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Sample records for parity check ldpc

  1. Combining Ratio Estimation for Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Saad; Hi, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Code decoding algorithm make use of a scaled receive signal derived from maximizing the log-likelihood ratio of the received signal. The scaling factor (often called the combining ratio) in an AWGN channel is a ratio between signal amplitude and noise variance. Accurately estimating this ratio has shown as much as 0.6 dB decoding performance gain. This presentation briefly describes three methods for estimating the combining ratio: a Pilot-Guided estimation method, a Blind estimation method, and a Simulation-Based Look-Up table. The Pilot Guided Estimation method has shown that the maximum likelihood estimates of signal amplitude is the mean inner product of the received sequence and the known sequence, the attached synchronization marker (ASM) , and signal variance is the difference of the mean of the squared received sequence and the square of the signal amplitude. This method has the advantage of simplicity at the expense of latency since several frames worth of ASMs. The Blind estimation method s maximum likelihood estimator is the average of the product of the received signal with the hyperbolic tangent of the product combining ratio and the received signal. The root of this equation can be determined by an iterative binary search between 0 and 1 after normalizing the received sequence. This method has the benefit of requiring one frame of data to estimate the combining ratio which is good for faster changing channels compared to the previous method, however it is computationally expensive. The final method uses a look-up table based on prior simulated results to determine signal amplitude and noise variance. In this method the received mean signal strength is controlled to a constant soft decision value. The magnitude of the deviation is averaged over a predetermined number of samples. This value is referenced in a look up table to determine the combining ratio that prior simulation associated with the average magnitude of

  2. Simulasi Low Density Parity Check (Ldpc) dengan Standar Dvb-t2

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Yusuf; Hafizh, Idham

    2014-01-01

    Artikel ini berisi implementasi simulasi encoding-decoding yang dilakukanpada suatu sampel data biner acak sesuai dengan standar yang digunakanpada Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial 2nd Generation (DVB-T2),dengan menggunakan MATLAB. Low Density Parity Check (LDPC)digunakan dalam proses encoding-decoding sebagai fitur untuk melakukankoreksi kesalahan pada saat pengiriman data. Modulasi yang digunakandalam simulasi adalah BPSK dengan model kanal AWGN. Dalam simulasitersebut, diperbanding...

  3. CONSTRUCTION OF REGULAR LDPC LIKE CODES BASED ON FULL RANK CODES AND THEIR ITERATIVE DECODING USING A PARITY CHECK TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Prashantha Kumar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Low density parity check (LDPC codes are capacity-approaching codes, which means that practical constructions exist that allow the noise threshold to be set very close to the theoretical Shannon limit for a memory less channel. LDPC codes are finding increasing use in applications like LTE-Networks, digital television, high density data storage systems, deep space communication systems etc. Several algebraic and combinatorial methods are available for constructing LDPC codes. In this paper we discuss a novel low complexity algebraic method for constructing regular LDPC like codes derived from full rank codes. We demonstrate that by employing these codes over AWGN channels, coding gains in excess of 2dB over un-coded systems can be realized when soft iterative decoding using a parity check tree is employed.

  4. Error Correction using Quantum Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check(LDPC) Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lin; Brun, Todd; Quantum Research Team

    Quasi-cyclic LDPC codes can approach the Shannon capacity and have efficient decoders. Manabu Hagiwara et al., 2007 presented a method to calculate parity check matrices with high girth. Two distinct, orthogonal matrices Hc and Hd are used. Using submatrices obtained from Hc and Hd by deleting rows, we can alter the code rate. The submatrix of Hc is used to correct Pauli X errors, and the submatrix of Hd to correct Pauli Z errors. We simulated this system for depolarizing noise on USC's High Performance Computing Cluster, and obtained the block error rate (BER) as a function of the error weight and code rate. From the rates of uncorrectable errors under different error weights we can extrapolate the BER to any small error probability. Our results show that this code family can perform reasonably well even at high code rates, thus considerably reducing the overhead compared to concatenated and surface codes. This makes these codes promising as storage blocks in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Error Correction using Quantum Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check(LDPC) Codes.

  5. Encoding of QC-LDPC Codes of Rank Deficient Parity Matrix

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    Mohammed Kasim Mohammed Al-Haddad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the encoding of long low density parity check (LDPC codes presents a challenge compared to its decoding. The Quasi Cyclic (QC LDPC codes offer the advantage for reducing the complexity for both encoding and decoding due to its QC structure. Most QC-LDPC codes have rank deficient parity matrix and this introduces extra complexity over the codes with full rank parity matrix. In this paper an encoding scheme of QC-LDPC codes is presented that is suitable for codes with full rank parity matrix and rank deficient parity matrx. The extra effort required by the codes with rank deficient parity matrix over the codes of full rank parity matrix is investigated.

  6. Construction of Rate-Compatible LDPC Codes Utilizing Information Shortening and Parity Puncturing

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    Jones Christopher R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for constructing rate-compatible low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. The construction considers the problem of optimizing a family of rate-compatible degree distributions as well as the placement of bipartite graph edges. A hybrid approach that combines information shortening and parity puncturing is proposed. Local graph conditioning techniques for the suppression of error floors are also included in the construction methodology.

  7. Quasi Cyclic Low Density Parity Check Code for High SNR Data Transfer

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    M. R. Islam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An improved Quasi Cyclic Low Density Parity Check code (QC-LDPC is proposed to reduce the complexity of the Low Density Parity Check code (LDPC while obtaining the similar performance. The proposed QC-LDPC presents an improved construction at high SNR with circulant sub-matrices. The proposed construction yields a performance gain of about 1 dB at a 0.0003 bit error rate (BER and it is tested on 4 different decoding algorithms. Proposed QC-LDPC is compared with the existing QC-LDPC and the simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing one at high SNR. Simulations are also performed varying the number of horizontal sub matrices and the results show that the parity check matrix with smaller horizontal concatenation shows better performance.

  8. Spatially coupled low-density parity-check error correction for holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Norihiko; Katano, Yutaro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Kinoshita, Nobuhiro

    2017-09-01

    The spatially coupled low-density parity-check (SC-LDPC) was considered for holographic data storage. The superiority of SC-LDPC was studied by simulation. The simulations show that the performance of SC-LDPC depends on the lifting number, and when the lifting number is over 100, SC-LDPC shows better error correctability compared with irregular LDPC. SC-LDPC is applied to the 5:9 modulation code, which is one of the differential codes. The error-free point is near 2.8 dB and over 10-1 can be corrected in simulation. From these simulation results, this error correction code can be applied to actual holographic data storage test equipment. Results showed that 8 × 10-2 can be corrected, furthermore it works effectively and shows good error correctability.

  9. Optimized Min-Sum Decoding Algorithm for Low Density Parity Check Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rakibul Islam; Dewan Siam Shafiullah; Muhammad Mostafa Amir Faisal; Imran Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) code approaches Shannon–limit performance for binary field and long code lengths. However, performance of binary LDPC code is degraded when the code word length is small. An optimized min-sum algorithm for LDPC code is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm unlike other decoding methods, an optimization factor has been introduced in both check node and bit node of the Min-sum algorithm. The optimization factor is obtained before decoding program, and the sam...

  10. Quantum quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check error-correcting codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Li; Gui-Hua, Zeng; Lee, Moon Ho

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the approach of employing circulant permutation matrices to construct quantum quasicyclic (QC) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Using the proposed approach one may construct some new quantum codes with various lengths and rates of no cycles-length 4 in their Tanner graphs. In addition, these constructed codes have the advantages of simple implementation and low-complexity encoding. Finally, the decoding approach for the proposed quantum QC LDPC is investigated. (general)

  11. Crosstalk eliminating and low-density parity-check codes for photochromic dual-wavelength storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meicong; Xiong, Jianping; Jian, Jiqi; Jia, Huibo

    2005-01-01

    Multi-wavelength storage is an approach to increase the memory density with the problem of crosstalk to be deal with. We apply Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes as error-correcting codes in photochromic dual-wavelength optical storage based on the investigation of LDPC codes in optical data storage. A proper method is applied to reduce the crosstalk and simulation results show that this operation is useful to improve Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. At the same time we can conclude that LDPC codes outperform RS codes in crosstalk channel.

  12. Structured Low-Density Parity-Check Codes with Bandwidth Efficient Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Michael K.; Divsalar, Dariush; Duy, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study the performance of structured Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) Codes together with bandwidth efficient modulations. We consider protograph-based LDPC codes that facilitate high-speed hardware implementations and have minimum distances that grow linearly with block sizes. We cover various higher- order modulations such as 8-PSK, 16-APSK, and 16-QAM. During demodulation, a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples into reliability information that feeds the binary LDPC decoder. We will compare various low-complexity demappers and provide simulation results for assorted coded-modulation combinations on the additive white Gaussian noise and independent Rayleigh fading channels.

  13. Statistical mechanics of low-density parity-check codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabashima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 2268502 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-13

    We review recent theoretical progress on the statistical mechanics of error correcting codes, focusing on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in general, and on Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes in particular. By exploiting the relation between LDPC codes and Ising spin systems with multi-spin interactions, one can carry out a statistical mechanics based analysis that determines the practical and theoretical limitations of various code constructions, corresponding to dynamical and thermodynamical transitions, respectively, as well as the behaviour of error-exponents averaged over the corresponding code ensemble as a function of channel noise. We also contrast the results obtained using methods of statistical mechanics with those derived in the information theory literature, and show how these methods can be generalized to include other channel types and related communication problems. (topical review)

  14. Statistical mechanics of low-density parity-check codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Saad, David

    2004-01-01

    We review recent theoretical progress on the statistical mechanics of error correcting codes, focusing on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in general, and on Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes in particular. By exploiting the relation between LDPC codes and Ising spin systems with multi-spin interactions, one can carry out a statistical mechanics based analysis that determines the practical and theoretical limitations of various code constructions, corresponding to dynamical and thermodynamical transitions, respectively, as well as the behaviour of error-exponents averaged over the corresponding code ensemble as a function of channel noise. We also contrast the results obtained using methods of statistical mechanics with those derived in the information theory literature, and show how these methods can be generalized to include other channel types and related communication problems. (topical review)

  15. Performance of Low-Density Parity-Check Coded Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the simulated performance of each of the nine accumulate-repeat-4-jagged-accumulate (AR4JA) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes [3] when used in conjunction with binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK), quadrature PSK (QPSK), 8-PSK, 16-ary amplitude PSK (16- APSK), and 32-APSK.We also report the performance under various mappings of bits to modulation symbols, 16-APSK and 32-APSK ring scalings, log-likelihood ratio (LLR) approximations, and decoder variations. One of the simple and well-performing LLR approximations can be expressed in a general equation that applies to all of the modulation types.

  16. An FPGA Implementation of (3,6-Regular Low-Density Parity-Check Code Decoder

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    Tong Zhang

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of their excellent error-correcting performance, low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have recently attracted a lot of attention. In this paper, we are interested in the practical LDPC code decoder hardware implementations. The direct fully parallel decoder implementation usually incurs too high hardware complexity for many real applications, thus partly parallel decoder design approaches that can achieve appropriate trade-offs between hardware complexity and decoding throughput are highly desirable. Applying a joint code and decoder design methodology, we develop a high-speed (3,k-regular LDPC code partly parallel decoder architecture based on which we implement a 9216-bit, rate-1/2(3,6-regular LDPC code decoder on Xilinx FPGA device. This partly parallel decoder supports a maximum symbol throughput of 54 Mbps and achieves BER 10−6 at 2 dB over AWGN channel while performing maximum 18 decoding iterations.

  17. Entanglement-assisted quantum quasicyclic low-density parity-check codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Brun, Todd A.; Devetak, Igor

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the construction of quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes from classical quasicyclic (QC) LDPC codes with girth greater than or equal to 6. We have shown that the classical codes in the generalized Calderbank-Skor-Steane construction do not need to satisfy the dual-containing property as long as preshared entanglement is available to both sender and receiver. We can use this to avoid the many four cycles which typically arise in dual-containing LDPC codes. The advantage of such quantum codes comes from the use of efficient decoding algorithms such as sum-product algorithm (SPA). It is well known that in the SPA, cycles of length 4 make successive decoding iterations highly correlated and hence limit the decoding performance. We show the principle of constructing quantum QC-LDPC codes which require only small amounts of initial shared entanglement.

  18. Photonic entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check encoders and decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2010-05-01

    I propose encoder and decoder architectures for entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes suitable for all-optical implementation. I show that two basic gates needed for EA quantum error correction, namely, controlled-NOT (CNOT) and Hadamard gates can be implemented based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition, I show that EA quantum LDPC codes from balanced incomplete block designs of unitary index require only one entanglement qubit to be shared between source and destination.

  19. Optimized Irregular Low-Density Parity-Check Codes for Multicarrier Modulations over Frequency-Selective Channels

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    Valérian Mannoni

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimized channel coding for OFDM transmissions (COFDM over frequency-selective channels using irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. Firstly, we introduce a new characterization of the LDPC code irregularity called “irregularity profile.” Then, using this parameterization, we derive a new criterion based on the minimization of the transmission bit error probability to design an irregular LDPC code suited to the frequency selectivity of the channel. The optimization of this criterion is done using the Gaussian approximation technique. Simulations illustrate the good performance of our approach for different transmission channels.

  20. Parity-Check Network Coding for Multiple Access Relay Channel in Wireless Sensor Cooperative Communications

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    Du Bing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed theory suggests that network coding is a generalization of source coding and channel coding and thus yields a significant performance improvement in terms of throughput and spatial diversity. This paper proposes a cooperative design of a parity-check network coding scheme in the context of a two-source multiple access relay channel (MARC model, a common compact model in hierarchical wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The scheme uses Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC as the surrogate to build up a layered structure which encapsulates the multiple constituent LDPC codes in the source and relay nodes. Specifically, the relay node decodes the messages from two sources, which are used to generate extra parity-check bits by a random network coding procedure to fill up the rate gap between Source-Relay and Source-Destination transmissions. Then, we derived the key algebraic relationships among multidimensional LDPC constituent codes as one of the constraints for code profile optimization. These extra check bits are sent to the destination to realize a cooperative diversity as well as to approach MARC decode-and-forward (DF capacity.

  1. Entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Clark, David; Tonchev, Vladimir D.; Vandendriessche, Peter; De Boeck, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a general method for constructing entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, which is based on combinatorial design theory. Explicit constructions are given for entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes with many desirable properties. These properties include the requirement of only one initial entanglement bit, high error-correction performance, high rates, and low decoding complexity. The proposed method produces several infinite families of codes with a wide variety of parameters and entanglement requirements. Our framework encompasses the previously known entanglement-assisted quantum LDPC codes having the best error-correction performance and many other codes with better block error rates in simulations over the depolarizing channel. We also determine important parameters of several well-known classes of quantum and classical LDPC codes for previously unsettled cases.

  2. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Saad, David

    2003-01-01

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models

  3. Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-31

    Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models.

  4. Double-Layer Low-Density Parity-Check Codes over Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a double-layer code based on the combination of a low-density parity-check (LDPC code with the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO system, where the decoding can be done in both inner-iteration and outer-iteration manners. The present code, called low-density MIMO code (LDMC, has a double-layer structure, that is, one layer defines subcodes that are embedded in each transmission vector and another glues these subcodes together. It supports inner iterations inside the LDPC decoder and outeriterations between detectors and decoders, simultaneously. It can also achieve the desired design rates due to the full rank of the deployed parity-check matrix. Simulations show that the LDMC performs favorably over the MIMO systems.

  5. Joint nonbinary low-density parity-check codes and modulation diversity over fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiping; Li, Tiffany Jing; Zhang, Zhongpei

    2010-09-01

    A joint exploitation of coding and diversity techniques to achieve efficient, reliable wireless transmission is considered. The system comprises a powerful non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) code that will be soft-decoded to supply strong error protection, a quadratic amplitude modulator (QAM) that directly takes in the non-binary LDPC symbols and a modulation diversity operator that will provide power- and bandwidth-efficient diversity gain. By relaxing the rate of the modulation diversity rotation matrices to below 1, we show that a better rate allocation can be arranged between the LDPC codes and the modulation diversity, which brings significant performance gain over previous systems. To facilitate the design and evaluation of the relaxed modulation diversity rotation matrices, based on a set of criteria, three practical design methods are given and their point pairwise error rate are analyzed. With EXIT chart, we investigate the convergence between demodulator and decoder.A rate match method is presented based on EXIT analysis. Through analysis and simulations, we show that our strategies are very effective in combating random fading and strong noise on fading channels.

  6. Soft-Decision-Data Reshuffle to Mitigate Pulsed Radio Frequency Interference Impact on Low-Density-Parity-Check Code Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun David

    2011-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on mitigation techniques of pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI) on a Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) code. This problem is of considerable interest in the context of providing reliable communications to the space vehicle which might suffer severe degradation due to pulsed RFI sources such as large radars. The LDPC code is one of modern forward-error-correction (FEC) codes which have the decoding performance to approach the Shannon Limit. The LDPC code studied here is the AR4JA (2048, 1024) code recommended by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and it has been chosen for some spacecraft design. Even though this code is designed as a powerful FEC code in the additive white Gaussian noise channel, simulation data and test results show that the performance of this LDPC decoder is severely degraded when exposed to the pulsed RFI specified in the spacecraft s transponder specifications. An analysis work (through modeling and simulation) has been conducted to evaluate the impact of the pulsed RFI and a few implemental techniques have been investigated to mitigate the pulsed RFI impact by reshuffling the soft-decision-data available at the input of the LDPC decoder. The simulation results show that the LDPC decoding performance of codeword error rate (CWER) under pulsed RFI can be improved up to four orders of magnitude through a simple soft-decision-data reshuffle scheme. This study reveals that an error floor of LDPC decoding performance appears around CWER=1E-4 when the proposed technique is applied to mitigate the pulsed RFI impact. The mechanism causing this error floor remains unknown, further investigation is necessary.

  7. Spatially coupled LDPC coding in cooperative wireless networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayakody, D.N.K.; Skachek, V.; Chen, B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique of spatially coupled low-density parity-check (SC-LDPC) code-based soft forwarding relaying scheme for a two-way relay system. We introduce an array-based optimized SC-LDPC codes in relay channels. A more precise model is proposed to characterize the residual

  8. Quantum Kronecker sum-product low-density parity-check codes with finite rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2013-07-01

    We introduce an ansatz for quantum codes which gives the hypergraph-product (generalized toric) codes by Tillich and Zémor and generalized bicycle codes by MacKay as limiting cases. The construction allows for both the lower and the upper bounds on the minimum distance; they scale as a square root of the block length. Many thus defined codes have a finite rate and limited-weight stabilizer generators, an analog of classical low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Compared to the hypergraph-product codes, hyperbicycle codes generally have a wider range of parameters; in particular, they can have a higher rate while preserving the estimated error threshold.

  9. Photonic circuits for iterative decoding of a class of low-density parity-check codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Photonic circuits in which stateful components are coupled via guided electromagnetic fields are natural candidates for resource-efficient implementation of iterative stochastic algorithms based on propagation of information around a graph. Conversely, such message=passing algorithms suggest novel circuit architectures for signal processing and computation that are well matched to nanophotonic device physics. Here, we construct and analyze a quantum optical model of a photonic circuit for iterative decoding of a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes called expander codes. Our circuit can be understood as an open quantum system whose autonomous dynamics map straightforwardly onto the subroutines of an LDPC decoding scheme, with several attractive features: it can operate in the ultra-low power regime of photonics in which quantum fluctuations become significant, it is robust to noise and component imperfections, it achieves comparable performance to known iterative algorithms for this class of codes, and it provides an instructive example of how nanophotonic cavity quantum electrodynamic components can enable useful new information technology even if the solid-state qubits on which they are based are heavily dephased and cannot support large-scale entanglement. (paper)

  10. Implementation of Layered Decoding Architecture for LDPC Code using Layered Min-Sum Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kakde; Atish Khobragade; Shrikant Ambatkar; Pranay Nandanwar

    2017-01-01

    For binary field and long code lengths, Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) code approaches Shannon limit performance. LDPC codes provide remarkable error correction performance and therefore enlarge the design space for communication systems.In this paper, we have compare different digital modulation techniques and found that BPSK modulation technique is better than other modulation techniques in terms of BER. It also gives error performance of LDPC decoder over AWGN channel using Min-Sum algori...

  11. Kódování a efektivita LDPC kódů

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlík, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are linear error correcting codes which are capable of performing near channel capacity. Furthermore, they admit efficient decoding algorithms that provide near optimum performance. Their main disadvantage is that most LDPC codes have relatively complex encoders. In this thesis, we begin by giving a detailed discussion of the sum-product decoding algorithm, we then study the performance of LDPC codes on the binary erasure channel under sum-product decodin...

  12. Performance Analysis for Cooperative Communication System with QC-LDPC Codes Constructed with Integer Sequences

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    Yan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents four different integer sequences to construct quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC codes with mathematical theory. The paper introduces the procedure of the coding principle and coding. Four different integer sequences constructing QC-LDPC code are compared with LDPC codes by using PEG algorithm, array codes, and the Mackey codes, respectively. Then, the integer sequence QC-LDPC codes are used in coded cooperative communication. Simulation results show that the integer sequence constructed QC-LDPC codes are effective, and overall performance is better than that of other types of LDPC codes in the coded cooperative communication. The performance of Dayan integer sequence constructed QC-LDPC is the most excellent performance.

  13. On Analyzing LDPC Codes over Multiantenna MC-CDMA System

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    S. Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiantenna multicarrier code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA technique has been attracting much attention for designing future broadband wireless systems. In addition, low-density parity-check (LDPC code, a promising near-optimal error correction code, is also being widely considered in next generation communication systems. In this paper, we propose a simple method to construct a regular quasicyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC code to improve the transmission performance over the precoded MC-CDMA system with limited feedback. Simulation results show that the coding gain of the proposed QC-LDPC codes is larger than that of the Reed-Solomon codes, and the performance of the multiantenna MC-CDMA system can be greatly improved by these QC-LDPC codes when the data rate is high.

  14. Weight Distribution for Non-binary Cluster LDPC Code Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Takayuki; Maehara, Masaki; Kasai, Kenta; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    In this paper, we derive the average weight distributions for the irregular non-binary cluster low-density parity-check (LDPC) code ensembles. Moreover, we give the exponential growth rate of the average weight distribution in the limit of large code length. We show that there exist $(2,d_c)$-regular non-binary cluster LDPC code ensembles whose normalized typical minimum distances are strictly positive.

  15. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  16. Construction of Short-length High-rates Ldpc Codes Using Difference Families

    OpenAIRE

    Deny Hamdani; Ery Safrianti

    2007-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is linear-block error-correcting code defined by sparse parity-check matrix. It isdecoded using the massage-passing algorithm, and in many cases, capable of outperforming turbo code. This paperpresents a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes showing good performance with low encoding complexity.The code is constructed using difference families from combinatorial design. The resulting code, which is designed tohave short code length and high code r...

  17. Construction of LDPC codes over GF(q) with modified progressive edge growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; MEN Ai-dong; YANG Bo; QUAN Zi-yi

    2009-01-01

    A parity check matrix construction method for constructing a low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over GF(q) (q>2) based on the modified progressive edge growth (PEG) algorithm is introduced. First, the nonzero locations of the parity check matrix are selected using the PEG algorithm. Then the nonzero elements are defined by avoiding the definition of subcode. A proof is given to show the good minimum distance property of constructed GF(q)-LDPC codes. Simulations are also presented to illustrate the good error performance of the designed codes.

  18. Experimental research and comparison of LDPC and RS channel coding in ultraviolet communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menglong; Han, Dahai; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Min; Yue, Guangxin

    2014-03-10

    We have implemented a modified Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codec algorithm in ultraviolet (UV) communication system. Simulations are conducted with measured parameters to evaluate the LDPC-based UV system performance. Moreover, LDPC (960, 480) and RS (18, 10) are implemented and experimented via a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UV test bed. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulation and suggest that based on the given power and 10(-3)bit error rate (BER), in comparison with an uncoded system, average communication distance increases 32% with RS code, while 78% with LDPC code.

  19. On the performance of 1-level LDPC lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Sakzad, Amin

    2013-01-01

    The low-density parity-check (LDPC) lattices perform very well in high dimensions under generalized min-sum iterative decoding algorithm. In this work we focus on 1-level LDPC lattices. We show that these lattices are the same as lattices constructed based on Construction A and low-density lattice-code (LDLC) lattices. In spite of having slightly lower coding gain, 1-level regular LDPC lattices have remarkable performances. The lower complexity nature of the decoding algorithm for these type ...

  20. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Revathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax, and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  1. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathy, M; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  2. LDPC Codes--Structural Analysis and Decoding Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been the focus of much research over the past decade thanks to their near Shannon limit performance and to their efficient message-passing (MP) decoding algorithms. However, the error floor phenomenon observed in MP decoding, which manifests itself as an abrupt change in the slope of the error-rate curve,…

  3. Joint design of QC-LDPC codes for coded cooperation system with joint iterative decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunwai; Yang, Fengfan; Tang, Lei; Ejaz, Saqib; Luo, Lin; Maharaj, B. T.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate joint design of quasi-cyclic low-density-parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes for coded cooperation system with joint iterative decoding in the destination. First, QC-LDPC codes based on the base matrix and exponent matrix are introduced, and then we describe two types of girth-4 cycles in QC-LDPC codes employed by the source and relay. In the equivalent parity-check matrix corresponding to the jointly designed QC-LDPC codes employed by the source and relay, all girth-4 cycles including both type I and type II are cancelled. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the jointly designed QC-LDPC coded cooperation well combines cooperation gain and channel coding gain, and outperforms the coded non-cooperation under the same conditions. Furthermore, the bit error rate performance of the coded cooperation employing jointly designed QC-LDPC codes is better than those of random LDPC codes and separately designed QC-LDPC codes over AWGN channels.

  4. A novel construction scheme of QC-LDPC codes based on the RU algorithm for optical transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Liang, Meng-qi; Wang, Yong; Lin, Jin-zhao; Pang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    A novel lower-complexity construction scheme of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes for optical transmission systems is proposed based on the structure of the parity-check matrix for the Richardson-Urbanke (RU) algorithm. Furthermore, a novel irregular QC-LDPC(4 288, 4 020) code with high code-rate of 0.937 is constructed by this novel construction scheme. The simulation analyses show that the net coding gain ( NCG) of the novel irregular QC-LDPC(4 288,4 020) code is respectively 2.08 dB, 1.25 dB and 0.29 dB more than those of the classic RS(255, 239) code, the LDPC(32 640, 30 592) code and the irregular QC-LDPC(3 843, 3 603) code at the bit error rate ( BER) of 10-6. The irregular QC-LDPC(4 288, 4 020) code has the lower encoding/decoding complexity compared with the LDPC(32 640, 30 592) code and the irregular QC-LDPC(3 843, 3 603) code. The proposed novel QC-LDPC(4 288, 4 020) code can be more suitable for the increasing development requirements of high-speed optical transmission systems.

  5. Improved Iterative Hard- and Soft-Reliability Based Majority-Logic Decoding Algorithms for Non-Binary Low-Density Parity-Check Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chenrong; Yan, Zhiyuan

    2014-10-01

    Non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have some advantages over their binary counterparts, but unfortunately their decoding complexity is a significant challenge. The iterative hard- and soft-reliability based majority-logic decoding algorithms are attractive for non-binary LDPC codes, since they involve only finite field additions and multiplications as well as integer operations and hence have significantly lower complexity than other algorithms. In this paper, we propose two improvements to the majority-logic decoding algorithms. Instead of the accumulation of reliability information in the existing majority-logic decoding algorithms, our first improvement is a new reliability information update. The new update not only results in better error performance and fewer iterations on average, but also further reduces computational complexity. Since existing majority-logic decoding algorithms tend to have a high error floor for codes whose parity check matrices have low column weights, our second improvement is a re-selection scheme, which leads to much lower error floors, at the expense of more finite field operations and integer operations, by identifying periodic points, re-selecting intermediate hard decisions, and changing reliability information.

  6. Protograph LDPC Codes for the Erasure Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of protograph Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes for erasure channels. A protograph is a Tanner graph with a relatively small number of nodes. A "copy-and-permute" operation can be applied to the protograph to obtain larger derived graphs of various sizes. For very high code rates and short block sizes, a low asymptotic threshold criterion is not the best approach to designing LDPC codes. Simple protographs with much regularity and low maximum node degrees appear to be the best choices Quantized-rateless protograph LDPC codes can be built by careful design of the protograph such that multiple puncturing patterns will still permit message passing decoding to proceed

  7. Construction of Short-Length High-Rates LDPC Codes Using Difference Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Hamdani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-density parity-check (LDPC code is linear-block error-correcting code defined by sparse parity-check matrix. It is decoded using the massage-passing algorithm, and in many cases, capable of outperforming turbo code. This paper presents a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes showing good performance with low encoding complexity. The code is constructed using difference families from  combinatorial design. The resulting code, which is designed to have short code length and high code rate, can be encoded with low complexity due to its quasi-cyclic structure, and performs well when it is iteratively decoded with the sum-product algorithm. These properties of LDPC code are quite suitable for applications in future wireless local area network.

  8. Resource Efficient LDPC Decoders for Multimedia Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasetty, Vikram Arkalgud; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul

    2013-01-01

    Achieving high image quality is an important aspect in an increasing number of wireless multimedia applications. These applications require resource efficient error correction hardware to detect and correct errors introduced by the communication channel. This paper presents an innovative flexible architecture for error correction using Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes. The proposed partially-parallel decoder architecture utilizes a novel code construction technique based on multi-level H...

  9. LDPC code decoding adapted to the precoded partial response magnetic recording channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Kyuyong; Lee, Jaejin; Yang, Gijoo

    2004-01-01

    We propose a signal processing technique using LDPC (low-density parity-check) code instead of PRML (partial response maximum likelihood) system for the longitudinal magnetic recording channel. The scheme is designed by the precoder admitting level detection at the receiver-end and modifying the likelihood function for LDPC code decoding. The scheme can be collaborated with other decoder for turbo-like systems. The proposed algorithm can contribute to improve the performance of the conventional turbo-like systems

  10. LDPC code decoding adapted to the precoded partial response magnetic recording channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun E-mail: leejun28@sait.samsung.co.kr; Kim, Kyuyong; Lee, Jaejin; Yang, Gijoo

    2004-05-01

    We propose a signal processing technique using LDPC (low-density parity-check) code instead of PRML (partial response maximum likelihood) system for the longitudinal magnetic recording channel. The scheme is designed by the precoder admitting level detection at the receiver-end and modifying the likelihood function for LDPC code decoding. The scheme can be collaborated with other decoder for turbo-like systems. The proposed algorithm can contribute to improve the performance of the conventional turbo-like systems.

  11. LDPC coded OFDM over the atmospheric turbulence channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Vasic, Bane; Neifeld, Mark A

    2007-05-14

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) coded optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is shown to significantly outperform LDPC coded on-off keying (OOK) over the atmospheric turbulence channel in terms of both coding gain and spectral efficiency. In the regime of strong turbulence at a bit-error rate of 10(-5), the coding gain improvement of the LDPC coded single-side band unclipped-OFDM system with 64 sub-carriers is larger than the coding gain of the LDPC coded OOK system by 20.2 dB for quadrature-phase-shift keying (QPSK) and by 23.4 dB for binary-phase-shift keying (BPSK).

  12. Multilevel LDPC Codes Design for Multimedia Communication CDMA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We design multilevel coding (MLC with a semi-bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM scheme based on low density parity check (LDPC codes. Different from the traditional designs, we joined the MLC and BICM together by using the Gray mapping, which is suitable to transmit the data over several equivalent channels with different code rates. To perform well at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR to be very close to the capacity of the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel, random regular LDPC code and a simple semialgebra LDPC (SA-LDPC code are discussed in MLC with parallel independent decoding (PID. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed scheme could achieve both power and bandwidth efficiency.

  13. Performance Analysis of Iterative Decoding Algorithms for PEG LDPC Codes in Nakagami Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Al Rasheed

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give a comparative analysis of decoding algorithms of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes in a channel with the Nakagami distribution of the fading envelope. We consider the Progressive Edge-Growth (PEG method and Improved PEG method for the parity check matrix construction, which can be used to avoid short girths, small trapping sets and a high level of error floor. A comparative analysis of several classes of LDPC codes in various propagation conditions and decoded using different decoding algorithms is also presented.

  14. Mutiple LDPC Decoding using Bitplane Correlation for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is an emerging video coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. This paper considers a Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) based Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video...... codec. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of TDWZ, this paper proposes a Wyner-Ziv video codec using bitplane correlation through multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme utilizes inter bitplane correlation to enhance the bitplane decoding performance. Experimental results...

  15. Performance Analysis of Faulty Gallager-B Decoding of QC-LDPC Codes with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Al Rasheed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the performance of Gallager-B algorithm, used for decoding low-density parity-check (LDPC codes, under unreliable message computation. Our analysis is restricted to LDPC codes constructed from circular matrices (QC-LDPC codes. Using Monte Carlo simulation we investigate the effects of different code parameters on coding system performance, under a binary symmetric communication channel and independent transient faults model. One possible application of the presented analysis in designing memory architecture with unreliable components is considered.

  16. New Technique for Improving Performance of LDPC Codes in the Presence of Trapping Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adnan Landolsi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trapping sets are considered the primary factor for degrading the performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes in the error-floor region. The effect of trapping sets on the performance of an LDPC code becomes worse as the code size decreases. One approach to tackle this problem is to minimize trapping sets during LDPC code design. However, while trapping sets can be reduced, their complete elimination is infeasible due to the presence of cycles in the underlying LDPC code bipartite graph. In this work, we introduce a new technique based on trapping sets neutralization to minimize the negative effect of trapping sets under belief propagation (BP decoding. Simulation results for random, progressive edge growth (PEG and MacKay LDPC codes demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The hardware cost of the proposed technique is also shown to be minimal.

  17. QC-LDPC code-based cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the fundamentals of cryptographic primitives based on quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes, with a special focus on the use of these codes in public-key cryptosystems derived from the McEliece and Niederreiter schemes. In the first part of the book, the main characteristics of QC-LDPC codes are reviewed, and several techniques for their design are presented, while tools for assessing the error correction performance of these codes are also described. Some families of QC-LDPC codes that are best suited for use in cryptography are also presented. The second part of the book focuses on the McEliece and Niederreiter cryptosystems, both in their original forms and in some subsequent variants. The applicability of QC-LDPC codes in these frameworks is investigated by means of theoretical analyses and numerical tools, in order to assess their benefits and drawbacks in terms of system efficiency and security. Several examples of QC-LDPC code-based public key cryptosystems are prese...

  18. FPGA implementation of low complexity LDPC iterative decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shivani; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-07-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, proposed by Gallager, emerged as a class of codes which can yield very good performance on the additive white Gaussian noise channel as well as on the binary symmetric channel. LDPC codes have gained lots of importance due to their capacity achieving property and excellent performance in the noisy channel. Belief propagation (BP) algorithm and its approximations, most notably min-sum, are popular iterative decoding algorithms used for LDPC and turbo codes. The trade-off between the hardware complexity and the decoding throughput is a critical factor in the implementation of the practical decoder. This article presents introduction to LDPC codes and its various decoding algorithms followed by realisation of LDPC decoder by using simplified message passing algorithm and partially parallel decoder architecture. Simplified message passing algorithm has been proposed for trade-off between low decoding complexity and decoder performance. It greatly reduces the routing and check node complexity of the decoder. Partially parallel decoder architecture possesses high speed and reduced complexity. The improved design of the decoder possesses a maximum symbol throughput of 92.95 Mbps and a maximum of 18 decoding iterations. The article presents implementation of 9216 bits, rate-1/2, (3, 6) LDPC decoder on Xilinx XC3D3400A device from Spartan-3A DSP family.

  19. LDPC and SHA based iris recognition for image authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seetharaman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel way to authenticate an image using Low Density Parity Check (LDPC and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA based iris recognition method with reversible watermarking scheme, which is based on Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT and threshold embedding technique. The parity checks and parity matrix of LDPC encoding and cancellable biometrics i.e., hash string of unique iris code from SHA-512 are embedded into an image for authentication purpose using reversible watermarking scheme based on IWT and threshold embedding technique. Simply by reversing the embedding process, the original image, parity checks, parity matrix and SHA-512 hash are extracted back from watermarked-image. For authentication, the new hash string produced by employing SHA-512 on error corrected iris code from live person is compared with hash string extracted from watermarked-image. The LDPC code reduces the hamming distance for genuine comparisons by a larger amount than for the impostor comparisons. This results in better separation between genuine and impostor users which improves the authentication performance. Security of this scheme is very high due to the security complexity of SHA-512, which is 2256 under birthday attack. Experimental results show that this approach can assure more accurate authentication with a low false rejection or false acceptance rate and outperforms the prior arts in terms of PSNR.

  20. Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...

  1. The application of LDPC code in MIMO-OFDM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruian; Zeng, Beibei; Chen, Tingting; Liu, Nan; Yin, Ninghao

    2018-03-01

    The combination of MIMO and OFDM technology has become one of the key technologies of the fourth generation mobile communication., which can overcome the frequency selective fading of wireless channel, increase the system capacity and improve the frequency utilization. Error correcting coding introduced into the system can further improve its performance. LDPC (low density parity check) code is a kind of error correcting code which can improve system reliability and anti-interference ability, and the decoding is simple and easy to operate. This paper mainly discusses the application of LDPC code in MIMO-OFDM system.

  2. Performance analysis of LDPC codes on OOK terahertz wireless channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chun; Wang Chang; Cao Jun-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric absorption, scattering, and scintillation are the major causes to deteriorate the transmission quality of terahertz (THz) wireless communications. An error control coding scheme based on low density parity check (LDPC) codes with soft decision decoding algorithm is proposed to improve the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of an on-off keying (OOK) modulated THz signal through atmospheric channel. The THz wave propagation characteristics and channel model in atmosphere is set up. Numerical simulations validate the great performance of LDPC codes against the atmospheric fading and demonstrate the huge potential in future ultra-high speed beyond Gbps THz communications. (paper)

  3. Enhancement of Unequal Error Protection Properties of LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulliat Charly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely recognized in the literature that irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC codes exhibit naturally an unequal error protection (UEP behavior. In this paper, we propose a general method to emphasize and control the UEP properties of LDPC codes. The method is based on a hierarchical optimization of the bit node irregularity profile for each sensitivity class within the codeword by maximizing the average bit node degree while guaranteeing a minimum degree as high as possible. We show that this optimization strategy is efficient, since the codes that we optimize show better UEP capabilities than the codes optimized for the additive white Gaussian noise channel.

  4. Rate-Compatible Protograph LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods resulting in rate-compatible low density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. Described digital coding methods start with a desired code rate and a selection of the numbers of variable nodes and check nodes to be used in the protograph. Constraints are set to satisfy a linear minimum distance growth property for the protograph. All possible edges in the graph are searched for the minimum iterative decoding threshold and the protograph with the lowest iterative decoding threshold is selected. Protographs designed in this manner are used in decode and forward relay channels.

  5. High-throughput GPU-based LDPC decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yang-Lang; Chang, Cheng-Chun; Huang, Min-Yu; Huang, Bormin

    2010-08-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is a linear block code known to approach the Shannon limit via the iterative sum-product algorithm. LDPC codes have been adopted in most current communication systems such as DVB-S2, WiMAX, WI-FI and 10GBASE-T. LDPC for the needs of reliable and flexible communication links for a wide variety of communication standards and configurations have inspired the demand for high-performance and flexibility computing. Accordingly, finding a fast and reconfigurable developing platform for designing the high-throughput LDPC decoder has become important especially for rapidly changing communication standards and configurations. In this paper, a new graphic-processing-unit (GPU) LDPC decoding platform with the asynchronous data transfer is proposed to realize this practical implementation. Experimental results showed that the proposed GPU-based decoder achieved 271x speedup compared to its CPU-based counterpart. It can serve as a high-throughput LDPC decoder.

  6. Bilayer expurgated LDPC codes with uncoded relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Noor-A-Rahim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilayer low-density parity-check (LDPC codes are an effective coding technique for decode-and-forward relaying, where the relay forwards extra parity bits to help the destination to decode the source bits correctly. In the existing bilayer coding scheme, these parity bits are protected by an error correcting code and assumed reliably available at the receiver. We propose an uncoded relaying scheme, where the extra parity bits are forwarded to the destination without any protection. Through density evolution analysis and simulation results, we show that our proposed scheme achieves better performance in terms of bit erasure probability than the existing relaying scheme. In addition, our proposed scheme results in lower complexity at the relay.

  7. Fast QC-LDPC code for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Qi; Udeh, Chinonso Paschal; Wu, Rangzhong

    2017-02-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication systems use the atmosphere as a propagation medium. Hence the atmospheric turbulence effects lead to multiplicative noise related with signal intensity. In order to suppress the signal fading induced by multiplicative noise, we propose a fast Quasi-Cyclic (QC) Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) code for FSO Communication systems. As a linear block code based on sparse matrix, the performances of QC-LDPC is extremely near to the Shannon limit. Currently, the studies on LDPC code in FSO Communications is mainly focused on Gauss-channel and Rayleigh-channel, respectively. In this study, the LDPC code design over atmospheric turbulence channel which is nether Gauss-channel nor Rayleigh-channel is closer to the practical situation. Based on the characteristics of atmospheric channel, which is modeled as logarithmic-normal distribution and K-distribution, we designed a special QC-LDPC code, and deduced the log-likelihood ratio (LLR). An irregular QC-LDPC code for fast coding, of which the rates are variable, is proposed in this paper. The proposed code achieves excellent performance of LDPC codes and can present the characteristics of high efficiency in low rate, stable in high rate and less number of iteration. The result of belief propagation (BP) decoding shows that the bit error rate (BER) obviously reduced as the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) increased. Therefore, the LDPC channel coding technology can effectively improve the performance of FSO. At the same time, the BER, after decoding reduces with the increase of SNR arbitrarily, and not having error limitation platform phenomenon with error rate slowing down.

  8. Analysis of Minimal LDPC Decoder System on a Chip Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Palenik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical method of potential replacement of several different Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check (QC-LDPC codes with one, with the intention of saving as much memory as required to implement the LDPC encoder and decoder in a memory-constrained System on a Chip (SoC. The presented method requires only a very small modification of the existing encoder and decoder, making it suitable for utilization in a Software Defined Radio (SDR platform. Besides the analysis of the effects of necessary variable-node value fixation during the Belief Propagation (BP decoding algorithm, practical standard-defined code parameters are scrutinized in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed LDPC setup simplification. Finally, the error performance of the modified system structure is evaluated and compared with the original system structure by means of simulation.

  9. Transmission over UWB channels with OFDM system using LDPC coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziwoki, Grzegorz; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Sulek, Wojciech

    2009-06-01

    Hostile wireless environment requires use of sophisticated signal processing methods. The paper concerns on Ultra Wideband (UWB) transmission over Personal Area Networks (PAN) including MB-OFDM specification of physical layer. In presented work the transmission system with OFDM modulation was connected with LDPC encoder/decoder. Additionally the frame and bit error rate (FER and BER) of the system was decreased using results from the LDPC decoder in a kind of turbo equalization algorithm for better channel estimation. Computational block using evolutionary strategy, from genetic algorithms family, was also used in presented system. It was placed after SPA (Sum-Product Algorithm) decoder and is conditionally turned on in the decoding process. The result is increased effectiveness of the whole system, especially lower FER. The system was tested with two types of LDPC codes, depending on type of parity check matrices: randomly generated and constructed deterministically, optimized for practical decoder architecture implemented in the FPGA device.

  10. Codeword Structure Analysis for LDPC Convolutional Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The codewords of a low-density parity-check (LDPC convolutional code (LDPC-CC are characterised into structured and non-structured. The number of the structured codewords is dominated by the size of the polynomial syndrome former matrix H T ( D , while the number of the non-structured ones depends on the particular monomials or polynomials in H T ( D . By evaluating the relationship of the codewords between the mother code and its super codes, the low weight non-structured codewords in the super codes can be eliminated by appropriately choosing the monomials or polynomials in H T ( D , resulting in improved distance spectrum of the mother code.

  11. FPGA implementation of high-performance QC-LDPC decoder for optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ding; Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    2015-01-01

    Forward error correction is as one of the key technologies enabling the next-generation high-speed fiber optical communications. Quasi-cyclic (QC) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been considered as one of the promising candidates due to their large coding gain performance and low implementation complexity. In this paper, we present our designed QC-LDPC code with girth 10 and 25% overhead based on pairwise balanced design. By FPGAbased emulation, we demonstrate that the 5-bit soft-decision LDPC decoder can achieve 11.8dB net coding gain with no error floor at BER of 10-15 avoiding using any outer code or post-processing method. We believe that the proposed single QC-LDPC code is a promising solution for 400Gb/s optical communication systems and beyond.

  12. Optical LDPC decoders for beyond 100 Gbits/s optical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2009-05-01

    We present an optical low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoder suitable for implementation above 100 Gbits/s, which provides large coding gains when based on large-girth LDPC codes. We show that a basic building block, the probabilities multiplier circuit, can be implemented using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and we propose corresponding probabilistic-domain sum-product algorithm (SPA). We perform simulations of a fully parallel implementation employing girth-10 LDPC codes and proposed SPA. The girth-10 LDPC(24015,19212) code of the rate of 0.8 outperforms the BCH(128,113)xBCH(256,239) turbo-product code of the rate of 0.82 by 0.91 dB (for binary phase-shift keying at 100 Gbits/s and a bit error rate of 10(-9)), and provides a net effective coding gain of 10.09 dB.

  13. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John

    2009-01-01

    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  14. Structured LDPC Codes over Integer Residue Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Armand

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new class of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes over ℤ2a represented by regular, structured Tanner graphs. These graphs are constructed using Latin squares defined over a multiplicative group of a Galois ring, rather than a finite field. Our approach yields codes for a wide range of code rates and more importantly, codes whose minimum pseudocodeword weights equal their minimum Hamming distances. Simulation studies show that these structured codes, when transmitted using matched signal sets over an additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel, can outperform their random counterparts of similar length and rate.

  15. Structured LDPC Codes over Integer Residue Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a new class of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes over represented by regular, structured Tanner graphs. These graphs are constructed using Latin squares defined over a multiplicative group of a Galois ring, rather than a finite field. Our approach yields codes for a wide range of code rates and more importantly, codes whose minimum pseudocodeword weights equal their minimum Hamming distances. Simulation studies show that these structured codes, when transmitted using matched signal sets over an additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel, can outperform their random counterparts of similar length and rate.

  16. Construction of type-II QC-LDPC codes with fast encoding based on perfect cyclic difference sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-xiang; Li, Hai-bing; Li, Ji-bi; Jiang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In view of the problems that the encoding complexity of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes is high and the minimum distance is not large enough which leads to the degradation of the error-correction performance, the new irregular type-II QC-LDPC codes based on perfect cyclic difference sets (CDSs) are constructed. The parity check matrices of these type-II QC-LDPC codes consist of the zero matrices with weight of 0, the circulant permutation matrices (CPMs) with weight of 1 and the circulant matrices with weight of 2 (W2CMs). The introduction of W2CMs in parity check matrices makes it possible to achieve the larger minimum distance which can improve the error- correction performance of the codes. The Tanner graphs of these codes have no girth-4, thus they have the excellent decoding convergence characteristics. In addition, because the parity check matrices have the quasi-dual diagonal structure, the fast encoding algorithm can reduce the encoding complexity effectively. Simulation results show that the new type-II QC-LDPC codes can achieve a more excellent error-correction performance and have no error floor phenomenon over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with sum-product algorithm (SPA) iterative decoding.

  17. Weighted-Bit-Flipping-Based Sequential Scheduling Decoding Algorithms for LDPC Codes

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    Qing Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-density parity-check (LDPC codes can be applied in a lot of different scenarios such as video broadcasting and satellite communications. LDPC codes are commonly decoded by an iterative algorithm called belief propagation (BP over the corresponding Tanner graph. The original BP updates all the variable-nodes simultaneously, followed by all the check-nodes simultaneously as well. We propose a sequential scheduling algorithm based on weighted bit-flipping (WBF algorithm for the sake of improving the convergence speed. Notoriously, WBF is a low-complexity and simple algorithm. We combine it with BP to obtain advantages of these two algorithms. Flipping function used in WBF is borrowed to determine the priority of scheduling. Simulation results show that it can provide a good tradeoff between FER performance and computation complexity for short-length LDPC codes.

  18. Unitals and ovals of symmetric block designs in LDPC and space-time coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamanalimanana, Bruno R.

    2004-08-01

    An approach to the design of LDPC (low density parity check) error-correction and space-time modulation codes involves starting with known mathematical and combinatorial structures, and deriving code properties from structure properties. This paper reports on an investigation of unital and oval configurations within generic symmetric combinatorial designs, not just classical projective planes, as the underlying structure for classes of space-time LDPC outer codes. Of particular interest are the encoding and iterative (sum-product) decoding gains that these codes may provide. Various small-length cases have been numerically implemented in Java and Matlab for a number of channel models.

  19. PMD compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using LDPC-coded OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2007-04-02

    The possibility of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using a simple channel estimation technique and low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is demonstrated. It is shown that even for differential group delay (DGD) of 4/BW (BW is the OFDM signal bandwidth), the degradation due to the first-order PMD can be completely compensated for. Two classes of LDPC codes designed based on two different combinatorial objects (difference systems and product of combinatorial designs) suitable for use in PMD compensation are introduced.

  20. Simultaneous chromatic dispersion and PMD compensation by using coded-OFDM and girth-10 LDPC codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2008-07-07

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is studied as an efficient coded modulation scheme suitable for simultaneous chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation. We show that, for aggregate rate of 10 Gb/s, accumulated dispersion over 6500 km of SMF and differential group delay of 100 ps can be simultaneously compensated with penalty within 1.5 dB (with respect to the back-to-back configuration) when training sequence based channel estimation and girth-10 LDPC codes of rate 0.8 are employed.

  1. Product code optimization for determinate state LDPC decoding in robust image transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Strintzis, Michael G

    2006-08-01

    We propose a novel scheme for error-resilient image transmission. The proposed scheme employs a product coder consisting of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes and Reed-Solomon codes in order to deal effectively with bit errors. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is based on the exploitation of determinate symbols in Tanner graph decoding of LDPC codes and a novel product code optimization technique based on error estimation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the superiority of the proposed system in comparison to recent state-of-the-art techniques for image transmission.

  2. Error floor behavior study of LDPC codes for concatenated codes design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weigang; Yin, Liuguo; Lu, Jianhua

    2007-11-01

    Error floor behavior of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes using quantized decoding algorithms is statistically studied with experimental results on a hardware evaluation platform. The results present the distribution of the residual errors after decoding failure and reveal that the number of residual error bits in a codeword is usually very small using quantized sum-product (SP) algorithm. Therefore, LDPC code may serve as the inner code in a concatenated coding system with a high code rate outer code and thus an ultra low error floor can be achieved. This conclusion is also verified by the experimental results.

  3. Weight-4 Parity Checks on a Surface Code Sublattice with Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Maika; Corcoles, Antonio; Magesan, Easwar; Bronn, Nicholas; Hertzberg, Jared; Gambetta, Jay; Steffen, Matthias; Chow, Jerry

    We present a superconducting qubit quantum processor design amenable to the surface code architecture. In such architecture, parity checks on the data qubits, performed by measuring their X- and Z- syndrome qubits, constitute a critical aspect. Here we show fidelities and outcomes of X- and Z-parity measurements done on a syndrome qubit in a full plaquette consisting of one syndrome qubit coupled via bus resonators to four code qubits. Parities are measured after four code qubits are prepared into sixteen initial states in each basis. Results show strong dependence on ZZ between qubits on the same bus resonators. This work is supported by IARPA under Contract W911NF-10-1-0324.

  4. DNA Barcoding through Quaternary LDPC Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Elizabeth; Spetale, Flavio; Krsticevic, Flavia; Angelone, Laura; Bulacio, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    For many parallel applications of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies short barcodes able to accurately multiplex a large number of samples are demanded. To address these competitive requirements, the use of error-correcting codes is advised. Current barcoding systems are mostly built from short random error-correcting codes, a feature that strongly limits their multiplexing accuracy and experimental scalability. To overcome these problems on sequencing systems impaired by mismatch errors, the alternative use of binary BCH and pseudo-quaternary Hamming codes has been proposed. However, these codes either fail to provide a fine-scale with regard to size of barcodes (BCH) or have intrinsic poor error correcting abilities (Hamming). Here, the design of barcodes from shortened binary BCH codes and quaternary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes is introduced. Simulation results show that although accurate barcoding systems of high multiplexing capacity can be obtained with any of these codes, using quaternary LDPC codes may be particularly advantageous due to the lower rates of read losses and undetected sample misidentification errors. Even at mismatch error rates of 10(-2) per base, 24-nt LDPC barcodes can be used to multiplex roughly 2000 samples with a sample misidentification error rate in the order of 10(-9) at the expense of a rate of read losses just in the order of 10(-6).

  5. DNA Barcoding through Quaternary LDPC Codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Tapia

    Full Text Available For many parallel applications of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS technologies short barcodes able to accurately multiplex a large number of samples are demanded. To address these competitive requirements, the use of error-correcting codes is advised. Current barcoding systems are mostly built from short random error-correcting codes, a feature that strongly limits their multiplexing accuracy and experimental scalability. To overcome these problems on sequencing systems impaired by mismatch errors, the alternative use of binary BCH and pseudo-quaternary Hamming codes has been proposed. However, these codes either fail to provide a fine-scale with regard to size of barcodes (BCH or have intrinsic poor error correcting abilities (Hamming. Here, the design of barcodes from shortened binary BCH codes and quaternary Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes is introduced. Simulation results show that although accurate barcoding systems of high multiplexing capacity can be obtained with any of these codes, using quaternary LDPC codes may be particularly advantageous due to the lower rates of read losses and undetected sample misidentification errors. Even at mismatch error rates of 10(-2 per base, 24-nt LDPC barcodes can be used to multiplex roughly 2000 samples with a sample misidentification error rate in the order of 10(-9 at the expense of a rate of read losses just in the order of 10(-6.

  6. Using LDPC Code Constraints to Aid Recovery of Symbol Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Villasnor, John; Lee, Dong-U; Vales, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    A method of utilizing information available in the constraints imposed by a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code has been proposed as a means of aiding the recovery of symbol timing in the reception of a binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signal representing such a code in the presence of noise, timing error, and/or Doppler shift between the transmitter and the receiver. This method and the receiver architecture in which it would be implemented belong to a class of timing-recovery methods and corresponding receiver architectures characterized as pilotless in that they do not require transmission and reception of pilot signals. Acquisition and tracking of a signal of the type described above have traditionally been performed upstream of, and independently of, decoding and have typically involved utilization of a phase-locked loop (PLL). However, the LDPC decoding process, which is iterative, provides information that can be fed back to the timing-recovery receiver circuits to improve performance significantly over that attainable in the absence of such feedback. Prior methods of coupling LDPC decoding with timing recovery had focused on the use of output code words produced as the iterations progress. In contrast, in the present method, one exploits the information available from the metrics computed for the constraint nodes of an LDPC code during the decoding process. In addition, the method involves the use of a waveform model that captures, better than do the waveform models of the prior methods, distortions introduced by receiver timing errors and transmitter/ receiver motions. An LDPC code is commonly represented by use of a bipartite graph containing two sets of nodes. In the graph corresponding to an (n,k) code, the n variable nodes correspond to the code word symbols and the n-k constraint nodes represent the constraints that the code places on the variable nodes in order for them to form a valid code word. The decoding procedure involves iterative computation

  7. A novel construction method of QC-LDPC codes based on CRT for optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Liang, Meng-qi; Wang, Yong; Lin, Jin-zhao; Pang, Yu

    2016-05-01

    A novel construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes is proposed based on Chinese remainder theory (CRT). The method can not only increase the code length without reducing the girth, but also greatly enhance the code rate, so it is easy to construct a high-rate code. The simulation results show that at the bit error rate ( BER) of 10-7, the net coding gain ( NCG) of the regular QC-LDPC(4 851, 4 546) code is respectively 2.06 dB, 1.36 dB, 0.53 dB and 0.31 dB more than those of the classic RS(255, 239) code in ITU-T G.975, the LDPC(32 640, 30 592) code in ITU-T G.975.1, the QC-LDPC(3 664, 3 436) code constructed by the improved combining construction method based on CRT and the irregular QC-LDPC(3 843, 3 603) code constructed by the construction method based on the Galois field ( GF( q)) multiplicative group. Furthermore, all these five codes have the same code rate of 0.937. Therefore, the regular QC-LDPC(4 851, 4 546) code constructed by the proposed construction method has excellent error-correction performance, and can be more suitable for optical transmission systems.

  8. Differentially Encoded LDPC Codes—Part II: General Case and Code Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li (Tiffany Jing

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-part series of papers studies the theory and practice of differentially encoded low-density parity-check (DE-LDPC codes, especially in the context of noncoherent detection. Part I showed that a special class of DE-LDPC codes, product accumulate codes, perform very well with both coherent and noncoherent detections. The analysis here reveals that a conventional LDPC code, however, is not fitful for differential coding and does not, in general, deliver a desirable performance when detected noncoherently. Through extrinsic information transfer (EXIT analysis and a modified "convergence-constraint" density evolution (DE method developed here, we provide a characterization of the type of LDPC degree profiles that work in harmony with differential detection (or a recursive inner code in general, and demonstrate how to optimize these LDPC codes. The convergence-constraint method provides a useful extension to the conventional "threshold-constraint" method, and can match an outer LDPC code to any given inner code with the imperfectness of the inner decoder taken into consideration.

  9. A novel QC-LDPC code based on the finite field multiplicative group for optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Xu, Liang; Tong, Qing-zhen

    2013-09-01

    A novel construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) code is proposed based on the finite field multiplicative group, which has easier construction, more flexible code-length code-rate adjustment and lower encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, a regular QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code is constructed. The simulation results show that the constructed QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code can gain better error correction performance under the condition of the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with iterative decoding sum-product algorithm (SPA). At the bit error rate (BER) of 10-6, the net coding gain (NCG) of the constructed QC-LDPC(5334,4962) code is 1.8 dB, 0.9 dB and 0.2 dB more than that of the classic RS(255,239) code in ITU-T G.975, the LDPC(32640,30592) code in ITU-T G.975.1 and the SCG-LDPC(3969,3720) code constructed by the random method, respectively. So it is more suitable for optical communication systems.

  10. ANÁLISIS Y ESTUDIO DEL DESEMPEÑO DEL CÓDIGO CHEQUEO DE PARIDAD DE BAJA DENSIDAD IRREGULAR EN UN CANAL DE LÍNEA ELÉCTRICA DE BAJA TENSIÓN ANALYSIS AND STUDY OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE IRREGULAR LOW DENSITY PARITY CHECK CODE IN LOW VOLTAGE POWERLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Fernández R

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza y estudia el código chequeo de paridad de baja densidad irregular (LDPC, en un canal de línea eléctrica de baja tensión. Se analizan los modelos de ruido existentes para las líneas eléctricas de baja tensión. Se evalúa el desempeño del código LDPC irregular, en un canal de línea eléctrica de baja tensión para diferentes velocidades de transmisión (3, 10, 15 y 30 Mbps, considerando como parámetro de desempeño el BER versus SNR.In this work the irregular Low Density Parity Check code (LDPC is analyzed and studied, is used in a low voltage powerline. Noise models are analyzed for these low voltage lines. The performance of the LDPC code is evaluated in a low voltage line channel for rates of 3, 5, 15 and 30 Mbps, considering of BER vs SNR a parameter.

  11. Hardwarearchitektur für einen universellen LDPC Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Beuschel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine universelle Decoderarchitektur für einen Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC Code Decoder vorgestellt. Anders als bei den in der Literatur häufig beschriebenen Architekturen für strukturierte Codes ist die hier vorgestellte Architektur frei programmierbar, so dass jeder beliebige LDPC Code durch eine Änderung der Initialisierung des Speichers für die Prüfmatrix mit derselben Hardware decodiert werden kann. Die größte Herausforderung beim Entwurf von teilparallelen LDPC Decoder Architekturen liegt im konfliktfreien Datenaustausch zwischen mehreren parallelen Speichern und Berechnungseinheiten, wozu ein Mapping und Scheduling Algorithmus benötigt wird. Der hier vorgestellte Algorithmus stützt sich auf Graphentheorie und findet für jeden beliebigen LDPC Code eine für die Architektur optimale Lösung. Damit sind keine Wartezyklen notwendig und die Parallelität der Architektur wird zu jedem Zeitpunkt voll ausgenutzt.

  12. LDPC concatenated space-time block coded system in multipath fading environment: Analysis and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Sharma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have been found to show exceptionally good performance for single antenna systems over a wide class of channels. In this paper, the performance of LDPC codes with multiple antenna systems is investigated in flat Rayleigh and Rician fading channels for different modulation schemes. The focus of attention is mainly on the concatenation of irregular LDPC codes with complex orthogonal space-time codes. Iterative decoding is carried out with a density evolution method that sets a threshold above which the code performs well. For the proposed concatenated system, the simulation results show that the QAM technique achieves a higher coding gain of 8.8 dB and 3.2 dB over the QPSK technique in Rician (LOS and Rayleigh (NLOS faded environments respectively.

  13. Constructing LDPC Codes from Loop-Free Encoding Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Jones, Christopher; Thorpe, Jeremy; Andrews, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    A method of constructing certain low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes by use of relatively simple loop-free coding modules has been developed. The subclasses of LDPC codes to which the method applies includes accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes, accumulate-repeat-check-accumulate codes, and the codes described in Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes (NPO-41305), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 9 (September 2007), page 90. All of the affected codes can be characterized as serial/parallel (hybrid) concatenations of such relatively simple modules as accumulators, repetition codes, differentiators, and punctured single-parity check codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. These codes can also be characterized as hybrid turbolike codes that have projected graph or protograph representations (for example see figure); these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The present method comprises two related submethods for constructing LDPC codes from simple loop-free modules with circulant permutations. The first submethod is an iterative encoding method based on the erasure-decoding algorithm. The computations required by this method are well organized because they involve a parity-check matrix having a block-circulant structure. The second submethod involves the use of block-circulant generator matrices. The encoders of this method are very similar to those of recursive convolutional codes. Some encoders according to this second submethod have been implemented in a small field-programmable gate array that operates at a speed of 100 megasymbols per second. By use of density evolution (a computational- simulation technique for analyzing performances of LDPC codes), it has been shown through some examples that as the block size goes to infinity, low iterative decoding thresholds close to

  14. Co-operation of digital nonlinear equalizers and soft-decision LDPC FEC in nonlinear transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Takahito; Oda, Shoichiro; Hoshida, Takeshi; Aoki, Yasuhiko; Tao, Zhenning; Rasmussen, Jens C

    2013-12-30

    We experimentally and numerically investigated the characteristics of 128 Gb/s dual polarization - quadrature phase shift keying signals received with two types of nonlinear equalizers (NLEs) followed by soft-decision (SD) low-density parity-check (LDPC) forward error correction (FEC). Successful co-operation among SD-FEC and NLEs over various nonlinear transmissions were demonstrated by optimization of parameters for NLEs.

  15. Optimized Fast Walsh–Hadamard Transform on GPUs for non-binary LDPC decoding

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Joao; Falcao, Gabriel; Silva, Vitor

    2014-01-01

    The Fourier Transform Sum-Product Algorithm (FT-SPA) used in non-binary Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) decoding makes extensive use of the Walsh–Hadamard Transform (WHT). We have developed a massively parallel Fast Walsh–Hadamard Transform (FWHT) which exploits the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) pipeline and memory hierarchy, thereby minimizing the level of memory bank conflicts and maximizing the number of returned instructions per clock cycle for different generations of graphics processor...

  16. Improved Design of Unequal Error Protection LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg Sara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an improved method for designing unequal error protection (UEP low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. The method is based on density evolution. The degree distribution with the best UEP properties is found, under the constraint that the threshold should not exceed the threshold of a non-UEP code plus some threshold offset. For different codeword lengths and different construction algorithms, we search for good threshold offsets for the UEP code design. The choice of the threshold offset is based on the average a posteriori variable node mutual information. Simulations reveal the counter intuitive result that the short-to-medium length codes designed with a suitable threshold offset all outperform the corresponding non-UEP codes in terms of average bit-error rate. The proposed codes are also compared to other UEP-LDPC codes found in the literature.

  17. Improving a Power Line Communications Standard with LDPC Codes

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    Hsu Christine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a power line communications (PLC scheme that could be used to enhance the HomePlug 1.0 standard, specifically its ROBO mode which provides modest throughput for the worst case PLC channel. The scheme is based on using a low-density parity-check (LDPC code, in lieu of the concatenated Reed-Solomon and convolutional codes in ROBO mode. The PLC channel is modeled with multipath fading and Middleton's class A noise. Clipping is introduced to mitigate the effect of impulsive noise. A simple and effective method is devised to estimate the variance of the clipped noise for LDPC decoding. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the HomePlug 1.0 ROBO mode and has lower computational complexity. The proposed scheme also dispenses with the repetition of information bits in ROBO mode to gain time diversity, resulting in 4-fold increase in physical layer throughput.

  18. A modified non-binary LDPC scheme based on watermark symbols in high speed optical transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Qiao, Yaojun; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Wenbo

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a watermark non-binary low-density parity check code (NB-LDPC) scheme, which can estimate the time-varying noise variance by using prior information of watermark symbols, to improve the performance of NB-LDPC codes. And compared with the prior-art counterpart, the watermark scheme can bring about 0.25 dB improvement in net coding gain (NCG) at bit error rate (BER) of 1e-6 and 36.8-81% reduction of the iteration numbers. Obviously, the proposed scheme shows great potential in terms of error correction performance and decoding efficiency.

  19. Quick-low-density parity check and dynamic threshold voltage optimization in 1X nm triple-level cell NAND flash memory with comprehensive analysis of endurance, retention-time, and temperature variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Masafumi; Tokutomi, Tsukasa; Hachiya, Shogo; Kobayashi, Atsuro; Tanakamaru, Shuhei; Ning, Sheyang; Ogura Iwasaki, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Ken

    2016-08-01

    NAND flash memory’s reliability degrades with increasing endurance, retention-time and/or temperature. After a comprehensive evaluation of 1X nm triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash, two highly reliable techniques are proposed. The first proposal, quick low-density parity check (Quick-LDPC), requires only one cell read in order to accurately estimate a bit-error rate (BER) that includes the effects of temperature, write and erase (W/E) cycles and retention-time. As a result, 83% read latency reduction is achieved compared to conventional AEP-LDPC. Also, W/E cycling is extended by 100% compared with conventional Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) error-correcting code (ECC). The second proposal, dynamic threshold voltage optimization (DVO) has two parts, adaptive V Ref shift (AVS) and V TH space control (VSC). AVS reduces read error and latency by adaptively optimizing the reference voltage (V Ref) based on temperature, W/E cycles and retention-time. AVS stores the optimal V Ref’s in a table in order to enable one cell read. VSC further improves AVS by optimizing the voltage margins between V TH states. DVO reduces BER by 80%.

  20. Construction method of QC-LDPC codes based on multiplicative group of finite field in optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng; Ao, Xiang; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    In order to meet the needs of high-speed development of optical communication system, a construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes based on multiplicative group of finite field is proposed. The Tanner graph of parity check matrix of the code constructed by this method has no cycle of length 4, and it can make sure that the obtained code can get a good distance property. Simulation results show that when the bit error rate ( BER) is 10-6, in the same simulation environment, the net coding gain ( NCG) of the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code with the code rate of 93.7% in this paper is improved by 2.18 dB and 1.6 dB respectively compared with those of the RS(255, 239) code in ITU-T G.975 and the LDPC(3 2640, 3 0592) code in ITU-T G.975.1. In addition, the NCG of the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code is respectively 0.2 dB and 0.4 dB higher compared with those of the SG-QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code based on the two different subgroups in finite field and the AS-QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code based on the two arbitrary sets of a finite field. Thus, the proposed QC-LDPC(3 780, 3 540) code in this paper can be well applied in optical communication systems.

  1. An LDPC decoder architecture for wireless sensor network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biroli, Andrea Dario Giancarlo; Martina, Maurizio; Masera, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive use of wireless sensors in a growing spectrum of human activities reinforces the need for devices with low energy dissipation. In this work, coded communication between a couple of wireless sensor devices is considered as a method to reduce the dissipated energy per transmitted bit with respect to uncoded communication. Different Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes are considered to this purpose and post layout results are shown for a low-area low-energy decoder, which offers percentage energy savings with respect to the uncoded solution in the range of 40%-80%, depending on considered environment, distance and bit error rate.

  2. An LDPC Decoder Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancarlo Biroli, Andrea Dario; Martina, Maurizio; Masera, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive use of wireless sensors in a growing spectrum of human activities reinforces the need for devices with low energy dissipation. In this work, coded communication between a couple of wireless sensor devices is considered as a method to reduce the dissipated energy per transmitted bit with respect to uncoded communication. Different Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes are considered to this purpose and post layout results are shown for a low-area low-energy decoder, which offers percentage energy savings with respect to the uncoded solution in the range of 40%–80%, depending on considered environment, distance and bit error rate. PMID:22438724

  3. Bounded-Angle Iterative Decoding of LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, Samuel; Andrews, Kenneth; Pollara, Fabrizio; Divsalar, Dariush

    2009-01-01

    Bounded-angle iterative decoding is a modified version of conventional iterative decoding, conceived as a means of reducing undetected-error rates for short low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. For a given code, bounded-angle iterative decoding can be implemented by means of a simple modification of the decoder algorithm, without redesigning the code. Bounded-angle iterative decoding is based on a representation of received words and code words as vectors in an n-dimensional Euclidean space (where n is an integer).

  4. Design LDPC Codes without Cycles of Length 4 and 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseon Kim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for constructing LDPC codes without cycles of length 4 and 6. Firstly, we design 3 submatrices with different shifting functions given by the proposed schemes, then combine them into the matrix specified by the proposed approach, and, finally, expand the matrix into a desired parity-check matrix using identity matrices and cyclic shift matrices of the identity matrices. The simulation result in AWGN channel verifies that the BER of the proposed code is close to those of Mackay's random codes and Tanner's QC codes, and the good BER performance of the proposed can remain at high code rates.

  5. Differentially Encoded LDPC Codes—Part II: General Case and Code Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li (Tiffany

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This two-part series of papers studies the theory and practice of differentially encoded low-density parity-check (DE-LDPC codes, especially in the context of noncoherent detection. Part I showed that a special class of DE-LDPC codes, product accumulate codes, perform very well with both coherent and noncoherent detections. The analysis here reveals that a conventional LDPC code, however, is not fitful for differential coding and does not, in general, deliver a desirable performance when detected noncoherently. Through extrinsic information transfer (EXIT analysis and a modified “convergence-constraint” density evolution (DE method developed here, we provide a characterization of the type of LDPC degree profiles that work in harmony with differential detection (or a recursive inner code in general, and demonstrate how to optimize these LDPC codes. The convergence-constraint method provides a useful extension to the conventional “threshold-constraint” method, and can match an outer LDPC code to any given inner code with the imperfectness of the inner decoder taken into consideration.

  6. Implementation of Layered Decoding Architecture for LDPC Code using Layered Min-Sum Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kakde

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For binary field and long code lengths, Low Density Parity Check (LDPC code approaches Shannon limit performance. LDPC codes provide remarkable error correction performance and therefore enlarge the design space for communication systems.In this paper, we have compare different digital modulation techniques and found that BPSK modulation technique is better than other modulation techniques in terms of BER. It also gives error performance of LDPC decoder over AWGN channel using Min-Sum algorithm. VLSI Architecture is proposed which uses the value re-use property of min-sum algorithm and gives high throughput. The proposed work has been implemented and tested on Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. The MATLAB result of LDPC decoder for low bit error rate (BER gives bit error rate in the range of 10-1 to 10-3.5 at SNR=1 to 2 for 20 no of iterations. So it gives good bit error rate performance. The latency of the parallel design of LDPC decoder has also reduced. It has accomplished 141.22 MHz maximum frequency and throughput of 2.02 Gbps while consuming less area of the design.

  7. Power Allocation Optimization: Linear Precoding Adapted to NB-LDPC Coded MIMO Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Chehade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transmission systems, the channel state information (CSI at the transmitter can be used to add linear precoding to the transmitted signals in order to improve the performance and the reliability of the transmission system. This paper investigates how to properly join precoded closed-loop MIMO systems and nonbinary low density parity check (NB-LDPC. The q elements in the Galois field, GF(q, are directly mapped to q transmit symbol vectors. This allows NB-LDPC codes to perfectly fit with a MIMO precoding scheme, unlike binary LDPC codes. The new transmission model is detailed and studied for several linear precoders and various designed LDPC codes. We show that NB-LDPC codes are particularly well suited to be jointly used with precoding schemes based on the maximization of the minimum Euclidean distance (max-dmin criterion. These results are theoretically supported by extrinsic information transfer (EXIT analysis and are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  8. Experimental demonstration of the transmission performance for LDPC-coded multiband OFDM ultra-wideband over fiber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Wen, Xuejie; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin; Su, Jinshu

    2015-01-01

    To improve the transmission performance of multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) over optical fiber, a pre-coding scheme based on low-density parity-check (LDPC) is adopted and experimentally demonstrated in the intensity-modulation and direct-detection MB-OFDM UWB over fiber system. Meanwhile, a symbol synchronization and pilot-aided channel estimation scheme is implemented on the receiver of the MB-OFDM UWB over fiber system. The experimental results show that the LDPC pre-coding scheme can work effectively in the MB-OFDM UWB over fiber system. After 70 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission, at the bit error rate of 1 × 10-3, the receiver sensitivities are improved about 4 dB when the LDPC code rate is 75%.

  9. Results on Parity-Check Matrices With Optimal Stopping And/Or Dead-End Set Enumerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, J.H.; Abdel-Ghaffar, K.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of iterative decoding techniques for linear block codes correcting erasures depends very much on the sizes of the stopping sets associated with the underlying Tanner graph, or, equivalently, the parity-check matrix representing the code. In this correspondence, we introduce the

  10. LDPC-PPM Coding Scheme for Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Moision, Bruce; Divsalar, Dariush; Fitz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed coding-and-modulation/demodulation-and-decoding scheme for a free-space optical communication system, an error-correcting code of the low-density parity-check (LDPC) type would be concatenated with a modulation code that consists of a mapping of bits to pulse-position-modulation (PPM) symbols. Hence, the scheme is denoted LDPC-PPM. This scheme could be considered a competitor of a related prior scheme in which an outer convolutional error-correcting code is concatenated with an interleaving operation, a bit-accumulation operation, and a PPM inner code. Both the prior and present schemes can be characterized as serially concatenated pulse-position modulation (SCPPM) coding schemes. Figure 1 represents a free-space optical communication system based on either the present LDPC-PPM scheme or the prior SCPPM scheme. At the transmitting terminal, the original data (u) are processed by an encoder into blocks of bits (a), and the encoded data are mapped to PPM of an optical signal (c). For the purpose of design and analysis, the optical channel in which the PPM signal propagates is modeled as a Poisson point process. At the receiving terminal, the arriving optical signal (y) is demodulated to obtain an estimate (a^) of the coded data, which is then processed by a decoder to obtain an estimate (u^) of the original data.

  11. Peeling Decoding of LDPC Codes with Applications in Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach for the analysis of iterative peeling decoding recovery algorithms in the context of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC codes and compressed sensing. The iterative recovery algorithm is particularly interesting for its low measurement cost and low computational complexity. The asymptotic analysis can track the evolution of the fraction of unrecovered signal elements in each iteration, which is similar to the well-known density evolution analysis in the context of LDPC decoding algorithm. Our analysis shows that there exists a threshold on the density factor; if under this threshold, the recovery algorithm is successful; otherwise it will fail. Simulation results are also provided for verifying the agreement between the proposed asymptotic analysis and recovery algorithm. Compared with existing works of peeling decoding algorithm, focusing on the failure probability of the recovery algorithm, our proposed approach gives accurate evolution of performance with different parameters of measurement matrices and is easy to implement. We also show that the peeling decoding algorithm performs better than other schemes based on LDPC codes.

  12. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low

  13. Iterative decoding of SOVA and LDPC product code for bit-patterned media recoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongkwon; Lee, Jaejin

    2018-05-01

    The demand for high-density storage systems has increased due to the exponential growth of data. Bit-patterned media recording (BPMR) is one of the promising technologies to achieve the density of 1Tbit/in2 and higher. To increase the areal density in BPMR, the spacing between islands needs to be reduced, yet this aggravates inter-symbol interference and inter-track interference and degrades the bit error rate performance. In this paper, we propose a decision feedback scheme using low-density parity check (LDPC) product code for BPMR. This scheme can improve the decoding performance using an iterative approach with extrinsic information and log-likelihood ratio value between iterative soft output Viterbi algorithm and LDPC product code. Simulation results show that the proposed LDPC product code can offer 1.8dB and 2.3dB gains over the one LDPC code at the density of 2.5 and 3 Tb/in2, respectively, when bit error rate is 10-6.

  14. LDPC product coding scheme with extrinsic information for bit patterned media recoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkwon Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the density limit of the current perpendicular magnetic storage system will soon be reached, bit patterned media recording (BPMR is a promising candidate for the next generation storage system to achieve an areal density beyond 1 Tb/in2. Each recording bit is stored in a fabricated magnetic island and the space between the magnetic islands is nonmagnetic in BPMR. To approach recording densities of 1 Tb/in2, the spacing of the magnetic islands must be less than 25 nm. Consequently, severe inter-symbol interference (ISI and inter-track interference (ITI occur. ITI and ISI degrade the performance of BPMR. In this paper, we propose a low-density parity check (LDPC product coding scheme that exploits extrinsic information for BPMR. This scheme shows an improved bit error rate performance compared to that in which one LDPC code is used.

  15. LDPC product coding scheme with extrinsic information for bit patterned media recoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongkwon; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-05-01

    Since the density limit of the current perpendicular magnetic storage system will soon be reached, bit patterned media recording (BPMR) is a promising candidate for the next generation storage system to achieve an areal density beyond 1 Tb/in2. Each recording bit is stored in a fabricated magnetic island and the space between the magnetic islands is nonmagnetic in BPMR. To approach recording densities of 1 Tb/in2, the spacing of the magnetic islands must be less than 25 nm. Consequently, severe inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-track interference (ITI) occur. ITI and ISI degrade the performance of BPMR. In this paper, we propose a low-density parity check (LDPC) product coding scheme that exploits extrinsic information for BPMR. This scheme shows an improved bit error rate performance compared to that in which one LDPC code is used.

  16. Rate-compatible protograph LDPC code families with linear minimum distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Jr., Samuel J. (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods are shown, which generate certain types of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. A first method creates protographs having the linear minimum distance property and comprising at least one variable node with degree less than 3. A second method creates families of protographs of different rates, all structurally identical for all rates except for a rate-dependent designation of certain variable nodes as transmitted or non-transmitted. A third method creates families of protographs of different rates, all structurally identical for all rates except for a rate-dependent designation of the status of certain variable nodes as non-transmitted or set to zero. LDPC codes built from the protographs created by these methods can simultaneously have low error floors and low iterative decoding thresholds.

  17. Performance analysis of WS-EWC coded optical CDMA networks with/without LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Huang, Jen-Fa; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2010-10-01

    One extended Welch-Costas (EWC) code family for the wavelength-division-multiplexing/spectral-amplitude coding (WDM/SAC; WS) optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. This system has a superior performance as compared to the previous modified quadratic congruence (MQC) coded OCDMA networks. However, since the performance of such a network is unsatisfactory when the data bit rate is higher, one class of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) code is adopted to improve that. Simulation results show that the performance of the high-speed WS-EWC coded OCDMA network can be greatly improved by using the LDPC codes.

  18. Short-Block Protograph-Based LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Short-block low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes of a special type are intended to be especially well suited for potential applications that include transmission of command and control data, cellular telephony, data communications in wireless local area networks, and satellite data communications. [In general, LDPC codes belong to a class of error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels.] The codes of the present special type exhibit low error floors, low bit and frame error rates, and low latency (in comparison with related prior codes). These codes also achieve low maximum rate of undetected errors over all signal-to-noise ratios, without requiring the use of cyclic redundancy checks, which would significantly increase the overhead for short blocks. These codes have protograph representations; this is advantageous in that, for reasons that exceed the scope of this article, the applicability of protograph representations makes it possible to design highspeed iterative decoders that utilize belief- propagation algorithms.

  19. A Low-Complexity and High-Performance 2D Look-Up Table for LDPC Hardware Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Chieh; Yang, Po-Hui; Lain, Jenn-Kaie; Chung, Tzu-Wen

    In this paper, we propose a low-complexity, high-efficiency two-dimensional look-up table (2D LUT) for carrying out the sum-product algorithm in the decoding of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Instead of employing adders for the core operation when updating check node messages, in the proposed scheme, the main term and correction factor of the core operation are successfully merged into a compact 2D LUT. Simulation results indicate that the proposed 2D LUT not only attains close-to-optimal bit error rate performance but also enjoys a low complexity advantage that is suitable for hardware implementation.

  20. A new LDPC decoding scheme for PDM-8QAM BICM coherent optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Wen-bo; Xi, Li-xia; Tang, Xian-feng; Zhang, Xiao-guang

    2015-11-01

    A new log-likelihood ratio (LLR) message estimation method is proposed for polarization-division multiplexing eight quadrature amplitude modulation (PDM-8QAM) bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) optical communication system. The formulation of the posterior probability is theoretically analyzed, and the way to reduce the pre-decoding bit error rate ( BER) of the low density parity check (LDPC) decoder for PDM-8QAM constellations is presented. Simulation results show that it outperforms the traditional scheme, i.e., the new post-decoding BER is decreased down to 50% of that of the traditional post-decoding algorithm.

  1. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  2. Statistical mechanics analysis of LDPC coding in MIMO Gaussian channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamino, Roberto C; Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-12

    Using analytical methods of statistical mechanics, we analyse the typical behaviour of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian channel with binary inputs under low-density parity-check (LDPC) network coding and joint decoding. The saddle point equations for the replica symmetric solution are found in particular realizations of this channel, including a small and large number of transmitters and receivers. In particular, we examine the cases of a single transmitter, a single receiver and symmetric and asymmetric interference. Both dynamical and thermodynamical transitions from the ferromagnetic solution of perfect decoding to a non-ferromagnetic solution are identified for the cases considered, marking the practical and theoretical limits of the system under the current coding scheme. Numerical results are provided, showing the typical level of improvement/deterioration achieved with respect to the single transmitter/receiver result, for the various cases.

  3. Statistical mechanics analysis of LDPC coding in MIMO Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamino, Roberto C; Saad, David

    2007-01-01

    Using analytical methods of statistical mechanics, we analyse the typical behaviour of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian channel with binary inputs under low-density parity-check (LDPC) network coding and joint decoding. The saddle point equations for the replica symmetric solution are found in particular realizations of this channel, including a small and large number of transmitters and receivers. In particular, we examine the cases of a single transmitter, a single receiver and symmetric and asymmetric interference. Both dynamical and thermodynamical transitions from the ferromagnetic solution of perfect decoding to a non-ferromagnetic solution are identified for the cases considered, marking the practical and theoretical limits of the system under the current coding scheme. Numerical results are provided, showing the typical level of improvement/deterioration achieved with respect to the single transmitter/receiver result, for the various cases

  4. Performance analysis of LDPC codes on OOK terahertz wireless channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Liu; Chang, Wang; Jun-Cheng, Cao

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric absorption, scattering, and scintillation are the major causes to deteriorate the transmission quality of terahertz (THz) wireless communications. An error control coding scheme based on low density parity check (LDPC) codes with soft decision decoding algorithm is proposed to improve the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of an on-off keying (OOK) modulated THz signal through atmospheric channel. The THz wave propagation characteristics and channel model in atmosphere is set up. Numerical simulations validate the great performance of LDPC codes against the atmospheric fading and demonstrate the huge potential in future ultra-high speed beyond Gbps THz communications. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339803), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA010205), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61131006, 61321492, and 61204135), the Major National Development Project of Scientific Instrument and Equipment (Grant No. 2011YQ150021), the National Science and Technology Major Project (Grant No. 2011ZX02707), the International Collaboration and Innovation Program on High Mobility Materials Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Shanghai Municipal Commission of Science and Technology (Grant No. 14530711300).

  5. LDPC-coded MIMO optical communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel using Q-ary pulse-position modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2007-08-06

    We describe a coded power-efficient transmission scheme based on repetition MIMO principle suitable for communication over the atmospheric turbulence channel, and determine its channel capacity. The proposed scheme employs the Q-ary pulse-position modulation. We further study how to approach the channel capacity limits using low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Component LDPC codes are designed using the concept of pairwise-balanced designs. Contrary to the several recent publications, bit-error rates and channel capacities are reported assuming non-ideal photodetection. The atmospheric turbulence channel is modeled using the Gamma-Gamma distribution function due to Al-Habash et al. Excellent bit-error rate performance improvement, over uncoded case, is found.

  6. Differentially Encoded LDPC Codes—Part I: Special Case of Product Accumulate Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Tiffany JingLi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Part I of a two-part series investigates product accumulate codes, a special class of differentially-encoded low density parity check (DE-LDPC codes with high performance and low complexity, on flat Rayleigh fading channels. In the coherent detection case, Divsalar's simple bounds and iterative thresholds using density evolution are computed to quantify the code performance at finite and infinite lengths, respectively. In the noncoherent detection case, a simple iterative differential detection and decoding (IDDD receiver is proposed and shown to be robust for different Doppler shifts. Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT charts reveal that, with pilot symbol assisted differential detection, the widespread practice of inserting pilot symbols to terminate the trellis actually incurs a loss in capacity, and a more efficient way is to separate pilots from the trellis. Through analysis and simulations, it is shown that PA codes perform very well with both coherent and noncoherent detections. The more general case of DE-LDPC codes, where the LDPC part may take arbitrary degree profiles, is studied in Part II Li 2008.

  7. Techniques and Architectures for Hazard-Free Semi-Parallel Decoding of LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovini Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The layered decoding algorithm has recently been proposed as an efficient means for the decoding of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes, thanks to the remarkable improvement in the convergence speed (2x of the decoding process. However, pipelined semi-parallel decoders suffer from violations or "hazards" between consecutive updates, which not only violate the layered principle but also enforce the loops in the code, thus spoiling the error correction performance. This paper describes three different techniques to properly reschedule the decoding updates, based on the careful insertion of "idle" cycles, to prevent the hazards of the pipeline mechanism. Also, different semi-parallel architectures of a layered LDPC decoder suitable for use with such techniques are analyzed. Then, taking the LDPC codes for the wireless local area network (IEEE 802.11n as a case study, a detailed analysis of the performance attained with the proposed techniques and architectures is reported, and results of the logic synthesis on a 65 nm low-power CMOS technology are shown.

  8. 45 Gb/s low complexity optical front-end for soft-decision LDPC decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Meer Nazmus; Moayedi, Monireh; Gross, Warren J; Liboiron-Ladouceur, Odile

    2012-07-30

    In this paper a low complexity and energy efficient 45 Gb/s soft-decision optical front-end to be used with soft-decision low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoders is demonstrated. The results show that the optical front-end exhibits a net coding gain of 7.06 and 9.62 dB for post forward error correction bit error rate of 10(-7) and 10(-12) for long block length LDPC(32768,26803) code. The performance over a hard decision front-end is 1.9 dB for this code. It is shown that the soft-decision circuit can also be used as a 2-bit flash type analog-to-digital converter (ADC), in conjunction with equalization schemes. At bit rate of 15 Gb/s using RS(255,239), LDPC(672,336), (672, 504), (672, 588), and (1440, 1344) used with a 6-tap finite impulse response (FIR) equalizer will result in optical power savings of 3, 5, 7, 9.5 and 10.5 dB, respectively. The 2-bit flash ADC consumes only 2.71 W at 32 GSamples/s. At 45 GSamples/s the power consumption is estimated to be 4.95 W.

  9. A PEG Construction of LDPC Codes Based on the Betweenness Centrality Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHURTAH-SEEWOOSUNGKUR, I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive Edge Growth (PEG constructions are usually based on optimizing the distance metric by using various methods. In this work however, the distance metric is replaced by a different one, namely the betweenness centrality metric, which was shown to enhance routing performance in wireless mesh networks. A new type of PEG construction for Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC codes is introduced based on the betweenness centrality metric borrowed from social networks terminology given that the bipartite graph describing the LDPC is analogous to a network of nodes. The algorithm is very efficient in filling edges on the bipartite graph by adding its connections in an edge-by-edge manner. The smallest graph size the new code could construct surpasses those obtained from a modified PEG algorithm - the RandPEG algorithm. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper produces the best regular LDPC column-weight two graphs. In addition, the technique proves to be competitive in terms of error-correcting performance. When compared to MacKay, PEG and other recent modified-PEG codes, the algorithm gives better performance over high SNR due to its particular edge and local graph properties.

  10. Construction and Iterative Decoding of LDPC Codes Over Rings for Phase-Noisy Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Cowley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction and iterative decoding of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes for channels affected by phase noise. The LDPC code is based on integer rings and designed to converge under phase-noisy channels. We assume that phase variations are small over short blocks of adjacent symbols. A part of the constructed code is inherently built with this knowledge and hence able to withstand a phase rotation of 2π/M radians, where “M” is the number of phase symmetries in the signal set, that occur at different observation intervals. Another part of the code estimates the phase ambiguity present in every observation interval. The code makes use of simple blind or turbo phase estimators to provide phase estimates over every observation interval. We propose an iterative decoding schedule to apply the sum-product algorithm (SPA on the factor graph of the code for its convergence. To illustrate the new method, we present the performance results of an LDPC code constructed over ℤ4 with quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK modulated signals transmitted over a static channel, but affected by phase noise, which is modeled by the Wiener (random-walk process. The results show that the code can withstand phase noise of 2∘ standard deviation per symbol with small loss.

  11. Construction and Iterative Decoding of LDPC Codes Over Rings for Phase-Noisy Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppasami Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the construction and iterative decoding of low-density parity-check (LDPC codes for channels affected by phase noise. The LDPC code is based on integer rings and designed to converge under phase-noisy channels. We assume that phase variations are small over short blocks of adjacent symbols. A part of the constructed code is inherently built with this knowledge and hence able to withstand a phase rotation of radians, where " " is the number of phase symmetries in the signal set, that occur at different observation intervals. Another part of the code estimates the phase ambiguity present in every observation interval. The code makes use of simple blind or turbo phase estimators to provide phase estimates over every observation interval. We propose an iterative decoding schedule to apply the sum-product algorithm (SPA on the factor graph of the code for its convergence. To illustrate the new method, we present the performance results of an LDPC code constructed over with quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK modulated signals transmitted over a static channel, but affected by phase noise, which is modeled by the Wiener (random-walk process. The results show that the code can withstand phase noise of standard deviation per symbol with small loss.

  12. Code Optimization, Frozen Glassy Phase and Improved Decoding Algorithms for Low-Density Parity-Check Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hai-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The statistical physics properties of low-density parity-check codes for the binary symmetric channel are investigated as a spin glass problem with multi-spin interactions and quenched random fields by the cavity method. By evaluating the entropy function at the Nishimori temperature, we find that irregular constructions with heterogeneous degree distribution of check (bit) nodes have higher decoding thresholds compared to regular counterparts with homogeneous degree distribution. We also show that the instability of the mean-field calculation takes place only after the entropy crisis, suggesting the presence of a frozen glassy phase at low temperatures. When no prior knowledge of channel noise is assumed (searching for the ground state), we find that a reinforced strategy on normal belief propagation will boost the decoding threshold to a higher value than the normal belief propagation. This value is close to the dynamical transition where all local search heuristics fail to identify the true message (codeword or the ferromagnetic state). After the dynamical transition, the number of metastable states with larger energy density (than the ferromagnetic state) becomes exponentially numerous. When the noise level of the transmission channel approaches the static transition point, there starts to exist exponentially numerous codewords sharing the identical ferromagnetic energy. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. A novel construction method of QC-LDPC codes based on the subgroup of the finite field multiplicative group for optical transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Zhou, Guang-xiang; Gao, Wen-chun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Jin-zhao; Pang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    According to the requirements of the increasing development for optical transmission systems, a novel construction method of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes based on the subgroup of the finite field multiplicative group is proposed. Furthermore, this construction method can effectively avoid the girth-4 phenomena and has the advantages such as simpler construction, easier implementation, lower encoding/decoding complexity, better girth properties and more flexible adjustment for the code length and code rate. The simulation results show that the error correction performance of the QC-LDPC(3 780,3 540) code with the code rate of 93.7% constructed by this proposed method is excellent, its net coding gain is respectively 0.3 dB, 0.55 dB, 1.4 dB and 1.98 dB higher than those of the QC-LDPC(5 334,4 962) code constructed by the method based on the inverse element characteristics in the finite field multiplicative group, the SCG-LDPC(3 969,3 720) code constructed by the systematically constructed Gallager (SCG) random construction method, the LDPC(32 640,30 592) code in ITU-T G.975.1 and the classic RS(255,239) code which is widely used in optical transmission systems in ITU-T G.975 at the bit error rate ( BER) of 10-7. Therefore, the constructed QC-LDPC(3 780,3 540) code is more suitable for optical transmission systems.

  14. LDPC Decoding on GPU for Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqin Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A flexible software LDPC decoder that exploits data parallelism for simultaneous multicode words decoding on the mobile device is proposed in this paper, supported by multithreading on OpenCL based graphics processing units. By dividing the check matrix into several parts to make full use of both the local memory and private memory on GPU and properly modify the code capacity each time, our implementation on a mobile phone shows throughputs above 100 Mbps and delay is less than 1.6 millisecond in decoding, which make high-speed communication like video calling possible. To realize efficient software LDPC decoding on the mobile device, the LDPC decoding feature on communication baseband chip should be replaced to save the cost and make it easier to upgrade decoder to be compatible with a variety of channel access schemes.

  15. A Golay complementary TS-based symbol synchronization scheme in variable rate LDPC-coded MB-OFDM UWBoF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Wen, Xuejie; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a Golay complementary training sequence (TS)-based symbol synchronization scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband over fiber (UWBoF) system with a variable rate low-density parity-check (LDPC) code. Meanwhile, the coding gain and spectral efficiency in the variable rate LDPC-coded MB-OFDM UWBoF system are investigated. By utilizing the non-periodic auto-correlation property of the Golay complementary pair, the start point of LDPC-coded MB-OFDM UWB signal can be estimated accurately. After 100 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission, at the bit error rate of 1×10-3, the experimental results show that the short block length 64QAM-LDPC coding provides a coding gain of 4.5 dB, 3.8 dB and 2.9 dB for a code rate of 62.5%, 75% and 87.5%, respectively.

  16. Rate-Compatible LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    A recently developed method of constructing protograph-based low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes provides for low iterative decoding thresholds and minimum distances proportional to block sizes, and can be used for various code rates. A code constructed by this method can have either fixed input block size or fixed output block size and, in either case, provides rate compatibility. The method comprises two submethods: one for fixed input block size and one for fixed output block size. The first mentioned submethod is useful for applications in which there are requirements for rate-compatible codes that have fixed input block sizes. These are codes in which only the numbers of parity bits are allowed to vary. The fixed-output-blocksize submethod is useful for applications in which framing constraints are imposed on the physical layers of affected communication systems. An example of such a system is one that conforms to one of many new wireless-communication standards that involve the use of orthogonal frequency-division modulation

  17. Joint Carrier-Phase Synchronization and LDPC Decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin; Valles, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    A method has been proposed to increase the degree of synchronization of a radio receiver with the phase of a suppressed carrier signal modulated with a binary- phase-shift-keying (BPSK) or quaternary- phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal representing a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code. This method is an extended version of the method described in Using LDPC Code Constraints to Aid Recovery of Symbol Timing (NPO-43112), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 10 (October 2008), page 54. Both methods and the receiver architectures in which they would be implemented belong to a class of timing- recovery methods and corresponding receiver architectures characterized as pilotless in that they do not require transmission and reception of pilot signals. The proposed method calls for the use of what is known in the art as soft decision feedback to remove the modulation from a replica of the incoming signal prior to feeding this replica to a phase-locked loop (PLL) or other carrier-tracking stage in the receiver. Soft decision feedback refers to suitably processed versions of intermediate results of iterative computations involved in the LDPC decoding process. Unlike a related prior method in which hard decision feedback (the final sequence of decoded symbols) is used to remove the modulation, the proposed method does not require estimation of the decoder error probability. In a basic digital implementation of the proposed method, the incoming signal (having carrier phase theta theta (sub c) plus noise would first be converted to inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) baseband signals by mixing it with I and Q signals at the carrier frequency [wc/(2 pi)] generated by a local oscillator. The resulting demodulated signals would be processed through one-symbol-period integrate and- dump filters, the outputs of which would be sampled and held, then multiplied by a soft-decision version of the baseband modulated signal. The resulting I and Q products consist of terms proportional to the cosine

  18. Multiple component codes based generalized LDPC codes for high-speed optical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Wang, Ting

    2014-07-14

    A class of generalized low-density parity-check (GLDPC) codes suitable for optical communications is proposed, which consists of multiple local codes. It is shown that Hamming, BCH, and Reed-Muller codes can be used as local codes, and that the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoding of these local codes by Ashikhmin-Lytsin algorithm is feasible in terms of complexity and performance. We demonstrate that record coding gains can be obtained from properly designed GLDPC codes, derived from multiple component codes. We then show that several recently proposed classes of LDPC codes such as convolutional and spatially-coupled codes can be described using the concept of GLDPC coding, which indicates that the GLDPC coding can be used as a unified platform for advanced FEC enabling ultra-high speed optical transport. The proposed class of GLDPC codes is also suitable for code-rate adaption, to adjust the error correction strength depending on the optical channel conditions.

  19. High performance reconciliation for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with LDPC code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dakai; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-03-01

    Reconciliation is a significant procedure in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. It is employed to extract secure secret key from the resulted string through quantum channel between two users. However, the efficiency and the speed of previous reconciliation algorithms are low. These problems limit the secure communication distance and the secure key rate of CV-QKD systems. In this paper, we proposed a high-speed reconciliation algorithm through employing a well-structured decoding scheme based on low density parity-check (LDPC) code. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is reduced obviously. By using a graphics processing unit (GPU) device, our method may reach a reconciliation speed of 25 Mb/s for a CV-QKD system, which is currently the highest level and paves the way to high-speed CV-QKD.

  20. Percolation bounds for decoding thresholds with correlated erasures in quantum LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kathleen; Pryadko, Leonid

    Correlations between errors can dramatically affect decoding thresholds, in some cases eliminating the threshold altogether. We analyze the existence of a threshold for quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in the case of correlated erasures. When erasures are positively correlated, the corresponding multi-variate Bernoulli distribution can be modeled in terms of cluster errors, where qubits in clusters of various size can be marked all at once. In a code family with distance scaling as a power law of the code length, erasures can be always corrected below percolation on a qubit adjacency graph associated with the code. We bound this correlated percolation transition by weighted (uncorrelated) percolation on a specially constructed cluster connectivity graph, and apply our recent results to construct several bounds for the latter. This research was supported in part by the NSF Grant PHY-1416578 and by the ARO Grant W911NF-14-1-0272.

  1. Adaptive transmission based on multi-relay selection and rate-compatible LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hualing; He, Yucheng; Zhou, Lin

    2017-08-01

    In order to adapt to the dynamical changeable channel condition and improve the transmissive reliability of the system, a cooperation system of rate-compatible low density parity check (RC-LDPC) codes combining with multi-relay selection protocol is proposed. In traditional relay selection protocol, only the channel state information (CSI) of source-relay and the CSI of relay-destination has been considered. The multi-relay selection protocol proposed by this paper takes the CSI between relays into extra account in order to obtain more chances of collabration. Additionally, the idea of hybrid automatic request retransmission (HARQ) and rate-compatible are introduced. Simulation results show that the transmissive reliability of the system can be significantly improved by the proposed protocol.

  2. MIMO-OFDM System's Performance Using LDPC Codes for a Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Omar; Alani, Omar

    This work deals with the performance of a Sniffer Mobile Robot (SNFRbot)-based spatial multiplexed wireless Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission technology. The use of Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO)-OFDM technology increases the wireless transmission rate without increasing transmission power or bandwidth. A generic multilayer architecture of the SNFRbot is proposed with low power and low cost. Some experimental results are presented and show the efficiency of sniffing deadly gazes, sensing high temperatures and sending live videos of the monitored situation. Moreover, simulation results show the achieved performance by tackling the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) problem of the used technology using Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes; and the effect of combating the PAPR on the bit error rate (BER) and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) over a Doppler spread channel.

  3. Blind Estimation of the Phase and Carrier Frequency Offsets for LDPC-Coded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcke Sebastien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider in this paper the problem of phase offset and Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO estimation for Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC coded systems. We propose new blind estimation techniques based on the calculation and minimization of functions of the Log-Likelihood Ratios (LLR of the syndrome elements obtained according to the parity check matrix of the error-correcting code. In the first part of this paper, we consider phase offset estimation for a Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK modulation and propose a novel estimation technique. Simulation results show that the proposed method is very effective and outperforms many existing algorithms. Then, we modify the estimation criterion so that it can work for higher-order modulations. One interesting feature of the proposed algorithm when applied to high-order modulations is that the phase offset of the channel can be blindly estimated without any ambiguity. In the second part of the paper, we consider the problem of CFO estimation and propose estimation techniques that are based on the same concept as the ones presented for the phase offset estimation. The Mean Squared Error (MSE and Bit Error Rate (BER curves show the efficiency of the proposed estimation techniques.

  4. BER EVALUATION OF LDPC CODES WITH GMSK IN NAKAGAMI FADING CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Sharma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available LDPC codes (Low Density Parity Check Codes have already proved its efficacy while showing its performance near to the Shannon limit. Channel coding schemes are spectrally inefficient as using an unfiltered binary data stream to modulate an RF carrier that will produce an RF spectrum of considerable bandwidth. Techniques have been developed to improve this bandwidth inefficiency or spectral efficiency, and ease detection. GMSK or Gaussian-filtered Minimum Shift Keying uses a Gaussian Filter of an appropriate bandwidth so as to make system spectrally efficient. A Nakagami model provides a better explanation to less and more severe conditions than the Rayleigh and Rician model and provide a better fit to the mobile communication channel data. In this paper we have demonstrated the performance of Low Density Parity Check codes with GMSK modulation (BT product=0.25 technique in Nakagami fading channel. In results it is shown that average bit error rate decreases as the ‘m’ parameter increases (Less fading.

  5. Design and performance investigation of LDPC-coded upstream transmission systems in IM/DD OFDM-PONs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoxue; Guo, Lei; Wu, Jingjing; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-12-01

    In Intensity-Modulation Direct-Detection (IM/DD) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Networks (OFDM-PONs), aside from Subcarrier-to-Subcarrier Intermixing Interferences (SSII) induced by square-law detection, the same laser frequency for data sending from Optical Network Units (ONUs) results in ONU-to-ONU Beating Interferences (OOBI) at the receiver. To mitigate those interferences, we design a Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC)-coded and spectrum-efficient upstream transmission system. A theoretical channel model is also derived, in order to analyze the detrimental factors influencing system performances. Simulation results demonstrate that the receiver sensitivity is improved 3.4 dB and 2.5 dB under QPSK and 8QAM, respectively, after 100 km Standard Single-Mode Fiber (SSMF) transmission. Furthermore, the spectrum efficiency can be improved by about 50%.

  6. Construction of Protograph LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    A construction method for protograph-based LDPC codes that simultaneously achieve low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance is proposed. We start with a high-rate protograph LDPC code with variable node degrees of at least 3. Lower rate codes are obtained by splitting check nodes and connecting them by degree-2 nodes. This guarantees the linear minimum distance property for the lower-rate codes. Excluding checks connected to degree-1 nodes, we show that the number of degree-2 nodes should be at most one less than the number of checks for the protograph LDPC code to have linear minimum distance. Iterative decoding thresholds are obtained by using the reciprocal channel approximation. Thresholds are lowered by using either precoding or at least one very high-degree node in the base protograph. A family of high- to low-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  7. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  8. Instanton-based techniques for analysis and reduction of error floors of LDPC codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, Michael; Chilappagari, Shashi K.; Stepanov, Mikhail G.; Vasic, Bane

    2008-01-01

    We describe a family of instanton-based optimization methods developed recently for the analysis of the error floors of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Instantons are the most probable configurations of the channel noise which result in decoding failures. We show that the general idea and the respective optimization technique are applicable broadly to a variety of channels, discrete or continuous, and variety of sub-optimal decoders. Specifically, we consider: iterative belief propagation (BP) decoders, Gallager type decoders, and linear programming (LP) decoders performing over the additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGNC) and the binary symmetric channel (BSC). The instanton analysis suggests that the underlying topological structures of the most probable instanton of the same code but different channels and decoders are related to each other. Armed with this understanding of the graphical structure of the instanton and its relation to the decoding failures, we suggest a method to construct codes whose Tanner graphs are free of these structures, and thus have less significant error floors.

  9. Instanton-based techniques for analysis and reduction of error floor of LDPC codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chilappagari, Shashi K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stepanov, Mikhail G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasic, Bane [SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE

    2008-01-01

    We describe a family of instanton-based optimization methods developed recently for the analysis of the error floors of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Instantons are the most probable configurations of the channel noise which result in decoding failures. We show that the general idea and the respective optimization technique are applicable broadly to a variety of channels, discrete or continuous, and variety of sub-optimal decoders. Specifically, we consider: iterative belief propagation (BP) decoders, Gallager type decoders, and linear programming (LP) decoders performing over the additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGNC) and the binary symmetric channel (BSC). The instanton analysis suggests that the underlying topological structures of the most probable instanton of the same code but different channels and decoders are related to each other. Armed with this understanding of the graphical structure of the instanton and its relation to the decoding failures, we suggest a method to construct codes whose Tanner graphs are free of these structures, and thus have less significant error floors.

  10. Analysis of error floor of LDPC codes under LP decoding over the BSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chilappagari, Shashi [UNIV OF AZ; Vasic, Bane [UNIV OF AZ; Stepanov, Mikhail [UNIV OF AZ

    2009-01-01

    We consider linear programming (LP) decoding of a fixed low-density parity-check (LDPC) code over the binary symmetric channel (BSC). The LP decoder fails when it outputs a pseudo-codeword which is not a codeword. We propose an efficient algorithm termed the instanton search algorithm (ISA) which, given a random input, generates a set of flips called the BSC-instanton and prove that: (a) the LP decoder fails for any set of flips with support vector including an instanton; (b) for any input, the algorithm outputs an instanton in the number of steps upper-bounded by twice the number of flips in the input. We obtain the number of unique instantons of different sizes by running the ISA sufficient number of times. We then use the instanton statistics to predict the performance of the LP decoding over the BSC in the error floor region. We also propose an efficient semi-analytical method to predict the performance of LP decoding over a large range of transition probabilities of the BSC.

  11. Analysis of Non-binary Hybrid LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Sassatelli, Lucile; Declercq, David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse asymptotically a new class of LDPC codes called Non-binary Hybrid LDPC codes, which has been recently introduced. We use density evolution techniques to derive a stability condition for hybrid LDPC codes, and prove their threshold behavior. We study this stability condition to conclude on asymptotic advantages of hybrid LDPC codes compared to their non-hybrid counterparts.

  12. Ensemble Weight Enumerators for Protograph LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    Recently LDPC codes with projected graph, or protograph structures have been proposed. In this paper, finite length ensemble weight enumerators for LDPC codes with protograph structures are obtained. Asymptotic results are derived as the block size goes to infinity. In particular we are interested in obtaining ensemble average weight enumerators for protograph LDPC codes which have minimum distance that grows linearly with block size. As with irregular ensembles, linear minimum distance property is sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. In this paper the derived results on ensemble weight enumerators show that linear minimum distance condition on degree distribution of unstructured irregular LDPC codes is a sufficient but not a necessary condition for protograph LDPC codes.

  13. Decoding LDPC Convolutional Codes on Markov Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Manohar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes a pipelined iterative technique for joint decoding and channel state estimation of LDPC convolutional codes over Markov channels. Example designs are presented for the Gilbert-Elliott discrete channel model. We also compare the performance and complexity of our algorithm against joint decoding and state estimation of conventional LDPC block codes. Complexity analysis reveals that our pipelined algorithm reduces the number of operations per time step compared to LDPC block codes, at the expense of increased memory and latency. This tradeoff is favorable for low-power applications.

  14. Decoding LDPC Convolutional Codes on Markov Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Winstead

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pipelined iterative technique for joint decoding and channel state estimation of LDPC convolutional codes over Markov channels. Example designs are presented for the Gilbert-Elliott discrete channel model. We also compare the performance and complexity of our algorithm against joint decoding and state estimation of conventional LDPC block codes. Complexity analysis reveals that our pipelined algorithm reduces the number of operations per time step compared to LDPC block codes, at the expense of increased memory and latency. This tradeoff is favorable for low-power applications.

  15. LDPC kódy

    OpenAIRE

    Hrouza, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Práce se zabývá problematikou LDPC kódů. Jsou zde popsány metody vytváření paritní matice, kde je kladen důraz především na strukturované vytváření této matice za použití konečné geometrie: Euklidovské geometrie a projektivní geometrie. Další oblastí, které se práce věnuje je dekódování LDPC kódů. Práce porovnává čtyři dekódovací metody: Hard-Decision algoritmus, Bit-Flipping algoritmus, The Sum-Product algoritmus a Log Likelihood algoritmus, při kterých je kladen důraz především na iterativn...

  16. Low Complexity Encoder of High Rate Irregular QC-LDPC Codes for Partial Response Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTAWIL, V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available High rate irregular QC-LDPC codes based on circulant permutation matrices, for efficient encoder implementation, are proposed in this article. The structure of the code is an approximate lower triangular matrix. In addition, we present two novel efficient encoding techniques for generating redundant bits. The complexity of the encoder implementation depends on the number of parity bits of the code for the one-stage encoding and the length of the code for the two-stage encoding. The advantage of both encoding techniques is that few XOR-gates are used in the encoder implementation. Simulation results on partial response channels also show that the BER performance of the proposed code has gain over other QC-LDPC codes.

  17. Local Strategy Improvement for Parity Game Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Oliver; Lange, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The problem of solving a parity game is at the core of many problems in model checking, satisfiability checking and program synthesis. Some of the best algorithms for solving parity game are strategy improvement algorithms. These are global in nature since they require the entire parity game to be present at the beginning. This is a distinct disadvantage because in many applications one only needs to know which winning region a particular node belongs to, and a witnessing winning strategy may...

  18. Protograph LDPC Codes with Node Degrees at Least 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present protograph codes with a small number of degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. The iterative decoding threshold for proposed rate 1/2 codes are lower, by about 0.2 dB, than the best known irregular LDPC codes with degree at least 3. The main motivation is to gain linear minimum distance to achieve low error floor. Also to construct rate-compatible protograph-based LDPC codes for fixed block length that simultaneously achieves low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance. We start with a rate 1/2 protograph LDPC code with degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. Higher rate codes are obtained by connecting check nodes with degree-2 non-transmitted nodes. This is equivalent to constraint combining in the protograph. The condition where all constraints are combined corresponds to the highest rate code. This constraint must be connected to nodes of degree at least three for the graph to have linear minimum distance. Thus having node degree at least 3 for rate 1/2 guarantees linear minimum distance property to be preserved for higher rates. Through examples we show that the iterative decoding threshold as low as 0.544 dB can be achieved for small protographs with node degrees at least three. A family of low- to high-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  19. Protograph LDPC Codes Over Burst Erasure Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we design high rate protograph based LDPC codes suitable for binary erasure channels. To simplify the encoder and decoder implementation for high data rate transmission, the structure of codes are based on protographs and circulants. These LDPC codes can improve data link and network layer protocols in support of communication networks. Two classes of codes were designed. One class is designed for large block sizes with an iterative decoding threshold that approaches capacity of binary erasure channels. The other class is designed for short block sizes based on maximizing minimum stopping set size. For high code rates and short blocks the second class outperforms the first class.

  20. Parity mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The field of parity mixing in light nuclei bears upon one of the exciting and active problems of physics--the nature of the fundamental weak interaction. It is also a subject where polarization techniques play a very important role. Weak interaction theory is first reviewed to motivate the parity mixing experiments. Two very attractive systems are discussed where the nuclear physics is so beautifully simple that the experimental observation of tiny effects directly measures parity violating (PV) nuclear matrix elements which are quite sensitive to the form of the basic weak interaction. Since the measurement of very small analyzing powers and polarizations may be of general interest to this conference, some discussion is devoted to experimental techniques

  1. Low Complexity Approach for High Throughput Belief-Propagation based Decoding of LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOT, A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a low complexity belief propagation (BP based decoding algorithm for LDPC codes. In spite of the iterative nature of the decoding process, the proposed algorithm provides both reduced complexity and increased BER performances as compared with the classic min-sum (MS algorithm, generally used for hardware implementations. Linear approximations of check-nodes update function are used in order to reduce the complexity of the BP algorithm. Considering this decoding approach, an FPGA based hardware architecture is proposed for implementing the decoding algorithm, aiming to increase the decoder throughput. FPGA technology was chosen for the LDPC decoder implementation, due to its parallel computation and reconfiguration capabilities. The obtained results show improvements regarding decoding throughput and BER performances compared with state-of-the-art approaches.

  2. LDPC coding for QKD at higher photon flux levels based on spatial entanglement of twin beams in PDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshgaran, Fred; Mondin, Marina; Bari, Inam

    2014-01-01

    Twin beams generated by Parametric Down Conversion (PDC) exhibit quantum correlations that has been effectively used as a tool for many applications including calibration of single photon detectors. By now, detection of multi-mode spatial correlations is a mature field and in principle, only depends on the transmission and detection efficiency of the devices and the channel. In [2, 4, 5], the authors utilized their know-how on almost perfect selection of modes of pairwise correlated entangled beams and the optimization of the noise reduction to below the shot-noise level, for absolute calibration of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras. The same basic principle is currently being considered by the same authors for possible use in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) [3, 1]. The main advantage in such an approach would be the ability to work with much higher photon fluxes than that of a single photon regime that is theoretically required for discrete variable QKD applications (in practice, very weak laser pulses with mean photon count below one are used).The natural setup of quantization of CCD detection area and subsequent measurement of the correlation statistic needed to detect the presence of the eavesdropper Eve, leads to a QKD channel model that is a Discrete Memoryless Channel (DMC) with a number of inputs and outputs that can be more than two (i.e., the channel is a multi-level DMC). This paper investigates the use of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes for information reconciliation on the effective parallel channels associated with the multi-level DMC. The performance of such codes are shown to be close to the theoretical limits.

  3. Non-binary Hybrid LDPC Codes: Structure, Decoding and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Sassatelli, Lucile; Declercq, David

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to study and optimize a very general class of LDPC codes whose variable nodes belong to finite sets with different orders. We named this class of codes Hybrid LDPC codes. Although efficient optimization techniques exist for binary LDPC codes and more recently for non-binary LDPC codes, they both exhibit drawbacks due to different reasons. Our goal is to capitalize on the advantages of both families by building codes with binary (or small finite set order) and non-bin...

  4. LDPC Code Design for Nonuniform Power-Line Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaei Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate low-density parity-check code design for discrete multitone channels over power lines. Discrete multitone channels are well modeled as nonuniform channels, that is, different bits experience various channel parameters. We propose a coding system for discrete multitone channels that allows for using a single code over a nonuniform channel. The number of code parameters for the proposed system is much greater than the number of code parameters in conventional channel. Therefore, search-based optimization methods are impractical. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the rate of an irregular low-density parity-check code, with guaranteed convergence over a general nonuniform channel, as an iterative linear programming which is significantly more efficient than search-based methods. Then we use this technique for a typical power-line channel. The methodology of this paper is directly applicable to all decoding algorithms for which a density evolution analysis is possible.

  5. Memory-efficient decoding of LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok-San Lee, Jason; Thorpe, Jeremy; Hawkins, Jon

    2005-01-01

    We present a low-complexity quantization scheme for the implementation of regular (3,6) LDPC codes. The quantization parameters are optimized to maximize the mutual information between the source and the quantized messages. Using this non-uniform quantized belief propagation algorithm, we have simulated that an optimized 3-bit quantizer operates with 0.2dB implementation loss relative to a floating point decoder, and an optimized 4-bit quantizer operates less than 0.1dB quantization loss.

  6. Local Strategy Improvement for Parity Game Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Friedmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of solving a parity game is at the core of many problems in model checking, satisfiability checking and program synthesis. Some of the best algorithms for solving parity game are strategy improvement algorithms. These are global in nature since they require the entire parity game to be present at the beginning. This is a distinct disadvantage because in many applications one only needs to know which winning region a particular node belongs to, and a witnessing winning strategy may cover only a fractional part of the entire game graph. We present a local strategy improvement algorithm which explores the game graph on-the-fly whilst performing the improvement steps. We also compare it empirically with existing global strategy improvement algorithms and the currently only other local algorithm for solving parity games. It turns out that local strategy improvement can outperform these others by several orders of magnitude.

  7. Experimental demonstration of nonbinary LDPC convolutional codes for DP-64QAM/256QAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koike-Akino, T.; Sugihara, K.; Millar, D.S.; Pajovic, M.; Matsumoto, W.; Alvarado, A.; Maher, R.; Lavery, D.; Paskov, M.; Kojima, K.; Parsons, K.; Thomsen, B.C.; Savory, S.J.; Bayvel, P.

    2016-01-01

    We show the great potential of nonbinary LDPC convolutional codes (NB-LDPC-CC) with low-latency windowed decoding. It is experimentally demonstrated that NB-LDPC-CC can offer a performance improvement of up to 5 dB compared with binary coding.

  8. R-parity violation at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dercks, Daniel [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany); Dreiner, Herbi; Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby; Reinert, Annika [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    We investigate the phenomenology of the MSSM extended by a single R-parity-violating coupling at the unification scale. For all R-parity-violating couplings, we discuss the evolution of the particle spectra through the renormalization group equations and the nature of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) within the CMSSM, as an example of a specific complete supersymmetric model. We use the nature of the LSP to classify the possible signatures. For each possible scenario we present in detail the current LHC bounds on the supersymmetric particle masses, typically obtained using simplified models. From this we determine the present coverage of R-parity-violating models at the LHC. We find several gaps, in particular for a stau-LSP, which is easily obtained in R-parity-violating models. Using the program CheckMATE we recast existing LHC searches to set limits on the parameters of all R-parity-violating CMSSMs. We find that virtually all of them are either more strongly constrained or similarly constrained in comparison to the R-parity-conserving CMSSM, including the anti U anti D anti D models. For each R-parity-violating CMSSM we then give the explicit lower mass bounds on all relevant supersymmetric particles. (orig.)

  9. Non-Binary Protograph-Based LDPC Codes: Analysis,Enumerators and Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yizeng

    2013-01-01

    Non-binary LDPC codes can outperform binary LDPC codes using sum-product algorithm with higher computation complexity. Non-binary LDPC codes based on protographs have the advantage of simple hardware architecture. In the first part of this thesis, we will use EXIT chart analysis to compute the thresholds of different protographs over GF(q). Based on threshold computation, some non-binary protograph-based LDPC codes are designed and their frame error rates are compared with binary LDPC codes. ...

  10. A Scalable Architecture of a Structured LDPC Decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason Kwok-San; Lee, Benjamin; Thorpe, Jeremy; Andrews, Kenneth; Dolinar, Sam; Hamkins, Jon

    2004-01-01

    We present a scalable decoding architecture for a certain class of structured LDPC codes. The codes are designed using a small (n,r) protograph that is replicated Z times to produce a decoding graph for a (Z x n, Z x r) code. Using this architecture, we have implemented a decoder for a (4096,2048) LDPC code on a Xilinx Virtex-II 2000 FPGA, and achieved decoding speeds of 31 Mbps with 10 fixed iterations. The implemented message-passing algorithm uses an optimized 3-bit non-uniform quantizer that operates with 0.2dB implementation loss relative to a floating point decoder.

  11. A rate-compatible family of protograph-based LDPC codes built by expurgation and lengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, Sam

    2005-01-01

    We construct a protograph-based rate-compatible family of low-density parity-check codes that cover a very wide range of rates from 1/2 to 16/17, perform within about 0.5 dB of their capacity limits for all rates, and can be decoded conveniently and efficiently with a common hardware implementation.

  12. Advanced error-prediction LDPC with temperature compensation for highly reliable SSDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokutomi, Tsukasa; Tanakamaru, Shuhei; Iwasaki, Tomoko Ogura; Takeuchi, Ken

    2015-09-01

    To improve the reliability of NAND Flash memory based solid-state drives (SSDs), error-prediction LDPC (EP-LDPC) has been proposed for multi-level-cell (MLC) NAND Flash memory (Tanakamaru et al., 2012, 2013), which is effective for long retention times. However, EP-LDPC is not as effective for triple-level cell (TLC) NAND Flash memory, because TLC NAND Flash has higher error rates and is more sensitive to program-disturb error. Therefore, advanced error-prediction LDPC (AEP-LDPC) has been proposed for TLC NAND Flash memory (Tokutomi et al., 2014). AEP-LDPC can correct errors more accurately by precisely describing the error phenomena. In this paper, the effects of AEP-LDPC are investigated in a 2×nm TLC NAND Flash memory with temperature characterization. Compared with LDPC-with-BER-only, the SSD's data-retention time is increased by 3.4× and 9.5× at room-temperature (RT) and 85 °C, respectively. Similarly, the acceptable BER is increased by 1.8× and 2.3×, respectively. Moreover, AEP-LDPC can correct errors with pre-determined tables made at higher temperatures to shorten the measurement time before shipping. Furthermore, it is found that one table can cover behavior over a range of temperatures in AEP-LDPC. As a result, the total table size can be reduced to 777 kBytes, which makes this approach more practical.

  13. Parallel Subspace Subcodes of Reed-Solomon Codes for Magnetic Recording Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han

    2010-01-01

    Read channel architectures based on a single low-density parity-check (LDPC) code are being considered for the next generation of hard disk drives. However, LDPC-only solutions suffer from the error floor problem, which may compromise reliability, if not handled properly. Concatenated architectures using an LDPC code plus a Reed-Solomon (RS) code…

  14. Fall of parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The historical background behind the discovery of the violation of parity by T. D. Lee and [N. Yand is described. The experimental techniques used by Chien-Shiung Wu, Ernst Ambler, and their collaborators at the Cryogenic Physics Laboratory of the NBS to first demonstrate the violation of parity are also described

  15. Optimisation des codes LDPC irréguliers et algorithmes de décodage des codes LDPC q-aires

    OpenAIRE

    Cances , Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cette note technique rappelle les principes d'optimisation pour obtenir les profils de codes LDPC irréguliers performants et rappelle les principes des algorithmes de décodage utilizes pour les codes LDPC q-aires à grande efficacité spectrale.

  16. Construction of Quasi-Cyclic LDPC Codes Based on Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-cyclic (QC LDPC codes play an important role in 5G communications and have been chosen as the standard codes for 5G enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB data channel. In this paper, we study the construction of QC LDPC codes based on an arbitrary given expansion factor (or lifting degree. First, we analyze the cycle structure of QC LDPC codes and give the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of short cycles. Based on the fundamental theorem of arithmetic in number theory, we divide the integer factorization into three cases and present three classes of QC LDPC codes accordingly. Furthermore, a general construction method of QC LDPC codes with girth of at least 6 is proposed. Numerical results show that the constructed QC LDPC codes perform well over the AWGN channel when decoded with the iterative algorithms.

  17. A good performance watermarking LDPC code used in high-speed optical fiber communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Li, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Tang, Xianfeng; He, Wenxue

    2015-07-01

    A watermarking LDPC code, which is a strategy designed to improve the performance of the traditional LDPC code, was introduced. By inserting some pre-defined watermarking bits into original LDPC code, we can obtain a more correct estimation about the noise level in the fiber channel. Then we use them to modify the probability distribution function (PDF) used in the initial process of belief propagation (BP) decoding algorithm. This algorithm was tested in a 128 Gb/s PDM-DQPSK optical communication system and results showed that the watermarking LDPC code had a better tolerances to polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and nonlinearity than that of traditional LDPC code. Also, by losing about 2.4% of redundancy for watermarking bits, the decoding efficiency of the watermarking LDPC code is about twice of the traditional one.

  18. Design of ACM system based on non-greedy punctured LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zijun; Jiang, Zihong; Zhou, Lin; He, Yucheng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an adaptive coded modulation (ACM) scheme based on rate-compatible LDPC (RC-LDPC) codes was designed. The RC-LDPC codes were constructed by a non-greedy puncturing method which showed good performance in high code rate region. Moreover, the incremental redundancy scheme of LDPC-based ACM system over AWGN channel was proposed. By this scheme, code rates vary from 2/3 to 5/6 and the complication of the ACM system is lowered. Simulations show that more and more obvious coding gain can be obtained by the proposed ACM system with higher throughput.

  19. Magic state parity-checker with pre-distilled components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl T. Campbell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Magic states are eigenstates of non-Pauli operators. One way of suppressing errors present in magic states is to perform parity measurements in their non-Pauli eigenbasis and postselect on even parity. Here we develop new protocols based on non-Pauli parity checking, where the measurements are implemented with the aid of pre-distilled multiqubit resource states. This leads to a two step process: pre-distillation of multiqubit resource states, followed by implementation of the parity check. These protocols can prepare single-qubit magic states that enable direct injection of single-qubit axial rotations without subsequent gate-synthesis and its associated overhead. We show our protocols are more efficient than all previous comparable protocols with quadratic error reduction, including the protocols of Bravyi and Haah.

  20. The Manifestation of Stopping Sets and Absorbing Sets as Deviations on the Computation Trees of LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Psota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The error mechanisms of iterative message-passing decoders for low-density parity-check codes are studied. A tutorial review is given of the various graphical structures, including trapping sets, stopping sets, and absorbing sets that are frequently used to characterize the errors observed in simulations of iterative decoding of low-density parity-check codes. The connections between trapping sets and deviations on computation trees are explored in depth using the notion of problematic trapping sets in order to bridge the experimental and analytic approaches to these error mechanisms. A new iterative algorithm for finding low-weight problematic trapping sets is presented and shown to be capable of identifying many trapping sets that are frequently observed during iterative decoding of low-density parity-check codes on the additive white Gaussian noise channel. Finally, a new method is given for characterizing the weight of deviations that result from problematic trapping sets.

  1. Purchasing power parity and interest parity in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Eric O'N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes purchasing power parity and uncovered interest parity in the laboratory. It finds strong evidence that purchasing power parity, covered interest parity, and uncovered interest parity hold. Subjects are endowed with an intrinsically useless (green) currency that can be used to purchase another useless (red) currency. Green goods can be bought only with green currency, and red goods can be bought only with red currency. The foreign exchange markets are organized as call mark...

  2. Evaluation of four-dimensional nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation for next-generation long-haul optical transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yequn; Arabaci, Murat; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2012-04-09

    Leveraging the advanced coherent optical communication technologies, this paper explores the feasibility of using four-dimensional (4D) nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation (4D-NB-LDPC-CM) schemes for long-haul transmission in future optical transport networks. In contrast to our previous works on 4D-NB-LDPC-CM which considered amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise as the dominant impairment, this paper undertakes transmission in a more realistic optical fiber transmission environment, taking into account impairments due to dispersion effects, nonlinear phase noise, Kerr nonlinearities, and stimulated Raman scattering in addition to ASE noise. We first reveal the advantages of using 4D modulation formats in LDPC-coded modulation instead of conventional two-dimensional (2D) modulation formats used with polarization-division multiplexing (PDM). Then we demonstrate that 4D LDPC-coded modulation schemes with nonbinary LDPC component codes significantly outperform not only their conventional PDM-2D counterparts but also the corresponding 4D bit-interleaved LDPC-coded modulation (4D-BI-LDPC-CM) schemes, which employ binary LDPC codes as component codes. We also show that the transmission reach improvement offered by the 4D-NB-LDPC-CM over 4D-BI-LDPC-CM increases as the underlying constellation size and hence the spectral efficiency of transmission increases. Our results suggest that 4D-NB-LDPC-CM can be an excellent candidate for long-haul transmission in next-generation optical networks.

  3. Check valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, H.A.; Garcia, P.

    1999-08-24

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion. 5 figs.

  4. Check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, H.A.; Garcia, P.

    1999-01-01

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion. 5 figs

  5. Cooperative optimization and their application in LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Rong, Jian; Zhong, Xiaochun

    2008-10-01

    Cooperative optimization is a new way for finding global optima of complicated functions of many variables. The proposed algorithm is a class of message passing algorithms and has solid theory foundations. It can achieve good coding gains over the sum-product algorithm for LDPC codes. For (6561, 4096) LDPC codes, the proposed algorithm can achieve 2.0 dB gains over the sum-product algorithm at BER of 4×10-7. The decoding complexity of the proposed algorithm is lower than the sum-product algorithm can do; furthermore, the former can achieve much lower error floor than the latter can do after the Eb / No is higher than 1.8 dB.

  6. An Area-Efficient Reconfigurable LDPC Decoder with Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changsheng; Huang, Yuebin; Huang, Shuangqu; Chen, Yun; Zeng, Xiaoyang

    Based on Turbo-Decoding Message-Passing (TDMP) and Normalized Min-Sum (NMS) algorithm, an area efficient LDPC decoder that supports both structured and unstructured LDPC codes is proposed in this paper. We introduce a solution to solve the memory access conflict problem caused by TDMP algorithm. We also arrange the main timing schedule carefully to handle the operations of our solution while avoiding much additional hardware consumption. To reduce the memory bits needed, the extrinsic message storing strategy is also optimized. Besides the extrinsic message recover and the accumulate operation are merged together. To verify our architecture, a LDPC decoder that supports both China Multimedia Mobile Broadcasting (CMMB) and Digital Terrestrial/ Television Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) standards is developed using SMIC 0.13µm standard CMOS process. The core area is 4.75mm2 and the maximum operating clock frequency is 200MHz. The estimated power consumption is 48.4mW at 25MHz for CMMB and 130.9mW at 50MHz for DTMB with 5 iterations and 1.2V supply.

  7. PERFORMANCE EVOLUTION OF PAPR REDUCTION IN OFDM WITH AND WITHOUT LDPC TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Punit Upmanyu*; Prof. Saurabh Gaur

    2016-01-01

    The OFDM is one of the proven multicarrier modulation techniques, which provides high spectral efficiency, low implementation complexity, less vulnerability to echoes and non-linear distortion. Apart from the above advantages presently this technique is used by almost all wireless standards and above. The one major shortcoming in the implementation of this system is the high PAPR (peak-to-average power ratio) of this system. In this paper, Irregular Low-Density-Parity Check encoder is used ef...

  8. Αρχιτεκτονική και υλοποίηση κωδικοποιητών VLSI για κώδικες LDPC

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Η διόρθωση λαθών με κώδικες LDPC είναι μεγάλου ενδιαφέροντος σε σημαντικές νέες τηλεπικοινωνιακές εφαρμογές, όπως δορυφορικό Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) DVB-S2, IEEE 802.3an (10GBASE-T) και IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX). Οι κώδικες LDPC ανήκουν στην κατηγορία των γραμμικών μπλοκ κωδικών. Πρόκειται για κώδικες ελέγχου και διόρθωσης σφαλμάτων μετάδοσης, με κυριότερο χαρακτηριστικό τους τον χαμηλής πυκνότητας πίνακα ελέγχου ισοτιμίας (Low Density Parity Check), από τον οποίο και πήραν το όνομά του...

  9. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  10. Parity violating electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous measurements of parity violation in electron scattering are reviewed with particular emphasis on experimental techniques. Significant progress in the attainment of higher precision is evident in these efforts. These pioneering experiments provide a basis for consideration of a future program of such measurements. In this paper some future plans and possibilities in this field are discussed

  11. The serial message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Xue

    2015-12-01

    The conventional message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms is the so-called flooding schedule. It has the disadvantage that the updated messages cannot be used until next iteration, thus reducing the convergence speed . In this case, the Layered Decoding algorithm (LBP) based on serial message-passing schedule is proposed. In this paper the decoding principle of LBP algorithm is briefly introduced, and then proposed its two improved algorithms, the grouped serial decoding algorithm (Grouped LBP) and the semi-serial decoding algorithm .They can improve LBP algorithm's decoding speed while maintaining a good decoding performance.

  12. Min-Max decoding for non binary LDPC codes

    OpenAIRE

    Savin, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    Iterative decoding of non-binary LDPC codes is currently performed using either the Sum-Product or the Min-Sum algorithms or slightly different versions of them. In this paper, several low-complexity quasi-optimal iterative algorithms are proposed for decoding non-binary codes. The Min-Max algorithm is one of them and it has the benefit of two possible LLR domain implementations: a standard implementation, whose complexity scales as the square of the Galois field's cardinality and a reduced c...

  13. Nuclear Parity with China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear force structure. It even is conceivable that a slow but steady expansion could have been accomplished without triggering a reaction by...Russia’s reactions , which would likely not be benign. • Achieving nuclear parity is not a matter of honor for China. Chinese leaders never have...analyzes that information, defines its interests, and decides how to act. China and the United States are exact opposites in this typography : China

  14. Reconsidering solar grid parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Grid parity-reducing the cost of solar energy to be competitive with conventional grid-supplied electricity-has long been hailed as the tipping point for solar dominance in the energy mix. Such expectations are likely to be overly optimistic. A realistic examination of grid parity suggests that the cost-effectiveness of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems may be further away than many are hoping for. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness may not guarantee commercial competitiveness. Solar hot water technology is currently far more cost-effective than photovoltaic technology and has already reached grid parity in many places. Nevertheless, the market penetration of solar water heaters remains limited for reasons including unfamiliarity with the technologies and high upfront costs. These same barriers will likely hinder the adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems as well. The rapid growth in PV deployment in recent years is largely policy-driven and such rapid growth would not be sustainable unless governments continue to expand financial incentives and policy mandates, as well as address regulatory and market barriers.

  15. LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum (OAM) modulation for free-space optical communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Arabaci, Murat

    2010-11-22

    An orbital angular momentum (OAM) based LDPC-coded modulation scheme suitable for use in FSO communication is proposed. We demonstrate that the proposed scheme can operate under strong atmospheric turbulence regime and enable 100 Gb/s optical transmission while employing 10 Gb/s components. Both binary and nonbinary LDPC-coded OAM modulations are studied. In addition to providing better BER performance, the nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation reduces overall decoder complexity and latency. The nonbinary LDPC-coded OAM modulation provides a net coding gain of 9.3 dB at the BER of 10(-8). The maximum-ratio combining scheme outperforms the corresponding equal-gain combining scheme by almost 2.5 dB.

  16. Ultra high speed optical transmission using subcarrier-multiplexed four-dimensional LDPC-coded modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshon, Hussam G; Djordjevic, Ivan; Schmidt, Ted

    2010-09-13

    We propose a subcarrier-multiplexed four-dimensional LDPC bit-interleaved coded modulation scheme that is capable of achieving beyond 480 Gb/s single-channel transmission rate over optical channels. Subcarrier-multiplexed four-dimensional LDPC coded modulation scheme outperforms the corresponding dual polarization schemes by up to 4.6 dB in OSNR at BER 10(-8).

  17. From hadronic parity violation to electron parity-violating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2010-01-01

    The weak interaction is manifested in parity-violating observables. With the weak interaction extremely well known parity-violating measurements in hadronic systems can be used to deduce strong interaction effects in those systems. Parity-violating analyzing powers in electron-proton scattering have led to determining the strange quark contributions to the charge and magnetization distributions of the nucleon. Parity-violating electron-proton and electron-electron scattering can also be performed to test the predictions of the Standard Model in the 'running' of the electroweak mixing angle or sin 2 θ W .

  18. The Fixpoint-Iteration Algorithm for Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bruse

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the model checking problem for the modal mu-calculus reduces to the problem of solving a parity game and vice-versa. The latter is realised by the Walukiewicz formulas which are satisfied by a node in a parity game iff player 0 wins the game from this node. Thus, they define her winning region, and any model checking algorithm for the modal mu-calculus, suitably specialised to the Walukiewicz formulas, yields an algorithm for solving parity games. In this paper we study the effect of employing the most straight-forward mu-calculus model checking algorithm: fixpoint iteration. This is also one of the few algorithms, if not the only one, that were not originally devised for parity game solving already. While an empirical study quickly shows that this does not yield an algorithm that works well in practice, it is interesting from a theoretical point for two reasons: first, it is exponential on virtually all families of games that were designed as lower bounds for very particular algorithms suggesting that fixpoint iteration is connected to all those. Second, fixpoint iteration does not compute positional winning strategies. Note that the Walukiewicz formulas only define winning regions; some additional work is needed in order to make this algorithm compute winning strategies. We show that these are particular exponential-space strategies which we call eventually-positional, and we show how positional ones can be extracted from them.

  19. Parity horizons in shape dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    I introduce the notion of a parity horizon, and show that many simple solutions of shape dynamics possess them. I show that the event horizons of the known asymptotically flat black hole solutions of shape dynamics are parity horizons and that this notion of parity implies that these horizons possess a notion of CPT invariance that can in some cases be extended to the solution as a whole. I present three new solutions of shape dynamics with parity horizons and find that not only do event horizons become parity horizons in shape dynamics, but observer-dependent horizons and Cauchy horizons do as well. The fact that Cauchy horizons become (singular) parity horizons suggests a general chronology protection mechanism in shape dynamics that prevents the formation of closed timelike curves. (paper)

  20. Parity violation in neutron resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Lowie, L.Y.; Bowman, J.D.; Knudson, J.; Crawford, B.E.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Masuda, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The observation of very large parity violation in neutron resonances has led to a new approach to the study of symmetry breaking in nuclei. The origin of the enhancement of parity violation is discussed, as well as the new (statistical) analysis approach. The TRIPLE experimental system and analysis methods, their improvements are described. Sign correlation and results from recent parity violation experiments are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Parity violation in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of parity violating effects in nuclei is given. Thanks to vigorous experimental and theoretical effort, it now appears that a reasonably well-defined value for the weak isovector π-nucleon coupling constant can be obtained. There is one major uncertainty in the analysis, namely the M2/E1 mixing ratio for the 2.79 MeV transition in 21 Ne. This quantity is virtually impossible to calculate reliably and must be measured. If it turns out to be much larger than 1, then a null result in 21 Ne is expected no matter what the weak interaction, so an experimental determination is urgently needed. The most promising approach is perhaps a measurement of the pair internal conversion coefficient. Of course, a direct measurement of a pure isovector case is highly desirable, and it is to be hoped that the four ΔT = 1 experiments will be pushed still further, and that improved calculations will be made for the 6 Li case. Nuclear parity violation seems to be rapidly approaching an interesting and useful synthesis

  2. R-parity breaking phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1996-02-01

    We review various features of the R-parity breaking phenomenology, with particular attention to the low energy observables, and to the patterns of the R-parity breaking interactions that arise in Grand Unified models. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Charge parity exotic mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Evidence for a meson with exotic quantum numbers J PC 1 -+ , the ρ(1405), has been observed at the AGS at Brookhaven and Crystal Barrel at CERN. This meson is exotic to the extent that its quantum numbers are not consistent with the generalised Pauli exclusion principle applied to the naive constituent quark model. In a fully relativistic field theoretic treatment, however, there is nothing in principle to preclude the existence of charge parity exotics. Using our earlier covariant Bethe-Salpeter model of light-quark mesons with no new parameter fitting we demonstrate the existence of a q - q-bar bound state with the quantum numbers of the ρ

  4. R-parity violating supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, R.; Besancon, M.; Chemtob, M.; Deandrea, A.; Dudas, E.; Fayet, Pierre; Lavignac, S.; Moreau, G.; Perez, E.; Sirois, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The possible appearance of R-parity violating couplings, and hence implicitly the question of lepton and baryon number conservation, has been emphasised since the early development of supersymmetric theories. The rich phenomenology implied by R-parity violation has now gained full attention in the search for supersymmetry. In this review, theoretical and phenomenological implications of R-parity violation in supersymmetric theories are discussed, in relation with particle and astroparticle physics. Fundamental aspects include the relation with continuous and discrete symmetries, up to more recent developments on the Abelian family symmetries and hierarchy of R-parity violating couplings. The question of the generation of the standard model neutrino masses and mixings is presented. The possible contributions of R-parity violating Yukawa couplings in processes involving virtual supersymmetric particles and the resulting constraints are reviewed. Finally, a survey of the direct production of supersymmetric parti...

  5. Winning Cores in Parity Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the novel notion of winning cores in parity games and develop a deterministic polynomial-time under-approximation algorithm for solving parity games based on winning core approximation. Underlying this algorithm are a number properties about winning cores which are interesting...... in their own right. In particular, we show that the winning core and the winning region for a player in a parity game are equivalently empty. Moreover, the winning core contains all fatal attractors but is not necessarily a dominion itself. Experimental results are very positive both with respect to quality...

  6. Parity violation experiments at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    With longitudinally polarized protons at RHIC, even a 1 month dedicated run utilizing both approved major detectors could produce a significant search for new physics in hadron collisions via parity violation. Additionally, in the energy range of RHIC, large ''conventional'' parity violating effects are predicted due to the direct production of the weak bosons W ± and Z 0 . One can even envision measurements of the spin dependent sea-quark structure functions of nucleons using the single-spin parity violating asymmetry of W ± and Z 0

  7. Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Han; Feng, Liang

    2018-01-01

    The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy

  8. Parity at the Planck scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzano, Michele; Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, João

    2018-06-01

    We explore the possibility that well known properties of the parity operator, such as its idempotency and unitarity, might break down at the Planck scale. Parity might then do more than just swap right and left polarized states and reverse the sign of spatial momentum k: it might generate superpositions of right and left handed states, as well as mix momenta of different magnitudes. We lay down the general formalism, but also consider the concrete case of the Planck scale kinematics governed by κ-Poincaré symmetries, where some of the general features highlighted appear explicitly. We explore some of the observational implications for cosmological fluctuations. Different power spectra for right handed and left handed tensor modes might actually be a manifestation of deformed parity symmetry at the Planck scale. Moreover, scale-invariance and parity symmetry appear deeply interconnected.

  9. The Purchasing Power Parity Hypothesis:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... reject the unit root hypothesis in real exchange rates may simply be due to the shortness ..... Violations of Purchasing Power Parity and Their Implications for Efficient ... Official Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market:.

  10. High Girth Column-Weight-Two LDPC Codes Based on Distance Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabofetswe Malema

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available LDPC codes of column weight of two are constructed from minimal distance graphs or cages. Distance graphs are used to represent LDPC code matrices such that graph vertices that represent rows and edges are columns. The conversion of a distance graph into matrix form produces an adjacency matrix with column weight of two and girth double that of the graph. The number of 1's in each row (row weight is equal to the degree of the corresponding vertex. By constructing graphs with different vertex degrees, we can vary the rate of corresponding LDPC code matrices. Cage graphs are used as examples of distance graphs to design codes with different girths and rates. Performance of obtained codes depends on girth and structure of the corresponding distance graphs.

  11. Experimental study of non-binary LDPC coding for long-haul coherent optical QPSK transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoliang; Arabaci, Murat; Yaman, Fatih; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting; Inada, Yoshihisa; Ogata, Takaaki; Aoki, Yasuhiro

    2011-09-26

    The performance of rate-0.8 4-ary LDPC code has been studied in a 50 GHz-spaced 40 Gb/s DWDM system with PDM-QPSK modulation. The net effective coding gain of 10 dB is obtained at BER of 10(-6). With the aid of time-interleaving polarization multiplexing and MAP detection, 10,560 km transmission over legacy dispersion managed fiber is achieved without any countable errors. The proposed nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC code achieves an uncoded BER threshold at 4×10(-2). Potential issues like phase ambiguity and coding length are also discussed when implementing LDPC in current coherent optical systems. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Characterization and Optimization of LDPC Codes for the 2-User Gaussian Multiple Access Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declercq David

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of designing good LDPC codes for the Gaussian multiple access channel (MAC. The framework we choose is to design multiuser LDPC codes with joint belief propagation decoding on the joint graph of the 2-user case. Our main result compared to existing work is to express analytically EXIT functions of the multiuser decoder with two different approximations of the density evolution. This allows us to propose a very simple linear programming optimization for the complicated problem of LDPC code design with joint multiuser decoding. The stability condition for our case is derived and used in the optimization constraints. The codes that we obtain for the 2-user case are quite good for various rates, especially if we consider the very simple optimization procedure.

  13. Evaluation of large girth LDPC codes for PMD compensation by turbo equalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, Lyubomir L; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting; Kueppers, Franko

    2008-08-18

    Large-girth quasi-cyclic LDPC codes have been experimentally evaluated for use in PMD compensation by turbo equalization for a 10 Gb/s NRZ optical transmission system, and observing one sample per bit. Net effective coding gain improvement for girth-10, rate 0.906 code of length 11936 over maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) detector for differential group delay of 125 ps is 6.25 dB at BER of 10(-6). Girth-10 LDPC code of rate 0.8 outperforms the girth-10 code of rate 0.906 by 2.75 dB, and provides the net effective coding gain improvement of 9 dB at the same BER. It is experimentally determined that girth-10 LDPC codes of length around 15000 approach channel capacity limit within 1.25 dB.

  14. On the reduced-complexity of LDPC decoders for ultra-high-speed optical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2010-10-25

    We propose two reduced-complexity (RC) LDPC decoders, which can be used in combination with large-girth LDPC codes to enable ultra-high-speed serial optical transmission. We show that optimally attenuated RC min-sum sum algorithm performs only 0.46 dB (at BER of 10(-9)) worse than conventional sum-product algorithm, while having lower storage memory requirements and much lower latency. We further study the use of RC LDPC decoding algorithms in multilevel coded modulation with coherent detection and show that with RC decoding algorithms we can achieve the net coding gain larger than 11 dB at BERs below 10(-9).

  15. Parity Specific Birth Rates for West Germany: An Attempt to Combine Survey Data and Vital Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we combine vital statistics and survey data to obtain parity specific birth rates for West Germany. Since vital statistics do not provide birth parity information, one is confined to using estimates. The robustness of these estimates is an issue, which is unfortunately only rarely addressed when fertility indicators for (West) Germany are reported. In order to check how reliable our results are, we estimate confidence intervals and compare them to results from survey data and e...

  16. Opportunistic Adaptive Transmission for Network Coding Using Nonbinary LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocco Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Network coding allows to exploit spatial diversity naturally present in mobile wireless networks and can be seen as an example of cooperative communication at the link layer and above. Such promising technique needs to rely on a suitable physical layer in order to achieve its best performance. In this paper, we present an opportunistic packet scheduling method based on physical layer considerations. We extend channel adaptation proposed for the broadcast phase of asymmetric two-way bidirectional relaying to a generic number of sinks and apply it to a network context. The method consists of adapting the information rate for each receiving node according to its channel status and independently of the other nodes. In this way, a higher network throughput can be achieved at the expense of a slightly higher complexity at the transmitter. This configuration allows to perform rate adaptation while fully preserving the benefits of channel and network coding. We carry out an information theoretical analysis of such approach and of that typically used in network coding. Numerical results based on nonbinary LDPC codes confirm the effectiveness of our approach with respect to previously proposed opportunistic scheduling techniques.

  17. Threshold Multi Split-Row algorithm for decoding irregular LDPC codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakir Aqil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a new threshold multi split-row algorithm in order to improve the multi split-row algorithm for LDPC irregular codes decoding. We give a complete description of our algorithm as well as its advantages for the LDPC codes. The simulation results over an additive white gaussian channel show that an improvement in code error performance between 0.4 dB and 0.6 dB compared to the multi split-row algorithm.

  18. Regular health checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based.......To investigate whether Danish providers of general health checks present a balanced account of possible benefits and harms on their websites and whether the health checks are evidence-based....

  19. Real interest parity decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the general causes of real interest rate differentials (rids for a sample of emerging markets for the period of January 1996 to August 2007. To this end, two methods are applied. The first consists of breaking the variance of rids down into relative purchasing power pariety and uncovered interest rate parity and shows that inflation differentials are the main source of rids variation; while the second method breaks down the rids and nominal interest rate differentials (nids into nominal and real shocks. Bivariate autoregressive models are estimated under particular identification conditions, having been adequately treated for the identified structural breaks. Impulse response functions and error variance decomposition result in real shocks as being the likely cause of rids.O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as causas gerais dos diferenciais da taxa de juros real (rids para um conjunto de países emergentes, para o período de janeiro de 1996 a agosto de 2007. Para tanto, duas metodologias são aplicadas. A primeira consiste em decompor a variância dos rids entre a paridade do poder de compra relativa e a paridade de juros a descoberto e mostra que os diferenciais de inflação são a fonte predominante da variabilidade dos rids; a segunda decompõe os rids e os diferenciais de juros nominais (nids em choques nominais e reais. Sob certas condições de identificação, modelos autorregressivos bivariados são estimados com tratamento adequado para as quebras estruturais identificadas e as funções de resposta ao impulso e a decomposição da variância dos erros de previsão são obtidas, resultando em evidências favoráveis a que os choques reais são a causa mais provável dos rids.

  20. Chirality and gravitational parity violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargueño, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Design and Analysis of Adaptive Message Coding on LDPC Decoder with Faulty Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unreliable message storage severely degrades the performance of LDPC decoders. This paper discusses the impacts of message errors on LDPC decoders and schemes improving the robustness. Firstly, we develop a discrete density evolution analysis for faulty LDPC decoders, which indicates that protecting the sign bits of messages is effective enough for finite-precision LDPC decoders. Secondly, we analyze the effects of quantization precision loss for static sign bit protection and propose an embedded dynamic coding scheme by adaptively employing the least significant bits (LSBs to protect the sign bits. Thirdly, we give a construction of Hamming product code for the adaptive coding and present low complexity decoding algorithms. Theoretic analysis indicates that the proposed scheme outperforms traditional triple modular redundancy (TMR scheme in decoding both threshold and residual errors, while Monte Carlo simulations show that the performance loss is less than 0.2 dB when the storage error probability varies from 10-3 to 10-4.

  2. Design of a VLSI Decoder for Partially Structured LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Vacca

    2008-01-01

    of their parity matrix can be partitioned into two disjoint sets, namely, the structured and the random ones. For the proposed class of codes a constructive design method is provided. To assess the value of this method the constructed codes performance are presented. From these results, a novel decoding method called split decoding is introduced. Finally, to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach a whole VLSI decoder is designed and characterized.

  3. Search for local parity violation with STAR ZDC-SMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Gang, E-mail: gwang@physics.ucla.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Parity-odd domains are predicted to lead to charge separation of quarks along the orbital momentum of the system created in non-central relativistic heavy ion collisions. A signal consistent with several of the theoretical expectations has been detected by STAR, with a three particle azimuthal correlator which is a P-even observable, but still sensitive to the charge separation effect. In this correlator, the first two particles are used to reveal the physics of interest, and the third particle serves as a reference for the reaction plane. In this work, to minimize the non-parity correlation between the third particle and the first two, we utilize the spectator neutrons detected by STAR ZDC-SMDs to define the event plane. The 1st-order event plane thus obtained can also be used to study the global strong parity violation effect, and to provide further systematic checks for this analysis. We report measurements of both P-even and P-odd observables using the STAR ZDC-SMDs in Au+Au at 200 GeV. The results are presented as a function of collision centrality, particle separation in rapidity and transverse momentum (p{sub T}). Systematic checks on the impact from the directed flow will also be discussed.

  4. Parity nonconservation and nuclear polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    The hadronic weak interaction contributes to parity nonconserving observables in semileptonic interactions. Weak nuclear polarizabilities are frequently important in such interactions. Some of the interesting physics is illustrated by 18 F, a nucleus that provides an important constraint on the neutral weak hadronic current. One observable where the nuclear polarizability is expected to dominate is the nuclear anapole moment. The long-range pion contribution to this weak radiative correction is explored for both nucleons and nuclei. Similar polarizabilities that arise for time-reversal-odd hadronic interactions that conserve or violate parity are discussed in connection with atomic electric dipole moments. 20 refs., 4 figs

  5. Permutation parity machines for neural synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, O M; Kopitzke, I; Zimmermann, K-H

    2009-01-01

    Synchronization of neural networks has been studied in recent years as an alternative to cryptographic applications such as the realization of symmetric key exchange protocols. This paper presents a first view of the so-called permutation parity machine, an artificial neural network proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machine. The dynamics of the synchronization process by mutual learning between permutation parity machines is analytically studied and the results are compared with those of tree parity machines. It will turn out that for neural synchronization, permutation parity machines form a viable alternative to tree parity machines

  6. Checking Java Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darwin, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut tells you about tools that will improve the quality of your Java code, using checking above and beyond what the standard tools do, including: Using javac options, JUnit and assertions Making your IDE work harder Checking your source code with PMD Checking your compiled code (.class files) with FindBugs Checking your program's run-time behavior with Java PathFinder

  7. Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive non-binary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC-coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, Murat; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Saunders, Ross; Marcoccia, Roberto M

    2010-02-01

    In order to achieve high-speed transmission over optical transport networks (OTNs) and maximize its throughput, we propose using a rate-adaptive polarization-multiplexed coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection based on component non-binary quasi-cyclic (QC) LDPC codes. Compared to prior-art bit-interleaved LDPC-coded modulation (BI-LDPC-CM) scheme, the proposed non-binary LDPC-coded modulation (NB-LDPC-CM) scheme not only reduces latency due to symbol- instead of bit-level processing but also provides either impressive reduction in computational complexity or striking improvements in coding gain depending on the constellation size. As the paper presents, compared to its prior-art binary counterpart, the proposed NB-LDPC-CM scheme addresses the needs of future OTNs, which are achieving the target BER performance and providing maximum possible throughput both over the entire lifetime of the OTN, better.

  8. Decoding Codes on Graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shannon limit of the channel. Among the earliest discovered codes that approach the. Shannon limit were the low density parity check (LDPC) codes. The term low density arises from the property of the parity check matrix defining the code. We will now define this matrix and the role that it plays in decoding. 2. Linear Codes.

  9. Photovoltaic: time for network parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2012 the purchase tariff of photovoltaic power in Germany has been below the price of electricity for households which means that network parity has been reached. New economical schemes combining self-consumption and direct access to the power grid are now possible. (A.C.)

  10. Time reversal and parity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, K.

    1975-01-01

    A recent review by Henley discusses the present status of Time Reversal and Parity symmetry violations, and comments on the implications for high energy hadron scattering. This note will briefly summarize the situation with particular attention to the sizes of possible effects, relating them to experimental accuracy available or reasonably possible at the ZGS

  11. Parity games and propositional proofs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckmann, A.; Pudlák, Pavel; Thapen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2014), s. 17 ISSN 1529-3785 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * mean payoff games * parity games Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2014 http://dl.acm.org/ citation .cfm?doid=2616911.2579822

  12. Parity games and propositional proofs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckmann, A.; Pudlák, Pavel; Thapen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2014), s. 17 ISSN 1529-3785 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * mean payoff games * parity games Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2014 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=2616911.2579822

  13. Supersymmetric models without R parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.G.; Valle, J.W.F.

    1985-01-01

    We show that many supersymmetric models may spontaneously break R parity through scalar neutrinos acquiring a vacuum expectation value (vev). These models allow supersymmetric particles to be produced singly and to decay to nonsupersymmetric states. This leads to a new pattern of supersymmetric phenomenology. We discuss the lepton number violation to be expected in this class of models. (orig.)

  14. The Uncovered Interest Parity in the Foreign Exchange (FX Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Ricardo Micheloto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This work verifies the uncovered interest rates parity (UIP in the FX (foreign exchange emerging markets by using the panel cointegration technique. The data involves several developing countries that compose the EMBI+ Global Index. We compare the results of several panel estimators: OLS (ordinary list square, DOLS (dynamic OLS and FMOLS (fully modified OLS. This new panel technique can handle problems of either non-stationary series (spurious regression or small problem. This latter problem has being considered one of the main causes for distorting the UIP empirical results. By using this approach, we check the UIP in the FX (foreign exchange emerging markets. These markets are more critical because they have been subjected to changing FX regimes and speculative attacks. Our results do not corroborate the uncovered interest parity for the developing countries in the recent years. Thus, the forward premium puzzle may hold in the FX emergent markets.

  15. Reply to "Comments on Techniques and Architectures for Hazard-Free Semi-Parallel Decoding of LDPC Codes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovini Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a reply to the comments by Gunnam et al. "Comments on 'Techniques and architectures for hazard-free semi-parallel decoding of LDPC codes'", EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems, vol. 2009, Article ID 704174 on our recent work "Techniques and architectures for hazard-free semi-parallel decoding of LDPC codes", EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems, vol. 2009, Article ID 723465.

  16. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-06-01

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  17. Permutation parity machines for neural cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Oscar Mauricio; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Recently, synchronization was proved for permutation parity machines, multilayer feed-forward neural networks proposed as a binary variant of the tree parity machines. This ability was already used in the case of tree parity machines to introduce a key-exchange protocol. In this paper, a protocol based on permutation parity machines is proposed and its performance against common attacks (simple, geometric, majority and genetic) is studied.

  18. Stuttering mostly speeds up solving parity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.; Bobaru, M.; Havelund, K.; Holzmann, G.J.; Joshi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering

  19. Σχεδίαση και υλοποίηση ενός LDPC αποκωδικοποιητή για DVB-S2 συστήματα

    OpenAIRE

    Κορδώνη, Μαρίνα

    2009-01-01

    Tα σύγχρονα τηλεπικοινωνιακά συστήματα έχουν υιοθετήσει κώδικες διόρθωσης λαθών με στόχο να αυξήσουν της αξιοπιστία των συστημάτων κατά τη μετάδοση πληροφορίας. Οι LDPC (Low-Density-Parity-Check codes) κώδικες είναι μία κατηγορία κωδίκων που πρόσφατα άρχισαν να απασχολούν την επιστημονική κοινότητα κι αυτό γιατί διαθέτουν εξαιρετικές επιδόσεις. Οι κώδικες αυτοί είναι γραμμικοί block κώδικες με απόδοση πολύ κοντά στο όριο του Shannon. Επιπλέον, ο εύκολος παραλληλισμός της διαδικασίας αποκωδικο...

  20. checkCIF/PLATON (full publication check)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    editor handling your paper, to upload your CIF via our web site. PLATON version of 05/02/2014; check.def file version of 05/02/2014. Datablock I - ellipsoid plot http://vm02b.iucr.org/cgi-bin/checkcif_hkl.pl(第 3/4 页)2014-2-12 09:09:12 ...

  1. The nondiscovery of parity nonconservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, A.

    1989-01-01

    Although experiments in 1928 and 1930 provided evidence for the nonconservation of parity in the weak interactions, it was not until weak interactions were needed in the 1950s to match experiment to theory that these were re-examined. After describing the two experiments and their results, the author concludes that while errors existed, the early works did show parity nonconservation, but their contemporaries in the scientific community rejected their evidence, partly because the theoretical framework to explain it did not yet exist. High energy electron beams meant that experiments reproducing earlier work on beta decay were unlikely to be repeated and because the difference between thermion, C and decay electrons was not then understood. (UK)

  2. Leverage Aversion and Risk Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The authors show that leverage aversion changes the predictions of modern portfolio theory: Safer assets must offer higher risk-adjusted returns than riskier assets. Consuming the high risk-adjusted returns of safer assets requires leverage, creating an opportunity for investors with the ability...... to apply leverage. Risk parity portfolios exploit this opportunity by equalizing the risk allocation across asset classes, thus overweighting safer assets relative to their weight in the market portfolio....

  3. Parity violation in electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    2007-09-01

    The elaboration of the electroweak standard model from the discovery of parity violation to the weak neutral current is described in the first chapter. In the second chapter the author discusses the 2 experimental approaches of the parity violation experiments. In the first approach the weak neutral current can be assumed to be well known and can be used as a probe for the hadronic matter. The second approach consists in measuring the weak neutral current between 2 particles with known internal structure in order to test the predictions of the standard model in the low energy range. The chapters 3 and 4 are an illustration of the first approach through the HAPPEx series of experiments that took place in the Jefferson Laboratory from 1998 to 2005. The HAPPEx experiments aimed at measuring the contribution of strange quarks in the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon through the violation of parity in the elastic scattering at forward angles. The last chapter is dedicated to the E158 experiment that was performed at the Slac (California) between 2000 and 2003. The weak neutral current was measured between 2 electrons and the high accuracy obtained allowed the physics beyond the standard model to be indirectly constraint up to a few TeV. (A.C.)

  4. Analysis and Construction of Full-Diversity Joint Network-LDPC Codes for Cooperative Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capirone Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmit diversity is necessary in harsh environments to reduce the required transmit power for achieving a given error performance at a certain transmission rate. In networks, cooperative communication is a well-known technique to yield transmit diversity and network coding can increase the spectral efficiency. These two techniques can be combined to achieve a double diversity order for a maximum coding rate on the Multiple-Access Relay Channel (MARC, where two sources share a common relay in their transmission to the destination. However, codes have to be carefully designed to obtain the intrinsic diversity offered by the MARC. This paper presents the principles to design a family of full-diversity LDPC codes with maximum rate. Simulation of the word error rate performance of the new proposed family of LDPC codes for the MARC confirms the full diversity.

  5. Low Power LDPC Code Decoder Architecture Based on Intermediate Message Compression Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Togawa, Nozomu; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi

    Reducing the power dissipation for LDPC code decoder is a major challenging task to apply it to the practical digital communication systems. In this paper, we propose a low power LDPC code decoder architecture based on an intermediate message-compression technique which features as follows: (i) An intermediate message compression technique enables the decoder to reduce the required memory capacity and write power dissipation. (ii) A clock gated shift register based intermediate message memory architecture enables the decoder to decompress the compressed messages in a single clock cycle while reducing the read power dissipation. The combination of the above two techniques enables the decoder to reduce the power dissipation while keeping the decoding throughput. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture improves the power efficiency up to 52% and 18% compared to that of the decoder based on the overlapped schedule and the rapid convergence schedule without the proposed techniques respectively.

  6. Study regarding the density evolution of messages and the characteristic functions associated of a LDPC code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăghici, S.; Proştean, O.; Răduca, E.; Haţiegan, C.; Hălălae, I.; Pădureanu, I.; Nedeloni, M.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method with which a set of characteristic functions are associated to a LDPC code is shown and also functions that represent the evolution density of messages that go along the edges of a Tanner graph. Graphic representations of the density evolution are shown respectively the study and simulation of likelihood threshold that render asymptotic boundaries between which there are decodable codes were made using MathCad V14 software.

  7. A Low-Complexity Joint Detection-Decoding Algorithm for Nonbinary LDPC-Coded Modulation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuepeng; Bai, Baoming; Ma, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a low-complexity joint detection-decoding algorithm for nonbinary LDPC codedmodulation systems. The algorithm combines hard-decision decoding using the message-passing strategy with the signal detector in an iterative manner. It requires low computational complexity, offers good system performance and has a fast rate of decoding convergence. Compared to the q-ary sum-product algorithm (QSPA), it provides an attractive candidate for practical applications of q-ary LDP...

  8. Protograph based LDPC codes with minimum distance linearly growing with block size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    We propose several LDPC code constructions that simultaneously achieve good threshold and error floor performance. Minimum distance is shown to grow linearly with block size (similar to regular codes of variable degree at least 3) by considering ensemble average weight enumerators. Our constructions are based on projected graph, or protograph, structures that support high-speed decoder implementations. As with irregular ensembles, our constructions are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code with too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code with too many such nodes tends to not exhibit a minimum distance that grows linearly in block length. In this paper we also show that precoding can be used to lower the threshold of regular LDPC codes. The decoding thresholds of the proposed codes, which have linearly increasing minimum distance in block size, outperform that of regular LDPC codes. Furthermore, a family of low to high rate codes, with thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds, is presented. Simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes have low error floors as well as good threshold SNFt performance.

  9. The parity-preserving massive QED3: Vanishing β-function and no parity anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Del Cima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The parity-preserving massive QED3 exhibits vanishing gauge coupling β-function and is parity and infrared anomaly free at all orders in perturbation theory. Parity is not an anomalous symmetry, even for the parity-preserving massive QED3, in spite of some claims about the possibility of a perturbative parity breakdown, called parity anomaly. The proof is done by using the algebraic renormalization method, which is independent of any regularization scheme, based on general theorems of perturbative quantum field theory.

  10. Non-planar ABJ theory and parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputa, Pawel; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Zoubos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    While the ABJ Chern-Simons-matter theory and its string theory dual manifestly lack parity invariance, no sign of parity violation has so far been observed on the weak coupling spin chain side. In particular, the planar two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory is parity invariant. In this Letter we derive the non-planar part of the two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory in its SU(2)xSU(2) sub-sector. Applying the dilatation generator to short operators, we explicitly demonstrate that, for operators carrying excitations on both spin chains, the non-planar part breaks parity invariance. For operators with only one type of excitation, however, parity remains conserved at the non-planar level. We furthermore observe that, as for ABJM theory, the degeneracy between planar parity pairs is lifted when non-planar corrections are taken into account.

  11. Non-planar ABJ Theory and Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputa, Pawel; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Zoubos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    we derive the non-planar part of the two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory in its SU(2)xSU(2) sub-sector. Applying the dilatation generator to short operators, we explicitly demonstrate that, for operators carrying excitations on both spin chains, the non-planar part breaks parity invariance......While the ABJ Chern-Simons-matter theory and its string theory dual manifestly lack parity invariance, no sign of parity violation has so far been observed on the weak coupling spin chain side. In particular, the planar two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory is parity invariant. In this letter....... For operators with only one type of excitation, however, parity remains conserved at the non-planar level. We furthermore observe that, as for ABJM theory, the degeneracy between planar parity pairs is lifted when non-planar corrections are taken into account....

  12. Parity-non-conserving nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and phenomenological approaches to parity-non-conserving nuclear forces are reviewed. Recent developments in the calculation of weak meson-nucleon coupling constants, whose knowledge is necessary to determine theoretically the parity-non-conserving nucleon-nucleon potential, are described. The consistency of different measurements of parity-non-conserving effects is discussed and the information they provide is compared to theoretical predictions

  13. Spontaneous parity violation and minimal Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, H.; Martins Simoes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a model for the spontaneous breaking of parity with two Higgs doublets and two neutral Higgs singlets which are even and odd under D-parity. The condition υ R >>υ L can be satisfied without introducing bidoublets, and it is induced by the breaking of D-parity through the vacuum expectation value of the odd Higgs singlet. Examples of left-right symmetric and mirror fermions models in grand unified theories are presented. (orig.)

  14. Environmental Reality Check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicone, Santo

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of educational facilities conducting "reality check" self-audits to uncover the real truth behind underlying environmental problems. An environmental compliance multimedia checklist is included. (GR)

  15. check cif.pdf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMMIN

    Calculated. Reported. Volume ... PLAT094_ALERT_2_C Ratio of Maximum / Minimum Residual Density .... 3.24 Report ... checkCIF was carefully designed to identify outliers and unusual parameters, but every test has its limitations and alerts ...

  16. Quaternionic formulation of the exact parity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumby, S.P.; Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.

    1996-02-28

    The exact parity model (EPM) is a simple extension of the standard model which reinstates parity invariance as an unbroken symmetry of nature. The mirror matter sector of the model can interact with ordinary matter through gauge boson mixing, Higgs boson mixing and, if neutrinos are massive, through neutrino mixing. The last effect has experimental support through the observed solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. In the paper it is shown that the exact parity model can be formulated in a quaternionic framework. This suggests that the idea of mirror matter and exact parity may have profound implications for the mathematical formulation of quantum theory. 13 refs.

  17. Quaternionic formulation of the exact parity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumby, S.P.; Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The exact parity model (EPM) is a simple extension of the standard model which reinstates parity invariance as an unbroken symmetry of nature. The mirror matter sector of the model can interact with ordinary matter through gauge boson mixing, Higgs boson mixing and, if neutrinos are massive, through neutrino mixing. The last effect has experimental support through the observed solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. In the paper it is shown that the exact parity model can be formulated in a quaternionic framework. This suggests that the idea of mirror matter and exact parity may have profound implications for the mathematical formulation of quantum theory. 13 refs

  18. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  19. Progressive transmission of images over fading channels using rate-compatible LDPC codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiang; Banihashemi, Amir H; Cuhadar, Aysegul

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a combined source/channel coding scheme for transmission of images over fading channels. The proposed scheme employs rate-compatible low-density parity-check codes along with embedded image coders such as JPEG2000 and set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT). The assignment of channel coding rates to source packets is performed by a fast trellis-based algorithm. We examine the performance of the proposed scheme over correlated and uncorrelated Rayleigh flat-fading channels with and without side information. Simulation results for the expected peak signal-to-noise ratio of reconstructed images, which are within 1 dB of the capacity upper bound over a wide range of channel signal-to-noise ratios, show considerable improvement compared to existing results under similar conditions. We also study the sensitivity of the proposed scheme in the presence of channel estimation error at the transmitter and demonstrate that under most conditions our scheme is more robust compared to existing schemes.

  20. A Novel Modified Algorithm with Reduced Complexity LDPC Code Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel efficient decoding algorithm reduced the sum-product algorithm (SPA Complexity with LPDC code is proposed. Base on the hyperbolic tangent rule, modified the Check node update with two horizontal process, which have similar calculation, Motivated by the finding that sun- min (MS algorithm reduce the complexity reducing the approximation error in the horizontal process, simplify the information weight small part. Compared with the exiting approximations, the proposed method is less computational complexity than SPA algorithm. Simulation results show that the author algorithm can achieve performance very close SPA.

  1. Cooperative MIMO Communication at Wireless Sensor Network: An Error Correcting Code Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Han, Young Shin

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative communication in wireless sensor network (WSN) explores the energy efficient wireless communication schemes between multiple sensors and data gathering node (DGN) by exploiting multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and multiple input single output (MISO) configurations. In this paper, an energy efficient cooperative MIMO (C-MIMO) technique is proposed where low density parity check (LDPC) code is used as an error correcting code. The rate of LDPC code is varied by varying the length of message and parity bits. Simulation results show that the cooperative communication scheme outperforms SISO scheme in the presence of LDPC code. LDPC codes with different code rates are compared using bit error rate (BER) analysis. BER is also analyzed under different Nakagami fading scenario. Energy efficiencies are compared for different targeted probability of bit error pb. It is observed that C-MIMO performs more efficiently when the targeted pb is smaller. Also the lower encoding rate for LDPC code offers better error characteristics. PMID:22163732

  2. Check valves aging assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out an assessment of several check value diagnostic monitoring methods, in particular, those based on measurements of acoustic emission, ultrasonics, and magnetic flux. The evaluations have focussed on the capabilities of each method to provide information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects, check valve failures, and undesirable operating modes. This paper describes the benefits and limitations associated with each method and includes recent laboratory and field test data, including data obtained from the vendors who recently participated in a comprehensive series of tests directed by a nuclear industry users group. In addition, as part of the ORNL Advanced Diagnostic Engineering Research and Development Center (ADEC), two novel nonintrusive monitoring methods were developed that provide several unique capabilities. These methods, based on external ac- an dc-magnetic monitoring are also described. None of the examined methods could, by themselves, monitor both the instantaneous position and motion of check valve internals and valve leakage; however, the combination of acoustic emission monitoring with one of the other methods provides the means to determine vital check valve operational information

  3. A cure for stuttering parity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.; Roychoudhury, A.; D'Souza, M.

    2012-01-01

    We define governed stuttering bisimulation for parity games, weakening stuttering bisimulation by taking the ownership of vertices into account only when this might lead to observably different games. We show that governed stuttering bisimilarity is an equivalence for parity games and allows for a

  4. A cure for stuttering parity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    We de¿ne governed stuttering bisimulation for parity games, weakening stuttering bisimulation by taking the ownership of vertices into account only when this might lead to observably different games. We show that governed stuttering bisimilarity is an equivalence for parity games and allows for a

  5. Weak NNM couplings and nuclear parity violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    After many years of careful theoretical and experimental study of nuclear parity violation, rough empirical values for weak parity violation nucleon-nucleon-meson vertices have been deduced. We address some of the physics which has been learned from this effort and show that it has implications for work going on outside this field. (author)

  6. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We

  7. Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Han

    2018-01-17

    The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy to the complex quantum potentials, photonics provides an ideal platform for visualization of many conceptually striking predictions from the non-Hermitian quantum theory. A rapidly developing field has emerged, namely, PT symmetric photonics, demonstrating intriguing optical phenomena including eigenstate coalescence and spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. The advance of quantum physics, as the feedback, provides photonics with brand-new paradigms to explore the entire complex permittivity plane for novel optical functionalities. Here, we review recent exciting breakthroughs in PT symmetric photonics while systematically presenting their underlying principles guided by non-Hermitian symmetries. The potential device applications for optical communication and computing, bio-chemical sensing, and healthcare are also discussed.

  8. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  9. Diseño de decodificadores de altas prestaciones para código LDPC

    OpenAIRE

    Angarita Preciado, Fabian Enrique

    2013-01-01

    En esta tesis se han investigado los algoritmos de decodificación para códigos de comprobación de paridad de baja densidad (LDPC) y las arquitecturas para la implementación hardware de éstos. El trabajo realizado se centra en los algoritmos del tipo de intercambio de mensajes para códigos estructurados los cuales se incluyen en varios estándares de comunicaciones. Inicialmente se han evaluado las prestaciones de los algoritmos existentes Sum-product, Min-Sum y las principales variantes de...

  10. LDPC-based iterative joint source-channel decoding for JPEG2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Lingling; Wu, Zhenyu; Bilgin, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W; Vasic, Bane

    2007-02-01

    A framework is proposed for iterative joint source-channel decoding of JPEG2000 codestreams. At the encoder, JPEG2000 is used to perform source coding with certain error-resilience (ER) modes, and LDPC codes are used to perform channel coding. During decoding, the source decoder uses the ER modes to identify corrupt sections of the codestream and provides this information to the channel decoder. Decoding is carried out jointly in an iterative fashion. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method requires fewer iterations and improves overall system performance.

  11. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  12. [Memory Checking Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph T.

    Two basic tests for checking memory skills are included in these appendices. The first, the General Information Test, uses the same 150 items for each of its two versions. One version is a completion-type test which measures recall by requiring the examinee to supply a specific response. The other version supplements each of the 150 items with…

  13. Check Sample Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  14. Models of dynamical R-parity violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Slone, Oren; Volansky, Tomer [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-06-08

    The presence of R-parity violating interactions may relieve the tension between existing LHC constraints and natural supersymmetry. In this paper we lay down the theoretical framework and explore models of dynamical R-parity violation in which the breaking of R-parity is communicated to the visible sector by heavy messenger fields. We find that R-parity violation is often dominated by non-holomorphic operators that have so far been largely ignored, and might require a modification of the existing searches at the LHC. The dynamical origin implies that the effects of such operators are suppressed by the ratio of either the light fermion masses or the supersymmetry breaking scale to the mediation scale, thereby providing a natural explanation for the smallness of R-parity violation. We consider various scenarios, classified by whether R-parity violation, flavor breaking and/or supersymmetry breaking are mediated by the same messenger fields. The most compact case, corresponding to a deformation of the so called flavor mediation scenario, allows for the mediation of supersymmetry breaking, R-parity breaking, and flavor symmetry breaking in a unified manner.

  15. A naturally narrow positive-parity Θ+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Carl E.; Carone, Christopher D.; Kwee, Herry J.; Nazaryan, Vahagn

    2004-01-01

    We present a consistent color-flavor-spin-orbital wave function for a positive-parity Θ + that naturally explains the observed narrowness of the state. The wave function is totally symmetric in its flavor-spin part and totally antisymmetric in its color-orbital part. If flavor-spin interactions dominate, this wave function renders the positive-parity Θ + lighter than its negative-parity counterpart. We consider decays of the Θ + and compute the overlap of this state with the kinematically allowed final states. Our results are numerically small. We note that dynamical correlations between quarks are not necessary to obtain narrow pentaquark widths

  16. Grid parity: the quest for the Grail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahjejian, L.

    2012-01-01

    The cost of photovoltaic systems is decreasing and the price of electrical power is increasing, so at one moment the 2 curves will meet and at that moment there will be grid parity, it means that the photovoltaic power will be as competitive as other energies and will need no more subsidies. In Denmark the electricity is so expensive that the grid parity has already been reached and photovoltaic power is developing there on the basis of net metering. According to the EPIA (European Association for Photovoltaic Industry), France, Germany, Italy, Spain and United-Kingdom will reach grid parity by 2020. (A.C.)

  17. Advanced GF(32) nonbinary LDPC coded modulation with non-uniform 9-QAM outperforming star 8-QAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-06-27

    In this paper, we first describe a 9-symbol non-uniform signaling scheme based on Huffman code, in which different symbols are transmitted with different probabilities. By using the Huffman procedure, prefix code is designed to approach the optimal performance. Then, we introduce an algorithm to determine the optimal signal constellation sets for our proposed non-uniform scheme with the criterion of maximizing constellation figure of merit (CFM). The proposed nonuniform polarization multiplexed signaling 9-QAM scheme has the same spectral efficiency as the conventional 8-QAM. Additionally, we propose a specially designed GF(32) nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC code for the coded modulation system based on the 9-QAM non-uniform scheme. Further, we study the efficiency of our proposed non-uniform 9-QAM, combined with nonbinary LDPC coding, and demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulation that the proposed GF(23) nonbinary LDPC coded 9-QAM scheme outperforms nonbinary LDPC coded uniform 8-QAM by at least 0.8dB.

  18. Positronic complexes with unnatural parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, M. W. J.; Mitroy, J.; Varga, K.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the unnatural parity states of PsH, LiPs, NaPs, and KPs are investigated with the configuration interaction and stochastic variational methods. The binding energies (in hartree) are found to be 8.17x10 -4 , 4.42x10 -4 , 15.14x10 -4 , and 21.80x10 -4 , respectively. These states are constructed by first coupling the two electrons into a configuration which is predominantly 3 P e , and then adding a p-wave positron. All the active particles are in states in which the relative angular momentum between any pair of particles is at least L=1. The LiPs state is Borromean since there are no three-body bound subsystems (of the correct symmetry) of the (Li + , e - , e - , e + ) particles that make up the system. The dominant decay mode of these states will be radiative decay into a configuration that autoionizes or undergoes positron annihilation

  19. Swing check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eminger, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A swing check valve which includes a valve body having an inlet and outlet is described. A recess in the valve body designed to hold a seal ring and a check valve disc swingable between open and closed positions. The disc is supported by a high strength wire secured at one end in a support spacer pinned through bearing blocks fixed to the valve body and at its other end in a groove formed on the outer peripheral surface of the disc. The parts are designed and chosen such to provide a lightweight valve disc which is held open by minimum velocity of fluid flowing through the valve which thus reduces oscillations and accompanying wear of bearings supporting the valve operating parts. (Auth.)

  20. Check Verbraucherpolitik und Verbraucherbeteiligung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Kornelia; Micklitz, Hans-W.; Oehler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the opportunities for an empirically grounded decision support system as an instrument for independent and scientifically based consumer policy consulting. To date, consumer policy is dominated by the information paradigm and the leitbild of the rational, sovereign...... and information-seeking consumer. Yet, both everyday practice and research in behavioural economics show that this view lacks empirical ground. In fact, there are different consumer types and different forms of rationalities at work. Effective consumer policy making should be based on the empirically revealed...... an empirically based “Check Consumer Policy and Consumer Participation” as a systematic decision and evaluation tool for policy makers. This check should be independent from the government and should be grounded on an empirical view of the consumer. Consumer policy tools should be tested with real consumers...

  1. Parity dependence of the nuclear level density at high excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.V.; Agrawal, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The basic underlying assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) in the level density function ρ(U, J, π) has been checked on the basis of high quality data available on individual resonance parameters (E 0 , Γ n , J π ) for s- and p-wave neutrons in contrast to the earlier analysis where information about p-wave resonance parameters was meagre. The missing level estimator based on the partial integration over a Porter-Thomas distribution of neutron reduced widths and the Dyson-Mehta Δ 3 statistic for the level spacing have been used to ascertain that the s- and p-wave resonance level spacings D(0) and D(1) are not in error because of spurious and missing levels. The present work does not validate the tacit assumption ρ(l+1, J)=ρ(l, J) and confirms that the level density depends upon parity at high excitation. The possible implications of the parity dependence of the level density on the results of statistical model calculations of nuclear reaction cross sections as well as on pre-compound emission have been emphasized. (orig.)

  2. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  3. Magnetically operated check valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    A magnetically operated check valve is disclosed. The valve is comprised of a valve body and a movable poppet disposed therein. A magnet attracts the poppet to hold the valve shut until the force of fluid flow through the valve overcomes the magnetic attraction and moves the poppet to an unseated, open position. The poppet and magnet are configured and disposed to trap a magnetically attracted particulate and prevent it from flowing to a valve seating region.

  4. Polarized protons and parity violating asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueman, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for utilizing parity violating effects, associated with polarized protons, to study the standard model, proton structure, and new physics at the SPS Collider is summarized. 24 references

  5. Testing R-parity with geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang-Hui [Department of Mathematics, City University, London,Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); School of Physics, NanKai University,94 Weijin Road, Tianjin, 300071 (China); Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Jejjala, Vishnu [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, and School of Physics,University of the Witwatersrand,1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Matti, Cyril [Department of Mathematics, City University, London,Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, and School of Physics,University of the Witwatersrand,1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Nelson, Brent D. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University,360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    We present a complete classification of the vacuum geometries of all renormalizable superpotentials built from the fields of the electroweak sector of the MSSM. In addition to the Severi and affine Calabi-Yau varieties previously found, new vacuum manifolds are identified; we thereby investigate the geometrical implication of theories which display a manifest matter parity (or R-parity) via the distinction between leptonic and Higgs doublets, and of the lepton number assignment of the right-handed neutrino fields. We find that the traditional R-parity assignments of the MSSM more readily accommodate the neutrino see-saw mechanism with non-trivial geometry than those superpotentials that violate R-parity. However there appears to be no geometrical preference for a fundamental Higgs bilinear in the superpotential, with operators that violate lepton number, such as νHH̄, generating vacuum moduli spaces equivalent to those with a fundamental bilinear.

  6. R-parity from the heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    In T-duality invariant effective supergravity with gaugino condensation as the mechanism for supersymmetry breaking, there is a residual discrete symmetry that could play the role of R-parity in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model

  7. Leptogenesis from R parity non-conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambye, T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Ma, E. [Riverside Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sarkar, U. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India)

    2000-07-01

    It is known that realistic neutrino masses for neutrino oscillations may be obtained from R parity nonconserving supersymmetry. It is also known that such interactions would erase any preexisting lepton or baryon asymmetry of the Universe because of the inevitable intervention of the electroweak sphalerons. It is showed how a crucial subset of these R parity nonconserving terms may in fact create its own successful leptogenesis.

  8. Leptogenesis from R parity non-conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambye, T.; Ma, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is known that realistic neutrino masses for neutrino oscillations may be obtained from R parity nonconserving supersymmetry. It is also known that such interactions would erase any preexisting lepton or baryon asymmetry of the Universe because of the inevitable intervention of the electroweak sphalerons. It is showed how a crucial subset of these R parity nonconserving terms may in fact create its own successful Leptogenesis

  9. Absolute purchasing power parity in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhibai; Bian, Zhicun

    2015-01-01

    Different from popular studies that focus on relative purchasing power parity, we study absolute purchasing power parity (APPP) in 21 main industrial countries. Three databases are used. Both the whole period and the sub-period are analyzed. The empirical proof shows that the phenomenon that APPP holds is common, and the phenomenon that APPP does not hold is also common. In addition, some country pairs and the pooled country data indicate that the nearer the GDPPs of two countries are, the mo...

  10. Little Higgs models and T parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelstein, Maxim

    2006-01-01

    Little Higgs models are an interesting extension of the standard model at the TeV scale. They provide a simple and attractive mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. We review one of the simplest models of this class, the littlest Higgs model, and its extension with T parity. The model with T parity satisfies precision electroweak constraints without fine-tuning, contains an attractive dark matter candidate, and leads to interesting phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). (author)

  11. Efficient Parallel Strategy Improvement for Parity Games

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2017-01-01

    We study strategy improvement algorithms for solving parity games. While these algorithms are known to solve parity games using a very small number of iterations, experimental studies have found that a high step complexity causes them to perform poorly in practice. In this paper we seek to address this situation. Every iteration of the algorithm must compute a best response, and while the standard way of doing this uses the Bellman-Ford algorithm, we give experimental results that show that o...

  12. Parity non-conservation in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkov, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    The parity non-conservation discovered in particle physics in 1959 has consequences on the behaviour of atoms illuminated by light of circular polarization. The theoretical treatments of this topic and recent experimental test of detecting the effects of parity non-conservation on atomic physics are listed, reviewed and illustrated. The main experimental results and limits are summarized. Proposed future experiments are discussed. (D.Gy.)

  13. Parity violation in two-nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.-P., E-mail: cpliu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China)

    2013-03-15

    Nuclear few-body systems become attractive avenues for the study of low-energy parity violation because experiments start to meet the precision requirements and theoretical calculations can be performed reliably. In this talk, an attempt of parametrizing low-energy parity-violating observables by the Danilov parameters will be introduced. Analyses of two-nucleon observables, based on the modern phenomenological potentials or the one of effective field theory, will be discussed.

  14. Parity and the medicalization of addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken; Miller, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Parity, the idea that insurance coverage for the treatment of addiction should be on a par with insurance coverage for the treatment of other medical illnesses, is not a new idea, but the path to achieving "real parity" has been a long, hard and complex journey. Action by Congress to pass major parity legislation in 2008 was a huge step forward, but does not mean that parity has been achieved. Parity has required a paradigm shift in the understanding of addiction as a biological illness: many developments of science and policy changes by professional organizations and governmental entities have contributed to that paradigm shift. Access to adequate treatment for patients must acknowledge the paradigm shift reflected in parity as it has evolved to the current point: that this biological illness is widespread, that it is important that it be treated effectively, that appropriate third party payment for physician-provided or physician-supervised addiction treatment is critical for addiction medicine to become a part of the mainstream of our nation's healthcare delivery system, and that medical specialty care provides the most effective and cost effective benefit to patients and therefore to our society.

  15. Investigations on the parity of Fano resonances in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerkryger, Andreas Dyhl; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Yu, Yi

    We investigate the relation between the parity of Fano resonances and field distribution in a photonic crystal structure using Fourier modal method, establishing a correlation between Fano parity and field profile.......We investigate the relation between the parity of Fano resonances and field distribution in a photonic crystal structure using Fourier modal method, establishing a correlation between Fano parity and field profile....

  16. Magnetic Check Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G.; Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Poppet in proposed check valve restored to closed condition by magnetic attraction instead of spring force. Oscillations suppressed, with consequent reduction of wear. Stationary magnetic disk mounted just upstream of poppet, also containing magnet. Valve body nonmagnetic. Forward pressure or flow would push poppet away from stationary magnetic disk so fluid flows easily around poppet. Stop in valve body prevents poppet from being swept away. When flow stopped or started to reverse, magnetic attraction draws poppet back to disk. Poppet then engages floating O-ring, thereby closing valve and preventing reverse flow. Floating O-ring facilitates sealing at low loads.

  17. Check, check, double check: checking the autopilot causes distrust : Experimental studies on the effects of compulsive perseveration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by persistent doubt. The majority of patients with OCD engage in repeated checking to reduce these feelings of uncertainty. However, numerous studies demonstrated that repetitive behavior ironically increases uncertainty: perseverative checking

  18. Mental Health Insurance Parity and Provider Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H

    2017-06-01

    Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.

  19. Repeated checking causes memory distrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain why in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) checkers distrust in memory persists despite extensive checking. It is argued that: (1) repeated checking increases familiarity with the issues checked; (2) increased familiarity promotes conceptual processing which inhibits

  20. Parallel Algorithms for Model Checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jaco; Mousavi, Mohammad Reza; Sgall, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Model checking is an automated verification procedure, which checks that a model of a system satisfies certain properties. These properties are typically expressed in some temporal logic, like LTL and CTL. Algorithms for LTL model checking (linear time logic) are based on automata theory and graph

  1. Simulasi Teknik Pengkodean Regular Low Density Parity Check Code Pada Sistem MC-CDMA

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Juliandy

    2009-01-01

    Sebagai efek dari perkembangan jaman, teknologi telekomunikasi khususnya dalam sistem komunikasi wireless, dituntut untuk dapat menyediakan layanan data yang berkecepatan tinggi (high data rate) dengan Quality of Service (QoS) yang reliable dengan kata lain memiliki Bit Error Rate (BER) yang kecil dengan daya sekecil mungkin). Masalah yang timbul dalam komunikasi bergerak adalah adanya multipath fading, yang mengakibatkan adanya kesalahan data yang diterima pada Receiver menjadi meningkat.Sis...

  2. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHARZEEV, D.; PISARSKI, R.D.; TYTGAT, M.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N r a rrow ∞. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T d , is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero θ--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T d . Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the ηprime meson, and especially the η meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as η r a rrow π 0 π 0 , are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define

  3. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.

    1998-04-16

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.

  4. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Kant

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recursive parity game solving algorithm by Zielonka for symbolic parity games. We use Multi-valued Decision Diagrams (MDDs to represent sets and relations, thus enabling the tools to deal with very large systems. The transition relation is partitioned based on the structure of the specification, which allows for efficient manipulation of the MDDs. We performed two case studies on modular specifications, that demonstrate that the new method has better time and memory performance than existing PBES based tools and can be faster (but slightly less memory efficient than the symbolic model checker NuSMV.

  5. Recursive construction of (J,L (J,L QC LDPC codes with girth 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gholami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‎In this paper‎, ‎a recursive algorithm is presented to generate some exponent matrices which correspond to Tanner graphs with girth at least 6‎. ‎For a J×L J×L exponent matrix E E‎, ‎the lower bound Q(E Q(E is obtained explicitly such that (J,L (J,L QC LDPC codes with girth at least 6 exist for any circulant permutation matrix (CPM size m≥Q(E m≥Q(E‎. ‎The results show that the exponent matrices constructed with our recursive algorithm have smaller lower-bound than the ones proposed recently with girth 6‎

  6. Ball check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1978-01-01

    A pressurized nuclear reactor having an instrument assembly sheathed in a metallic tube which is extended vertically upward into the reactor core by traversing a metallic guide tube which is welded to the wall of the vessel is described. Sensors in each instrument assembly are connected to instruments outside the vessel to manifest the conditions within the core. Each instrument assembly probe is moved into position within a metallic guide channel. The guide channel penetrates the wall of the vessel and forms part of the barrier to the environment within the pressure vessel. Each channel includes a ball check valve which is opened by the instrument assembly probe when the probe passes through the valve. A ball valve element is moved from its seat by the probe to a position lateral of the bore of the channel and is guided to its seat along a sloped path within the valve body when the probe is removed. 5 claims, 3 figures

  7. Parity violating nuclear force by meson mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Niskanen, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    We study a mechanism for parity violation in the two nucleon meson-exchange interaction by way of the mixing of mesons of opposite parities. This mixing arises from parity violating W ± and Z exchange between the q bar q pair in the meson. Numerically its effect turns out to be as important as vector meson exchange with a weak meson-nucleon vertex and may partly be used to model this vertex. The calculation is performed using both the standard Born approximation adding the amplitude phases by Watson's theorem and also using the exact correlated two-nucleon wave functions. The effect of correlations and form factors is found to be crucially important at intermediate energies

  8. On the reduced-complexity of LDPC decoders for beyond 400 Gb/s serial optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2010-12-01

    Two reduced-complexity (RC) LDPC decoders are proposed, which can be used in combination with large-girth LDPC codes to enable beyond 400 Gb/s serial optical transmission. We show that optimally attenuated RC min-sum sum algorithm performs only 0.45 dB worse than conventional sum-product algorithm, while having lower storage memory requirements and much lower latency. We further evaluate the proposed algorithms for use in beyond 400 Gb/s serial optical transmission in combination with PolMUX 32-IPQ-based signal constellation and show that low BERs can be achieved for medium optical SNRs, while achieving the net coding gain above 11.4 dB.

  9. Parity nonconservation in 19 Ne atomic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Sorina; Dumitrescu, Ovidiu

    1997-01-01

    The possibility to extract from the experiment the necessary information concerning the charged and neutral current contributions to the structure of the weak interactions that violate the parity conservation law is investigated. The parity nonconservation (PNC) induced by weak hadron-hadron interactions, investigated via 'pairs' of low energy nuclear physics processes, is proposed. The low energy physics processes considered here are emission of polarized gamma rays from oriented and unoriented nuclei. Some comments on PNC nucleon-nucleon (PNC-NN) interaction are presented. Explicit expressions for some gamma asymmetry PNC observables are retrieved. Applications to A=19 atomic nuclei are done. A new experiment is proposed. (authors)

  10. The young Sakharov and his isotopic parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper an account is given of A.D. Sakharov's 1947 discovery, while a post-graduate student at F.I.A.N. (Moscow), of his quantum number isotopic parity as a consequence of the charge symmetry of nuclear forces, a property generally accepted as early as 1936. His applications of it are discussed and it is demonstrated from the data today that his tentative suggestion that the small partial width (∼35 eV) for α-decay from 20 Ne (13.649 MeV) to 16 O was due to isotopic parity violation was correct

  11. Parity doubling in the baryon string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlachev, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of parity doubling of baryon states with non-zero angular momentum is considered. The idea of explaining this phenomenon lies in the fact that the rotation of the gluon string leads to a centrifugal potential for quarks. The quarks on the string form a quark-diquark system. Quark tunneling from one end of the string to the other is not probable for systems with large angular momentum due to a large centrifugal potential, and the smallness of the underbarrier transition amplitude explains the small mass difference of the states with opposite parity. (orig.)

  12. Res-Parity: Parity Violation in Inelastic scattering at Low Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Reimer; Peter Bosted; John Arrington; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Xiaochao Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Parity violating electron scattering has become a well established tool which has been used, for example, to probe the Standard Model and the strange-quark contribution to the nucleon. While much of this work has focused on elastic scattering, the RES-Parity experiment, which has been proposed to take place at Jefferson Laboratory, would focus on inelastic scattering in the low-Q 2 , low-W domain. RES-Parity would search for evidence of quark-hadron duality and resonance structure with parity violation in the resonance region. In terms of parity violation, this region is essentially unexplored, but the interpretation of other high-precision electron scattering experiments will rely on a reasonable understanding of scattering at lower energy and low-W through the effects of radiative corrections. RES-Parity would also study nuclear effects with the weak current. Because of the intrinsic broad band energy spectrum of neutrino beams, neutrino experiments are necessarily dependent on an untested, implicit assumption that these effects are identical to electromagnetic nuclear effects. RES-Parity is a relatively straight forward experiment. With a large expected asymmetry (∼ 0.5 x 10 -4 ) these studies may be completed with in a relatively brief period

  13. Comments on “Techniques and Architectures for Hazard-Free Semi-Parallel Decoding of LDPC Codes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Yeary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a comment article on the publication “Techniques and Architectures for Hazard-Free Semi-Parallel Decoding of LDPC Codes” Rovini et al. (2009. We mention that there has been similar work reported in the literature before, and the previous work has not been cited correctly, for example Gunnam et al. (2006, 2007. This brief note serves to clarify these issues.

  14. Parity and the spin{statistics connection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple demonstration of the spin-statistics connection for general causal fields is obtained by using the parity operation to exchange spatial coordinates in the scalar product of a locally commuting field operator, evaluated at position x, with the same field operator evaluated at -x, at equal times.

  15. Parity violation in deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souder, P. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    AA beam of polarized electrons at CEBAF with an energy of 8 GeV or more will be useful for performing precision measurements of parity violation in deep inelastic scattering. Possible applications include precision tests of the Standard Model, model-independent measurements of parton distribution functions, and studies of quark correlations.

  16. Parity nonconservation in Zeeman atomic transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, A.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The abilities to observe the parity violation at the radiofrequency transitions between the hyperfine and Zeeman terms of the atomic levels are considered. The E-1 amplitudes fo the Zeeman transitions of heavy atoms in weak magnetic fields are larger, than for the light atoms hyperfine transitions at the same wavelength. 9 refs

  17. Systemic sclerosis, birth order and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul A J; Lester, Susan; Roberts-Thomson, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    A recent study identified increasing birth order to be a risk factor for the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc). This finding supports the theory that transplacental microchimerism may be a key pathological event in the initiation of SSc. We investigated the relationship between birth order and parity and the age of onset of SSc in South Australia. A retrospective analysis of patient data in the South Australian Scleroderma Register was performed. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire. Control data was collected prospectively using a similar questionnaire. The relationship between birth order, family size or parity and risk of subsequent development of SSc was analyzed by mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and eighty-seven index probands were identified and compared with 457 controls. Controls were well matched for gender, but not for age. No statistically significant relationship was identified between SSc and birth order, parity in females, family size, age at first pregnancy in females or gender of first child in parous females. Our data suggests that parity, age at first pregnancy and the gender of the first child are not relevant factors in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSc. Birth order and family size in both genders also appears irrelevant. These results argue against microchimerism as being relevant in the pathogenesis of SSc and add further support to the theory that stochastic events may be important in the etiopathogenesis of SSc. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Obstacles to Gender Parity in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatynskyj, Marta; Davidson, Valerie; Stiver, Warren; Hayward, Maren

    2008-01-01

    Low rates of women's enrolment in engineering programs has been identified as a global problem within the general concern to enable women to attain parity in education in all areas. A Western women in engineering meta-narrative is identified which contains a complex of obstacles that typify the situation of Western women. The question is asked…

  19. Purchasing Power Parity and Heterogeneous Mean Reversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the properties of multivariate tests of purchasing power parity (PPP) that fail to take heterogeneity in the speed of mean reversion across real exchange rates into account. We compare the performance of homogeneous and heterogeneous unit root testing methodologies.

  20. Purchasing Power Parity and the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes purchasing power parity (PPP) for the euro area. We study the impact of the introduction of the euro in 1999 on the behavior of real exchange rates. We test the PPP hypothesis for a panel of real exchange rates within the euro area over the period 1973-2003. Our

  1. Determination of the K*(1800) spin parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, G W; Carnegie, R K; Cashmore, R J; Davier, M; Dunwoodie, W M; Lasinski, T A; Leith, D W.G.S.; Matthews, J A.J.; Walden, P; Williams, S H [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Calif. (USA)

    1976-02-16

    A spherical harmonic moment analysis of the reactions K/sup -/p..-->..K/sup -/..pi../sup +/n and K/sup +/p..-->..K/sup +/..pi../sup -/..delta../sup + +/ at 13 GeV/c demonstrates the existence of a broad K* state with mass in the vicinity of 1800 MeV and spin parity 3/sup -/.

  2. Parity violation in neutron induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, V.P.

    1991-06-01

    The theory of parity violation in neutron induced reactions is discussed. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence and enhancement factors for the various types of nuclear reactions and the information which might be obtained from P-violating effects in nuclei. (author)

  3. Justification of a "Crucial" Experiment: Parity Nonconservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Allan; Smokler, Howard

    1981-01-01

    Presents history, nature of evidence evaluated, and philosophical questions to justify the view that experiments on parity nonconservation were "crucial" experiments in the sense that they decided unambiguously and within a short period of time for the appropriate scientific community, between two or more competing theories or classes of theories.…

  4. Contraceptive Use: Implication for Completed Fertility, Parity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    NDHS, 2008 dataset on married women aged 45-49 was used. Chi-square ... About 26.0% of the women ever used contraception, while 9.0% of the women were underweight. Parity ..... Working Paper, Labour and Population, 2004. 2.

  5. A measurement of the eta' spin parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerrada, M.; Wagner, F.; Chaloupka, V.; Hemingway, R.J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Losty, M.J.; Loverre, P.F.; Marzano, F.; Blokzijl, R.; Jongejans, B.; Massaro, G.G.G.; Schotanus, D.J.; Tiecke, H.G.; Timmermans, J.J.M.; Foster, B.; McDowell, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The spin parity of the eta'(958) is studied in the reaction K - p→eta'Λ at 4.2 GeV/c, using bubble chamber data with a statistical sensitivity of 128 events/μb. The data unambiguously prefer the 0 - assignment. (Auth.)

  6. A measurement of the eta ' spin parity

    CERN Document Server

    Cerrada, M; Chaloupka, V; Foster, B; Hemingway, R J; Holmgren, S O; Jongejans, B; Losty, Michael J; Loverre, P F; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McDowell, W L; Schotanus, D J; Tiecke, H G; Timmermans, J; Wagner, F

    1977-01-01

    The spin parity of the eta '(958) is studied in the reaction K/sup -/p to eta ' Lambda at 4.2 GeV/c, using bubble chamber data with a statistical sensitivity of 128 events/ mu b. The data unambiguously prefer the 0/sup -/ assignment. (18 refs).

  7. Nonlinear parity readout with a microwave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    Robust high-fidelity parity measurement is an important operation in many applications of quantum computing. In this work we show how in a circuit QED architecture, one can measure parity in a single shot at very high contrast by taking advantage of the nonlinear behavior of a strongly driven microwave cavity coupled to one or multiple qubits. We work in a nonlinear dispersive regime treated in an exact dispersive transformation. We show that appropriate tuning of experimental parameters leads to very high contrast in the cavity and therefore to a high-efficiency parity readout with a microwave photon counter or another amplitude detector. These tuning conditions are based on nonlinearity and are hence more robust than previously described linear tuning schemes. In the first part of the paper we show in detail how to achieve this for two-qubit parity measurements and extend this to N qubits in the second part of the paper. We also study the quantum nondemolition character of the protocol.

  8. Verification-Based Interval-Passing Algorithm for Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaofu; Yang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    We propose a verification-based Interval-Passing (IP) algorithm for iteratively reconstruction of nonnegative sparse signals using parity check matrices of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes as measurement matrices. The proposed algorithm can be considered as an improved IP algorithm by further incorporation of the mechanism of verification algorithm. It is proved that the proposed algorithm performs always better than either the IP algorithm or the verification algorithm. Simulation resul...

  9. The Influence of International Parity on the Exchange Rate: Purchasing Power Parity and International Fisher Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Mionel

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of the inflation and interest rates on the exchange rates. The analysis tests the relation between the inflation rate and the exchange rate by applying the Purchasing Power Parity Theory, while the relation between the interest rate and the inflation rate is tested by applying the International Fisher Effect Theory. In order to test the Purchasing Power Parity the study takes into account the period of time between 1990 – 2009, and the following countries – th...

  10. Relationship between parity and bone mass in postmenopausal women according to number of parities and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Behzad; Heidari, Parnaz; Nourooddini, Haj Ghorban; Hajian-Tilaki, Karim Ollah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the impact of multiple pregnancies on postmenopausal bone mineral density (BMD). BMD at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. Diagnosis of osteoporosis (OP) was confirmed by World Health Organization criteria. Women were stratified according to number of parity as 7 parity groups as well as in age groups of or = 65 years. BMD values and frequency of OP were compared across the groups according to age. Multiple logistic regression analysis with calculation of adjusted odds ratio (OR) was used for association. A total of 264 women with mean age of 63 +/- 8.7 and mean menopausal duration of 15.8 +/- 10.2 years were studied. LS-OP and FN-OP were observed in 28% and 58.3% of women, respectively. There were significant differences in BMD values across different parity groups at both sites of LS and FN (p = 0.011 and p = 0.036, respectively). Parity 4-7 (vs. 7 significantly decreased LS-BMD and FN-BMD as compared with 0-7 parity (p = 0.006 and p = 0.009, respectively). Parity > 7 increased the risk of LS-OP by OR = 1.81 (95% CI 1.03-3.1, p = 0.037) and FN-OP by OR = 1.67 (95% CI 0.97-2.8, p = 0.063). In addition, women with high parity had lower BMD decline at LS and FN by age (> or = 65 vs. 7 is associated with spinal trabecular bone loss in younger postmenopausal women as well as an osteoprotective effect against age-related bone loss, which counteracts the early negative effect. Therefore, parity should not be considered as a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  11. Judging children's participatory parity from social justice and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge ...

  12. Compositional and Quantitative Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of a composition model checking methodology and its succesfull instantiation to the model checking of networks of finite-state, timed, hybrid and probabilistic systems with respect; to suitable quantitative versions of the modal mu-calculus [Koz82]. The method is based...

  13. Diagnostic information in compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani Taghiabadi, E.; Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Compliance checking is gaining importance as today's organizations need to show that operational processes are executed in a controlled manner while satisfying predefined (legal) requirements. Deviations may be costly and expose the organization to severe risks. Compliance checking is of growing

  14. On the equivalence of Ising models on ‘small-world’ networks and LDPC codes on channels with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Izaak; Skantzos, Nikos S

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the equivalence between thermodynamic observables of Ising spin-glass models on small-world lattices and the decoding properties of error-correcting low-density parity-check codes on channels with memory. In particular, the self-consistent equations for the effective field distributions in the spin-glass model within the replica symmetric ansatz are equivalent to the density evolution equations forr Gilbert–Elliott channels. This relationship allows us to present a belief-propagation decoding algorithm for finite-state Markov channels and to compute its performance at infinite block lengths from the density evolution equations. We show that loss of reliable communication corresponds to a first order phase transition from a ferromagnetic phase to a paramagnetic phase in the spin glass model. The critical noise levels derived for Gilbert–Elliott channels are in very good agreement with existing results in coding theory. Furthermore, we use our analysis to derive critical noise levels for channels with both memory and asymmetry in the noise. The resulting phase diagram shows that the combination of asymmetry and memory in the channel allows for high critical noise levels: in particular, we show that successful decoding is possible at any noise level of the bad channel when the good channel is good enough. Theoretical results at infinite block lengths using density evolution equations aree compared with average error probabilities calculated from a practical implementation of the corresponding decoding algorithms at finite block lengths. (paper)

  15. Coupled oscillators with parity-time symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoy, Eduard N., E-mail: etsoy@uzsci.net

    2017-02-05

    Different models of coupled oscillators with parity-time (PT) symmetry are studied. Hamiltonian functions for two and three linear oscillators coupled via coordinates and accelerations are derived. Regions of stable dynamics for two coupled oscillators are obtained. It is found that in some cases, an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. A family of Hamiltonians for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained. An extension to high-dimensional PT-symmetric systems is discussed. - Highlights: • A generalization of a Hamiltonian system of linear coupled oscillators with the parity-time (PT) symmetry is suggested. • It is found that an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. • A family of Hamiltonian functions for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained.

  16. Photovoltaic is redolent of grid parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    This article indicates and comments the current trends of decrease of photovoltaic costs and increase of electricity prices. As a result, grid parity is starting to be reached in some countries (Mexico city, California, Australia, Italy, Germany, Israel, Chile) and nearly in southern France only, as the prices of residential electricity are rather low and therefore don't give any chance to network parity for solar photovoltaic. Curves of evolutions of photovoltaic costs and retail electricity prices are given for different towns (Berlin, London, Rome, Madrid, Marseilles, San Francisco, Sydney, and Copiapo in Chile). These evolutions are a positive factor for the development of self-consumption. The article thus evokes the PV-NET project which gathers several European regions or countries to test and assess different economic solutions of self-consumption

  17. Parity nonconservation in two-nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    The observation of a violation of the parity symmetry in two-nucleon systems implies the presence of a weak hadronic force. The positive effect reported by Lobashov et al. in the reaction np → dγ, for the circular polarization of the gamma ray, would imply a large value for the parity nonconserving (PNC) amplitude. A transmission experiment has been undertaken for 15-MeV longitudinally polarized protons on hydrogen. A transmission experiment for 6-GeV polarized protons on Be and on H 2 O is in progress at the ZGS at Argonne National Laboratory. The current results of the latter two experiments are summarized, and the relation to theoretical calculations is discussed. (2 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)

  18. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.; Frankle, C.M.; Green, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of parity violation in the compound nucleus is reviewed. The results of previous experimental results obtained by scattering polarized epithermal neutrons from heavy nuclei in the 3-p and 4-p p-wave strength function peaks are presented. Experimental techniques are presented. The extraction of the mean squared matrix element of the parity-violating interaction, M 2 , between compound-nuclear levels and the relationship of M 2 to the coupling strengths in the meson exchange weak nucleon-nucleon potential are discussed. The tendency of measured asymmetries to have a common sign and theoretical implications are discussed. New experimental results are presented that show that the common sign phenomenon is not universal, as theoretical models developed up to now would predict

  19. Parity simulation for nuclear plant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Depiente, E.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the transient performance of nuclear plants is sufficiently complex that simulation tools are needed for design and safety studies. The simulation tools are needed for design and safety studies. The simulation tools are normally digital because of the speed, flexibility, generality, and repeatability of digital computers. However, communication with digital computers is an awkward matter, requiring special skill or training. The designer wishing to gain insight into system behavior must expend considerable effort in learning to use computer codes, or else have an intermediary communicate with the machine. There has been a recent development in analog simulation that simplifies the user interface with the simulator, while at the same time improving the performance of analog computers. This development is termed parity simulation and is now in routine use in analyzing power electronic network transients. The authors describe the concept of parity simulation and present some results of using the approach to simulate neutron kinetics problems

  20. Parity nonconserving optical rotation in atomic lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, T.P. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement of parity nonconserving optical rotation has been performed on the 1.28 μm atomic lead magnetic dipole transition. Although the technique used in this measurement was similar to that used in earlier measurements done on the 0.876 μm line in atomic bismuth, important differences exist. These are discussed in detail. Since the accuracy of this measurement is limited by systematic errors, a complete analysis of the data is included with a lengthy discussion of systematic effects. The final value obtained for the optical rotation is given. This agrees with atomic calculations based on the Weinberg-Salam-Galshow model for weak interactions. A discussion of the limits on weak interaction theories placed by all the atomic parity nonconservation experiments appears in the conclusion

  1. Gender Parity in Critical Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sangeeta; Burns, Karen E A; Machado, Flavia R; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Cook, Deborah J; Calfee, Carolyn S; Ware, Lorraine B; Burnham, Ellen L; Kissoon, Niranjan; Marshall, John C; Mancebo, Jordi; Finfer, Simon; Hartog, Christiane; Reinhart, Konrad; Maitland, Kathryn; Stapleton, Renee D; Kwizera, Arthur; Amin, Pravin; Abroug, Fekri; Smith, Orla; Laake, Jon H; Shrestha, Gentle S; Herridge, Margaret S

    2017-08-15

    Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. These documents inform and shape patient care around the world. In this Perspective we discuss the importance of diversity on guideline panels, the disproportionately low representation of women on critical care guideline panels, and existing initiatives to increase the representation of women in corporations, universities, and government. We propose five strategies to ensure gender parity within critical care medicine.

  2. Purchasing power parity a different approach

    OpenAIRE

    Σακελλής, Παναγιώτης

    2001-01-01

    Historically, Purchasing Power Parity (henceforth PPP) provides the simplest explanation of long-run exchange rate determination, according to which the equilibrium exchange rate between domestic and foreign currencies equals the ratio between domestic and foreign prices. A few years ago, PPP validity theory seemed like a fairly dull research topic. On the one hand the unavoidable effects of floating exchange rates made it obvious to even its most stubborn defenders that PPP is not a short-ru...

  3. Odd-parity baryons: progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The odd-parity baryons have provided a graveyard for many cherished ideas about hadrons. The simple quark shell model, with QCD-inspired phenomenological perturbations, is the only model able to describe the states with even partial qualitative success. There are also important unexplained residual dynamical effects. Resonance decays can be accounted for, provided the usual spectator model is abandoned. Better experimental data could help to sort out the many remaining puzzles

  4. Do Firms Believe in Interest Rate Parity?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R. McBrady; Sandra Mortal; Michael J. Schill

    2010-01-01

    Using a broad sample of international corporate bond offerings, we provide evidence that corporate borrowers make opportunistic currency choices, in that they denominate the currency of their bonds in a manner that is inconsistent with a belief in either covered or uncovered interest rate parity. Using firm-level tests, we identify a number of characteristics of firms that engage in opportunistic behavior. We observe that large issuers located in developed markets with investment-grade rating...

  5. Nonlinear Trend and Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    luo, yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the evidence on the purchasing power parity (PPP) in the long run is still a matter of debate. The difficulties of the problem are the possible nonstationarity of relative price indices and nominal exchange rates. The traditional ways to deal with nonstationarity such as unit root model and cointegration have some problems. In this paper, to deal with nonstationarity, we apply the Hodrick-Prescott (HP) trend-cycle filter in real busine...

  6. Negative parity non-strange baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancu, F.; Stassart, P.

    1991-01-01

    Our previous study is extended to negative parity baryon resonances up to J=(9/2) - . The framework is a semi-relativistic constituent quark model. The quark-quark interaction contains a Coulomb plus linear confinement terms and a short distance spin-spin and tensor terms. It is emphasized that a linear confinement potential gives too large a mass to the D 35 (1930) resonance. (orig.)

  7. Parity violation in the compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G. E.; Crawford, B. E.; Grossmann, C. A.; Lowie, L. Y.; Bowman, J. D.; Knudson, J.; Penttilae, S.; Seestrom, S. J.; Smith, D. A.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Yuan, V. W.; Delheij, P. P. J.; Haseyama, T.; Masaike, A.; Matsuda, Y.; Postma, H.; Roberson, N. R.; Sharapov, E. I.; Stephenson, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on the helicity dependence of the neutron resonance cross section for many nuclei by our TRIPLE Collaboration. A large number of parity violations are observed. Generic enhancements amplify the signal for symmetry breaking and the stochastic properties of the compound nucleus permit the strength of the symmetry-breaking interaction to be determined without knowledge of the wave functions of individual states. A total of 15 nuclei have been analyzed with this statistical approach. The results are summarized

  8. Excited negative parity bands in 160Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Curien, D.; Dedes, I.; Mazurek, K.; Banerjee, S. R.; Rajbanshi, S.; Bisoi, A.; de Angelis, G.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Bhattacharyya, S.; Biswas, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Das Gupta, S.; Dey, B.; Goswami, A.; Mondal, D.; Pandit, D.; Palit, R.; Roy, T.; Singh, R. P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.

    2018-03-01

    Negative parity rotational bands in {} 70160Yb{}90 nucleus have been studied. They were populated in the 148Sm(16O, 4n)160Yb reaction at 90 MeV. The gamma-coincidence data have been collected using Indian National Gamma Array composed of twenty Compton suppressed clover germanium (Ge) detectors. Double gating on triple gamma coincidence data were selectively used to develop the decay scheme for these negative parity bands by identifying and taking care of the multiplet transitions. The even- and odd-spin negative parity bands in 160Yb have been studied by comparing the reduced transition probability ratios with the similar bands in neighbouring even-even rare earth nuclei. It is concluded that the concerned odd-spin and even-spin bands are not signature partners and that their structures are compatible with those of the ‘pear-shape’ and ‘pyramid-shape’ oscillations, respectively, the octupole shapes superposed with the quadrupole shape of the ground-state.

  9. Odd-parity light baryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamermann, D.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Salcedo, L. L.; Nieves, J.

    2011-01-01

    We use a consistent SU(6) extension of the meson-baryon chiral Lagrangian within a coupled channel unitary approach in order to calculate the T matrix for meson-baryon scattering in the s wave. The building blocks of the scheme are the π and N octets, the ρ nonet and the Δ decuplet. We identify poles in this unitary T matrix and interpret them as resonances. We study here the nonexotic sectors with strangeness S=0, -1, -2, -3 and spin J=(1/2), (3/2) and (5/2). Many of the poles generated can be associated with known N, Δ, Σ, Λ, Ξ and Ω resonances with negative parity. We show that most of the low-lying three and four star odd-parity baryon resonances with spin (1/2) and (3/2) can be related to multiplets of the spin-flavor symmetry group SU(6). This study allows us to predict the spin-parity of the Ξ(1620), Ξ(1690), Ξ(1950), Ξ(2250), Ω(2250) and Ω(2380) resonances, which have not been determined experimentally yet.

  10. No parity anomaly in massless QED3: A BPHZL approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cima, O.M.; Franco, D.H.T.; Piguet, O.; Schweda, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter we call into question the perturbatively parity breakdown at 1-loop for the massless QED 3 frequently claimed in the literature. As long as perturbative quantum field theory is concerned, whether a parity anomaly owing to radiative corrections exists or not shall be definitely proved by using a renormalization method independent of any regularization scheme. Such a problem has been investigated in the framework of BPHZL renormalization method, by adopting the Lowenstein-Zimmermann subtraction scheme. The 1-loop parity-odd contribution to the vacuum-polarization tensor is explicitly computed in the framework of the BPHZL renormalization method. It is shown that a Chern-Simons term is generated at that order induced through the infrared subtractions - which violate parity. We show then that, what is called 'parity anomaly', is in fact a parity-odd counterterm needed for restauring parity.

  11. Scram system with continuos check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Sacco, Walter.

    1976-02-01

    The equipment described pretends to be a further step to the use of integrated circuits in nuclear instrumentation, considering that this type of control was traditionally carried out on the bases of electromechanical elements. A continuous self-check method has been applied in accordance with the high reliability requiered for this type of equipments. The developed equipment fulfils the condition that any deficiency in its component elements, causes an anormal self-detected operation. The equipment covers two systems: the Scram one, that includes the sequence generator-detector, the rods check and scram chain, and the Check system that uses pulses from the sequence detector. (author) [es

  12. LDPC decoder with a limited-precision FPGA-based floating-point multiplication coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberly, Raymond; O'Sullivan, Michael; Waheed, Khurram

    2007-09-01

    Implementing the sum-product algorithm, in an FPGA with an embedded processor, invites us to consider a tradeoff between computational precision and computational speed. The algorithm, known outside of the signal processing community as Pearl's belief propagation, is used for iterative soft-decision decoding of LDPC codes. We determined the feasibility of a coprocessor that will perform product computations. Our FPGA-based coprocessor (design) performs computer algebra with significantly less precision than the standard (e.g. integer, floating-point) operations of general purpose processors. Using synthesis, targeting a 3,168 LUT Xilinx FPGA, we show that key components of a decoder are feasible and that the full single-precision decoder could be constructed using a larger part. Soft-decision decoding by the iterative belief propagation algorithm is impacted both positively and negatively by a reduction in the precision of the computation. Reducing precision reduces the coding gain, but the limited-precision computation can operate faster. A proposed solution offers custom logic to perform computations with less precision, yet uses the floating-point format to interface with the software. Simulation results show the achievable coding gain. Synthesis results help theorize the the full capacity and performance of an FPGA-based coprocessor.

  13. Treasury Check Verification Query (TCVQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The TCVQ system determines the SSN of an individual whose check has been returned to a local field office. The FO is able to request this information via the TCVQ...

  14. Model Checking Algorithms for CTMDPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Peter; Hahn, Ernst Moritz; Hermanns, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Continuous Stochastic Logic (CSL) can be interpreted over continuoustime Markov decision processes (CTMDPs) to specify quantitative properties of stochastic systems that allow some external control. Model checking CSL formulae over CTMDPs requires then the computation of optimal control strategie...

  15. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  16. Parity Symmetry and Parity Breaking in the Quantum Rabi Model with Addition of Ising Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiong; He Zhi; Yao Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility to generate new parity symmetry in the quantum Rabi model after a bias is introduced. In contrast to a mathematical treatment in a previous publication [J. Phys. A 46 (2013) 265302], we consider a physically realistic method by involving an additional spin into the quantum Rabi model to couple with the original spin by an Ising interaction, and then the parity symmetry is broken as well as the scaling behavior of the ground state by introducing a bias. The rule can be found that the parity symmetry is broken by introducing a bias and then restored by adding new degrees of freedom. Experimental feasibility of realizing the models under discussion is investigated. (paper)

  17. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  18. An experimental comparison of coded modulation strategies for 100 Gb/s transceivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, E.; Alvarado, A.; Okonkwo, C.; Thomsen, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Coded modulation is a key technique to increase the spectral efficiency of coherent optical communication systems. Two popular strategies for coded modulation are turbo trellis-coded modulation (TTCM) and bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) based on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes.

  19. Opportunistic error correction for OFDM-based DVB systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2013-01-01

    DVB-T2 (second generation terrestrial digital video broadcasting) employs LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) codes combined with BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquengham) codes, which has a better performance in comparison to convolutional and Reed-Solomon codes used in other OFDM-based DVB systems. However,

  20. Parity violation in polarized electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    The weak forces are responsible for the decay of radioactive nuclei, and it was in these decay processes where parity non-conservation was first observed. Beta decay occurs through emission of e + or e - particles, indicating that the weak force can carry charge of both signs, and it was natural to speculate on the existence of a neutral component of the weak force. Even though weak neutral forces had not been observed it was conjectured that a neutral component of weak decay could exist, and Zel'dovich in 1957 suggested that parity violating effects may be observable in electron scattering and in atomic spectra. More than twenty years have passed since the early conjectures, and a great deal has been learned. Progress in quantum field theory led to the development of the SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions and provided a renormalizable theory with a minimum of additional assumptions. Gauge theories predicted the existence of a new force, the neutral current interaction. This new interaction was first seen in 1973 in the Gargamelle bubble chamber at CERN. Today the neutral currents are accepted as well established, and it is the details of the neutral current structure that occupy attention. In particular the role that electrons play cannot be tested readily in neutrino beams (recent neutrino-electron scattering experiments are, however, rapidly improving this situation) and therefore interest in electron-hadron neutral current effects has been high. Parity violation is a unique signature of weak currents, and measurements of its size are a particularly important and sensitive means for determining the neutral current structure

  1. New parity, same old attitude towards psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-03-01

    Full parity of health insurance benefits for treatment of mental illness, including substance use disorders, is a major achievement. However, the newly-published regulations implementing the legislation strongly endorse aggressive managed care as a way of containing costs for the new equality of coverage. Reductions in "very long episodes of out-patient care," hospitalization, and provider fees, along with increased utilization, are singled out as achievements of managed care. Medical appropriateness as defined by expert medical panels is to be the basis of authorizing care, though clinicians are familiar with a history of insurance companies' application of "medical necessity" to their own advantage. The regulations do not single out psychotherapy for attention, but long-term psychotherapy geared to the needs of each patient appears to be at risk. The author recommends that the mental health professions strongly advocate for the growing evidence base for psychotherapy including long-term therapy for complex mental disorders; respect for the structure and process of psychotherapy individualized to patients' needs; awareness of the costs of aggressive managed care in terms of money, time, administrative burden, and interference with the therapy; and recognition of the extensive training and experience required to provide psychotherapy as well as the stresses and demands of the work. Parity in out-of-network benefits could lead to aggressive management of care given by non-network practitioners. Since a large percentage of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals stay out of networks, implementation of parity for out-of-network providers will have to be done in a way that respects the conditions under which they would be willing and able to provide services, especially psychotherapy, to insured patients. The shortage of psychiatrists makes this an important access issue for the insured population in need of care.

  2. Parity nonconservation in the hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupp, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of experiments to detect parity nonconserving (PNC) mixing of the 2s/sub a/2/ and 2p/sub 1/2/ levels of the hydrogen atom in a 570 Gauss magnetic field is described. The technique involves observation of an asymmetry in the rate of microwave induced transitions at 1608 MHz due to the interference of two amplitudes, one produced by applied microwave and static electric fields and the other produced by an applied microwave field and the 2s/sub 1/2/-2p/sub 1/2/ mixing inducd by a PNC Hamiltonian

  3. The parity doublet model with fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyrich, Johannes; Smekal, Lorenz von [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Strodthoff, Nils [Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In the 1970s the Walecka model and the chiral Walecka model were developed and have since been studied intensively. It was noted early on, however, that the chiral model leads to massless Lee-Wick nuclear matter in the chirally restored phase. A promising variant to describe nuclear matter and chiral symmetry restoration consistently is the parity doublet model (or mirror model). It has already been treated in a mean field (MF) approach with promising results. This is motivation for us to to examine this model with functional renormalization group (FRG) methods, hence including full mesonic fluctuations.

  4. Parity violating asymmetries in polarized electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derman, E.; Marciano, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    We discuss parity violating asymmetries between the scattering of right and left-handed electrons on a variety of targets. Implications for gauge theories from recent SLAC results on deep-inelastic electron-deuterium and electron-proton scattering are examined. A derivation of the asymmetry for electron-electron scattering is given, its advantages are pointed out, and the feasibility of such a measurement is discussed. Other proposed or contemplated asymmetry experiments are reviewed and the necessity of including the Collins-Wilczek-Zee hadronic axial isoscalar current contribution in asymmetry predictions is noted

  5. Parity violation experiments at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oers, W.T.H.

    1996-06-01

    The status of the TRIUMF 221 MeV proton-proton violation experiment is reviewed. Several other proton-proton parity violation experiments in the in the intermediate energy range, currently in various stages of preparation, are discussed. A new experiment at an energy of 5.13 GeV (and if confirmed also at an energy of tens of GeV) is needed to follow on the earlier unexpected large result obtained at 5.13 GeV. (author)

  6. Parity violation in polarized p-p scattering at 222 MEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, D.; Birchall, J.; Campbell, J.; Davis, C.A.; Davison, N.E.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; Oers, W.T.H. van; Davis, C.A.; Healey, D.C.; Schmor, P.W.; Stinson, G.M.; Boyce, M.; Green, P.W.; Korkmaz, E.; Soukup, J.; Bowman, J.D.; Mischke, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is in progess at TRIUMF to measure the parity-violating longitudinal analyzing power A z in polarizedp-p scattering at 222 MeV. Previous measurements at 15 and 45 MeV have determined the parity-mixed partial wave scattering amplitude to high precision. In contrast, only the ( 3 P 2 - 1 D 2 ) amplitude contributes to A z at 222 MeV. These two amplitudes yield complementary information on the underlying parity violating reaction mechanism. In a weak meson exchange model, the ( 3 P 2 - 1 D 2 ) amplitude is entirely due to rho meson exchange, and the present experiment affords a unique opportunity to measure the weak ρ-N coupling strength h ρ . At TRIUMF, a 500 nA beam of longitudinally polarized protons (p z ∼0.8) from the optically pumped polarized ion source will be scattered from a 20 cm liquid hydrogen target. A unique feature of this experiment is that A z will be measured in two different geometries (scattering and transmission mode) simultaneously, which will provide a crucial consistency check on the results. Monte Carlo simulations have confirmed that d.c. ionization chambers used to collect the transmitted and scattered protons in the two simultaneous measurements will achieve comparable statistical accuracies in the ∼ 300 hour counting time proposed for the experiment. High precision monitoring devices are being constructed and tested at TRIUMF to monitor changes in beam properties, such as beam position and residual transverse polarization, that can contribute to systematic errors in the parity violation measurements. The present status of the detector developments and systematic error controls will be discussed

  7. Parity anomalies in gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.; Yahalom, R.

    1986-01-01

    We show that the introduction of massless fermions in an abelian gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions does not lead to any parity anomaly despite a non-commutativity of limits in the structure function of the odd part of the vacuum polarization tensor. However, parity anomaly does exist in non-abelian theories due to a conflict between gauge invariance under large gauge transformations and the parity symmetry. 6 refs

  8. Κ-meson decays and parity violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1948 and 1954 many Κ-meson decay modes were observed, including the tau, pion and xi positives, in emulsion experiments all with masses around 500 MeV. An attempt was made to rationalize the various names for the new particles being discovered. A period of experimental consolidation followed. An attempt was then made to determine the spin parity of the three-pion system from tau plus decay using matrix calculations. New stripped emulsion techniques now permitted a secondary-particle track to be followed to its endpoint. Stacked emulsions were flown in balloons to study Κ mesons and hyperons using cosmic radiation. Later similar work used the new particle accelerators, the Cosmotron and the Bevatron as sources. The author showed that the tau plus and theta plus were competing decay modes of the same Κ + meson, but this meant that parity conservation was violated. Later theoreticians T D Lee and C N Yang provided evidence for this surprising idea from their work on semileptonic weak interactions. (UK)

  9. Checking behavioral conformance of artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Leoni, de M.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of process models (e.g., for analysis, improvement, or execution) strongly depends on their ability to describe reality. Conformance checking is a technique to validate how good a given process model describes recorded executions of the actual process. Recently, artifacts have been

  10. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just

    2013-01-01

    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is still...

  11. Context-aware compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Verbeek, H.M.W.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Barros, A.; Gal, A.; Kindler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations face more and more the burden to show that their business is compliant with respect to many different boundaries. The activity of compliance checking is commonly referred to as auditing. As information systems supporting the organization’s business record their usage, process mining

  12. 27 CFR 70.101 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 70.101 Section....101 Bad checks. If any check or money order in payment of any amount receivable under Title 26 of the... appropriate TTB officer that such check was tendered in good faith and that such person had reasonable cause...

  13. Model Checking Markov Chains: Techniques and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapreev, I.S.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation deals with four important aspects of model checking Markov chains: the development of efficient model-checking tools, the improvement of model-checking algorithms, the efficiency of the state-space reduction techniques, and the development of simulation-based model-checking

  14. Study of positive-parity yrast band in 83Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Banerjee, P.; Ray, I.; Kshetri, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Goswami, A.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, R.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the positive-parity yrast band in the odd-A 81,83,85 Rb (Z=37) isotopes show remarkable changes as N increases. The objective of the present work is to study the structure of the lowest positive-parity band in 83 Rb from lifetime studies

  15. Parents' Child Care Experience: Effects of Sex and Parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Andrew R.; Glanville, Bradley B.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 94 couples to determine effects on child care experience associated with gender, parity, and various other demographic variables. As expected, women had higher scores than men. Experience was a linear function of parity for men, but not for women, and was unrelated to attitudes toward women. Implications for child care responsibility are…

  16. R-parity violating supersymmetry and neutrino physics: experimental signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsou, Vasiliki A.

    2015-10-09

    $R$-parity violating supersymmetric models (RPV SUSY) are becoming increasingly more appealing than its $R$-parity conserving counterpart in view of the hitherto non-observation of SUSY signals at the LHC. In this paper, we discuss RPV scenarios where neutrino masses are naturally generated, namely RPV through bilinear terms (bRPV) and the $\\mu$-from-$\

  17. Separation of the 1+ /1- parity doublet in 20Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, J.; Stumpf, C.; Scheck, M.; Pietralla, N.; Deleanu, D.; Filipescu, D. M.; Glodariu, T.; Haxton, W.; Idini, A.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Raut, R.; Romig, C.; Roth, R.; Rusev, G.; Savran, D.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wagner, J.; Weller, H. R.; Zamfir, N.-V.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-02-01

    The (J , T) = (1 , 1) parity doublet in 20Ne at 11.26 MeV is a good candidate to study parity violation in nuclei. However, its energy splitting is known with insufficient accuracy for quantitative estimates of parity violating effects. To improve on this unsatisfactory situation, nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using linearly and circularly polarized γ-ray beams were used to determine the energy difference of the parity doublet ΔE = E (1-) - E (1+) = - 3.2(± 0.7) stat(-1.2+0.6)sys keV and the ratio of their integrated cross sections Is,0(+) /Is,0(-) = 29(± 3) stat(-7+14)sys. Shell-model calculations predict a parity-violating matrix element having a value in the range 0.46-0.83 eV for the parity doublet. The small energy difference of the parity doublet makes 20Ne an excellent candidate to study parity violation in nuclear excitations.

  18. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  19. Parity and isospin in pion condensation and tensor binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, E.; Palumbo, F.

    1978-01-01

    In infinite nuclear matter with pion condensates or tensor binding both parity and isospin symmetries are broken. Finite nuclei with pion condensates or tensor binding, however, can have definite parity. They cannot have a definite value of isospin, whose average value is of the order of the number of nucleons. (Auth.)

  20. Evaluation of the influence of maternal parity on neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal Parity has been shown to increase the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), prematurity, and mortality. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of maternal parity on neonatal anthropometric parameters among Hausas in Kano. Five hundred and twenty one ...

  1. Parity violation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    I discuss the present status of our understanding of parity nonconservation (PNC) in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, and some of the difficulties inherent in nuclear tests of PNC. I also discuss the nucleon/nuclear anapole moment, the parity violating coupling of the photon, and its relation to the PNC NN interaction. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. Possible Odd Parity State in 128Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, L.; Malmskog, S.G.

    1966-07-01

    Gamma lines in the decay of I have been measured by means of a Ge(Li) detector. The following gamma ray energies have been obtained: 442.5 ± 0.05, 526.5 ± 0.5, 742.4 ±1.0, 969.0 ± 1.0, and 1136.5 ±2.0 keV. The 1136.5 keV transition defines a level in 128 Xe at 1579 ± 2 keV. From the log ft = 7.8 ± 0.3 of the (β - feeding, this level is believed to have an odd parity. Upper limits of gamma ray intensities for transitions around eV are used to set a limit for the population of the expected 0 + level originating from the two-phonon quadrupole vibration

  3. Parity doublers in chiral potential quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu. S.; Nefediev, A. V.; Ribeiro, J. E. F. T.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry over the spectrum of highly excited hadrons is addressed in the framework of a microscopic chiral potential quark model (Generalised Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model) with a vectorial instantaneous quark kernel of a generic form. A heavy-light quark-antiquark bound system is considered, as an example, and the Lorentz nature of the effective light-quark potential is identified to be a pure Lorentz-scalar, for low-lying states in the spectrum, and to become a pure spatial Lorentz vector, for highly excited states. Consequently, the splitting between the partners in chiral doublets is demonstrated to decrease fast in the upper part of the spectrum so that neighboring states of an opposite parity become almost degenerate. A detailed microscopic picture of such a 'chiral symmetry restoration' in the spectrum of highly excited hadrons is drawn and the corresponding scale of restoration is estimated

  4. Nuclear parity violation in effective field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shilin; Maekawa, C.M.; Holstein, B.R.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.; Kolck, U. van

    2005-01-01

    We reformulate the analysis of nuclear parity violation (PV) within the framework of effective field theory (EFT). To O(Q), the PV nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction depends on five a priori unknown constants that parameterize the leading-order, short-range four-nucleon operators. When pions are included as explicit degrees of freedom, the potential contains additional medium- and long-range components parameterized by PV πNN coupling. We derive the form of the corresponding one- and two-pion-exchange potentials. We apply these considerations to a set of existing and prospective PV few-body measurements that may be used to determine the five independent low-energy constants relevant to the pionless EFT and the additional constants associated with dynamical pions. We also discuss the relationship between the conventional meson-exchange framework and the EFT formulation, and argue that the latter provides a more general and systematic basis for analyzing nuclear PV

  5. Constraints of a Parity-Conserving Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Willem T. H.

    2002-09-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement at CPLEAR. One then can ask the question: What about tests of time-reversal-invariance in systems other than the kaon system? Tests of time-reversal-invariance can be distinguished as belonging to two classes: the first one deals with time-reversal-invariance-non-conserving (T-odd)/parity violating (P-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with T-odd/P-even interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a T-odd/P-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron (room for further experimentation?

  6. Conference on photovoltaic energy network parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Masson, Gaetan; Henzelmann, Orsten; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Guillemoles, Jean-Francois; Auffret, Jean-Marc; Berger, Arnaud; Binder, Jann; Martin, David; Beck, Bernhard; Mahuet, Audrey; Mueller, Thorsten; Contamin, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the present day and future challenges of the development, support and market integration of photovoltaic energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on support models to renewable energy sources, research results on self-consumption and business models for the renewable energies sector. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of France's PV support policies (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Grid parity: first step towards PV competitiveness (Gaetan Masson); 3 - How competitive is solar power? Requirements and impact on the European industry (Orsten Henzelmann); 4 - Key elements of the National Institute of Solar energy - INeS (Jean-Pierre Joly); 5 - Research priorities according to the Paris Institute of Photovoltaics (Jean-Francois Guillemoles); 6 - Bosch Solar energy (Jean-Marc Auffret); 7 - Financing and insuring photovoltaics - History and future prospects (Arnaud Berger); 8 - Decentralized Photovoltaics: Autonomy, Self-Consumption and Reduction of Grid Loading through electrical and Thermal Storage (Jann Binder); 9 - Off Grid systems, mini grid and grid parity, field feedback and perspectives. From the producer-consumer to the smart grid: experience feedback of PV management models (David Martin); 10 - Benefits for solar power plants in respect of grid stabilization (Bernhard Beck); 11 - Renewable energies integration to electricity market: impacts and challenges (Audrey Mahuet); 12 - Promotion of PV in Germany: Feed-in tariffs, self-consumption and direct selling - Review and forecast (Thorsten Mueller); 13 - How to support renewable electricity in France? (Raphael Contamin)

  7. Calibration and check light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejedla, B; Krotil, J

    1979-02-15

    The light source is designed for calibrating photomultipliers and checking the function of the thermoluminescent dosemeters evaluation equipment. The check light source consists of a polymer material-based (polyvinyl toluene) plastic scintillator and a 2-phenyl-5-(4-bisphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol and/or paraterphenyl activator, and of emission spectrum shifters for response in the green and the blue light regions. The plastic scintillator is sealed in a case to whose bottom a radiation source is fixed, such as a /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y source of an activity of 1.85x10/sup 3/s/sup -1/ to 0.74x10/sup 9/s/sup -1/.

  8. From Preventive to Permissive Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negativcorrelation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth cen...... shows that this result is not in fact inconsistent with a stylized Malthusian mechanism, and can be understood within the context of an increasing dominance of shocks to aggregate demand rather than to aggregate supply...

  9. From preventive to permissive checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis; Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negative correlation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth c...... model shows that this result is not in fact inconsistent with a stylised Malthusian mechanism, and can be understood within the context of an increasing dominance of shocks to aggregate demand rather than to aggregate supply....

  10. International parity relations between Poland and Germany: a cointegrated VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stazka, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses empirically the purchasing power parity, the uncovered interest parity and the real interest parity (Fisher parity) between Poland and Germany. The international parity relations are investigated jointly within the cointegrated VAR framework. Our analysis fails to find evidence that the parities, or any linear combinations of them, hold for our data set. We identify two long-run equilibrium relations: one imposing a long-run homogeneity restriction on the domestic (i.e. Po...

  11. Parity and Overweight/Obesity in Peruvian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Quispe, Renato; Poterico, Julio A; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-10-19

    The rise in noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in developing countries may have changed or intensified the effect of parity on obesity. We aimed to assess this association in Peruvian women using data from a nationally representative survey. We used data from Peru's Demographic and Health Survey, 2012. Parity was defined as the number of children ever born to a woman. We defined overweight as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) of 25.0 to 29.9 and obesity as a BMI ≥30.0. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the association between parity and BMI and BMI categories, by area of residence and age, adjusting for confounders. Data from 16,082 women were analyzed. Mean parity was 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.33) among rural women and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36-1.43) among urban women. Mean BMI was 26.0 (standard deviation, 4.6). We found evidence of an association between parity and BMI, particularly in younger women; BMI was up to 4 units higher in rural areas and 2 units higher in urban areas. An association between parity and BMI categories was observed in rural areas as a gradient, being highest in younger women. We found a positive association between parity and overweight/obesity. This relationship was stronger in rural areas and among younger mothers.

  12. Parity and age at menopause in a Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, B

    1986-01-01

    A random sample of 151 Danish women who had undergone natural menopause reported the age at which this occurred and answered a questionnaire. A significant association was found between parity and age at menopause after correction for the effects of age at the first and last births, weight, smoking...... and occupation. However, there is no evidence that the age at menopause has fallen in recent decades, even though the average parity in developed populations has dropped dramatically over this period. It is therefore possible that potential fertility is a confounding variable in the relationship between parity...... and age at menopause....

  13. Aperture Mask for Unambiguous Parity Determination in Long Wavelength Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a new parity pupil mask design that allows users to unambiguously determine the image space coordinate system of all the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) science instruments by using two out-of-focus images. This is an improvement over existing mask designs that could not completely eliminate the coordinate system parity ambiguity at a wavelength of 5.6 microns. To mitigate the problem of how the presence of diffraction artifacts can obscure the pupil mask detail, this innovation has been created with specifically designed edge features so that the image space coordinate system parity can be determined in the presence of diffraction, even at long wavelengths.

  14. A new source for parity violating nuclear force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Niskanen, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    We propose a mechanism for parity violation in the two nucleon meson-exchange interaction by way of the mixing of mesons of opposite parities. This mixing arises from parity violating W ± and Z exchange between the q-antiq pari in the meson. Numerically is effect turns out to be as important as vector meson exchange with a weak meson-nucleon vertex. The calculation is performed using both the standard Born approximation adding the amplitude phases by Watson's theorem and also using the exact correlated two-nucleon wave functions. The effect of correlations and form factors is found to be crucially important at intermediate energies

  15. The Effects of Check-In, Check-Up, Check-Out for Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability during On- and Off-Site Vocational Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lauren J.; Jolivette, Kristine; Alberto, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Check-in/check-out is a secondary-tier intervention within the positive behavior interventions and supports framework. Check-in/check-out pairs the use of an adult mentor with a daily progress report to help students meet individualized behavioral goals. This study adds to the research base by examining the effects of check-in, check-up, check-out…

  16. Parity and time invariance violation in mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginges, J.S.M.; Dzuba, V.A.; Flambaum, V.V.; Kozlov, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In a recent experiment, a stringent upper limit was placed on the atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) of 199 Hg corresponding to the best limit on an atomic EDM to date. This limit can be interpreted in terms of a limit on a parity-and time-invariance violating (P,T-odd) nuclear electric moment, the Schiff moment. This moment can arise in the nucleus due to an intrinsic EDM of an unpaired nucleon or a P,T-odd interaction between nucleons. In previous calculations the electrostatic potential of the Schiff moment was expressed in a singular form which must be treated carefully to avoid divergences in the electronic matrix elements. We have shown that the electric field distribution inside the nucleus arising from the Schiff moment is constant and directed along the nuclear spin. This allows us to express the Schiff moment in a form more convenient for numerical relativistic atomic calculations. We have calculated the atomic EDM induced in Hg due to the Schiff moment (for which no direct calculation has previously been performed) and have placed new limits on the fundamental P,T-odd parameters. These limits strongly constrain competing theories of CP-violation

  17. Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Debaprasad; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    In this paper we study in detail the effect of our recently proposed model of parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating varying alpha on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photon passing through the intra galaxy-cluster medium (ICM). The ICM is well known to be composed of magnetized plasma. According to our model, the polarization and intensity of the CMB would be affected when traversing through the ICM due to non-trivial scalar photon interactions. We have calculated the evolution of such polarization and intensity collectively, known as the stokes parameters of the CMB photon during its journey through the ICM and tested our results against the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) measurement on Coma galaxy cluster. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter, {beta}, and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. Using the derived constrained on the photon-to-scalar conversion probability, {bar P}{sub {gamma}{yields}{phi}}, for Coma cluster in ref.[34] we found a contour plot in the ({omega},{beta}) parameter plane. The {beta} = 0 line in this parameter space corresponds to well-studied Maxwell-dilaton type models which has lower bound on {omega} {approx}> 6.4 x 10{sup 9} GeV. In general, as the absolute value of {beta} increases, lower bound on {omega} also increases. Our model in general predicts the modification of the CMB polarization with a non-trivial dependence on the parity violating coupling parameter {beta}. However, it is unconstrained in this particular study. We show that this effect can in principle be detected in the future measurements on CMB polarization such that {beta} can also be constrained.

  18. The Relationship Between The Number of Parities and Pregnancy Age with Maternal Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irul Hidayati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, the anemia prevalence was estimated reach 9% in developed countries, while in developing countries reached 43%. The most-at-risk groups were children and women at fertile age, with an estimated prevalence of anemia in infants at 47%, pregnant women by 42%, and in non-pregnant women t ages 15-49 reached 30%. This was an observational analytic research with cross sectional approach. The purpose was to analyzed the relationship between the number of parity and the pregnancy age with the incidence of maternal anemia. The population in this study were 111 pregnant womens who checked their pregnancy to Public Healt Center (PHC Kintamani 1 at Bangli regency, the province of Bali. The  simple random sampling was used in the research with 87 peoples acted as research sample. Using Rank Spearman Correllation test, it was founded that there was a relationship between the number of parity with the incidence of maternal anemia a low  relationship, and there was a relationship between gestational age with maternal anemia incidence with a low degree relationship.

  19. Electronic bound states in parity-preserving QED3 applied to high-Tc cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, H.R.; Cima, O.M. Del; Ferreira Junior, M.M.; Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA; Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas

    2001-08-01

    We consider a parity-preserving QED 3 model with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry as a framework for the evaluation of the electron-electron interaction potential underlying high-T e superconductivity. The fact that resulting potential, - C s K o (Mr), is non-confining and weak (in the sense of Kato) strongly suggests the mechanism of pair-condensation. This potential, compatible with an s-wave order parameters, is then applied to the Schrodinger equation for the sake of numerical calculations, thereby enforcing the existence of bound states. The results worked out by means of our theoretical framework are checked by considering a number of phenomenological data extracted from different copper oxide superconductors. The agreement may motivate a deeper analysis of our model viewing an application to quasi-planar cuprate superconductors. The data analyzed here suggest an energy scale of 1-10 meV for the breaking of the U(1)-symmetry. (author)

  20. PURCHASING POWER PARITY INFLUENCE ON REAL EXCHANGE RATE BEHAVIOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Ghiba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purchasing Power Parity (PPP represents a fundamental concept in exchange rate modeling. The main idea is given by equality between prices in two different countries when expressing in the same currency.This paper aims to analyze the behavior of real exchange rate between EURO and Romanian new leu (RON under PPP paradigm. We use the Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-Perron stationarity tests in order to check real exchange deviations from PPP. Also, we investigate the existence of a connection between long-term between nominal exchange rate and industrial producer price indices from Romania and euro area. The main conclusions of this research highlight that PPP doesn’t holds; real exchange rate stationarity tests doest not confirm the stationarity, thus between the aforementioned three variables it doesn’t exists any equilibrium relation.

  1. Analysis tools for discovering strong parity violation at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backovic, Mihailo; Ralston, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Several arguments suggest parity violation may be observable in high energy strong interactions. We introduce new analysis tools to describe the azimuthal dependence of multiparticle distributions, or 'azimuthal flow'. Analysis uses the representations of the orthogonal group O(2) and dihedral groups D N necessary to define parity completely in two dimensions. Classification finds that collective angles used in event-by-event statistics represent inequivalent tensor observables that cannot generally be represented by a single 'reaction plane'. Many new parity-violating observables exist that have never been measured, while many parity-conserving observables formerly lumped together are now distinguished. We use the concept of 'event-shape sorting' to suggest separating right- and left-handed events, and we discuss the effects of transverse and longitudinal spin. The analysis tools are statistically robust, and can be applied equally to low or high multiplicity events at the Tevatron, RHIC or RHIC Spin, and the LHC.

  2. Some simple criteria for gauged R-parity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.P.

    1992-07-01

    Some simple conditions which are sufficient to guarantee that R- parity survives as an unbroken gauged discrete subgroup of the continuous gauge symmetry in certain supersymmetric extensions of the standard model are presented.

  3. Iron-Based Superconductors as Odd-Parity Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Parity is a fundamental quantum number used to classify a state of matter. Materials rarely possess ground states with odd parity. We show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd-parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low-energy effective model constructed on the Fe square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of an s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and an s-wave η pairing within the sublattices. The state has a fingerprint with a real-space sign inversion between the top and bottom As/Se layers. The results suggest that iron-based superconductors are a new quantum state of matter, and the measurement of the odd parity can help to establish high-temperature superconducting mechanisms.

  4. Study of positive parity bands in 137Pr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Priyanka; Kumar, Suresh; Jain, A.K.; Singh, Sukhjeet; Malik, S.S.; Sinha, Rishi Kumar; Dhal, Anukul; Chaturvedi, L.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Madhavan, N.; Kumar, Rakesh; Bhowmik, R.K.; Pancholi, S.C.; Jain, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the analysis and interpretation of the positive parity states in 137 Pr have been reported. The detailed interpretation with configuration assignments and the calculations for the bands will be reported

  5. Noise-tolerant parity learning with one quantum bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daniel K.; Rhee, June-Koo K.; Lee, Soonchil

    2018-03-01

    Demonstrating quantum advantage with less powerful but more realistic devices is of great importance in modern quantum information science. Recently, a significant quantum speedup was achieved in the problem of learning a hidden parity function with noise. However, if all data qubits at the query output are completely depolarized, the algorithm fails. In this work, we present a quantum parity learning algorithm that exhibits quantum advantage as long as one qubit is provided with nonzero polarization in each query. In this scenario, the quantum parity learning naturally becomes deterministic quantum computation with one qubit. Then the hidden parity function can be revealed by performing a set of operations that can be interpreted as measuring nonlocal observables on the auxiliary result qubit having nonzero polarization and each data qubit. We also discuss the source of the quantum advantage in our algorithm from the resource-theoretic point of view.

  6. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal. ...

  7. Model Checking Structured Infinite Markov Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    In the past probabilistic model checking hast mostly been restricted to finite state models. This thesis explores the possibilities of model checking with continuous stochastic logic (CSL) on infinite-state Markov chains. We present an in-depth treatment of model checking algorithms for two special

  8. On the static Casimir effect with parity-breaking mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosco, C.D. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche (Argentina); Remaggi, M.L. [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2017-03-15

    We study the Casimir interaction energy due to the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the presence of two mirrors, described by 2+1-dimensional, generally nonlocal actions, which may contain both parity-conserving and parity-breaking terms. We compare the results with the ones corresponding to Chern-Simons boundary conditions and evaluate the interaction energy for several particular situations. (orig.)

  9. Association of secondary sex ratio with smoking and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, Nicholas G; Asimacopoulou, Aspasia; Varvarigou, Anastasia

    2008-03-01

    To assess the sex ratio in offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers in relationship to parity. Prospective study. University hospital. The authors studied 2,108 term singleton neonates born between 1993 and 2002, 665 from smoking mothers and 1,443 from nonsmoking mothers. A prospective recording of maternal age, parity and smoking status, and gender of neonates delivered over a 10-year period. Secondary sex ratio in regard to maternal smoking and parity. The offspring sex ratio in the total sample studied was 1.09; in the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers, it was 1.26 and 1.03, respectively, a statistically significant difference. In the offspring of smoking women who had parity 1, 2, and >or=3, it was 1.47, 1.35, and 0.92, whereas in those of nonsmoking women, it was 1.04, 1.00, and 1.03, respectively (the differences of the parity 1 and 2 groups between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers were statistically significant). Logistic regression analysis showed that the possibility of a boy being delivered by a mother who smoked was significantly greater in primiparous women than in women who had parity >or=3, independent of the maternal age. Conversely, parity did not affect significantly the sex ratio in the offspring of nonsmoking women. The findings suggest that among women who smoked, significantly more male than female offspring are born from primiparous women, whereas women who had parity >or=3 gave birth to more female offspring; biparous women give birth to significantly more male offspring, but the offspring sex ratio declined with the number of cigarettes when the mothers smoked >or=10 cigarettes per day.

  10. Gender parity in Senegal – A continuing struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the Senegalese women’s movement, supported by political elites and international norms, managed to push for the adoption of one of the world’s most radical gender quota laws to date. This was achieved without the support of the powerful religious leaders, the marabouts. However, the marabouts fought back in the 2014 local elections and thwarted the full implementation of parity. This CMI Insight explores the on-going fight for parity in Senegal.

  11. Parity nonconservation in polarized electron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1979-10-01

    Recent observations of parity violation in inelastic scattering of electrons at high energy is discussed with reference to the process e(polarized) + D(unpolarized) → e + X. The kinetics of this process, the idealized case of scattering from free quark targets, experimental techniques and results, and relations to atomic physics of parity violation in bismuth and thallium atoms with a model independent analysis. 17 references

  12. Experimental search for parity nonconservation in atomic thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commins, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    In the lecture an experimental search for parity nonconservation in the 6 2 P/sub 1/2/--7 2 P/sub 1/2/ transition in atomic thallium is described. The reason for the choice of this particular transition, a description of the method, the results to data, and a brief description of the future plans are given. The very preliminary results suggest that the Weinberg--Salam model correctly describes parity nonconservation effects in atoms. 5 references

  13. Parity- and time-reversal-violating moments of light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Jordy de, E-mail: devries@kvi.nl [KVI, theory group (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    I present the calculation of parity- and time-reversal-violating moments of the nucleon and light nuclei, originating from the QCD {theta}-bar term and effective dimension-six operators. By applying chiral effective field theory these calculations are performed in a unified framework. I argue that measurements of a few light-nuclear electric dipole moments would shed light on the mechanism of parity and time-reversal violation.

  14. Constraints on a Parity-Conserving Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Willem T. H.

    Time-reversal-invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement at CPLEAR. One then can ask the question: What about tests of time-reversal-invariance in systems other than the kaon system? Tests of time-reversal-invariance can be distinguished as belonging to two classes: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance-odd (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron (with a present upper limit of 6 × 10-26 e.cm [95% C.L.]). It provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is less than 10-4 times the weak interaction strength. Experimental limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. Following the standard approach of describing the nucleon-nucleon interaction in terms of meson exchanges it can be shown that only charged rho-meson exchange and A1-meson exchange can lead to a P-even/T-odd interaction. The better constraints stem from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron and from measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering. The latter experiments were executed at TRIUMF (497 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (183 MeV). Weak decay experiments may provide limits which will possibly be comparable. All other experiments, like gamma decay experiments, detailed balance experiments, polarization-analyzing power difference determinations, and five-fold correlation experiments with polarized incident nucleons and aligned nuclear targets, have been shown to be at least an order of magnitude less sensitive. The question then emerges: is there room for further experimentation?

  15. Is rooftop solar PV at socket parity without subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerman, Shelly; Jaramillo, Paulina; Morgan, M. Granger

    2016-01-01

    Installations of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, in large part because of state and federal subsidies. In the future, such subsidies may be reduced or eliminated. From the homeowner's perspective, solar PV is competitive when it can produce electricity at a cost equivalent to the retail electricity rate, a condition sometimes referred to as “socket parity”. In assessing the economic viability of residential solar PV, most existing literature considers only a few locations and fails to consider the differences in PV system cost and electricity prices that exist across the U.S. We combined insolation data from more than 1000 locations, installation costs by region, and county-level utility rates to provide a more complete economic assessment of rooftop solar PV across the U.S. We calculated the break-even electricity prices and evaluated the reductions in installed costs needed to reach socket parity. Among the scenarios considered, we estimate that only Hawaii has achieved socket parity without the use of subsidies. With subsidies, six states reach socket parity, yet widespread parity is still not achieved. We find that high installation costs and financing rates are two of the largest barriers to socket parity. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic viability of residential rooftop solar PV across the U.S. • Widespread socket parity has not been achieved in the U.S. without subsidies. • Net metering may be critical for the economic viability of rooftop solar PV.

  16. [Obesity in Brazilian women: association with parity and socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regicely Aline Brandão; Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino

    2015-05-01

    To determine the influence of reproductive history on the prevalence of obesity in Brazilian women and the possible modifying effect of socioeconomic variables on the association between parity and excess weight. A retrospective analysis of complex sample data collected as part of the 2006 Brazilian National Survey on Demography and Health, which included a group representative of women of childbearing age in Brazil was conducted. The study included 11 961 women aged 20 to 49 years. The association between the study factor (parity) and the outcome of interest (obesity) was tested using logistic regression analysis. The adjusted effect of parity on obesity was assessed in a multiple regression model containing control variables: age, family purchasing power, as defined by the Brazilian Association of Research Enterprises (ABEP), schooling, and health care. Significance level was set at below 0.05. The prevalence of obesity in the study population was 18.6%. The effect of parity on obesity was significant (P for trend parity and age. Family purchase power had a significant odds ratio for obesity only in the unadjusted analysis. In the adjusted model, this variable did not explain obesity. The present findings suggest that parity has an influence on obesity in Brazilian women of childbearing age, with higher prevalence in women vs. without children.

  17. Model Checking as Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fuyuan

    fairness problems can be encoded into ALFP as well. To deal with multi-valued model checking problems, we have proposed multivalued ALFP. A Moore Family result for multi-valued ALFP is also established, which ensures the existence and uniqueness of the least model. When the truth values in multi-valued...... of states satisfying a CTL formula can be characterized as the least model of ALFP clauses specifying this CTL formula. The existence of the least model of ALFP clauses is ensured by the Moore Family property of ALFP. Then, we take fairness assumptions in CTL into consideration and have shown that CTL...... ALFP constitute a nite distributive complete lattice, multi-valued ALFP can be reduced to two-valued ALFP. This result enables to implement a solver for multi-valued ALFP by reusing existing solvers for twovalued ALFP. Our ALFP-based technique developed for the two-valued CTL naturally generalizes...

  18. On spontaneous parity breaking in three-dimensional gauge-Higgs systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Farakos, K.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1991-04-01

    We address the question of spontaneous breaking of parity in three-dimensional euclidian SU(2) gauge-Higgs theory by Monte Carlo simulations. We observe no sign of spontaneous parity breaking in the behaviour of local gauge invariant operators. However, the presence of parity odd terms in the action can induce a phase transition to a parity odd ground state. (orig.)

  19. Parity generator and parity checker in the modified trinary number system using savart plate and spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amal K.

    2010-09-01

    The parity generators and the checkers are the most important circuits in communication systems. With the development of multi-valued logic (MVL), the proposed system with parity generators and checkers is the most required using the recently developed optoelectronic technology in the modified trinary number (MTN) system. This system also meets up the tremendous needs of speeds by exploiting the savart plates and spatial light modulators (SLM) in the optical tree architecture (OTA).

  20. Exploiting the Error-Correcting Capabilities of Low Density Parity Check Codes in Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakêt, Lars Lau; Søgaard, Jacob; Salmistraro, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We consider Distributed Video Coding (DVC) in presence of communication errors. First, we present DVC side information generation based on a new method of optical flow driven frame interpolation, where a highly optimized TV-L1 algorithm is used for the flow calculations and combine three flows....... Thereafter methods for exploiting the error-correcting capabilities of the LDPCA code in DVC are investigated. The proposed frame interpolation includes a symmetric flow constraint to the standard forward-backward frame interpolation scheme, which improves quality and handling of large motion. The three...... flows are combined in one solution. The proposed frame interpolation method consistently outperforms an overlapped block motion compensation scheme and a previous TV-L1 optical flow frame interpolation method with an average PSNR improvement of 1.3 dB and 2.3 dB respectively. For a GOP size of 2...

  1. Parity violation in deep inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1979-11-01

    Neutral currents in electron scattering and the Weinberg-Salam model are reviewed. This generally accepted model is consistent with experimental results from neutrino interactions; an appropriate deep inelastic electron scattering experiment would measure couplings that don't involve neutrinos to see if they are also correctly described by the theory. The SLAC-Yale experiment measures a difference in the e-d inelastic cross section for right- and left-handed electrons. The polarized source, beam monitors, scattering experiment, checks of helicity dependence, and results are described. It is concluded that the data obtained are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model, and that the best value of sin 2 theta/sub W/ for these data is in excellent agreement with the average values of that parameter deduced from neutrino experiments. Future experiments with polarized electrons are discussed. 12 figures, 2 tables

  2. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.413: (1) A check airman (airplane) is a person who is qualified, and permitted...

  3. Effect of parity on healthy promotion lifestyle behavior in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Hakan; Nazik, Evşen; Özdemir, Funda; Gül, Şule; Tezel, Ayfer; Narin, Raziye

    2015-01-01

    Health-promoting lifestyle behaviors are not only for the prevention of a disease or discomfort, but are also behaviors that aim to improve the individual's general health and well-being. Nurses have an important position in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviors in women. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parity on health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in women. This descriptive and cross-sectional survey was performed in Adana, Turkey. This study was conducted with 352 women. The questionnaire consisted of two parts; the first part consisted of questions that assessed the socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics, and the second part employed the "Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale" (HPLP). Data analysis included percentage, arithmetic average, and ANOVA tests. The results revealed that 24.1% of the women had no parity, 13.6% had one parity, 30.7% had two parities, 14.6% had three parities, and 17% had four and above parities. The mean total HPLP was 126.66±18.12 (interpersonal support subscale, 24.46±4.02; nutrition subscale, 21.59±3.92; self-actualization subscale, 24.42±4.30; stress management subscale, 18.73±3.81; health responsibility subscale, 21.75±4.31; and exercise subscale, 15.71±4.22). The health behavior of women was moderate. A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of parities and the Health Responsibility, Nutrition, Interpersonal Support, which is the subscale of the HPLP Scale.

  4. The Influence of International Parity on the Exchange Rate: Purchasing Power Parity and International Fisher Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mionel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of the inflationand interest rates on the exchange rates.The analysis tests the relation between the inflation rate and the exchange rate by applying thePurchasing Power Parity Theory, while the relationbetween the interest rate and the inflation rate istested by applying the International Fisher EffectTheory. In order to test the Purchasing Power Paritythe study takes into account the period of time between 1990 – 2009, and the following countries –the USA, Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Canada, Japan and China. As for testing the InternationalFisher Effect Theory the period of time is the same, 1990 – 2009, but a few countries are different –the USA, Germany, the UK, Switzerland, Canada, Australia and New Zeeland. Thus, both theoriesanalyse the USA as home country.

  5. R-parity-violating production of single top squarks with R-parity-conserving decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Harris, B.W.; Sullivan, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Single-top-squark production probes R-parity-violating extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model though the λ 3ij double p rime coupling. For top-squark masses in the range 180-325 GeV, and λ 3ij double p rime > 0.02-0.06, we show that discovery of the top squark is possible with 2 fb -1 of integrated luminosity at run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The bound on λ 3ij double p rime can be reduced by up to an order of magnitude with existing data from run I, and by two orders of magnitude at run II if the top squark is not found

  6. Statistical physics inspired energy-efficient coded-modulation for optical communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2012-04-15

    Because Shannon's entropy can be obtained by Stirling's approximation of thermodynamics entropy, the statistical physics energy minimization methods are directly applicable to the signal constellation design. We demonstrate that statistical physics inspired energy-efficient (EE) signal constellation designs, in combination with large-girth low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, significantly outperform conventional LDPC-coded polarization-division multiplexed quadrature amplitude modulation schemes. We also describe an EE signal constellation design algorithm. Finally, we propose the discrete-time implementation of D-dimensional transceiver and corresponding EE polarization-division multiplexed system. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  7. Spherical reconciliation for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhao; Shi Jian-Hong; Li Feng-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Information reconciliation is a significant step for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. We propose a reconciliation method that allows two authorized parties to extract a consistent and secure binary key in a CV-QKD protocol, which is based on Gaussian-modulated coherent states and homodyne detection. This method named spherical reconciliation is based on spherical quantization and non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. With the suitable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and code rate of non-binary LDPC codes, spherical reconciliation algorithm has a high efficiency and can extend the transmission distance of CV-QKD. (paper)

  8. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al, E-mail: abdullah.hafiz@kaust.edu.sa [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Li, Ren [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Younis, Mohammad I. [PSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Fariborzi, Hossein [CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-03

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro-resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized. - Highlights: • A 4-bit parity checker circuit is proposed and demonstrated based on MEMS resonator based logic elements. • Multiple copies of MEMS resonator based XOR logic gates are used to construct a complex logic circuit. • Functionality and feasibility of micro-resonator based logic platform is demonstrated.

  9. PARITY IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND: SPACE ODDITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-David, Assaf; Kovetz, Ely D.; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: bd.assaf@gmail.com, E-mail: elykovetz@gmail.com, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2012-03-20

    We search for a direction in the sky that exhibits parity symmetry under reflections through a plane. We use the natural estimator, which compares the power in even and odd l + m multipoles, and apply minimal blind masking of outliers to the Internal Linear Combination map in order to avoid large errors in the reconstruction of multipoles. The multipoles of the cut sky are calculated both naively and by using the covariance inversion method, and we estimate the significance of our results using {Lambda}CDM simulations. Focusing on low multipoles, 2 {<=} l {<=} l{sub max} with l{sub max} = 5, 6, or even 7, we find two perpendicular directions of even and odd parity in the map. While the even parity direction does not appear significant, the odd direction is quite significant-at least a 3.6{sigma} effect.

  10. Parity and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Per; Ipsen, Sidsel; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    year 2004 and information on type, date, interval from birth to diagnosis of diabetes was recorded. A total of 1717 cases were diagnosed with diabetes in the follow-up period of 23 yearswhich ich correspond to 1,7%. The women in the study were between 13 and 50 years old at the time of delivery. We...... grouped the study population in age groups: the young (age 13-22 years) comprising 19% of the total births, middle group (23-29 years) comprising 55% of the births and old group (30-50 years) comprising 26% of the births. In all groups there was a significant effect of parity on the development......  The relationship between parity and diabetes has been discussed for many years and the subject is still controversial.  Some investigations show that parity, particularly five or more births, might be associated with higher incidence of diabetes, whereas others found no association. We performed...

  11. Fault tolerance in parity-state linear optical quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, A. J. F.; Ralph, T. C.; Haselgrove, H. L.; Gilchrist, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    We use a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to calculate the noise threshold and resource requirements for a linear optical quantum computing scheme based on parity-state encoding. Parity-state encoding is used at the lowest level of code concatenation in order to efficiently correct errors arising from the inherent nondeterminism of two-qubit linear-optical gates. When combined with teleported error-correction (using either a Steane or Golay code) at higher levels of concatenation, the parity-state scheme is found to achieve a saving of approximately three orders of magnitude in resources when compared to the cluster state scheme, at a cost of a somewhat reduced noise threshold.

  12. Analysis of parity violating nuclear effects at low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desplanques, B; Missimer, J [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1978-05-15

    The authors present an analysis of parity-violating nuclear effects at low energy which attempts to circumvent the uncertainties due to the weak and strong nucleon-nucleon interactions at short distances. Extending Danilov's parametrization of the parity-violating nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude, they introduce six parameters: one for the long-range contribution due to the pion exchange and five for the shorter-range contributions. This choice gives an accurate representation of parity-violating effects in the nucleon-nucleon system up to a lab energy of 75 MeV. For calculations in nuclei, an effective two-body potential is derived in terms of the parameters. The analysis of presently measured effects shows that they are consistent, and, in particular, that the circular polarization of photons in n + p ..-->.. d + ..gamma.. is not incompatible with the other measurements. It does not imply a dominant isotensor component.

  13. R-parity violation and the cosmological gravitino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, G.; Chemtob, M.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the R-parity violation option of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, we examine the scenario where the massive gravitino, a relic from the hot big-bang, is the lightest supersymmetric particle and can decay through one or several of the trilinear R-parity violating interactions. We calculate the rates of the gravitino decay via the various three-body decay channels with final states involving three quarks and/or leptons. By taking into account the present constraints on the trilinear R-parity violating coupling constants and assuming the gravitino and scalar superpartner masses do not exceed ∼80 TeV, it turns out that the gravitinos could easily have decayed before the present epoch but not earlier than the big-bang nucleosynthesis one. Therefore, the considered scenario would upset the standard big-bang nucleosynthesis scenario and we conclude that it does not seem to constitute a natural solution for the cosmological gravitino problem

  14. Parity violation in proton-proton scattering at 230 MEV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, J.; Bowman, J.D.; Davis, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Below /similar to/300 MeV six meson-nucleon coupling strengths are required to describe the weak interaction of nucleons. Many experiments have found parity-violating effects in nuclear systems, but only four significant, independent constraints exist. A new measurement is proposed where measurable effects are predicted with minimal dependence on nuclear interaction models, yielding information complementary to previous results. This is a measurement of the parity-violating analyzing power. A/sub z/ in p-p scattering at 230 MeV, which is shown to be sensitive to the weak rho-nucleon coupling. This measurement, at a precision of +- 2 x 10/sup -8/, together with a proposed measurement by the University of Washington group at I.L.L. of the parity-violating neutron spin rotation, will provide the fifth and sixth independent constraints needed to determine the weak meson-nucleon coupling constants

  15. Controlled parity switch of persistent currents in quantum ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Michele; Bardyn, Charles-Edouard; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the behavior of persistent currents for a fixed number of noninteracting fermions in a periodic quantum ladder threaded by Aharonov-Bohm and transverse magnetic fluxes Φ and χ . We show that the coupling between ladder legs provides a way to effectively change the ground-state fermion-number parity, by varying χ . Specifically, we demonstrate that varying χ by 2 π (one flux quantum) leads to an apparent fermion-number parity switch. We find that persistent currents exhibit a robust 4 π periodicity as a function of χ , despite the fact that χ →χ +2 π leads to modifications of order 1 /N of the energy spectrum, where N is the number of sites in each ladder leg. We show that these parity-switch and 4 π periodicity effects are robust with respect to temperature and disorder, and outline potential physical realizations using cold atomic gases and photonic lattices, for bosonic analogs of the effects.

  16. Spin and parity measurement of the Λ(1405) baryon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, K.; Schumacher, R. A.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellis, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Dey, B.; Djalali, C.; Dugger, M.; Dupré, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Guidal, M.; Griffioen, K. A.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McCracken, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Smith, E. S.; Sokhan, D.; Smith, G. D.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Tang, W.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Williams, M.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Ziegler, V.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-02-01

    A determination of the spin and parity of the Λ(1405) is presented using photoproduction data from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. The reaction γ+p→K++Λ(1405) is analyzed in the decay channel Λ(1405)→Σ ++π-, where the decay distribution to Σ+π- and the variation of the Σ+ polarization with respect to the Λ(1405) polarization direction determines the parity. The Λ(1405) is produced, in the energy range 2.55parity JP=1/2-, as expected by most theories.

  17. A software reconfigurable optical multiband UWB system utilizing a bit-loading combined with adaptive LDPC code rate scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Dai, Min; Chen, Qinghui; Deng, Rui; Xiang, Changqing; Chen, Lin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, an effective bit-loading combined with adaptive LDPC code rate algorithm is proposed and investigated in software reconfigurable multiband UWB over fiber system. To compensate the power fading and chromatic dispersion for the high frequency of multiband OFDM UWB signal transmission over standard single mode fiber (SSMF), a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with negative chirp parameter is utilized. In addition, the negative power penalty of -1 dB for 128 QAM multiband OFDM UWB signal are measured at the hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) limitation of 3.8 × 10-3 after 50 km SSMF transmission. The experimental results show that, compared to the fixed coding scheme with the code rate of 75%, the signal-to-noise (SNR) is improved by 2.79 dB for 128 QAM multiband OFDM UWB system after 100 km SSMF transmission using ALCR algorithm. Moreover, by employing bit-loading combined with ALCR algorithm, the bit error rate (BER) performance of system can be further promoted effectively. The simulation results present that, at the HD-FEC limitation, the value of Q factor is improved by 3.93 dB at the SNR of 19.5 dB over 100 km SSMF transmission, compared to the fixed modulation with uncoded scheme at the same spectrum efficiency (SE).

  18. Parity violation and superconductivity in doped Mott insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khveshchenko, D.Y.; Kogan, Y.I.

    1990-01-01

    The authors study parity violating states of strongly correlated two-dimensional electronic systems. On the basis of mean field theory for the SU(2N)-symmetric generalization of the system involved the authors give the arguments supporting the existence of these states at a filling number different from one-half. The authors derive an effective Lagrangian describing the long wavelength dynamics of magnetic excitations and their interaction with charged spinless holes. This paper establishes the ground state of a doped system is superconducting and discuss the phenomenological manifestations of the parity violation

  19. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-01-11

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  20. Parity violation and superconductivity in doped Mott insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khveshchenko, D.V.; Kogan, Ya.I.

    1989-12-01

    We study parity violating states of strongly correlated two-dimensional electronic systems. On the basis of mean field theory for the SU(2N)-symmetric generalization of the system involved we give the arguments supporting the existence of these states at a filling number different from one-half. We derive an effective Lagrangian describing the long wavelength dynamics of magnetic excitations and their interaction with charged spinless holes. We establish that the ground state of a doped system is superconducting and discuss the phenomenological manifestations of the parity violation. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs

  1. New even and odd parity levels of neutral praseodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, T I; Siddiqui, I; Shamim, K; Uddin, Z; Guthöhrlein, G H; Windholz, L

    2011-01-01

    The hyperfine (hf) structure of some spectral lines of the praseodymium atom has been investigated by the laser-induced fluorescence method in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. We report the discovery of 18 new energy levels of even parity and 22 new energy levels of odd parity and their magnetic dipole hf interaction constants A. Using these newly discovered levels, 268 lines were classified by means of laser spectroscopy, 97 of them by laser excitation and 171 via laser-induced fluorescence. In addition, 23 lines, observed in a Fourier transform spectrum, were classified by means of their wavenumbers and their hf patterns.

  2. Minimal flavour violation and neutrino masses without R-parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcadi, G.; Di Luzio, L.; Nardecchia, M.

    2012-01-01

    symmetry breaking all the couplings of the superpotential including the R-parity violating ones. If R-parity violation is responsible for neutrino masses, our setup can be seen as an extension of MFV to the lepton sector. We analyze two patterns based on the non-abelian flavour symmetries SU(3)(4) circle...... times SU(4) and SU(3)(5). In the former case the total lepton number and the lepton flavour number are broken together, while in the latter the lepton number can be broken independently by an abelian spurion, so that visible effects and peculiar correlations can be envisaged in flavour changing charged...

  3. A parity checker circuit based on microelectromechanical resonator logic elements

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Li, Ren; Younis, Mohammad I.; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based logic computation has attracted significant attention in recent years due to its dynamic mode of operation, ultra-low power consumption, and potential for reprogrammable and reversible computing. Here we demonstrate a 4-bit parity checker circuit by utilizing recently developed logic gates based on MEMS resonators. Toward this, resonance frequencies of shallow arch shaped micro resonators are electrothermally tuned by the logic inputs to constitute the required logic gates for the proposed parity checker circuit. This study demonstrates that by utilizing MEMS resonator based logic elements, complex digital circuits can be realized.

  4. 46 CFR 10.214 - Security Check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security Check. 10.214 Section 10.214 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner Credentials § 10.214 Security Check. Until April 15, 2009...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  6. SPEED ROLLER STAND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CHECKING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zybtsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  7. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1994-01-01

    can do model-checking. The subset we consider is expressive enough to formalize the requirements to the gas burner system given by A.P. Ravn (1993); but only for a discrete time domain. Model-checking is done by reducing the correctness problem ℳ|=𝒟 to the inclusion problem of regular...

  8. Checking and Balancing: Banking and Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers is presented that relates a young couple's experience in learning about managing their money more carefully by budgeting and maintaining a checking account. Since the couple did not have a checking account, they had to go to their savings bank in order to pay each bill and they had to keep cash…

  9. Software tool for physics chart checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Harold; Wu, Yu; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Physics chart check has long been a central quality assurance (QC) measure in radiation oncology. The purpose of this work is to describe a software tool that aims to accomplish simplification, standardization, automation, and forced functions in the process. Nationally recognized guidelines, including American College of Radiology and American Society for Radiation Oncology guidelines and technical standards, and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group reports were identified, studied, and summarized. Meanwhile, the reported events related to physics chart check service were analyzed using an event reporting and learning system. A number of shortfalls in the chart check process were identified. To address these problems, a software tool was designed and developed under Microsoft. Net in C# to hardwire as many components as possible at each stage of the process. The software consists of the following 4 independent modules: (1) chart check management; (2) pretreatment and during treatment chart check assistant; (3) posttreatment chart check assistant; and (4) quarterly peer-review management. The users were a large group of physicists in the author's radiation oncology clinic. During over 1 year of use the tool has proven very helpful in chart checking management, communication, documentation, and maintaining consistency. The software tool presented in this work aims to assist physicists at each stage of the physics chart check process. The software tool is potentially useful for any radiation oncology clinics that are either in the process of pursuing or maintaining the American College of Radiology accreditation.

  10. Repeated checking induces uncertainty about future threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; Damstra, Marianne; Douma, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that obsessive-compulsive (OC) -like repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study tested if checking also induces uncertainty about future threat by impairing the distinction between danger and safety cues. Participants (n = 54) engaged in a simulated

  11. Diagnostic information in temporal compliance checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani Taghiabadi, E.; Fahland, D.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Compliance checking is gaining importance as today’s organizations need to show that operational processes are executed in a controlled manner while satisfying prede¿ned (legal) requirements. Deviations may be costly and expose the organization to severe risks. Compliance checking is of growing

  12. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, E.C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313959552; van den Hout, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070445354; Giele, C.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318754460; Engelhard, I.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239681533

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive, compulsive-like checking of an object leads to reductions in memory confidence, vividness, and detail. Experimental research suggests that this is caused by increased familiarity with perceptual characteristics of the stimulus and automatization of the checking procedure (Dek, van den

  13. Model Checking Infinite-State Markov Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Cloth, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper algorithms for model checking CSL (continuous stochastic logic) against infinite-state continuous-time Markov chains of so-called quasi birth-death type are developed. In doing so we extend the applicability of CSL model checking beyond the recently proposed case for finite-state

  14. Model Checking Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2018-01-01

    This chapter surveys timed automata as a formalism for model checking real-time systems. We begin with introducing the model, as an extension of finite-state automata with real-valued variables for measuring time. We then present the main model-checking results in this framework, and give a hint...

  15. 32 CFR 635.6 - Name checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Name checks. 635.6 Section 635.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.6 Name checks. (a) Information contained in military police records may be...

  16. 7 CFR 58.243 - Checking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Checking quality. 58.243 Section 58.243 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.243 Checking quality. All milk, milk products and dry milk products shall be subject to inspection and analysis by the dairy plant for quality and condition throughout each processing operation...

  17. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, M.

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump is described which has a bottom discharge with a free floating check valve disposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions

  18. 38 CFR 21.4505 - Check delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Check delivery. 21.4505...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Education Loans § 21.4505 Check delivery. (a) General. Education... surviving spouse is enrolled for delivery by the educational institution. (b) Delivery and certification. (1...

  19. What is a good health check? An interview study of health check providers' views and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Stol (Yrrah); E.C.A. Asscher (Eva); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Health checks identify (risk factors for) disease in people without symptoms. They may be offered by the government through population screenings and by other providers to individual users as 'personal health checks'. Health check providers' perspective of 'good'

  20. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check pilots...

  1. 428-Gb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 960-km SSMF with constellation expansion and LDPC coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Al Amin, Abdullah; Chen, Xi; Ma, Yiran; Chen, Simin; Shieh, William

    2010-08-02

    High-order modulation formats and advanced error correcting codes (ECC) are two promising techniques for improving the performance of ultrahigh-speed optical transport networks. In this paper, we present record receiver sensitivity for 107 Gb/s CO-OFDM transmission via constellation expansion to 16-QAM and rate-1/2 LDPC coding. We also show the single-channel transmission of a 428-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal over 960-km standard-single-mode-fiber (SSMF) without Raman amplification.

  2. Cooperative MIMO communication at wireless sensor network: an error correcting code approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Han, Young Shin

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative communication in wireless sensor network (WSN) explores the energy efficient wireless communication schemes between multiple sensors and data gathering node (DGN) by exploiting multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and multiple input single output (MISO) configurations. In this paper, an energy efficient cooperative MIMO (C-MIMO) technique is proposed where low density parity check (LDPC) code is used as an error correcting code. The rate of LDPC code is varied by varying the length of message and parity bits. Simulation results show that the cooperative communication scheme outperforms SISO scheme in the presence of LDPC code. LDPC codes with different code rates are compared using bit error rate (BER) analysis. BER is also analyzed under different Nakagami fading scenario. Energy efficiencies are compared for different targeted probability of bit error p(b). It is observed that C-MIMO performs more efficiently when the targeted p(b) is smaller. Also the lower encoding rate for LDPC code offers better error characteristics.

  3. From parity violation to hadronic structure and more

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, K; Kox, S; Lhuillier, D; Maas, F; Page, S; Papanicolas, C; Stiliaris, S; Wiele, J; 3rd International Workshop on From Parity Violation to Hadronic Structure and More (PAVI06); PAVI 06; PAVI 2006

    2007-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the third international workshop on “From Parity Violation to Hadronic Structure and more ...” which was held from May 16 to May 20, 2006, at the George Eliopoulos conference center on the Greek island of Milos. It is part of a series that started in Mainz in 2002 and was followed by a second workshop in Grenoble in 2004. While originally initiated by the extraction of the strangeness contribution to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, the workshop series has continuously broadened the focus to the application of Parity Violation using hadronic probes and to Parity Violation experiments in atomic physics. Meanwhile there have been many exciting new proposals for using Parity Violation in other areas like in the search for new physics beyond the standard model or in exploring hadron structure. There are also close connections to the open question on the size of the two photon exchange amplitude. Fifty years after the 1956 proposal of Lee and Yang to test t...

  4. Analysis tools for discovering strong parity violation at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backović, Mihailo; Ralston, John P.

    2011-07-01

    Several arguments suggest parity violation may be observable in high energy strong interactions. We introduce new analysis tools to describe the azimuthal dependence of multiparticle distributions, or “azimuthal flow.” Analysis uses the representations of the orthogonal group O(2) and dihedral groups DN necessary to define parity completely in two dimensions. Classification finds that collective angles used in event-by-event statistics represent inequivalent tensor observables that cannot generally be represented by a single “reaction plane.” Many new parity-violating observables exist that have never been measured, while many parity-conserving observables formerly lumped together are now distinguished. We use the concept of “event-shape sorting” to suggest separating right- and left-handed events, and we discuss the effects of transverse and longitudinal spin. The analysis tools are statistically robust, and can be applied equally to low or high multiplicity events at the Tevatron, RHIC or RHIC Spin, and the LHC.

  5. The uncovered parity properties of the Czech Koruna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2002), s. 17-37 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : uncovered parity * asset prices * international consumption-based capital asset pricing model Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  6. Weak interactions, quark masses and spontaneous violation of parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, R.L.

    1976-09-01

    A six quark model is discussed for the weak interactions of hadrons in which parity is violated spontaneously in an SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory. Quarks with very small masses are required and their weak interactions approximate those of the Weinberg-Salam model. Suppression of strangeness-changing neutral currents requires at least seven quarks. (author)

  7. 7 CFR 989.61 - Above parity situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Above parity situations. 989.61 Section 989.61 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...) of the act. [42 FR 37202, July 20, 1977] Trade Practices ...

  8. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Golalizadeh; Shobeiri; Ranjbar; Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were ...

  9. Parity violation workshop: CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of electron scattering experiments for exploring parity violation in the nuclear domain. It is shown how such experiments can test the structure of strong interactions, the local gauge theory quantum chromodynamics based on color, and the unified gauge theory of electroweak interactions. 14 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  10. Purchasing Power Parity : Evidence from a New Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Most economists intuitively consider purchasing power parity (PPP) to be true. Nevertheless, quite surprisingly, the empirical literature is not very supportive for PPP. In this paper, however, we find evidence in favor of PPP using a new test. The test is embedded in a Markov regime-switching model

  11. A brief survey of atomic parity nonconservation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Maoqi; Zhao Youyuan; Cai Shengshan; Zhang ZHiming

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a brief description of the basic idea of atomic parity nonconservation (PNC) effect, introduce the methods and results of measuring PNC, analyse the reasons to continue with atomic PNC experiments and suggest some ideas to improve the measure of PNC

  12. Violation of G-parity in antinucleon-nucleon annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.M.; Sainio, M.E.; Moussallam, B.; Niskanen, J.A.; Wycech, S.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for investigating the violation of G-parity in the annihilation reaction anti np → π + π 0 . As illustrations π 0 -η mixing and the mass difference effects are considered. This leads to an asymmetry of about 1% in the cross section. (orig.)

  13. Violation of interest-rate parity: a Polish example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystawa, Jerzy; Wolf, Marek

    2000-09-01

    The mechanism of the so-called “Bagsik Oscillator” is presented and discussed. In essence, it is a repeated exploitation of arbitrage opportunities that resulted from a marked departure from the interest-rate parity relationship between the local Polish currency and the western currencies.

  14. Nuclear isospin mixing and elastic parity-violating electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, O.; Sarriguren, P.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Udias, J.M.; Donnelly, T.W.; Sick, I.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of nuclear isospin mixing on parity-violating elastic electron scattering is studied for the even-even, N=Z nuclei 12 C, 24 Mg, 28 Si, and 32 S. Their ground-state wave functions have been obtained using a self-consistent axially-symmetric mean-field approximation with density-dependent effective two-body Skyrme interactions. Some differences from previous shell-model calculations appear for the isovector Coulomb form factors which play a role in determining the parity-violating asymmetry. To gain an understanding of how these differences arise, the results have been expanded in a spherical harmonic oscillator basis. Results are obtained not only within the plane-wave Born approximation, but also using the distorted-wave Born approximation for comparison with potential future experimental studies of parity-violating electron scattering. To this end, for each nucleus the focus is placed on kinematic ranges where the signal (isospin-mixing effects on the parity-violating asymmetry) and the experimental figure-of-merit are maximized. Strangeness contributions to the asymmetry are also briefly discussed, since they and the isospin mixing contributions may play comparable roles for the nuclei being studied at the low momentum transfers of interest in the present work.

  15. Contribution of working memory in the parity and proportional judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.K.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental evidence on the differences in a sentence-picture verification task under additional memory load between parity and proportional quantifiers. We asked subjects to memorize strings of four or six digits, then to decide whether a quantified sentence was true for a

  16. Efficient Instantiation of Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems to Parity Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Wijs, A.J.; Bošnački, D.; Edelkamp, S.

    Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems (PBESs) are sequences of Boolean fixed point equations with data variables, used for, e.g., verification of modal μ-calculus formulae for process algebraic specifications with data. Solving a PBES is usually done by instantiation to a Parity Game and then

  17. Hadronic parity violation and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-P.; Prezeau, G.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We compute contributions to the parity-violating (PV) inelastic electron-deuteron scattering asymmetry arising from hadronic PV. While hadronic PV effects can be relatively important in PV threshold electrodisintegration, we find that they are highly suppressed at quasielastic kinematics. The interpretation of the PV quasielastic asymmetry is, thus, largely unaffected by hadronic PV

  18. Parity non-conserving effects in neutron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1990-01-01

    The present lecture reviews the motivations which led to study the contribution of the neutron-nucleus component to parity-non-conserving effects observed in medium-heavy nuclei and considers its present status. It is shown that it cannot account for those experimental data. The order interpretation of these effects, which cannot lead to precise statements, is schematically described

  19. Reduction of the effects of transverse polarization in a measurement of parity violation in p-p scattering at 230 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    1987-12-15

    An outline is given of an experiment planned at TRIUMF which will measure an angular distribution of the parity-violating analyzing power A{sub z} in proton-proton scattering at 230 MeV. Measurements will be made in six angle bins by a cylindrically symmetric planar ionization chamber. At the same time, a cross-check of the results will be provided by a low-noise ionization detector downstream of the target which will measure the angle-integrated A{sub z}. Emphasis is placed on the systematic errors that are expected to be present in this measurement and which are in some cases unlike systematic errors in previous measurements of parity violation in proton scattering. As in other measurements, the major origin of systematic error is the polarization of the beam not being entirely parallel to its momentum. A scanning polarimeter to determine the distribution of these polarization components throughout the beam is sketched. (author)

  20. External cephalic version for singleton breech presentation: proposal of a practical check-list for obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraccolo, U; Graziani, C; Di Iorio, R; Corona, G; Bonito, M; Indraccolo, S R

    2015-07-01

    External cephalic version (ECV) for breech presentation is not routinely performed by obstetricians in many clinical settings. The aim of this work is to assess to what extent the factors involved in performing ECV are relevant for the success and safety of ECV, in order to propose a practical check-list for assessing the feasibility of ECV. Review of 214 references. Factors involved in the success and risks of ECV (feasibility of ECV) were extracted and were scored in a semi-quantitative way according to textual information, type of publication, year of publication, number of cases. Simple conjoint analysis was used to describe the relevance found for each factor. Parity has the pivotal role in ECV feasibility (relevance 16.6%), followed by tocolysis (10.8%), gestational age (10.6%), amniotic fluid volume (4.7%), breech variety (1.9%), and placenta location (1.7%). Other factors with estimated relevance around 0 (regional anesthesia, station, estimated fetal weight, fetal position, obesity/BMI, fetal birth weight, duration of manoeuvre/number of attempts) have some role in the feasibility of ECV. Yet other factors, with negative values of estimated relevance, have even less importance. From a logical interpretation of the relevance of each factor assessed, ECV should be proposed with utmost prudence if a stringent check-list is followed. Such a check-list should take into account: parity, tocolytic therapy, gestational age, amniotic fluid volume, breech variety, placenta location, regional anesthesia, breech engagement, fetal well-being, uterine relaxation, fetal size, fetal position, fetal head grasping capability and fetal turning capability.

  1. Simple Check Valves for Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Harold F.; Smith, J. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    A simple design concept for check valves has been adopted for microfluidic devices that consist mostly of (1) deformable fluorocarbon polymer membranes sandwiched between (2) borosilicate float glass wafers into which channels, valve seats, and holes have been etched. The first microfluidic devices in which these check valves are intended to be used are micro-capillary electrophoresis (microCE) devices undergoing development for use on Mars in detecting compounds indicative of life. In this application, it will be necessary to store some liquid samples in reservoirs in the devices for subsequent laboratory analysis, and check valves are needed to prevent cross-contamination of the samples. The simple check-valve design concept is also applicable to other microfluidic devices and to fluidic devices in general. These check valves are simplified microscopic versions of conventional rubber- flap check valves that are parts of numerous industrial and consumer products. These check valves are fabricated, not as separate components, but as integral parts of microfluidic devices. A check valve according to this concept consists of suitably shaped portions of a deformable membrane and the two glass wafers between which the membrane is sandwiched (see figure). The valve flap is formed by making an approximately semicircular cut in the membrane. The flap is centered over a hole in the lower glass wafer, through which hole the liquid in question is intended to flow upward into a wider hole, channel, or reservoir in the upper glass wafer. The radius of the cut exceeds the radius of the hole by an amount large enough to prevent settling of the flap into the hole. As in a conventional rubber-flap check valve, back pressure in the liquid pushes the flap against the valve seat (in this case, the valve seat is the adjacent surface of the lower glass wafer), thereby forming a seal that prevents backflow.

  2. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs...... of a lattice. Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, e.g., monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language...

  3. QuickChecking static analysis properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs....... Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, eg, monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language....

  4. Engineering Abstractions in Model Checking and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, Michael; Ostermann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Abstractions are used in model checking to tackle problems like state space explosion or modeling of IO. The application of these abstractions in real software development processes, however, lacks engineering support. This is one reason why model checking is not widely used in practice yet...... and testing is still state of the art in falsification. We show how user-defined abstractions can be integrated into a Java PathFinder setting with tools like AspectJ or Javassist and discuss implications of remaining weaknesses of these tools. We believe that a principled engineering approach to designing...... and implementing abstractions will improve the applicability of model checking in practice....

  5. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    Integrity checking is an essential means for the preservation of the intended semantics of a deductive database. Incrementality is the only feasible approach to checking and can be obtained with respect to given update patterns by exploiting query optimization techniques. By reducing the problem...... to query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  6. Purchasing power parity theory in a model without international trade of goods

    OpenAIRE

    Läufer, Nikolaus K. A.

    1980-01-01

    In recent discussions it frequently occurs that the Purchasing Power Parity Theory is identified with Jevons law of one price. By pointing to real world obstacles working against perfect goods arbitrage it is then erroneously concluded that the Purchasing Power Parity Theory cannot be valid while a dinstiction between an absolute version and a relative version of the Purchasing Power Parity Theory is neglected. In the present paper it is shown that the Purchasing Power Parity Theory in the re...

  7. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related indices... farmers, interest, taxes, and farm wage rates, as revised May 1976 and published in the May 28, 1976, and...

  8. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  9. Classification and checking model of pedestrian crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Delgado Méndez

    2012-11-01

    After realizing this investigation it can be confirmed that the functionality of a pedestrian crossing depends on almost a hundred parameters which must be checked or measured, in turn proving that this design and construction process is indeed complex.

  10. Model checking mobile ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassemi, Fatemeh; Fokkink, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Modeling arbitrary connectivity changes within mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) makes application of automated formal verification challenging. We use constrained labeled transition systems as a semantic model to represent mobility. To model check MANET protocols with respect to the underlying

  11. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  12. WE-E-BRB-10: DosCheck - an Electronic Chart Checking Tool for Dosimetrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Wu, Y; Yaddanapudi, S; Moore, K; Pierbuxg, B; Brame, S; Mutic, S

    2012-06-01

    In addition to treatment planning, dosimetrists have to prepare documentation and manually enter data in treatment management system (TMS) which did not transfer or setup automatically. The required documents and data are dependent on the disease site, treatment machine and clinical workflow. Errors and inconsistencies can cause redundant work, treatment delays and potentially treatment errors. To address these issues, an electronic checking software tool, DosCheck was clinically implemented to check the existence of necessary documentations and the integrity of manually-entered data. The purpose of this software is to reduce the frequency of human errors and to improve efficiency. DosCheck reads data and documents from 1) TMS, 2) Pinnacle TPS, and 3) DICOM plan files stored in a DICOM-RT PACS. It processes documents in Word and PDF format, treatment plan data in Pinnacle native format and DICOM format, and Mosaiq data in database records. The software cross-checks data accuracy and consistency by following rules that are pre-defined according to the clinical requirements and treatment sties. It interacts with dosimetrists and presents instantaneous results via graphical user interface. DosCheck has been implemented in C#. It performs a full check for a patient with 20 seconds. It has been clinically commissioned and is used daily by all dosimetrists at our institution. Retrospective analysis shows that DosCheck identifies 30% to 40% of previously reported dosimetrist human errors. Additional ∼30% errors are checked by other tools that could be integrated DosCheck in the near future. As an electronic data checking tool, DosCheck can obtain and process data and documents from multiple clinical computer systems in the radiation oncology department, and perform checks according to clinical rules. It is able to improve the accuracy and efficiency of clinical data and document process, and therefore to reduce any potential inconsistencies and errors. © 2012 American

  13. Study of bifurcation behavior of two-dimensional turbo product code decoders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yejun; Lau, Francis C.M.; Tse, Chi K.

    2008-01-01

    Turbo codes, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and turbo product codes (TPCs) are high performance error-correction codes which employ iterative algorithms for decoding. Under different conditions, the behaviors of the decoders are different. While the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of turbo code decoders and LDPC decoders have been reported in the literature, the dynamical behavior of TPC decoders is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of the iterative algorithm of a two-dimensional TPC decoder when the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varies. The quantity to be measured is the mean square value of the posterior probabilities of the information bits. Unlike turbo decoders or LDPC decoders, TPC decoders do not produce a clear 'waterfall region'. This is mainly because the TPC decoding algorithm does not converge to 'indecisive' fixed points even at very low SNR values

  14. Study of bifurcation behavior of two-dimensional turbo product code decoders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Yejun [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong (China); Lau, Francis C.M. [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: encmlau@polyu.edu.hk; Tse, Chi K. [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-04-15

    Turbo codes, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and turbo product codes (TPCs) are high performance error-correction codes which employ iterative algorithms for decoding. Under different conditions, the behaviors of the decoders are different. While the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of turbo code decoders and LDPC decoders have been reported in the literature, the dynamical behavior of TPC decoders is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of the iterative algorithm of a two-dimensional TPC decoder when the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varies. The quantity to be measured is the mean square value of the posterior probabilities of the information bits. Unlike turbo decoders or LDPC decoders, TPC decoders do not produce a clear 'waterfall region'. This is mainly because the TPC decoding algorithm does not converge to 'indecisive' fixed points even at very low SNR values.

  15. High-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, ZengLiang; Wang, XuYang; Yang, ShenShen; Li, YongMin

    2016-01-01

    Efficient reconciliation is a crucial step in continuous variable quantum key distribution. The progressive-edge-growth (PEG) algorithm is an efficient method to construct relatively short block length low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. The qua-sicyclic construction method can extend short block length codes and further eliminate the shortest cycle. In this paper, by combining the PEG algorithm and qua-si-cyclic construction method, we design long block length irregular LDPC codes with high error-correcting capacity. Based on these LDPC codes, we achieve high-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation with slice recon-ciliation based on multilevel coding/multistage decoding with an efficiency of 93.7%.

  16. Gravitino dark matter in R-parity breaking vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Covi, L.; Ibarra, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamaguchi, K.; Yanagida, T.T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-02-15

    We show that in the case of small R-parity and lepton number breaking couplings, primordial nucleosynthesis, thermal leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter are naturally consistent for gravitino masses m{sub 3/2} >or similar 5 GeV. We present a model where R-parity breaking is tied to B-L breaking, which predicts the needed small couplings. The metastable next-to-lightest superparticle has a decay length that is typically larger than a few centimeters, with characteristic signatures at the LHC. The photon flux produced by relic gravitino decays may be part of the apparent excess in the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray flux obtained from the EGRET data for a gravitino mass m{sub 3/2}{proportional_to}10 GeV. In this case, a clear signal can be expected from GLAST in the near future. (orig.)

  17. A Fast Track towards the `Higgs' Spin and Parity

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Sanz, Veronica; You, Tevong

    2012-01-01

    The LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS have discovered a new boson that resembles the long-sought Higgs boson: it cannot have spin one, and has couplings to other particles that increase with their masses, but the spin and parity remain to be determined. We show here that the `Higgs' + gauge boson invariant-mass distribution in `Higgs'-strahlung events at the Tevatron or the LHC would be very different under the J^P = 0+, 0- and 2+ hypotheses, and could provide a fast-track indicator of the `Higgs' spin and parity. Our analysis is based on simulations of the experimental event selections and cuts using PYTHIA and Delphes, and incorporates statistical samples of `toy' experiments.

  18. Gravitino dark matter in R-parity breaking vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Covi, L.; Ibarra, A.; Hamaguchi, K.; Yanagida, T.T.

    2007-02-01

    We show that in the case of small R-parity and lepton number breaking couplings, primordial nucleosynthesis, thermal leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter are naturally consistent for gravitino masses m 3/2 >or similar 5 GeV. We present a model where R-parity breaking is tied to B-L breaking, which predicts the needed small couplings. The metastable next-to-lightest superparticle has a decay length that is typically larger than a few centimeters, with characteristic signatures at the LHC. The photon flux produced by relic gravitino decays may be part of the apparent excess in the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray flux obtained from the EGRET data for a gravitino mass m 3/2 ∝10 GeV. In this case, a clear signal can be expected from GLAST in the near future. (orig.)

  19. Symbolic Detection of Permutation and Parity Symmetries of Evolution Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Moataz

    2017-06-18

    We introduce a symbolic computational approach to detecting all permutation and parity symmetries in any general evolution equation, and to generating associated invariant polynomials, from given monomials, under the action of these symmetries. Traditionally, discrete point symmetries of differential equations are systemically found by solving complicated nonlinear systems of partial differential equations; in the presence of Lie symmetries, the process can be simplified further. Here, we show how to find parity- and permutation-type discrete symmetries purely based on algebraic calculations. Furthermore, we show that such symmetries always form groups, thereby allowing for the generation of new group-invariant conserved quantities from known conserved quantities. This work also contains an implementation of the said results in Mathematica. In addition, it includes, as a motivation for this work, an investigation of the connection between variational symmetries, described by local Lie groups, and conserved quantities in Hamiltonian systems.

  20. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.