alberta, discovered four males that did not fi t the R. vagrita description. These he described and named R. milnei Ross, 1950. Ross (1956) established the R. vagrita group for R. vagrita and R. milnei based primarily on the synapomorphies of the “curious dorsal projections of both ninth and tenth tergites”, a very small simple aedeagus, and “a curious development of the apical band and anal sclerite”. Schmid (1970) indicated that males of the vagrita group have genitalia that are among the most unique in all of the species of Rhyacophila. While collecting in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA, we discovered an undescribed Rhyacophila species, most similar to R. milnei, with structures as remarkable as those described for R. vagrita and R. milnei

  7. Alberta oil and gas industry annual statistics for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A compilation of statistical data from Alberta's oil and gas industry was presented to provide energy analysts and economists a single source of consistent energy-related data. Alberta is Canada's largest crude oil and natural gas producer. This report provides current monthly and historical annual energy data covering the last decade. Data is organized by energy type including butane, ethane, natural gas, natural gas liquids, oil, propane and sulphur. This CD-Rom also included statistical data on energy supply, energy production, disposition, and prices. tabs

  8. Power deregulation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurchy, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of deregulation of the electric power industry in Alberta from the perspective of the natural gas industry was presented with special focus on how the power market can be brought back into balance. The issue of what impacts the deregulated power market will have on natural gas consumption or prices was also reviewed. It was noted that deregulation of the electric power industry will have a definite impact on natural gas consumption but no significant impact on prices. It is estimated that in 1999/2000 gas demand will be 90 million cf/day for incremental electricity generation. However, as long as pipe capacity out of the province exits, this increase in natural gas demand in Alberta is not expected to affect gas prices

  9. The Alberta Case: The Challenge to the School Amendment Act, 1994 and Provincial Achievement of Fiscal Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses litigation launched by a wealthy school district against the Alberta (Canada) Ministry of Education, regarding legislation to increase fiscal equity among school systems. Reviews the concept of fiscal equality, financial plans to achieve this goal, and the Alberta funding structure. Describes proposed changes to the School Act. The…

  10. Whither Alberta's oil production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, R.A.; Dick, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated how a combination of old theory (decline methods and statistics) and new technology (computer graphics) can enhance decline-curve forecasts for multi-well groupings. Production and well-count forecasts are presented for four different sized groups of aggregate production. The four examples are: the small Manville pool; the Pembina Cardium, Alberta's largest oil pool; an aggregate of all reef pools of Keg River age; and an aggregate of all wells reporting conventional oil production in the province of Alberta. In each case graphical results show the historical and forecast trends for the statistical distribution of well rates, the median well rate, the aggregated rate, and the number of producing wells. It is concluded that well rate distributions for groups ranging from 15 wells in a single pool to thousands of wells in hundreds of pools are all approximately lognormal. Lognormal well rate distributions and Lorenz graphs provide qualitative and quantitative assessments of a resource base. Decline curves for the median well rate can reveal trends masked in the aggregated rate by changing well count, operating practice and degradation of the resource base. The number of producing wells in Alberta has grown from ca 9000 in 1970 to ca 24,000 in 1988, has remained constant from 1988-1990, and will start to decline as the number of suspended or abandoned wells exceeds the number of new completions. 3 refs., 13 figs., 4 figs

  11. Reforming Long-Term Care Funding in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, R Trafford; Repin, Nadya; Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Like many provinces across Canada, Alberta is facing growing demand for long-term care. Issues with the mixed funding model used to pay long-term care providers had Alberta Health Services concerned that it was not efficiently meeting the demand for long-term care. Consequently, in 2010, Alberta Health Services introduced the patient/care-based funding (PCBF) model. PCBF is similar to activity-based funding in that it directly ties the complexity and care needs of long-term care residents to the payment received by long-term care providers. This review describes PCBF and discusses some of its strengths and weaknesses. In doing so, this review is intended to inform other provinces faced with similar long-term care challenges and contemplating their own funding reforms.

  12. Alberta`s petroleum industry and the Conservation Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, D.H.

    1993-12-31

    The history of Alberta`s petroleum industry and Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) was told. The conservation movement in Alberta was tracked from 1908 to the founding of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board in 1938. Failure of Alberta`s first proration, and the Turner Valley `waste` gas conservation movement occurred during this period. The Leduc discovery and effects of the new regulatory environment on its development were discussed. The natural gas export debate, and the expansion of Alberta`s crude oil market were recounted in detail. The organization and regulation of field development which occurred during the period from 1948 to 1959 was presented. Past actions of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board reviewed from today`s perspective. The petroleum industry and the ERCB were said to have been jointly responsible for the creation of a prosperous and confident new Alberta, moving it further and further away from the Canadian economic and political mainstream,, and reinforcing the sense of alienation that began to develop during the preceding agrarian decades. 53 figs., 48 tabs.

  13. Alberta's electricity forwards market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlined how the province of Alberta is starting over with a wholesale electricity market. Wholesalers have retreated back to the real-time market. The Watt-Ex standard market design position paper, issued in October 2002, examines wholesale market issues. The author notes that the biggest constraint to competitive electricity market is the reliance on real-time markets to price a good portion of transactions. Doing so, creates extreme price volatility and ineffective price signals because demand and supply have only a limited ability to respond to prices

  14. Alberta Chamber of Resources : 1997 resources guide and directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources (ACR) is composed of 140 member companies from the oil and gas industry, forestry, pulp and paper, mining, oil sands, utilities, contractors, suppliers, consultants, banking and other service groups, as well as representatives from universities and governments. ACR's activities during 1996 were reviewed. These included supporting or sponsoring a careers forum, and various other networking and information sharing opportunities, a study of the potential for Alberta's minerals industry, and exploring opportunities for research in the forestry sector and the further development of Alberta's oil sands. Studies of the transportation and infrastructures strategies for Alberta's resources, royalty regimes, tenure and compensation issues associated with oil sands reservoirs that are 'capped' by natural gas reservoirs, taxation issues related to oil sands development, mineral rights tenure, and toll design and royalty issues affecting Alberta's natural gas sector rounded out the Chamber's activities. The annual review also profiled a number of ACR member companies, among them Koch Oil Company Ltd., Pardee Equipment Ltd., Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., and Weldwood of Canada. A listing of all ACR members was also provided

  15. Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, G.R.; LeBlanc, N.; Walden, T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

  16. SemGroup acquisition of central Alberta midstream : case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, T.

    2005-01-01

    A case study of SemGroup's acquisition of Central Alberta Midstream was presented. SemCAMS specializes in providing more efficient supply, storage, and distribution assets and services. Seminole Canada Gas is a leading independent natural gas marketing and energy asset management company that currently markets 369 MMbtu per day. The company purchases natural gas in western Canada for fee-based marketing services while also managing firm transportation contracts and providing gas storage for third party customers. SemCAMS owns the largest sour gas processor in Alberta as well as 3 sour gas processing plants, 600 miles of gathering pipeline, and a sweet gas processing plant. the company is also planning increased drilling and production activities and is now pursuing aggressive land acquisition policies. Over 25,000 square miles of land have been acquired. It was concluded that midstream companies should be customer-focused, provide reliability and guarantees, infrastructure investment and optimization. tabs., figs

  17. Expanding the grid in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the changes and strategies that are currently being adopted by AltaLink to expand Alberta's electricity grid in relation to wind power development. The company is Alberta's largest transmission facility operator. Wind power currently accounts for approximately 5 percent of the province's generation mix. Applications for new wind farms will increase Alberta's 629 MW of wind power generation capacity to 5530 MW. Alberta's transmission regulation requires that 100 percent of in-merit generation can occur when transmission facilities are in service, and that 95 percent of in-merit generation can occur under abnormal operating conditions. A new transmission line is being constructed in the Pincher Creek and Lethbridge region as part of a southern Alberta transmission reinforcement project. The Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) and Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) are working together to ensure that adequate resources are available while system reliability is maintained. The Ardenville wind farm is the first wind power project to be energized under the new connection model launched by the AESO. The connection model was developed to identify, connect, and construct new energy projects. The project will also identify connection routes with the lowest overall impact on the province. Alberta will also continue to implement technologies that ensure the development of a smart grid. tabs., figs.

  18. Alberta opens its borders to PCB waste from other provinces for destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.

    1995-01-01

    The most recent and most significant development in the management of PCBs in Canada occurred with the announcement of the Alberta government that it would open its provincial borders to PCB and other hazardous wastes from across Canada for incineration at the province's special waste treatment facility located at Swan Hills, Alberta. The facility has an annual capacity of 15,000 tonnes of PCB waste. Alberta 's own waste products will be treated first; any excess capacity will be utilized to treat waste materials received from other provinces. It is estimated that given the Swan Hills plant capacity, it will take several years to treat and destroy all of Canada's current PCB waste inventory. Regulations concerning transportation, contracting requirements and pricing policies were briefly reviewed

  19. Sulphur demand growing. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-20

    Sulfur markets look better going into 1975 than they have for several years, as North American demand growth is being filled largely by elemental sulfur producers and overseas. Demand is rising as fast as the capacity of Canadian transportation and handling facilities. It will take a long time to make much of a dent in the total Alberta stockpile of 14 million long tons at the end of 1974, with involuntary production from sour gas plants exceeding sales volume since 1972. However, there is some encouragement in the approaching peakout of production combined with a substantial increase in price since the low point of the cycle at the beginning of 1973, and a predicted rise of at least 20% in domestic (North American) sales this year over 1974.

  20. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  1. The Alberta smoke plume observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anderson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A field project was conducted to observe and measure smoke plumes from wildland fires in Alberta. This study used handheld inclinometer measurements and photos taken at lookout towers in the province. Observations of 222 plumes were collected from 21 lookout towers over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2015. Observers reported the equilibrium and maximum plume heights based on the plumes' final levelling heights and the maximum lofting heights, respectively. Observations were tabulated at the end of each year and matched to reported fires. Fire sizes at assessment times and forest fuel types were reported by the province. Fire weather conditions were obtained from the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS. Assessed fire sizes were adjusted to the appropriate size at plume observation time using elliptical fire-growth projections. Though a logical method to collect plume observations in principle, many unanticipated issues were uncovered as the project developed. Instrument limitations and environmental conditions presented challenges to the investigators, whereas human error and the subjectivity of observations affected data quality. Despite these problems, the data set showed that responses to fire behaviour conditions were consistent with the physical processes leading to plume rise. The Alberta smoke plume observation study data can be found on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System datamart (Natural Resources Canada, 2018 at http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/datamart.

  2. The Alberta smoke plume observation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kerry; Pankratz, Al; Mooney, Curtis; Fleetham, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    A field project was conducted to observe and measure smoke plumes from wildland fires in Alberta. This study used handheld inclinometer measurements and photos taken at lookout towers in the province. Observations of 222 plumes were collected from 21 lookout towers over a 6-year period from 2010 to 2015. Observers reported the equilibrium and maximum plume heights based on the plumes' final levelling heights and the maximum lofting heights, respectively. Observations were tabulated at the end of each year and matched to reported fires. Fire sizes at assessment times and forest fuel types were reported by the province. Fire weather conditions were obtained from the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (CWFIS). Assessed fire sizes were adjusted to the appropriate size at plume observation time using elliptical fire-growth projections. Though a logical method to collect plume observations in principle, many unanticipated issues were uncovered as the project developed. Instrument limitations and environmental conditions presented challenges to the investigators, whereas human error and the subjectivity of observations affected data quality. Despite these problems, the data set showed that responses to fire behaviour conditions were consistent with the physical processes leading to plume rise. The Alberta smoke plume observation study data can be found on the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System datamart (Natural Resources Canada, 2018) at http://cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/datamart.

  3. Should upgrading and refining be enhanced in Alberta?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2006-01-01

    Although world oil prices are rising, the price of bitumen remains stable. It was noted that surplus refinery capacity is disappearing and that skilled labour, infrastructure, transportation systems, environmental management and technology development are among some of the challenges facing heavy hydrocarbon development. Pie charts indicating global reserves of crude oil and heavy crude oil showed that although the Middle East leads in world proven oil reserves, nearly half of the heavy crude oil and natural bitumen deposits are in Canada. As a global energy leader, Alberta is using its' world class expertise to develop the vast energy resources of the province and to market these resources and abilities to the world. This presentation summarized processing activities in Alberta and outlined the markets for petrochemicals. A graph representing North American petroleum supply and demand from 2001 to 2019 was also presented along with a review of Alberta's upgrading and refining capacity and infrastructure opportunities for crude oil, natural gas, petrochemicals and electricity. Alberta's crude oil markets by 2020 are likely to be the Far East, California, Heredity's, Wyoming, Chicago, Cushing, United States Gulf Coast, and the East Coast. The benefits of upgrading in Alberta include inexpensive feedstock, existing upgrader and petrochemical sites and low transportation costs. In addition, more refining capacity in the province would provide market diversification for bitumen products; higher investment and value-added in Alberta; opportunity to provide feedstock to petrochemicals; production of synthetic diluent in the province; and, smaller environmental footprint and greater energy efficiency. The cumulative impact of oil sands development on government revenues was discussed along with the challenge of addressing the issue of a skilled labour shortage, infrastructure needs, and developing a business case for a carbon dioxide pipeline. tabs., figs

  4. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  5. National Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...

  6. Prairie Conservation in Canada: The Prairie Conservation Action Plan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Nernberg; David Ingstrup

    2005-01-01

    In Canada, grassland conservation has been mobilized and directed through the development of Prairie Conservation Action Plans and Action Plan Committees in the three prairie provinces of Alberta (45 partner agencies and organizations), Saskatchewan (26 partners), and Manitoba (26 partners). In Alberta, 43 percent of the native prairie remains; in Saskatchewan and...

  7. Consultation with First Nations stakeholders : an Alberta perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutwind, S. [Alberta Justice, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Aboriginal Law

    2005-07-01

    Aboriginal issues present risks and challenges to resource development in Alberta. This paper provided an overview of significant precedents and acts which may impact on oil and gas activities. The Constitution Act of 1982 acknowledged that existing Aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada were recognized and confirmed. In the case of R v. Sparrow, justification was established where there was a valid legislative objective, such as conservation and resource management, and a precedent was set regarding the interpretation of disputes of section 35 subsection 1 concerning legal restriction of the exercise of treaty rights, such as hunting and fishing. In R v. Badger, the Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) advised that the framework applied to treaty rights as well as Aboriginal rights. The Natural Resources Transfer Agreement transferred powers over natural resources from Canada to Alberta in relation to hunting rights. Proof of rights issues were discussed in Taku River Tlingit First Nation v. Tulesequa Chief Mine Project, as well as in Haida Nation v. British Columbia, where it was concluded that an Aboriginal right need not be proven before a duty to consult arises. A review of Alberta's consultation practices was presented, as well as the Aboriginal issues and resource development initiative, which recognizes the importance of consultation with affected Aboriginal people and communities when regulatory and development activities infringe their existing treaty and other constitutional rights, such as the rights to hunt, fish and trap for food. Details of the Consultation Coordination Group were presented. A draft of the Government of Alberta's First Nations Consultation Policy on Land Management and Resource Development was also presented. tabs, figs.

  8. As good as it gets : Alberta economic profile and forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, T.

    2006-04-01

    This economic profile and forecast report for the province of Alberta revealed that nearly every sector of the economy is operating at full, or near full capacity. Alberta's strong economy is a result of high energy prices, rapid population growth and rising employment. Increased provincial government spending along with tax reductions for businesses also contribute to a strong economy. However, the the province still faces some economic challenges, including a general labour shortage. Forestry and agriculture are under pressure of low commodity prices and high input costs, and the province has not articulated a long-term strategy for managing non-renewable natural resource revenue. In addition, the provincial economy is highly dependent upon volatile energy prices. Despite these challenges, the report states that the momentum is on the side of continued economic growth in Alberta. The Canada West Foundation is forecasting real growth in the gross domestic product of 5.2 per cent for 2006 and 4.7 per cent for 2007. The strong energy sector is largely responsible for much of Alberta's economic growth. An estimated 20,000 wells will be drilled in the province in 2006, and high oil prices will lead to record drilling and oil sands investment. This report also highlighted the economic activity in other sectors, including manufacturing, tourism, international exports, hi-tech, forestry, agriculture, and construction. Information regarding interprovincial migration and population growth was included along with public finances. 16 figs

  9. Issues and strategies for large power buyers in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.

    2001-01-01

    America's leading commodity risk management company, Enron has 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It operates EnronOnline, the largest e-commerce site in the world. With some corporate profile information on Enron and Enron Canada and its involvement in the Alberta electricity market, the author proceeded to discuss risk management issues and program development. It was stated that Enron believes that future outcomes can be changed, and risk management is a dynamic and iterative process used as a tool to decrease uncertainty. The risk appetite is defined and electricity risks clarified, then a review of physical operation characteristics is conducted. The risk management program and policy are defined, as well as the controls and reporting. The tools and tactics are defined and one is now ready for the implementation phase. The next section was devoted to credit and contracting issues before moving to the Alberta electricity market fundamentals and pricing and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, prices in Alberta. The last section of the presentation touched on EnronOnline which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. tabs., figs

  10. Issues and strategies for large power buyers in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D. [ENRON Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    America's leading commodity risk management company, Enron has 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It operates EnronOnline, the largest e-commerce site in the world. With some corporate profile information on Enron and Enron Canada and its involvement in the Alberta electricity market, the author proceeded to discuss risk management issues and program development. It was stated that Enron believes that future outcomes can be changed, and risk management is a dynamic and iterative process used as a tool to decrease uncertainty. The risk appetite is defined and electricity risks clarified, then a review of physical operation characteristics is conducted. The risk management program and policy are defined, as well as the controls and reporting. The tools and tactics are defined and one is now ready for the implementation phase. The next section was devoted to credit and contracting issues before moving to the Alberta electricity market fundamentals and pricing and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, prices in Alberta. The last section of the presentation touched on EnronOnline which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. tabs., figs.

  11. Water in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report contains background information, including historical aspects, roles of government agencies, and relevant technical information, for use as a resource document at a conference on water resources in northern Alberta. An overview is presented of the three river basins which are the geographic focus of this report (Peace River, Athabasca, and Beaver River), describing their characteristics, the types of human activity occurring in them, and the relevant issues pertaining to water. The roles and responsibilities of government departments and agencies in water management are then introduced. A section on water resource issues defines ten topic areas, and for each issue, a summary of the issue, background of the issue, and key concerns and suggested actions are given. These issue areas concern groundwater management (including protection from contamination by oil field produced water), community water supply, farmland drainage and erosion, protection of surface water quality, watershed and wetlands management, farm and rural water supply, tourism/recreation and fisheries, industrial water use (particularly by the oil sand, forestry, and hydroelectric power industries), native peoples' concerns, and water diversion. The final section discusses a number of common themes which arose from the public consultation process, including integrated planning and program coordination, monitoring and enforcement, public information, and research requirements. 22 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Potential research money available from the Acid Deposition Program and Alberta Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primus, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to demonstrate definitive long-term changes in animal health as a result of acid-forming emissions from sour gas wells. A summary is presented of current research in Alberta, followed by the potential for research funding by the Alberta Government/Industry Acid Deposition Program (ADRP). The Alberta Environment research budget consists of four programs in addition to the ADRP: acid deposition effects research in the Athabasca oil sands; western and northern Canada long-range transport of air pollutants; departmental monitoring; and inhalation toxicology and animal health. Animal health research, although a component of the acid deposition issue, is beyond the mandate of Alberta Environment, and the ADRP members committee does not forsee becoming involved in the long-term and complex research required to address the effects of acid-forming emissions on livestock. Funds for additional animal health research must come from other government departments and agencies whose mandate covers this area

  13. CCS and climate change research in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation highlighted recent research activity in Canada regarding climate change and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The Canadian government has allocated 1 billion for research, demonstration and small scale renewable energy technology. The government of Alberta has allocated 2 billion for the following 3 projects in Alberta: (1) the Enhance/Northwest project for the Alberta Carbon Trunk line will incorporate gasification, carbon dioxide capture from the Agrium fertilizer plant and Northwest Upgrader, enhanced oil recovery and carbon storage in Alberta, (2) the Epcor/Enbridge project involves an integrated gasification combined-cycle carbon capture power generation facility adjacent to Epcor's existing Genessee power plant, west of Edmonton, and (3) the Shell Canada Energy/Chevron Canada/Marathon Oil Sands project will integrate carbon capture and storage at Alberta's Scotford upgrader. Regulations are under development in Alberta for a technology development fund. Research efforts in Saskatchewan have included the creation of the International Performance Assessment Centre for the Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide (ITC IPAC-CO2) at the University of Regina; the Petroleum Technology Research Centre's Aquistore project which will capture 600 tonnes of carbon dioxide per day from refineries; and SaskPower's Boundary Dam 3. The $10 carbon tax which was implemented in 2008 in the province of British Columbia will escalate to $30 by 2012. The province of Nova Scotia has created a new centre to study CCS. figs.

  14. International Conference held at the University of Alberta

    CERN Document Server

    Strobeck, Curtis

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the International Conference in Population Biology held at The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada from June 22 to June 30, 1982. The Conference was sponsored by The University of Alberta and The Canadian Applied Mathematics Society, and overlapped with the summer meeting of CAMS. The main objectives of this Conference were: to bring mathematicians and biologists together so that they may interact for their mutual benefit; to bring those researchers interested in modelling in ecology and those interested in modelling in genetics together; to bring in keynote speakers in the delineated areas; to have sessions of contributed papers; and to present the opportunity for researchers to conduct workshops. With the exception of the last one, the objec­ tives were carried out. In order to lend some focus to the Conference, the following themes were adopted: models of species growth, predator-prey, competition, mutualism, food webs, dispersion, age structure, stability, evol...

  15. China joins Alberta oilsands research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that China's state oil company has bought a stake in an in situ oilsands research project in northern Alberta. China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC) will invest $6.5 million in the Underground Test Facility (UTF) operated by Alberta Oilsands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) near Fort McMurray. It is the first foreign research investment for CNPC. The UTF is a joint venture by provincial agency Aostria, the Canadian federal government, and commercial partners in underground mining techniques to extract crude oil from bitumen. Alberta opened a trade office in Beijing in 1991 and now sells several hundred million dollars a year in petroleum equipment and services to China. A horizontal well in situ steam injection process is approaching the production stage at the UTF. It is to begin producing at a rate of 2,000 b/d this fall. The current project is a followup to a pilot project

  16. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom; Russell, Margaret; Predy, Gerald

    2006-12-28

    Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  17. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Methods/Design We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. Discussion The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  18. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  19. Computing Services Planning, Downsizing, and Organization at the University of Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrametti, Monica

    1993-01-01

    In a six-month period, the University of Alberta (Canada) campus computing services department formulated a strategic plan, and downsized and reorganized to meet financial constraints and respond to changing technology, especially distributed computing. The new department is organized to react more effectively to trends in technology and user…

  20. Copyright in Alberta Schools. Information about the Print License with CANCOPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Issues connected with copyright and the copying of published print materials are discussed in question and answer form for teachers in Alberta (Canada) schools. Twenty-five questions are answered. The Copyright Act gives the copyright owner, usually the author or publisher, the sole right to copy or permit someone to copy his or her work. It also…

  1. Changing Definitions and Off-loading Responsibility in Alberta's Post-Secondary System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the process by which the government of Alberta (Canada) has compelled educational institutions to accept the introduction of a performance-based funding mechanism in spite of the substantial loss of autonomy the new process entails. Implications of the change are explored, and reasons for it are suggested. (Author/SLD)

  2. Parking taxes : evaluating options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Final report : Alberta renewable diesel demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    The Alberta renewable diesel demonstration (ARDD) was a demonstration project aimed at providing information and operating experience to stakeholders in the diesel fuel industry. The demonstration took renewable diesel from the lab to the road, providing hands-on experience at 2 and 5 per cent blends (B2 in winter and B5 in shoulder and summer seasons). The ARDD fleet consisted of 59 vehicles running on two types of renewable diesel, notably fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and hydrogenated-derived renewable diesel (HDRD). This report was a summary of the observations of the ARDD. The report provided a general account of the project scope, methods and observations employed in a multi-stakeholder, real-world demonstration of low-level renewable diesel fuels in challenging winter conditions. The purpose of the report was to provide feedback to stakeholders regarding the use of renewable diesel fuels in Canada's on-road diesel fuel market and to confirm the operability of low level renewable diesel blends under the specific conditions tested ensuring full and continuous compliance with CAN/CGSB 3.520. The report discussed Canada's fuel distribution system in western Canada; the blending facility; blending techniques; fuel retail locations; fuel properties; fuel handling; fuel selection; and fuel testing. It was concluded that the ARDD demonstrated that B2 blends of canola methyl ester and 2 per cent blends of hydrogenation derived renewable diesel were fully operable in winter conditions in the study area when cloud points were adjusted to meet CAN/CGSB requirements. 4 refs., 15 tabs., 20 figs., 2 appendices.

  4. Evaluation of environmental risks associated with dumping of hydrocarbons into the sea: Application in Forillon National Park, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, D. J.; El-Sabh, M. I.; Quenneville, R.; Lauzier, D.; Chasse, R.

    1996-01-01

    A methodology to evaluate the environmental risk of marine oil spills was described. The method proposed provides the ability to classify homogeneous shoreline zones based on geomorphology and granulometry of the sediments in respect of the kinetic energy of the repeating waves, thus identifying shoreline zones where autocleaning by wave action is slow, and marking them for special action. By using the method proposed here, several scenarios of high risks for Forillon National Park were identified which led to the preparation of strategies to protect the Park's natural resources and biodiversity. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Alberta wind integration. Status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehler, John; Aksomitis, Kris; Duchesne, Jacques [Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO), Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Alberta has excellent wind resources with over 600 MW of wind generation currently operating on the Alberta Interconnected Electric System (AIES) and there continues to be strong interest in wind development. Integration of large-scale wind power, however, is still relatively new and presents new operational opportunities and challenges. The AESO currently has over 7,700 MW in potential wind power development in Alberta in our interconnection queue. The Alberta system peak load is 10, 236 MW with 12,763 MW installed generation capacity and limited interconnection capability to neighboring jurisdictions. The AESO recognizes that it is important, both to system reliability and to the successful development of renewable resources in Alberta, that the impact on power system operations and the obligations of market participants are understood as Alberta reaches higher levels of wind penetration. The paper discusses the current status and future outlook on wind integration in Alberta. (orig.)

  6. Natural gas from coal : the community consultation process in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    2005-01-01

    The community consultation process was examined with reference to natural gas from coal (NGC) development in Alberta. It was suggested that NGC has a huge potential in Canada, and can be developed in an environmentally responsible manner which considers all stakeholders. However, water supply shortages and the effects of development on groundwater remain key stakeholder concerns in Alberta. Issues concerning water protection and handling were discussed, along with issues concerning surface disruption during resource development activities. An outline of road needs and pipeline corridors was presented. An outline of a typical NGC compressor station were given. Issues concerning public anxiety over air quality were discussed with reference to flaring and landowner complaints. It was noted NGC is not sour and contains no liquid hydrocarbons or foreign contaminants. A review of government regulations and best practices was presented with regards to flaring. Multi-stakeholder advisory committee practices were reviewed. It was concluded that Alberta is currently using a variety of consultation processes to enable better communications between industry and stakeholders. figs

  7. A smart electricity policy for Alberta : enhancing the Alberta advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape-Salmon, A.; Hornung, R.; Macintosh, R.; Marr-Laing, T.

    2001-03-01

    The promotion of sustainable energy technologies under a competitive electricity market in Alberta was discussed. The electric power industry in Alberta is currently in a crisis with rising electricity prices. The government has tried to mitigate the impacts by providing large rebates to help ease the financial burden on consumers. The author argued that unless the fundamental causes of the problem are dealt with, Albertans will soon face even larger problems. This paper described a new approach to electricity sector planning in Alberta. In particular, the approach focused on conserving energy and improving energy efficiency as well as on increasing the use of low-impact renewable energy such as small hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, biomass and waste fuel generators and cogenerators. New policies would protect consumers from price and resource instability as well as from human health and environmental degradation. Additional policies would promote diversity in electricity supply and competition. Competition encourages electricity suppliers to work through market based mechanisms instead of government regulation or intervention. Competition in the electricity markets may also lead to increased customer choice, a larger number players in the electricity generation sector, and greater opportunities for trade. Increased competition may force producers to develop cost effective technologies that promote sustainable development to mitigate some environmental impacts. 3 tabs

  8. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta : model and forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Central Region

    2010-09-15

    This paper presented a reserve growth study that was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada. Historical oil reserve data were evaluated to assess the potential for future reserve growth in both pools and fields, and reserve growth models and functions were developed to better forecast hydrocarbon volumes. The study also considered the sensitivity of reserve growth to such factors as pool size, porosity, and oil gravity. From 1960 to 2005, the reported known recoverable oil in Alberta, excluding the Athabasca oil sands and including only pools with adequate data, increased from 4.2 to 13.9 billion barrels of oil (BBO). New discoveries contributed 3.7 BBO and reserve growth added 6 BBO. Most reserve growth occurred in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of oil. Light-oil pools account for most of the total known oil volume and consequently showed the lowest growth. Pools with greater than 30 percent porosity grew more than pools with lower porosity reservoirs. Oil field growth was found to be almost twice that of pool growth, possibly because the analysis evaluated fields with two or more pools discovered in different years. The growth in oil volumes in Alberta pools is projected to be about 454 million barrels of oil in the period from 2006 to 2010. Over a 25-year period, the cumulative reserve growth in Alberta oil pools was substantially lower than other major petroleum-producing regions, but the growth at the field level compares well. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. 1973 : Trudeau tangles with Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1973, the Canadian government took measures to place oil exports under federal control and placed a freeze on oil prices. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau unveiled plans for a national energy policy that would dissolve the Borden policy which prevented western Canadian crude from accessing the Montreal refining market. Trudeau's policy would extend the oil price freeze and created a one-price national market for Canadian oil. Plans were also underway to create a national oil company that would stimulate exploration and exploitation of new energy resources. The Premier of Alberta was also implementing energy regulations at the same time, aimed at consolidating control of Alberta's own resources within the framework of the Constitution and preventing Ottawa from gaining full control of all of Alberta's energy resources. Other key events in 1973 were the introduction of Saskatchewan's Oil and Gas Conservation, Stabilization and Development Act which gave the province the right to take over the oil rights of all private companies in producing areas. The Polar Gas Project was created to conduct research into building a gas pipeline from the Arctic Islands, and a Canadian Arctic gas study revealed that the Mackenzie Pipeline could be delivering gas by 1977. 1 tab., 1 fig

  10. Oil and gas planning and development in Alberta : new approaches to integrate grizzly bear conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhouse, G. [Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research Program, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reported on a grizzly bear research program that was initiated in the province of Alberta to provide new knowledge and tools to ensure the long term survival of grizzly bears on a multiple use landscape. The Foothills Model Forest (FMF) Grizzly Bear Research Program was formed by scientists from across Canada from a variety of scientific disciplines. A strong partner base has been created to allow the FMF's research efforts to span the entire current distribution of grizzly bear habitat in Alberta. The FMF has provided new large scale seamless maps of grizzly bear habitat and, using detailed grizzly bear GPS movement data, has constructed and tested models that can identify key grizzly bear habitat. This presentation focused on the results of 9 years of applied research and described the new tools and models that are now available to program partners in Alberta. The products are currently being used by both industry and government in Alberta as new standards in landscape management planning in grizzly bear habitat. The author suggested that the approach taken with grizzly bears in Alberta could be used and adapted for a variety of wildlife species in the north. figs.

  11. The American Imprint on Alberta Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics assigned to America's classical liberal ideology--rugged individualism, market capitalism, egalitarianism in the sense of equality of opportunity, and fierce hostility toward centralized federalism and socialism--are particularly appropriate for fathoming Alberta's political culture. The author contends that Alberta's early…

  12. Monitoring the impact of the Gordon C. Leitch oil spill on the breeding bird populations of the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, (QC) Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, B.; Chapdelaine, G.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a monitoring study of the impact of a 1999 oil spill on the breeding bird population in the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, are discussed. The common eider, the black guillemot and the bald eagle were the three species studied by observing and comparing the status of these bird populations on islands located inside and outside of the contaminated area. Data from before and after the oil spill were compared. Results show that an estimated 211 to 777 breeding birds have died as a result of the oil spill, however, the overall impact on the reproductive potential of the breeding bird population was insignificant. Various protective measures to mitigate the effects of future oil spills are proposed. 38 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Preventing Domestic Violence in Alberta: A Cost Savings Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Wells

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will undergo some form of interpersonal violence from an ex-partner or ex-spouse. Besides the devastating toll that domestic violence has on victims and their families, the ongoing cost to Albertans is significant. In the past five years alone it is estimated that over $600 million will have been spent on the provision of a few basic health and non health supports and that the majority of this cost ($521 million is coming out of the pockets of Albertans in the form of tax dollars directed at the provision of services. Fortunately, investment in quality prevention and intervention initiatives can be very cost effective, returning as much as $20 for every dollar invested. Recent research on preventative programming in the context of domestic violence shows promising results in reducing incidents of self-reported domestic violence. The economic analysis of this preventative programming suggests that the benefits of providing the various types of programming outweighed the costs by as much as 6:1. The potential cost savings for the Alberta context are significant; the implementation of these preventative programs has been estimated to be approximately $9.6 million while generating net cost-benefits of over $54 million. Domestic violence is a persistent blight, and continues to have a significant impact on individuals and families in Alberta, but potent tools exist to fight it. This brief paper offers a cogent summary of its costs, and the benefits that could be

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of ambient nitric acid and ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Bytnerowicz; W. Fraczek; S. Schilling; D. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Monthly average ambient concentrations of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) were monitored at the Athabasca Oils Sands Region (AOSR), Alberta, Canada, between May 2005 and September 2008. Generally, concentrations of both pollutants were elevated and highly variable in space and time. The highest atmospheric...

  15. Wheeling in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The quest for economic efficiency, or lowest cost, in the electricity supply industry is furthered by trading between high and low cost utilities, one aspect being transporting or wheeling power through the transmission system of a third party. Some of the pressures and constraints limiting wheeling are discussed. A simple formula is presented for determining whether trading and wheeling are worthwhile. It is demonstrated for assumed capital and operating cost levels, the viability of nine cases where bulk power or economy energy would need to be wheeled across provincial boundaries in order to reach potential buyers. Wheeling in Canada is different from the situation in the USA, due to large distances spanned by Canadian utilities and because most are provincial crown corporations, with different territorial interests and profit motivations than investor-owned utilities. Most trading in electricity has been between contiguous neighbours, for mutual advantage. New technology allows power transmission over distances of up to 1000 miles, and the economics of Canada's electrical supply could be improved, with means including access to low cost coal of Alberta, and remote hydro in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Labrador. Nuclear plants could be located anywhere but suffer from an unfriendly public attitude. A bridge across the Prairies appears uneconomic due to cost of transmission, and also due to low valuation given to Alberta coal. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Implementing Comprehensive School Health in Alberta, Canada: the principal's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Erica; McLeod, Nicole; Montemurro, Genevieve; Veugelers, Paul J; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate E

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive School Health (CSH) is an internationally recognized framework that moves beyond the individual to holistically address school health, leading to the development of health-enhancing behaviors while also improving educational outcomes. Previous research has suggested that principal support for CSH implementation is essential, but this role has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to examine the role of the principal in the implementation of a CSH project aimed at creating a healthy school culture. This research was guided by the grounded ethnography method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with APPLE School principals (n = 29) to qualitatively explore their role in creating a healthy school culture. A model consisting of five major themes emerged, suggesting that the principal played a fluid role throughout the CSH implementation process. Principals (i) primed the cultural change; (ii) communicated the project's importance to others; (iii) negotiated concerns and collaboratively planned; (iv) held others accountable to the change, while enabling them to take ownership and (v) played an underlying supportive role, providing positive recognition and establishing ongoing commitment. This research provides recommendations to help establish effective leadership practices in schools, conducive to creating a healthy school culture. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Latin America-Alberta-Canada CDM Conference: Conference Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Proposals for joint initiatives put forward by participants at the Clean Development Mechanisms Conference included (1) the development of regional guidelines to assist governments in setting regulatory framework for projects to qualify as CDMs, (2) development of regional baselines and regional performance indicators for social benefit and sustainable development, (3) a specific project in Mexico to test the CDM framework and eligibility criteria, (4) development of bilateral agreements between governments, (5) staff exchanges between associations and governments, (6) government recognition for private sector actions such as a letter affirming that certified emission reductions would be accepted for commitments, (7) sharing of information on websites, and (8) capacity building, training programs and workshops. The Conference also identified common ground and shared interest in CDM initiatives among participants, and readiness to explore joint ventures and technology transfer opportunities. There is wide-spread agreement on the need to resolve uncertainties of CDM, such as baseline and additionality; monitoring, reporting, certification; buyer/seller liability; adaptation levy for international emissions trading, joint implementation and clean development mechanism transactions. Significant consensus exists regarding benefits of 'learning by doing' and the need for minimizing transaction costs and risks. Baseline and Additionality are recognized as the critical issues, with social benefits, sustainable development aspects of projects, and the critical nature of integrity, technical expertise, and track record of both partners as close seconds. The importance of framework arrangements, host country approval, clear designation of responsibility and authority to approve projects, the need for specific guidelines and specific approval procedures, country-to-country agreements and national crediting arrangement are recognized by all participants. With regard to issues related to implementing CDM projects, it is well accepted that additionality, measurement, monitoring and verification of reductions are important criteria for project selection for potential investors, while sustainability is the key objective for developing country host governments. There is substantial agreement about issues in emissions trading that remain to be resolved, namely clear title to reductions being offered, and guarantees related to timing and volume reductions eventually transferred to buyer/investor. With regard to financing CDM projects, the World Bank Prototype Carbon Fund is prepared to provide experience with eligibility criteria as well as kick-start more extensive trading in GHG emission reductions. Also, several financial institutions have declared themselves ready to consider addressing the financial uncertainties and risks associated with CDM projects

  18. Evolving 50–50% bilingual pedagogy in Alberta: what does the research say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Rahat; Schmidt, Elaine; Krickhan, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the provincial frameworks that define the Spanish bilingual program in Alberta, Canada, provides an historical overview of its pedagogic constraints and evolution, and proposes a framework for bilingual pedagogy. The framework is conceptualized from the research evidence of three local case studies, and is based on the centrality of cross-linguistic transfer, in relation to linguistic interdependence and bilingual learning. PMID:24987378

  19. Shifting the lens: the introduction of population-based funding in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale; Church, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a detailed historical description of the development of Alberta's population-based funding model for Regional Health Authorities (RHAs). It focuses on key political factors that may have facilitated this transition--in particular, the role of institutions, organized interests, and ideas and values. Understanding the politics of policy change as exemplified in this case can be useful in assessing future prospects for health system reform in Canada and laying the groundwork for further comparative study.

  20. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  1. Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for Alberta, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in Alberta. In contrast, a consumption-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods and services that are consumed in Alberta through household purchases, investment by firms and government spending. Trade flows refer to the movement of emissions that are produced in Alberta but which support consumption in a different province, territory or country (and vice versa. For example, emissions associated with the production of Alberta crude oil that is exported to British Columbia for refining and sale as motor gasoline are recorded as a trade flow from Alberta to British Columbia. Moving in the opposite direction, emissions associated with the production of Saskatchewan crops that are exported to Alberta for processing and sale in Alberta grocery stores are recorded as a trade flow from Saskatchewan to Alberta. For further details on these results in a national context, the methodology for generating them and their policy implications, please see the companion papers to this communiqué series: (1 Fellows and Dobson (2017; and (2 Dobson and Fellows (2017. Additionally, the consumption emissions and trade flow data for each of the provinces and territories are available at: http://www.policyschool.ca/embodied-emissions-inputs-outputs-datatables-2004-2011/.

  2. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about Alberta, about its area (661,190 sq.km), capital (Edmonton), population (2.914,918 in 1998) major industries (petroleum and mining, chemical products, agriculture, food, manufacturing, construction), revenue from natural resources (an estimated $ 3.4 billion from oil and natural gas in 1999-2000, or about 15 per cent of total government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in Alberta, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (petroleum and natural gas, manufactured goods, primary agricultural products, chemicals and chemical products), and upstream industry expenditures in the province (about $ 12 billion in 1998). map, pie-chart, figs

  4. Health status of refugees settled in Alberta: changes since arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Katerina; Krahn, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    This paper sought to examine which pre- and post-migration factors might be associated with changes in refugees' health status. Using linear regression, the associations between pre- and post-migration factors and changes in self-rated mental and physical health status were examined in 525 refugees from the 1998 Settlement Experiences of Refugees in Alberta study. Having spent time in a refugee camp and having held professional/managerial jobs in one's home country were associated with a greater decline in mental health status since arrival in Canada. Having completed a university degree in one's home country was associated with a greater decline in physical health status. Being employed was associated with greater improvements in mental health status. Perceived economic hardship was associated with greater declines in physical health status. A higher number of settlement services received during the first year in Canada was associated with greater improvements in both mental and physical health status. Longer residence in Canada was associated with greater declines in physical health status but not in mental health status. While little can be done to alter refugees' pre-migration experiences, public policies can affect many post-migration experiences in order to mitigate the negative health consequences associated with resettlement. Results of this study point to the need for continued provision of settlement services to assist refugees with job training, labour market access, and credential recognition, as well as counseling for refugees who experienced the trauma of living in a refugee camp.

  5. Shell's Caroline gas project on track in southwest Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that western Canada's biggest sour natural gas, sulfur, and natural gas liquids development project in 2 decades is on target to start up late this year. Shell Canada Ltd.'s $950 million (Canadian) Caroline project will produce 2 tcf of gas and associated products from the Swan Hills member of the middle Devonian Beaverhill Lake group. The price tag will reach about $1 billion, including some start-up costs. The project is designed to process an average 300 MMcfd of gas. It will produce 17,500 b/d of pentanes plus, 4,100 metric tons/day of sulfur, 90 MMcfd of sales gas, and 28,000 b/d of NGL-ethane, propane, and butane. A labor force that is peaking at about 2,400 workers is completing a network of processing plants, about 143 miles of pipeline, three field compressors, and other facilities covering an area of 161 sq miles. Dilcon Constructors Ltd., an arm of Delta Catalytic Corp., Calgary, is the main contractor for the project. About 85% of the services and equipment for Caroline are coming from Alberta suppliers, 7% from suppliers elsewhere in Canada, and only 8% from non-Canadian Sources

  6. Natural gas exploration and development in Alberta: where to from here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, W.

    1995-01-01

    The frustrations of environmental groups were expressed by a representative from the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society. Emphasis was placed on the lack of support from the Alberta government to protect lands from industrial development. Some recent major conflict between the oil industry, the Alberta government, and environmentalists were chronicled. As an example, the government's Special Places 2000 program, which designates environmentally-sensitive areas in Alberta, was boycotted by environmental groups, because in the view of environmental groups, the policy failed to clearly designate protected areas. In 1993, environmental groups approached major oil and gas companies to establish an agreement on which lands were to be protected. As a result, the Eastern Slopes Environment and Energy Committee (ESEE) was formed, however, the Alberta government failed to support this initiative. The speaker recommended a greater degree of public involvement in decisions regarding access to lands for industrial development.More rigorous assessments at proposed development sites prior to industrial activity was also suggested. In the view of the speaker further conflict between environmental groups and the energy industry were inevitable, unless the industry took some responsibility in protecting environmentally-sensitive lands

  7. Cash Cow: User Fees in Alberta Public Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hammond

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Alberta is the wealthiest province in Canada. It is also the only jurisdiction in NorthAmerica where the majority of local library boards charge patrons to use their publiclibraries.There are many reasons why these fees came into being in the 1980s and continue toexist today. Library trustees see them as an easy source of funds for their cashstrappedlibraries, some librarians feel that they help instill a sense of value in librarymaterials and services, library patrons realise the fees are often less than the cost of asingle paperback book and don’t mind paying them.But the main reason the fees still exist is because of the unique form of conservatismespoused by the popular Alberta premier Ralph Klein, who favoured big business, lowertaxes, and privatization of public services while leading the province from 1992 to 2006.Klein’s policies included a focus on user-pay models for all manner of services. Payingfor library cards is something that Alberta’s citizens have accepted for the most part. Butbecause of Alberta’s strong support for user-pay models, this isn’t just an issue for thelibrarians, patrons, and politicians of that province. The possibility also exists thatlibraries in other provinces could be opened up to a GATS challenge by for-profitcorporations outside of Canada because of Alberta’s current user fee policies.How this unique user fee arrangement developed, the current situation, and what thefuture may bring will be the subject of this paper.

  8. Alberta's electricity policy framework : competitive, reliable, sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper described public policies in Alberta that are implemented to create an electric power industry that is competitive, reliable and sustainable. The success of Alberta's competitive electric market framework can be attributed to new investment in the industry along with new players participating in the electricity market. The Alberta Department of Energy is committed to a competitive wholesale market model and to competitively-priced electricity. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board supports the development of Alberta's vast resource base and facilitates power generation development and support through transmission development and an interconnected transmission system. A wholesale market Policy Task Force was established in 2005 to review the progress in Alberta's electric market design and its competitive retail market. This paper outlines a policy framework which addresses design of the regulated rate option post July 1, 2006; short-term adequacy; and long-term adequacy. Other inter-related market issues were also discussed, such as operating reserves market, transmission services, interties, demand response, balancing pool assets, credit, market power mitigation, and wind generation. It is expected that the recommendations in this paper will be implemented as quickly as possible following amendments to regulations or ISO rules. tabs., figs.

  9. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti

  10. Park It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  11. Parks & benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...

  12. CO{sub 2} flooding performance prediction for Alberta oil pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.C. [Adams Pearson Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    An advanced technical screening program was used to successfully screen and rank a very large number of Alberta oil pools for enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flooding. This paper is a continuation paper describing the results of using the Microsoft Excel program with VBA to estimate production forecasts for several candidate pools in Alberta. A total of 6 ranking parameters were used, including API gravity of oil, residual oil saturation, ratio between reservoir pressure and minimum miscibility pressure, reservoir temperature, net pay thickness and porosity. The screening program provides a technical ranking of approximately 8,000 Alberta pools. After compilation of the Alberta oil pools, it was determined that most of the deep carbonate oil pools are excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} miscible flooding. Other Devonian carbonate pools are also ranked as having high potential for the process. An environmental benefit of CO{sub 2} miscible flooding process is that carbon sequestration has the potential to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from reaching the atmosphere. Ongoing studies are currently addressing CO{sub 2} capture and transportation, making EOR technology viable for maintaining light oil production in western Canada. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    .... Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., United Refining Company v. Enbridge Energy..., Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., and... assistance with any FERC Online service, please email [email protected] , or call (866) 208-3676...

  14. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  15. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  16. Alberta, crisis or opportunity? IPPSA's vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, G.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation discussed the role of IPPSA and the facts about Alberta's power market, the goal of restructuring and the reality behind it in terms of managing the transition. IPPSA is a non-profit organization to promote a competitive electric marketplace for the benefit of non-regulated power producers and marketers. The role of IPPSA, which has been active in Alberta since deregulation began in 1993, is to ensure that Alberta deregulation protects consumer choice, renewable energy options and competition. IPPSA's environmental concerns involve tax based incentives, national climate change issues and the Kyoto Protocol. Environmental concerns can be addressed through responsible power generation to reduce greenhouse gases through the use of low impact generation sources such as run of river hydro, biomass and wind power. Alberta has also pioneered flare gas generation with currently 50 units in operation. IPPSA believes that in the long-term, Alberta's deregulation program will bring undeniable benefits to the industry and the consumer since competition will eventually create a downward pressure on price and spark innovation and choice. tabs., figs

  17. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  18. Proceedings of Alberta's environment conference 2005 : connecting and collaborating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Alberta's environmental management and leadership was discussed with reference to opportunities to collaborate in managing, protecting and sustaining the environment. Alberta has already made substantial achievements since it established the Environment Ministry in 1971. Achievements include Canada's first recycling programs for tires, bottles and electronics, and a climate change action plan. Currently, 90 per cent of the government's electricity needs are supplied by wind power from Pincher Creek and biomass from Grand Prairie. The conference themes for the 2005 conference were: partnering for success to support environmental management; sharing knowledge and new research results through environmental monitoring and reporting; future trends and the vision for environmental management and resource development; and, programs and policy that support environmental management. The conference featured 25 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Alberta producers' gas export prices slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharaiah, M.N.; Dubben, G.; Kolster, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Alberta gas producers have approved a new contract with California buyers that includes slightly lower wellhead prices and more flexible pricing terms. The 1 year agreement, will apply a flexible price formula to gas sales. A basic volume of 212 MMcfd will receive $1.52 (U.S.)/Mcf. A and S also will buy 200 MMcfd at prices paid for other Alberta gas in the California market. It will have the right to buy added volumes at prices indexed to gas sold into California from the U.S. Southwest. Ballots cast by producers were to be verified by regulatory agencies in Alberta and British Columbia. The more flexible price terms in the new contract are seen as a positive development for negotiations in a dispute over long term contracts

  20. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR is a collaborative bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. Objectives and progress with evolving methodology, technology, issues and challenges are explored within the context of the library field. We investigate a collaborative digital library that allows librarians and non-librarians alike to share information on specific topics through MARC records. An outcome of a collaborative digital library is how to create and sustain interest within the library community. Southern Alberta region was selected based on the authors’ familiarity with the region. Some issues and questions remain to be resolved. Digital formats present a number of challenges in terms of selection and presentation. Legal issues relating to technology such as linking and location information have emerged. Basic technical issues remain, such as, how best to update links.

  1. Clearing the air: Alberta a model of success in decreasing venting, flaring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.

    2004-01-01

    An historical review of flaring and venting in the Alberta oilfields is presented. The story begins with gas production in the Turner Valley, Alberta in 1931, Western Canada's first, largest and most productive source of oil and naphtha until the discovery of Leduc in 1947. Gas production at Turner Valley reached 500 mmcf per day, of which about 486 mmcf was flared. Through the efforts of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and its predecessors venting and flaring was drastically cut, to the point where in 2003 the World Bank Group, an agency of the United Nations, approached the EUB to present the Alberta flaring and venting reduction model to developing countries. Accordingly, a Flaring Workshop was held at Calgary in October 2003, attended by delegates from Algeria, Angola, Cameroon, Indonesia and Nigeria. The article also details the EUB's requirements for upstream flaring in Alberta, as laid down in 'Guide 60'. The draft Guide was released in January 2003, the final draft is targeted for February 2004. In brief, the Guide requires operators, by means of a 'decision tree analysis' method which is described in the Guide, to evaluate whether it is possible to reduce or eliminate flaring and venting; it also requires operators to evaluate economic feasibility, and to determine the feasibility of conserving as much gas as possible. New developments in the field of sensors, controls and optical flow meters are also reviewed. An appended statistical summary of gas flaring trends in selected countries, compiled by the World Bank in 2000 shows Nigeria, Iran, Russia, Algeria and Mexico as the countries with the highest volumes of flaring. To give an indication of the volume of gas wasted through flaring, it is reliably estimated that the amount of gas flared in 2000 by African countries alone, could have fuelled power plants to generate sufficient electric power to meet fully half of the continent's needs for electric power. 1 tab., 2 figs

  2. Alberta Chamber of Resources: 1998 in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.

    1999-01-01

    Several key initiatives taken by the Alberta Chamber of Resources during 1998 are described. Among these initiatives special mention is made of strengthening the relations between the Chamber and the University of Calgary and the University of Alberta through regular contributions to business plan reviews, scholarships, and advisory committees. Working with the Department of Energy on a range of issues involving the environment, taxation, and mineral rights tenure is an area the ACR is involved. Hosting a workshop on the economic and social values and trade-offs in the green areas of Alberta and working with the University Alberta regarding the development of an advisory committee on forest resource valuation is another area. Strategizing the Oil Sands Task Force to strengthen it in the areas of industrial coordination, by-product utilization, the creation niche markets and product quality and investigating, through the Black Oil Pipeline Steering Committee, transportation, technological and marketing issues related to the oil sands are other interests. In the Mineral Sector, the Chamber facilitated discussions towards a Non-Energy Minerals and Mines Act, which among other long-range beneficial effects, prompted the provincial government to provide an additional $ 1.5 million to the Alberta Geological Survey. In the Utilities Sector, the Chamber continued to bring together various parties to work on common challenges and opportunities. Much interest has been generated also on upgraders and research facilitated by the Chamber either with members of the Alberta Research Council, or the National Centre for Upgrading Technology or similar organizations. This kind of facilitation helps the Chamber's member companies to realize cost reductions in development and application of new technologies

  3. Special Education in Canada: Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Clive

    The paper reviews the history and present status of special education in Canada (with particular emphasis on the province of Ontario) and identifies recommended future directions. The legislative authority for special education and current policies are summarized in sections on the following provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan,…

  4. Financial support for agricultural research in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teklemariam, Y.; Martin, J.

    1992-01-01

    A summary of the objectives and operational guidelines of 'Farming for the future', Alberta Agriculture's main research funding program, is provided, with emphasis on aspects relevant to research on the effects of acid-forming emissions on livestock. The program has two main objectives: to improve farm income, and to increase the long-term viability of agriculture in Alberta. The Research Program funds agricultural research conducted by research scientists and the On-farm Demonstration Program supports testing and demonstration studies conducted by producers on their farms. The procedures for applying for funds, criteria for evaluation, and funding available for acid-forming emission research are discussed. 1 fig

  5. Alberta's economic performance and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyear, D. [Government of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Economic Development

    2000-07-01

    The economic climate in Alberta is characterized as being strong and vibrant, with an efficient and modern infrastructure, a young, skilled and productive workforce, a competitive business climate, the lowest overall taxes of any of the provinces, a culturally diverse province with a high quality of life and a fiscally responsible government. All of these attributes add up to the 'Alberta Advantage', the campaign slogan used by the Alberta Government to attract business to the province. Economic highlights from 1999 show that Alberta was the fastest growing province in the country, with 38,000 new jobs created, exports of $34.5 billion, the lowest unemployment rate in the country, and leading all provinces in per capita investment. Total GDP in 1998 amounted to $95.8 billion (up from $61.3 billion in 1985). Even more significant is the fact that only 18.5 per cent of GDP was generated from the energy sector in 1998, as opposed to 37.2 per cent in 1985. Real GDP growth in Alberta was 2.3 per cent in 1999, projected at 6.1 per cent for 2000 and 5.2 per cent for 2001. The corresponding figures for Canada as a whole are 4.1, 4.2 and 3.0 per cent, respectively. Except for agriculture and public administration, which declined by 11.9 per cent and 13.4 per cent respectively, all other sectors of the economy showed significant growth during the period of 1993 to 1999. Technology employment grew by six per cent between 1989 and 1999, fully 33 per cent higher than anywhere else in the country. Energy industry revenue increased by 35 per cent from 1998 to 1999 and industry reinvestment was high at 150 per cent of internal cash flow. Total investment in the province amounted to $31.3 billion in 1999; it is expected to top $34.0 billion in 2000. A list of current major investment projects shows a total of 810 projects in all sectors of the economy, with a total value of $61.14 billion dollars. Growth targets include 295,000 new jobs, value added exports to $26 billion

  6. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  7. Alberta: evaluation of nursing retention and recruitment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Arlene; Graham, Carol; Smith, Jennifer; Aitken, Julia; Odell, Jill

    2012-03-01

    Retention and recruitment strategies are essential to address nursing workforce supply and ensure the viability of healthcare delivery in Canada. Knowledge transfer between experienced nurses and those new to the profession is also a focus for concern. The Multi-Employer/United Nurses of Alberta Joint Committee attempted to address these issues by introducing a number of retention and recruitment (R&R) initiatives for nurses in Alberta: in total, seven different programs that were introduced to some 24,000 nurses and employers across the province of Alberta in 2001 (the Transitional Graduate Nurse Recruitment Program) and 2007 (the remaining six R&R programs). Approximately 1,600 nurses participated in the seven programs between 2001 and 2009. Of the seven strategies, one supported entry into the workplace, two were pre-retirement strategies and four involved flexible work options. This project entailed a retrospective evaluation of the seven programs and differed from the other Research to Action (RTA) projects because it was solely concerned with evaluation of pre-existing initiatives. All seven programs were launched without a formal evaluation component, and the tracking of local uptake varied throughout the province. The union and various employers faced challenges in implementing these strategies in a timely fashion, as most were designed at the bargaining table during negotiations. As a result, systems, policy and procedural changes had to be developed to support their implementation after they became available.Participants in the programs indicated improvements over time in several areas, including higher levels of satisfaction with work–life balance, hours worked and their current practice and profession. The evaluation found that participation led to perceived improvements in nurses' confidence, greater control over their work environment, decreased stress levels, increased energy and morale and perceived improved ability to provide high-quality care

  8. Listening to a personal music player is associated with fewer but more serious injuries among snowboarders in a terrain park: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kelly; Meeuwisse, Willem; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Emery, Carolyn A; Gushue, Shantel; Wishart, Jillian; Romanow, Nicole; Rowe, Brian H; Goulet, Claude; Hagel, Brent E

    2015-01-01

    Some snowboarders listen to music on a personal music player and the objective was to determine if listening to music was associated with injury in a terrain park. A case-control study was conducted at a terrain park in Alberta, Canada during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 winter seasons. Cases were snowboarders who were injured in the terrain park and presented to either the ski patrol and/or a nearby emergency department (ED). Demographic, environmental and injury characteristics were collected from standardised ski patrol Accident Report Forms, ED medical records and telephone interviews. Controls were uninjured snowboarders using the same terrain park and were interviewed as they approached the lift-line on randomly selected days and times. Multivariable logistic regression determined if listening to music was associated with the odds of snowboard injury. Overall, 333 injured cases and 1261 non-injured controls were enrolled; 69 (21%) cases and 425 (34%) controls were listening to music. Snowboarders listening to music had significantly lower odds of injury compared with those not listening to music (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.68; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.98). Snowboarders listening to music had significantly higher odds of presenting to the ED versus ski patrol only compared with those not listening to music (adjusted OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.07 to 4.05). While listening to music decreased the odds of any injury in the terrain park, it increased the odds of an injury resulting in ED presentation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  10. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  11. Development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Frank G.; Machura, Shirley

    The development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program (ADRP) was based on a current psycholinguistic theory that describes reading as a process in which the reader uses background information to communicate with the author. To ensure its usefulness and effectiveness, the developers of the ADRP sought the advice and direct involvement of many…

  12. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1998-01-01

    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO 2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO 2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO 2 . The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO 2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO 2 and the users of CO 2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO 2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO 2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO 2 programs such as: (1) CO 2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO 2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO 2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO 2 utilization

  13. Transmission policy in Alberta and Bill 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, J.; Rosehart, W.; MacCormack, J.

    2009-01-01

    Plans developed by the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) have determined that Alberta's electrical transmission system needs to be expanded. However, there are complex issues that must be considered in order to assess the nature and extent of the needed expansion. Various new amendments to the system were proposed in the Alberta government's Bill 50, including the construction of new transmission lines; the installation of a double circuit 500 kV alternating current line between Edmonton and the Gibbons-Redwater region; the construction of a new 240 kV substation in southeast Calgary; and the installation of 2 single circuit 500 kV alternating current lines between Edmonton and Fort McMurray. This study provided a review of the institutional framework instituted by the government's transmission policy and compared the costs and benefits of 2 large capacity high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission lines proposed for the Edmonton-Calgary corridor relative to the various other transmission system amendment suggestions. An evaluation of Alberta's proposed regulatory process under Bill 50 was also conducted. Results of the study indicated that the addition of the HVDC lines is an inefficient response to concerns over adequate supply and reliability. 72 refs., 18 tabs.

  14. Alberta air emissions : trends and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    This paper provided a summary of air emissions trends and projections for Alberta. Predicted regional distribution trends and industry sector emissions were presented. Historical and projected emissions included sulfur oxides (SO x ) nitrogen oxide (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ammonia (NH 3 ). Results of the study indicated that carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were decreasing, while VOCs, NO x , SO x , PM 2.5 and NH 3 levels were increasing. Approximately 9 per cent of ammonia emissions were from point sources, while the majority of PM 2.5 emissions were attributed to unpaved roads and construction operations. Agricultural animal operations accounted for most of the VOC source emissions in the region. Increased development of the oil sands industry is contributing to increases in VOC emissions. Increases in NH 3 were attributed to growth in the agricultural sector and the increasing use of confined feeding operations in the region. Results of the study indicated that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Alberta will keep increasing as a result of Alberta's growing economy. It was concluded that emissions from other industrial sectors are also expected to increase. In 2005, Alberta's total GHG emissions were 233 megatonnes of CO 2 equivalent, of which 168 megatonnes were attributed to industry. Results were presented in both graph and tabular formats. 3 tabs., 25 figs

  15. How Alberta's market is spurring innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses how Alberta's market is spurring innovation in the power industry. Incentives for new generation technologies is provided by consumption growth, market prices, and transmission policy and development. Potential technologies include integrated gasification, combined cycle, integrated gasification and cogeneration, alternative fuels such as biomass, landfill gas, district heating, wind, solar as well as nuclear energy

  16. Parameterization of the ACRU model for estimating biophysical and climatological change impacts, Beaver Creek, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, K. A.; Kienzle, S. W.; Coburn, C. A.; Byrne, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Multiple threats, including intensification of agricultural production, non-renewable resource extraction and climate change, are threatening Southern Alberta's water supply. The objective of this research is to calibrate/evaluate the Agricultural Catchments Research Unit (ACRU) agrohydrological model; with the end goal of forecasting the impacts of a changing environment on water quantity. The strength of this model is the intensive multi-layered soil water budgeting routine that integrates water movement between the surface and atmosphere. The ACRU model was parameterized using data from Environment Canada's climate database for a twenty year period (1984-2004) and was used to simulate streamflow for Beaver Creek. The simulated streamflow was compared to Environment Canada's historical streamflow database to validate the model output. The Beaver Creek Watershed, located in the Porcupine Hills southwestern Alberta, Canada contains a heterogeneous cover of deciduous, coniferous, native prairie grasslands and forage crops. In a catchment with highly diversified land cover, canopy architecture cannot be overlooked in rainfall interception parameterization. Preliminary testing of ACRU suggests that streamflows were sensitive to varied levels of leaf area index (LAI), a representative fraction of canopy foliage. Further testing using remotely sensed LAI's will provide a more accurate representation of canopy foliage and ultimately best represent this important element of the hydrological cycle and the associated processes which govern the natural hydrology of the Beaver Creek watershed.

  17. Maryon Park

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, Giasco

    2018-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Maryon Park is the place Michelangelo Antonioni chose, in 1966, to shoot the scenes that would become cult images from his film "Blow Up", and deservedly so. The park is located in Charlton, southeast of London, a place that's hardly changed since Antonioni shot there. I first went there to shoot a series of photos on March 7 and 8, 2007. I returned again on March 7, 2014. I called the series “Maryon Park”. I used a medium format, six by seven inch col...

  18. The BC-Alberta intertie : impact of regulatory change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.; Hughes, K.

    2004-01-01

    The interconnected electricity system between the provinces of British Columbia (BC) and Alberta was discussed with reference to the Cranbrook-Langdon 500 kV line and two 138 kV transmission lines. The lines in British Columbia are owned by BC Hydro and operated by the BC Transmission Corporation, while the lines in Alberta are owned by AltaLink and operated by the Alberta Electric Systems Operator (AESO). The operating terms and conditions are established by an Interconnection Agreement between all parties. The Alberta-BC Intertie was designed to operate at an operating transfer capacity of 1200 MW from BC to Alberta, and 1000 MW from Alberta to BC. The operational limits on Intertie capacity were imposed due to voltage constraints within Alberta during high load periods resulting from insufficient transmission support. It was noted that available capacity is often under-utilized because sometimes it is not economical to schedule into or out of Alberta due to better market conditions in the Pacific Northwest. Transmission users in BC have explicit transmission rights which must be purchased on an hourly basis. However, transmission rights in Alberta follow dispatch of generation through Power Pool bidding. The impact of an under-utilized transmission capacity is higher wholesale prices in both Alberta and in the Pacific Northwest because ratepayers end up paying for the under-used capacity. This presentation also outlined regulatory change in Alberta with reference to consolidation of Alberta's Transmission Administrator, Power Pool Administrator and system controller functions; Alberta's new transmission policy; and, the enhanced role of market surveillance administrator. It also outlined the regulatory change in British Columbia with reference to the creation of the BC Transmission Corporation; the Heritage Contract; and, stepped rates and retail access. The effect of changes on intertie usage in both Alberta and British Columbia were also outlined. 31 refs

  19. Insight conference reports : proceedings of the 7. annual Alberta power summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This power summit conference provided a forum to discuss issues related to electricity transmission and distribution in Canada. The conference addressed recent regulatory and policy changes related to the electricity industry and provided an update on the Alberta Independent System Operator (AESO). Recent developments in wind power development and integration were also outlined, as well as issues related to power markets. Financial incentive regulations in Ontario were reviewed along with the current status of clean coal technologies. Issues related to biomass energy and rural electrification were also reviewed. One of the 17 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Opportunities for CANDU for the Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Bock, D.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.; Keil, H.; Fiorino, L.; Hau, K.; Zhou, X.; Dunbar, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The Alberta oil sands bitumen deposits comprise of one of the largest sources hydrocarbon in the world, and have emerged as the fastest growing, soon to be dominant, source of crude oil in Canada. The oil industry has made great strides in improving the effectiveness of gathering this resource. In particular, alternatives to open-pit mining have been developed which enable in-site recovery of underground deposits with a minimum of environmental disruption. The main challenge that remains is the large quantity of energy needed in the process of extracting the oil and upgrading it to commercial levels. For a typical in-situ extraction project, about 18% of the energy content of the oil produced is used up in the extraction process, while a further 5% is used in generating hydrogen to upgrade the bitumen to synthetic crude oil. Looking ahead, even as improvements in energy use efficiency, (and hydrocarbon use efficiency) counterbalance the increases in hydrocarbon demand from economic growth (particularly in the developing world), Canada and Alberta recognize that the oil sands resource will be needed, and both support the development of this resource in an environmentally responsible way. The large energy requirement for the oil sands extraction process represents a challenge with regard to both environmental impact and security of supply. The use of natural gas, the current energy supply, has impacts in terms of air quality (via NOX and other emissions) and also represents a large greenhouse gas emissions component. As the oil sands industry expands, the availability of natural gas also becomes a concern, as does price and price stability. With this background, the opportunity for nuclear reactors to provide an economical, reliable, virtually zero-emission source of energy for the oil sands becomes very important. Over the last few years, developments in oil sands extraction technology, and developments in CANDU technology through the Advanced CANDU Reactor, (ACR

  1. Cultural continuity, traditional Indigenous language, and diabetes in Alberta First Nations: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Richard T; Grier, Angela; Lightning, Rick; Mayan, Maria J; Toth, Ellen L

    2014-10-19

    We used an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to study the association between cultural continuity, self-determination, and diabetes prevalence in First Nations in Alberta, Canada. We conducted a qualitative description where we interviewed 10 Cree and Blackfoot leaders (members of Chief and Council) from across the province to understand cultural continuity, self-determination, and their relationship to health and diabetes, in the Alberta First Nations context. Based on the qualitative findings, we then conducted a cross-sectional analysis using provincial administrative data and publically available data for 31 First Nations communities to quantitatively examine any relationship between cultural continuity and diabetes prevalence. Cultural continuity, or "being who we are", is foundational to health in successful First Nations. Self-determination, or "being a self-sufficient Nation", stems from cultural continuity and is seriously compromised in today's Alberta Cree and Blackfoot Nations. Unfortunately, First Nations are in a continuous struggle with government policy. The intergenerational effects of colonization continue to impact the culture, which undermines the sense of self-determination, and contributes to diabetes and ill health. Crude diabetes prevalence varied dramatically among First Nations with values as low as 1.2% and as high as 18.3%. Those First Nations that appeared to have more cultural continuity (measured by traditional Indigenous language knowledge) had significantly lower diabetes prevalence after adjustment for socio-economic factors (p =0.007). First Nations that have been better able to preserve their culture may be relatively protected from diabetes.

  2. Energy [R]Evolution: Opportunities for Decarbonizing Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The future of conventional energy in Canada is uncertain. World oil prices have suffered steep declines recently and there are no strong arguments for recovery in the foreseeable future. The country is now engaged in serious debates and discussions over the value of GHG emissions, pipelines, oil and gas operations, and renewable energy. Oilsands deposits in northern Alberta require long-term investment and decades of consistent sales to repay those investments. The election of more progressive governments in Alberta and Canada may provide the national and global credibility and opportunity to address the environmental problems caused by Oilsands and other fossil fuel developments. The discussion will focus on the possible ways forward for Canada to diversify the regional and national economy with renewable energy networks, thereby meeting our Paris GHG emission reduction commitments. The end goal of this work is to see the Canadian economy decarbonized within two decades.

  3. Proposed open-pit mine threatens Jasper National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelcic, S.

    1996-12-31

    Concerns by the Sierra Club, the Alberta Wilderness Association, and other environmental groups about the proposed Cheviot Mine are discussed. Cardinal River Coals, which is owned by Luscar Ltd. and Consolidated Coals of Pittsburgh, is proposing the mining operation, which includes 26 deep open pit mines of which 14 will not be backfilled. The mine extends to within 2 km of Jasper National Park`s border. Concerns about the mine include: disruption of an environmentally sensitive area, interference with grizzly bear movement and bighorn sheep habitat and diet, destruction of flora and fauna, and pollution of two major watersheds. Hearings for the mine commence in January 1997.

  4. Motorcycle-related trauma in Alberta: a sad and expensive story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, John P.; Buckley, Richard; Dyer, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Background Trauma caused by motorcycle-related injuries is extensive, expensive and increasing. Recent American literature reported that in 2004 the chance of a motorcyclist dying was 34 times greater than that for someone using any other motor vehicle for every mile travelled. In the United Kingdom a motorcyclist is killed or seriously injured every 665 894 km, compared with 18 661 626 km for cars. If this pattern is repeated in Canada, then this information should be in the public domain to support initiatives for injury prevention. Methods We gathered and analyzed retrospective population data on the injury patterns of adult motorcyclists and other adult motor vehicle drivers and passengers across Alberta from Apr. 1, 1995, to Mar. 31, 2006. We collected data from 3 Alberta sources: the Alberta Trauma Registry, the Alberta Office of the Chief Medical Examiners and the Government of Alberta Department of Infrastructure and Transportation. We compared the numbers and causes of crashes, injuries and deaths, as well as the acute care costs on the roads, and specifically compared motorcycle-related injuries to all other motor vehicle–related injuries. Results There were 70 605 registered motorcycles and 2 748 204 other registered motor vehicles in Alberta during the study period. During these 11 years, there were 286 motorcyclists killed and 712 were severely injured, representing a total of 998 injuries and deaths. There was 5386 deaths related to other motor vehicles and 6239 severe injuries, for a total of 11 625 injuries and deaths. This represents a percentage of 1.4% of all registered motorcycles and 0.4% of all other registered motor vehicles (3.5 times more motorcyclist injuries). The impact on the health care system can be measured in several ways. During the period of this study, motorcyclists accounted for 10 760 bed days. Assuming the patient was not admitted to intensive care, each admission cost Can$9200 (average in 2008). Conclusion Analysis of the

  5. Eastern Canada natural gas market development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs.

  6. Eastern Canada natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview an update of PanCanadian's exploration operations in Atlantic Canada was presented along with market delivery options. PanCanadian is one of Canada's largest natural gas producers and the most active Canadian driller with 2,479 wells. With its' 94 per cent success rate, the company is emerging as an international exploration success and is marketing energy throughout North America. In terms of marketing natural gas, PanCanadian is ranked twelfth of 68 suppliers in customer satisfaction. The company also markets about 10 per cent of western crude production and is the second largest Canadian marketer for natural gas liquids. Also, with the deregulation of electricity in Alberta, PanCanadian is constructing two 106 megawatt power plants in Alberta to provide electricity to Southern Alberta and to take advantage of the economics of energy conversion. PanCanadian also has a dominant, 20 per cent position in the Scotia Shelf and has plans for offshore processing. Graphs depicting its Deep Panuke operations and pipeline routes to market the natural gas were included. Forecast charts for natural gas demand show a steady increase in demand from 2000 to 2010. tabs., figs

  7. NGL supply from Alberta straddle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdam, B.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the current and future North American supply and demand and trends for natural gas liquids (NGLs) is presented. The current Alberta straddle plant configuration, the NGL pipeline system and product flow, and the profitability of straddle plants are described. The driving forces to increase Alberta's straddle plant capacity are also reviewed. These include: (1) increased gas production, (2) increased demand for ethane, (3) control of produced NGLs, and (4) the desire to maintain a competitive position. Highlights of the Centurion Project designed to meet the needs of Dow Chemicals and the producers by providing long-term ethane supply and physical access to a more liquid NGL market, the project's current status and 'next steps' were also summarized. tabs., figs

  8. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2 S ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO 2 levels since 1990; and higher SO 2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  9. Suffield a cornucopia for Alberta energy company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Operations of the Alberta Energy Company's (AEC) Suffield properties in southern Alberta, the company's major production area, were reviewed. With a staff of just over 100, Suffield was said to produce an average of 180 million cubic feet of natural gas and more than 4100 barrels of oil per day. Suffield's remaining reserves were estimated to be 814 billion cubic feet of gas and 6.4 million barrels of oil. The field was expected to be in production for the next 20 years. A master plan to minimize normal field decline and control operating costs at Suffield was developed by AEC. Cloning gas storage plants was one of the methods used by for cost control. Designing and constructing identical gas plants was another means of producing major savings, especially in areas such as equipment purchase, and construction

  10. Asian interests in Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, D.; Laureshen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The growing Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands and import opportunities was discussed along with the feasibility of marketing bitumen to Asia. Asia is an obvious new market for Canadian heavy oil and bitumen due to an increasing demand for petroleum products in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China. This paper examined the following three criteria that will determine the success of any initiative to move Canadian crude oil to Asian-Pacific markets: (1) a sustainable supply from Alberta; a pipeline to transport the crude to a deepwater port on the west coast; and, a guaranteed market at the other end. The basis for Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands is the sustainable secure supply of oil for growing Asian markets; heavy dependence on supplies from the Middle East; the desire to diversify supply sources; and, opportunities to invest in oil sands developments. Examples of Asian (Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China) missions to Alberta were presented along with the challenges of getting products to market with reference to Enbridge's new market access plan, Terasen's staged capacity expansion for heavy crudes and refined products, and sea transport from Prince Rupert. The paper also included graphs depicting world GDP; incremental increase in world primary energy demand by fuel for 2000 to 2020; world oil demand by region; oil demand by region in Asia; oil demand and supply in northeast Asia (Japan, China, Korea) and dependence level on Middle Eastern oil; oil demand and supply in China; China's petroleum production and consumption; refined products market forecast for 2000 to 2020; 2002 crude oil imports to Asia; 2004 refining capacity; product quality comparisons; cost competitive study; and energy policy objectives for China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. 19 figs

  11. Design, methods and demographics from phase I of Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort: a prospective cohort profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Paula J; Solbak, Nathan M; Haig, Tiffany R; Whelan, Heather K; Vena, Jennifer E; Akawung, Alianu K; Rosner, William K; Brenner, Darren R; Cook, Linda S; Csizmadi, Ilona; Kopciuk, Karen A; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have the potential to support multifactorial, health-related research, particularly if they are drawn from the general population, incorporate active and passive follow-up and permission is obtained to allow access by researchers to data repositories. This paper describes Phase I of the Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort, a broad-based research platform designed to support investigations into factors that influence cancer and chronic disease risk. Adults aged 35-69 years living in Alberta, Canada, with no previous cancer diagnosis other than nonmelanoma skin cancer were recruited to the project by telephone-based random digit dialling. Participants were enrolled if they returned a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Past year diet and physical activity questionnaires were mailed 3 months after enrolment. Consent was sought for active follow-up and linkage with administrative databases. Depending on enrolment date, participants were invited to complete up to 2 follow-up questionnaires (2004 and 2008). Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 (39% men) participants (mean age 50.2 [± 9.2] yr) were enrolled and 99% consented to linkage with administrative databases. Participants reported a wide range of educational attainment and household income. Compared with provincial surveillance data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants had higher body mass index, lower prevalence of smoking and similar distribution of chronic health conditions. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by 83% and 72% of participants in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Robust quality control measures resulted in low frequencies of missing data. Alberta's Tomorrow Project provides a robust platform, based on a prospective cohort design, to support research into risk factors for cancer and chronic disease.

  12. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  13. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  14. Workplace violence in Alberta and British Columbia hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kathryn L; Duncan, Susan M; Estabrooks, Carole A; Reimer, Marlene A; Giovannetti, Phyllis; Hyndman, Kathryn; Acorn, Sonia

    2003-03-01

    Workplace violence is a significant and widespread public health concern among health care workers, including nurses. With growing awareness of how practice environments influence patient outcomes and the retention of health professionals, it is timely to consider the impact of workplace violence in hospitals. Registered nurses in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada were surveyed on their experiences of violence in the workplace over the last five shifts. Our results suggest that nurses are experiencing many incidences of violence in a given work week, particularly in the emergency, psychiatric, and medical-surgical settings. Most violent acts are perpetrated by patients, but there is also a significant portion of violence and abuse committed by hospital co-workers, particularly emotional abuse and sexual harassment. Our results also indicate that the majority of workplace violence is not reported. We suggest that using the Broken Windows theory might be a useful tool to conceptualize why workplace violence occurs, and that this framework be used to begin to develop new violence prevention policies and strategies.

  15. Electricity market reform failures: UK, Norway, Alberta and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikeung Woo; Lloyd, Debra; Tishler, Asher

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of electricity market reforms already taken place in the UK, Norway, Alberta (Canada) and California (USA) leads to our overall conclusion that the introduction of a competitive generation market, of itself, has failed to deliver reliable service at low and stable prices. The market reform failures are attributed to market power abuse by few dominant sellers (especially at times of transmission congestion), poor market design that invites strategic bidding by suppliers, the lack of customer response to price spikes, capacity shortage caused by demand growth not matched by new capacity, and thin trading of forward and futures contracts that are critical for price discovery and risk management. The paper then explains why an electricity market reform can easily fail to deliver the promised gains of better service at lower and more stable prices. The policy implication is that an electric market reform can be extremely risky, and may lead to a disastrous outcome. Thus, it is imprudent to implement such a reform in countries with limited sites for new generation and no indigenous fuels (e.g., Israel and Hong Kong). These countries should therefore consider introducing performance-based regulation that can immediately benefit electricity consumers in terms of lower prices, more stable prices, improved reliability, more choices, while encouraging the electric sector to pursue efficient operation and investment. (Author)

  16. Electricity market reform failures: UK, Norway, Alberta and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.-K.; Lloyd, Debra; Tishler, Asher

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of electricity market reforms already taken place in the UK, Norway, Alberta (Canada) and California (USA) leads to our overall conclusion that the introduction of a competitive generation market, of itself, has failed to deliver reliable service at low and stable prices. The market reform failures are attributed to market power abuse by few dominant sellers (especially at times of transmission congestion), poor market design that invites strategic bidding by suppliers, the lack of customer response to price spikes, capacity shortage caused by demand growth not matched by new capacity, and thin trading of forward and futures contracts that are critical for price discovery and risk management. The paper then explains why an electricity market reform can easily fail to deliver the promised gains of better service at lower and more stable prices. The policy implication is that an electric market reform can be extremely risky, and may lead to a disastrous outcome. Thus, it is imprudent to implement such a reform in countries with limited sites for new generation and no indigenous fuels (e.g., Israel and Hong Kong). These countries should therefore consider introducing performance-based regulation that can immediately benefit electricity consumers in terms of lower prices, more stable prices, improved reliability, more choices, while encouraging the electric sector to pursue efficient operation and investment

  17. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  18. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a 15 month assessment of Alberta's new competitive electricity market. It also presents lessons that Ontario customers could learn from Alberta's experience. The goal for restructuring is to achieve lower electricity prices, competitive retail markets, increased flexibility of contracts, and to remove investment risks from consumers. Alberta's restructured market includes power generation, high voltage transmission, low voltage transmission and retail sales. Economists agree that deregulation has brought lower prices and other consumer benefits despite some imperfections. After one year, prices in Alberta have gone down from $130/MWh to $30/MWh. Power supply has increased along with demand response, market competitiveness, liquidity, and thermal and economic efficiency. In 2001, Alberta was a net exporter of electricity. In 2001, it was ranked by the Center for Advancement of Energy Markets (CAEM) which ranks states and provinces by 22 attributes for how they are restructuring their power markets. Alberta ranked first overall in North America. Ontario ranked sixteenth. 4 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Fire, Aim… Ready? Alberta's Big Bang Approach to Healthcare Disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Cam

    2010-08-01

    Alberta's abolition in 2008 of its health regions and the creation of Alberta Health Services (AHS) was a bold move, but the reasons for the change remain hazy. The stated goals were to "help make Alberta's … system more effective and efficient" and to "provide equitable access to health services and long-term sustainability." Data show, however, that Alberta's health regions were already performing well on these goals relative to other provinces, and where changes have since occurred, they cannot necessarily be attributed to AHS.

  20. Petro-Canada 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Petro-Canada is a dominant player in the petroleum industry in Western Canada as well as on the Grand Banks offshore Newfoundland. This report presents a review of operations, provides detailed statements of the corporation's finances, and a wealth of information of interest to shareholders. The report states that in 1997 Petro-Canada achieved record financial results, following a dramatic turnaround over the past five years. Net earnings for 1997 were $306 million, a $59 million increase over 1996. The company's share price appreciated 34 per cent in 1997 and was one of the most heavily traded stocks in Canada. The company plans to maximize shareholder value by reducing its interests in conventional oil from mature fields in western Canada and by re-investing the proceeds in natural gas development. Petro-Canada is also committed to an expansion that will double production at the Syncrude oil sands plant over the next decade and has tested large in-situ oil sands resources for potential development in northeastern Alberta. On the Atlantic coast too, Petro-Canada is delivering leadership with increasing production from Hibernia, and final approvals in place to proceed with development of the Terra Nova field. International operations are also contributing to the Corporation's profitability by delivering new production from oil fields offshore Norway and from the Sahara Desert in North Africa. tabs., figs

  1. Reasons for decision in the matter of Enbridge Pipelines Inc. Alberta Clipper expansion project : facilities and tolls and tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In May 2007, Enbridge Pipelines Inc. applied for approval to construct the Alberta Clipper Expansion Project which consists of 1074 km of oil pipeline and associated facilities between its Hardisty, Alberta terminal and the Canada/United States border near Gretna, Manitoba. The purpose of the project is to increase the takeaway capacity out of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and into PADD 2 and eastern Canadian markets. The pipeline would have an initial capacity of 71,500 cubic metres per day. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion with a targeted in-service data for July 2010. Public hearings into the Alberta Clipper project began in November 2007 and included an oral hearing. The Board was presented with evidence from intervenors on many issues including impacts to Aboriginal peoples and the impact of the project on domestic interests. The Board reviewed the design and operation of the proposed facilities as well as routing and land requirements. Issues regarding the environment, socio-economic matters, tolls, tariffs and economics were also addressed. The Board was satisfied from the evidence that the proposed facilities are, and will be, required by the present and future public convenience and necessity. In approving the project, the Board attached several conditions, including one that requires Enbridge to conduct an emergency response exercise at its South Saskatchewan River crossing. This condition is in response to public concerns raised during the hearing process. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs., 4 appendices

  2. The Alberta Electrical Grid: What to Expect in the Next Few Years in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Livingston

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government has stated that it wants to make significant changes to the supply of electricity to the current electrical grid for the province. These changes include the phasing out of coal generation by 2030, the supply of 30 per cent of electricity from renewables by 2030 and the introduction of a socalled capacity market in addition to the current electrical energy market. The achievement of these objectives will require a number of fundamental changes to the existing electrical grid. This paper provides an overall description of these changes. The paper first examines the current grid structure in which coal and gas provide the base load supply in the amount of 90 per cent of electricity demand, and renewables are a relatively small source of supply for the remaining 10 per cent. It then reviews the current simple energy market in Alberta that uses a single price auction to determine the wholesale price of electricity. The paper then notes that the achievement of these changes will require a large amount of investment in the next 15 years to create new generating capacity that currently does not exist. The Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO has forecast that by 2032, Alberta will need an additional 7,000 megawatts of gas generation, 5,000 megawatts of wind, 700 megawatts of solar and 350 megawatts of hydro. To put this in context, the Ontario grid currently has 4,213 megawatts of wind (11 per cent of total generating capacity and 380 megawatts of solar (one per cent of generating capacity. The Alberta government has made two fundamental changes in the electricity market to make this happen. First, it has introduced a Renewable Energy Program (REP to incent investment in renewables. They asked industry to bid on a 20 year contract for supply of electricity that offered a guaranteed fixed price that was independent of the existing wholesale market. The first round of bidding (REP 1 announced in December 2017 resulted in 600

  3. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  4. Alberta electric industry annual statistics for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Tables containing data on electric energy generation and capacity for Alberta are provided for the following aspects: capacity and generation of power plants for 1998; capacity of power plants by type, unit, and energy resource for 1998; generating units approved for construction for 1998; generating units completed in 1998; transmission additions approved for construction and completed for 1998; net annual generating capacity and generation for 1988-1998; net monthly generation by plant for 1998; net annual generation by energy resource and type for 1988-1998; net monthly generation by energy resource and type for 1998; generation capacity reserve; relative capacity and generation by type of energy resource for 1998; capacity, generation and fuel consumption of isolated plants for 1998; other industrial on-site plant capacity and generation for 1998. Also listed are: energy resource consumption and energy conversion efficiency of thermal power plants for 1998; stack emissions from thermal generating plants for 1998; non-utility electric generators, wind and hydro for 1998; and hydroelectric energy utilization and conversion efficiency for 1998. Tables contain information on electric energy generation and capacity for hydroelectric energy stored in reservoirs in 1998; details of non-coincident net peak generation and load by utility operators for the Alberta electric system for 1998; and Alberta electric system generation and load at peak load hour for 1998. Further tables cover electric energy distribution for interchange and distribution for 1998 and 1981-1998; annual energy distribution to ultimate customers for 1988-1998 and to ultimate customers for 1998; and the number of electric utility customers in 1998. Final tables cover the transmission and distribution systems with data on: circuit km of such lines for 1988-1998; total circuit km of such lines by major electric utility for 1998 and number of rural electric utility customers for 1998

  5. Looming labour shortages challenge Alberta resource industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.

    2005-07-01

    The shortage of skilled manpower that is threatening the viability of Alberta's resource industry is discussed. According to statistics compiled by the Canadian Resource Development the Canadian labour force grew by about 226,000 per year during the last quarter century; this will be reduced by about 125,000 per year during the current decade. It is forecast that by 2016, the annul growth will be near zero. To make up for this unprecedented shortfall, the annual rate of immigration required would have to be as high as 650,000 per year. The Alberta Chamber's Workforce Development Committee is aware of the urgency of the situation and is attempting to aggressively investigate the causes of the shortage of skilled labour and finding ways to deal with the problem. Current investigation appears to point the finger at the state of post-secondary education, most particularly the significantly higher underemployment among aboriginal youth and the likelihood that skills programs training developed to encourage First Nation's people would be the most effective way to help easing the growing labour shortage. Too few educational placement for students, a lack of adequate training equipment and financial resources in post-secondary institutions, and the variations in the quality of provincial educational standards receive the most blame, combined with a lack of awareness of employment opportunities or training programs, and the inability to migrate to high opportunity employment areas. A notable program addressing this issue is the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training System which helps young people to start their apprenticeship training while still in high school, and encourage them to continue their training after graduation from high school. The federal government and other groups also encourage participation among Ab originals and work towards eliminating some of the underlying factors of labour shortages, including cultural biases, barriers to inter

  6. Insight conference reports : proceedings of the water and land use in Alberta forum : sustainable resource management in a boom economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Alberta's booming oil and gas industry has led to concerns over land and water use in the province. This forum provided a venue for the discussion of issues related to water and land use in Alberta. Various strategies for land use planning were evaluated. Regulatory frameworks for water and land pollution abatement were considered along with strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of oil and gas resource development in the province. The Wildlife, Habitat, and Species at Risk Act was discussed, as well as issues related to Canada's new endangered species laws. Issues concerning water scarcity and stakeholder relations were discussed. Various water management strategies were evaluated. One of the 14 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Alberta petroleum equipment and services directory, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A directory is presented of Alberta companies that provide equipment and services to the oil industry. In the main section, companies are listed alphabetically by name, along with their addresses, phone/fax numbers, contact personnel, and lists of products and/or services. A separate alphabetical name index and a product/service index are included. A section covering provincial and territorial government agencies and non-governmental associations and institutes is appended, giving name, address, phone/fax number, leading personnel, and a summary of activities

  8. Worldwide market developments : lessons for Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    A review of competitive retail electricity markets in Argentina, New Zealand, Australia and California were discussed, highlighting lessons for Alberta policy makers, market designers and electricity retailers. Some of the emerging strategies in the retail electricity marketplace such as horizontal integration, generation retailing, defensive retailing and virtual vertical integration were explored. Emphasis was on showing that electricity retailing is not an easy business. It is a business for large and existing players, and although horizontal and vertical integration have growth and profit potential, there are also risks

  9. Evolving Nature of School Psychology in Alberta: Politics and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Coranne; Zwiers, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the practice of school psychology in the province of Alberta reflects the entrenchment of assessment with the emerging possibility of a broader service provider role. This article articulates the influence that politics and government has had on the role of school psychologists in Alberta schools as special education…

  10. Education Reform in Alberta: Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda L.; Webber, Charles F.

    This paper discusses what educational leadership might look like at the start of the 21st century, specifically within the context of Alberta. It also provides a brief synopsis of some of Alberta's major reforms of the past decade, and it presents some of the key findings and recommendations of a 1998 study entitled "An Analysis of Attitudes…

  11. Predicting lodgepole pine site index from climatic parameters in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Monserud; Shongming Huang; Yuqing. Yang

    2006-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the impact of climatic variables on site productivity of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) for the province of Alberta. Climatic data were obtained from the Alberta Climate Model, which is based on 30-year normals from the provincial weather station network. Mapping methods were based...

  12. Priority issues affecting operators' and suppliers' liens: the Alberta perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    Selected aspects of priority issues in contractual obligations in the petroleum industry were discussed, focusing on the priority issues claimed by suppliers and operators with respect to Alberta properties. Discussions touched upon suppliers' lien rights in Alberta, operators' set-off rights, and on some of the priority issues involving operators' liens

  13. Learning and Technology in Alberta (1975 to 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's education system is a leader in the use of technology in teaching and learning. New information technologies create options for how teachers teach, how students learn, and how classrooms look and operate. This document chronicles the history of computer technology in Alberta from 1975-2009. The information is arranged in a tabulated…

  14. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  15. Laboratory based surveillance of travel-related Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri in Alberta from 2002 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrato Christina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 2002 and 2007, travel related cases of Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri in Alberta, Canada were acquired from Central America, the Indian subcontinent and North America. Of this group, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was identified in isolates from patients who had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. This study provides a Canadian perspective to a growing body of literature linking ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance to travel to the Indian subcontinent. Shigella is a common cause of diarrheal illness in North America with a rate of 2.0 per 100,000 in Canada 1 and a rate of 3.2 per 100,000 in the United States 23. Imported cases of Shigella infections have been reported in developed countries following travel to a foreign or developing country 45 and may be impacted by factors including socio-economic factors 6, food distribution networks 5 and microbiologic factors 7. Across multiple geographic regions, high rates of antimicrobial resistance to multiple agents (e.g. sulfonamides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole have limited the choices for empiric antimicrobial therapy required to manage Shigella infections and reduce fecal excretion of the bacteria 8910 with descriptions of shifting species dominance and changes in antimicrobial susceptibility 1011. Generally, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei are the dominant species and are heavily impacted by changes in antimicrobial susceptibility 1213. This study identifies the global regions associated with travel-related cases of S. flexneri and S. sonnei in Alberta, Canada and compares antibiotic resistance patterns of these isolates for 2002 to 2007 inclusive. Specimens collected 2002-2007 (inclusive from S. flexneri and S. sonnei infections in Alberta, Canada were included for study. Data collected at time of specimen submission included: date of specimen collection, outbreak association if present, travel

  16. Vision 20/20 : saving for the future Alberta advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milke, M.

    2006-03-01

    As part of the Alberta Vision 20/20 project, Alberta's past and present spending patterns on natural resources and choices for the future were examined. Trust funds in Alberta, Alaska, and Norway were also compared, in order to learn from other jurisdictions. This report presented findings from Phase 3 of Vision 2020. The objectives of the study were to provide insight on what Alberta's economic, social and policy landscape might look like in the coming decades given expected demographic changes; benchmark Alberta's performance on key economic and social indicators and analyze government performance in related policy areas; supply useful, accessible information and possible solutions to Albertans about some of the challenges that demographic change is likely to bring; encourage discussion of issues among Albertans, including legislators and the media; and, where appropriate, encourage actions to mitigate or alleviate foreseeable problems. The guiding principles of the Vision 20/20 were first presented. Alberta's fiscal context and labyrinth of savings funds were examined. A detailed explanation and literature review of resource trust funds in Norway, Alaska, and Alberta were then provided followed by a comparison of the Alberta, Alaska, and Norway funds. Last, the report presented Alberta's options and discussion as well as recommendations. It was recommended that Alberta's annual per capita spending should not exceed population growth and inflation; the province should consider transfers of additional resource revenue into the Heritage Fund in the manner of the state of Alaska; and the province should deposit between 30 per cent and 40 per cent of all nonrenewable resource revenues in the Heritage Fund annually. 38 refs., 4 tabs., 17 figs., 4 appendices

  17. Groundwater and underground coal gasification in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszka, A.; MacMillan, G.; Maev, S.

    2010-01-01

    Underground coal gasification has potential in Alberta. This presentation provided background information on underground coal gasification and discussed groundwater and the Laurus Energy demonstration project. A multi-disciplined approach to project assessment was described with particular reference to geologic and hydrogeologic setting; geologic mapping; and a hydrogeologic numerical model. Underground coal gasification involves the conversion of coal into synthesis gas or syngas. It can be applied to mined coal at the surface or applied to non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells. Underground coal gasification can effect groundwater as the rate of water influx into the coal seams influences the quality and composition of the syngas. Byproducts created include heat as well as water with dissolved concentrations of ammonia, phenols, salts, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and liquid organic products from the pyrolysis of coal. A process overview of underground coal gasification was also illustrated. It was concluded that underground coal gasification has the potential in Alberta and risks to groundwater could be minimized by a properly designed project. refs., figs.

  18. Positive year for Alberta power pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Carlson, D.

    1997-01-01

    The electricity power pool in Alberta completed its first year under deregulation. Results to date indicate that the competitive market has operated as intended. The effects of electricity pricing on the oil industry following deregulation were described, given the fact that electricity prices represent the second largest cost item to the oil industry after labour. The peculiarities of the mechanism of electricity pricing (based on hourly matching of supply offers to demand bids) were explained, highlighting the opportunities and risks to the oil industry caused by the hourly price variations and the difficulties involved in accurately forecasting on-peak and off-peak prices a full year in advance. In 1996 predicted average price was $14 to $17/MWh. The actual average price was $13.40/MWh. The general conclusion was that Alberta continues to have a surplus of electricity generation and is well positioned to to take advantage of its low generating costs, at least over the longer term. Short term bidding practices, however, may results in slightly higher system marginal prices

  19. Alberta's transmission development policy : review and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbings, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    Alberta's Department of Energy (ADOE) released a policy paper in November 2003 regarding power transmission development for the province. The transmission development policy (TDP) is intended to promote economic growth in Alberta while ensuring consumers with reliable, reasonably priced electricity. This presentation reviewed the main features of the policy and then focused on the allocation of costs to generation customers. The author argued that the proposed changes would result in a sub-optimal development of generation and higher total electricity bills for consumers. He argued that the policy will spare generation customers of any obligation to pay wire-related costs other than local interconnection costs. This would weaken a long-standing ADOE policy which requires generators to pay costs that depend on their location on the transmission system. With the new proposal, generators would not be responsible for ancillary service costs even when they provide direct benefits, and they would pay for system losses on a zonal basis. The author recommended that location charges should be large enough to influence the siting decisions of generators. He also recommended that generators should pay their fare share of transmission use-of-system charges, including ancillary services that provide benefits to generators in the form of a stable, reliable transmission system. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Better faster cheaper: TransCanada PipeLines Ltd. 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Financial information from TransCanada was presented along with a review of their operations throughout 2000, including a summary of actions in the area of management, strategy, and policy. The company's efforts in 2000 were directed at restoring and strengthening their financial position by strengthening their balance sheet, restoring earnings, establishing a growth platform for future earnings and positioning the company with discretionary cash flow. In 2000, TransCanada substantially completed its divestiture program and sold assets for proceeds of nearly $3.4 billion. These proceeds have been used mainly to reduce debt and associated financial charges. TransCanada also made successful bids in Alberta's power auctions, increased ownership in Ocean State power and TransCanada Power, L.P. In addition, the company began development of two new power plants in Alberta. These initiatives are expected to contribute to an increase in earnings. tabs., figs

  1. National parks, ecological integrity and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopoukhine, N.

    1990-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on the national parks of Canada are discussed. There is a requirement to protect and manage national parks to maintain a functioning ecosystem with all its parts and processes. An active management regime is necessary, with objectives of ecological diversity/integrity clearly stated. The national parks located in the Canadian Prairie provinces are on or near transitions from forest to tundra and grasslands, and are likely to exhibit the most dramatic changes. The change in vegetation of such parks and in others will not manifest itself simply as a shift of zones but will be accompanied by a flora with new dominants. The boreal forest within the Prairie provinces is fire dependent and has the potential of being transformed into remnant units should post-fire germination be hampered by climatic change. A rapid change in climate would render national parks unable to provide protection of representative elements of Canada's landscapes as presently known. A threefold increase in the area dedicated to protection is a basic component of the sustainable development prescription. All government and private lands dedicated to protection should be forged into a network, to provide core protection for immigrating and emigrating communities and individual species displaced by a changing climate. 20 refs., 2 figs

  2. IDRC and the University of Alberta

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC support enables University ... Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is one of the world's leading institutions in ... then PhD student in Educational Policy Studies, docu- ... nesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Taiwan.

  3. Pesticide Use and Asthma in Alberta Grain Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Cherry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of the respiratory health of grain farmers in Alberta, Canada was carried out in March 2002. Two populations were identified: members, in 1983, of a province-wide farm organisation, and grain farmers registered with the provincial agriculture department. A telephone interview addressed pesticide use (using pre-circulated trade names, chronic disease and respiratory symptoms. Pesticide ingredients were identified from provincial crop protection guides. Total years of use were calculated for seven chemical groups. Consent for linkage to administrative health records was obtained in 2009. A likelihood score (Lscore is computed, relating symptoms to asthma diagnosis. Self-reported asthma and the Lscore are examined against duration of pesticide exposures. Of the 10,767 farmers listed, 2426 were still living, had farmed grain and were interviewed; 1371 were re-contacted and matched to health records. After allowance for confounders, years of exposure to phenoxy compounds are related to self-reported asthma and Lscore. Compared to no exposure, the adjusted odds ratios (95% Confidence Intervals for self-reported asthma for short, medium and long exposure to phenoxy compounds are 1.29 (0.66–2.52, 2.52 (1.25–5.09, and 3.18 (1.54–6.58, and for Lscore are 1.19 (0.91–1.55, 1.50 (1.13–1.99, and 1.58 (1.18–2.12. We conclude that lifetime exposure to phenoxy herbicides is associated with an increased risk of asthma.

  4. Coals to Newcastle: Will Alberta become a crude oil importer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haessel, W.; Foley, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The security of markets for Canadian heavy crude oil (HCO) under different conditions is examined. The emphasis of the study is on the conditions under which bitumen blend from Alberta could penetrate certain markets that have generally been identified as potential prospects. A secondary question concerns the cost reductions in bitumen production and upgrading that would be needed for bitumen blend and synthetic crude oil (SCO) to penetrate these same markets if long-term oil prices settle at US$18/bbl for Saudi light delivered to the USA Gulf Coast in 2010. A brief overview is first presented of some of the world and US factors that will affect the demand for Canadian HCO, with specific reference to the demand in the northern USA in 2010. The determination of the volume of HCO that can or will be processed at a refinery or a combination of refineries in a given market is then discussed. The cost and volume numbers for 2010 as provided in the National Energy Board's latest Canadian energy supply and demand forecast are used in the analysis. It is concluded that all traditional markets outside of the Canadian prairies could be lost if world oil prices stay below US$18/bbl for extended periods. At prices below US$17/bbl, bitumen producers would have trouble competing with imported crude oils in Edmonton unless bitumen production costs decline from current levels. The potential for bitumen production costs to decline enough for diluted bitumen to compete with US$18/bbl oil is better than the prospect for SCO costs to decrease enough to compete in eastern Canada or the northern USA at those price levels. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Boom times : Canada's crude petroleum industry : analysis in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This document examined the trends in crude oil prices, the production and exports of Canada's crude petroleum industry, and Canada's imports of crude petroleum. As an exporter and importer of crude oil, Canada's petroleum industry is currently experiencing economic prosperity as a result of high oil prices combined with high global demand for oil. This document reviewed industry activity for 2005 and addressed the reasons for the first decline in Canadian crude oil production in 6 years. A quick review of soaring crude oil prices, supply and shortages was also presented. A review of exports revealed that since 1995, the United States has received 99 per cent of Canadian exports. Although production activity is occurring in 7 provinces, the biggest participant is Alberta, followed by Saskatchewan. In 2005, Canada produced 136.4 million cubic metres of crude petroleum, of which two-thirds came from Alberta. Saskatchewan contributed 18 per cent of total Canadian crude oil production, while offshore oil rigs in Newfoundland and Labrador contributed 13 per cent. The vast oil sands resource accounted for 42 per cent of the province's total production. Alberta oil export is piped entirely into the United States. In 2005, even with a slight drop in exports, Canadian oil exporters received $30 billion for their products, up from $25 billion the year before. Canada also supplied nearly 10 per cent of the American crude oil needs. According to the National Energy Board, Canadian refineries are approaching capacity. Canada's 19 refineries, which have a capacity of 320,000 cubic metres per day, operated at 92 per cent of capacity in 2005 to meet the needs of the domestic market. More imported petroleum was refined than Canadian sourced petroleum. In 2005, the gas and oil industry saw historically high profits, taxes paid and investments. 6 refs., 5 figs

  6. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G.

    2004-01-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs

  7. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs.

  8. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  9. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrochers, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the first year of electric power industry deregulation in Alberta was presented. The way in which electricity is bought and sold in Ontario and throughout North America is changing. Costs are no longer fixed and regulated. Electricity is becoming a commodity with high levels of price volatility. The paper presented hedging options for Alberta consumers, contracting lessons, market issues and lessons for Ontario. A comparison of Alberta's deregulation schedule with that of Ontario's was included. One year after market opening in Alberta, power prices have dropped significantly. There is a greater than expected demand side response, increased development in power generation, and a decrease in natural gas prices. Issues that still need to be addressed in Alberta include billing and load settlement issues, invoicing/billing standards, the lack of competition at the retail level, and future balancing of pool charges. Energy Advantage Inc. (EA) does not foresee the same drastic increase in price as seen in Alberta market opening, but suggests that uncertainty and volatility will exist in Ontario. In Alberta, customers who did nothing and stayed on default were the ones who benefited, but took a great risk. EA suggests that customers must understand how and when they use electricity, how much is used during on- and off-peak hours, and in the summer versus the winter. When electricity is priced hourly, it is important to know consumption patterns. 7 figs

  10. Threshold Considerations and Wetland Reclamation in Alberta's Mineable Oil Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Foote

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil sand extraction in Alberta, Canada is a multibillion dollar industry operating over 143 km² of open pit mining and 4600 km² of other bitumen strata in northern boreal forests. Oil production contributes to Canada-wide GDP, creates socio-cultural problems, provides energy exports and employment, and carries environmental risks regarding long-term reclamation uncertainties. Of particular concern are the implications for wetlands and water supply management. Mining of oil sands is very attractive because proven reserves of known quality occur in an accessible, politically stable environment with existing infrastructure and an estimated 5.5 billion extractable barrels to be mined over the next five decades. Extraction occurs under a set of limiting factors or thresholds including: limited social tolerance at local to international levels for externalities of oil sand production; water demands > availability; limited natural gas supplies for oil processing leading to proposals for hydroelectric dams and nuclear reactors to be constructed; difficulties in reclaiming sufficient habitat area to replace those lost. Replacement of the 85 km² of peat-forming wetlands forecast to be destroyed appears unlikely. Over 840 billion liters of toxic fluid byproducts are currently held in 170 km² of open reservoirs without any known process to purify this water in meaningful time frames even as some of it leaches into adjacent lands and rivers. Costs for wetland reclamation are high with estimates of $4 to $13 billion, or about 6% of the net profits generated from mining those sites. This raises a social equity question of how much reclamation is appropriate. Time frames for economic, political, and ecological actions are not well aligned. Local people on or near mine sites have had to change their area use for decades and have been affected by industrial development. Examining mining effects to estimate thresholds of biophysical realities, time scales

  11. Prescribing by pharmacists in Alberta and its relation to culture and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen M; Houle, Sherilyn K D; Eberhart, Greg; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2015-01-01

    As evidence for the efficacy of pharmacists' interventions, governments worldwide are developing legislation to formalize new practice approaches, including independent prescribing by pharmacists. Pharmacists in Alberta became the first in Canada availed of this opportunity; however, uptake of such has been slow. One approach to understanding this problem is through an examination of pharmacists who have already gained this ability. The primary objective of this study was to gain descriptive insight into the culture and personality traits of innovator, and early adopter, Alberta pharmacists with Additional Prescribing Authorization using the Organizational Culture Profile and Big Five Inventory. The study was a cross-sectional online survey of Alberta pharmacists who obtained Additional Prescribing Authorization (independent prescribing authority), in the fall of 2012. The survey contained three sections; the first contained basic demographic, background and practice questions; the second section contained the Organizational Culture Profile; and the third section contained the Big Five Inventory. Sixty-five survey instruments were returned, for a response rate of 39%. Respondents' mean age was 40 (SD 10) years. The top reason cited by respondents for applying for prescribing authority was to improve patient care. The majority of respondents perceived greater value in the cultural factors of competitiveness, social responsibility, supportiveness, performance orientation and stability, and may be more likely to exhibit behavior in line with the personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. Inferential statistical analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between Organizational Culture Profile responses to cultural factors of social responsibility and competitiveness and the number of prescription adaptations provided. This insight into the experiences of innovators and early adopter pharmacist prescribers can be used to

  12. Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Calgary, Alberta: Sources and screening health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to ambient volatile organic compound (VOCs) in urban areas is of interest because of their potential chronic and acute adverse effects to public health. Limited information is available about VOC sources in urban areas in Canada. An investigation of ambient VOCs levels, their potential sources and associated risks to public health was undertaken for the urban core of Alberta's largest city (downtown Calgary) for the period 2010-2015. Twenty-four hour arithmetic and geometric mean concentrations of total VOCs were 42μg/m 3 and 39μg/m 3 , respectively and ranged from 16 to 160μg/m 3 , with winter levels about two-fold higher than summer. Alkanes (58%) were the most dominant compounds followed by halogenated VOCs (22%) and aromatics (11%). Mean and maximum 24h ambient concentrations of selected VOCs of public health concern were below chronic and acute health risk screening criteria of the United States regulatory agencies and a cancer screening benchmark used in Alberta equivalent to 1 in 100,000 lifetime risk. The Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed nine VOC sources at downtown Calgary, where oil/natural gas extraction/combustion (26%), fuel combustion (20%), traffic sources including gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, mixed fugitive emissions (10-15%), and industrial coatings/solvents (12%) were predominant. Other sources included dry cleaning (3.3%), biogenic (3.5%) and a background source (18%). Source-specific health risk values were also estimated. Estimated cancer risks for all sources were below the Alberta cancer screening benchmark, and estimated non-cancer risks for all sources were well below a safe level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alberta's Tomorrow Project: adherence to cancer prevention recommendations pertaining to diet, physical activity and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Heather K; Xu, Jian-Yi; Vaseghi, Sanaz; Lo Siou, Geraldine; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Robson, Paula J

    2017-05-01

    To explore cross-sectional adherence to cancer prevention recommendations by adults enrolled in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Questionnaire data were used to construct a composite cancer prevention adherence score for each participant, based on selected personal recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Data were self-reported on health and lifestyle, past-year physical activity and past-year FFQ. The scores accounted for physical activity, dietary supplement use, body size, and intakes of alcohol, fruit, vegetables and red meat. Tobacco exposure was also included. Scores ranged from 0 (least adherent) to 7 (most adherent). Alberta's Tomorrow Project; a research platform based on a prospective cohort. Adult men and women (n 24 988) aged 35-69 years recruited by random digit dialling and enrolled in Alberta's Tomorrow Project between 2001 and 2009. Of the cohort, 14 % achieved adherence scores ≥5 and 60 % had scores ≤3. Overall adherence scores were higher in women (mean (sd): 3·4 (1·1)) than in men (3·0 (1·2)). The extent of overall adherence was also associated with level of education, employment status, annual household income, personal history of chronic disease, family history of chronic disease and age. Reported adherence to selected personal recommendations for cancer prevention was low in this cohort of adults. In the short to medium term, these results suggest that more work is required to identify behaviours to target with cancer prevention strategies at a population level. Future work will explore the associations between adherence scores and cancer risk in this cohort.

  14. Alberta Advisory Council on Electricity report to the Alberta Minister of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This report presents the deliberations of the Alberta Advisory Council on Electricity regarding the restructuring of the electric power industry in the province of Alberta. Strategic issues affecting restructuring over the long term were considered with particular attention to small consumers. The long term vision (Vision 2012) for electric power restructuring is to promote efficient and competitive markets attracting investment and innovation that will result in fair and equitable prices for consumers. It was noted that while the restructuring system is currently in place, progress has not been even across the system. It is expected that it will take several years before a restructured electricity industry is fully functioning. Recommendations were presented to establish a plan to address issues regarding restructuring within power generation, transmission, distribution and export/import policies. The issue of market power, competitiveness and consumer education was also discussed. It was also noted that there are many external forces that impact the electricity system, many of which come from outside Alberta. These include fluctuations in gas prices, electricity demand, changes in the United States, regulatory decisions in other jurisdictions and unexpected business events. It was emphasized that a strong, liquid and competitive wholesale market is vital to achieving Vision 2012. Key factors for a competitive wholesale market include adequate generation, transmission capability and export/import capacity. The report presents the following 3 scenarios: business as usual, managed transition, and freedom 2012. A review of restructuring in several other jurisdictions around the world was also provided. 1 tab., 1 fig

  15. Alberta royalty structure changes seen lacking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Canadian petroleum companies have welcomed a revamp of Alberta's royalty structure but say it falls short of what is needed to revitalize activity in the province. The changes will give producers a cut in royalties of at least $170 million (Canadian)/year, offer incentives for new drilling, and index royalty levels to prices. The new royalty plan also will reward companies that funnel more capital into increased exploration programs. The industry association the new royalty rates tied to prices could increase royalties if prices rise above $26 (Canadian)/bbl for oil and $1.70 (Canadian)/Mcf for natural gas. Royalty take would decline below these prices. Oil prices currently are near the $26/bbl level. CAPP the it is difficult to assess the effects of the royalty changes in reactivating shut-in wells and increasing production from marginal wells

  16. Guide to Alberta's competitive electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    A crucial point was reached at the beginning of 2001 in the process of competitive electricity market in Alberta, when record high prices were reached in both the natural gas and electricity markets. In this document, the intent was to present, in a non-technical way, the new electricity market. It was designed to cover issues as they flow, from generator to consumer. Therefore, it began with a market model illustration going through each step of the process. Frequently asked questions, developed using the input from 160,000 Albertans, were answered in each section. The first section of the document dealt with a competitive market. In section 2, the electricity supply was discussed, followed by section 3 and the wholesale electricity market. In section, 4, the reader was invited to explore customer choice, and consumer information was provided in section 5. tabs., figs

  17. Clean air strategy for Alberta: Background project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    As a background to the development of a clean air strategy for Alberta, reports are presented which cover the definition of what clean air is, the applicability of full cost accounting to this strategy, market-based approaches to managing Alberta air emissions, gas and electric utility incentives programs for energy efficiency, energy efficiency legislation in Alberta and other jurisdictions, initiatives which address emissions reduction in the transportation sector, coordination of science and technology relevant to clean air issues, and initiatives in energy and environmental education

  18. Energy literacy in Alberta : a collective challenge : discussion and framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.

    2010-03-15

    The actions needed to advance energy literacy in Alberta were discussed. Advancing Energy Literacy in Alberta (AELA) is a process that supports the objectives of Alberta's energy strategy through the development of a multi-stakeholder process that will lead to better energy information, education and outreach initiatives for the province's large and diverse audience. Advancing energy literacy is in the interest of the energy community and the economic well being of the province. Strategies for launching an energy literacy program were also discussed. tabs.

  19. Alberta's Industrial Heartland Land Trust Society : voluntary property purchase program information booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Alberta's industrial heartland is home to one of Canada's largest concentrations of petroleum, refining, petrochemical and chemical production facilities. To date, more than $25 billion has been invested in major industrial plants in the heartland and adjacent Strathcona industrial regions by major corporations, and more investment is expected in the future. The Industrial Heartland Collaboration to Address Resident Interests is a process in which area residents, municipalities, industries and the provincial government are working collaboratively to resolve concerns related to the cumulative operations and expansion of industry. This paper presented details of the Alberta Industrial Heartland Land Trust Society's voluntary purchase program, which was initiated to provide an equitable, efficient and economical process of acquiring properties of rural landowners currently located within region who voluntarily wish to relocate outside of the policy area. Application and eligibility details were presented, as well as an outline of the property appraisal process. Details of the compliance and real property report required by the program were presented. Issues concerning relocation and moving expenses were discussed, as well as details of the program's flat rate inconvenience payment.

  20. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in environmental samples from table egg barns in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Amand, Joan A; Cassis, Rashed; King, Robin K; Annett Christianson, Colleen B

    2017-12-01

    Some Salmonella spp. are zoonotic, a frequent cause of foodborne illness in Canada, and known to infect humans through contaminated poultry and poultry products. Certain serotypes of Salmonella spp. have been demonstrated to be vertically transmitted from hen to egg. The incidence of Salmonella spp. isolation in the flock has been correlated to its isolation from the environment. Twenty-one producers were enrolled in this study to examine the occurrence of Salmonella spp. in 48 table egg layer flocks housed in 35 barns in Alberta. The purpose of this study was to: (i) identify Salmonella serotypes isolated from the environment of table egg layer facilities in Alberta and (ii) record the prevalence of Salmonella spp. across eight defined environmental sampling points. Salmonella spp. were isolated from the environment of 20/35 barns representing 29/48 flocks. The most common serotypes isolated were S. Heidelberg, S. Kentucky and S. Mbandaka. The order of most to least contaminated sample location was manure belts (54.1%), feeders (47.9%), feed motors (45.8%), egg belts and walls (41.7%), fans (35.0%), cage bottoms (31.3%) and lobbies (27.1%). Salmonella spp. were isolated from 7/7 barns post cleaning and disinfection, demonstrating the persistence of this organism in the environment and the need for effective eradication protocols.

  1. Screening and ranking Alberta oil pools for CO{sub 2} flooding and sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.C. [Adams Pearson Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    This paper presented the results of a technical screening program using Excel VBA to successfully screen and rank a very large number of oil pools for enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flooding. A total of 6 ranking parameters were used, including API gravity of oil, residual oil saturation, ratio between reservoir pressure and minimum miscibility pressure, reservoir temperature, net pay thickness and porosity. The screening program provided a technical ranking of approximately 8,800 Alberta pools in less than 2 minutes. After compilation of the Alberta oil pools, it was determined that most of the deep carbonate oil pools are excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} miscible flooding. Other Devonian carbonate pools were also ranked as having high potential for the process. An environmental benefit of CO{sub 2} miscible flooding process is that carbon sequestration has the potential to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from reaching the atmosphere. Ongoing studies are currently addressing CO{sub 2} capture and transportation, making EOR technology viable for maintaining light oil production in western Canada. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. Public policy processes and getting physical activity into Alberta's urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Catherine P; Church, John; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Public policies impact the amount of physical activity (PA) that children receive at school. These policies are of interest because overweight and obesity among Canadian children have grown at significant rates, and increasing PA among children is one way to reverse this trend. This research investigates the public policy processes that have resulted in Alberta's education system adopting in-school daily physical activity (DPA) and not supporting walk-to-school (WTS) initiatives. Using the policy process described by Kingdon and others as a conceptual framework, this research reviews literature and documents on public policy relating to PA in schools and interviews key individuals (N = 20) to identify the policy-related facilitators and barriers in Alberta, Canada to increasing PA in school-aged children. DPA was mandated because Kingdon's three policy streams (problem, solution and politics) became joined or linked. DPA was the most viable solution because literature supports and teachers believe in the educational benefits of PA. As well, a physician with personal beliefs about the benefits of PA became the minister of education and coupled the solution with the political stream through his ministerial power. Reasons that WTS programs have not become school or health policy include advocacy led by politically weak organizations, lack of a supportive policy entrepreneur and poor saliency among educators. This research illuminates the inner workings of the policy process shaping PA in schools, identifying the unseen forces of the policy process that move issues forward. The findings provide valuable insight for building other healthy public policies.

  3. Alberta's Industrial Heartland Land Trust Society : voluntary property purchase program information booklet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Alberta's industrial heartland is home to one of Canada's largest concentrations of petroleum, refining, petrochemical and chemical production facilities. To date, more than $25 billion has been invested in major industrial plants in the heartland and adjacent Strathcona industrial regions by major corporations, and more investment is expected in the future. The Industrial Heartland Collaboration to Address Resident Interests is a process in which area residents, municipalities, industries and the provincial government are working collaboratively to resolve concerns related to the cumulative operations and expansion of industry. This paper presented details of the Alberta Industrial Heartland Land Trust Society's voluntary purchase program, which was initiated to provide an equitable, efficient and economical process of acquiring properties of rural landowners currently located within region who voluntarily wish to relocate outside of the policy area. Application and eligibility details were presented, as well as an outline of the property appraisal process. Details of the compliance and real property report required by the program were presented. Issues concerning relocation and moving expenses were discussed, as well as details of the program's flat rate inconvenience payment

  4. Energy to the masses : a blueprint for competition in Alberta's retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for competition in Alberta's retail energy market and its influence on Direct Energy Marketing Limited . The main factors for successful retail energy competition were identified as being a level playing field for all retailers; a stable and committed regulatory framework; customer education; brand trust and visibility; regulated pricing which reflects market conditions; customer service and billing; unrestricted customer choice; and, conformity between electricity and gas markets. Direct Energy is a wholly owned subsidiary of British-based Centrica plc, one of the top 30 companies in the United Kingdom in terms of market capitalization. It was created during Britain's regulatory reform of the energy industry and operates through 4 retail brand units. Centrica entered the North American market in 2000 when it acquired Direct Energy Marketing Limited which supplies energy and services to half of the households in Ontario. Direct Energy is expected to increase its customer base with the pending closure of ATCO Gas and ATCO Electric in Alberta, making it Canada's largest provider of retail energy services. In a competitive energy market, retailers can offer a wider range of products than energy alone. Cost-to services can be reduced by offering services such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning

  5. Oil sands and organizational cultures: strategy and stakeholder dynamics in an environmental public consultation process (Alberta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, M.J.

    2000-07-01

    The demand for corporate responsiveness to environmental and social concerns, more specifically the requirement for public participation/consultation with stakeholders is, according to industry insiders, one of the most pressing changes for the oil industry. For this study, data on a public consultation process involving Syncrude Canada Limited, Alberta Environmental Protection, and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board was collected through a combination of public hearing transcripts, participant observation, interview methodologies and reports. >From the perspective of organizational strategy, stakeholder relations, institutional theory and organizational cultures, the author investigated the public consultation process. Strategic action was the central theme to emerge through the findings. Positioning strategies influenced by stakeholder status from the organization's viewpoint and stakeholder relationships informed by the network of stakeholder relationships are included in stakeholder dynamics. The management of organizational culture and the creation of an institutional field to generate and maintain values across the relational field of focal organizations, and reduce costs and conflicts, are included in strategic outcomes. The elaboration and extension of components of stakeholder and institutional theories are part of further results, as well as an integrated understanding of the dynamic interconnectedness of organizational cultures, strategies and stakeholders in an environmental public consultation process.

  6. Gulf Canada Resources Ltd. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Gulf Canada Resources Limited is a major explorer and producer of oil and natural gas. Important areas of activity are Western Canada, the Beaufort Sea, the Newfoundland offshore, and Indonesia and Russia. The company also operates gas processing plants and pipelines, and participates in oil sands projects in Alberta and a coal mine in British Columbia. This report reviews the company's activities over the year, providing descriptions of Canadian and international operations along with financial statements and associated information. Some highlights included an increase in liquids production from 92,600 bbl/d in 1991 to 96,800 bbl/d in 1992, a drop in natural gas production from 338 to 319 million cubic feet/day, and cancellation of the commitment to the Hibernia project

  7. Environment Canada defends decision to ban PCB waste exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The position of Environment Canada in banning the export of PCB waste to the United States was defended as falling within their jurisdiction under provisions of the the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The United States had previously banned the import of Canadian PCBs, but when it reversed its decision Environment Canada posted an Interim Order, upholding the ban. The decision to do so was based on protection of the large investment that was made to develop the Canadian PCB incineration facility in Swan Lake, Alberta. Canada also had an obligation under the Basel Convention to reduce it cross boundary movement of hazardous waste and provide adequate destruction facilities in Canada. Legal implications of PCB exports and the uncertainty of continuing access to American facilities were also cited as reasons for issuing the Interim Order

  8. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  9. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquin, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations

  10. Evaluating the role of cogeneration for carbon management in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doluweera, G.H.; Jordaan, S.M.; Moore, M.C.; Keith, D.W.; Bergerson, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Developing long-term carbon control strategies is important in energy intensive industries such as the oil sands operations in Alberta. We examine the use of cogeneration to satisfy the energy demands of oil sands operations in Alberta in the context of carbon management. This paper evaluates the role of cogeneration in meeting Provincial carbon management goals and discusses the arbitrary characteristics of facility- and product-based carbon emissions control regulations. We model an oil sands operation that operates with and without incorporated cogeneration. We compare CO 2 emissions and associated costs under different carbon emissions control regulations, including the present carbon emissions control regulation of Alberta. The results suggest that incorporating cogeneration into the growing oil sands industry could contribute in the near-term to reducing CO 2 emissions in Alberta. This analysis also shows that the different accounting methods and calculations of electricity offsets could lead to very different levels of incentives for cogeneration. Regulations that attempt to manage emissions on a product and facility basis may become arbitrary and complex as regulators attempt to approximate the effect of an economy-wide carbon price. - Highlights: ► We assess the effectiveness of cogeneration for carbon management in Alberta. ► Cogeneration can offset a significant portion of Alberta's high carbon electricity. ► CO 2 reduction potential of cogeneration may be higher if installed immediately. ► Product based policies should approximate the effect of an economy-wide policy.

  11. The potential of aspen clonal forestry in Alberta: breeding regions and estimates of genetic gain from selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gylander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspen naturally grows in large, single-species, even-aged stands that regenerate clonally after fire disturbance. This offers an opportunity for an intensive clonal forestry system that closely emulates the natural life history of the species. In this paper, we assess the potential of genetic tree improvement and clonal deployment to enhance the productivity of aspen forests in Alberta. We further investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in aspen and infer forest management strategies under uncertain future climates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic variation among 242 clones from Alberta was evaluated in 13 common garden trials after 5-8 growing seasons in the field. Broad-sense heritabilities for height and diameter at breast height (DBH ranged from 0.36 to 0.64, allowing 5-15% genetic gains in height and 9-34% genetic gains in DBH. Geographic partitioning of genetic variance revealed predominant latitudinal genetic differentiation. We further observed that northward movement of clones almost always resulted in increased growth relative to local planting material, while southward movement had a strong opposite effect. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Aspen forests are an important natural resource in western Canada that is used for pulp and oriented strandboard production, accounting for ~40% of the total forest harvest. Moderate to high broad-sense heritabilities in growth traits suggest good potential for a genetic tree improvement program with aspen. Significant productivity gains appear possible through clonal selection from existing trials. We propose two breeding regions for Alberta, and suggest that well-tested southern clones may be used in the northern breeding region, accounting for a general warming trend observed over the last several decades in Alberta.

  12. The Potential of Aspen Clonal Forestry in Alberta: Breeding Regions and Estimates of Genetic Gain from Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylander, Tim; Hamann, Andreas; Brouard, Jean S.; Thomas, Barb R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspen naturally grows in large, single-species, even-aged stands that regenerate clonally after fire disturbance. This offers an opportunity for an intensive clonal forestry system that closely emulates the natural life history of the species. In this paper, we assess the potential of genetic tree improvement and clonal deployment to enhance the productivity of aspen forests in Alberta. We further investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in aspen and infer forest management strategies under uncertain future climates. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic variation among 242 clones from Alberta was evaluated in 13 common garden trials after 5–8 growing seasons in the field. Broad-sense heritabilities for height and diameter at breast height (DBH) ranged from 0.36 to 0.64, allowing 5–15% genetic gains in height and 9–34% genetic gains in DBH. Geographic partitioning of genetic variance revealed predominant latitudinal genetic differentiation. We further observed that northward movement of clones almost always resulted in increased growth relative to local planting material, while southward movement had a strong opposite effect. Conclusion/Significance Aspen forests are an important natural resource in western Canada that is used for pulp and oriented strandboard production, accounting for ∼40% of the total forest harvest. Moderate to high broad-sense heritabilities in growth traits suggest good potential for a genetic tree improvement program with aspen. Significant productivity gains appear possible through clonal selection from existing trials. We propose two breeding regions for Alberta, and suggest that well-tested southern clones may be used in the northern breeding region, accounting for a general warming trend observed over the last several decades in Alberta. PMID:22957006

  13. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  14. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  15. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  16. Is the restructuring of Alberta's power market on the right track? Evaluating Alberta's first two years of deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellenius, K.; Adamson, S.

    2003-07-01

    The performance of Alberta's restructured electricity market was evaluated since its move to wholesale competition in January 2001. This paper presents the following eight conclusions that the authors arrived at following the evaluation: (1) To meet growing demand, the electricity prices in Alberta would have increased regardless of the type of environment (regulated or not). Capacity investment was required, and it was believed that moving to competition was the best way to attract investors. (2) Success in attracting private investment was attained as a result of Alberta's open market. It has restored reliability of supply and moderated prices. (3) Price comparisons must take into account what the prices would have been if the market had remained regulated. Due to unique generation costs and regulatory environments, comparisons with other regulated jurisdictions is inappropriate. (4) Convergence with other energy rates that would have been seen under regulation is being noted with respect to Alberta's market prices. (5) Under deregulation, prices increase according to the need for new investment and fall after the investment is made. Alberta has been on a path toward continued reduction in wholesale prices since 2001. (6) The non-price benefits of restructuring include improved generation efficiency, captured residual value from regulated assets, and shifting investment risk of new capacity additions from consumers to generators. (7) Downward pressure on prices was noted as a result of deregulation, as expected. (8) Significant value for consumers was captured through Alberta's restructuring process. 7 tabs., 7 figs

  17. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.

  18. Psychosocial Determinants of Adherence to Preventive Dental Attendance for Preschool Children Among Filipino Immigrants in Edmonton, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Parvaneh; Wolfe, Ruth; Farmer, Anna; Amin, Maryam

    2018-06-01

    Barriers to accessing oral healthcare are public health concerns faced by minorities and immigrants due to socioeconomic marginalization. Therefore, we explored how immigrant parents in Alberta-Edmonton's Filipino community experience adherence to preventive dental attendance (PDA) for their preschool children and the psychosocial factors influencing parental adherence. We employed a qualitative focused ethnography design. Data were collected through interviews and focus groups. Audiotapes of sessions were transcribed verbatim and concurrent thematic data analysis was performed. Stressors, resources, paradox and structural barriers comprised emergent psychosocial themes. Upon arriving in Canada, most Filipino parents held low-priority attitudes and perceptions toward PDA. After migration, however, they embraced new knowledge about the importance of PDA for their children. Filipino parents were open to the Western model of preventive oral healthcare, with the duration of their time in Canada playing a key role in promoting regular dental visits for their children.

  19. Kyoto and the absence of leadership in Canada's capitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, I. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Political Science, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-01-01

    A critique of Alberta's response to the Kyoto Protocol is presented. According to this author, Alberta's approach rests on a dubious foundation and is therefore 'wrongheaded'. Rather than being the economic disaster as characterized by the provincial government and the oil industry, the implementation costs of the Kyoto Protocol are likely to be much more incremental than Alberta's apocalyptic scenario suggests. With respect to cost, the author bolsters his case by citing the experience of British Petroleum Limited which has already reduced GHG emissions to 10 per cent below 1990 levels at 'no economic cost'. He argues that the 'made-in-Canada' environmental policy suggested by Alberta is no more likely to succeed than did the 'made-in-Canada' oil price policy in 1980. He makes a strong argument for the Kyoto Protocol as an opportunity to create federal-provincial strategies for all of Canada, and makes a strong case for institutional changes that would respect the legitimacy of federal and provincial interests in environmental policy issues. Given genuine effective leadership in Ottawa and in the provincial capitals, such changes could be an important step in the direction of increased reliance on one another as we try to secure a better future for all Canadians, and at the same time doing our bit in ensuring the survival of the planet.

  20. Interview with Steve Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…

  1. Annual compensation for pipelines in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The Surface Rights Board (SRB) in Alberta held a hearing in November 2007 to address three issues involving a pipeline for Enbridge Pipelines (Athabasca) Inc. as well as several land owner issues in Townships 66-68 and Ranges 17-19, all west of the 4th Meridian. The issues the SRB examined were the appropriate amount (i.e. magnitude) of compensation payable under right of entry orders under consideration; the appropriate structure of the compensation award; and to whom the compensation was payable. This document presented a review by the Farmer's Advocate Office (FAO) of the published decision of the SRB. The verbatim decision and rationale used by the SRB to award annual compensation for loss and/or ongoing nuisance and inconvenience was presented. The document could be useful to landowners as they determine their negotiation strategy when faced with considering future pipeline access agreements. The document included a discussion of the context for the decision and a case review. Specific topics that were covered included the rationale for the decision; long term effects of pipeline arguments and SRB commentary; the award and determination; and what still needs to be done. It was concluded that the SRB requires evidence in order to answer several questions regarding the magnitude of any losses, and to what degree, if any, had the nuisance, inconvenience, and loss of rights already been anticipated and factored into the operator's final offer

  2. A retailer's perspective on generation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willerton, K.

    2003-01-01

    There are several reasons for a retailer to invest in power generation. This investment acts as a risk management hedge against fixed price retail load, while improving competitiveness in illiquid wholesale markets. Investing in power generation leverages the retailer's wholesale trading capabilities. It also provides appropriate returns. Some of the factors that ensure the success of a retailer investing in power generation are low cost structure, low risk, strong forward commodity market, owners with large healthy balance sheets, and willingness to finance projects entirely with equity. A cost comparison was presented for different generation technologies. ENMAX chose to invest in wind power since the costs were comparable to that of other technologies. In addition, green credits will lower the cost of wind power. With low environmental impacts and no fuel risk, wind energy fitted ENMAX's retail strategy. Green power at ENMAX (GREENMAX) was the first to implement a Green Power Residential program in 1998, followed by the Green Power Commercial program in 2000. The author discussed the McBride Lake Wind Farm located near Fort MacLeod, Alberta. figs

  3. Alberta books big revenues in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, R.

    1996-01-01

    A 17.9 per cent increase over 1995 in oil and gas revenues were reported for Alberta through August 1996. Revenues from crude oil were up 12.6 per cent and from natural gas 30.7 per cent. The level of increase in revenues is expected to hold for the remainder of the year, save for the prospects of Iraq re-entering the market in force. This would cause a steep decline in prices and some panic trading in energy stocks. Nevertheless, producers are well positioned for the year ahead, as capital spending and drilling activity are based on lower price forecasts. Oil production over 1995 was down slightly through August. Light and medium crude production was down 4.5 per cent. Synthetic production fell by 0.8 per cent. Natural gas production will have a record year. Through August output was up 4.6 per cent over 1995, sales were up 19.3 per cent, and exports were ahead by just under one per cent. Natural gas liquids were the biggest revenue booster, increasing by 46.3 per cent over 1995

  4. Alberta Reclamation Research annual report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Reclamation Research Technical Advisory Committee (RRTAC) was appointed by the Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council to assist in technical matters related to the development and administration of the Council's research program. RRTAC develops reclamation research under four major program areas, and activities in these areas during the year are described in this report. The Plains Coal Reclamation Research Program addresses questions relating to groundwater and soil reconstruction in plains coal mining zones. The Mountain and Foothills Reclamation Research Program focuses on water management, soil reconstruction, reforestation, and wildlife habitat development, with objectives including control of erosion on a variety of disturbances such as coal mines and ash pits. The Oil Sands Reclamation Research Program is attempting to develop techniques to establish self-sustaining, erosion-free cover on oil sand tailings pond dikes, and to return tailings sand storage and overburden dumps to productive forests. The Oil and Gas Reclamation Research Program is concerned with disposal of drilling wastes and reclamation of lands disturbed by oil and gas activities. Under each program, the objectives, basic problems investigated, and research approach are presented, followed by description of specific projects involving such subjects as hydrology, revegetation, soil-water interactions, landscape and watershed design, soil reconstruction and amendment, and soil compaction. A list of research reports is included. 69 refs., 8 figs

  5. Habitat Restoration as a Key Conservation Lever for Woodland Caribou: A review of restoration programs and key learnings from Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bentham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Recovery Strategy for the Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, Boreal Population in Canada (EC, 2012, identifies coordinated actions to reclaim woodland caribou habitat as a key step to meeting current and future caribou population objectives. Actions include restoring industrial landscape features such as roads, seismic lines, pipelines, cut-lines, and cleared areas in an effort to reduce landscape fragmentation and the changes in caribou population dynamics associated with changing predator-prey dynamics in highly fragmented landscapes. Reliance on habitat restoration as a recovery action within the federal recovery strategy is high, considering all Alberta populations have less than 65% undisturbed habitat, which is identified in the recovery strategy as a threshold providing a 60% chance that a local population will be self-sustaining. Alberta’s Provincial Woodland Caribou Policy also identifies habitat restoration as a critical component of long-term caribou habitat management. We review and discuss the history of caribou habitat restoration programs in Alberta and present outcomes and highlights of a caribou habitat restoration workshop attended by over 80 representatives from oil and gas, forestry, provincial and federal regulators, academia and consulting who have worked on restoration programs. Restoration initiatives in Alberta began in 2001 and have generally focused on construction methods, revegetation treatments, access control programs, and limiting plant species favourable to alternate prey. Specific treatments include tree planting initiatives, coarse woody debris management along linear features, and efforts for multi-company and multi-stakeholder coordinated habitat restoration on caribou range. Lessons learned from these programs have been incorporated into large scale habitat restoration projects near Grande Prairie, Cold Lake, and Fort McMurray. A key outcome of our review is the opportunity to provide a

  6. The High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Cord Blood in Calgary, Alberta (APrON-D Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajafari, Fariba; Field, Catherine J; Kaplan, Bonnie J; Maggiore, Jack A; O'Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Ross, Sue; Rabi, Doreen

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D is important in promoting healthy pregnancy and fetal development. We undertook this study to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D in maternal and cord blood and to identify maternal factors related to vitamin D status in Calgary. Blood samples collected at the time of delivery from the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition study cohort (ApronStudy.ca) participants were processed for plasma and assayed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methodology for 25(OH)D 3 . Ninety-two pairs of maternal and cord blood samples were obtained. The prevalence of 25(OH)D 3 insufficiency-25(OH)D 3 <75 nmol/L-was 38% and 80% in women and neonates, respectively. Vitamin D supplementation was the only clinical factor associated with 25(OH)D 3 sufficiency, and the odds of sufficiency were 3.75 (95% CI 1.00 to 14.07) higher for women and 5.27 (95% CI 1.37 to 20.27) when over 2000 IU/day were used. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, we demonstrated a very high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in cord blood and that the use of high dose vitamin D was associated with greater odds of sufficiency in pregnant women and cord blood in Alberta. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The potential for coalbed methane (CBM) development in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    This report presents fiscal and regulatory recommendations of the coalbed methane (CBM) Advisory Committee which consists of representatives from Alberta's oil and gas industry who participated in a study to determine the potential for coalbed methane development in the province. CBM is a natural gas produced as a by-product of the coal formation process. This study examined the CBM reserve base in Alberta along with the necessary steps and strategies required to develop it. There is increased interest in natural gas from Alberta's coal resources because of the forecast for reasonable natural gas prices coupled with an increase in energy demand. The remaining established natural gas reserves are estimated at 43 trillion cubic feet and unconventional supplies of natural gas will be needed by 2008 to meet this increasing demand. The recoverable reserves of CBM are estimated to be between 0 and 135 trillion cubic feet. This report discussed the following mitigation strategies suggested by industry that may applicable to CBM development in Alberta: (1) potential technical mitigation strategies, (2) potential land access and tenure strategies, (3) potential water disposal and diversion mitigation strategies, (4) potential non-technical mitigation strategies, and (5) potential economic mitigation strategies. The study concluded that since no two CBM basins are the same, it is necessary to have good baseline resource inventory data. It was also noted that evolving management, drilling and completion techniques will continue to enhance the economic understanding of Alberta's extensive coal beds. It was suggested that lessons from CBM development in the United States can be useful for development in Alberta since there are currently no publicly recognized commercial production of CBM in Alberta. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 25 figs

  8. Refining the focus: Alberta's international marketing strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This strategic plan is the key initiative established under 'Alberta's Framework for International Strategies'. Its objective is to ensure the wellbeing of Albertans, sustaining Alberta's environment, and economic growth through successfully taking advantage of Alberta's many opportunities for marketing its goods, products, and services. It is predicated on industry and government continuing to work together to sustain a strong market-driven economy, strengthen Alberta's economic advantages and build an economic environment conducive to investment and growth in quality jobs. At present more than 150 foreign markets buy Alberta's goods and services, but the obvious focus of any strategy must be those regions and sectors of industry that offer the greatest possibilities for new and expanded opportunities for Alberta business. Accordingly, this strategy identifies priorities, selects the best initiatives and develops activities to achieve economic growth. Adding value to Albertan commodities before they are being shipped to export markets is a particular objective of the plan. An equally important consideration is to achieve growth through expansion of existing investments, attract new investment to the province, and to increase exports in response to international market and investment opportunities for Alberta's goods and services. Major topics discussed in the document include a discussion of the importance of trade and investment, a thorough analysis of the marketing priorities, the strategic framework, and priority market profiles for the United States, Japan,China, other Asia-Pacific markets, the European Union, Mexico, the Middle East and South Asia, and South America.

  9. Canada's conventional natural gas resources : a status report : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada as well as the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. Energy market assessment reports examine different facets of the Canadian energy market and include long term-assessments of Canada's supply and demand as well as near-term energy market issues. This report examines the geological potential for conventional natural gas resources. An estimate of those resources for Canada was also presented. The main objective of the report is to set the groundwork for future partnerships between provincial, territorial and federal agencies. The size of Alberta's conventional natural gas resources is being examined in partnership with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The ultimate potential for conventional natural gas in British Columbia is being assessed by the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines. The Board's internal assessment for 2004 has revealed an estimate of 207 trillion cubic feet for the ultimate of conventional natural gas in Alberta. This estimate is higher than the estimate provided by the Canadian Gas Potential Committee in 2001 and higher than the 1992 assessment of the EUB. It was noted that most undiscovered resources in Alberta will be found in the shallow Cretaceous zones, not in deep Devonian zones. The Board also revised its estimate for the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region and the East Newfoundland Basin. The current estimate for ultimate potential of conventional natural gas in Canada is 501 trillion cubic feet, with the following distribution of the resources by basin: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (54.5 per cent), Northern Canada (23.1 per cent), East Coast (18.3 per cent), West Coast (3.4 per cent), Ontario (0.5 per cent), and Gulf of St. Lawrence (0.3 per cent). 39 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  10. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  11. Recent environment, energy and resources cases and issues in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruhlak, R.; Naffin, D.K. [McLennan Ross LLP, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Significant environmental issues and regulatory proceedings in Alberta were discussed. The Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Project was reviewed in relation to the Deh Cho First Nation's advanced actions in the federal court to enjoin the review panel from proceeding with the review process. The Deh Cho First Nation is seeking a declaration that the plan violates their rights under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Constitution Act. Various regulatory and government agencies have now developed a plan to coordinate their different regulatory processes and approvals in the Cooperation Plan for the Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Review of the Northern Gas Pipeline project. The Deh Cho allege that they were not afforded the opportunity to participate in the development and implementation of the plan. A review panel plans to proceed once the environmental and social impacts are determined, and the consortiums plan to minimize harm has been submitted. Issues concerning contaminated sites were discussed with reference to Lynnview Ridge, where Imperial Oil and Devon Estates Ltd. built a residential subdivision built on the site of a decommissioned oil storage tank site. Periodic monitoring detected some general concerns, including high lead levels in soil and hydrocarbon vapors. Environmental Protection Orders (EPO) and appeals were discussed, including Imperial and Devon's appeal that the pollution problem should have been addressed through the contaminated sites provision and not the substance release EPO. Several recommendations were made, including better definition processes for liability allocation; a clarification of persons excluded from responsibility; voluntary remediation agreements that limit liability; and environmental site information systems to support due diligence. It was expected that the final set of recommendations will be of use to all jurisdictions in Canada. Regulatory issues concerning public safety were

  12. Western Canada drilling barely keeping pace with production replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, D.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided a unique perspective of gas exploration, production and expectations in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). For the past several years, approximately 80 per cent of Canada's natural gas production has come from Alberta. In order to sustain this production level, greater activity is needed in the large and mature fields where conventional production is in decline. Rising gas prices resulting from tight supply in North America are providing incentive for additional activity, particularly in small, unconventional gas pools. The trend away from large, conventional gas pools has resulted in a decline in average well productivity. Continuing this trend will become more challenging and costly to sustain in the coming years, particularly since the oil and gas industry in Canada is already encountering manpower limitations, climate change, stringent environmental standards, and resistance from the general public. The author cautioned that the low cost and finite natural gas resource has been squandered in North America since the 1980s. The challenge now is to carefully consider how much gas can be produced in the future, but also at a cost that the consumer will pay in the global market. It was suggested that in addition to ensuring that domestic consumption and exports are targeted on the most efficient and value-added outcomes, Alberta's and Canada's energy plan should recognize the limitations of natural gas production. figs

  13. TransCanada Corporation 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report presents financial information from TransCanada Corp., along with a review of its operations throughout 2003 and a summary of the how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2003, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations by 7 per cent. It maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. More than 1.2 billion was invested and dividends were increased by 7 per cent in January 2004, for a total return to shareholders of 27 per cent, including dividends. In 2003, TransCanada also increased its ownership interest in Foothills Pipe Lines Ltd. to 100 per cent from 50 per cent. It secured a position in the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project and progressed the development of multiple liquefied natural gas projects in the northeast United States and eastern Canada. The company acquired 31.6 per cent interest in Bruce Power, adding nearly 1,500 megawatts base load generation to its portfolio. Plans are underway for cogeneration plants in Quebec, New Brunswick and Alberta. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  14. Exploration of Science Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Huibing; Sun Nengli

    2005-01-01

    Science parks have developed gready in the world, whereas empirical researches have showed that science parks based on linear model cannot guarantee the creation of innovation. Hi-tech innovation is derived from flow and management of information. The commercial and social interactions between in-parks and off-park firms and research institutions act as the key determinant for innovation.Industrial clustering is the rational choice for further developing Chinese science parks and solving some problems such as the lack of dear major industries and strong innovation sense, etc.

  15. Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JianLi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health illnesses, such as depression, are responsible for a growing disease burden worldwide. Unfortunately, effective treatment is often impeded by stigmatizing attitudes of other individuals, which have been found to lead to a number of negative consequences including reduced help-seeking behavior and increased social distance. Despite the high prevalence of depression in Canada, little research has been conducted to examine stigma against depression in the Canadian general population. Such information is crucial to understanding the current state of stigmatizing attitudes in the Canadian communities, and framing future stigma reduction initiatives. The objectives of this study were to estimate the percentages of various stigmatizing attitudes toward depression in a general population sample and to compare the percentages by demographics and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey in Alberta, Canada, between February and June 2006. Random digit dialing was used to recruit participants who were aged 18-74 years old (n = 3047. Participants were presented a case vignette describing a depressed individual, and responded to a 9-item Personal Stigma questionnaire. The percentages of stigmatizing attitudes were estimated and compared by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Among the participants, 45.9% endorsed that depressed individuals were unpredictable and 21.9% held the view that people with depression were dangerous. Significant differences in stigmatizing attitudes were found by gender, age, education, and immigration status. A greater proportion of men than women held stigmatizing views on each stigma item. No consistent trend emerged by age in stigma against depression. Participants with higher levels of education reported less stigmatizing attitudes than those with less education. Participants who were not born in Canada were more likely to hold

  16. Grizzly bears as a filter for human use management in Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Petersen

    2000-01-01

    Canadian National Parks within the Rocky Mountains recognize that human use must be managed if the integrity and health of the ecosystems are to be preserved. Parks Canada is being challenged to ensure that these management actions are based on credible scientific principles and understanding. Grizzly bears provide one of only a few ecological tools that can be used to...

  17. The importance of atmospheric base cation deposition for preventing soil acidification in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaun A. Watmough; Colin J. Whitfield; Mark E. Fenn

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada have resulted in greatly elevated emissions of SO2 and N (NOx and NH3) and there are concerns over possible widespread ecosystem acidification. Acid sensitive soils in the region are common and have very low base cation weathering rates...

  18. French Second Language Teacher Education and Continuing Professional Development in Canada: The Roles of Smaller Universities and Related Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses teacher shortages in French language instruction areas in Canada, both core and immersion; the rationalization of programs; staffing and financial support among Alberta's tertiary education; language teacher preparation; and continuing professional development. Suggestions are made as to how a smaller university can better fulfill its…

  19. Shell Canada Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A report of operational and financial achievements is reported. Shell Canada's Resources Division is one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and bitumen. This report presents an operations review, provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information, and summarizes revenue and expenditure statements. The company was one of Canada's most profitable integrated oil and gas companies in 1998. It was the second most profitable year in the company's history for continuing operations. Oil products earnings for 1998 were a record $275 million, mostly because of strong sales volumes and increased retail market share. The company also confronted several environmental issues in 1998, including climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Construction of the Sable Project, offshore Nova Scotia, continued on budget and on schedule to bring natural gas to market by early 2000. Plans for the three elements of the Oil Sands project (the Muskeg River mine in the Athabaska Region, an upgrader at Shell's Scotford site and the Corridor Pipeline) proceeded on schedule. The Caroline complex made its expected contribution to the company's overall performance. Improved seismic technology helped to add new reserves through Shell's interest in wells in southern Alberta. Exploration activity in northeastern British Columbia and northern Alberta produced encouraging results. The work will continue in 1999. The company plans to invest some 4.9 billion dollars over the next five years in capital expenditures. Shell remains committed to the Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program. Annual reduction of CO 2 emissions increased by an estimated 800,000 tonnes

  20. Harmonization of industrial and oilfield waste management issues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halla, S.

    1999-01-01

    There has been an ongoing discussion concerning the harmonization of waste management requirements within Alberta between the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV), with the ultimate goal of publishing a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that will lay out the division of responsibilities between the two authorities on this matter. An overview is included of waste management in Alberta and of the harmonization agreements attained to date, with a stress on oil field waste issues. The EUB and AENV developed a MOE on the harmonization of waste management in Alberta, and a discussion is made of the concept of equivalency, which is used in the development of 'EUB guide 58: oilfield waste management requirements for the upstream petroleum industry' and will be a guiding principle for the MOU. Although the EUB's processes for waste management will not be exactly the same as AENV's, the EUB has made the commitment that, as a minimum, the requirements will provide the same level of environmental protection and public safety equivalent to that provided by AENV

  1. Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylska, N.L.; Graebeiel, J.E.; Mirus, R.K.; Janzen, S.S.; Frost, R.J.

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Power Pool of Alberta annual report 2000 : building a market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    As of January 1, 2001, deregulation of the electricity market in Alberta became a reality, and was accompanied by steady growth in demand for electricity combined with other factors that pushed the price of electricity upward. The Power Pool of Alberta ensures that market operations are open and fair. Its mandate, under the Electric Utilities Act, is the overall market surveillance in Alberta's electric industry. It is accomplished by working closely with industry and seeking feedback through four standing committees: Human Resources, Operations, Finance and Audit, and Balancing Pool. The goal for the coming years is to build confidence in the market, whereby consumers are confident about the fairness of the market price for electricity in Alberta, the choices available, and the continued reliability of the electric system in Alberta. The Energy Trading System was explained with information about system control and customer service, and details provided on the consultation and collaboration processes. The financial analysis of the year 2000 was provided, as well as a statement of operation, a balance sheet, and a statement of cash flows. tabs., figs

  3. Make the Alberta Carbon Levy Revenue Neutral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The new carbon levy of $30 per tonne, announced in November 2015 as part of the report issued by the Alberta government’s Climate Leadership Panel, is a positive move in the direction of pricing carbon emissions. The levy is expected to generate $3 billion in net revenue by 2018, and possibly as much as $5 billion by 2030. While there is some discussion in the report of what should be done with the revenues generated by the carbon levy, it is somewhat vague on the details, leaving a number of options open to the government. The purpose of this briefing paper is to argue that the revenues from the carbon levy should be used to lower existing taxes – the carbon tax should be revenue neutral, generating no new net revenue for the government. The basic argument is that the carbon levy can be viewed through two lenses. The first lens is the imposition of a price on carbon emissions which (at least partly reflects the social costs of emissions. Viewed through this price lens, the carbon levy plays an important role in incenting firms and individuals to change their behaviour and move towards less carbon intensive activities. The second lens is the role of a carbon tax as a part of the broad revenue system. Viewed through this tax lens, a carbon tax is not a very good, or efficient, way of generating revenue. The reason for this is somewhat nuanced, but the basic idea is that the carbon tax is applied to a narrower base than broader-based taxes. Broad based taxes generally impose lower costs on the economy than narrow based taxes. Moreover, carbon taxes interact with other taxes in the economy, exacerbating the economic costs associated with those taxes. And those costs are quite high – research shows that the total cost to the economy of raising an additional $1 in revenue through the corporate income tax in Alberta is $3.79; for the personal income tax the cost is $1.71. These taxes therefore impose higher costs on the economy than they raise

  4. Parking Navigation for Alleviating Congestion in Multilevel Parking Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kenmotsu, Masahiro; Sun, Weihua; Shibata, Naoki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Ito, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Finding a vacant parking space in a large crowded parking facility takes long time. In this paper, we propose a navigation method that minimizes the parking time based on collected real-time positional information of cars. In the proposed method, a central server in the parking facility collects the information and estimates the occupancy of each parking zone. Then, the server broadcasts the occupancy data to the cars in the parking facility. Each car then computes a parking route with the sh...

  5. Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

  6. Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund : 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A review of the Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund as it operated under the new investment framework established in 1997 was presented. The new statutory mission of the Fund is to provide stewardship of the savings from Alberta's non-renewable resources by providing the greatest financial returns on those savings for current and future generations of Albertans. In 1998, the Fund earned $947 million in income with nearly $25 million of income being retained to ensure that the value of the Fund grows to off-set the effects of inflation. Net assets of the Fund on March 31, 1998 was $ 12.3 billion. Operation of the Fund, the accounting method used, and details about the Transition Portfolio and the Endowment Portfolio are provided. An assessment of Alberta's economic climate accompanies the auditor's report and the detailed financial statements of the Fund. tabs

  7. Preferences of Residents in Four Northern Alberta Communities Regarding Local Post-Secondary Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Fahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The western Canadian province of Alberta has used some of the proceeds from exploitation of its extraordinary natural resources to make available a range of post-secondary training and education opportunities to residents. While these provisions appear comprehensive, this study examined how well they actually suit the express needs of the residents of remote, Northern areas of the province, many of them Aboriginal. The literature shows that while Aboriginal people are underrepresented in Canada in university enrollments, they are no longer underrepresented in college or other institutions, suggesting that gains have been made for some residents of rural and remote parts of Canada. Further, when Northern residents (especially Aboriginal males complete advanced training, Statistics Canada reports they are highly successful in employment and income. Access is the pivotal issue, however: leaving the local community to attend training programs elsewhere is often disruptive and unsuccessful. As will be seen, the issue of access arose in this study’s findings with direct implications for distance delivery and support.This study was conducted as part of Athabasca University’s Learning Communities Project (LCP, which sought information about the views and experiences of a broad range of northern Alberta residents concerning their present post-secondary training and education opportunities. The study addresses an acknowledged gap in such information in relation to Canada in comparison with other OECD countries.Results are based on input from 165 individuals, obtained through written surveys (some completed by the researchers in face-to-face exchanges with the respondents, interviews, discussions, and observations, conducted with full-time or part-time residents of the study communities during 2007 and 2008. The four northern Alberta communities studied were Wabasca, Fox Lake, Ft. McKay (sometimes MacKay, and Ft. Chipewyan, totaling just over 6

  8. Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

  9. Cancer incidence attributable to air pollution in Alberta in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Abbey E.; Grundy, Anne; Khandwala, Farah; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Brenner, Darren R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified outdoor air pollution (fine particulate matter [PM2.5]) as a Group 1 lung carcinogen in humans. We aimed to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to PM2.5 exposure in Alberta in 2012. Methods: Annual average concentrations of PM2.5 in 2011 for 22 communities across Alberta were extracted from the Clean Air Strategic Alliance Data Warehouse and were population-weighted across the province. Using 7.5 µg/m3 and 3.18 µg/m3 as the annual average theoretical minimum risk concentrations of PM2.5, we estimated the proportion of the population above this cut-off to determine the population attributable risk of lung cancer due to PM2.5 exposure. Results: The mean population-weighted concentration of PM2.5 for Alberta in 2011 was 10.03 µg/m3. We estimated relative risks of 1.02 and 1.06 for theoretical minimum risk PM2.5 concentration thresholds of 7.5 µg/m3 and 3.18 µg/m3, respectively. About 1.87%-5.69% of incident lung cancer cases in Alberta were estimated to be attributable to PM2.5 exposure. Interpretation: Our estimate of attributable burden is low compared to that reported in studies in other areas of the world owing to the relatively low levels of PM2.5 recorded in Alberta. Reducing PM2.5 emissions in Alberta should continue to be a priority to help decrease the burden of lung cancer in the population. PMID:28659352

  10. Public Sector Wage Growth in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Boessenkool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Alberta’s fiscal stance has shifted from large surpluses to deficits, and a large part of the blame appears to be due to rising public sector salaries. Since 2000, the province’s public sector wage bill has shot up by 119 percent — almost double the rate of growth in the rest of Canada. Wages, previously roughly at par with the rest of the country, are now higher (in many cases very substantially across all public sector categories, including health care, social services, education and government, consuming 95 percent of the increase in provincial revenues over the past decade. At the same time, the number of public sector employees has grown faster than the overall population; it is difficult to attribute this sharp uptick to a rise in productivity, or the need to compete with private industry for skilled workers. This paper breaks down the increases in every category, arguing that if the provincial government is looking to trim expenditures, public sector salaries are a good place to start. The authors make their case using detailed Statistics Canada data, throwing down the gauntlet to defenders of the status quo and challenging them to justify these disparate increases.

  11. Pulsars at Parkes

    OpenAIRE

    Manchester, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The first pulsar observations were made at Parkes on March 8, 1968, just 13 days after the publication of the discovery paper by Hewish and Bell. Since then, Parkes has become the world's most successful pulsar search machine, discovering nearly two thirds of the known pulsars, among them many highly significant objects. It has also led the world in pulsar polarisation and timing studies. In this talk I will review the highlights of pulsar work at Parkes from those 1968 observations to about ...

  12. Environmental knowledge, environmental politics. Case studies from Canada and Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapperton, Jonathan; Piper, Liza (eds.)

    2016-07-01

    The ways in which we come to know the environment are always inherently political - as are the ways in which environmental knowledge is put to use in the world. Focusing on ''scientific knowledge'' and ''Indigenous knowledge,'' on knowledge obtained through work as well as through leisure, the contributions in this volume explore how environmental knowledge is acquired, constructed, and deployed to make political claims on or for the environment. This volume also shows how environmental knowledge is embedded in grassroots, national, and international political efforts to find solutions to environmental problems. These essays showcase examples from Canada and Western Europe, offering insights into how different forms of environmental knowledge and environmental politics come to be seen as legitimate or illegitimate. This volume contains nine topics: 1. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and the Politics of Postcolonial Writing (Jonathan Clapperton); 2. Bitumen Exploration and the Southern Re-Inscription of Northeastern Alberta: 1875-1967 (Hereward Longley); 3. Pollution, Local Activism, and the Politics of Development in the Canadian North (John Sandlos and Arn Keeling); 4. Seeds of Knowledge: From Back-to-the-Land to Urban Gardening (Nancy Janovicek); 5. Between Stewardship and Exploitation: Private Tourism, State Parks, and Environmentalism (Jessica M. DeWitt); 6. Reflections on Water: Knowing a River (Marianna Dudley); 7. ''We Are as Gods'': The Green Technical Fix (Henry Trim); 8. Environmental Knowledge and Politics in Portugal: From Resistance to Incorporation (Margarida Queiros); 9. Coal in the Age of the Oil Sands (Liza Piper).

  13. Environmental knowledge, environmental politics. Case studies from Canada and Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapperton, Jonathan; Piper, Liza

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which we come to know the environment are always inherently political - as are the ways in which environmental knowledge is put to use in the world. Focusing on ''scientific knowledge'' and ''Indigenous knowledge,'' on knowledge obtained through work as well as through leisure, the contributions in this volume explore how environmental knowledge is acquired, constructed, and deployed to make political claims on or for the environment. This volume also shows how environmental knowledge is embedded in grassroots, national, and international political efforts to find solutions to environmental problems. These essays showcase examples from Canada and Western Europe, offering insights into how different forms of environmental knowledge and environmental politics come to be seen as legitimate or illegitimate. This volume contains nine topics: 1. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and the Politics of Postcolonial Writing (Jonathan Clapperton); 2. Bitumen Exploration and the Southern Re-Inscription of Northeastern Alberta: 1875-1967 (Hereward Longley); 3. Pollution, Local Activism, and the Politics of Development in the Canadian North (John Sandlos and Arn Keeling); 4. Seeds of Knowledge: From Back-to-the-Land to Urban Gardening (Nancy Janovicek); 5. Between Stewardship and Exploitation: Private Tourism, State Parks, and Environmentalism (Jessica M. DeWitt); 6. Reflections on Water: Knowing a River (Marianna Dudley); 7. ''We Are as Gods'': The Green Technical Fix (Henry Trim); 8. Environmental Knowledge and Politics in Portugal: From Resistance to Incorporation (Margarida Queiros); 9. Coal in the Age of the Oil Sands (Liza Piper).

  14. A banner year in southern Alberta : shallow gas, CBM drive service houses to record years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbourne, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of increased oil and gas activity on the service and supply industry in Alberta was evaluated. The service and supply industry is benefiting from booms in shallow gas drilling and coalbed methane exploration. Big Country Energy Services is a pipeline installation company that now has over 40 on-going projects with crews ranging in size from 10 to 70 personnel. A shortage of skilled labour has affected the company's ability to meet demand. Manufacturing companies such as Production Control Services, a self-contained parts manufacturer that specializes in plunger lift service and optimizing and servicing gas wells, is also seeing an increase in business, particularly due to recent activity in the coalbed methane sector. The company services both new and existing wells in the region. Managers at Ronco Oilfield Hauling Ltd., who work with many junior companies, believe that this season will be one of the most successful of all time. It was suggested that an increase in energy demand from countries like China will keep the demand for North American oil high. However, trends have indicated a reduction in exploration in Alberta, while new exploration activity appears to be increasing in northern Canada. Officials at Ronco have predicted that in 10 to 15 years most new oil activity will be in the northern regions as well as in northeastern British Columbia. It was also noted that soaring fuel costs have had an impact on the service and supply industry, particularly in businesses responsible for collecting and disposing of drilling fluids from rigs. Companies specializing in gas well optimization in low-pressure situations have also benefited from increased activity. However, issues concerning under-qualified workers and personnel shortages have affected a wide variety of businesses in the industry. 3 figs

  15. Total joint arthroplasty: practice variation of physiotherapy across the continuum of care in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C Allyson; Martin, Ruben San; Westby, Marie D; Beaupre, Lauren A

    2016-11-04

    Comprehensive and timely rehabilitation for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is needed to maximize recovery from this elective surgical procedure for hip and knee arthritis. Administrative data do not capture the variation of treatment for rehabilitation across the continuum of care for TJA, so we conducted a survey for physiotherapists to report practice for TJA across the continuum of care. The primary objective was to describe the reported practice of physiotherapy for TJA across the continuum of care within the context of a provincial TJA clinical pathway and highlight possible gaps in care. A cross-sectional on-line survey was accessible to licensed physiotherapists in Alberta, Canada for 11 weeks. Physiotherapists who treated at least five patients with TJA annually were asked to complete the survey. The survey consisted of 58 questions grouped into pre-operative, acute care and post-acute rehabilitation. Variation of practice was described in terms of number, duration and type of visits along with goals of care and program delivery methods. Of the 80 respondents, 26 (33 %) stated they worked in small centres or rural settings in Alberta with the remaining respondents working in two large urban sites. The primary treatment goal differed for each phase across the continuum of care in that pre-operative phase was directed at improving muscle strength, functional activities were commonly reported for acute care, and post-acute phase was directed at improving joint range-of-motion. Proportionally, more physiotherapists from rural areas treated patients in out-patient hospital departments (59 %), whereas a higher proportion in urban physiotherapists saw patients in private clinics (48 %). Across the continuum of care, treatment was primarily delivered on an individual basis rather than in a group format. Variation of practice reported with pre-and post-operative care in the community will stimulate dialogue within the profession as to what is the minimal

  16. Factors related to use of prostate cancer screening: the Alberta Tomorrow Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Kristan J; James, Alison; McGregor, Elizabeth S; Bryant, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Background Very few data are available on the determinants of PSA testing in Canada, and it is a matter of debate whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in asymptomatic men age 50 and older with no risk factors for prostate cancer is useful. If PSA screening is introduced into the periodic health examination, it will be important to know what factors influence its use. Objectives The purpose of this study is to determine the factors associated with PSA testing among asymptomatic men age 50 and older participating in the Tomorrow Project in Alberta. Methods The Tomorrow Project is a population-based cohort study with over 11,000 participants accrued in Alberta since February 2003. Information was collected on medical history, sociodemographic factors, health status and lifestyle characteristics. This analysis includes 2136 men 50 years of age and older. The independent association between various factors and recent PSA screening is estimated using logistic regression. Results Approximately 50% of of the study group had received one or more PSA tests in their lifetime. Of these, 58% were asymptomatic for prostate disease at the time of their most recent PSA test. Variables independently associated with recent PSA screening for prostate cancer in this population include older age (≥ 65 versus < 55 years: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77–3.83), higher income (≥ $80,000 versus < $20,000, OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.09–3.55), region of health care delivery, perception of health status (good versus excellent health status; OR 0.65, CI 0.43–0.96], increased number of chronic health conditions (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.10–2.71), and history of colorectal cancer screening with fecal occult blood test (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.73–2.83). Conclusions An increasing proportion of men in Alberta are receiving a PSA test. A number of significant predictors of having a PSA test were identified, suggesting that factors other than having a clinical

  17. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, D.

    1992-01-01

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  18. TransCanada Corporation 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    TransCanada is a leading North American energy company dealing with natural gas transmission, power generation and marketing opportunities. Financial information from TransCanada was presented in this annual report along with a review of its operations in 2004 and a summary of how the company performed in terms of providing natural gas transmission and power services in North America. In 2004, TransCanada increased earnings from continuing operations and maintained a strong cash flow and continued to strengthen its balance sheet. Achievements in 2004 included the acquisition of the Gas Transmission Northwest Pipeline System and the North Baja Pipeline System; the purchase of hydroelectric generation assets in New England with a total generating capacity of more than 500 MW; and the completed construction of two new gas-fired cogeneration plants, the 165 MW MacKay River facility in Alberta and the 90 MW Grandview facility in New Brunswick. The challenges in 2004 included the performance of the company's existing asset-based businesses and the new initiatives to produce another year of solid operating and financial results. This report summarized the company's energy resource activities and presented an operations review as well as consolidated financial statements and common share information. This included the utility's assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and cash flows. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. tabs., figs

  19. Cancer incidence in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta : 1995-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [Alberta Cancer Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Division of Population Health and Information Surveillance

    2009-02-15

    A high number of cases of cholangiocarcinoma, a rare form of bile duct cancer, as well as high rates of other cancers were reported by a physician working in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta in 2006. Concerns were raised by local residents, attributing cancers in their community to environmental contamination from a range of industrial development including the oil sands development, uranium mining and pulp mills. However, an initial review of the Alberta Cancer Registry did not confirm an increased incidence of cancer in Fort Chipewyan. In the summer/fall of 2007, a working group was formed to support the Alberta Cancer Board in doing a cluster investigation based on the guidelines of the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. This report presented an investigation to determine if there was an elevated rate of cholangiocarcinoma in Fort Chipewyan and whether there was an elevated rate of cancers overall in Fort Chipewyan. The report provided background information on the Athabasca oil sands, uranium mining, and Fort Chipewyan as well as previous investigations of cancer incidence in Fort Chipewyan. Study methods were also presented with particular reference to study and comparison populations; cancer classification and inclusion criteria; active case ascertainment and verification; methods of analysis; and ethical approval. Results were also presented. The specific cancers that were discussed were cholangiocarcinoma, leukemia, colon cancer, and cancer in First Nations in Alberta. It was concluded that the observed number of cases of cholangiocarcinoma was within the expected range. 121 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs., 5 appendices.

  20. Alberta Consumers' Valuation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Red Meat Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Gao, Fei; Unterschultz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes Alberta consumers’ perceptions toward extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of bison and beef steaks. In contrast to published Canadian consumer studies on bison meat that were undertaken prior to May 2003, before the first BSE case of Canadian origin was identified in beef cattle...

  1. Alberta's oil sands fiscal system : historical context and system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report described the fiscal system applied to Alberta's oil sands. It is the first technical report forming part of a series designed to provide information and to invite comment as part of the Government of Alberta's public review of the fiscal system applied to the province's oil and gas resources. Specifically, this report assessed the robustness of Alberta's oil sands fiscal system and assessed how the regime balanced the risks and rewards to both investors and Albertans across a range of expected and probable economic outcomes. The report provided an explanation of the history and context of Alberta's royalty regime and included a case-by-case approach. It also provided a discussion of the oil sands fiscal system description. Next, it described the methodology employed for the analysis of the oil sands fiscal system. It also provided the assumptions for 5 scenario cases and presented the fiscal map approach for assessing project economics and fiscal system performance. Last, summary observations were presented. It was found that the oil sands fiscal system is very flexible for adverse economic conditions and much less so for highly profitable conditions. tabs., figs

  2. Alberta's air quality index : facts at your fingertip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Alberta Environment measures the airborne concentrations of carbon dioxide, fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide on a continuous basis at air quality monitoring stations in Edmonton, Calgary, Red Deer and Beaverlodge. Every hour, the readings are converted to an Air Quality Index (AQI) number to report on Alberta's outdoor air quality as either good, fair, poor or very poor. The categories relate to guidelines under Alberta's Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act and reflect the maximum acceptable levels specified by the National Ambient Air Quality Objectives. Current air quality conditions are available to the public through Alberta Environment's web site or by phoning a toll free number. Both Edmonton and Calgary report good air quality at least 90 per cent of the time. Occasionally, air quality in the two cities may reach the fair category, but it is seldom poor. Fair, poor or very poor air quality occurs with strong temperature inversion and light winds. Under these conditions, air pollutants, usually from automobiles, are trapped in a layer of stagnant air. Fair and poor air quality can also be caused by summer heat when photochemical smog forms by chemical reactions with oxides of nitrogen and volatile hydrocarbons. 1 ref., 1 tab., 1 fig

  3. Quality Assurance of University Education in Alberta and Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the introduction of degree granting institutions, Alberta and Kenya have persistently made efforts to manage and improve the quality of university education. While contexts, stakeholders, and quality assurance regimes have changed over time, debate on academic quality in both jurisdictions has continued bringing to ...

  4. School Identity in the Context of Alberta Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Merlin; Gereluk, Dianne; Kowch, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The central tenet of this investigation is that educational institutions possess their own school identity. Acknowledging that school identity is influenced by institutional mechanisms and personal dynamics, we examine school identity in the context of 13 Alberta charter schools. Narratives of 73 educational stakeholders across the network of…

  5. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, regulatory highlights for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This new publication informs readers about what the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) did in the past year, including important regulatory issues, trends and initiatives. The EUB is an agency of the provincial government, established to regulate Alberta`s energy resource and utility sectors. It is part of the Alberta Ministry of Energy. The four main functions of the Board are regulatory initiatives, license applications, enforcement and information. This publication summarized the EUB`s position regarding flaring (both solution gas flaring and well test flaring), and Board activities in the areas of animal health concerns, the gas over bitumen controversy, the deregulation of the electric industry and what it means to the EUB, improvements in data quality as a result of improved industry compliance in reporting, and a variety of issues related to the oil sands and the negotiated settlement process. Also, the Board has been proactive in the area of oilfield waste management guidelines, proliferation policies for gas processing facilities, sulphur recovery guidelines, and the expansion of the orphan well program to include facilities and pipelines. As a measure of the success of the EUB, a recent survey of 19 randomly selected focus groups praised EUB for its impartiality, fair and equitable enforcement and independence. It was also praised for its technically competent and experienced staff, its access to quality information and the clarity of its mandate, regulatory requirements and processes. The Board`s efforts in the area of timely stakeholder consultation was highlighted. tabs., figs.

  6. Market making vs. market manipulation : an Alberta perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Alberta Stock Exchange's (ASE's) filing and disclosure requirements for market making and promotion contracts are outlined. The discussion focuses on the differences between market making and market manipulation, acceptable and unacceptable methods of market making and promotion and common trading and securities legislation violations associated with these types of activities

  7. Alberta High School, College Elevate Learning with Rare Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The refusal by a group of parents in Olds, Alberta, in 2003 to accept a provincial grant to renovate their high school set in motion a remarkable collaboration that spawned an innovative learning campus for an entire community and beyond. The new Olds High School, which opened in 2010, is part of a new Community Learning Campus (CLC), a joint…

  8. The Saskatchewan-Alberta large acceptance detector for photonuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. B.; Cameron, J.; Choi, W. C.; Fielding, H. W.; Green, P. W.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Hackett, E. D.; Holm, L.; Kolb, N. R.; Korkmaz, E.; Langill, P. P.; McDonald, W. J.; Mack, D.; Olsen, W. C.; Peterson, B. A.; Rodning, N. L.; Soukup, J.; Zhu, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Caplan, H. S.; Pywell, R. E.; Skopik, D. M.; Vogt, J. M.; van Heerden, I. J.

    1992-09-01

    The Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD) is a 4 π detector designed and built for studies of photonuclear reactions with a tagged photon beam. The design and performance of the detector are described. Its characteristics have been studied by examining p-p elastic scattering with a proton beam at TRIUMF.

  9. Alberta oil and gas industry : annual statistics for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Alberta's 1997 annual and historical statistics for the supply and disposition of the following oil and gas products was presented: (1) crude oil and equivalent, (2) gas, (3) ethane, (4) propane, (5) butanes, (6) NGL mixes, and (7) sulphur. Statistics regarding the deliveries and average price of the products, and a statistical summary of well drilling activities in the province were also provided. tabs

  10. Alberta oil and gas industry: annual statistics for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Statistical data for 1995 concerning the supply and disposition of crude oil and equivalent, natural gas, ethane, butanes, natural gas liquids, and sulphur in the Province of Alberta, were provided. A list of new wells drilled during 1995, and an annual well count, were also included

  11. Alberta oil and gas industry : annual statistics for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Alberta's 1996 annual and historical statistics for the supply and disposition of the following oil and gas products was presented: (1) crude oil and equivalent, (2) natural gas, (3) ethane, (4) propane, (5) butanes, (6) natural gas liquids, and (7) sulphur. Statistics regarding the deliveries and average price of the products and statistical data on drilling activity during 1996 were also included. Tables

  12. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  13. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  14. Resource Allocation and Public Policy in Alberta's Postsecondary System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneston, Bob; Boberg, Alice

    2000-01-01

    Resource allocation in Alberta's postsecondary system has changed substantially since 1994, designed to reapportion financial responsibility for higher education, increase vocational outcomes of postsecondary education, and increase transfer of knowledge and technology to the private sector. This paper outlines how resource allocation has been…

  15. Vegetation response to climate change : implications for Canada's conservation lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.; Lemieux, C.

    2003-01-01

    Studies have shown that Canada's national parks are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. A wide range of biophysical climate change impacts could affect the integrity of conservation lands in each region of Canada. This report examines the potential impact of climate change on landscape alterations and vegetation distribution in Canada's wide network of conservation lands. It also presents several ways to integrate climate change into existing conservation policy and adaptation strategies. Canada's conservation lands include provincial parks, migratory bird sanctuaries, national wildlife areas and wildlife protected areas. This is the first study to examine biome changes by applying an equilibrium Global Vegetation Model (GVM) to Canada's network of national park systems. Some of the policy and planning challenges posed by changes in landscape level vegetation were also addressed. The report indicates that in terms of potential changes to the biome classification of Canada's national forests, more northern biomes are projected to decrease. These northern biomes include the tundra, taiga and boreal conifer forests. 56 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs

  16. iPark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Fantini, Ernesto Nicolas; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    where the geo-spatial aspect is not just a tag on other content, but is the primary content, e.g., a city street map with up-to-date road construction data. Along these lines, the iPark system aims to turn volumes of GPS data obtained from vehicles into information about the locations of parking spaces...

  17. THE SCHOOL PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FISCHER, JOHN H.

    TO ASSIST IN DESEGREGATION, VARIOUS MODELS FOR THE SCHOOL PARK ARE PROPOSED--(1) ASSEMBLING ALL STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS OF A SMALL OR MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY ON A SINGLE CAMPUS, (2) SERVING ONE SECTION OF A LARGE CITY, (3) CENTERING ALL SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR A SINGLE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON A SINGLE SITE, AND (4) ESTABLISHING RINGS OF SCHOOL PARKS ABOUT…

  18. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels

    2018-01-01

    system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...

  19. Bicycle Parking and Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    . This article contributes with new insights into parking and locking - ‘moorings’ - to cycling literature. It presents an ethnography of ‘design moorings’ and practices associated with parking and locking bikes. The main case study is the very pro-cycling city of Copenhagen. Yet to explore what is unique about...

  20. Canada and the U.S. : a seamless border ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.G.; Watkins, G.C.; Doyle, K.

    2003-01-01

    Energy trade between Canada and the United States has increased significantly. Deregulation and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have rendered energy trade more market based, generating many benefits for Canada, but the distribution of gains has created conflict. There is expected to be more government control within the policy agenda between Canada and the United States as markets tighten and as natural gas and electricity prices increase. Oil and gas exports from Canada have likely stabilized to a point where they will only sustain current levels. Long term oil output lies with Alberta's oil sands, but the author noted that the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may jeopardize access to this resource. It was also noted that integration of electricity markets is the key to prosperity for the electric power industry because its' network is in need of investment and further development. The paper discussed the challenges facing Canadian governments and regulatory agencies as the energy profile gains attention and as conflicts arise regarding deregulation and trade policy. The question remains whether NAFTA is robust enough to protect Canadian interests. As the United States government places more emphasis on energy security, Canada could take the opportunity to secure favourable access to the U.S. market and share both the costs and benefits of market integration. Canada is in a strategic position of strength when it comes to energy sector negotiations. refs., tabs

  1. Protecting consumer interests in Alberta's deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains why the province of Alberta decided to deregulate its electricity sector. In the early 1990s, electricity rates were reasonable in Alberta, there was no utility debt, and electricity costs were low. In 1994 California's open access transmission system suggested that open markets would result in lower electricity rates and attract new economic activity. The government of Alberta also believed that competitive markets would set prices with no need for economic regulation. In the initial transition to competition, regulated electricity rates were offered to customers who were not ready to switch to the new competitive market. The RRO rate was set by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The rates included the forecasted cost of purchasing energy from markets, cost of system access, and retail service costs. The end of the RRO rate was scheduled for 2005 when the market was expected be well developed. This paper also describes other protection mechanisms for consumers. Alberta's new electricity policy (NEP) eliminates generator participant costs related to transmission. EUB's zonal interconnection charges are also overruled along with the EUB-approved 50/50 division of transmission costs. Under the NEP, the ISO is to build transmission in anticipation of new generation. Consumers will fund the total cost to build new transmission capacity for exports and imports. This new transmission policy is a complete change from the original government policy which allocated some transmission costs to generators. The sudden change in policy was due to pressure from oil sands producers and oil sands co-generation developers. The claimed benefit to Albertans is a 25 per cent reduction in pool price and greater system reliability. However, the author cautioned that government interference with competitive electricity markets will cripple the electric power industry in the foreseeable future because it interferes with market prices

  2. Alberta immigrant integration into the petroleum industry : final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Alberta is in the midst of a labour shortage, especially in the petroleum industry. Traditionally, the petroleum industry has secured employees by hiring them away from competitors, service providers, other geographic locations, or other industries, mostly by escalating worker compensation. However, this is no longer seen to be a sustainable solution due to higher industry costs and inflation. A good opportunity exists for Alberta's oil and gas industry to address worker demand and minimize the negative impacts associated with current and future labour concerns by increasing the participation of workers who are under-represented in the workforce, such as Aboriginals, women, and internationally trained workers. This report presented the details of a project called the Alberta immigrant integration into the petroleum industry project in order to determine the tools, resources and support processes needed by petroleum industry employers to increase the employment and retention of internationally trained workers already living in Alberta into the upstream petroleum industry. The report outlined the gaps in information, tools, resources and services that were preventing the petroleum industry from taking advantage of the skills and experience offered by Alberta's labour pool of internationally trained workers in any significant way. The report also presented an overview of strategic priorities and recommended activities, duly endorsed by stakeholders, in order to improve the recruitment and integration of internationally trained workers into the petroleum industry workforce. It was concluded that employers who develop the skills and capability to effectively recruit and integrate internationally trained workers into their workforce will have a clear advantage in the competition for skilled employees. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Recent rubber crumb asphalt pavement projects in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleyman, H.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Pulles, B.C.M.; Treleaven, L.B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Several countries around the world have been using rubber crumb (RC) for pavement applications for more than 20 years. The performance of asphalt pavements is enhanced by the use of recycled tires, which has the added advantage of solving the problem of tire disposal. In 2002, the Tire Recycling Management Association of Alberta (TRMA) and Alberta Transportation (AT) evaluated the feasibility and performance of an overlay using asphalt rubber (AR) pavement in Alberta. A partnership in the project was formed by AT, the City of Calgary, the City of Edmonton, and Strathcona County, where each one paved one section of a road with AR in conjunction with a section using conventional or other asphalt mixture types. The roads selected were: (1) 112 Avenue North West in Calgary, (2) 17 Street and Baseline Road in Strathcona County, (3) 137 Avenue in Edmonton, and (4) highway 630 in the vicinity of North Cooking Lake (Alberta Transportation). Two different AR pavement thicknesses were used to study the effects of overlay thicknesses on the performance of the overlay. The structural and functional factors were monitored before, during and after the construction of all sections. The preliminary evaluation of the application of AR in Alberta was presented, along with a summary of test results and performances of AR pavement sections. A full freeze-thaw cycle is required (Spring 2003) before the results of the analysis of the testing are known. The reduced thickness AR sections performed in a similar manner to those with full thickness AC sections. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. The regulatory context of gas flaring in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, B.S.; Cook, C.

    1999-01-01

    The legislative and regulatory regime regarding gas flaring in Alberta was reviewed. The issue of gas flaring has received much attention from petroleum industry regulators in Alberta. Residents living in the vicinity of flares have identified them as sources of odour, smoke, noise and air quality-related health concerns. Sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emissions from the flare stacks may contribute to acid rain and the greenhouse effect. The Strosher Report, released by the Alberta Research Council in 1996, has also identified about 250 different compounds in flare emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other products of incomplete combustion. The public opposition to solution gas flaring has caused regulators to consider new options designed to reduce the adverse economic and environmental impacts that may be associated with gas flaring. This paper discusses the roles of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection in administering legislation that impacts on gas flaring. In March 1999, the EUB released a guide containing the following five major points regarding gas flaring: (1) implementation of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance's (CASA's) recommendations to eventually eliminate flaring, by starting immediately to reduce flaring, and improve the efficiency of flares, (2) adoption of the CASA schedule of reduction targets for solution gas flaring, (3) conducting a review of the current approval process for small-scale electrical generation systems to encourage co-generation as a productive use of solution gas that is being flared, (4) creating better public notification requirements for new and existing facilities, and (5) discussing conflict resolution between operators and landowners. 26 refs

  5. Canada's directory of ethanol-blended fuel retailers (December 1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This publication serves as a directory of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. The listing is organized by province and cities, beginning with the Yukon in the west and proceeding east to Quebec. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included. As of December 1998, there were a total of 929 retail outlets for ethanol blended gasoline in Canada

  6. Estimating grizzly and black bear population abundance and trend in Banff National Park using noninvasive genetic sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Sawaya

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of two noninvasive genetic sampling methods, hair traps and bear rub surveys, to estimate population abundance and trend of grizzly (Ursus arctos and black bear (U. americanus populations in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Using Huggins closed population mark-recapture models, we obtained the first precise abundance estimates for grizzly bears (N= 73.5, 95% CI = 64-94 in 2006; N= 50.4, 95% CI = 49-59 in 2008 and black bears (N= 62.6, 95% CI = 51-89 in 2006; N= 81.8, 95% CI = 72-102 in 2008 in the Bow Valley. Hair traps had high detection rates for female grizzlies, and male and female black bears, but extremely low detection rates for male grizzlies. Conversely, bear rubs had high detection rates for male and female grizzlies, but low rates for black bears. We estimated realized population growth rates, lambda, for grizzly bear males (λ= 0.93, 95% CI = 0.74-1.17 and females (λ= 0.90, 95% CI = 0.67-1.20 using Pradel open population models with three years of bear rub data. Lambda estimates are supported by abundance estimates from combined hair trap/bear rub closed population models and are consistent with a system that is likely driven by high levels of human-caused mortality. Our results suggest that bear rub surveys would provide an efficient and powerful means to inventory and monitor grizzly bear populations in the Central Canadian Rocky Mountains.

  7. Estimating grizzly and black bear population abundance and trend in Banff National Park using noninvasive genetic sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Michael A; Stetz, Jeffrey B; Clevenger, Anthony P; Gibeau, Michael L; Kalinowski, Steven T

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of two noninvasive genetic sampling methods, hair traps and bear rub surveys, to estimate population abundance and trend of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and black bear (U. americanus) populations in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Using Huggins closed population mark-recapture models, we obtained the first precise abundance estimates for grizzly bears (N= 73.5, 95% CI = 64-94 in 2006; N= 50.4, 95% CI = 49-59 in 2008) and black bears (N= 62.6, 95% CI = 51-89 in 2006; N= 81.8, 95% CI = 72-102 in 2008) in the Bow Valley. Hair traps had high detection rates for female grizzlies, and male and female black bears, but extremely low detection rates for male grizzlies. Conversely, bear rubs had high detection rates for male and female grizzlies, but low rates for black bears. We estimated realized population growth rates, lambda, for grizzly bear males (λ= 0.93, 95% CI = 0.74-1.17) and females (λ= 0.90, 95% CI = 0.67-1.20) using Pradel open population models with three years of bear rub data. Lambda estimates are supported by abundance estimates from combined hair trap/bear rub closed population models and are consistent with a system that is likely driven by high levels of human-caused mortality. Our results suggest that bear rub surveys would provide an efficient and powerful means to inventory and monitor grizzly bear populations in the Central Canadian Rocky Mountains.

  8. Development and implementation of a watershed management plan forLlac la Biche, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Logan, M; Rawles, M

    2006-01-01

    Lakeland County is experiencing increasing developmental pressures arising from the oil and gas boom at nearby Fort McMurray. There is increased industrial traffic passing through the county, and 600 new residential lots are proposed in 2005, almost double from 5 years ago. Deteriorating surface water quality has been a concern in the area due to an increase in development and agriculture, while excessive fish harvesting and winterkills have impacted commercial and recreational fisheries. Today, walleye and pike populations in the lake remain collapsed and restocking efforts have not been successful. Due to the lack of studies done on the watershed, the county is leading a multidisciplinary research study which includes a baseline water quality study, riparian health assessments, land use mapping and ground-truthing and projects with the local health authority. This research has been summarized in a comprehensive state of the watershed report, which will be used to complete a watershed management plan for the Lac la Biche watershed. Recommendations from the state of the watershed report and watershed management plan will also be incorporated into municipal planning documents and recommend changes to the Municipal Government Act itself.

  9. Geomechanical characterization of the Montney Shale northwest Alberta and northeast British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Heather

    Unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic stimulation to be commercially productive. Recently, distinctions have been made between reservoir quality vs. completion quality (Cipolla et al. 2012), emphasizing the importance of both elements for production. There are many sources of variability in reservoir quality; in this thesis I examine several fundamental reservoir properties in detail and combine them in a new way: the Rock Quality Index (RQI). Through the definition of a geomechanical model and corresponding mechanical stratigraphy, those factors having a substantial effect on reservoir quality became apparent. Two fundamental categories; compositional variation and fabric variation, are used to characterize overall reservoir variation. Burial, compaction, hydrocarbon generation, diagenesis, and tectonics all affect the mechanical character and in-situ stress state of the reservoir. The Rock Quality Index (RQI) is an effort to understand how composition and fabric relate to stress anisotropy, fracturing, and rock properties, and ultimately aid in defining the best zones for exploitation. Therefore, this Rock Quality Index (RQI) is vital for the defining the second element of unconventional reservoir success; completion quality. Without a reservoir framework to drive the completion design, high completion quality will be harder to achieve. The original mechanical stratigraphy definition is in turn used as a framework for relating Rock Quality Index (RQI) variations to the factors which caused them. The comparison between Rock Quality Index (RQI) and mechanical stratigraphy shows that zones traditionally thought of as desirable for hydraulic completion (brittle) are also zones of high internal heterogeneity. Formation heterogeneity may be detrimental to hydraulic fracture growth. Using several other data types (multicomponent time-lapse seismic, microseismic, and reservoir engineering tests) in conjunction with the Rock Quality Index (RQI), it is observed that there is a strong formation influence on the progression of hydraulic fractures. The locations of interfaces between changes in rock properties and/or stress state are locations where the hydraulic fracture character will also change. It was found that energy is dissipated in heterogeneous/brittle zones, while hydraulic growth occurs in homogenous zones. However, at the intersection of a homogenous zone with a brittle zone, both hydraulic fracture growth and energy dissipation is possible. Here relatively higher production is observed. Stress shadowing amplifies the effects of energy dissipation in brittle zones. Understanding the geological factors that have the greatest influence on stimulation has proven to be a useful method of predicting productivity and efficiency in shale reservoirs. The results of this geomechanical study are calibrated with diagnostic fracture injection tests, microseismic, spinner gas data, and time-lapse multicomponent seismic to corroborate the predictions of reservoir performance in the Montney Shale.

  10. Mixing-induced groundwater denitrification beneath a manured field in southern Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.E.; Ryan, M.C.; Mayer, B.; Rodvang, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of shallow groundwater by NO 3 - from manure may occur under fields where manure is spread as fertilizer and for disposal. Attenuation of NO 3 - in groundwater occurs through denitrification under certain conditions, or NO 3 - -contaminated younger groundwater may mix with older groundwater, lowering the NO 3 - concentration. In this study, δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of NO 3 - , and δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in groundwater under a manured field were evaluated to determine if groundwater NO 3 - concentrations were influenced through mixing of shallower, manure-impacted groundwater with older groundwater, or if denitrification was reducing NO 3 - concentrations. The younger groundwater showed clear evidence of manure impact with elevated Cl - (∼85 mg L -1 ) and NO 3 - concentrations (∼50 mg NO 3 -N L -1 ), and δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of NO 3 - consistent with a manure source. Vertical hydraulic gradients and δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in groundwater suggest older, more reduced groundwater is upwelling locally and mixing with the shallow groundwater. Decreasing NO 3 :Cl ratios, decreasing dissolved O 2 concentrations, and increasing δ 15 N and δ 18 O values of NO 3 - suggest that denitrification occurs locally in the aquifer. The extent of denitrification is proportional to the fraction of deeper groundwater in the aquifer. Denitrification apparently does not proceed in the younger, manure-impacted groundwater in the absence of mixing

  11. Using UAV photogrammetry to study topographic change: application to Saskatchewan Glacier, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier Cardinal, G.; Demuth, M. N.; Kinnard, C.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers are an important source of fresh water in the headwaters of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and ongoing climate warming could reduce their future hydrological contribution. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAVs) are an emergent technology that allow studying glacial processes with an unprecedented level of detail, but their usefulness for deriving accurate topographic data on glaciers has not yet been fully assessed. In this perspective we tested the use of a UAV platform to acquire images at a very high spatial resolution (using the Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm. A detailed assessment of DEM errors was performed by cross-validation of an network of ground control points (GCPs) deployed on the glacier surface. The influence of checkpoint position in the network, border effects, number of photos calibrated and GPS accuracy were examined. Topographical changes were measured from the DEM difference and surface displacements estimated by applying feature tracking techniques to the orthomosaics. Further, the dominant scales of topographic spatial variability were examined using a semivariogram analysis of the DEMs. Results show that UAV-based photogrammetry is promising to further our understanding of high-resolution glacier surface processes and to perform repeat, on-demand monitoring of glacier changes, but their application on remote glaciers remains challenging.

  12. Edmonton IAP, Alberta, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-30

    971 97.9 97. S700 9. 97. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98.8 98. a 6W 94. 98. 98.8 98. 98. 98. 98. 98. 98, 99.1 99. 99.* 99. 99. 99.3...6. 6 800 S 58. 58 . S 9. 59. 59. 59.6 59.6 59.6 5.9 60.3 60.4 60.6 S700 % 60. 61. 62. 62. 62. 62. 63. 63. 63. 63o. 63.2 63.2 635. 63.9 64.0 64.2 6000

  13. Canada's oil sands: nuclear power in an integrated energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the role of nuclear power in Canada's oil sands industry. It outlines the oil sands resource in Alberta and the various industrial projects to recover the oil from the tar sands. It points to continuing innovation in technology since the 1930's. The hydrogen required for upgrading bitumen is made from natural gas. Finally, it discusses the next wave of oil sands production technologies.

  14. Workshop Papers: CERI's Alberta Offset Development Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    New and innovative policy approaches are necessary to help Canada achieve its target for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, since it is becoming clear that the voluntary action plans that are currently in place are not adequate to address climate change. The use of economic instruments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was the focus of this conference. Topics included various forms of greenhouse gas emissions trading, taxation instruments, and hybrid instruments which make use of both emissions trading and emissions charges. The three forms of emission trading - carbon content trading, allowance trading, and credit trading - which have the potential to beneficially influence climate change were explored by several participants. Technical and policy related issues were explored in detail and the manner in which offsets fit into global, regional and local scenarios were reviewed. It was emphasized that clear and consistent policy signals and a flexible attitude from government is necessary to interest greenhouse gas emitters in taking action to reduce emissions without sacrificing the economy. Under a joint implementation framework recently agreed to at Kyoto, developed countries could earn credits for limiting emissions or enhancing carbon sinks in other countries by taking advantage of the low costs of emission reductions in developing countries. To date, this is the most fertile area for innovative action for effecting a global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Parks and their users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with urban parks and their use(rs. It focuses on usage-spatial relationships from two different angles. Firstly, it discusses the actual uses mapped in places, using repeated observation on different days, times and weather conditions. Secondly, it addresses designers’ views and beliefs about usage and design of urban parks. However, the paper shows that designers’ beliefs and awareness about uses in places, in some aspects, differ from actual use. It stresses the use of empirical knowledge about usage-spatial relationships, which can be gained by using observation and behavioural mapping, in decision-making processes for parks design.

  16. Post-secondary stress : Alberta's colleges and universities race to get seats open to help fill a coming energy industry labour crunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2010-09-15

    The oil sands industry is finding it difficult to recruit younger people due to its negative image as a major polluter. A recent survey has suggested that Canada's petroleum industry will struggle to find employees by the end of the decade. Younger people are more conscious of environmental issues than previous generations. The energy industry is also facing a recruiting problem because the boom and bust nature of the industry has meant that earlier generations were not provided with the training or skill sets required to work in the industry. Post-secondary institutions are not equipped to train people for resource-related careers. The University of Alberta has started to increase the size of its engineering department and is expected to train increasing numbers of professionals for the oil and gas industry. The Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) has created a new facility for training oil and gas industry workers. The University of Calgary is also expanding its engineering and science-related facilities. The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) has established new apprenticeship programs. Keyano College has doubled its number of trades and heavy industrial apprentices over the last year. 1 fig.

  17. Perceptions of the characteristics of the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth by child care providers may influence early adoption of nutrition guidelines in child care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Hara; Farmer, Anna; Berry, Tanya R; McCargar, Linda J; Mager, Diana R

    2015-04-01

    In 2008, the Alberta government released the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) as a resource for child care facilities to translate nutrition recommendations into practical food choices. Using a multiple case study method, early adoption of the guidelines was examined in two child care centres in Alberta, Canada. Key constructs from the Diffusion of Innovations framework were used to develop an interview protocol based on the perceived characteristics of the guidelines (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability) by child care providers. Analysis of the ANGCY was conducted by a trained qualitative researcher and validated by an external qualitative researcher. This entailed reviewing guideline content, layout, organisation, presentation, format, comprehensiveness and dissemination to understand whether characteristics of the guidelines affect the adoption process. Data were collected through direct observation, key informant interviews and documentation of field notes. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Overall, the guidelines were perceived positively by child care providers. Child care providers found the guidelines to have a high relative advantage, be compatible with current practice, have a low level of complexity, easy to try and easy to observe changes. It is valuable to understand how child care providers perceive characteristics of guidelines as this is the first step in identifying the needs of child care providers with respect to early adoption and identifying potential educational strategies important for dissemination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Trucks in the forest: Industry and recreation share limelight in west central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2004-12-06

    Hinton, Alberta, a small town just outside the borders of Jasper National Park is described as an example of how industry and recreational activities combined to save a community after it was threatened with extinction following the closure of the local coal mine some five years ago. The pulp and paper mill, the town's remaining major industry after the coal mine closure, and the more recently arrived oil and gas industry brought new people, and with that a new entrepreneurial spirit into the community, that in addition to reinvigorating the industrial and commercial sectors, has given rise to outdoor recreational business opportunities that were always there, but have been ignored in the past. The principal example is the Edmonton-based Cougar Rock Holdings company, which is planning a $700 million resort on about 1,500 acres some five kilometres west of Hinton, complete with a new 18-hole golf course, spa, several resort hotels and resort lodges, 1,000 condominium apartments and an international mountain village. There is also a brisk sale of land to oil and gas industry service companies desirous to locate in Hinton. Land sales have progressed to the point where industrial land is becoming scarce and development is spilling over to the near-by town of Edson. A further illustration of the pace of development is that one of the regional airlines commenced scheduled daily flights between Edson and Calgary for the very first time.

  19. Versailles' park taasavatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Osa Pariisi lähedase Versailles' lossi pargist avati jaanuari alguses uuesti publikule. 17.-18. sajandi prantsuse stiilis park suleti avalikkusele detsembris 1999 pärast parki laastanud hiigeltormi, mis murdis ligemale 10000 puud.

  20. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  1. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  2. Allegheny County Parks Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size and shape of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  3. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  4. The state of Alberta's environment : our review and recommendations, for PCAA leadership candidates and opposition party leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynolds, M.; Whittingham, E.; Powell, G.

    2006-10-01

    Canada has the ability to become sustainable through the use of renewable energy, as well as by reducing waste and pollution, investing in natural capital, and promoting global sustainability. However, Canada will need active leadership from all provinces in order to achieve sustainability. This document was designed to inform leaders and leadership candidates in Alberta about key environmental and socio-economic issues relating to sustainable development in the province. The paper was divided into 5 categories: (1) land; (2) water; (3) air; (4) climate change; and (5) people. The categories presented current physical, ecological and political states, as well as recent trends and projects. Potential questions asked by stakeholders were provided at the end of each category, as well as a set of solutions. Solutions to land use challenges included establishing protected areas to protect wildlife habitat, implementing effective land use planning; and investing in recreation and tourism infrastructure to manage recreation impacts. Possible solutions to water-related challenges in Alberta included establishing a levy on water used for oil recovery; improving groundwater monitoring; and the establishment of a wetlands policy. Solutions to air-related challenges included adopting more stringent standards for industrial pollution; establishing air emission caps; and implementing a province-wide air monitoring program. Clear targets for absolute reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution were recommended, as well as fiscal incentives for reducing emissions. It was concluded that the government needs to develop a vision for resource developments in the province, and ensure that it is getting maximum revenue from the development of non-renewable resources.

  5. Analysis of operating criteria: Multiple lakes at Voyageurs National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flug, M.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of lake and river regulation at Voyageurs National Park, which resides on the Minnesota-Ontario border, is given to demonstrate how water policy agreements can work. In 1905 the United States and Canada authorized private dams with turbines on the Rainy River. The International Joint Commission regulates these dams. The National Park Service is mandated to preserve the natural environment for future generations. State, private, and public sector interests are tourism, flood protection, the pulp and paper industry, native wild rice growth; etc. Rule curves for regulating reservoirs have changed and committee with broad representation is cooperating to better manage the waters of Namakan Reservoir and Rainy Lake

  6. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  7. Student research in Canada's north

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Admas, P [ed.; Johnson, P G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    A conference was organized in Canada to allow a large number of students with northern interests to meet together to present the results of their work and to discuss many other matters of mutual interset. In addition, this conference allowed students from many disciplines in the natural and social sciences to advance northern scholarship, and to foster a multidisciplinary approach to northern studies. A wide range of topics from the physical, biological, and social sciences were covered, including Inuit music, traditional medicine, mammoth bones, fossil trees, icebreaker design, archaeology, caves, naturally acid and other lakes, glaciers, bogs, Inuit clothing, education, northern parks, river ice jams, geology, marine science including large marine mammals, and global strategy. Separate abstracts have been prepared for twelve papers from this conference.

  8. Decision E90057 re: ICG Utilities (Alberta) Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-10

    ICG Utilities applied before the Alberta Public Utilities Board for determining a rate base and for fixing and approving interim and final rates for gas supplied to its customers in Alberta. A hearing was held to consider issues related to the application. In determining the rate base, the company's capital expenditures, acquisition of reserves, capitalization of administrative expenses, accumulated depreciation and related expense, and necessary working capital were taken into account. The fair return on the rate base was then fixed by considering the company's capital structure, long- and short- term debt rates, return on common equity, and foreign exchange rates. Utility revenue requirements were discussed in terms of cash operating expenses, cost of gas, income taxes, and non-cash operating expenses. Other matters treated at the hearing were the allocation of costs among ICG and affiliated companies, proposed amendments to ICG standards, regulations and practices, and the hearing costs reserve account. 5 tabs.

  9. Proceedings of the 44. annual Alberta Soil Science Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, X.; Shaw, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Alberta Soil Science Workshop is held annually in order to provide a forum for the discussion of issues related to soil sciences in Alberta. Attendees at the conference discussed a wide range of subjects related to soil sciences and measuring the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities in the province. The role of soil science in sustainable forest management was also examined. Issues related to acid deposition were reviewed, and recent developments in soil chemistry analysis for agricultural practices were discussed. Other topics included wildland soil analysis methods; the long-term impacts of sulphate deposition from industrial activities; and water chemistry in soils, lakes and river in the Boreal regions. Projects initiated to assess cumulative land use impacts on rangeland ecosystems were outlined along with a review of tools developed to optimize soil analysis techniques. One of the 46 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Management of routine solution gas flaring in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Alberta's Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA) shares decision-making responsibilities with the Government of Alberta for strategic aspects of air quality. In 1997, the Alliance established the Flaring Project Team to develop recommendations that address potential and observed impacts associated with flaring, with particular focus on 'upstream solution gas' flaring. The upstream industry explores for, acquires, develops, produces and markets crude oil and natural gas. Essentially, solution gas at upstream sites is 'co-produced' during crude oil production. The project team was established to collect and summarize information on flaring and its impacts and to develop recommendations for short-term actions to minimize the practice of routine flaring of solution gas. Another goal of the team is to develop a research strategy to better understand flaring emissions and their effects on human, animal and environmental health. The team is working on developing long-term strategies for actions to address the gas flaring issue. 5 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  11. Resource industries and security issues in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, T. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science

    2009-06-15

    Public concern over global warming has led to many political attacks on the oil industry, particularly Alberta's tar sand industry. This document focused on security issues in northern Alberta and reviewed past incidences of security threats. The likelihood of sabotage to wells, pipelines, buildings, and other industry facilities was assessed. Five potential sources of opposition were identified, notably individual saboteurs, eco-terrorists, mainstream environmentalists, First Nations, and the Metis people. All except the Metis have at various times used some combination of litigation, blockades, boycotts, sabotage, and violence against economic development projects. This report stated that although such incidents will likely continue in the future, it is unlikely that extra-legal obstruction will become widespread unless these various groups cooperate with each other. Since these groups have different social characteristics and conflicting political interests, it is unlikely that such cooperation will occur. 34 refs.

  12. A forward look at power prices in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Carlson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The various components of the price of electricity, various rate design methodologies, and factors that influence cost-of-service such as types of generation and fuel, age of the physical plant, size of utility, rate of customer and load growth, funding arrangements, tax status, customer mix, and load profile are examined in an effort to predict the future price of electricity in Alberta. The prediction is that delivered prices will increase across all sectors, albeit at levels less than the increase would be without competition. Alberta pool prices in the longer term will continue to reflect the marginal cost of the last generators dispatched to meet the demand. Convergence between electricity spot prices and natural gas prices is predicted to occur over time

  13. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  14. Diet quality is associated with reduced incidence of cancer and self-reported chronic disease: Observations from Alberta's Tomorrow Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbak, Nathan M; Xu, Jian-Yi; Vena, Jennifer E; Csizmadi, Ilona; Whelan, Heather K; Robson, Paula J

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 Canada (HEI-2005-Canada) and its association with risk of cancer and chronic disease in a sample of Alberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP) participants. Food frequency questionnaires completed by 25,169 participants (38% men; mean age 50.3 (9.2)) enrolled between 2000 and 2008 were used to calculate HEI-2005-Canada scores. Data from a subset of participants (n=10,735) who reported no chronic disease at enrollment were used to investigate the association between HEI-2005-Canada score and development of self-reported chronic disease at follow-up (2008). Participants were divided into HEI-2005-Canada score quartiles. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer and chronic disease incidence. In this cohort, mean HEI-2005-Canada scores for men and women were 50.9 and 55.5 (maximum range 0-100), respectively. In men, higher HEI-2005-Canada score (Q4 vs. Q1) was associated with lower cancer risk (HR (95% CI) 0.63 (0.49-0.83)) over the course of follow-up (mean (SD)=10.4 (2.3) years); the same was not observed in women. In contrast, higher overall HEI-2005-Canada score (Q4 vs. Q1) was associated with lower risk of self-reported chronic disease (0.85 (0.75-0.97)) in both men and women over follow-up (4.2 (2.3) years). In conclusion, in this cohort better diet quality was associated with a lower risk of cancer in men and lower risk of chronic disease in both sexes. Future studies with longer follow-up and repeated measures of diet may be helpful to elucidate sex-specific associations between dietary quality and disease outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Seismic interpretation of the triangle zone at Jumping Pound, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotboom, R. T. [Amerada Hess Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lawton, D. C.; Spratt, D. A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-06-01

    The triangle zone at Jumping Point, Alberta was characterized using seismic survey data as a NW-SE-trending antiformal stack of thrust sheets involving Cretaceous rocks that have been wedged into the foreland between two detachments. Three major thrust sheets of Lower and Upper Cretaceous strata have been stacked to form the main extremity of the wedge. The structure is tightly folded at Jumping Point, and broadens northwest along the strike. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Misplaced generosity: extraordinary profits in Alberta's oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boychuk, R.

    2010-11-01

    This document gives a picture extended over a decade of the revenues, investment levels and profits of the Alberta's oil and gas industry. It also investigates on the distribution of those revenues and profits that were accrued to the provincial government through royalties and land sales. This document, tries to fill the information gaps left by the current government's achievement as Albertans' oil and gas trustee, pointing out the ongoing lack of responsibility in this province's most important economic sector.

  17. CO2 in Alberta - a vision of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, K.

    1999-01-01

    The potential to develop a province-wide infrastructure for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) collection and transmission was discussed. The petroleum industry's original interest in CO 2 was its potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) for Alberta's depleted oil fields. However, new interest has stemmed from its perceived role in global climate change and the potentially negative business and economic implications of emitting CO 2 into the atmosphere. It was suggested that the development of a province wide infrastructure to collect CO 2 would address both interests. A simple screening of the reservoirs was carried out to determine if Alberta has the right oil reservoirs and sufficient CO 2 supplies to support a large-scale CO 2 infrastructure. The proposed infrastructure would consist of CO 2 supplies from electrical power generation plants, CO 2 trunklines, feeder pipelines to deliver CO 2 from the trunklines to the field and the oil reservoirs where the CO 2 would be injected. Such infrastructures already exist in Texas and Mexico where more than 1 billion scf per day of CO 2 is used for EOR. This study compared the factors leading to a large-scale CO 2 industry with factors in place during the 1970s and 1980s, when most of the hydrocarbon miscible floods were initiated in Alberta. It was concluded that the preliminary economics suggest that the concept has merit. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  18. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, regulatory highlights for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This new publication informs readers about what the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) did in the past year, including important regulatory issues, trends and initiatives. The EUB is an agency of the provincial government, established to regulate Alberta's energy resource and utility sectors. It is part of the Alberta Ministry of Energy. The four main functions of the Board are regulatory initiatives, license applications, enforcement and information. This publication summarized the EUB's position regarding flaring (both solution gas flaring and well test flaring), and Board activities in the areas of animal health concerns, the gas over bitumen controversy, the deregulation of the electric industry and what it means to the EUB, improvements in data quality as a result of improved industry compliance in reporting, and a variety of issues related to the oil sands and the negotiated settlement process. Also, the Board has been proactive in the area of oilfield waste management guidelines, proliferation policies for gas processing facilities, sulphur recovery guidelines, and the expansion of the orphan well program to include facilities and pipelines. As a measure of the success of the EUB, a recent survey of 19 randomly selected focus groups praised EUB for its impartiality, fair and equitable enforcement and independence. It was also praised for its technically competent and experienced staff, its access to quality information and the clarity of its mandate, regulatory requirements and processes. The Board's efforts in the area of timely stakeholder consultation was highlighted. tabs., figs

  19. Asian-Pacific markets : a new strategy for Alberta oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureshen, C.J.; Du Plessis, D.; Xu, C.M.; Chung, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    Alberta's oil sands contain an estimated crude bitumen-in-place of nearly 2.5 trillion barrels. Production has increased to the point where it has overtaken non-conventional sources, and is expected to reach more than 2 million barrels per day by 2012, and over 5 million barrels per day by 2030. Although it is assumed that most of this production will be marketed in the United States, the industry is facing many constraints that could affect potential crude oil production and existing market share. The Asian-Pacific region is an obvious new market for Canadian heavy oil and bitumen due to an increasing demand for petroleum products in that region and the potential for reaching the California market with the same pipeline. This paper examined the following three criteria that will determine the success of any initiative to move Canadian crude oil to Asian-Pacific markets: (1) a sustainable supply of crude from Alberta; a pipeline to transport the crude to a deepwater port on the west coast; and, a guaranteed market at the other end. The feasibility of marketing Alberta heavy oil and bitumen to Asia was also discussed. 12 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  20. Mental health services costs within the Alberta criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Philip; Moffatt, Jessica; Dewa, Carolyn S; Nguyen, Thanh; Zhang, Ting; Lesage, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Mental illness has been widely cited as a driver of costs in the criminal justice system. The objective of this paper is to estimate the additional mental health service costs incurred within the criminal justice system that are incurred because of people with mental illnesses who go through the system. Our focus is on costs in Alberta. We set up a model of the flow of all persons through the criminal justice system, including police, court, and corrections components, and for mental health diversion, review, and forensic services. We estimate the transitional probabilities and costs that accrue as persons who have been charged move through the system. Costs are estimated for the Alberta criminal justice system as a whole, and for the mental illness component. Public expenditures for each person diverted or charged in Alberta in the criminal justice system, including mental health costs, were $16,138. The 95% range of this estimate was from $14,530 to $19,580. Of these costs, 87% were for criminal justice services and 13% were for mental illness-related services. Hospitalization for people with mental illness who were reviewed represented the greatest additional cost associated with mental illnesses. Treatment costs stemming from mental illnesses directly add about 13% onto those in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearman, C. [Industrial Association of Southern Alberta, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The government of Alberta deregulated its electric power industry to introduce industry structure and regulatory reforms that would promote competitive electricity prices. The objective was to ensure fairness for customers and generating facilities. A graph depicting power pool prices shows the reality of soaring prices at the onset of deregulation in Alberta. Today, there remains uncertainty in the development of retail choice, additional rate riders, new generation, transmission expansion, other jurisdictions and future prices. Consumers are still poorly equipped to make decisions and farmers have no means of protection from fluctuating electricity prices. They see deregulation as a complete failure because costs are up and benefits are nowhere to be seen. Ontario can learn from the Alberta experience by adopting the recommendations to set financial penalties for incompetence, financial compensation to customers for errors, and to be fully ready with systems tested ahead of deregulation. Anticipated customer benefits should be clearly identified in advance. The future electric power industry in Ontario needs vision, stability, a cohesive plan, and leadership devoid of complacency. 1 fig.

  2. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spearman, C.

    2002-01-01

    The government of Alberta deregulated its electric power industry to introduce industry structure and regulatory reforms that would promote competitive electricity prices. The objective was to ensure fairness for customers and generating facilities. A graph depicting power pool prices shows the reality of soaring prices at the onset of deregulation in Alberta. Today, there remains uncertainty in the development of retail choice, additional rate riders, new generation, transmission expansion, other jurisdictions and future prices. Consumers are still poorly equipped to make decisions and farmers have no means of protection from fluctuating electricity prices. They see deregulation as a complete failure because costs are up and benefits are nowhere to be seen. Ontario can learn from the Alberta experience by adopting the recommendations to set financial penalties for incompetence, financial compensation to customers for errors, and to be fully ready with systems tested ahead of deregulation. Anticipated customer benefits should be clearly identified in advance. The future electric power industry in Ontario needs vision, stability, a cohesive plan, and leadership devoid of complacency. 1 fig

  3. Imports, exports, and Alberta's transmission system impact on price fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.

    2002-01-01

    The roles, responsibilities and objectives of ESBI, a private for-profit company, appointed by the Alberta Government to be the Independent Transmission Administrator in the province, is sketched, prior to a discussion of price volatility in electricity, Alberta interconnections, intertie issues, the economic theory and the reality impact on prices. Given that imports and exports constitute a relatively small proportion of total generation or load in Alberta, price volatility is considered to have been only minimally affected by imports/exports. In contrast, transmission constraints, i.e. the limits on physical capacity of the existing transmission system to accommodate all desired transactions, have significant impact on imports/exports. Factors underlying constraints and price volatility such as uncertainty of generation dispatch, leading to reduced interest to invest, which in turn leads to scarce capacity for imports/exports, and the actions required to reduce uncertainty and address other issues such as congestion management, tariff design and the creation of regional transmission organizations, are also discussed to provide further clarification of the issues. It is suggested that these and other related issues need to be resolved to provide the clarity around transmission access and the tools required to manage price fluctuations

  4. Alberta's conventional oil supply: How much? How long?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the future conventional crude oil supply potential in Alberta, a modelling system was designed with the capacity to determine the fraction of existing and potential reserves which could prove technically, economically and/or commercially viable over time. The reference case analysis described assumed constant real oil prices and fiscal burdens, capital and operating costs. Reserve additions from new pool discoveries were summed with reserves from existing pools to arrive at an estimate of the potential supply of established reserves in each play area. The established reserves from all plays were then totalled to provide the provincial conventional oil resource potential. Alberta's recoverable conventional crude oil reserves were shown to be declining at about 2 percent per year. However, even with declining recoverable reserves and relatively low prices, the results of the study indicated that the conventional oil industry remained a major revenue generator for the province and would continue to be so over the next 15 to 20 years. Improved operating efficiencies, cost reductions, reasonable prices and cooperation between industry and government were shown to be necessary to assure the continued viability of Alberta's conventional oil industry. figs., tabs., 11 refs

  5. Gas production and decline rates in the province of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the gas production decline rates in Alberta. The study examined the producing gas wells that were place in production between 1990 and 1997. Three major assumptions were used to determine the number of wells necessary to meet future market demand. These were: (1) reserves have been declining at greater rates in the past several years. The current rate of decline is 12 per cent, (2) new reserves added in future will produce at 5.1 E6M3 per year, and (3) the decline rates for new gas wells will be 27 per cent in the first year, 16 per cent in the second year, 12 per cent in the third year and thereafter. With this information, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board estimates that the annual total deliveries of gas from Alberta in the year 2002 will be 177.4 E9M3 compared to 127 E9M3 in 1997. In order to meet this supply, drilling activity for successful gas wells will have to double the 1997 rate because it is predicted that more than 6400 new wells will be needed per year to meet future demand. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs

  6. Alberta CancerBridges development of a care plan evaluation measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese-Davis, J.; Sisler, J.; Zhong, L.; Brandelli, Y.; McCormick, J.L.; Railton, C.; Shirt, L.; Lau, H.; Hao, D.; Chobanuk, J.; Walley, B.; Joy, A.A.; Taylor, A.; Carlson, L.

    2018-01-01

    Background No standardized measures specifically assess cancer survivors’ and healthcare providers’ experience of Survivor Care Plans (scps). We sought to develop two care plan evaluation (cpe) measures, one for survivors (cpe-s) and one for healthcare providers (cpe-p), examine initial psychometric qualities in Alberta, and assess generalizability in Manitoba, Canada. Methods We developed the initial measures using convenience samples of breast (n = 35) and head and neck (n = 18) survivors who received scps at the end of active cancer-centre treatment. After assessing Alberta’s scp concordance with Institute of Medicine (iom) recommendations using a published coding scheme, we examined psychometric qualities for the cpe-s and cpe-p. We examined generalizability in Manitoba, Canada, with colorectal survivors discharged to primary care providers for follow-up (n = 75). Results We demonstrated acceptable internal consistency for the cpe-s and cpe-p subscales and total score after eliminating one item per subscale for cpe-s, two for cpe-p, resulting in revised scales with four 7-item and 6-item subscales, respectively. Subscale scores correlated highly indicating that for each measure the total score may be the most reliable and valid. We provide initial cpe-s discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity using the total score. Using the Manitoba sample, initial psychometrics similarly indicated good generalizability across differences in tumour groups, scp, and location. Conclusions We recommend the revised cpe-s and cpe-p for further use and development. Studies documenting the creation and standardization of scp evaluations are few, and we recommend further development of patient experience measures to improve both clinical practice and the specificity of research questions. PMID:29507497

  7. Is Universal Screening Necessary? Incidence of Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees Arriving in Calgary, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rachel; Jarand, Julie; Field, Stephen K; Fisher, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Background . Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. We sought to determine the incidence of latent (LTBI) and active TB, as well as treatment-related outcomes and associations between preimmigration factors and TB infection among Tibetan refugees arriving in Calgary, Alberta. Design . Retrospective cohort study including Tibetan refugees arriving between 2014 and 2016. Associations between preimmigration factors and incidence of latent and active TB were determined using Chi-square tests. Results . Out of 180 subjects, 49 percent had LTBI. LTBI was more common in migrants 30 years of age or older ( P = 0.009). Treatment initiation and completion rates were high at 90 percent and 76 percent, respectively. No associations between preimmigration factors and treatment completion were found. A case of active TB was detected and treated. Conclusion . Within this cohort, the case of active TB would have been detected through the usual postsurveillance process due to a history of TB and abnormal chest radiograph. Forty-nine percent had LTBI, compared to previously quoted rates of 97 percent. Tibetan refugees should be screened for TB in a similar manner to other refugees resettling in Canada.

  8. Using spatial mark-recapture for conservation monitoring of grizzly bear populations in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, John; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2018-03-26

    One of the challenges in conservation is determining patterns and responses in population density and distribution as it relates to habitat and changes in anthropogenic activities. We applied spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods, combined with density surface modelling from five grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) management areas (BMAs) in Alberta, Canada, to assess SECR methods and to explore factors influencing bear distribution. Here we used models of grizzly bear habitat and mortality risk to test local density associations using density surface modelling. Results demonstrated BMA-specific factors influenced density, as well as the effects of habitat and topography on detections and movements of bears. Estimates from SECR were similar to those from closed population models and telemetry data, but with similar or higher levels of precision. Habitat was most associated with areas of higher bear density in the north, whereas mortality risk was most associated (negatively) with density of bears in the south. Comparisons of the distribution of mortality risk and habitat revealed differences by BMA that in turn influenced local abundance of bears. Combining SECR methods with density surface modelling increases the resolution of mark-recapture methods by directly inferring the effect of spatial factors on regulating local densities of animals.

  9. Out of the tar pit: a Texas company buys Alberta's Syncrude share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosh, C.

    1995-01-01

    The implications of the recent announcement of Alberta's Energy Minister concerning the sale of the province's last remaining share, 11.74%, of Syncrude Canada Ltd. to Houston's Torch Energy Advisors Inc., were examined. Torch has been famous for imposing fiscal discipline on capital-hungry concerns under-valued by the markets (as Syncrude apparently, is). It is believed that the Syncrude site lies over a deposit containing 1.3 trillion barrels of heavy oil and bitumen, enough to meet the world's current demand for over a decade. Recent progress in cost containment has been instrumental in making the oil sands industry more competitive vis-a-vis the petroleum industry. As part of this cost reduction effort, Syncrude contractor Fording Coal Ltd. and Suncor have been investigating the possible replacement of expensive bucket wheels with the truck-and-shovel method to extract oil sands, at a considerable savings. Syncrude researchers have also been working on hydrotransport, a new method of transporting oil sands from mine to plant. Developments such as these have been attracting foreign investment; it was speculated that in this instance, Torch has picked a winner

  10. Revegetation of wellsite disturbances on Fescue Prairie in east-central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosaree, J.; Puhl, M.

    1999-01-01

    It has been observed that past methods of revegetating disturbed land in Alberta by using commercially-available species of grasses has had limited success in terms of biodiversity, the reason being that commercial forage species are highly competitive, and as such not only prevented the original prairie species from returning to reclaimed sites, but in some cases they have migrated from reclaimed sites and invaded surrounding native prairie. Alfalfa, crested wheatgrass, Kentucky bluegrass and Canada bluegrass are believed to be the most invasive of these commercially available species. Because their use in the past has resulted in landscape fragmentation, they are not recommended for use on wellsites located on native prairie. The limited mix of available native grass cultivars also have had limited success in increasing species diversity. Cross seeding has been suggested as one method for reducing the effect of inter-specific competition on the species emergence. However, the general view of government and industry is that improved methods of revegetation of wellsite disturbances and new guidelines for determining reclamation success are required to establish more ecologically compatible plant communities on well site disturbances 4 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  11. Canada's green plan: Summary. Le plan vert du Canada: Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of Canada's Green Plan, a comprehensive action plan to ensure a healthy environment for the future. The plan defines targets and schedules which will drive federal environmental initiatives, and incorporates concepts of sustainable development. Elements of the plan include initiatives to combat and prevent water pollution; control ocean dumping; control smog-causing emissions; provide tighter air pollution standards; provide for sound waste management according to the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover; assess and control chemical wastes; sustain Canadian forests and maintain their diversity while shifting forest management from sustained yield to sustainable development; maintain and enhance environmental sustainability in the agro-food sector and the fishery sector; preserve and protect national parks and wildlife; and preserve and enhance the integrity, health, biodiversity and productivity of Arctic ecosystems. With respect to global-scale problems, measures will be taken to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, limit acid rain-related emissions, and phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances. The plan also intends to improve Canada's capability to respond to environmental emergencies, improve environmental decision-making by strengthening and building of partnerships, promote environmental science research and development, and make effective and balanced use of enviromental laws, with market-based approaches for environmental protection.

  12. A building consensus: moving toward a Canadian energy strategy: submission to federal, provincial and territorial energy ministers July 18, 2011, Kananaskis, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    Two years ago, in Canada, think tanks started working towards a constructive national dialogue on the development of a unified energy strategy for Canada. Numerous organizations and leaders have taken part throughout this process to present their respective views about the right way forward. Despite these differing views, this collective work has made possible a high level of cohesion in the discussion and 8 points of convergence were found among the various participants. This paper presents the different meetings which took place, particularly the first one in October 2009 where the founding think tanks met, and the second conversation in April 2010, in Banff, Alberta, in which a broad consensus on the need for a Canadian energy strategy was found between 65 leaders.

  13. Alberta family physicians? willingness to work during an influenza pandemic: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, James A; Bani-Adam, Gisoo; Williamson, Tyler; Berzins, Sandy; Pearce, Craig; Ricketson, Leah; Medd, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Objective Effective pandemic responses rely on frontline healthcare workers continuing to work despite increased risk to themselves. Our objective was to investigate Alberta family physicians willingness to work during an influenza pandemic. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Alberta prior to the fall wave of the H1N1 epidemic. Participants: 192 participants from a random sample of 1000 Alberta family physicians stratified by region. Main Outcome Measures: Willingness to work through di...

  14. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  15. Advantage or illusion: is Alberta's progress sustainable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anielski, M. [Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    A new indicator of economic and environmental well-being, the Genuine Progress Indicators, of GPI, is discussed as part of an attempt to gauge the state of health of Alberta's economy, and to establish whether the tremendous apparent economic progress made by the province in recent decades is real or illusory. The GPI, an accounting system by which nations can measure real progress and real wealth, was developed by the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development of Alberta. It combines 51 indicators of economic, social and environmental measures, and is consistent with international efforts to find new measures of well-being and human development. Based on a study using the GPI system, real disposable income of Albertans was 5.5 per cent lower in 1999 than in 1982, despite a 36.3 per cent rise in Alberta's GDP per capita. This finding suggests that not all people are sharing in the the economic good times. Personal and household debt has also risen substantially and now exceeds real disposable income for the first time in history. Ability to save has been squeezed, resulting in protracted decline in personal savings, while Albertans pay 500 per cent more taxes in real dollars since 1961. Social and human health indicators highlight signs of social stress, such as rising levels of divorce, problem gambling and falling voter participation. Other indicators raise concerns about the condition of Alberta's natural capital, such as forests, agricultural soils, air and water quality, fish, wildlife and protected areas. Environmental GPIs show that Albertans have the fourth-highest ecological footprint in the world, exceeded only by the Arab Emirates, Singapore and the United States. The bigger the footprint the more is someone else on the planet shortchanged. The Pembina Institute report concludes that the development of Alberta's fossil fuel energy resources has come with a tremendous ecological price tag. It also shows that conventional crude oil

  16. Enhancing the Alberta Tax Advantage with a Harmonized Sales Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alberta enjoys a reputation as a fiercely competitive jurisdiction when it comes to tax rates. But the reality is that the province can do better with a tax mix that has greater emphasis on consumption, rather than income tax levies. While Alberta has a personal tax advantage compared to other Canadian jurisdictions — but not the United States — it relies most heavily on income taxes and non-resource revenues that impinges on investment and saving. Taxes on new investment in Alberta’s non-resource sectors are no better than average, compared to other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD, so it is not exceptionally attractive to many different kinds of investors. And Alberta’s corporate income tax rate is not much more competitive than the world average for manufacturing and service companies. By introducing the Harmonized Sales Tax with a provincial rate of 8 per cent (in addition to the federal 5 per cent rate, Alberta has the ability to make its tax system more competitive. An HST would even allow the province to entirely eliminate income tax for the majority of families. And because the HST would be easily administered using the same collection mechanisms that already exist for the GST, implementing a new Alberta HST could be done relatively smoothly and with minimal additional administration costs. Adopting an Alberta HST is the simplest, most efficient and fairest way to reform the provincial tax system, and will deliver noticeable benefits to Albertans, most visibly in the form of significant income tax relief. It would enable the province to raise the income-tax exemption from $17,593 to $57,250, making it possible for couples to earn up to $114,500 free of any provincial income taxes. In addition, the province could lower income tax rates for income over that amount from 10 to nine per cent. And with the revenue from the HST, Alberta would have the capacity to lower its general corporate

  17. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  18. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  19. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  20. Total joint arthroplasty: practice variation of physiotherapy across the continuum of care in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Allyson Jones

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive and timely rehabilitation for total joint arthroplasty (TJA is needed to maximize recovery from this elective surgical procedure for hip and knee arthritis. Administrative data do not capture the variation of treatment for rehabilitation across the continuum of care for TJA, so we conducted a survey for physiotherapists to report practice for TJA across the continuum of care. The primary objective was to describe the reported practice of physiotherapy for TJA across the continuum of care within the context of a provincial TJA clinical pathway and highlight possible gaps in care. Method A cross-sectional on-line survey was accessible to licensed physiotherapists in Alberta, Canada for 11 weeks. Physiotherapists who treated at least five patients with TJA annually were asked to complete the survey. The survey consisted of 58 questions grouped into pre-operative, acute care and post-acute rehabilitation. Variation of practice was described in terms of number, duration and type of visits along with goals of care and program delivery methods. Results Of the 80 respondents, 26 (33 % stated they worked in small centres or rural settings in Alberta with the remaining respondents working in two large urban sites. The primary treatment goal differed for each phase across the continuum of care in that pre-operative phase was directed at improving muscle strength, functional activities were commonly reported for acute care, and post-acute phase was directed at improving joint range-of-motion. Proportionally, more physiotherapists from rural areas treated patients in out-patient hospital departments (59 %, whereas a higher proportion in urban physiotherapists saw patients in private clinics (48 %. Across the continuum of care, treatment was primarily delivered on an individual basis rather than in a group format. Conclusions Variation of practice reported with pre-and post-operative care in the community will stimulate

  1. Corporate social responsibility motives and theories evidenced among oilwell drilling firms in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater, Norbert

    This dissertation is a study in conceptual CSR motives and theories prompted by the knowledge that socially active NGOs have tried to influence the CSP of companies in Alberta's oil patch by using media pressure. The focus of the study was narrowed to changing CSP among Alberta's oilwell drilling firms. This permits intensive interviews with the firms' informants. The examination of changing CSP implies a consideration of the pressures that prompt and influence its change, and points this study to firm motives for behaving responsibly. The firms were firstly categorized according to their primary and secondary CSP using 5 dimensions of CSR previously used by The Conference Board of Canada. The study uses CSR motives conceptualized by Ruth Aguilera and her collaborators to assess the firms' CSP using self-assessed CSR motives and observed CSP. At the onset 3 working hypotheses were posited as starting points from which substantiated propositions were developed. Lance Moir's and Elisabet Garriga and Domènec Meld's classifications of CSR theories were used to organize and evaluate the data. A mapping of the motives and theories in respect of the firms' primary and secondary CSR dimensions appears to display correlations between the CSR theories and the conceptualized motives. Nevertheless, for some of the firms none of the motives conceptualized by Aguilera and her collaborators seem to apply. By re-visiting the motives, and examining them more closely, it seems possible refine the conceptualized motives relying more on perceived conceptions, which are at the basis of legitimacy theories, rather than on relational factors to better explain the normative expectations raised. A similar analysis also indicates that the firms' seem to seek economic benefits, social benefits, or a combination of both. The CSP that results is within the same continuum; the resulting CSP for the firms seems to mediate towards a blend of both, regardless of the original CSR motives. These

  2. Experimental Nitrogen Deposition Alters Post-fire Carbon Balance Recovery in Alberta Bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.; Albright, C. M.; McMillen, K.

    2016-12-01

    Bogs and fens occupy about 30% of the landscape across northern Alberta, Canada and function regionally as a net sink for atmospheric CO2-C, the strength of which is strongly influenced by the frequency and extent of wildfires. Alberta peatlands have persisted at the low end of the global range of annual atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition (exchange, we experimentally applied N (as NH4NO3 solutions) to replicated plots at levels equivalent to controls (C: no water additions), 0 (water only), 10, and 20 kg/ha/yr at five bog sites, aged at 2, 12, 32, 73, and 113 years since fire in 2013 (hummocks and hollows in 6 plots per N treatment per site). Understory net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) was measured repeatedly throughout the 2013-2016 growing seasons using the closed chamber approach. Averaged across all years, sites, plots, and hummocks versus hollows, N addition stimulated NEE rates (C and 0 treatments: 0.46 µmol m-2 s-1; 10 and 20 treatments: 1.16 µmol m-2 s-1) and to a much lesser extent understory dark respiration (ER) rates (C and 0 treatments: -3.26 µmol m-2 s-1; 10 and 20 treatments: -3.43 µmol m-2 s-1). On an annual basis, averaged across all years, sites, and plots, N addition also stimulated NEE for hummocks (C and 0 treatments: -1.0 mol C m-2 yr-1; 10 and 20 treatments: 15.7 mol C m-2 yr-1), but not hollows. Experimental N addition had minimal effects on annual ER. The nature of the N response, however, differed between sites and years. Further, experimental N addition had no effect on the net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum, the dominant peat-forming moss. Thus, the enhancement of the net CO2-C sink through N addition occurs through stimulation of short-statured vascular shrub growth and biomass, with implications for the structure and function of bog understories as they recover after fire under different N deposition regimes.

  3. Progress in electronic medical record adoption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    To determine the rate of adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) by physicians across Canada, provincial incentives, and perceived benefits of and barriers to EMR adoption. Data on EMR adoption in Canada were collected from CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Health Council of Canada, Canada Health Infoway, government websites, regional EMR associations, and health professional association websites. After removal of duplicate articles, 236 documents were found matching the original search. After using the filter Canada, 12 documents remained. Additional documents were obtained from each province's EMR website and from the Canada Health Infoway website. Since 2006, Canadian EMR adoption rates have increased from about 20% of practitioners to an estimated 62% of practitioners in 2013, with substantial regional disparities ranging from roughly 40% of physicians in New Brunswick and Quebec to more than 75% of physicians in Alberta. Provincial incentives vary widely but appear to have only a weak relationship with the rate of adoption. Many adopters use only a fraction of their software's available functions. User-cited benefits to adoption include time savings, improved record keeping, heightened patient safety, and confidence in retrieved data when EMRs are used efficiently. Barriers to adoption include financial and time constraints, lack of knowledgeable support personnel, and lack of interoperability with hospital and pharmacy systems. Canadian physicians remain at the stage of EMR adoption. Progression in EMR use requires experienced, knowledgeable technical support during implementation, and financial support for the transcription of patient data from paper to electronic media. The interoperability of EMR offerings for hospitals, pharmacies, and clinics is the rate-limiting factor in achieving a unified EMR solution for Canada.

  4. An ethnographic study of communication challenges in maternity care for immigrant women in rural Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina M A; Safipour, Jalal; Yohani, Sophie; O'Brien, Beverley; Mumtaz, Zubia; Paton, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    many immigrant and ethno-cultural groups in Canada face substantial barriers to accessing health care including language barriers. The negative consequences of miscommunication in health care settings are well documented although there has been little research on communication barriers facing immigrant women seeking maternity care in Canada. This study identified the nature of communication difficulties in maternity services from the perspectives of immigrant women, health care providers and social service providers in a small city in southern Alberta, Canada. a focused ethnography was undertaken incorporating interviews with 31 participants recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. A community liaison and several gatekeepers within the community assisted with recruitment and interpretation where needed (n=1). All interviews were recorded and audio files were transcribed verbatim by a professional transcriptionist. The data was analysed drawing upon principles expounded by Roper and Shapira (2000) for the analysis of ethnographic data, because of (1) the relevance to ethnographic data, (2) the clarity and transparency of the approach, (3) the systematic approach to analysis, and (4) the compatibility of the approach with computer-assisted qualitative analysis software programs such as Atlas.ti (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, Germany). This process included (1) coding for descriptive labels, (2) sorting for patterns, (3) identification of outliers, (4) generation of themes, (5) generalising to generate constructs and theories, and (6) memoing including researcher reflections. four main themes were identified including verbal communication, unshared meaning, non-verbal communication to build relationships, and trauma, culture and open communication. Communication difficulties extended beyond matters of language competency to those encompassing non-verbal communication and its relation to shared meaning as well as the interplay of underlying pre

  5. Introducing small modular reactors into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in smaller, simpler reactors for generating electricity and process heat. This is evidenced in the growing body of literature and the increasingly frequent meetings and conferences on the subject. The interest in Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) is driven to a large extent by the desire to reduce capital costs, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to replace retiring fossil plants that do not meet today's environmental standards, and to provide power in locations away from large electrical grids. These drivers are as important in Canada as they are in the U.S., where the design and licensing of SMRs is being most vigorously pursued. They have led to a growing interest in Canada as a potentially significant market for SMRs, particularly in the Western Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and in the remote First Nations communities of Northern Canada. There is a growing body of literature addressing the regulation and licensing of Small Modular Reactors in the U.S. Issues being identified in there can generally be categorized as licensing framework issues, licensing application issues, and design and manufacturing issues. Many of these issues are embedded in the US regulatory framework and can only be resolved through changes in the regulations. For the most part these issues are equally applicable in Canada and will need to be addressed in introducing SMRs here. A significant difference, however, is that these issues can be addressed within the Canadian regulatory framework without requiring changes in the regulations. The CNSC has taken a very proactive stance regarding the licensing of small reactors in Canada. They have published two new Regulatory Documents stipulating the requirements for licensing small reactors. A key feature is that they allow the application of a 'graded approach' in which the stringency of the design measures and analyses applied are commensurate with the level of risk posed by

  6. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  7. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  8. Climate change and protected area policy and planning in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D. [Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Lemieux, C. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2005-10-01

    Challenges concerning climate change for agencies involved the management of Canada's protected areas were reviewed. Most protected areas have been designed to represent specific natural features, species and ecological communities, and are the most common and most important strategy for biodiversity conservation. It remains undecided whether adaptation should be a matter of responding to climate change as it manifests, or whether initiatives should be taken in advance to anticipate the potential effects of climate change. There are growing concerns that emergency adaptation will be less effective and more costly than anticipatory or precautionary adaptation over the long-term. Species extinction could result. It was noted that the northward shift of species from the United States will meet Parks Canada's existing definition of alien species in need of management interventions. The conservation objectives of individual protected areas would also be affected by projected biome and species changes, particularly as each of Canada's national parks is responsible for protecting ecosystems representative of the natural region within which it is located. All 6 vegetation change scenarios examined in a recent study projected the eventual loss of boreal forest in the Prince Albert National Park, suggesting that the park's current mandate to protect the ecological integrity of the area would no longer be viable. An overview of the policy and planning implications of climate change for protected areas in Canada was presented using examples from national and provincial park systems. A portfolio of climate change adaptation options in conservation literature was reviewed. Recommended strategies included system planning and policy development; active, adaptive ecosystem management; research and monitoring; and capacity building and awareness. It was concluded that governments will need to make major new investments in protected area establishment, personnel

  9. Recommendations and final report on the Alberta transmission administrator function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinton, R.; Wallace, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    In May 1995, the Electric Utilities Act (EUA) was passed formalizing the Alberta government's policy of electric industry restructuring. The Act established two new important market entities: a power pool and a transmission administrator (TA). Combined, these two entities create the open access required to enable competition in generation. Functionally, the TA acts as a single transmission service agent for all transmission wire owners. The TA leases the wires from owners then provides a province-wide tariff schedule for transmission services to recover the required revenue. Customers can only purchase transmission service from the TA. Both the lease wire cost and the TA tariff schedule must be approved by the regulator

  10. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  11. Seismic modelling of coal bed methane strata, Willow Creek, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.E.; Mayer, R.; Lawton, D.C.; Langenberg, W. [Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose is to determine the feasibility of applying high- resolution reflection seismic surveying to coalbed methane (CBM) exploration and development. Numerical reflection seismic methods are examined for measuring the mapping continuity and coherence of coal zones. Numerical modelling of a coal zone in Upper Cretaceous sediments near Willow Creek, Alberta indicates that seismic data that is predominantly of 100 Hz is required to map the coal zone and lateral facies variations within the deposit. For resolution of individual coal seams, a central frequency >150 Hz would be needed. 26 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Sour gas map of Alberta and British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Geographic locations of sour gas wells in Alberta and British Columbia are shown (by geographic coordinates) on a large-size fold-out map issued as a supplement to the July issue of Oilweek Magazine. Pools are color coded based on hydrogen sulphide content. Five classes are recognized, i. e.: hydrogen sulphide content less than one percent; between one and 4.9 per cent; between five and 9.9 per cent; between ten and 29.9 per cent ; and hydrogen sulphide content exceeding 30 per cent. The locations of gas processing plants with sulphur recovery are also identified

  13. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Station, a dry deciduous forest within Ankarafantsika National. Park. We set Sherman ... dry deciduous forests compared to research in the eastern rainforests (Goodman et al. .... the ground, this rat was observed on both the ground and trees. We tentatively .... Conservation International, Washington DC. Carleton, M. D. ...

  14. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We often observed domestic mammals such as cattle, cats and dogs in the forest at Ampijoroa. Although the primary forest in Ampijoroa is managed by Madagascar National Parks, local people leave these domestic animals in the forest. Introduced animals may be a threat to endemic animals. Cattle can be transmitters of ...

  15. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The propose