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Sample records for parents time spent

  1. Adolescent Depression and Time Spent with Parents and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…

  2. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children's Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucaides, Constantinos A; Tsangaridou, Niki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children ( N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between "general friend support," "friends' activity norms," and physical activity ( r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p friend support" and time spent outside ( r = 0.460, p parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors.

  3. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  4. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  5. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children’s Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinos A. Loucaides; Niki Tsangaridou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Explorat...

  6. Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children’s Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos A. Loucaides

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N=154, mean age = 11.7 and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child’s questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between “general friend support,” “friends’ activity norms,” and physical activity (r=0.343 and 0.333 resp., p<0.001 and between “general friend support” and time spent outside (r=0.460, p<0.001. Obtaining information relating to parental and friends’ influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children’s physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends’ influences may have a stronger impact on children’s behaviors.

  7. Time spent in housework and leisure: links with parents' physiological recovery from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E; Repetti, Rena L; Graesch, Anthony P

    2011-04-01

    Spouses' balancing of housework and leisure activities at home may affect their recovery from work. This paper reports on a study of everyday family life in which 30 dual-earner couples were tracked around their homes by researchers who recorded their locations and activities every 10 min. For women, the most frequently pursued activities at home were housework, communication, and leisure; husbands spent the most time in leisure activities, followed by communication and housework. Spouses differed in their total time at home and their proportion of time devoted to leisure and housework activities, with wives observed more often in housework and husbands observed more often in leisure activities. Both wives and husbands who devoted more time to housework had higher levels of evening cortisol and weaker afternoon-to-evening recovery. For wives, husbands' increased housework time also predicted stronger evening cortisol recovery. When both spouses' activities were entered in the same model, leisure predicted husbands' evening cortisol, such that husbands who apportioned more time to leisure, and whose wives apportioned less time to leisure, showed stronger after-work recovery. These results suggest that the division of labor within couples may have implications for physical health.

  8. Ojibway Adolescent Time Spent with Parents/Elders as Related to Delinquency and Court Adjudication Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzow, Darryl

    1990-01-01

    Among 94 Ojibway adolescents, those with a history of delinquency or court adjudication were less likely to spend time with their families and were more likely to report dysfunctional family situations and negative feelings toward family. Recommendations are presented for family support and skills development in reservation communities. (SV)

  9. Time Well Spent? Relating Television Use to Children’s Free-Time Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Bickham, David S.; Lee, June H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study assessed the claim that children’s television use interferes with time spent in more developmentally appropriate activities. METHODS Data came from the first wave of the Child Development Supplement, a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 12 in 1997 (N = 1712). Twenty-four-hour time-use diaries from 1 randomly chosen weekday and 1 randomly chosen weekend day were used to assess children’s time spent watching television, time spent with parents, time spent with siblings, time spent reading (or being read to), time spent doing homework, time spent in creative play, and time spent in active play. Ordinary least squares multiple regression was used to assess the relationship between children’s television use and time spent pursuing other activities. RESULTS Results indicated that time spent watching television both with and without parents or siblings was negatively related to time spent with parents or siblings, respectively, in other activities. Television viewing also was negatively related to time spent doing homework for 7- to 12-year-olds and negatively related to creative play, especially among very young children (younger than 5 years). There was no relationship between time spent watching television and time spent reading (or being read to) or to time spent in active play. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study are among the first to provide empirical support for the assumptions made by the American Academy of Pediatrics in their screen time recommendations. Time spent viewing television both with and without parents and siblings present was strongly negatively related to time spent interacting with parents or siblings. Television viewing was associated with decreased homework time and decreased time in creative play. Conversely, there was no support for the widespread belief that television interferes with time spent reading or in active play. PMID:16452327

  10. A Between- and Within-Person Analysis of Parenting And Time Spent in Criminogenic Settings during Adolescence: The Role of Self-Control And Delinquent Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Heleen J.; Bruinsma, Gerben J. N.; Dekovic, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.

    2018-01-01

    Although spending time in criminogenic settings is increasingly recognized as an explanation for adolescent delinquency, little is known about its determinants. The current study aims to examine the extent to which (change in) self-control and (change in) delinquent attitudes relate to (change in) time spent in criminogenic settings, and the…

  11. Time Spent in Home Production Activities by Married Couples and Single Adults with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthitt, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    A study found that, over time, married women employed full time have not decreased the time spent working in the home. Married men with young children have increased the time spent on home work. Single parents' time most closely resembled that of married women. (JOW)

  12. Time spent on television in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Konig, R.P.; Nelissen, P.W.M.; Huysmans, F.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explain the variation in time spent on watching television in 15 European Union countries, using determinants defined at the individual level, and characteristics defined at the national level, such as the number of channels and nature of the television supply. The results of the

  13. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a time...

  14. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1) The...

  15. SOCIAL INTEGRATION: TESTING ANTECEDENTS OF TIME SPENT ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Suriani Mohd Arif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the relationship of social integration and time spent onlineprovides conflicting evidence of the relationship of social integration with timespent online. The study identifies and highlightsthe controversy and attempts toclarify the relationship of social integration withtime spent online bydecomposing the construct social integration into its affective and behavioraldimensions . Thestudy tests antecedents and effects of time spent online in arandom sample of senior level undergraduate students at a public university inMalaysia. The findings indicated that while self-report measures of behavioralsocial integration did not predict time spent online, and, the affective socialintegration had an inverse relationship with time spent online.

  16. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Johnson, Dayna A; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-10-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331 healthy adolescents (ages 14-17 years). Heavy Internet use was defined as ≥ 2 hr/day, moderate use as Internet users had statistically significantly higher odds of elevated BP compared to light Internet users. School nurses can play an important role in preventing high BP through assessment of BP and other health behaviors including Internet use, and health teaching to individuals, student groups, faculty, and parents to increase awareness of the relationship between Internet use and health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Determinants of Children's Use of and Time Spent in Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Alex; Kubena, Karen S.; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jan, Jie-Sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Identify parental and children's determinants of children's use of and time spent in fast-food (FF) and full-service (FS) restaurants. Design: Analysis of cross-sectional data. Setting: Parents were interviewed by phone; children were interviewed in their homes. Participants: Parents and children ages 9-11 or 13-15 from 312 families…

  18. Adolescents' prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totland, Torunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Grydeland, May; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Andersen, Lene F

    2013-07-06

    The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined. A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents', mothers' and fathers' self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years. Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' screen time behaviours at the ages of 11 and 13 years, and further

  19. Cooling-time determination of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hatcher, C.R.; Kaieda, K.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods to determine the cooling time using data from high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are discussed; one is useful when the irradiation history information is available, the other when the irradiation history is not available. We have applied both methods and found that the cooling time can be determined to within an average of 3% and 4.1%, respectively

  20. Time Spent With Children and Working Parents’ Willingness to Medicate ADHD-Like Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Pajo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How much time parents spend with their children is likely to influence their judgments of children’s behaviors and the behaviors themselves. In the diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, parents are key informants and decide whether their children should receive medication. This exploratory study investigates the relationship between working parents’ willingness to medicate ADHD-like behaviors and the time they can spend with their children during a regular workday. The participants (409 parents of 5- to 17- year-old children reporting having no child with emotional or behavioral problems and 87 reporting having such a child were drawn from a population-based telephone survey of parents stratified by race and ethnicity in two urban Florida counties. Path analysis models, controlling for selected sociodemographic and household variables, showed that spending more time with one’s children during a regular workday and self-identifying as African American were negatively related to willingness to medicate among parents of children with problems. Among parents reporting no children with problems, only the number of children in the household and the parent-type household showed relationships to willingness to medicate, while mothers were more likely than fathers to spend more time with children. These observed relationships were of moderate effect but underscore the importance to initiate studies using valid measures of quantity and quality of parental time spent with ADHD children, and to query parents on these points when assessing the information they provide to clinicians.

  1. Do Workplace Flexibility Policies Influence Time Spent in Domestic Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Mary C.; Estes, Sarah Beth; Glass, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. midwestern sample of mothers and fathers, the authors examine whether using workplace flexibility policies alters time spent in housework and child care. They hypothesize that an individual's policy use will lead to more time in domestic labor and that his or her spouse's policy use will lead to less time in domestic labor.…

  2. Time Spent in Indirect Nursing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    unable to recognize what needs to be done, or lacking motivation . Likewise, head nurses may spend too much time giving Cdirect care (14.5%). Perhaps more...of the head nurse time might be redirected to teaching, supervising, and motivating other staff members. Although the objective data are reliable, the...S7 9 1 a NO .06 P4 Z& V- N. 4 1 oe a ~~3 00 0I xI %A II I-~~~- Lai - E, zCk u atII C.p UA a 5 P44 d4. Ps4 .- U)2 co Ili L I ao r40 ey . 1a ,o 01 𔃾K

  3. Estimated time spent on preventive services by primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradison Margaret

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivery of preventive health services in primary care is lacking. One of the main barriers is lack of time. We estimated the amount of time primary care physicians spend on important preventive health services. Methods We analyzed a large dataset of primary care (family and internal medicine visits using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2001–4; analyses were conducted 2007–8. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the amount of time spent delivering each preventive service, controlling for demographic covariates. Results Preventive visits were longer than chronic care visits (M = 22.4, SD = 11.8, M = 18.9, SD = 9.2, respectively. New patients required more time from physicians. Services on which physicians spent relatively more time were prostate specific antigen (PSA, cholesterol, Papanicolaou (Pap smear, mammography, exercise counseling, and blood pressure. Physicians spent less time than recommended on two "A" rated ("good evidence" services, tobacco cessation and Pap smear (in preventive visits, and one "B" rated ("at least fair evidence" service, nutrition counseling. Physicians spent substantial time on two services that have an "I" rating ("inconclusive evidence of effectiveness", PSA and exercise counseling. Conclusion Even with limited time, physicians address many of the "A" rated services adequately. However, they may be spending less time than recommended for important services, especially smoking cessation, Pap smear, and nutrition counseling. Future research is needed to understand how physicians decide how to allocate their time to address preventive health.

  4. Photoprotection by sunscreen depends on time spent on application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerfordt, Ida M; Torsnes, Linnea R; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2018-03-01

    To be effective, sunscreens must be applied in a sufficient quantity and reapplication is recommended. No previous study has investigated whether time spent on sunscreen application is important for the achieved photoprotection. To determine whether time spent on sunscreen application is related to the amount of sunscreen used during a first and second application. Thirty-one volunteers wearing swimwear applied sunscreen twice in a laboratory environment. Time spent and the amount of sunscreen used during each application was measured. Subjects' body surface area accessible for sunscreen application (BSA) was estimated from their height, weight and swimwear worn. The average applied quantity of sunscreen after each application was calculated. Subjects spent on average 4 minutes and 15 seconds on the first application and approximately 85% of that time on the second application. There was a linear relationship between time spent on application and amount of sunscreen used during both the first and the second application (P applications. After the first application, subjects had applied a mean quantity of sunscreen of 0.71 mg/cm 2 on the BSA, and after the second application, a mean total quantity of 1.27 mg/cm 2 had been applied. We found that participants applied a constant amount of sunscreen per minute during both a first and a second application. Measurement of time spent on application of sunscreen on different body sites may be useful in investigating the distribution of sunscreen in real-life settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reviewing interval cancers: Time well spent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower-Thomas, Kate; Fielder, Hilary M.P.; Branston, Lucy; Greening, Sarah; Beer, Helen; Rogers, Cerilan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To categorize interval cancers, and thus identify false-negatives, following prevalent and incident screens in the Welsh breast screening programme. SETTING: Breast Test Wales (BTW) Llandudno, Cardiff and Swansea breast screening units. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty interval breast cancers identified following negative mammographic screening between 1989 and 1997 were reviewed by eight screening radiologists. The blind review was achieved by mixing the screening films of women who subsequently developed an interval cancer with screen negative films of women who did not develop cancer, in a ratio of 4:1. Another radiologist used patients' symptomatic films to record a reference against which the reviewers' reports of the screening films were compared. Interval cancers were categorized as 'true', 'occult', 'false-negative' or 'unclassified' interval cancers or interval cancers with minimal signs, based on the National Health Service breast screening programme (NHSBSP) guidelines. RESULTS: Of the classifiable interval films, 32% were false-negatives, 55% were true intervals and 12% occult. The proportion of false-negatives following incident screens was half that following prevalent screens (P = 0.004). Forty percent of the seed films were recalled by the panel. CONCLUSIONS: Low false-negative interval cancer rates following incident screens (18%) versus prevalent screens (36%) suggest that lower cancer detection rates at incident screens may have resulted from fewer cancers than expected being present, rather than from a failure to detect tumours. The panel method for categorizing interval cancers has significant flaws as the results vary markedly with different protocol and is no more accurate than other, quicker and more timely methods. Gower-Thomas, K. et al. (2002)

  6. Adolescents’ prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents’ and adolescents’ time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents’ prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined. Methods A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007–2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents’, mothers’ and fathers’ self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents’ and adolescents’ reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents’ time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years. Results Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents’ prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years. Conclusion Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents’ and adolescents

  7. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  8. Reevaluation of time spent indoors used for exposure dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    A time spent indoors of sixteen hours per day (indoor occupancy factor: 0.67) has been used to assess the radiation dose of residents who spend daily life in the area contaminated due to the nuclear accident in Japan. However, much longer time is considered to be spent indoors for recent modern life. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has been used an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 since 1977 and a few reports suggested much higher indoor occupancy factors. Therefore it is important to reevaluate the indoor occupancy factor using current available survey data in Japan, such as 'NHK 2010 National Time Use Survey' and 'Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities' of Statistics Bureau with certain assumption of time spent indoors in each daily activity. The total time spent indoors in a day is calculated to be 20.2 hours and its indoor occupancy factor is 0.84. Much lower indoor occupancy factors were derived from the survey data by Statistics Bureau for 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years old groups and farmers who spend most of their time outdoors although present estimated indoor occupancy factor of 0.84 is still lower than those found in some of the relevant reports. A rounded indoor occupancy factor of 0.80 might be the appropriate conservative reference value to be used for the dose estimation of people who live in radioactively contaminated areas and for other relevant purposes of exposure assessment, taken into consideration the present results and values reported in United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and UNSCEAR. (author)

  9. [Problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, S; Andréoletti, A; Chauchard, E; Rodgers, R F; Chabrol, H

    2016-06-01

    Internet addiction or problematic Internet use is a recent and increasingly recognized disorder which has been consistently associated with many psychiatric disorders, adding to the documented negative consequences of problematic Internet use. However, very few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use and personality traits and none in a French sample. Moreover, those which have evaluated this relationship have mainly been conducted on small samples. The main goal of our study was to explore the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent online and personality traits in a French sample, taking into account the presence of depressive symptoms, and gender. A sample of 276 participants aged from 18 to 50 (M=28; SD=8.9) completed a questionnaire assessing problematic Internet use, time spent online, the presence of ten personality traits and depressive symptoms. Our results revealed significant differences between genders. Among men, problematic Internet use was associated with personality clusters A and B while in women no cluster or personality traits were associated. Time spent online was predicted by schizoid personality traits among men and avoidant personality traits among women. Our results indicate that cluster A (schizoid and schizotypal) and cluster B traits (borderline and antisocial) play a more important role in problematic Internet use than cluster C traits among men. Differences between men and women regarding the relationships between personality traits, time online and problematic Internet use may be related to differences in the activities engaged in by men and women online. We observed that communication websites use was more prevalent among women while erotic, gambling and shopping websites use was more prevalent among men suggesting that the characteristics of problematic Internet use may vary according to gender. Few studies have examined the relationship between problematic Internet use, time spent

  10. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long-Term Effect on Children´s Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    of market-provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for parents´ time use decisions but availability of paternal childcare does not directly affect the mother´s childcare decision. The effect of parental childcare time on children´s educational outcome is tested using Danish time......This paper empirically and theoretically links parental time use decisions to child development in a household with two full-time employed parents. Both parents. time spent on childcare is explicitly taken into account as well as childcare bought in the market. It is shown that the quality...... use data combined with administrative register data. I find a statistically signi.cant positive association between mothers´ childcare time on weekdays and children´s outcomes as well as a positive association between fathers´ childcare time on weekends and children´s outcomes. Parents.time spent...

  11. Birth weight and time spent in outdoor physical activity during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the association between birth parameters (weight, length, and head circumference) and time spent in physical activity (outdoor and indoor) and screen time (TV viewing, computer, and videogame usage) among adolescents. A longitudinal cohort study surveyed 1794 children in 2004-2005 (median age = 12.7 yr), and 752 were resurveyed 5 yr later in 2009-2010 (age = 17-18 yr). Adolescents completed detailed activity questionnaires. Parents extracted birth parameter data from their child's health record booklet. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, gestational age, parental education, home ownership, exposure to passive smoking, and body mass index, 12-yr-old children in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of birth weight spent on average approximately 56 and 62 min more in total (Ptrend = 0.02) and outdoor physical activity (Ptrend = 0.02) per week, respectively. Similarly, 12-yr-old children in the high (>4000 g) versus very low (adolescence. Hence, this could be part of the underlying mechanism between prenatal influences and future disease risk and could have possible clinical implications.

  12. Optimization of time and location dependent spent nuclear fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, V.

    1977-01-01

    A linear spent fuel storage model is developed to identify cost-effective spent nuclear fuel storage strategies. The purpose of this model is to provide guidelines for the implementation of the optimal time-dependent spent fuel storage capacity expansion in view of the current economic and regulatory environment which has resulted in phase-out of the closed nuclear fuel cycle. Management alternatives of the spent fuel storage backlog, which is created by mismatch between spent fuel generation rate and spent fuel disposition capability, are represented by aggregate decision variables which describe the time dependent on-reactor-site and off-site spent fuel storage capacity additions, and the amount of spent fuel transferred to off-site storage facilities. Principal constraints of the model assure determination of cost optimal spent fuel storage expansion strategies, while spent fuel storage requirements are met at all times. A detailed physical and economic analysis of the essential components of the spent fuel storage problem, which precedes the model development, assures its realism. The effects of technological limitations on the on-site spent fuel storage expansion and timing of reinitiation of the spent fuel reprocessing on optimal spent fuel storage capacity expansion are investigated. The principal results of the study indicate that (a) expansion of storage capacity beyond that of currently planned facilities is necessary, and (b) economics of the post-reactor fuel cycle is extremely sensitive to the timing of reinitiation of spent fuel reprocessing. Postponement of reprocessing beyond mid-1982 may result in net negative economic liability of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

  13. Time Spent on Social Network Sites and Psychological Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2017-06-01

    This meta-analysis examines the relationship between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being factors, namely self-esteem, life satisfaction, loneliness, and depression. Sixty-one studies consisting of 67 independent samples involving 19,652 participants were identified. The mean correlation between time spent on social networking sites and psychological well-being was low at r = -0.07. The correlations between time spent on social networking sites and positive indicators (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were close to 0, whereas those between time spent on social networking sites and negative indicators (depression and loneliness) were weak. The effects of publication outlet, site on which users spent time, scale of time spent, and participant age and gender were not significant. As most included studies used student samples, future research should be conducted to examine this relationship for adults.

  14. Parents' daily time with their children: a workplace intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly D; Lawson, Katie M; Almeida, David M; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie; Casper, Lynne M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Hanson, Ginger; McHale, Susan M

    2015-05-01

    In the context of a group randomized field trial, we evaluated whether parents who participated in a workplace intervention, designed to increase supervisor support for personal and family life and schedule control, reported significantly more daily time with their children at the 12-month follow-up compared with parents assigned to the Usual Practice group. We also tested whether the intervention effect was moderated by parent gender, child gender, or child age. The Support-Transform-Achieve-Results Intervention was delivered in an information technology division of a US Fortune 500 company. Participants included 93 parents (45% mothers) of a randomly selected focal child aged 9 to 17 years (49% daughters) who completed daily telephone diaries at baseline and 12 months after intervention. During evening telephone calls on 8 consecutive days, parents reported how much time they spent with their child that day. Parents in the intervention group exhibited a significant increase in parent-child shared time, 39 minutes per day on average, between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. By contrast, parents in the Usual Practice group averaged 24 fewer minutes with their child per day at the 12-month follow-up. Intervention effects were evident for mothers but not for fathers and for daughters but not sons. The hypothesis that the intervention would improve parents' daily time with their children was supported. Future studies should examine how redesigning work can change the quality of parent-child interactions and activities known to be important for youth health and development. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Parental Separation, Parental Alcoholism, and Timing of First Sexual Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Doran, Kelly A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined timing of first voluntary sexual intercourse as a joint function of parental separation during childhood and parental history of alcoholism. Methods Data were drawn from a birth cohort of female like-sex twins (n=569 African Ancestry [AA], n=3415 European or other Ancestry [EA]). Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first sex from dummy variables coding for parental separation and parental alcoholism. Propensity score analysis was also employed comparing intact and separated families, stratified by predicted probability of separation. Results Earlier sex was reported by EA twins from separated and alcoholic families, compared to EA twins from intact nonalcoholic families, with effects most pronounced through age 14. Among AA twins, effects of parental separation and parental alcoholism were largely nonsignificant. Results of propensity score analyses confirmed unique risks from parental separation in EA families, where consistent effects of parental separation were observed across predicted probability of separation. For AA families there was poor matching on risk-factors presumed to predate separation, which limited interpretability of survival-analytic findings. Conclusions In European American families, parental separation during childhood is an important predictor of early-onset sex, beyond parental alcoholism and other correlated risk-factors. To characterize risk for African Americans associated with parental separation, additional research is needed where matching on confounders can be achieved. PMID:25907653

  16. Parental separation, parental alcoholism, and timing of first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Doran, Kelly A; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Duncan, Alexis E; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Sartor, Carolyn E; Heath, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    We examined timing of first voluntary sexual intercourse as a joint function of parental separation during childhood and parental history of alcoholism. Data were drawn from a birth cohort of female like-sex twins (n = 569 African ancestry [AA]; n = 3,415 European or other ancestry [EA]). Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first sex from dummy variables coding for parental separation and parental alcoholism. Propensity score analysis was also employed to compare intact and separated families, stratified by predicted probability of separation. Earlier sex was reported by EA twins from separated and alcoholic families, compared to EA twins from intact nonalcoholic families, with effects most pronounced through the age of 14 years. Among AA twins, effects of parental separation and parental alcoholism were largely nonsignificant. Results of propensity score analyses confirmed unique risks from parental separation in EA families, where consistent effects of parental separation were observed across predicted probability of separation. For AA families, there was poor matching on risk factors presumed to predate separation, which limited interpretability of survival-analytic findings. In European American families, parental separation during childhood is an important predictor of early-onset sex, beyond parental alcoholism and other correlated risk factors. To characterize risk for African Americans associated with parental separation, additional research is needed where matching on confounders can be achieved. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental satisfaction with paediatric care, triage and waiting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Breen, Daniel T; Taylor, James; Paul, Eldho; Grosvenor, Robert; Heggie, Katrina; Mahar, Patrick D

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to determine parental and guardian's perceptions of paediatric emergency care and satisfaction with care, waiting times and triage category in a community ED. A structured questionnaire was provided to parents or guardians of paediatric patients presenting to emergency. The survey evaluated parent perceptions of waiting time, environment/facilities, professionalism and communication skills of staff and overall satisfaction of care. One hundred and thirty-three completed questionnaires were received from parents of paediatric patients. Responses were overall positive with respect to the multiple domains assessed. Parents generally considered waiting times to be appropriate and consistent with triage categories. Overall satisfaction was not significantly different for varying treatment or waiting times. Patients triaged as semi-urgent were of the opinion that waiting times were less appropriate than urgent, less-urgent or non-urgent patients. On the basis of the present study, patient perceptions and overall satisfaction of care does not appear to be primarily influenced by time spent waiting or receiving treatment. Attempts made at the triage process to ensure that semi-urgent patients have reasonable expectations of waiting times might provide an opportunity to improve these patients' expectations and perceptions. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control, sucrose solution (0.75 mol or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol. As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution: 1 Parents (especially females increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2 Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  19. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students’ ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses. PMID:27667839

  20. Teacher Time Spent on Student Health Issues and School Nurse Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The…

  1. 48 CFR 852.271-72 - Time spent by counselee in counseling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... counseling process. 852.271-72 Section 852.271-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Clauses 852.271-72 Time spent by counselee in counseling process. As prescribed in 871.212, insert the following clause: Time Spent by Counselee in Counseling Process (APR 1984) The contractor agrees that no...

  2. Associations of American Indian children's screen-time behavior with parental television behavior, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Smyth, Mary; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    American Indian children have high rates of overweight and obesity, which may be partially attributable to screen-time behavior. Young children's screen-time behavior is strongly influenced by their environment and their parents' behavior. We explored whether parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home are related to screen time (ie, television, DVD/video, video game, and computer use) among Oglala Lakota youth residing on or near the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. We collected baseline data from 431 child and parent/caregiver pairs who participated in Bright Start, a group-randomized, controlled, school-based obesity prevention trial to reduce excess weight gain. Controlling for demographic characteristics, we used linear regression analysis to assess associations between children's screen time and parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and availability of media-related household resources. The most parsimonious model for explaining child screen time included the children's sex, parental body mass index, parental television watching time, how often the child watched television after school or in the evening, parental perception that the child spent too much time playing video games, how often the parent limited the child's television time, and the presence of a VCR/DVD player or video game player in the home (F(7,367) = 14.67; P strategy for reducing overweight and obesity in American Indian children.

  3. Time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors on the working day: the American time use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Leonardi, Claudia; Johnson, William D; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2011-12-01

    To determine time spent on the working day in sleep, work, sedentary behaviors, and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity behaviors by occupation intensity. Data came from 30,758 working respondents to the 2003 to 2009 American Time Use Survey. Mean ± SEM time spent in work, sedentary behaviors, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity activities, and sleep were computed by occupations classified as sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity. On average, approximately 32% of the 24-hour day was spent sleeping and approximately 31% was spent at work. Time spent in sedentary behaviors outside of work was higher, and light-intensity time was lower, with higher levels of intensity-defined occupation. Those employed in sedentary occupations were sedentary for approximately 11 hours per day, leaving little time to achieve recommended levels of physical activity for overall health.

  4. The Time Parents and Children Spend Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Mark E.

    Questions about how parents' childrearing time becomes associated with different developmental outcomes and about the relative importance of the quantity and quality of shared parent/child time remain largely unanswered. A study explored such associations in a sample of 48 white middle class third and fourth graders (24 boys and 24 girls) and…

  5. Developer’s time spent in a software project part using the SGD framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesluk, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Resource management is important for software projects to be successful. Time is one of these resources that needs to be managed. To do this you need to know how time resources are spent. Currently the existence of published material on time resources spent in a software project is almost none. In this thesis a research was conducted on how time resources are spent by an individual developer in a software project. The Self-Governance Developer framework was the tool used to gather these resou...

  6. Relieving the Time Squeeze? Effects of a White-Collar Workplace Change on Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachelle; Tranby, Eric; Kelly, Erin; Moen, Phyllis

    2013-08-01

    Employed parents perceive a time squeeze even as trends from the 1960s show they are spending more time with their children. Work conditions (e.g., hours and schedule control) would seem to affect both parents' time with children and perceived time squeeze, but most studies rely on cross-sectional data that do not establish causality. The authors examined the effects of the introduction of a workplace flexibility initiative (Results Only Work Environment [ROWE]) on changes in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of the adequacy of their time with children and actual time spent with children ( N = 225). Baseline data show the importance of work conditions for parents' sense of perceived time adequacy. Panel data show that mothers (but not fathers) in ROWE report increased schedule control and improved time adequacy, but no change in actual time spent with children, except that ROWE increases evening meals with children for mothers sharing few meals at baseline.

  7. When does time matter? maternal employment, children's time with parents, and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.

  8. Parenting and Time Adolescents Spend in Criminogenic Settings : A Between- and Within-person Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Heleen J.; Dekovic, Maja; Bruinsma, Gerben J. N.

    Although there has been increasing interest in explaining adolescents' crime involvement by the time adolescents spend in criminogenic settings, little is known about its determinants. We examine the extent to which (change in) parenting is related to (change in) time spent in criminogenic settings.

  9. Parental Control of the Time Preadolescents Spend on Social Media: Links with Preadolescents' Social Media Appearance Comparisons and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Magson, Natasha R; Johnco, Carly J; Oar, Ella L; Rapee, Ronald M

    2018-07-01

    Time spent on social media and making online comparisons with others may influence users' mental health. This study examined links between parental control over the time their child spends on social media, preadolescents' time spent browsing social media, preadolescents' appearance comparisons on social media, and preadolescents' appearance satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. Preadolescent social media users (N = 284, 49.1% female; aged 10-12) and one of their parents completed online surveys. Preadolescents, whose parents reported greater control over their child's time on social media, reported better mental health. This relationship was mediated by preadolescents spending less time browsing and making fewer appearance comparisons on social media. Parental control over time spent on social media may be associated with benefits for mental health among preadolescents.

  10. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long Term Effect on Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    seem to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite to most other studies within the child care literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on child care into account as well as child care bought in the market. It is shown that the quality of market...... provided child care vs. the quality of parental child care is crucial for the parents' time use decisions but the availability of paternal child care does not seem to affect the mother's child care decision. The effect of parental child care time on children's educational outcome is tested using Danish......This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use decisions to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers...

  11. Canadian children's and youth's pedometer-determined steps/day, parent-reported TV watching time, and overweight/obesity: The CANPLAY Surveillance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Craig, Cora L; Cameron, Christine; Griffiths, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examines associations between pedometer-determined steps/day and parent-reported child's Body Mass Index (BMI) and time typically spent watching television between school and dinner. Methods Young people (aged 5-19 years) were recruited through their parents by random digit dialling and mailed a data collection package. Information on height and weight and time spent watching television between school and dinner on a typical school day was collected from parents...

  12. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  13. Time with children and employed parents' emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offer, Shira

    2014-09-01

    Using the experience sampling method and survey data from the 500 Family Study this study examined how parents feel when they spend time with their children and whether their emotional experiences differ by type of activity and the parent's gender. I found that mothers spent more time in childcare than fathers but this disparity was primarily due to mothers' more frequent engagement in activities that were not child-centered (i.e., non-focused and passive childcare). Multilevel models further showed that engagement in these activities was related to higher positive affect. Shared meals and leisure activities were particularly beneficial to parents' emotional well-being and the likelihood of engaging in them was not affected by parents' paid work hours. By contrast, routine childcare was associated with increased stress and lower engagement but only among mothers. Mothers were also less likely to provide childcare in conjunction with their spouse. These findings reveal the subtle dimensions of the unequal division of childcare by gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Time Spent Outdoors, Depressive Symptoms, and Variation by Race and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-09-01

    Numerous studies have explored neighborhood environmental correlates of mental illnesses, presuming that the time individuals spend in their environment can confer benefit or harm based on environmental characteristics. However, few population-based studies have directly examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and mental health, and little work has been done to explore how experiences differ by race and ethnicity. Though some have proposed "doses of outdoor time" to improve health, the absence of information about the benefits conferred by particular "doses," and expected baseline levels of outdoor time, are needed to inform the development of recommendations and interventions. This study examined the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression among a population-based sample of American adults, characterized current levels of time spent outdoors by race and ethnicity, and examined how the relationship between time spent outdoors and depression varies by race and ethnicity. Descriptive statistics and survey regression models were used to examine data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2009-2012. Findings provide evidence that time spent outdoors is associated with fewer depressive symptoms, but this benefit may not be equally distributed by race and ethnicity. Descriptive analyses also reveal differences in time spent outdoors among different racial and ethnic groups. Study findings support the notion that increasing time spent outdoors may result in mental health benefits. However, this study questions whether that benefit is experienced equally among different groups, particularly given differences in occupational experiences and environmental characteristics of neighborhoods. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Time spent on home food preparation and indicators of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Aggarwal, Anju; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The amount of time spent on food preparation and cooking may have implications for diet quality and health. However, little is known about how food-related time use relates to food consumption and spending, either at restaurants or for food consumed at home. To quantitatively assess the associations among the amount of time habitually spent on food preparation and patterns of self-reported food consumption, food spending, and frequency of restaurant use. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,319 adults in a population-based survey conducted in 2008-2009. The sample was stratified into those who spent 2 hours/day on food preparation and cleanup. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression models examined differences between time-use groups. Analyses were conducted in 2011-2013. Individuals who spent the least amount of time on food preparation tended to be working adults who placed a high priority on convenience. Greater amount of time spent on home food preparation was associated with indicators of higher diet quality, including significantly more frequent intake of vegetables, salads, fruits, and fruit juices. Spending food preparation was associated with significantly more money spent on food away from home and more frequent use of fast food restaurants compared to those who spent more time on food preparation. The findings indicate that time might be an essential ingredient in the production of healthier eating habits among adults. Further research should investigate the determinants of spending time on food preparation. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Time in Parenting Activities in Dual-Earner Families at the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp

    2015-01-01

    Time in parenting was compared for new mothers and fathers in a sample of 182 dual-earner families. Parenting domains included positive engagement, responsibility, routine childcare, and accessibility. Time diaries captured parents’ time use over a 24-hour workday and nonworkday when infants were 3 and 9 months old. Parents were highly involved with their infants. Mothers were more involved than fathers in positive engagement and routine childcare on both days and at each assessment, and allocated more available time on workdays to these domains than fathers, with one exception. Fathers and mothers allocated similar shares of available workday time to positive engagement at 9 months. Greater equity in responsibility and accessibility was found; Mothers spent more, and a greater share of, parenting time in responsibility than fathers on the 9-month workday only, and were more accessible on the 3 month workday only. Implications for parents in today's diverse families are discussed. PMID:26405367

  17. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long Term Effect on Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    to the child's development, and it is shown that the quality of market provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for the parents' decisions. The availability of paternal childcare does not seem to affect the mother's labor supply decision, though. Several different policy scenarios......This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers seem...... to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite of most other studies within the childcare literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on childcare into account as well as childcare bought in the market. The parents' optimal labor supply decisions are linked...

  18. The Long Term Effect of Parental Time Use on Children's Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers seem...... to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite of most other studies within the childcare literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on childcare into account as well as childcare bought in the market. The parents' optimal labor supply decisions are linked...... to the child's development, and it is shown that the quality of market provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for the parents' decisions. The availability of paternal childcare does not seem to affect the mother's labor supply decision, though. Several different policy scenarios...

  19. Associations of Parental Rules and Socioeconomic Position With Preschool Children's Sedentary Behaviour and Screen Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine L; Hinkley, Trina; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2015-04-01

    There is little current understanding of the influences on sedentary behavior and screen time in preschool children. This study investigated socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental rules as potential correlates of preschool children's sedentary behavior and screen time. Data from the Healthy Active Preschool Years (HAPPY) Study were used. Participating parents reported their child's usual weekly screen time and their rules to regulate their child's screen time. Children wore accelerometers for 8 days to objectively measure sedentary time. Children whose parents limited television viewing spent significantly less time in that behavior and in total screen time; however, overall sedentary behavior was unaffected. An association between parents limiting computer/electronic game use and time spent on the computer was found for girls only. SEP was inversely associated with girls', but not boys', total screen time and television viewing. As parental rules were generally associated with lower levels of screen time, intervention strategies could potentially encourage parents to set limits on, and switch off, screen devices. Intervention strategies should target preschool children across all SEP areas, as there was no difference by SEP in overall sedentary behavior or screen time for boys.

  20. How parents can affect excessive spending of time on screen-based activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Ševčikova, Anna; Žežula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2014-12-12

    The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed in 2013, with data collected from Slovak (n = 258) and Czech (n = 406) 11- and 15-year-old children. The effects of age, gender, availability of a TV or computer in the bedroom, parental rules on time spent watching TV or working on a computer, parental rules on the content of TV programmes and computer work and watching TV together with parents on excessive time spent with screen-based activities were explored using logistic regression models. Two-thirds of respondents watch TV or play computer games at least two hours a day. Older children have a 1.80-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.30-2.51) and a 3.91-times higher chance of excessive computer use (CI: 2.82-5.43) in comparison with younger children. More than half of children have a TV (53%) and a computer (73%) available in their bedroom, which increases the chance of excessive TV watching by 1.59 times (CI: 1.17-2.16) and of computer use by 2.25 times (CI: 1.59-3.20). More than half of parents rarely or never apply rules on the length of TV watching (64%) or time spent on computer work (56%), and their children have a 1.76-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.26-2.46) and a 1.50-times greater chance of excessive computer use (CI: 1.07-2.08). A quarter of children reported that they are used to watching TV together with their parents every day, and these have a 1.84-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (1.25-2.70). Reducing time spent watching TV by applying parental rules or a parental role model might help prevent excessive time spent on screen-based activities.

  1. It takes longer than you think: librarian time spent on systematic review tasks*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullers, Krystal; Howard, Allison M.; Hanson, Ardis; Kearns, William D.; Orriola, John J.; Polo, Randall L.; Sakmar, Kristen A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The authors examined the time that medical librarians spent on specific tasks for systematic reviews (SRs): interview process, search strategy development, search strategy translation, documentation, deliverables, search methodology writing, and instruction. We also investigated relationships among the time spent on SR tasks, years of experience, and number of completed SRs to gain a better understanding of the time spent on SR tasks from time, staffing, and project management perspectives. Methods A confidential survey and study description were sent to medical library directors who were members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries as well as librarians serving members of the Association of American Medical Colleges or American Osteopathic Association. Results Of the 185 participants, 143 (77%) had worked on an SR within the last 5 years. The number of SRs conducted by participants during their careers ranged from 1 to 500, with a median of 5. The major component of time spent was on search strategy development and translation. Average aggregated time for standard tasks was 26.9 hours, with a median of 18.5 hours. Task time was unrelated to the number of SRs but was positively correlated with years of SR experience. Conclusion The time required to conduct the librarian’s discrete tasks in an SR varies substantially, and there are no standard time frames. Librarians with more SR experience spent more time on instruction and interviews; time spent on all other tasks varied widely. Librarians also can expect to spend a significant amount of their time on search strategy development, translation, and writing. PMID:29632442

  2. Age at Menarche and Time Spent in Education: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D; Del Greco M, F; Rawson, T M; Sivakumaran, P; Brown, A; Sheehan, N A; Minelli, C

    2017-09-01

    Menarche signifies the primary event in female puberty and is associated with changes in self-identity. It is not clear whether earlier puberty causes girls to spend less time in education. Observational studies on this topic are likely to be affected by confounding environmental factors. The Mendelian randomization (MR) approach addresses these issues by using genetic variants (such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) as proxies for the risk factor of interest. We use this technique to explore whether there is a causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education. Instruments and SNP-age at menarche estimates are identified from a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) meta-analysis of 182,416 women of European descent. The effects of instruments on time spent in education are estimated using a GWAS meta-analysis of 118,443 women performed by the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium (SSGAC). In our main analysis, we demonstrate a small but statistically significant causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education: a 1 year increase in age at menarche is associated with 0.14 years (53 days) increase in time spent in education (95% CI 0.10-0.21 years, p = 3.5 × 10 -8 ). The causal effect is confirmed in sensitivity analyses. In identifying this positive causal effect of age at menarche on time spent in education, we offer further insight into the social effects of puberty in girls.

  3. Predicting Time Spent in Treatment in a Sample of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Shelley; Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark; Armour, Cherie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify significant predictors of length of time spent in treatment. In a convenience sample of 439 Danish survivors of child sexual abuse, predictors of time spent in treatment were examined. Assessments were conducted on a 6-month basis over a period of 18 months. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the experience of neglect in childhood and having experienced rape at any life stage were associated with less time in treatment. Higher educational attainment and being male were associated with staying in treatment for longer periods of time. These factors may be important for identifying those at risk of terminating treatment prematurely. It is hoped that a better understanding of the factors that predict time spent in treatment will help to improve treatment outcomes for individuals who are at risk of dropping out of treatment at an early stage.

  4. Time well spent? Assessing nursing-supply chain activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Jeff

    2010-02-01

    The amount of time nurses spend providing direct patient care seems to be continually eroding. So it's little wonder a survey conducted last year of critical care, OR nurses and nurse executives found that half of the 1600 respondents feel they spend too much time on supply chain duties. Most also said their supply chain duties impact patient safe ty and their ability to provide bedside care. Experts interviewed for this report believe it's time for supply chain leaders and nurses to develop a closer working partnership. Included are their recommendations to improve performance.

  5. A study on the frequency of participation and time spent on sport in different organisational settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, J.; Breedveld, K.; Tienen-Raaphorst, A.; Thibaut, E.; Vandermeerschen, H.; Vos, S.B.; Scheerder, J.

    2016-01-01

    Research question: As a result of the expansion of opportunities for leisure-time sport participation (LTSP), the question arises if differing organisational settings relate to differences in participation behaviour. This paper compares participation frequency and time spent on sport between

  6. Time spent in sedentary activities in a pediatric population in Pretoria Central, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Daniel T; Nsibambi, Constance A; Chebet, Milton

    2016-12-01

    Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa. Questionnaire was used to collect data on the participants' sedentary behaviors. The prevalence estimates for sedentary time activity was based on the guidelines (i.e., <2 or ≥2 hours per day) of AAP. The mean age of the children was 11.1±1.4 years. Sedentary activity data were collected from 548 boys (48.2%) and 588 (51.8%) girls. The majority of children spent more than two hours per day (exceeding the AAP recommendation for sedentary activity) watching TV (3.0%), worked or played on the computer (25.4%), read (1.0%), played music (27.9%), played board games (14.7%), washing clothes (8.0%), floor sweeping (10.5%), art work (18.2%), and spent time on other unspecified activities (28.6%). Boys spent more time (2 hours, 3-4 hours) watching TV (38.3%; P=0.001), playing computer (31.8 %; P=0.024) and board games (17.4%; P=0.012) than girls. The corresponding figures for girls were 35.7%, 19.2% and 12.5% for TV, computer and board games, respectively. However, the proportion of those who spent more time playing music was higher among girls (32.7%) than boys (22.4%) (P=0.002). Overall, the time spent exceeding AAP recommendation (≥ 2 hours) was not statistically (P=0.427) different between boys and girls. The time spent in sedentary activities, particularly in screen time activity among urban primary school children in Pretoria Central is excessively higher than the recommendation (i.e., ≥2 hours per day

  7. The independent relationship between trouble controlling Facebook use, time spent on the site and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Fredrick; Hayes, Marie; Kuerbis, Alexis; Shao, Sijing

    2015-09-01

    There is an emerging literature base on the relationship between maladaptive traits and "addiction" to social networking sites. These studies have operationalized addiction as either spending excessive amounts of time on social networking sites (SNS) or trouble controlling SNS use, but have not assessed the unique contribution of each of these constructs on outcomes in the same models. Moreover, these studies have exclusively been conducted with younger people rather than a heterogeneous sample. This study examined the independent relationship of a brief Facebook addiction scale, time spent on Facebook, and Facebook checking on positive and negative social domains, while controlling for self-esteem and social desirability. Participants were recruited using e-mail, SNS posts and through Amazon's MTurk system. The sample included 489 respondents ages from 18 to approximately 70, who completed a 10-15 minute survey. Results indicate that neither time spent on Facebook nor Facebook checking was significantly associated with either self-esteem, fear of negative social evaluation or social comparison, while SNS addiction symptoms were each independently associated with Facebook usage. Neither time spent on Facebook nor SNS addiction symptoms were associated with positive social relationships. Overall results suggest that time on SNS and trouble controlling use should be considered independent constructs and that interventions should target underlying loss of control as the primary intervention target above ego syntonic time spent on the site.

  8. The independent relationship between trouble controlling Facebook use, time spent on the site and distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Fredrick; Hayes, Marie; Kuerbis, Alexis; Shao, Sijing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is an emerging literature base on the relationship between maladaptive traits and “addiction” to social networking sites. These studies have operationalized addiction as either spending excessive amounts of time on social networking sites (SNS) or trouble controlling SNS use, but have not assessed the unique contribution of each of these constructs on outcomes in the same models. Moreover, these studies have exclusively been conducted with younger people rather than a heterogeneous sample. This study examined the independent relationship of a brief Facebook addiction scale, time spent on Facebook, and Facebook checking on positive and negative social domains, while controlling for self-esteem and social desirability. Methods Participants were recruited using e-mail, SNS posts and through Amazon’s MTurk system. The sample included 489 respondents ages from 18 to approximately 70, who completed a 10–15 minute survey. Results Results indicate that neither time spent on Facebook nor Facebook checking was significantly associated with either self-esteem, fear of negative social evaluation or social comparison, while SNS addiction symptoms were each independently associated with Facebook usage. Neither time spent on Facebook nor SNS addiction symptoms were associated with positive social relationships. Discussion Overall results suggest that time on SNS and trouble controlling use should be considered independent constructs and that interventions should target underlying loss of control as the primary intervention target above ego syntonic time spent on the site. PMID:26551906

  9. Evaluation of daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Carlyn J; Stieb, David M; Egyed, Marika; Brion, Orly; Johnson, Markey

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to traffic and traffic-related air pollution is associated with a wide array of health effects. Time spent in a vehicle, in active transportation, along roadsides, and in close proximity to traffic can substantially contribute to daily exposure to air pollutants. For this study, we evaluated daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians using the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2 results. Approximately 4-7% of daily time was spent in on- or near-road locations, mainly associated with being in a vehicle and smaller contributions from active transportation. Indoor microenvironments can be impacted by traffic emissions, especially when located near major roadways. Over 60% of the target population reported living within one block of a roadway with moderate to heavy traffic, which was variable with income level and city, and confirmed based on elevated NO 2 exposure estimated using land use regression. Furthermore, over 55% of the target population ≤ 18 years reported attending a school or daycare in close proximity to moderate to heavy traffic, and little variation was observed based on income or city. The results underline the importance of traffic emissions as a major source of exposure in Canadian urban centers, given the time spent in traffic-influenced microenvironments.

  10. The Relationship between Motivation, Learning Approaches, Academic Performance and Time Spent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Patricia; Opdecam, Evelien; Maussen, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Previous literature calls for further investigation in terms of precedents and consequences of learning approaches (deep learning and surface learning). Motivation as precedent and time spent and academic performance as consequences are addressed in this paper. The study is administered in a first-year undergraduate course. Results show that the…

  11. Re-Examining Gender Differences in Video Game Play: Time Spent and Feelings of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlen, Karla R.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that, among children, boys tend to play video games more than girls do. There are several theories addressing this phenomenon, including that stereotypes and lack of opportunity leave girls feeling inadequate with certain types of technology. No research has yet examined the interactive relationships between time spent playing…

  12. The Relation between the Time Mothers and Children Spent Together and the Children's Trait Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices have been shown to predict children's emotional intelligence. The time that mothers and children spend in joint activity is an important aspect of the parent-child relationship, and it has been found to be influential in different domains of children's development. However, it has not been investigated in relation…

  13. Is time spent playing video games associated with mental health, cognitive and social skills in young children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Hanson, Gregory; Bitfoi, Adina; Golitz, Dietmar; Koç, Ceren; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Pez, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    Background Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills. Methods Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health Europe project conducted in six European Union countries (youth ages 6–11, n = 3195). Child mental health was assessed by parents and teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and by children themselves with the Dominic Interactive. Child video game usage was reported by the parents. Teachers evaluated academic functioning. Multivariable logistic regressions were used. Results 20 % of the children played video games more than 5 h per week. Factors associated with time spent playing video games included being a boy, being older, and belonging to a medium size family. Having a less educated, single, inactive, or psychologically distressed mother decreased time spent playing video games. Children living in Western European countries were significantly less likely to have high video game usage (9.66 vs 20.49 %) though this was not homogenous. Once adjusted for child age and gender, number of children, mothers age, marital status, education, employment status, psychological distress, and region, high usage was associated with 1.75 times the odds of high intellectual functioning (95 % CI 1.31–2.33), and 1.88 times the odds of high overall school competence (95 % CI 1.44–2.47). Once controlled for high usage predictors, there were no significant associations with any child self-reported or mother- or teacher-reported mental health problems. High usage was associated with decreases in peer relationship problems [OR 0.41 (0.2–0.86) and in prosocial deficits (0.23 (0.07, 0.81)]. Conclusions Playing video games may have positive effects on young children. Understanding the mechanisms

  14. Is time spent playing video games associated with mental health, cognitive and social skills in young children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Hanson, Gregory; Bitfoi, Adina; Golitz, Dietmar; Koç, Ceren; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Pez, Ondine

    2016-03-01

    Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health Europe project conducted in six European Union countries (youth ages 6-11, n = 3195). Child mental health was assessed by parents and teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and by children themselves with the Dominic Interactive. Child video game usage was reported by the parents. Teachers evaluated academic functioning. Multivariable logistic regressions were used. 20 % of the children played video games more than 5 h per week. Factors associated with time spent playing video games included being a boy, being older, and belonging to a medium size family. Having a less educated, single, inactive, or psychologically distressed mother decreased time spent playing video games. Children living in Western European countries were significantly less likely to have high video game usage (9.66 vs 20.49 %) though this was not homogenous. Once adjusted for child age and gender, number of children, mothers age, marital status, education, employment status, psychological distress, and region, high usage was associated with 1.75 times the odds of high intellectual functioning (95 % CI 1.31-2.33), and 1.88 times the odds of high overall school competence (95 % CI 1.44-2.47). Once controlled for high usage predictors, there were no significant associations with any child self-reported or mother- or teacher-reported mental health problems. High usage was associated with decreases in peer relationship problems [OR 0.41 (0.2-0.86) and in prosocial deficits (0.23 (0.07, 0.81)]. Playing video games may have positive effects on young children. Understanding the mechanisms through which video game use may stimulate

  15. Parent-Child Shared Time From Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042

  16. Parent-child shared time from middle childhood to late adolescence: developmental course and adjustment correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Some notes on the Timing of Geological Disposal of CANDU Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Kook, Dong Hak; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    CANDU spent fuel is to be disposed of at repository finally rather than recycled because of its low fissile nuclide concentration. But the difficult situation of finding a repository site can not help introducing a interim storage in the short term. It is required to find an optimum timing of geological disposal of CANDU spent fuels related to the interim storage operation period. The major factors for determining the disposal starting time are considered as safety, economics, and public acceptance. Safety factor is compared in terms of the decay heat and non-proliferation. Economics factor is compared from the point of the operation cost, and public acceptance factor is reviewed from the point of retrievability and inter-generation ethics. This paper recommended the best solution for the disposal starting time by analyzing the above factors. It is concluded that the optimum timing for the CANDU spent fuel disposal is around 2041 and that the sooner disposal time, the better from the point of technical and safety aspects.

  18. Guide for First-Time Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. Towards intensive parenting? Changes in the composition and determinants of mothers' and fathers' time with children 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Lyn; Powell, Abigail; Smyth, Ciara

    2014-09-01

    Contemporary expectations of good parenting hold that focused, intensive parental attention is essential to children's development. Parental input is viewed as a key determinant in children's social, psychological and educational outcomes, with the early years particularly crucial. However, increased rates of maternal employment mean that more parents are juggling work and family commitments and have less non-work time available to devote to children. Yet studies find that parental childcare time has increased over recent decades. In this paper, we explore the detail of this trend using data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Time Use Survey (TUS), 1992 and 2006. To investigate whether discourses on intensive parenting are reflected in behaviour, we examine a greater range of parent-child activities than has been undertaken to date, looking at trends in active childcare time (disaggregated into talk-based, physical and accompanying care activities); time in childcare as a secondary activity; time spent in the company of children in leisure activities; and time spent in the company of children in total. We also investigate whether the influence of factors known to predict parental time with children (gender, education, employment status and the age of children) have changed over time. We contextualize our analyses within social and economic trends in Australia and find a compositional change in parental time, with more active childcare occurring within less overall time, which suggests more intensive, child-centred parenting. Fathers' parent-child time, particularly in physical care, increased more than mothers' (from a much lower base), and tertiary education no longer predicts significantly higher childcare time. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  20. Time Spent by Calliphora Spp. Blowflies on Standard Traps Baited with Liver and Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of blowflies from the Calliphoridae family cause fly strikes in sheep and other species of economic importance. Impaired wool, decrease of ewe fertility, and even death can occur in heavy infestations. This paper describes the Calliphora spp. blowflies’ behavior on and around a trap baited with liver and ammonia before they entered in. More than half of Calliphora spp. blowflies (50.88% stayed a medium time (eight to fourteen seconds on the standard trap, while only 1.79% of them spent a longer time (26 to 30 seconds before entering the trap.

  1. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  2. Is Part-Time Child Care Surrogate Parenting? Parents' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Avis

    The purpose of this survey and report is to gain information about parental planning for child-rearing when the mother is employed. This study is intended to explore mothers' perceptions of possible delegation of some basic child-rearing functions during the mothers' absence for employment. Comparison of the child care arrangements which the…

  3. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra Sagarduy, José Luis; Camacho Mata, Dacia Yurima; Moral de la Rubia, José; Piña López, Julio Alfonso; Yunes Zárraga, José Luis Masud

    2018-01-01

    It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension. This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior. Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data ( p BS =0.235, χ 2 / gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom's Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen's Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053). The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so that quality of life of patients with hypertension improves and they might be able to manage and control their disease well.

  4. How do passion for video games and needs frustration explain time spent gaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Devin J; Milyavskaya, Marina; Mettler, Jessica; Heath, Nancy L; Derevensky, Jeffrey L

    2018-04-01

    Research applying self-determination theory and the dualistic model of passion (DMP) has shown video games may satisfy basic psychological needs (i.e., competence, autonomy, and relatedness) and be identified as a passion. The DMP distinguishes between healthy or harmonious passion and problematic or obsessive passion (OP), with the latter reflecting an overreliance towards one's passion to obtain needs satisfaction. The experience of daily obstructions to needs satisfaction, or needs frustration (NF), may facilitate such an overreliance. This study explored how NF and both types of passion explain the amount of time that university students spend gaming. The overall association between NF and time spent gaming was not significant. However, for video game users with low levels of OP for gaming, there was a significant negative association between NF and time spent gaming. Additionally, evidence of a mutually reinforcing association between NF and OP for gaming indicates that a vicious cycle exists, whereby a strong OP for gaming predicts and is reinforced by greater NF. The theoretical implications are discussed. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related behaviours among German children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke; Chen, Susan E; Jilcott, Stephanie B; Nayga, Rodolfo M

    2012-07-01

    To examine associations between maternal employment and time spent engaging in nutrition-related behaviours among mothers and children using a nationally representative sample of households in West and East Germany. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using time-use data for a sample of mother-child dyads. Associations between maternal employment and time spent in nutrition-related activities such as eating at home, eating away from home and food preparation were estimated using a double-hurdle model. German Time Budget Survey 2001/02. The overall sample included 1071 households with a child between 10 and 17 years of age. The time-use data were collected for a 3 d period of observation (two weekdays and one weekend day). Maternal employment was associated with the time children spent on nutrition-related behaviours. In households with employed mothers, children spent more time eating alone at home and less time eating meals with their mothers. Moreover, employed mothers spent less time on meal preparation compared with non-employed mothers. There were regional differences in time spent on nutrition-related behaviours, such that East German children were more likely to eat at home alone than West German children. Maternal employment was associated with less time spent eating with children and preparing food, which may be related to the increasing childhood obesity rates in Germany. Future national surveys that collect both time-use data and health outcomes could yield further insight into mechanisms by which maternal time use might be associated with health outcomes among children.

  6. Automated methods for real-time analysis of spent-fuel measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosler, G.E.; Rinard, P.M.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Painter, J.

    1988-01-01

    Software has been developed for ''real-time'' analysis of neutron and gamma data from GRAND-1/fork measurements on spent-fuel assemblies. Three modules compose the software package. The modules are linked through a database system of files. The first module is part of a general data-base processing code. This module prepares input data files with inventory and correction-factor information for the second module. The second module, called OLAF, operates on a computer attached to the GRAND-1 electronics unit. In this second module, neutron and gamma data from spent-fuel assemblies are analyzed to verify consistency in the facility operator declarations for exposure (burnup) and cooling time. From the analysis, potential discrepancies in the measurement data are questioned while equipment is still installed at the facility and is available for additional measurements. During the measurements, data are written to an output file, called a results file, which can be processed by the third module of the software package. In the third module, printed reports summarizing the data and results are prepared, and neutron and gamma data are written to files that are process by the Deming curve-fitting code

  7. Influence of parental history of hypertension on screen time and physical activity in young offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Hardy, Louise L; Baur, Louise A; Teber, Erdahl; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological data on the relationship between parental hypertension and lifestyle factors among children are limited. We assessed the associations between positive parental history of hypertension with a range of indicators of sedentariness (television viewing, computer and videogame usage) and physical activity (outdoor and indoor activity) among prepubertal children. Six-year-old (1765 of 2238 eligible) students from a random cluster sample of 34 Sydney schools were examined. Parents completed questionnaires about their medical conditions and the child's activities. If the biological mother and/or father had hypertension, then this was classified as positive parental history of hypertension. Parents of 160 (9.2%) children gave a positive family history of hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, parental education and employment and exposure to passive smoking, children with, compared with those without, a family history of hypertension were more likely to spend above the median time (hours/day) watching television and playing videogames [odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.96; OR 1.52, CI 1.12-2.06, respectively]. The offspring of hypertensive parents were more likely to spend above the median time in total physical activity (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23-2.27). Maternal (but not paternal) hypertension was associated with increased time spent watching television (P = 0.03) and in outdoor activity (P = 0.01). Parental hypertension influences the time that prepubertal offspring spend in both active and sedentary pursuits. These findings highlight potential factors that could be addressed in the development of cardiovascular disease-preventive measures starting early in life among the offspring of hypertensive parents.

  8. Time spent sitting during and outside working hours in bus drivers: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Mato, Veronica; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J; Biddle, Stuart J H; Clemes, Stacy A

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional pilot study objectively measured sedentary and non-sedentary time in a sample of bus drivers from the East Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants wore an activPAL3 inclinometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary. Driver's blood pressure, heart rate, waist circumference and body composition were measured objectively at the outset. The proportions of time spent sedentary and non-sedentary were calculated during waking hours on workdays and non-workdays and during working-hours and non-working-hours on workdays. 28 (85% of those enrolled into the study) provided valid objective monitoring data (89.3% male, [median ± IQR] age: 45.2 ± 12.8 years, BMI 28.1 ± 5.8 kg/m(2)). A greater proportion of time was spent sitting on workdays than non-workdays (75% [724 ± 112 min/day] vs. 62% [528 ± 151 min/day]; p working-hours than non-working-hours (83% [417 ± 88 min/day] vs. 68% [307 ± 64 min/day]; p less than 3% of their overall time stepping. Bus drivers accumulate high levels of sitting time during working-hours and outside working-hours. Interventions are urgently needed in this at-risk group, which should focus on reducing sitting and increasing movement during breaks and increasing physical activity during leisure time to improve cardiovascular health.

  9. Relationship of Near-Crash/Crash Risk to Time Spent on a Cell Phone While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine in a naturalistic driving setting the dose-response relationship between cell phone usage while driving and risk of a crash or near crash. How is the increasing use of cell phones by drivers associated with overall near-crash/crash risk (i.e., during driving times both on and off the phone)? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. A random sample was selected comprised of 4 trips from each month that each driver was in the study, and in-vehicle video was used to classify driver behavior. The proportion of driving time spent using a cell phone was estimated for each 3-month period and correlated with overall crash and near-crash rates for each period. Thus, it was possible to test whether changes in an individual driver's cell phone use over time were associated with changes in overall near-crash/crash risk. Drivers in the study spent 11.7% of their driving time interacting with a cell phone, primarily talking on the phone (6.5%) or simply holding the phone in their hand or lap (3.7%). The risk of a near-crash/crash event was approximately 17% higher when the driver was interacting with a cell phone, due primarily to actions of reaching for/answering/dialing, which nearly triples risk (relative risk = 2.84). However, the amount of driving time spent interacting with a cell phone did not affect a driver's overall near-crash/crash risk. Vehicle speeds within 6 s of the beginning of each call on average were 5-6 mph lower than speeds at other times. Results of this naturalistic driving study are consistent with the observation that increasing cell phone use in the general driving population has not led to increased crash rates. Although cell phone use can be distracting and crashes have occurred during this distraction, overall crash rates appear unaffected by changes in the rate of cell phone use, even for individual drivers. Drivers compensate somewhat for the distraction

  10. Determination of burnup, cooling time and initial enrichment of PWR spent fuel by use of gamma-ray activity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, D.K.; Park, H.J.; Park, K.J.; Ro, S.G.; Park, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Institute has been developing the algorithms for sequential determination of cooling time, initial enrichment and burnup of the PWR spent fuel assembly by use of gamma ratio measurements, i.e. 134 Cs/ 137 Cs, 154 Eu/ 137 Cs and 106 Ru 137 Cs/( 134 Cs) 2 . Calculations were performed by applying the ORIGEN-S code. This method has advantages over combination techniques of neutron and gamma measurement, because of its simplicity and insensitivity to the measurement geometry. For verifying the algorithms an experiment for determining the cooling time, initial enrichment and burnup of the two PWR spent fuel rods was conducted by use of high-resolution gamma detector (HPGe) system only. This paper describes the method used and interim results of the experiment. This method can be applied for spent fuel characterization, burnup credit and safeguards of the spent fuel management facility

  11. Computer/Mobile Device Screen Time of Children and Their Eye Care Behavior: The Roles of Risk Perception and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the computer/mobile device screen time and eye care behavior of children and examined the roles of risk perception and parental practices. Data were obtained from a sample of 2,454 child-parent dyads recruited from 30 primary schools in Taipei city and New Taipei city, Taiwan, in 2016. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from students and parents. Fifth-grade students spend more time on new media (computer/smartphone/tablet: 16 hours a week) than on traditional media (television: 10 hours a week). The average daily screen time (3.5 hours) for these children exceeded the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations (≤2 hours). Multivariate analysis results showed that after controlling for demographic factors, the parents with higher levels of risk perception and parental efficacy were more likely to mediate their child's eye care behavior. Children who reported lower academic performance, who were from non-intact families, reported lower levels of risk perception of mobile device use, had parents who spent more time using computers and mobile devices, and had lower levels of parental mediation were more likely to spend more time using computers and mobile devices; whereas children who reported higher academic performance, higher levels of risk perception, and higher levels of parental mediation were more likely to engage in higher levels of eye care behavior. Risk perception by children and parental practices are associated with the amount of screen time that children regularly engage in and their level of eye care behavior.

  12. Effect of the time spent by the photon in the absorbed state on the time-dependent transfer of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.M.; Rangarajan, K.E.; Peraiah, A.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent transfer equation is derived for a two-level atomic model which takes both bound-bound and bound-free transitions into account. A numerical scheme is proposed for solving the monochromatic time-dependent transfer equation when the time spent by the photon in the absorbed state is significant. The method can be easily extended to solve the problem of time-dependent line formation of the bound-free continuum. It is used here to study three types of boundary conditions of the incident radiation incident on a scattering atmosphere. The quantitative results show that the relaxation of the radiation field depends on the optical depth of the medium and on the ray's angle of emergence. 21 refs

  13. Associations between parental rules, style of communication and children's screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Mona; Soenens, Bart; Bere, Elling; Kovács, Éva; Lien, Nanna; Maes, Lea; Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; te Velde, Saskia J

    2015-10-01

    Research suggests an inverse association between parental rules and screen time in pre-adolescents, and that parents' style of communication with their children is related to the children's time spent watching TV. The aims of this study were to examine associations of parental rules and parental style of communication with children's screen time and perceived excessive screen time in five European countries. UP4FUN was a multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial with pre- and post-test measurements in each of five countries; Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary and Norway. Questionnaires were completed by the children at school and the parent questionnaire was brought home. Three structural equation models were tested based on measures of screen time and parental style of communication from the pre-test questionnaires. Of the 152 schools invited, 62 (41 %) schools agreed to participate. In total 3325 children (average age 11.2 years and 51 % girls) and 3038 parents (81 % mothers) completed the pre-test questionnaire. The average TV/DVD times across the countries were between 1.5 and 1.8 h/day, while less time was used for computer/games console (0.9-1.4 h/day). The children's perceived parental style of communication was quite consistent for TV/DVD and computer/games console. The presence of rules was significantly associated with less time watching TV/DVD and use of computer/games console time. Moreover, the use of an autonomy-supportive style was negatively related to both time watching TV/DVD and use of computer/games console time. The use of a controlling style was related positively to perceived excessive time used on TV/DVD and excessive time used on computer/games console. With a few exceptions, results were similar across the five countries. This study suggests that an autonomy-supportive style of communicating rules for TV/DVD or computer/ games console use is negatively related to children's time watching TV/DVD and use of computer/games console time

  14. Developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity from middle childhood through adolescence. On 5 occasions across 7 years, fathers, mothers, and children who were first- and second born from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families participated in home and multiple nightly phone interviews. Multilevel modeling revealed that, controlling for family socioeconomic status, neighborhood characteristics, and youth overweight status and physical health, leisure-time physical activity increased during middle childhood and declined across adolescence, and the decline was more pronounced for girls than for boys. Moreover, controlling for time-varying, parental work hours and youth interest in sports and outdoor activities, on occasions when fathers and mothers spent proportionally more time on these activities with youth than usual, youth also spent more total time on these activities than usual. The within-person association between mother-youth joint involvement and youth's total involvement in leisure-time physical activity reached statistical significance at the transition to adolescence, and became stronger over time. Findings highlight the importance of maintaining adolescents', especially girls', physical activity levels and targeting both fathers' and mothers' involvement to promote youth's physical activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Parent and child screen-viewing time and home media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Gama, Augusta; Carvalhal, Isabel Mourão; Nogueira, Helena; Rosado, Vítor; Padez, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Screen-viewing time has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Data on the predictors of youth screen-viewing time is predominately from older children in North America. Parental and home media environment factors that are associated with screen-viewing time could be targeted in interventions. Examine if parental screen-viewing time and electronic media (access to game equipment, TVs, PCs, and laptops) environment factors were associated with Portuguese children's screen-viewing time and if associations differed by child age (families with children aged 3-10 years. Data were collected in 2009-2010 and analyzed in 2011. Outcomes were child spending ≥2 hours watching TV and ≥1 hour per day playing with combined other media. Exposures were mothers and fathers watching ≥2 hours of TV and electronic media variables. Parental TV-viewing time was strongly associated with child weekday and weekend TV-viewing time across all four gender and age subgroups. Maternal TV-viewing time was a stronger predictor of child TV-viewing time than paternal TV-viewing time. There was very limited evidence that parental TV-viewing time was associated with combined other media time among boys or girls. Access to electronic game equipment increased the likelihood that children spent >1 hour using combined other media on weekdays and weekend days. Parental TV-viewing time was associated with Portuguese children's TV-viewing time. The numbers of TVs in the household and electronic games equipment access were also associated with TV- and combined other media-viewing/usage time. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  17. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Time spent for activation of non-profit studies in oncology in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco De Feo

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the time spent to activate oncological non-profit clinical trials promoted in Italy by the National Cancer Institute of Naples, following the implementation of recent European laws. METHODOLOGY: Data about the process of activation of 5 non-profit multicentre clinical trials were prospectively collected through a web-based system. The impact of European guidelines was assessed by comparing the efficiency of the process between applications started before and after the decree introducing in Italy the Clinical Trial Application form (MD-CTA. Outcomes of the descriptive analyses were the time to EC opinion, the time to administrative agreement signature after a positive EC opinion, and the cumulative percentage of submissions that came to closure (either positive or negative within four subsequent time cohorts. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 2007 to October 2009, 202 applications were submitted to 107 centres. Forty-four (59% applications of those submitted before were successful, compared to 71 (55% of those submitted after MD-CTA. Most of the failures were due to missing EC response (27% and 22% or administrative reasons (10% and 16%, before and after, respectively; very few (4% and 7% were due to EC refusal. The impact of the MD-CTA on time to EC opinion looked positive (median 4.1 vs 2.4 months, before and after, respectively but a subgroup analysis revealed that the impact was limited to a comparison biased by the selection of EC. After a positive EC opinion, there was no difference before and after MD-CTA in the time to administrative agreement signature (median 3.6 and 3.8 months, respectively. A trend to shortening time to closure of the whole submission process over the time was evident, with 58% of the applications coming to closure within 6 months from submission in the most recent cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience there is reassuring evidence of a trend toward shortening the time spent to

  19. Data Mining Techniques to Estimate Plutonium, Initial Enrichment, Burnup, and Cooling Time in Spent Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fugate, Michael Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tobin, Stephen Joesph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-19

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control (NPAC), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a multi-laboratory, university, international partner collaboration to (1) detect replaced or missing pins from spent fuel assemblies (SFA) to confirm item integrity and deter diversion, (2) determine plutonium mass and related plutonium and uranium fissile mass parameters in SFAs, and (3) verify initial enrichment (IE), burnup (BU), and cooling time (CT) of facility declaration for SFAs. A wide variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques were researched to achieve these goals [Veal, 2010 and Humphrey, 2012]. In addition, the project includes two related activities with facility-specific benefits: (1) determination of heat content and (2) determination of reactivity (multiplication). In this research, a subset of 11 integrated NDA techniques was researched using data mining solutions at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for their ability to achieve the above goals.

  20. Achieving the timely receipt of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizes, C.M.; Clark, W.D; Thomas, J.; Andes, T.

    1998-01-01

    The May 1996 Record of Decision on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel states that the United States will accept spent nuclear fuel containing uranium of U.S.-origin from foreign research reactors through the year 2009. The best information available indicates that approximately 13,000 assemblies of Material Test Reactor (MTR) spent nuclear fuel from 29 countries are expected to be shipped to the Savannah River Site during the 13 years of the program. As of July 1998, 1,371 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from 12 foreign research reactors have been received at the SRS. That is, after more than two years of the FRR program (approximately 15 percent of the program time), 11 percent of the total assemblies have been received at SRS. Current projections show that most of the assemblies can be received by 2009, however if some of the eligible, non-participating countries decide to rejoin the program, a bottleneck would occur at the end of the program. Also adding to the potential for the bottleneck is a trend of shipments being moved out in the timeline. The Savannah River Site is working to be proactive in avoiding a bottleneck at the end of the program, but cooperation is required from all program participants to be successful. Activities currently in progress include inventory/information questionnaires, verifying fuel against cask(s) certificate of compliance (C. of C.), and collecting Appendix A information well in advance of shipping the SNF. The inventory/information sheets have been distributed to a select number of reactor facilities in the past, but work is in progress to refine the process. Information requested in the questionnaire includes inventory numbers, preferred shipping dates, and cask preferences. This information allows for improved shipment planning and helps to ensure that we are working to meet the needs of the reactor facilities. Current plans are to send the questionnaires to

  1. Long time storage containers for spent fuels and vitrified wastes: synthesis of the studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beziat, A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of the studies relatives to the containers devoted to the long time spent fuels storage and vitrified wastes packages. These studies were realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. The first part is devoted to the presentation of the studies. The container sizing studies which constitute the first containment barrier are then presented. The material choice and the closed system are also detailed. The studies were validate by the realization of containers models and an associated demonstration program is proposed. A synthesis of the technical and economical studies allowed to determine the components and operation costs. (A.L.B.)

  2. Protective effect of time spent walking on risk of stroke in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Barbara J; Whincup, Peter H; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2014-01-01

    Older adults have the highest risks of stroke and the lowest physical activity levels. It is important to quantify how walking (the predominant form of physical activity in older age) is associated with stroke. A total of 4252 men from a UK population-based cohort reported usual physical activity (regular walking, cycling, recreational activity, and sport) in 1998 to 2000. Nurses took fasting blood samples and made anthropometric measurements. Among 3435 ambulatory men free from cardiovascular disease and heart failure in 1998 to 2000, 195 first strokes occurred during 11-year follow-up. Men walked a median of 7 (interquartile range, 3-12) hours/wk; walking more hours was associated with lower heart rate, D-dimer, and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Compared with men walking 0 to 3 hours/wk, men walking 4 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, and >22 hours had age- and region-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for stroke of 0.89 (0.60-1.31), 0.63 (0.40-1.00), 0.68 (0.35-1.32), and 0.36 (0.14-0.91), respectively, P (trend)=0.006. Hazard ratios were somewhat attenuated by adjustment for established and novel risk markers (inflammatory and hemostatic markers and cardiac function [N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide]) and walking pace, but linear trends remained. There was little evidence for a dose-response relationship between walking pace and stroke; comparing average pace or faster to a baseline of slow pace, the hazard ratio for stroke was 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.97), which was fully mediated by time spent walking. Time spent walking was associated with reduced risk of onset of stroke in dose-response fashion, independent of walking pace. Walking could form an important part of stroke-prevention strategies in older people.

  3. Measurement of informal care: an empirical study into the valid measurement of time spent on informal caregiving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Bernard van den; Spauwen, Pol

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of informal care into economic evaluations of health care is troublesome. The debate focuses on the valuation of time spent on informal caregiving, while time measurement, a related and may be even a more important issue, tends to be neglected. Valid time measurement is a necessary

  4. The time allocation to children by parents in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; DeGusti, B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines cross-national differences in the time parents allocate to their children using aggregate data from 15 countries collected as part of the Harmonized European Time Use Survey (HETUS). The analysis is restricted to married or cohabiting parents with at least one child under the

  5. Parental influences on child physical activity and screen viewing time: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfenden Luke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764, younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557 and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665. Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively. Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0

  6. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ybarra Sagarduy JL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  7. Children's Experiences of Time when a Parent Travels for Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkovic, Anisa; Swenson, Andrea; Cornwell, Zoë

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative study focuses on different ways time is experienced by children in families who face time challenges due to a family member's job that required work travel. Data are from a family-level study that includes interviews of all family members over the age of 7. Using grounded theory methodology, this study illustrates ways in which job demands and family processes interact. Analysis centers on the 75 children's perspectives from 43 families. Holding together assessments of having enough time while wanting more time with their parents, children express emotion, generally unrecognized by parents, around the topic of family time. Children's experience of time with parents is rushed or calm, depending on the activities done in time and the gender of the parent with whom they spend time. Findings are interpreted through a feminist social constructionist lens.

  8. Parent-Child Quality Time: Does Birth Order Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the American Time Use Survey, I find that a first-born child receives 20-30 more minutes of quality time each day with his or her parent than a second-born child of the same age from a similar family. The birth-order difference results from parents giving roughly equal time to each child at any point in time while the amount of…

  9. Comparison of global positioning system (GPS) tracking and parent-report diaries to characterize children's time-location patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgethun, Kai; Yost, Michael G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Nyerges, Timothy L; Fenske, Richard A

    2007-03-01

    Respondent error, low resolution, and study participant burden are known limitations of diary timelines used in exposure studies such as the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS). Recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have produced tracking devices sufficiently portable, functional and affordable to utilize in exposure assessment science. In this study, a differentially corrected GPS (dGPS) tracking device was compared to the NHEXAS diary timeline. The study also explored how GPS can be used to evaluate and improve such diary timelines by determining which location categories and which respondents are least likely to record "correct" time-location responses. A total of 31 children ages 3-5 years old wore a dGPS device for all waking hours on a weekend day while their parents completed the NHEXAS diary timeline to document the child's time-location pattern. Parents misclassified child time-location approximately 48% of the time using the NHEXAS timeline in comparison to dGPS. Overall concordance between methods was marginal (kappa=0.33-0.35). The dGPS device found that on average, children spent 76% of the 24-h study period in the home. The diary underestimated time the child spent in the home by 17%, while overestimating time spent inside other locations, outside at home, outside in other locations, and time spent in transit. Diary data for time spent outside at home and time in transit had the lowest response concordance with dGPS. The diaries of stay-at-home mothers and mothers working unskilled labor jobs had lower concordance with dGPS than did those of the other participants. The ability of dGPS tracking to collect continuous rather than categorical (ordinal) data was also demonstrated. It is concluded that automated GPS tracking measurements can improve the quality and collection efficiency of time-location data in exposure assessment studies, albeit for small cohorts.

  10. Leisure time activities, parental monitoring and drunkenness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for drunkenness in the previous month, participation in risky leisure activities and parental monitoring. Participation in risky leisure time activities increased the probability of drunkenness among adolescents, while parental monitoring decreased it. The effect did not change after adding the mother's and father's monitoring into the models. Our results imply that adolescents involved in going out with friends, having parties with friends and/or visiting sporting events every day or several times a week are at a higher risk of drunkenness, as are those less monitored by their parents. These less monitored adolescents and their parents should become a target group in prevention. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Time spent with friends in adolescence relates to less neural sensitivity to later peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L; Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2012-01-01

    Involvement with friends carries many advantages for adolescents, including protection from the detrimental effects of being rejected by peers. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which friendships may serve their protective role at this age, or the potential benefit of these friendships as adolescents transition to adulthood. As such, this investigation tested whether friend involvement during adolescence related to less neural sensitivity to social threats during young adulthood. Twenty-one adolescents reported the amount of time they spent with friends outside of school using a daily diary. Two years later they underwent an fMRI scan, during which they were ostensibly excluded from an online ball-tossing game by two same-age peers. Findings from region of interest and whole brain analyses revealed that spending more time with friends during adolescence related to less activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula--regions previously linked with negative affect and pain processing--during an experience of peer rejection 2 years later. These findings are consistent with the notion that positive relationships during adolescence may relate to individuals being less sensitive to negative social experiences later on.

  12. Parental modeling, education and children's sports and TV time: The ENERGY-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Alvira, J.M.; te Velde, S.J.; Singh, A.S.; Jimenez-Pavon, D.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Bere, E.; Manios, Y.; Kovacs, E.; Jan, N.; Moreno, L.A.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We assessed whether differences in children's sports participation and television time according to parental education were mediated by parental modeling. Moreover, we explored the differences between parental and child reports on parental sports participation and television time as

  13. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  14. Robotic Spent Fuel Monitoring – It is time to improve old approaches and old techniques!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This report describes various approaches and techniques associated with robotic spent fuel monitoring. The purpose of this description is to improve the quality of measured signatures, reduce the inspection burden on the IAEA, and to provide frequent verification.

  15. Barriers to first time parent groups: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Norma; Hanna, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Owen Vincent

    2018-06-19

    First-time parents' groups are offered to new parents in Australia to support their transition to parenthood. Not all parents avail of the service, some cease attendance, and fathers are under-represented. In the present descriptive, qualitative study, we examined first-time mothers' perspectives on the barriers to parental participation in the groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of eight first-time mothers in a regional city in Victoria, Australia. Interviews revealed groups were perceived as sites strongly reinforcing traditional social norms of parenting. From this central theme, six gendered subthemes emerged as barriers to attendance. Barriers to mothers included non-normative mothering narratives, such as experiencing stillbirth or having a disabled child, perceived dissonance in parenting ethos, and group size. Barriers to fathers, as perceived by mothers, included groups as female spaces, dads as a minority, and female gatekeeping. A multi-faceted approach is required to change the common perception that groups are for mothers only. Groups need to be more inclusive of different parenting experiences and philosophies. Segregated groups might better address the needs of both parents. Further research is required to capture fathers' perspectives. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: Do active parents foster active children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockman Rowan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Methods Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a ≥ 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. Results In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020 but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day, was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037. For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038. Conclusions There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys

  17. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: do active parents foster active children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L

    2010-04-15

    Physical activity has many positive effects on children's health while TV viewing has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Many children do not meet physical activity recommendations and exceed TV viewing guidelines. Parents are likely to be an important influence on their children's behaviour. There is an absence of information about the associations between parents' and children's physical activity and TV viewing. Year 6 children and their parent were recruited from 40 primary schools. Results are presented for the 340 parent-child dyads with accelerometer data that met a > or = 3 day inclusion criteria and the 431 parent-child dyads with complete self-reported TV viewing. Over 80% of the dyads with valid TV viewing data included mothers and their child. Mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), minutes of sedentary time per day and counts per minute were assessed by accelerometer. Self-reported hours of TV viewing were coded into 3 groups (4 hours per day. Linear and multi-nominal regression models were run by child gender to examine parent-child associations. In linear regression models there was an association for the overall sedentary time of girls and their parents (t = 2.04. p = .020) but there was no association between girls' and parents' physical activity. There were no associations between parents' and boys' sedentary or physical activity time. For girls, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, (reference = 2 hours of TV per day), was 3.67 times higher if the girl's parent watched 2-4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.037). For boys, the risk of watching more than 4 hours of TV per day, was 10.47 times higher if the boy's parent watched more than 4 hours of TV per day (p = 0.038). There are associations in the sedentary time of parents and daughters. Higher parental TV viewing was associated with an increased risk of high levels of TV viewing for both boys and girls. There were no associations between the time that

  18. Grey Literature Searching for Health Sciences Systematic Reviews: A Prospective Study of Time Spent and Resources Utilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahlam A; Ratajeski, Melissa A; Bertolet, Marnie

    To identify estimates of time taken to search grey literature in support of health sciences systematic reviews and to identify searcher or systematic review characteristics that may impact resource selection or time spent searching. A survey was electronically distributed to searchers embarking on a new systematic review. Characteristics of the searcher and systematic review were collected along with time spent searching and what resources were searched. Time and resources were tabulated and resources were categorized as grey or non-grey. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Out of 81 original respondents, 21% followed through with completion of the surveys in their entirety. The median time spent searching all resources was 471 minutes, and of those a median of 85 minutes were spent searching grey literature. The median number of resources used in a systematic review search was four and the median number of grey literature sources searched was two. The amount of time spent searching was influenced by whether the systematic review was grant funded. Additionally, the number of resources searched was impacted by institution type and whether systematic review training was received. This study characterized the amount of time for conducting systematic review searches including searching the grey literature, in addition to the number and types of resources used. This may aid searchers in planning their time, along with providing benchmark information for future studies. This paper contributes by quantifying current grey literature search patterns and associating them with searcher and review characteristics. Further discussion and research into the search approach for grey literature in support of systematic reviews is encouraged.

  19. DETERMINANT FACTORS OF TIME SPENT ON FACEBOOK: BRAND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT AND USAGE TYPES

    OpenAIRE

    ULUSU, Yard. Doç. Dr. Yeşim

    2010-01-01

    Online  social  networks  have  integrated  into  the  computer  mediated  communication  (CMC) environment  in  the  past  few  years.  Social  Networks  such  as  Facebook,  Myspace,  Bebo  and  Twitter  are  web‐based services that allow people to create a public profile, share the connection with other users, and view and traverse  their  list  of  connections  in  common  network.  The  aim  of  this  study  is  to  find  factors  affecting  the amount  of  time  users  spent  on  Facebo...

  20. Teen worker safety training: methods used, lessons taught, and time spent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2015-05-01

    Safety training is strongly endorsed as one way to prevent teens from performing dangerous tasks at work. The objective of this mixed methods study was to characterize the safety training that teenagers receive on the job. From 2010 through 2012, focus groups and a cross-sectional survey were conducted with working teens. The top methods of safety training reported were safety videos (42 percent) and safety lectures (25 percent). The top lessons reported by teens were "how to do my job" and "ways to spot hazards." Males, who were more likely to do dangerous tasks, received less safety training than females. Although most teens are getting safety training, it is inadequate. Lessons addressing safety behaviors are missing, training methods used are minimal, and the time spent is insignificant. More research is needed to understand what training methods and lessons should be used, and the appropriate safety training length for effectively preventing injury in working teens. In addition, more research evaluating the impact of high-quality safety training compared to poor safety training is needed to determine the best training programs for teens. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Energy beyond food: foraging theory informs time spent in thermals by a large soaring bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L C Shepard

    Full Text Available Current understanding of how animals search for and exploit food resources is based on microeconomic models. Although widely used to examine feeding, such constructs should inform other energy-harvesting situations where theoretical assumptions are met. In fact, some animals extract non-food forms of energy from the environment, such as birds that soar in updraughts. This study examined whether the gains in potential energy (altitude followed efficiency-maximising predictions in the world's heaviest soaring bird, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus. Animal-attached technology was used to record condor flight paths in three-dimensions. Tracks showed that time spent in patchy thermals was broadly consistent with a strategy to maximise the rate of potential energy gain. However, the rate of climb just prior to leaving a thermal increased with thermal strength and exit altitude. This suggests higher rates of energetic gain may not be advantageous where the resulting gain in altitude would lead to a reduction in the ability to search the ground for food. Consequently, soaring behaviour appeared to be modulated by the need to reconcile differing potential energy and food energy distributions. We suggest that foraging constructs may provide insight into the exploitation of non-food energy forms, and that non-food energy distributions may be more important in informing patterns of movement and residency over a range of scales than previously considered.

  2. Time's up. descriptive epidemiology of multi-morbidity and time spent on health related activity by older Australians: a time use survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanisha Jowsey

    Full Text Available Most Western health systems remain single illness orientated despite the growing prevalence of multi-morbidity. Identifying how much time people with multiple chronic conditions spend managing their health will help policy makers and health service providers make decisions about areas of patient need for support. This article presents findings from an Australian study concerning the time spent on health related activity by older adults (aged 50 years and over, most of whom had multiple chronic conditions. A recall questionnaire was developed, piloted, and adjusted. Sampling was undertaken through three bodies; the Lung Foundation Australia (COPD sub-sample, National Diabetes Services Scheme (Diabetes sub-sample and National Seniors Australia (Seniors sub-sample. Questionnaires were mailed out during 2011 to 10,600 older adults living in Australia. 2540 survey responses were received and analysed. Descriptive analyses were completed to obtain median values for the hours spent on each activity per month. The mean number of chronic conditions was 3.7 in the COPD sub-sample, 3.4 in the Diabetes sub-sample and 2.0 in the NSA sub-sample. The study identified a clear trend of increased time use associated with increased number of chronic conditions. Median monthly time use was 5-16 hours per month overall for our three sub-samples. For respondents in the top decile with five or more chronic conditions the median time use was equivalent to two to three hours per day, and if exercise is included in the calculations, respondents spent from between five and eight hours per day: an amount similar to full-time work. Multi-morbidity imposes considerable time burdens on patients. Ageing is associated with increasing rates of multi-morbidity. Many older adults are facing high demands on their time to manage their health in the face of decreasing energy and mobility. Their time use must be considered in health service delivery and health system reform.

  3. Is time spent playing video games associated with mental health, cognitive and social skills in young children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, V.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Hanson, G.; Bitfoi, A.; Golitz, D.; Koç, C.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Fermanian, C.; Pez, O.

    2016-01-01

    Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills.

  4. Children's postdivorce residence arrangements and parental experienced time pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Franciëlla; Poortman, Anne Rigt; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Although the rise in postdivorce joint physical custody has fueled scholarly interest in its impact on children, consequences for parents remain understudied. Because children's residence arrangements determine time and coordination demands associated with child care, this study investigated the

  5. Parenting Style and the Timing of Jewish Adolescents’ Sexual Debut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Etzkin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenting style and its effect on the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debuts were examined in the reported study. One hundred sixty-eight research participants between the ages of 18 and 22 from a large university in the Southeast participated in the study. A survey instrument was administered at three fraternities and two sororities to examine parenting style and sexual debut retrospectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency chi square tests, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA; while post hoc results were determined through Tukey’s honestly significant difference. Results found that authoritative parenting provides a delay in the age of sexual debut for Jewish adolescents. All other parenting styles had mean ages less than the overall mean age of sexual debut, 17.10 years old, with indifferent parenting having the earliest debut. These findings suggest that parenting style may affect the timing of Jewish adolescents’ sexual debut. The study has implications for understanding factors that may affect the timing of a Jewish adolescent’s sexual debut and may help parents protect their adolescent from the negative effects associated with early sexual debut, such as low academic achievement. Recommendations for future research include exploring the effects of family structure and peer networks to understand fully the many factors that affect the timing of adolescents’ sexual debut.

  6. Maternal Time Use and Nurturing: Analysis of the Association Between Breastfeeding Practice and Time Spent Interacting with Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P; Forrester, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Breastfeeding supports child development through complex mechanisms that are not well understood. Numerous studies have compared how well breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding mothers interact with their child, but few examine how much interaction occurs. Our study of weekly time use among 156 mothers of infants aged 3-9 months investigated whether lactating mothers spend more time providing emotional support or cognitive stimulation of their infants than nonbreastfeeding mothers, and whether the amount of such interactive time is associated with breastfeeding intensity. Mothers were recruited via mother's and baby groups, infant health clinics, and childcare services, and used an electronic device to record their 24-hour time use for 7 days. Sociodemographic and feeding status data were collected by questionnaire. Statistical analysis using linear mixed modeling and residual maximum likelihood analysis compared maternal time use for those giving "some breastfeeding" and those "not breastfeeding." Analysis was also conducted for more detailed feeding subgroups. Breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding mothers had broadly similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Breastfeeding was found to be associated with more mother-child interaction time, a difference only partially explained by weekly maternal employment hours or other interactive care activities such as play or reading. This study presents data suggesting that lactating mothers spent significantly more hours weekly on milk feeding and on carrying, holding, or soothing their infant than nonlactating mothers; and on providing childcare. Understanding the mechanisms by which child mental health and development benefits from breastfeeding may have important implications for policies and intervention strategies, and could be usefully informed by suitably designed time use studies.

  7. Over-time associations among parental self-efficacy, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents' externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M

    2015-06-01

    Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as parents' beliefs about their abilities to influence their children in a way that fosters their children's positive development. Research has shown links among PSE, parenting, and children's behavior (Jones & Prinz, 2005), but there are still questions concerning the associations over time. Theory predicts 3 types of processes relevant to these associations: a PSE-driven process, a parent-behavior-driven process, and a child-driven process. In this study, we tested these processes during early to middle adolescence using reports from 401 parents (286 mothers, 115 fathers) from 305 families, and their adolescents (Mage = 11.5 years), at 3 time points. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine the associations among PSE, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents' externalizing. Results supported a PSE-driven process for mothers within early adolescence. In addition, evidence for parent-behavior-driven and child-driven processes emerged at different times within this developmental period. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Human mobility and time spent at destination: impact on spatial epidemic spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Chiara; Tizzoni, Michele; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-12-07

    Host mobility plays a fundamental role in the spatial spread of infectious diseases. Previous theoretical works based on the integration of network theory into the metapopulation framework have shown that the heterogeneities that characterize real mobility networks favor the propagation of epidemics. Nevertheless, the studies conducted so far assumed the mobility process to be either Markovian (in which the memory of the origin of each traveler is lost) or non-Markovian with a fixed traveling time scale (in which individuals travel to a destination and come back at a constant rate). Available statistics however show that the time spent by travelers at destination is characterized by wide fluctuations, ranging from a single day up to several months. Such varying length of stay crucially affects the chance and duration of mixing events among hosts and may therefore have a strong impact on the spread of an emerging disease. Here, we present an analytical and a computational study of epidemic processes on a complex subpopulation network where travelers have memory of their origin and spend a heterogeneously distributed time interval at their destination. Through analytical calculations and numerical simulations we show that the heterogeneity of the length of stay alters the expression of the threshold between local outbreak and global invasion, and, moreover, it changes the epidemic behavior of the system in case of a global outbreak. Additionally, our theoretical framework allows us to study the effect of changes in the traveling behavior in response to the infection, by considering a scenario in which sick individuals do not leave their home location. Finally, we compare the results of our non-Markovian framework with those obtained with a classic Markovian approach and find relevant differences between the two, in the estimate of the epidemic invasion potential, as well as of the timing and the pattern of its spatial spread. These results highlight the importance of

  9. Later School Start Times: What Informs Parent Support or Opposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Matos-Moreno, Amilcar; Singer, Dianne C; Davis, Matthew M; O'Brien, Louise M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-07-15

    To investigate parental knowledge about adolescent sleep needs, and other beliefs that may inform their support for or objection to later school start times. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of a nationally representative sample of parents as part of the C.S. Mott Children's Hospital National Poll on Children's Health. Parents with teens aged 13-17 years reported their children's sleep patterns and school schedules, and whether the parents supported later school start times (8:30 am or later). Responses associated with parental support of later school start times were examined with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 88% of parents reported school start times before 8:30 am, and served as the analysis sample (n = 554). In this group, 51% expressed support for later school start times. Support was associated with current school start times before 7:30 am (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 8.4]); parental opinion that their teen's current school start time was "too early" (OR = 3.8 [1.8, 7.8]); and agreement with American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations about school start times (OR = 4.7 [2.2, 10.1]). Support also was associated with anticipation of improved school performance (OR = 3.0 [1.5, 5.9]) or increased sleep duration (OR = 4.0 [1.8, 8.9]) with later school start times. Conversely, parents who anticipated too little time for after-school activities (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.9]) and need for different transportation plans (OR = 0.5 [0.2, 0.9]) were often less supportive. Parental education about healthy sleep needs and anticipated health benefits may increase their support for later school start times. Educational efforts should also publicize the positive experiences of communities that have made this transition, with regard to limited adverse effect on after-school activity schedules and transportation. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  10. Heart rate biofeedback fails to enhance children's ability to identify time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Marguerite M; Gastin, Paul B; Brown, Helen; Shaw, Christine

    2011-03-01

    Physical activity recommendations for children in several countries advise that all young people should accumulate at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day. Perceiving physical activity intensity, however, can be a difficult task for children and it is not clear whether children can identify their levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity in accordance with the recommended guidelines. This study aimed to (1) explore whether children can identify time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity; and (2) investigate whether heart rate biofeedback would improve children's ability to estimate time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thirty seven children (15 boys and 22 girls, mean age 12.6 years) wore data recording Polar E600 heart rate monitors during eight physical education lessons. At the end of each lesson children's estimated time in zone was compared to their actual time in zone. During a six lesson Intervention phase, one class was assigned to a biofeedback group whilst the other class acted as the control group and received no heart rate biofeedback. Post-Intervention, students in the biofeedback group were no better than the control group at estimating time spent in zone (mean relative error of estimation biofeedback group: Pre-Intervention 41±32% to Post-Intervention 28±26%; control group: Pre-Intervention 40±39% to Post-Intervention 31±37%). Thus it seems that identifying time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity remains a complex task for children aged 11-13 even with the help of heart rate biofeedback. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Employment Status and Daily Stressors on Time Spent on Daily Household Chores in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jen D.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study examines how employment status (worker vs. retiree) and life course influences (age, gender, and marital status) are associated with time spent on daily household chores. Second, this study assesses whether the associations between daily stressors and time spent on daily household chores differ as a function of…

  12. High-burnup/low-cooling-time fuel carrying capacity of the GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshoven, J.K.; Hopf, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In response to utilities' projected needs to ship higher burnup spent fuel, General Atomics (GA) has performed shielding and thermal analysis for the GA-4 and GA-9 legal weight shipping casks to determine the minimum cooling times for various burnup levels for fully loaded GA-4 and GA-9 casks and reduced payloads for the casks. Tables are provided in the paper which show the minimum cooling time for a given burnup and payload for each of the casks. The analyses show that the GA-4 and GA-9 casks can carry at least as many high-burnup and/or short-cooling-time spent fuel assemblies as present day shipping casks. In addition, the GA casks are able to carry at least twice as many assemblies as the present day shipping casks if the spent fuel burnup levels and/or cooling times are open-quotes coolerclose quotes or open-quotes as coolclose quotes as their design basis fuels. The increased shipping capacity for these more common open-quotes coolerclose quotes assemblies allows fewer shipments and therefore increases the efficiency and lowers predicted risks of the transport system

  13. Comparison of the Amount of Time Spent on Computer Games and Aggressive Behavior in Male Middle School Students of Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi; Zahra Shahabinezhad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Modern technologies have a prominent role in adolescent's daily life. These technologies include specific cultural and moral patterns, which could be highly effective on adolescents. This research aimed at comparing the amount of time spent on computer games and aggressive behavior in male middle school students of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This study had a descriptive design. The study population included all male students of middle school of Tehran, and th...

  14. Changes in time spent walking and the risk of incident dementia in older Japanese people: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomata, Yasutake; Zhang, Shu; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Kaiho, Yu; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-09-01

    the impact of long-term changes in physical activity during adulthood in the context of primary prevention of dementia has not been addressed previously. to study the relationship between changes in time spent walking after middle age and incident dementia in older Japanese individuals. we conducted a cohort study of 6,909 disability-free Japanese individuals aged ≥65 years who lived in Ohsaki City, Japan. In both 1994 and 2006, the individual amount of time spent walking per day was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire (dementia were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance (LTCI) Database, in which participants were followed up for 5.7 years (between April 2007 and November 2012). The Cox model was used for estimating the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of incident dementia. the 5.7-year incidence of dementia was 9.2%. Compared with persons who remained in the lowest category of time spent walking (dementia: the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence intervals) was 0.72 (0.53 and 0.97). these results suggest that maintaining a higher level of physical activity after middle age may be a key strategy for prevention of dementia in older age. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Reduces Time Spent With Acute Dermatitis for Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Li Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen Yan; Ma, Charlie C.-M.; Anderson, Penny R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 to 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n = 405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n = 399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results: The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, Grade 0; 34%, Grade 1; 61%, Grade 2; and 2%, Grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, Grade 0/1, and 52%, Grade 2/3, for IMRT; and 25%, Grade 0/1, and 75%, Grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p < 0.0001). The IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with Grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with Grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the time spent with Grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p = 0.0015), medium (p < 0.0001), and large (p < 0.0001) breasts. Conclusions: Breast IMRT is associated with a significant decrease both in the time spent during treatment with Grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with that associated with conventional radiation, regardless of breast size.

  16. Eye movements discriminate fatigue due to chronotypical factors and time spent on task--a double dissociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cazzoli

    Full Text Available Systematic differences in circadian rhythmicity are thought to be a substantial factor determining inter-individual differences in fatigue and cognitive performance. The synchronicity effect (when time of testing coincides with the respective circadian peak period seems to play an important role. Eye movements have been shown to be a reliable indicator of fatigue due to sleep deprivation or time spent on cognitive tasks. However, eye movements have not been used so far to investigate the circadian synchronicity effect and the resulting differences in fatigue. The aim of the present study was to assess how different oculomotor parameters in a free visual exploration task are influenced by: a fatigue due to chronotypical factors (being a 'morning type' or an 'evening type'; b fatigue due to the time spent on task. Eighteen healthy participants performed a free visual exploration task of naturalistic pictures while their eye movements were recorded. The task was performed twice, once at their optimal and once at their non-optimal time of the day. Moreover, participants rated their subjective fatigue. The non-optimal time of the day triggered a significant and stable increase in the mean visual fixation duration during the free visual exploration task for both chronotypes. The increase in the mean visual fixation duration correlated with the difference in subjectively perceived fatigue at optimal and non-optimal times of the day. Conversely, the mean saccadic speed significantly and progressively decreased throughout the duration of the task, but was not influenced by the optimal or non-optimal time of the day for both chronotypes. The results suggest that different oculomotor parameters are discriminative for fatigue due to different sources. A decrease in saccadic speed seems to reflect fatigue due to time spent on task, whereas an increase in mean fixation duration a lack of synchronicity between chronotype and time of the day.

  17. Time to hospitalization for suicide attempt by the timing of parental suicide during offspring early development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S. Janet; Runeson, Bo; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wilcox, Holly C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Previous studies have suggested that children who experience parental suicide at earlier ages are at higher risk of future hospitalization for suicide attempt. However, how the trajectories of risk differ by offspring age at the time of parental suicide is currently unknown. Objective To study time at risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt among offspring after experiencing parental suicide or accidental death by offspring developmental period at the time of parental death. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study Setting Sweden Participants 26,096 offspring who experienced parental suicide and 32,395 offspring of accident decedents prior to age 25 from 1973-2003. Main Outcome Measures Hospitalization for suicide attempt. Parametric survival analysis was used to model the time to hospitalization for suicide attempt across offspring who lost a parent during early childhood (0-5 years old), later childhood (6-12), adolescence (13-17) and young adulthood (18-24). Results The risk in offspring who lost a parent during early or late childhood surpassed the other two age groups’ hazards approximately 5 years after the origin and, for the youngest group, continued to rise over the course of decades. Offspring who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood were at greatest risk within 1 to 2 years after parental suicide, and risk declined over time. The shape of hospitalization risk was similar among those who experienced parental fatal accident. When the shape of hospitalization for suicide attempt at each developmental period was fixed to be the same between the two groups, offspring who lost a parent to suicide had earlier risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt hospitalization than offspring who lost a parent to an accident. Conclusion The hospitalization risk for suicide attempt in offspring who lost a parent during their childhood is different from those who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood. The results suggest

  18. Time-dependent variation of the neutron multiplication factor in spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leotlela, M.J. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics; Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa). Regulations and Licensing, Koeberg Operating Unit; Olifant, T. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Nuclear Power Studies; Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, Cape Town (South Africa). Operating Dept.; Petr, I. [Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics

    2017-12-15

    After spent fuel assemblies have been discharged from the reactor, reactivity will fluctuate as the cooling period progresses because of changes in the number density of fissile nuclides and neutron absorber nuclides. The purpose of this project was (1) to quantify the contribution of each individual nuclide to the reactivity of the fissile system, (2) to identify nuclides that are responsible for the fluctuation in reactivity, and (3) to determine the effect of the number of nuclides on reactivity. This paper will present the results of the study of the behaviour of the k{sub eff} with respect to variation in the duration of the cooling period during storage.

  19. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Aline Araújo; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Chor, Dora

    2017-08-17

    To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil - Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto ) have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week) spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income. The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  20. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Araújo Nobre

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. METHODS Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil – Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. RESULTS The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income CONCLUSIONS The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  1. Leisure time activities, parental monitoring and drunkenness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Z.; Veselska, Z.; Madarasova Geckova, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. Methods: A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for

  2. Leisure Time Activities, Parental Monitoring and Drunkenness in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between adolescent drunkenness and participation in risky leisure time activities and parental monitoring. Methods: A sample of 3,694 Slovak elementary school students (mean age 14.5 years; 49.0% males) was assessed for

  3. Linkages over Time between Adolescents' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This 5-wave longitudinal study examines linkages over time between adolescents' perceptions of relationships with parents and friends with respect to support, negative interaction, and power. A total of 575 early adolescents (54.1% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. Path analyses mainly showed bidirectional associations…

  4. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Glanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations.

  5. Maternal employment, acculturation, and time spent in food-related behaviors among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Evidence from the American Time Use Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Must, Aviva; Peréa, Flavia; Economos, Christina D

    2015-04-01

    Employment is a major factor underlying im/migration patterns. Unfortunately, lower diet quality and higher rates of obesity appear to be unintended consequences of moving to the US. Changes in food preparation practices may be a factor underlying dietary acculturation. The relationships between employment, acculturation, and food-related time use in Hispanic families have received relatively little attention. We used cross-sectional data collected from Hispanic mothers (ages 18-65) with at least one child employment, acculturation (US-born vs. im/migrant), and time spent in food preparation and family dinner. Regression models were estimated separately for the employed and the non-working and were adjusted for Hispanic origin group, socio-demographic and household characteristics. Working an eight-hour day was associated with spending 38 fewer minutes in food preparation (-38.0 ± SE 4.8, p < 001). Although being US-born was associated with spending fewer minutes in food preparation, this relationship varied by origin group. Acculturation did not appear to modify the relationship between hours worked and time spent in food preparation or family dinner. Mothers who worked late hours spent less time eating the evening meal with their families (-9.8 ± SE 1.3). Although an eight-hour workday was associated with a significant reduction in food preparation time, an unexpected result is that, for working mothers, additional time spent in paid work is not associated with the duration of family dinner later that day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of rivastigmine on costs and on time spent in caregiving for families of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Deborah; Amaya, Karine; Casciano, Roman; Puder, Katherine L; Casciano, Julian; Chang, Sobin; Snyder, Edward H; Cheng, Isaac; Cuccia, Anthony J

    2003-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) places a significant burden on health care systems worldwide. As new treatments are developed, their cost-effectiveness is often assessed to help health care professionals make informed decisions. In addition to the more common practice of assessing direct medical costs, indirect costs, including time spent in caregiving, should be evaluated. This study examined the potential effects of the dual cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine (Exelon) on caregivers of patients with AD. Results from two 26-week, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated the clinically relevant and statistically significant efficacy of rivastigmine (6-12 mg/day) compared to placebo, on cognition, activities of daily living, and global functioning. By delaying progression of AD, significant savings in caregiver burden are anticipated, as measured by time spent caregiving and its related costs. Data collected in a prospective, observational study of AD patients and their caregivers were used to establish the relationship between disease severity (based on Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score) and time spent caregiving (according to the 5-item Caregivers Activity Survey score). A significant correlation was observed between the two scores (N = 43, r = -.56, p patients with mild AD (MMSE score 21-30), resulting in a total savings of approximately 11,253 dollars. Treatment of patients with moderately severe AD was also evaluated. The trend was similar but the impact was less, suggesting an economic benefit to early therapy. Early diagnosis and a pharmacologic intervention that allows the patients to remain at home longer by delaying disease progression would have a beneficial impact on patients, caregivers, and payers, and should therefore be encouraged through initiatives designed to identify and treat patients early in the course of disease.

  7. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n=44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families.

  8. Daily time spent indoors in German homes--baseline data for the assessment of indoor exposure of German occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasche, Sabine; Bischof, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive time-activity studies, for use as a basis for estimates of personal exposure, are not readily available in Germany. This analysis of time spent indoors at home is based on data from "Dampness and mould in homes" (2000/ 2001)--a study of about 12,000 persons living in 5530 randomly selected apartments and houses in Germany. The results show the mean times per day people in Germany spend in their homes, classified by gender, age group, building location, city size, region, building type, owner-occupier status, number of people at home, smoking and ventilation habits, moisture emission and ill health factors such as asthma, allergy and number of acute respiratory infections per year. The overall mean time spent at home, 15.7 h per, is in accordance with results from US-American (15.6 h/day) and Canadian (15.8 h/day) human activity surveys carried out in the nineties, as well as being consistent with the German Environmental Survey (1990/92) and a small German study in 1987.

  9. Gamma spectrometric characterization of short cooling time nuclear spent fuels using hemispheric CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, A; Szabó, J L; Arenas-Carrasco, J; Arlt, R; Dubreuil, A; Esmailpur-Kazerouni, K

    2000-01-01

    After years of cooling, nuclear spent fuel gamma emissions are mainly due to caesium isotopes which are emitters at 605, 662 and 796-801 keV. Extensive work has been done on such fuels using various CdTe or CdZnTe probes. When fuels have to be measured after short cooling time (during NPP outage) the spectrum is much more complex due to the important contributions of niobium and zirconium in the 700 keV range. For the first time in a nuclear power plant, four spent fuels of the Kozloduy VVER reactor no 4 were measured during outage, 37 days after shutdown of the reactor. In such conditions, good resolution is of particular interest, so a 20 mm sup 3 hemispheric crystal was used with a resolution better than 7 keV at 662 keV. This paper presents the experimental device and analyzes the results which show that CdZnTe commercially available detectors enabled us to perform a semi-quantitative determination of the burn-up after a short cooling time. In addition, it is discussed how a burn-up evolution code (CESAR)...

  10. Canadian children's and youth's pedometer-determined steps/day, parent-reported TV watching time, and overweight/obesity: The CANPLAY Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines associations between pedometer-determined steps/day and parent-reported child's Body Mass Index (BMI and time typically spent watching television between school and dinner. Methods Young people (aged 5-19 years were recruited through their parents by random digit dialling and mailed a data collection package. Information on height and weight and time spent watching television between school and dinner on a typical school day was collected from parents. In total, 5949 boys and 5709 girls reported daily steps. BMI was categorized as overweight or obese using Cole's cut points. Participants wore pedometers for 7 days and logged daily steps. The odds of being overweight and obese by steps/day and parent-reported time spent television watching were estimated using logistic regression for complex samples. Results Girls had a lower median steps/day (10682 versus 11059 for boys and also a narrower variation in steps/day (interquartile range, 4410 versus 5309 for boys. 11% of children aged 5-19 years were classified as obese; 17% of boys and girls were overweight. Both boys and girls watched, on average, Discussion Television viewing is the more prominent factor in terms of predicting overweight, and it contributes to obesity, but steps/day attenuates the association between television viewing and obesity, and therefore can be considered protective against obesity. In addition to replacing opportunities for active alternative behaviours, exposure to television might also impact body weight by promoting excess energy intake. Conclusions In this large nationally representative sample, pedometer-determined steps/day was associated with reduced odds of being obese (but not overweight whereas each parent-reported hour spent watching television between school and dinner increased the odds of both overweight and obesity.

  11. Spent fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this task is to support the Domestic Spent Fuel Storage Program through studies involving the transport of spent fuel. A catalog was developed to provide authoritative, timely, and accessible transportation information for persons involved in the transport of irradiated reactor fuel. The catalog, drafted and submitted to the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratories, for their review and approval, covers such topics as federal, state, and local regulations, spent fuel characteristics, cask characteristics, transportation costs, and emergency response information

  12. Talk Time. Communicate Effectively with Parents, and Maximize Students' Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents suggestions for how teachers can build positive, strong relationships with parents or caregivers, including: telephone parents before an open house or in-person meeting; start the first conference by asking parents to share what is happening at home; be aware of different cultures, values, and parenting styles; and enlist parent input.…

  13. The influence of evaluation protocol on time spent exercising at a high level of oxygen uptake during continuous cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, K L; Glaister, M; Howatson, G; Van Someren, K

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of protocol variation on the time spent exercising at ≥95% V̇O2max during cycle ergometer trials performed at the exercise intensity associated with V̇O2max (iV̇O2max). Nine male triathletes (age: 32±10 years; body mass: 73.3±6.1 kg; stature: 1.79±0.07 m; V̇O2max: 3.58±0.45 L.min(-1)) performed four exercise tests. During tests 1 and 2, participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test using different stage durations (1 min and 3 min) for the determination of iV̇O2max (1 min) and iV̇O2max (3 min). During tests 3 and 4, participants performed a continuous bout of exhaustive cycling at iV̇O2max (1 min) (CONT1) and iV̇O2max (3 min) (CONT3). iV̇O2max (1 min) was significantly greater (Pexercising continuously at iV̇O2max, time spent at ≥95% V̇O2max is influenced by the initial measurement of iV̇O2max.

  14. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ling; Yang Dong; Zhu Nanwen

    2008-01-01

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni 0 ) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d -1 and HRT was 3 days

  15. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: effect of hydraulic retention time and process load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Nan-Wen

    2008-12-30

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni0) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1Ld(-1) and HRT was 3 days.

  16. Bioleaching of spent Ni-Cd batteries by continuous flow system: Effect of hydraulic retention time and process load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Ling; Yang Dong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Nanwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: nwzhu@sina.com

    2008-12-30

    Spent Ni-Cd batteries bring a severe environmental problem that needs to be solved urgently. A novel continuous flow two-step leaching system based on bioleaching was introduced to dissolve heavy metals in batteries. It consists of an acidifying reactor which was used to culture indigenous thiobacilli and a leaching reactor which was used to leach metals from spent batteries. The indigenous acidophilic thiobacilli in sewage sludge was used as the microorganisms and the sludge itself as culture medium. Bioleaching tests at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process load in the leaching reactor were performed. The results showed that the longer the HRT (1, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) was, the more time required to achieve the complete leaching of Ni, Cd and Co. The maximum dissolution of cadmium and cobalt was achieved at higher pH values (3.0-4.5) while the leaching of nickel hydroxide and nickel in metallic form (Ni{sup 0}) were obtained separately in different acidity (pH 2.5-3.5). It cost about 25, 30 and more than 40 days to remove all of the three heavy metals with the process load of two, four and eight Ni-Cd batteries under the conditions that the ingoing bio-sulphuric acid was 1 L d{sup -1} and HRT was 3 days.

  17. Time spent by Brazilian students in different modes of transport going to school: changes over a decade (2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine changes in the time spent in each mode of transportation used for going to school by gender and age among adolescents from Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Two school-based surveys were performed in 2001 (N = 5,028 and 2011 (N = 6,529 in high school students (15-19 years old. The mode of transportation (on foot; by bicycle; by bus; car/motorcycle and the time spent for commuting to school were assessed. Active commuting increased for short trips in both genders (male: 25.1% to 36.7%; female: 18.8% to 29.2% and in all ages (15-16 years: 21% to 32.7%; 17-19 years: 21.9% to 32.4%, and declined for longer trips in males (30.5% to 21.9% and in 15-16 years old students (25.7% to 34.7%. Car/motorcycle use has doubled for short trips in males (38.1% to 65.9% and in 17-19 years old students (37.7% to 62.7%, while the use of buses remained stable in both genders. Our findings contribute to discussions on public policy focusing on the design of safe environments to promote active commuting to schools, particularly to decrease the use of motorized transport for short trips.

  18. Hypnobirth within the NHS: time to ditch the parent craft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin-Jones, Teri

    2016-05-01

    Antenatal education within the National Health Service (NHS) is a service in decline within some hospital trusts. Classes on offer are being moved into online formats or discontinued completely. Whilst research into antenatal education remains limited, what is known is that good birth preparation is of value. "Participative preparation for childbirth can enhance women's overall satisfaction with the childbirth experience" (Schrader McMillan et al 2009: 49). There are pockets of excellent antenatal education within the NHS, but no system for regulating the quality and content. Traditional 'parent craft' classes can be oversubscribed, turning what should be a participative group into an audience. Offering good quality antenatal education has the potential to increase normality, improve the birth outcome and the experience of both woman and her birth partner. Is it time to ditch the parent craft and implement dynamic woman-focused education?

  19. Comparison of Objectively Measured and Self-reported Time Spent Sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Korshøj, M; Skotte, J

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, methods for objective quantification of sitting time have been lacking. The aim of this study was to validate self-reported measures against objectively measured total sitting time and longest continuous time with uninterrupted sitting during working hours, leisure time on workday...... a retrospective 7-day questionnaire. A generalized linear model showed the difference between the methods. No significant correlations were found between objective and self-reported sitting time (r...

  20. Does Child Labor Decrease when Parental Incomes Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carol Ann; Swinnerton, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    When parents and children care about each other's utility, increases in parental income need not always lead to decreases in child labor. Adults raised in poor families make altruistic transfers to their elderly parents, which the parents take as repayment for income lost when their children were young and spent some time in school instead of…

  1. Measuring the opportunity loss of time spent boarding admitted patients in the emergency department: a multihospital analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Raymond; Farley, Heather; Twanmoh, Joseph; Urumov, Andrej; Evans, Bruce; Olsen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is an international crisis affecting the timeliness and quality of patient care. Boarding of admitted patients in the ED is recognized as a major contributor to ED crowding. The opportunity loss of this time is the benefit or value it could produce if it were used for something else. In crowded EDs, the typical alternative use of this time is to treat patients waiting to be seen. Various ED performance benchmarks related to inpatient boarding have been proposed, but they are not commonly reported and have yet to be evaluated to determine whether they correlate with the opportunity loss of time used for boarding. This study quantified several measures of ED boarding in a variety of hospital settings and looked for correlations between them and the opportunity loss of the time spent on boarding. In particular, average boarding time per admission was found to be easy to measure. Results revealed that it had a near-perfect linear correlation with opportunity loss. The opportunity loss of every 30 minutes of average boarding time equaled the time required to see 3.5 percent of the ED's daily census. For busy hospitals, the opportunity loss allowed sufficient time for staff to be able to see up to 36 additional patients per day. This correlation suggests that average boarding time per admission may be useful in evaluating efforts to reduce ED crowding and improve patient care.

  2. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  3. Who's cooking? Time spent preparing food by gender, income and household composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey data and multivariate analysis to explore how time allocated to food preparation differs across income groups, household composition (number of adults and presence of children), and employment status of adults in the household.

  4. Time Spent in Face-to-Face Patient Care and Work Outside the Examination Room

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Andrew; Flocke, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE Contrary to physicians’ concerns that face-to-face patient time is decreasing, data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) indicate that between 1988 and 1998, durations of primary care outpatient visits have increased. This study documented how physicians spend time during the workday, including time outside the examination room, and compared observed face-to-face patient care time with that reported in NAMCS.

  5. Randomized Video-Feedback Intervention in Home-Based Childcare: Improvement of Children's Wellbeing Dependent on Time Spent with Trusted Caregiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Marleen G; Vermeer, Harriet J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Linting, Mariëlle

    The childcare environment offers a wide array of developmental opportunities for children. Providing children with a feeling of security to explore this environment is one of the most fundamental goals of childcare. In the current study the effectiveness of Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting-Child Care (VIPP-CC) was tested on children's wellbeing in home-based childcare in a randomized controlled trial. Forty-seven children and their caregivers were randomly assigned to the intervention group or control group. Children's wellbeing, caregiver sensitivity, and global childcare quality were observed during a pretest and a posttest. We did not find an overall intervention effect on child wellbeing, but a significant interaction effect with months spent with a trusted caregiver was present. Children who were less familiar with the caregiver showed an increase in wellbeing scores in both the intervention and control group, but for the group of children who were more familiar with the caregiver, wellbeing increased only in the intervention group. Although there was no overall effect of the VIPP-CC on children's wellbeing, the VIPP-CC seems effective in children who have been cared for by the same trusted caregiver for a longer period of time.

  6. The family context of low-income parents who restrict child screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Parents (N=146) of children (age 2-5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change.

  7. A Study of Time Spent Working at Learning Centers. Technical Report #17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Sharon; And Others

    This study examined the proportion of time children in the Kamehameha Early Education Program schools spend at actual school work in learning centers. Systematic time-sampled observations using multiple observers were conducted in December-January and again in March-April. The subjects, 12 children (6 kindergarteners and 6 first graders) were…

  8. The Effects of Social Environments on Time Spent Gaming: Focusing on the Effects of Communities and Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tee Teng; Jung, Sun Young; Kim, Eunyi

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the impact of community and neighborhood on time spent computer gaming. Computer gaming for over 20 hours a week was set as the cutoff line for "engaged use" of computer games. For the analysis, this study analyzed data for about 1,800 subjects who participated in the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. The main findings are as follows: first, structural community characteristics and neighborhood social capital affected the engaged use of computer games. Second, adolescents who reside in regions with a higher divorce rate or higher residential mobility were likely to exhibit engaged use of computer games. Third, adolescents who highly perceive neighborhood social capital exhibited lower possibility of engaged use of computer games. Based on these findings, practical implications and directions for further study are suggested.

  9. Effects of harsh parenting and positive parenting practices on youth aggressive behavior: The moderating role of early pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Prior research indicates that early pubertal timing is associated with aggressive behavior, particularly in the context of adversity as postulated in the contextual amplification hypothesis. However, few studies have examined harsh parenting as the context for the effect of early pubertal timing. Even fewer studies have tested the interactive effect of early pubertal timing and positive parenting on aggressive behavior. In this study, we tested the proposition that early pubertal timing, contrary to the general conception of it as a vulnerability, indexed susceptibility, and thus early maturing individuals were affected more by their environment in a "for better and for worse" manner. The sample consisted of 411 community-recruited youth aged 11-12 years (51% boys, 80% African Americans). Participants reported Tanner Stages of pubertal development, aggressive behavior and harsh parenting practice of their parents. Puberty scores were standardized with groups of the same age, sex, and ethnicity, and those that scored the top one-third were defined as early maturing individuals. Parents reported youth's aggressive behavior and their parenting practices towards the youth, including harsh parenting and positive parenting. Early pubertal timing significantly moderated the relationship between harsh/positive parenting and aggressive behavior. Specifically, harsh parenting was positively associated with aggressive behavior to a larger degree among early maturing individuals than among on-time/late-maturing individuals. Positive parenting was inversely associated with aggressive behavior but only among early maturing individuals. This study is the first to document support for early pubertal timing as susceptibility to the environmental influences in relation to aggressive behavior. Theoretical and intervention implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Parent Management of Organization, Time Management, and Planning Deficits among Adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H; Campez, Mileini; Perez, Analay; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M; Altszuler, Amy R; Coxe, Stefany; Yequez, Carlos E

    2016-06-01

    Organization, Time Management, and Planning (OTP) problems are a key mechanism of academic failure for adolescents with ADHD. Parents may be well positioned to promote remediation of these deficits; yet, almost nothing is known about OTP management behaviors among parents of middle and high school students with ADHD. In a sample of 299 well-diagnosed adolescents with ADHD, a measure of parental OTP management was psychometrically validated. Latent Class Analysis was conducted to detect distinct patterns of parental OTP management and yielded four unique classes: Parental Control (18.7 %), Parent-Teen Collaboration (20.4 %), Homework Assistance (20.4 %), and Uninvolved (40.5 %). Logistic Regression analyses indicated that maladaptive parental OTP strategies were related to higher levels of parent and adolescent psychopathology. Parental OTP management did not relate to current adolescent OTP skills or GPA, indicating that parents did not select OTP management strategies in immediate response to adolescent functioning. Implications for parent-directed intervention are discussed.

  11. Time with Children, Children's Well-Being, and Work-Family Balance among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkie, Melissa A.; Kendig, Sarah M.; Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Denny, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    Cultural imperatives for "good" parenting include spending time with children and ensuring that they do well in life. Knowledge of how these factors influence employed parents' work-family balance is limited. Analyses using time diary and survey data from the 2000 National Survey of Parents (N = 933) indicate that how time with children relates to…

  12. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Vidal Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital.Method: quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants - with self-confrontation - by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts - whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not.Results: time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life.Conclusion: the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time.

  13. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital. quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants--with self-confrontation--by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts--whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not. time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life. the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time.

  14. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van de Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the ...

  15. Family life under pressure? Parents' paid work and the quantity and quality of parent-child and family time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.

    2010-01-01

    Even though family life and paid work are often considered as difficult to reconcile, prior research found that family time is relatively unaffected by the demands paid work imposes upon employed parents. This dissertation investigates this puzzling finding by exploring how parents protect family

  16. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  17. Family and relationship influences on parenting behaviors of young parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Lewis, Jessica; Divney, Anna; Albritton, Tashuna; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick

    2014-02-01

    Assess the influence of relationship and family factors during pregnancy on parenting behavior 6 months postpartum among low-income young parents. Some 434 young expectant couples were recruited from obstetrics clinics during pregnancy and followed 6 months postpartum. Using a series of general estimating equations to control for the correlated nature of the data, we assessed the influence of relationship factors (e.g., relationship satisfaction, attachment) and family factors (e.g., family functioning, family history) during pregnancy on parenting (e.g., parenting involvement, time spent caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence) 6 months postpartum controlling for covariates. Relationship functioning related to parenting involvement, caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence. In addition, several family factors related to parenting. Mother involvement during childhood was related to more parenting involvement, parenting positive experiences, and parenting sense of competence. History of being spanked as a child related to less time spent caregiving and less positive life change from being a parent. Further, gender significantly moderated the associations between relationship and family factors and parenting behavior. Male parenting behavior was more influenced by relationship and family factors than female parenting. This study suggests the importance of relationship and family contexts for parenting behaviors of young mothers and fathers, highlighting the potential utility of involving both young mothers and fathers in parenting programs, and developing interventions that focus on strengthening young parents' romantic relationships and that address negative parenting experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY12 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-09-28

    .g. Pb stack size, neutron source location) of an LSDS for the purpose of assaying used fuel assemblies. Sensitivity studies were conducted that provide insight as to how the LSDS instrument can be improved by making it more sensitive to the center of the fuel assemblies. In FY2013, PNNL will continue efforts to develop and refine design requirements of an LSDS for the ultimate purpose of assaying used fuel assemblies. Future efforts will be directed toward more extensive experimental benchmarking of currently implemented time-spectra analysis algorithms.

  19. Social relationships enhance the time spent eating and intake of a novel diet in pregnant Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Han; Kang, Hyun-Min; Seo, Seongwon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of social relationships on the feed intake, eating behavior, and growth, upon exposure to a novel diet, in Hanwoo ( Bos taurus coreanae ) heifers during pregnancy. Twenty-four pregnant Hanwoo heifers, averaging 438 ± 27.8 kg in weight, 21 months in age, and 194 ± 8.5 days in pregnancy, were involved in a two-month (eight weeks) experiment. The heifers were randomly assigned to either the single housing group (SG; one individual per pen, n = 12), or the paired housing group (PG; two individuals per pen, n = 12). All pens were of the same size (5 × 5 m) and provided with one feed bin, which automatically recorded the individual feed intake and eating behavior. As the experiment began, the diet of the heifers was switched from a total mixed ration (TMR; 250 g/kg ryegrass straw and 750 g/kg concentrate mix) to a forage-only diet (mixed hay cubes composed of 500 g/kg alfalfa, 250 g/kg timothy, and 250 g/kg blue grass hay). The heifers were fed ad libitum twice a day. The individual feed intake and eating behavior were recorded daily throughout the experiment, and body weights (BWs) were measured every four weeks before the morning feeding. PG animals visited the feed bin 22% less often than SG. PG, however, stayed 39% longer in the feed bin and consumed 40% more feed per visit, compared with SG. Consequently, PG heifers spent 23% more time in eating and had 16% more daily dry matter intake than SG during the experiment. Average daily gain during the experimental period tended to be greater in PG than in SG. When pregnant Hanwoo heifers encountered a novel diet, social relationships (i.e., presence of a pen-mate) enhanced their time spent eating and feed intake. Social interactions, even with an unfamiliar individual, may be helpful for pregnant Hanwoo heifers cope with a diet challenge compared to solitary situation.

  20. Time well spent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7 220 children. The children experienced...

  1. The impact of a Critical Care Information System (CCIS) on time spent charting and in direct patient care by staff in the ICU: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mador, Rebecca L; Shaw, Nicola T

    2009-07-01

    The introduction of a Critical Care Information System (CCIS) into an intensive care unit (ICU) is purported to reduce the time health care providers (HCP) spend on documentation and increase the time available for direct patient care. However, there is a paucity of rigorous empirical research that has investigated these assertions. Moreover, those studies that have sought to elucidate the relationship between the introduction of a CCIS and the time spent by staff on in/direct patient care activities have published contradictory findings. The objective of this literature review is to establish the impact of a CCIS on time spent documenting and in direct patient care by staff in the ICU. Five electronic databases were searched including PubMed Central, EMBASE, CINAHL, IEEE Xplore, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists of all published papers were hand searched, and citations reviewed to identify extra papers. We included studies that were empirical articles, published in English, and provided original data on the impact of a CCIS on time spent documenting and in direct patient care by staff in the ICU. In total, 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. Workflow analysis (66%) and time-and-motion analysis (25%) were the most common forms of data collection. Three (25%) studies found an increase in time spent charting, five (42%) found no difference, and four (33%) studies reported a decrease. Results on the impact of a CCIS on direct patient care were similarly inconclusive. Due to the discrepant findings and several key methodological issues, the impact of a CCIS on time spent charting and in direct patient care remains unclear. This review highlights the need for an increase in rigorous empirical research in this area and provides recommendations for the design and implementation of future studies.

  2. Time Spent on Dedicated Patient Care and Documentation Tasks Before and After the Introduction of a Structured and Standardized Electronic Health Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukes, Erik; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Cornet, Ronald; de Keizer, Nicolette F

    2018-01-01

    Physicians spend around 35% of their time documenting patient data. They are concerned that adopting a structured and standardized electronic health record (EHR) will lead to more time documenting and less time for patient care, especially during consultations. This study measures the effect of the introduction of a structured and standardized EHR on documentation time and time for dedicated patient care during outpatient consultations. We measured physicians' time spent on four task categories during outpatient consultations: documentation, patient care, peer communication, and other activities. Physicians covered various specialties from two university hospitals that jointly implemented a structured and standardized EHR. Preimplementation, one hospital used a legacy-EHR, and one primarily paper-based records. The same physicians were observed 2 to 6 months before and 6 to 8 months after implementation.We analyzed consultation duration, and percentage of time spent on each task category. Differences in time distribution before and after implementation were tested using multilevel linear regression. We observed 24 physicians (162 hours, 439 consultations). We found no significant difference in consultation duration or number of consultations per hour. In the legacy-EHR center, we found the implementation associated with a significant decrease in time spent on dedicated patient care (-8.5%). In contrast, in the previously paper-based center, we found a significant increase in dedicated time spent on documentation (8.3%) and decrease in time on combined patient care and documentation (-4.6%). The effect on dedicated documentation time significantly differed between centers. Implementation of a structured and standardized EHR was associated with 8.5% decrease in time for dedicated patient care during consultations in one center and 8.3% increase in dedicated documentation time in another center. These results are in line with physicians' concerns that the introduction

  3. Comparison of the Amount of Time Spent on Computer Games and Aggressive Behavior in Male Middle School Students of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrangiz Shoaa Kazemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Modern technologies have a prominent role in adolescent's daily life. These technologies include specific cultural and moral patterns, which could be highly effective on adolescents. This research aimed at comparing the amount of time spent on computer games and aggressive behavior in male middle school students of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This study had a descriptive design. The study population included all male students of middle school of Tehran, and the sample included 120 male students, of which 60 were dependent on computer games with aggressive behavior and 60 were non-dependent on computer games with normal behavior; the sample was randomly selected from Tehran regions (south, north, west, and east regions with random multi-stage sampling. Data were gathered using questionnaires, including Aggressive Questionnaire (AGQ and a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 10 multiple questions that measure the use or non-use of computer games. Data were analyzed using SPSS-19 statistical software. For data analysis, Pearson correlation and t test were used. Results: The results showed that there was a meaningful relationship between computer gaming and aggressive behavior and also between duration of using computer games and aggressive behaviors (P <0.05. Conclusions: According to the results, it seems that children could be kept safe from the adverse effects of computer games by controlling the duration and the type of the games that they play.

  4. Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Flexible working hours are typically seen to be advantageous to working parents, as the flexible hours more easily allow responsibilities of care and employment be balanced. But do flexible work hours actually mean that parents can spend more time with their children? This article explores this for parents of young children in Australia. The…

  5. Parental Experiences of the "Time Together" Home Visiting Intervention: An Attachment Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca L.; Gersch, Irvine S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of research into parental experiences of the Somerset (UK) "Time Together" home visiting intervention, with regards to its impact on the parent-child relationship. The research was carried out using an Attachment Theory lens in order to understand the qualitative experiences of seven parents of children in…

  6. Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Ulla; Aro, Hillevi

    1994-01-01

    Compared young adults who had experienced parental divorce before school age (n=134), in latency (n=129), and in adolescence (n=71). Found that 24% of boys who had experienced parental divorce in latency were depressive as compared with 9% and 6% in other groups. Among girls, depression was independent of timing of parental divorce. (Author/NB)

  7. The Influence of Instructional Climates on Time Spent in Management Tasks and Physical Activity of 2nd-Grade Students during Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W.; Robinson, Leah E.; Webster, E. Kipling; Rudisill, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two physical education (PE) instructional climates (mastery, performance) on the percentage of time students spent in a) moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and b) management tasks during PE in 2nd-grade students. Forty-eight 2nd graders (mastery, n = 23; performance, n = 25)…

  8. Don't trust anyone over 30: parental legitimacy as a mediator between parenting style and changes in delinquent behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S; Rebellon, Cesar J; Van Gundy, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception of parental legitimacy, and changes in delinquency over time. It is hypothesized that parental legitimacy mediates the relation between parenting style and future delinquent behavior. Middle school and high school students completed questionnaires three times over a period of 18 months. Parenting style and delinquent behavior were measured at time 1, parental legitimacy at time 2, and delinquency again at time 3. The results show that authoritative parenting was positively related to parental legitimacy, while authoritarian parenting was negatively associated with parental legitimacy. Furthermore, parental legitimacy was negatively associated with future delinquency. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental legitimacy mediated the relation between parenting styles and changes in delinquency over the 18-month time period. The implications for parenting style and parental legitimacy affecting delinquent behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart cities, healthy kids: the association between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and time spent sedentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esliger, Dale W; Sherar, Lauren B; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2012-07-26

    To determine whether, and to what extent, a relation exists between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Saskatoon. Three neighbourhood designs were assessed: 1) core neighbourhoods developed before 1930 that follow a grid pattern, 2) fractured-grid pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the 1930s and mid-1960s, and 3) curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the mid-1960s through to 1998. Children aged 10-14 years (N=455; mean age 11.7 years), grouped by the neighbourhoods they resided in, had their physical activity and sedentary behaviour objectively measured by accelerometry for 7 days. ANCOVA and MANCOVA (multivariate analysis of covariance) models were used to assess group differences (p<0.05). Group differences were apparent on weekdays but not on weekend days. When age, sex and family income had been controlled for, children living in fractured-grid neighbourhoods had, on average, 83 and 55 fewer accelerometer counts per minute on weekdays than the children in the core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. Further analyses showed that the children in the fractured-grid neighbourhoods accumulated 15 and 9 fewer minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day and had a greater time spent in sedentary behaviour (23 and 17 minutes) than those in core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. These data suggest that in Saskatoon there is a relation between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Further work is needed to tease out which features of the built environments have the greatest impact on these important lifestyle behaviours. This information, offered in the context of ongoing development of neighbourhoods, as we see in Saskatoon, is critical to an evidence-informed approach to urban development and planning.

  10. Time for Children, One's Spouse and Oneself among Parents Who Work Nonstandard Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa R.; Raley, Sara B.; Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Surveys, this article examines nonstandard work hours and their relationship to parents' family, leisure and personal care time--informing the discussion of the costs and benefits of working nonstandard hours. The results suggest that parents who work nonstandard evening hours spend less time in…

  11. Associations of Parental Influences with Physical Activity and Screen Time among Young Children: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilan Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children’s physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1 parenting practices; (2 parents’ role modelling; (3 parental perceptions of children’s PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4 parental self-efficacy; and (5 general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents’ encouragement and support can increase children’s PA, and reducing parents’ own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.

  12. Physical activity and time spent sitting as a risk factor for low-back pain: longitudinal data from the HUNT study

    OpenAIRE

    Venseth, Torje Bragstad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is the most common pain condition with a lifetime prevalence of 70 %. One of the most investigated risk factor for LBP is sedentary lifestyle. This is of great interest as sitting is the more dominant occupational activity in today’s society. Aim: The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate if the risk of chronic LBP is associated with time spent sitting, leisure time physical activity, and occupational activity. We also examined the combined eff...

  13. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment, Burn-up and Cooling Time of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzl, Vladimir; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    An outline of this presentation of what a Differential Die-Away (DDA) instrument can do are: (1) Principle of operation of DDA instrument; (2) Determination of initial enrichment (IE) (σ DDA response increases (die-away time is longer) with increasing fissile content; and (2) Spent fuel => DDA response decreases (die-away time is shorter) with higher burn-up (i.e. more neutron absorbers present).

  14. Parental Involvement, Child Temperament, and Parents' Work Hours: Differential Relations for Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L; McBride, Brent A; Bost, Kelly K; Shin, Nana

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how child temperament was related to parents' time spent accessible to and interacting with their 2-year-olds. Bivariate analyses indicated that both fathers and mothers spent more time with temperamentally challenging children than easier children on workdays, but fathers spent less time with challenging children than easier children on non-workdays. After accounting for work hours, some associations between temperament and fathers' workday involvement dropped to non-significance. For fathers, work hours also moderated the relation between irregular temperament and workday play. For mothers, work hours moderated the relation between both difficult and irregular temperament and workday interaction. Mothers also spent more time with girls (but not boys) who were temperamentally irregular. Results speak to the influence of child temperament on parenting behavior, and the differential construction of parenting roles as a function of child characteristics and patterns of work.

  15. Alcoholism and Timing of Separation in Parents: Findings in a Midwestern Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Method: Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Results: Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA never-together couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins’ birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth—5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Conclusions: Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender. PMID:23384382

  16. Alcoholism and timing of separation in parents: findings in a midwestern birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/ other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA nevertogether couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins' birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth-5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender.

  17. Reactivity and isotopic composition of spent PWR [pressurized-water-reactor] fuel as a function of initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerne, S.P.; Hermann, O.W.; Westfall, R.M.

    1987-10-01

    This study presents the reactivity loss of spent PWR fuel due to burnup in terms of the infinite lattice multiplications factor, k/sub ∞/. Calculations were performed using the SAS2 and CSAS1 control modules of the SCALE system. The k/sub ∞/ values calculated for all combinations of six enrichments, seven burnups, and five cooling times. The results are presented as a primary function of enrichment in both tabular and graphic form. An equation has been developed to estimate the tabulated values of k/sub ∞/'s by specifying enrichment, cooling time, and burnup. Atom densities for fresh fuel, and spent fuel at cooling times of 2, 10, and 20 years are included. 13 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Soldiers for the virtual battlefield : Even at secondary school, Jan Paul van Waveren spent more time on computer games than on his homework, though he doesn't seem to have suffered from it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waveren, J.P.; Rothkrantz, L.; Jongeneel, C.

    2001-01-01

    Even at secondary school, Jan Paul van Waveren spent more time on computer games than on his homework,though he doesnt seem to have suffered from it. At university he spent some of his time linking up personal computers with his friends, trying to blast each other to virtual smithereens in a game of

  19. Time use of parents raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijkx, J; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2017-07-01

    Raising children with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is expected to put extreme pressure on parental time use patterns. The aim of this study was to examine the total time use of mothers and fathers raising children with PIMD and compare it with the time use of parents of typically developing children. Twenty-seven fathers and 30 mothers raising children with PIMD completed a time use diary on a mobile phone or tablet app, as did 66 fathers and 109 mothers of typically developing children. Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare mean time use. There are no differences in the time use of parents of children with PIMD on contracted time (paid work and educational activities) and necessary time (personal care, eating and drinking and sleeping) when compared with parents of typically developing children. There are significant differences between the parents of children with PIMD and the parents of typically developing children in terms of committed time (time for domestic work and the care and supervision of their children) and free time. The mothers of children with PIMD spend significantly less time on domestic work and more time on care and supervision than mothers of typically developing children. This study shows that the parents of children with PIMD have to spend a significant amount of time on care tasks and have on average 1.5 h less free time per day than parents of typically developing children. This is a striking difference, because leisure time can substantially contribute to well-being. Therefore, it is important not only to consider a child with PIMD's support needs but also to identify what parents need to continue their children's daily care and supervision. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Exploring the effects of adolescent perceptions of parenting in free time and gender on adolescent motivation in free time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton E., Jr. Watts; Linda L. Caldwell

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how gender and perceptions of parenting related to adolescent motivation during free-time. The sample consisted of 377 ninthgraders from high schools in eastern Massachusetts. Significant gender differences were found for rules enacted, with females reporting more rules in place than males. When examining the relationship between parenting practices...

  1. Emerging effortful control in toddlerhood: the role of infant orienting/regulation, maternal effortful control, and maternal time spent in caregiving activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J; Gartstein, Maria A; Putnam, Samuel P; Lance, Kate Oddi; Iddins, Erin; Waits, Robin; Vanvleet, Jessica; Lee, Lindsay

    2011-02-01

    Latent growth modeling (LGM) was used to examine the contribution of changes in infant orienting/regulation (O/R) to the emergence of toddler effortful control (EC), the contributions of maternal EC to the development of infant O/R and the emergence of toddler EC, the influence of maternal time spent in caregiving activities on toddler EC and the slope of infant O/R, and the contribution of maternal EC to subsequent maternal time spent in caregiving activities. Mothers from 158 families completed a self-report measure of EC when their infants were 4 months of age, a measure of infant O/R when their infants were 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, and a measure of toddler EC when their children reached 18 months of age. Information concerning maternal time spent in various interactive caregiving activities was collected when infants were 6 months old. Results indicated higher maternal EC predicted interindividual differences in the intercept (i.e., higher intercepts), but not slope, of infant O/R and that higher maternal EC, higher infant O/R intercept, and higher infant O/R slope contributed to higher toddler EC. Furthermore, higher maternal EC predicted greater maternal time spent in interactive caregiving activities with their infants and greater maternal time in interactive caregiving with infants also contributed to higher toddler EC after controlling for maternal EC. These findings contribute to the understanding of the influence of maternal EC, directly and through caregiving, on toddler EC. Additional implications as they are related to early developing regulatory aspects of temperament are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Objectively measured time spent sedentary is associated with insulin resistance independent of overall and central body fat in 9- to 10-year-old Portuguese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardinha, Luis B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the independent relationships between objectively measured physical activity and insulin resistance in Portuguese children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a school-based, cross-sectional study in 147 randomly selected girls (aged 9.8 +/- 0.3 years; 27.8 +/- 9.3% body...... fat) and 161 boys (aged 9.8 +/- 0.3 years; 22.0 +/- 9.2% body fat). Physical activity was assessed by the Actigraph accelerometer for 4 days and summarized as time spent sedentary (accelerometer counts ... (beta-coefficient = 0.001 [95% CI 0.0002-0.002]; P = 0.013). Time spent in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (-0.002 [-0.003 to -0.001]; P = 0.0009) and overall physical activity (-0.001 [-0.008 to 0.003]; P

  3. Montessori Parenting: An Idea Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Sonnie; McFarland, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Since Dr. Maria Montessori's discovery of the true nature of childhood over a century ago, children around the globe have benefited from Montessori education. However, even parents who have children enrolled in Montessori schools could derive further benefits through the implementation of Montessori principles and practices in the home. Helping…

  4. Talking to Parents: Communication in Times of Crisis and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Charlene

    2002-01-01

    Camps should always have a crisis management plan, but the events of September 11, 2001, make it especially important. Honest communication with parents is paramount--directors should choose their words carefully and control the tone of their voices. Examples are given of crises involving weather, transportation, and a shooting. Questions to…

  5. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  6. How parents can affect excessive spending of time on screen-based activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Sevcikova, Anna; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed

  7. The associations between self-reported sleep duration and adolescent health outcomes: what is the role of time spent on Internet use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae; Bautista, Mary Ann; Foo, Kelvin

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with adolescent health outcomes, taking into account time spent on Internet use. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korea Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a cross-sectional online survey of middle and high school students aged 13-18years in South Korea (N=136,589) to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with four mental and physical health measures, e.g. self-report of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, weight status, and self-rated health. The binary logit and generalized ordered logit models controlled for time spent on Internet use for non-study purposes and other factors. Shorter self-reported sleep duration was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and overweight or obese status, and a lower likelihood of reporting better self-rated health, even after accounting for time spent on Internet use. Excessive Internet use was found to be an independent risk factor for these outcomes. Among in-school adolescents in South Korea, shorter sleep duration and excessive Internet use are independently and additively associated with multiple indicators of adverse health status. Excessive Internet use may have not only direct adverse health consequences, but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of wheelchair propulsion style on changes in time spent in extreme wrist orientations after a bout of fatiguing propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski, Lisa A; Hass, Chris J; Shechtman, Orit; Christou, Evangelos A; Tillman, Mark D

    2017-10-01

    This study compared how wheelchair propulsion styles affect changes in percentage of time spent in extreme wrist orientations, which have been associated with median nerve injury, after a fatiguing bout of propulsion. Twenty novice, non-disabled adult males learned arcing (ARC) and semicircular (SEMI) propulsion styles and utilised each to perform a wheelchair fatigue protocol. ARC and SEMI did not significantly differ in terms of changes after the fatigue protocol in percentage of time spent in extreme flexion/extension or radial/ulnar deviation at the push phase beginning or end. A pattern was observed, although not significant, of greater increases in percentage of time spent in extreme wrist extension and ulnar deviation during the push phase beginning and ulnar deviation during the push phase end while utilising SEMI relative to ARC. This study evinces that individual differences are greater than observed changes in extreme wrist orientations for both propulsion styles. Practitioner Summary: How wheelchair propulsion styles change with fatigue in terms of extreme wrist orientations was examined. This study evinces that individual differences are greater than observed changes in extreme wrist orientations for both propulsion styles and point towards the need for future research on individual differences utilising propulsion styles.

  9. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Van der Geest

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA and screen sedentary time (SST, is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047. Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful, and PA and SST (mean min/day. The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%, while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%. No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an

  10. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-09-29

    Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8-11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children's gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST

  11. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2% boys and 158 (42.8% girls and 565 parents: 323 (57.2% mothers and 242 (48.2% fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5% of parents (248 (77.0% mothers and 207 (85.9% fathers (p Conclusion Joint family activity time deficit together with frequent parental examples of smoking and alcohol use underlie the development of alcohol and smoking addictions in children to some extent. The above-mentioned issues are suggested to be widely addressed in the comprehensive family health education programs.

  12. Beyond deficits: intimate partner violence, maternal parenting, and child behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah I; Beeble, Marisa; Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.

  13. Time/motion observations and dose analysis of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an overweight truck spent fuel shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostick, C.J.; Lavender, J.C.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents observed activity durations and radiation dose analyses for an overweight truck shipment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel from the Surry Power Station in Virginia to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask carrying three 9-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Handling times and dose analyses for at-reactor activities were completed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) personnel. Observations of in-transit and unloading activities were made by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel, who followed the shipment for approximately 2800 miles and observed cask unloading activities. In-transit dose estimates were calculated using dose rate maps provided by Virginia Power for a fully loaded TN-8L shipping cask. The dose analysis for the cask unloading operations is based on the observations of PNL personnel

  14. Time and dose assessment of barge shipment and at-reactor handling of a CASTOR V/21 spent fuel storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, C.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Lavender, J.C. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Wakeman, B.H. (Virginia Electric and Power Co., Richmond, VA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report contains the results of a time/motion analysis and a radiation dose assessment made during the receipt from barge transport and the loading of CAst iron cask for Storage and Transport Of Radioactive material (CASTOR) V/21 storage casks with spent nuclear fuel at the Surry Power Station in Virginia during 1987. The study was a cooperative effort between Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power), and was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Program Office. In this study, cask handling activities were tracked at the Surry Power Station, tracing the transfer of the empty spent fuel storage cask from an ocean-going vessel to a barge for river transport through the activities required to place the loaded storage cask at an at-reactor storage location.

  15. [Parents' and Children's Perspectives of Parental Mediation Strategies in Association with Children's Internet Skills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2018-02-01

    Parents' and Children's Perspectives of Parental Mediation Strategies in Association with Children's Internet Skills The purpose of this study was to examine the association of parental mediation strategies (from parents' and children's perspective) and children's internet skills. In total 194 parent-child dyads were questioned about their parent's mediation strategies. The children (fifth to ninth grade) additionally answered questions about their internet skills and the amount of time they spent daily on the internet. Parents' and children's ratings of the parental mediation strategies showed moderate associations. Parents reported to use more often mediation strategies than was perceived by their children. The mediation strategies had only limited value for the prediction of the children's internet skills. Parents' and children's perspective about restrictive content mediation were both negatively associated to children's internet skills. After controlling for children's age, sex and time spent daily on the internet, results showed that only congruencies between children's and parental perspectives regarding the parental restrictive content mediation were associated with decreased technical and social internet skills. Additionally, discrepancies between the children's and parental perspectives regarding the parental use of technical mediation were associated with decreased technical internet skills. Discrepancies regarding the parental mediation strategy monitoring were related to increased information navigation skills.

  16. The home electronic media environment and parental safety concerns: relationships with outdoor time after school and over the weekend among 9-11 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Hannah J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Cumming, Sean P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2018-04-05

    Time spent outdoors is associated with higher physical activity levels among children, yet it may be threatened by parental safety concerns and the attraction of indoor sedentary pursuits. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between these factors and outdoor time during children's discretionary periods (i.e., after school and over the weekend). Data from 462 children aged 9-11 years old were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The odds of spending > 1 h outdoors after school, and > 2 h outdoors on a weekend were computed, according to demographic variables, screen-based behaviours, media access, and parental safety concerns. Interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES) were explored. Boys, low SES participants, and children who played on their computer for  1 h outside after school than girls, high SES children and those playing on a computer for ≥2 h, respectively. Counterintuitive results were found for access to media devices and crime-related safety concerns as both of these were positively associated with time spent outdoors after school. A significant interaction for traffic-related concerns*sex was found; higher road safety concerns were associated with lower odds of outdoor time after school in boys only. Age was associated with weekend outdoor time, which interacted with sex and SES; older children were more likely to spend > 2 h outside on weekends but this was only significant among girls and high SES participants. Our results suggest that specific groups of children are less likely to spend their free time outside, and it would seem that only prolonged recreational computer use has a negative association with children's outdoor time after school. Further research is needed to explore potential underlying mechanisms, and parental safety concerns in more detail.

  17. Long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression: A population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sung-Youn; Jang, Suk-Yong; Choi, Jae-Woo; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-09-08

    We examined the long-term effects of parental divorce timing on depression using longitudinal data from the Korean Welfare Panel Study. Depression symptoms were measured using the 11 items of Center for Epidemiologic Scale for Depression (CES-D-11), and we categorized parental divorce timing into 'early childhood', 'adolescent' and 'none'. Although participants who experienced parental divorce during adolescence exhibited a significantly higher CES-D-11 score (p = .0468), 'early childhood' participants displayed the most increased CES-D-11 score compared to the control group (p = .0007). Conversely, among participants who were unsatisfied with their marriage, those who experienced parental divorce in early childhood showed lower CES-D-11 scores, while 'adolescent period' participants exhibited significantly higher CES-D-11 scores (p = .0131). We concluded that timing of parental divorce exerts substantial yet varied effects on long-term depression symptoms and future marriage satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children's externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent's alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2…

  19. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Geest, K E; Mérelle, S Y M; Rodenburg, G; Van de Mheen, D; Renders, C M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children's activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children's activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the

  20. Cross-sectional associations between maternal parenting styles, physical activity and screen sedentary time in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Geest, K. E.; Mérelle, S. Y. M.; Rodenburg, G.; Van De Mheen, D.; Renders, C. M.

    Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the

  1. Children's Well-Being during Parents' Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2002-01-01

    Examines the extent to which parents' marital disruption process affects children's academic performance and well-being both before and after parental divorce. Compared with peers in intact families, children of divorce faired less well. Discusses how family resources mediate detrimental effects over time. Similar results are noted for girls and…

  2. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  3. Parental care in Tundra Swans during the pre-fledgling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnst, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    Among studies that have quantified the care of precocial young, few have investigated forms of parental care other than vigilance. During the pre-fledging period, Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) parents provided simultaneous biparental care by foraging near each other and their cygnets, and cygnets spent more time foraging during bouts in which both parents were foraging nearby than when only one parent was foraging nearby. Parents spent nearly twice as much foraging time on land than did non-parents, a habitat in which cygnets foraged more intensely than parents (i.e., spent more time foraging during foraging bouts) and could graze on protein-rich sedges rather than use more difficult below-water foraging methods. Parents also spent more than twice as much time being vigilant and more than three times as much time defending their territory than non-parents, behaviors that presumably benefited cygents by decreasing predation risk and indirect foraging competition, respectively. Parents therefore incurred the costs of foraging less intensely during foraging bouts, spending more time interacting, more time in vigilance, and less time sleeping/preening than non-parents.

  4. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  5. Gender-Typed Behavior Over Time in Children with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi L.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual two-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at three time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents’ gender and sexual orientation; children’s gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys’ behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by two mothers or two fathers. PMID:27416364

  6. Premigration School Quality, Time Spent in the United States, and the Math Achievement of Immigrant High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozick, Robert; Malchiodi, Alessandro; Miller, Trey

    2016-10-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 1,189 immigrant youth in American high schools, we examine whether the quality of education in their country of origin is related to post-migration math achievement in the 9th grade. To measure the quality of their education in the country of origin, we use country-specific average test scores from two international assessments: the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). We find that the average PISA or TIMSS scores for immigrant youth's country of origin are positively associated with their performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment. We also find that each year spent in the United States is positively associated with performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment, but this effect is strongest for immigrants from countries with low PISA/TIMSS scores.

  7. Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Anna-Sara; Svahn, Kajsa; Åström, Elisabeth; Rönnlund, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  8. Energetic limitation of avian parental effort : Field experiments in the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Dirkjan; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Daan, Serge; Bult, Ab

    1989-01-01

    We studied the limiting factors for brood size in the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, by measuring parental effort in natural broods of different size and parental response to manipulation of food satiation of the brood. Parental effort was quantified as total daily time spent in flight, and total daily

  9. Social-cognitive predictors of low-income parents' restriction of screen time among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use.

  10. Do First Time House Buyers Receive Financial Transfers from Their Parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Using Danish longitudinal data with information about wealth for a sample of first-time house buyers and their parents, we test whether there are direct financial transfers from parents to children in connection with the house purchase, or in connection with unemployment spells occurring just after...... the purchase, when children typically hold few liquid assets. First, we document that child and parent financial resources are correlated. Then, we introduce conditioning variables and exploit the panel aspect of the data to also condition on fixed unobserved factors, which arguably govern preferences and....../or productivity. We find no evidence of direct financial transfers....

  11. Parent-child communication and marijuana initiation: evidence using discrete-time survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James M; Silber-Ashley, Olivia; Farrelly, Matthew C; Dench, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This study supplements existing literature on the relationship between parent-child communication and adolescent drug use by exploring whether parental and/or adolescent recall of specific drug-related conversations differentially impact youth's likelihood of initiating marijuana use. Using discrete-time survival analysis, we estimated the hazard of marijuana initiation using a logit model to obtain an estimate of the relative risk of initiation. Our results suggest that parent-child communication about drug use is either not protective (no effect) or - in the case of youth reports of communication - potentially harmful (leading to increased likelihood of marijuana initiation). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing the Feasibility of Skype and FaceTime Updates With Parents in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth Gingell; Sherman, Jessica; Blackman, Amy; Sinkin, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Effective provider-parent relationships are essential during critical illness when treatment decisions are complex, the environment is crowded and unfamiliar, and outcomes are uncertain. To evaluate the feasibility of daily Skype or FaceTime updates with parents of patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to assess the intervention's potential for improving parent-provider relationships. A pre/post mixed-methods approach was used. NICU parent participants received daily Skype or FaceTime updates for 5 days and completed demographic and feasibility surveys. Parents also completed Penticuff's Parents' Understanding survey before and after the intervention. Nurses and physicians completed feasibility surveys after each update. Twenty-six parents were enrolled and 15 completed the study. More than 90% of providers and parents perceived the intervention to be reliable and easy to use, and about 80% of parents and providers rated video and audio quality as either excellent or good. Frozen screens and missed updates due to scheduling problems were challenges. Two of the 4 subscores on the Parents' Understanding survey improved significantly. Qualitative data favor the intervention as meaningful for parents. Real-time videoconferencing via Skype or FaceTime is feasible for providing updates for parents when they cannot be present in the NICU and can be used to include parents in bedside rounds. Videoconferencing updates may improve relationships between parents and the health care team. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  13. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Low-Income Parents' Restriction of Screen Time among Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents ("N" = 147) of…

  14. Gender-typed behavior over time in children with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi L

    2016-10-01

    The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual 2-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children's gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at 3 time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents' gender and sexual orientation; children's gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys' behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by 2 mothers or 2 fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. A cross-cultural comparison of sleep duration between US And Australian adolescents: the effect of school start time, parent-set bedtimes, and extracurricular load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C; Wright, Helen R; Dewald, Julia F; Wolfson, Amy R; Carskadon, Mary A

    2013-06-01

    To test whether sleep duration on school nights differs between adolescents in Australia and the United States and, if so, whether this difference is explained by cultural differences in school start time, parental involvement in setting bedtimes, and extracurricular commitments. Three hundred eighty-five adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (M = 15.57, SD = 0.95; 60% male) from Australia and 302 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (M = 16.03, SD = 1.19; 35% male) from the United States. Adolescents completed the School Sleep Habits Survey during class time, followed by an 8-day sleep diary. After controlling for age and gender, Australian adolescents obtained an average of 47 minutes more sleep per school night than those in the United States. Australian adolescents were more likely to have a parent-set bedtime (17.5% vs. 6.8%), have a later school start time (8:32 a.m. vs. 7:45 a.m.), and spend less time per day on extracurricular commitments (1 h 37 min vs. 2 h 41 min) than their U.S. peers. The mediating factors of parent-set bedtimes, later school start times, and less time spent on extracurricular activities were significantly associated with more total sleep. In addition to biological factors, extrinsic cultural factors significantly affect adolescent sleep. The present study highlights the importance of a cross-cultural, ecological approach and the impact of early school start times, lack of parental limit setting around bedtimes, and extracurricular load in limiting adolescent sleep.

  16. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A. Rawluk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris, Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW with or without natural barriers on (i amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP, (ii watering location (OSW or stream, and (iii animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture—which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size—was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT, OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR, and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR. Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002, 2 (p = 0.1116, and 3 (p < 0.0001 at the Killarney site compared to cattle in 3NOBARR at the same site. Cattle in 2BARR at the Souris site spent more time in the RP in Period 1 (p < 0.0001 and less time in Period 2 (p = 0.0002 compared to cattle in 3NOBARR. Cattle did use the OSW, but not exclusively, as watering at the stream was still observed. The observed inconsistency in the effectiveness of the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area between periods and locations may be partly attributable to the environmental conditions present during this field trial as well as difference in pasture size and the ability of the established barriers to deter cattle from using the stream as a water source. Treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on cow and calf weights averaged over the summer period. These results indicate that the presence of an OSW does not create significant differences in animal performance when used in extensive pasture scenarios such as those studied within the present study. Whereas the barriers did not consistently discourage watering at the stream, the results provide some indication of the efficacy of the OSW as well

  18. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582. Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to and from work in the last week, perceptions of the route, psychological measures regarding car use and socio-demographic characteristics. Participants were classified into one of two categories according to time spent walking for commuting ('no walking' or 'some walking' and one of three categories for cycling ('no cycling', '1-149 min/wk' and ' ≥ 150 min/wk'. Results Of the 1164 respondents (68% female, mean (SD age: 42.3 (11.4 years 30% reported any walking and 53% reported any cycling to or from work. In multiple regression models, short distance to work and not having access to a car showed strong positive associations with both walking and cycling. Furthermore, those who reported that it was pleasant to walk were more likely to walk to or from work (OR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.02 to 5.78 and those who reported that it was convenient to cycle on the route between home and work were more likely to do so (1-149 min/wk: OR = 4.60, 95% CI 2.88 to 7.34; ≥ 150 min/wk: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.66. Positive attitudes in favour of car use were positively associated with time spent walking to or from work but negatively associated with cycling to or from work. Strong perceived behavioural control for car use was negatively associated with walking. Conclusions In this relatively affluent sample of commuters, a range of individual and household characteristics, perceptions of the route environment and psychological measures relating to car use were associated with

  19. Measuring parent time scarcity and fatigue as barriers to meal planning and preparation: quantitative scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-03-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure and create summary scales. Internal consistency reliability and measures of construct and concurrent validity were assessed. Two scales were created based on the factor analysis: time and energy for meals and meal planning. Preliminary evidence suggests that both scales are reliable and valid. The time and energy for meals and meal planning scales can be completed quickly by busy and tired parents. As many children do not eat nutritious diets, a better understanding of the barriers that parents face is critical and may help inform interventions tailored to the needs of tired, busy parents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Latent Profiles of Perceived Time Adequacy for Paid Work, Parenting, and Partner Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; King, Rosalind B.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N=880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified three profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: Family Time Protected, Family Time Sacrificed, and Time Balanced. Drawing upon the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the Family Time Sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the Family Time Protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the Time Balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the Family Time Protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the Family Time Protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. PMID:26075739

  1. Latent profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D; King, Rosalind B; Hammer, Leslie B; Kelly, Erin L

    2015-10-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N = 880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified 3 profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: family time protected, family time sacrificed, and time balanced. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the family time sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the family time protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the time balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the family time protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the family time sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the family time protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the family time sacrificed profile. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Signs of Change? At-Home and Breadwinner Parents' Housework and Child-Care Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Noelle; Flood, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    We analyze American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to examine patterns in domestic work among at-home and breadwinner parents to further gauge how time availability, relative earnings, and gender shape time use in couples with extreme differences in earnings and work hours. We find that involvement in female-typed housework is an important driver of overall housework time. It is counter-normative housework behavior by at-home fathers that shapes conclusions about how time availability, relative resources, and gender influence parents' housework. While time availability appears to shape child care in comparable ways across parents, mothers are more engaged in child care than similarly-situated fathers. Overall, our comparisons point to the importance of distinguishing among gender-normative housework tasks and accounting for differences in engagement on work and non-work days. Our results also provide a basis for assessing the social significance of growing numbers of parents in work-family roles that are not gender-normative.

  3. Time spent in primary care for hip osteoarthritis patients once the diagnosis is set : a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Nienke; van der Veen, Willem Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous research on time to referral to orthopaedic surgery has predominantly used hip complaints as starting point instead of the moment the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is established, therefore little is known about the length of time a patient diagnosed with hip OA

  4. Change in Corporal Punishment Over Time in a Representative Sample of Canadian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    Corporal punishment is a controversial form of discipline. Although its prevalence appears high, legal reforms and public education efforts to limit corporal punishment may be resulting in a decrease in its prevalence and frequency of use. This study drew on Canadian nationally representative data to understand the social change that might be happening and to characterize parents who continue to use corporal punishment. The study relied on cross-sectional data from Cycles 1 (1994) to 8 (2008) of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to examine parental reports of corporal punishment for children ages 2–11 years. Analyses were conducted separately for 2- to 5-, 6- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds, and sociodemographics associated with corporal punishment were examined. A significant decrease in the prevalence and frequency of corporal punishment use was observed across time for all age groups. Child sex, parent age, employment status, family structure, household size, immigration status, ethnicity, and religion significantly distinguished parents who use corporal punishment from those who do not, but there was variability across the age groups. Effect sizes question the relevance of the observed decrease in corporal punishment from an applied perspective. Approximately 25% of Canadian parents still use corporal punishment with children ages 2–11 years; therefore, it remains an issue that merits continued attention. Certain child, parent, and family characteristics seem to characterize parents who use corporal punishment, but other more dynamic variables may be important to consider, such as parental stress and their attitudes toward corporal punishment.

  5. A real-time data acquisition and processing system for the analytical laboratory automation of a HTR spent fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzlawik, K.H.

    1979-12-01

    A real-time data acquisition and processing system for the analytical laboratory of an experimental HTR spent fuel reprocessing facility is presented. The on-line open-loop system combines in-line and off-line analytical measurement procedures including data acquisition and evaluation as well as analytical laboratory organisation under the control of a computer-supported laboratory automation system. In-line measurements are performed for density, volume and temperature in process tanks and registration of samples for off-line measurements. Off-line computer-coupled experiments are potentiometric titration, gas chromatography and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Organisational sections like sample registration, magazining, distribution and identification, multiple data assignment and especially calibrations of analytical devices are performed by the data processing system. (orig.) [de

  6. Working parents: what factors are involved in their ability to take time off from work when their children are sick?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Toomey, S; Furstenberg, F

    1999-08-01

    A series of studies has demonstrated that sick children fare better when their parents are present. To examine working conditions that determine whether parents can spend time with and become involved in the care of their children when they are sick. Survey with a multivariate analysis of factors influencing parental care of sick children. Mixed-income urban working parents aged 26 to 29 years participating in the Baltimore Parenthood Study. Only 42% of working parents in our sample cared for their young children when they became sick. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict which parents stayed at home when their children were sick. Those parents who had either paid sick or vacation leave were 5.2 times as likely to care for their children themselves when they were sick. Of parents with less than a high school education, 17% received paid leave, compared with 57% of parents with a general equivalency diploma, 76% of parents with a high school diploma, and 92% of parents with more than a high school education (Pparents were unable to care for their sick children themselves is important for pediatric care. While low-income children are more likely to face marked health problems and to be in need of parental care, they are more likely to live in households in which parents lack paid leave and cannot afford to take unpaid leave.

  7. Time spent in primary care for hip osteoarthritis patients once the diagnosis is set: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Akker-Scheek Inge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research on time to referral to orthopaedic surgery has predominantly used hip complaints as starting point instead of the moment the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA of the hip is established, therefore little is known about the length of time a patient diagnosed with hip OA stays under the care of a general practitioner (GP. No knowledge on factors of influence on this time period is available either. Aim of this study was thus to determine the time an incident hip OA patient stays in the care of a GP until referral to an orthopaedic department. Influencing factors were also analyzed. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted based on data over a 10-year period from a general practice-based registration network (17 GPs, > 30,000 patients registered yearly. Patients with the diagnosis of hip OA were included. A survival analysis was used to determine time until referral to an orthopaedic department, and to determine factors of influence on this time. Results Of 391 patients diagnosed with hip OA, 121 (31% were referred; average survival time until referral was 82.0 months (95% CI 76.6-87.5. Less contact with the GP for hip complaints before the diagnosis of hip OA was established resulted in a decreased time to referral. Conclusions The results of this study show that patients with hip OA were under the care of a general practitioner, and thus in primary care, for a considerable amount of time once the diagnosis of hip OA was established.

  8. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Ashley A; Crow, Gary; Legesse, Getahun; Veira, Douglas M; Bullock, Paul R; González, Luciano A; Dubois, Melanie; Ominski, Kim H

    2014-10-29

    A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris), Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW) with or without natural barriers on (i) amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP), (ii) watering location (OSW or stream), and (iii) animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture-which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size-was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT), OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR), and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR). Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002), 2 (p = 0.1116), and 3 (p natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area between periods and locations may be partly attributable to the environmental conditions present during this field trial as well as difference in pasture size and the ability of the established barriers to deter cattle from using the stream as a water source. Treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on cow and calf weights averaged over the summer period. These results indicate that the presence of an OSW does not create significant differences in animal performance when used in extensive pasture scenarios such as those studied within the present study. Whereas the barriers did not consistently discourage watering at the stream, the results provide some indication of the efficacy of the OSW as well as the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area.

  9. Surveillance instrumentation for spent-fuel safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Holmes, J.P.; Gillman, L.K.; Schmitz, J.A.; McDaniel, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The movement, in a facility, of spent reactor fuel may be tracked using simple instrumentation together with a real time unfolding algorithm. Experimental measurements, from multiple radiation monitors and crane weight and position monitors, were obtained during spent fuel movements at the G.E. Morris Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. These data and a preliminary version of an unfolding algorithm were used to estimate the position of the centroid and the magnitude of the spent fuel radiation source. Spatial location was estimated to +-1.5 m and source magnitude to +-10% of their true values. Application of this surveillance instrumentation to spent-fuel safeguards is discussed

  10. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate

  11. The Cell Cycle: An Activity Using Paper Plates to Represent Time Spent in Phases of the Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Yvette D.

    2014-01-01

    In this activity, students are given the opportunity to combine skills in math and geometry for a biology lesson in the cell cycle. Students utilize the data they collect and analyze from an online onion-root-tip activity to create a paper-plate time clock representing a 24-hour cell cycle. By dividing the paper plate into appropriate phases of…

  12. Time Spent by Breast Imaging Radiologists to Perform Value-Added Activities at an Academic Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mesa, Fernando; Klevos, Geetika; Arheart, Kristopher; Banks, James; Yepes, Monica; Net, Jose

    2017-04-01

    Health care reform in the United States has generated a paradigm shift in the practice of radiology aimed at increasing the degree of patient-centered care. We conducted a study to quantify the amount of time breast imaging radiologists spend on value-added activities at an academic comprehensive cancer center located in Miami, Florida, and accredited by the American College of Radiology as a Breast Imaging Center of Excellence. A prospective, observational study was conducted during a period of 20 consecutive workdays. Three participating breast imaging radiologists maintained a real-time log of each activity performed. A generalized linear model was used to perform a 1-way analysis of variance. An alpha level of .05 was used to determine statistical significance. The average daily time dedicated to these activities was 92.1 minutes (range, 56.4-132.2). The amount of time significantly differed among breast imaging radiologists and correlated with their assigned daily role (P value-added activities to help improve patients' experience across the continuity of their care. We propose that similar studies be conducted at other institutions to better assess the magnitude of this finding across different breast imaging care settings.

  13. Consequences of caring for a child with a chronic disease: Employment and leisure time of parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Peek, Niels; Heymans, Hugo; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Chronically ill children require several hours of additional care per day compared to healthy children. As parents provide most of this care, they have to incorporate it into their daily schedule, which implies a reduction in time for other activities. The study aimed to assess the effect of having

  14. Pubertal Onset in Boys and Girls Is Influenced by Pubertal Timing of Both Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P

    2016-01-01

    children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 672 girls and 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2...

  15. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls' Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in…

  16. Parent-adolescent joint projects involving leisure time and activities during the transition to high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sheila K; Young, Richard A; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Lollis, Susan; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree; Nelson, Margo; Goessling, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Leisure research to date has generally overlooked planning and organizing of leisure time and activities between parents and adolescents. This investigation examined how a sample of Canadian adolescents and their parents jointly constructed and acted on goals related to adolescents' leisure time during the move from elementary to high school. Using the Qualitative Action-Project Method, data were collected over an 8-10 month period from 26 parent-adolescent dyads located in two urban sites, through video-taped conversations about leisure time, video recall interviews, and telephone monitoring interviews. Analysis of the data revealed that the joint projects of the 26 dyads could be grouped into three clusters: a) governance transfer or attempts to shift, from parent to adolescent, responsibility over academic demands, organizing leisure time, and safety with peers, b) balancing extra-curricular activities with family life, academics, and social activities, and c) relationship adjustment or maintenance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reducing children's television-viewing time: a qualitative study of parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B; Hersey, James C; McDivitt, Judith A; Heitzler, Carrie D

    2006-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children over age 2 years spend dining room. Although virtually all of the parents reported having guidelines for children's television viewing, few had rules restricting the time children spend watching television. Data from this exploratory study suggest several potential barriers to implementing a 2-hour limit, including: parents' need to use television as a safe and affordable distraction, parents' own heavy television viewing patterns, the role that television plays in the family's day-to-day routine, and a belief that children should spend their weekend leisure time as they wish. Interviews revealed that for many of these families there is a lack of concern that television viewing is a problem for their child, and there remains confusion about the boundaries of the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Parents in this study expressed interest in taking steps toward reducing children's television time but also uncertainty about how to go about doing so. Results suggest possible strategies to reduce the amount of time children spend in front of the screen.

  18. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shi and Swiatecki [6] put forward a model for exotic decay studies that uses Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region and uses simple power law for overlap region. These authors [7] studied the effect of deformation of parent, daughter and shell attenuation on half-life time treating ...

  19. Testing the Efficacy of a Scholarship Program for Single Parent, Post-Freshmen, Full Time Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Kaka, Sarah J.; Tygret, Jennifer A.; Cathcart, Katy

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of a scholarship program designed to assist single parent, post-freshmen, full time undergraduate students and predictors of success among a sample of said students, where success is defined as progress toward completion, academic achievement, and degree completion. Results of fixed effects regression and…

  20. Time spent in outdoor activities in relation to myopia prevention and control: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuyu; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Naduvilath, Thomas; Zang, Jiajie; Zou, Haidong; Zhu, Jianfeng; Lv, Minzhi; He, Xiangui; Xu, Xun

    2017-09-01

    Outdoor time is considered to reduce the risk of developing myopia. The purpose is to evaluate the evidence for association between time outdoors and (1) risk of onset of myopia (incident/prevalent myopia); (2) risk of a myopic shift in refractive error and c) risk of progression in myopes only. A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis and a dose-response analysis of relevant evidence from literature was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant papers. Of the 51 articles with relevant data, 25 were included in the meta-analysis and dose-response analysis. Twenty-three of the 25 articles involved children. Risk ratio (RR) for binary variables and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous variables were conducted. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used to pool the data for meta-analysis. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 test with I 2  ≥ 50% considered to indicate high heterogeneity. Additionally, subgroup analyses (based on participant's age, prevalence of myopia and study type) and sensitivity analyses were conducted. A significant protective effect of outdoor time was found for incident myopia (clinical trials: risk ratio (RR) = 0.536, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.338 to 0.850; longitudinal cohort studies: RR = 0.574, 95% CI = 0.395 to 0.834) and prevalent myopia (cross-sectional studies: OR = 0.964, 95% CI = 0.945 to 0.982). With dose-response analysis, an inverse nonlinear relationship was found with increased time outdoors reducing the risk of incident myopia. Also, pooled results from clinical trials indicated that when outdoor time was used as an intervention, there was a reduced myopic shift of -0.30 D (in both myopes and nonmyopes) compared with the control group (WMD = -0.30, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.41) after 3 years of follow-up. However, when only myopes were considered, dose-response analysis did not find a relationship between time outdoors and myopic

  1. How passion and impulsivity influence a player's choice of videogame, intensity of playing and time spent playing

    OpenAIRE

    Puerta-Cortés, Diana Ximena; Panova, Tayana; Carbonell, Xavier; Chamarro, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Videogames have received much attention in addiction research due to their popularity and frequent use. However, few studies have addressed the effect of passion and impulsivity in gamers. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of passion and impulsivity on the intensity of play, playing time, and choice of Massive Multiplayer Online Role Play Game (MMORPG) vs. non-MMORPG. A sample of 630 university students (40.7% Colombian, 59.3% Spanish) responded ...

  2. Investigating the tradeoffs between spatial resolution and diffusion sampling for brain mapping with diffusion tractography: time well spent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Coe, Christopher L; Lubach, Gabriele R; Styner, Martin A; Johnson, G Allan

    2014-11-01

    Interest in mapping white matter pathways in the brain has peaked with the recognition that altered brain connectivity may contribute to a variety of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Diffusion tractography has emerged as a popular method for postmortem brain mapping initiatives, including the ex-vivo component of the human connectome project, yet it remains unclear to what extent computer-generated tracks fully reflect the actual underlying anatomy. Of particular concern is the fact that diffusion tractography results vary widely depending on the choice of acquisition protocol. The two major acquisition variables that consume scan time, spatial resolution, and diffusion sampling, can each have profound effects on the resulting tractography. In this analysis, we determined the effects of the temporal tradeoff between spatial resolution and diffusion sampling on tractography in the ex-vivo rhesus macaque brain, a close primate model for the human brain. We used the wealth of autoradiography-based connectivity data available for the rhesus macaque brain to assess the anatomic accuracy of six time-matched diffusion acquisition protocols with varying balance between spatial and diffusion sampling. We show that tractography results vary greatly, even when the subject and the total acquisition time are held constant. Further, we found that focusing on either spatial resolution or diffusion sampling at the expense of the other is counterproductive. A balanced consideration of both sampling domains produces the most anatomically accurate and consistent results. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Role of Parental Monitoring on Problematic Internet Use Among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay DEMIR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed to examine the relative role of time spent on the internet, parents’ educational background and parental mobile phone and computer monitoring behaviors on problematic internet use among adolescents. Participants of the study were 250 high school students from İstanbul aged between 14 and 18. Problematic Internet Usage scale, Parental Monitoring Scale and Demografic Information Form were used to collect data. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis revealed that time spent on the internet, fathers’ education and parental computer monitoring together accounted for the 16% of the variance in problematic internat use among adolescents. While mothers’ educational background and parental mobile phone monitoring had no significant contribution in the model, time spent on the internet and fathers’ education were found to be stronger predictors of problematic internet use than parental computer monitoring.

  4. Parental Internet Use and Lifestyle Factors as Correlates of Prolonged Screen Time of Children in Japan: Results From the Super Shokuiku School Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masaaki; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi

    2018-03-24

    Prolonged screen time (ST), which includes TV viewing and gaming on smartphones and computers, is linked to poor health. Our aim was to explore the associations between school children with prolonged ST and parental internet use (IU) and lifestyles in Japan. Children aged 6 to 13 years from the Super Shokuiku School Project, were surveyed using questionnaires in 2016. The survey assessed the grade, sex, and lifestyle of 1,659 children and parental internet use (IU) and lifestyle using Breslow's seven health behaviors. IU consisted of internet surfing and gaming on personal computers (PC), smartphones, or consoles. Three or more hours of ST was defined as prolonged ST, and its correlates were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all, 643 (38.8%) children spent ≥2 hours/day of ST on a week day, whilst 153 (9.2%) children spent ≥3 hours/day. Prolonged ST was significantly associated with children in higher grade (odds ratio [OR] 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.51), boys (OR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.49-3.14), skipping breakfast (OR 1.88; 95% CI, 1.05-3.35), late bedtime (OR 1.80; 95% CI, 1.15-2.82), physical inactivity (OR 1.79; 95% CI, 1.12-2.87), father's IU ≥2 hours/day (OR 2.35; 95% CI, 1.52-3.63), mother's prolonged IU ≥2 hours/day (OR 2.55; 95% CI, 1.43-4.52), mothers with unhealthy behaviors (OR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.05-3.13), no rule setting governing screen time (OR 2.41; 95% CI, 1.63-3.58), and mothers with full-time employment (OR 1.95; 95% CI, 1.06-3.64). Prolonged ST among Japanese children was strongly associated with parental IU, no set rules for ST, and mother's unhealthy lifestyles. To reduce children's ST, parental engagement is warranted in the intervention strategy.

  5. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Veldhuis (Lydian); A. van Grieken (Amy); C.M. Renders (Carry); R.A. Hirasing (Remy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this

  6. Parenting Style, the Home Environment, and Screen Time of 5-Year-Old Children; The 'Be Active, Eat Right' Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, L.; van Grieken, A.; Renders, C.M.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Raat, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we

  7. Relationships between parenting and adolescent adjustment over time: genetic and environmental contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiderhiser, J M; Reiss, D; Hetherington, E M; Plomin, R

    1999-05-01

    The predictive association between parenting and adolescent adjustment has been assumed to be environmental; however, genetic and environmental contributions have not been examined. This article represents one effort to examine these associations in which a genetically informative design was used. Participants were 395 families with adolescent siblings who participated in the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development (D. Reiss et al., 1994) project at 2 times of assessment, 3 years apart. There were 5 sibling types in 2 types of families: 63 identical twins, 75 fraternal twins, and 58 full siblings in nondivorced families and 95 full, 60 half, and 44 genetically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies. Results indicate that the cross-lagged associations between parental conflict-negativity and adolescent antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms can be explained primarily by genetic factors. These findings emphasize the need to recognize and examine the impact that adolescents have on parenting and the contribution of genetic factors to developmental change.

  8. Time spent studying on a pre-registration nursing programme module: an exploratory study and implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C; Lipscomb, Martin; Lockyer, Lesley; Yates, Sue; Young, Pat

    2010-11-01

    European Union (EU) regulations require that university programmes are of specified duration. Additional EU regulations apply specifically to university based nurse education, enacted in the UK by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). However, little is known about how much time student nurses spend on their studies. In this exploratory study, students undertaking a single module in the pre-registration diploma programme at an English university were asked to keep a log of learning activity for the duration of the module. Twenty-six students completed the log. These students achieved higher grades and attended more lectures than the average for the module. The mean study time was 128.4 h against a regulatory assumption that the module should take 200 h. More than half of the 26 students undertook paid work during the module run, though this work was not associated with poorer performance. Problems in regulation for course duration are discussed and it is suggested that undertaking a 4600 h course in 3 years is problematic. More research is required so that patterns of study can be better understood and student centred programmes meeting regulatory requirements developed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medical documentation: part of the solution, or part of the problem? A narrative review of the literature on the time spent on and value of medical documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynch, Neil; Kellett, John

    2015-04-01

    Even though it takes up such a large part of all clinicians' working day the medical literature on documentation and its value is sparse. Medline searches combining the terms medical records, documentation, time, and value or efficacy or benefit yielded only 147 articles. This review is based on the relevant articles selected from this search and additional studies gathered from the personal experience of the authors and their colleagues. Documentation now occupies a quarter to half of doctors' time yet much of the information collected is of dubious or unproven value. Most medical records departments still use the traditional paper chart, and there is considerable debate on the benefits of electronic medical records (EMRs). Although EMRs contains a lot more information than a paper record clinicians do not find it easy to getting useful information out of them. Unlike the paper chart narrative is difficult to enter into most EMRs so that they do not adequately communicate the patient's "story" to clinicians. Recent innovations have the potential to address these issues. Although documentation is widespread throughout the health care industry there has been almost no formal research into its value, on how to enhance its value, or on whether the time spent on it has negative effects on patient care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  11. Associations between parents? subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries: a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Bjereld, Ylva; Hensing, Gunnel; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Background The home, the family and the parents represent a context of everyday life that is important for child health and development, with parent-child relationships highlighted as crucial for children?s mental health. Time pressure is an emerging feature of modern societies and previous studies indicates that parents with children living at home experience time pressure to a greater extent than people with no children living at home. Previous studies of children?s mental health in relatio...

  12. Children′s physical activity and screen time: qualitative comparison of views of parents of infants and preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesketh Kylie D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While parents are central to the development of behaviours in their young children, little is known about how parents view their role in shaping physical activity and screen time behaviours. Methods Using an unstructured focus group design, parental views and practices around children′s physical activity and screen time (television and computer use were explored with eight groups of new parents (n=61; child age Results Parents generally believed children are naturally active, which may preclude their engagement in strategies designed to increase physical activity. While parents across both age groups shared many overarching views concerning parenting for children′s physical activity and screen time behaviours, some strategies and barriers differed depending on the age of the child. While most new parents were optimistic about their ability to positively influence their child′s behaviours, many parents of preschool-aged children seemed more resigned to strategies that worked for them, even when aware such strategies may not be ideal. Conclusions Interventions aiming to increase children′s physical activity and decrease screen time may need to tailor strategies to the age group of the child and address parents′ misconceptions and barriers to optimum parenting in these domains.

  13. Effect of exposure to greater active videogame variety on time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Cardoso, Chelsi; Bond, Dale S

    2016-07-01

    This investigation examined whether exposure to greater active videogame variety increases moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Twenty-three participants (age=22.7±4.2yrs; body mass index=23.5±3.0kg/m(2); self-reported MVPA=298.7±116.7min/wk; 62.2% female; 73.9% Caucasian) participated in VARIETY (4 different active videogames during 4, 15-min bouts) and NON-VARIETY (only 1 active videogame during 4, 15-min bouts) counterbalanced sessions. VARIETY provided a different active videogame in each bout. NON-VARIETY provided participants their most highly liked active videogame in each bout. The Sensewear Mini Armband objectively assessed MVPA. For MVPA minutes, a session×bout (p<0.05) interaction occurred. In NON-VARIETY, bouts 2, 3, and 4 had significantly (p<0.05) fewer minutes than bout 1, with no decrease occurring in VARIETY. In bout 4, VARIETY had significantly (p<0.05) more minutes than NON-VARIETY. A main effect of session (p<0.05) occurred for MVPA minutes and energy expenditure, with VARIETY achieving greater amounts (31.8±14.3min vs. 27.6±16.9min; 186.1±96.8kcal vs. 171.2±102.8kcal). Exposure to greater activity variety within a session increased MVPA. Future research should examine exposure to a variety of activities over a longer time frame with participants of differing lifestyles in free-living environments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The Sleep-Time Cost of Parenting: Sleep Duration and Sleepiness Among Employed Parents in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W.; Mirer, Anna G.; Palta, Mari; Peppard, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with poor health and increased mortality. Studies on whether parenthood (including consideration of number and ages of children) is associated with sleep duration or sleep problems are scant and inconclusive. Using data collected in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (n = 4,809) between 1989 and 2008, we examined cross-sectional associations of number and ages of children with self-reported parental sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and dozing among employed adults. Longitudinal change in sleep duration over 19 years was examined to evaluate changes in parental sleep associated with children transitioning into adulthood (n = 833). Each child under age 2 years was associated with 13 fewer minutes of parental sleep per day (95% confidence interval (CI): 5, 21); each child aged 2–5 years was associated with 9 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI: 5, 13); and each child aged 6–18 years was associated with 4 fewer minutes (95% CI: 2, 6). Adult children were not associated with shorter parental sleep duration. Parents of children over age 2 years were significantly more likely to experience daytime sleepiness and dozing during daytime activities. Parents of minor children at baseline had significantly greater increases in sleep duration over 19 years of follow-up. Parenting minor children is associated with shorter sleep duration. As children age into adulthood, the sleep duration of parents with more children approaches that of parents with fewer children. PMID:23378502

  15. Spent nuclear fuel storage - Basic concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempel, Ascanio; Santos, Cicero D. Pacifici dos; Sato, Heitor Hitoshi; Magalhaes, Leonardo de

    2009-01-01

    According to the procedures adopted in others countries in the world, the spent nuclear fuel elements burned to produce electrical energy in the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant of Angra do Reis, Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA will be stored for a long time. Such procedure will allow the next generation to decide how they will handle those materials. In the future, the reprocessing of the nuclear fuel assemblies could be a good solution in order to have additional energy resource and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. This decision will be done in the future according to the new studies and investigations that are being studied around the world. The present proposal to handle the nuclear spent fuel is to storage it for a long period of time, under institutional control. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to introduce a proposal of a basic concept of spent fuel storage, which involves the construction of a new storage building at site, in order to increase the present storage capacity of spent fuel assemblies in CNAAA installation; the concept of the spent fuel transportation casks that will transfer the spent fuel assemblies from the power plants to the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building and later on from this building to the Long Term Intermediate Storage of Spent Fuel; the concept of the spent fuel canister and finally the basic concept of the spent fuel long term storage. (author)

  16. The Determinants of Parental Childrearing Behavior Trajectories: The Effects of Parental and Child Time-Varying and Time-Invariant Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2012-01-01

    "Why do parents parent the way they do?" remains an important question since it concerns both scientific issues, such as the stability or change of childrearing behavior, and clinical issues, such as the way to promote positive parenting in evidence-based programs. Using an accelerated design, the aim of this study was to examine several parental…

  17. Observed Parent Behaviors as Time-Varying Moderators of Problem Behaviors Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L.

    2016-01-01

    Parent behaviors moderate the adverse consequences of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it is unknown how these moderating effects change over time. This study examined the moderating effect of observed parent behaviors over time since injury on the relation between TBI and behavioral outcomes. Participants included children, ages…

  18. Transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Toshiichi

    1976-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel taken out of reactors is cooled in the cooling pool in each power station for a definite time, then transported to a reprocessing plant. At present, there is no reprocessing plant in Japan, therefore the spent nuclear fuel is shipped abroad. In this paper, the experiences and the present situation in Japan are described on the transport of the spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, centering around the works in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. The spent nuclear fuel in Tsuruga Power Station was first transported in Apr. 1973, and since then, about 36 tons were shipped to Britain by 5 times of transport. The reprocessing plant in Japan is expected to start operation in Apr. 1977, accordingly the spent nuclear fuel used for the trial will be transported in Japan in the latter half of this year. Among the permission and approval required for the transport of spent nuclear fuel, the acquisition of the certificate for transport casks and the approval of land and sea transports are main tasks. The relevant laws are the law concerning the regulations of nuclear raw material, nuclear fuel and reactors and the law concerning the safety of ships. The casks used in Tsuruga Power Station and EXL III type, and the charging of spent nuclear fuel, the decontamination of the casks, the leak test, land transport with a self-running vehicle, loading on board an exclusive carrier and sea transport are briefly explained. The casks and the ship for domestic transport are being prepared. (Kato, I.)

  19. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  20. Is It Time Well Spent? The Relationship between Time Management Behaviours, Perceived Effectiveness and Work-Related Morale and Distress in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Hugh; Gardiner, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Despite the high "guru-factor" in time management, few claims have been subjected to empirical investigation. This study tests the claims that people who manage their time well perceive themselves to be more effective and feel less stressed. University staff and students were utilized to investigate the relationship between time management related…

  1. Scientific reference on the long time evolution of spent fuels; Referentiel scientifique sur l'evolution a long terme des combustibles uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, C.; Poinssot, Ch.; Broudic, V.; Jegou, Ch.; Roudil, D.; Poulesquen, A.; Miserque, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cappelaere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Desgranges, L.; Garcia, Ph.; Piron, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Lovera, P.; Marimbeau, P. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs; Corbel, C. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-03-15

    This report is published in the framework of the 1991 French law for the nuclear waste management. The state of the art reported here concerns the long term evolution of spent fuel in the various environmental conditions corresponding to dry storage and geological disposal: closed system, air and water saturated medium. This review is based on the results of the french PRECCI project (Research Program on Long term Evolution of Spent Nuclear Fuel) and on literature data. (authors)

  2. Team Work: Time well Spent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore Johnson, Susan; Reinhorn, Stefanie K.; Simon, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in high-poverty schools often feel stressed and fatigued. We might expect that if we ask these teachers to take on even more work by meeting regularly in collaborative improvement teams, they will respond with skepticism, even resentment. But in a study of 83 teachers in six outstanding high-poverty schools, these researchers found the…

  3. Cross-National Differences in the Association Between Parental Work Hours and Time with Children in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cross-national differences in the association between parental work hours and parent-child interaction time and explains differences in this individual-level association on the basis of country characteristics. It extends prior research by testing the moderating effects of country characteristics through multilevel analyses and by considering the possibility of selection effects. The presumption was that parents employ strategies to protect family life from work encroachments and that these strategies are enhanced by reconciliation policies, stronger parenthood ideologies, access to part-time work and higher income levels. Multilevel analyses were based on a subset of 5.183 parents in 23 countries from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey that was complemented with country-level data. The negative association between parental work hours and parent-child time indeed varied significantly across countries and was weaker in countries where formal child care coverage was higher, part-time work was less prevalent, and earnings were lower. The effects of part-time work and earnings mainly applied to mothers. These findings suggest that child care coverage limits the availability of children and that differences in parent-child time between parents who work short and long hours are more pronounced when part-time work is more accessible and affordable.

  4. Investigation of Positional Differences in Fitness of Male University Ice Hockey Players and the Frequency, Time Spent and Heart Rate of Movement Patterns during Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Men’s university ice hockey has received little scientific attention over the past 30 years, a time in which the traits of the players and the demands of the game have evolved.  Objectives: This study compared the physiological characteristics of university ice hockey players and examined the frequency and duration of the different movement patterns and heart rate (HR responses during competition. Methods: Twenty male ice hockey players from the same team ( age ± SD = 22±2 years underwent a fitness evaluation and were filmed and HR monitored during regular season games. Results: Forwards and defense had similar fitness and only differed on % fatigue index and peak heart during on-ice sprinting (P<0.05. Defense stood, glided and skated backwards more than forwards and forwards skated at a moderate intensity and glided forward more than defense (P<0.05. All players spent the majority of game time gliding forward (60% of the time followed by skating forward at a moderate intensity (17% and standing with little movement (9%. Average HR during the game reached 96 and 92 % and peak HR was 100 and 96 % of maximum in forwards and defense, respectively. Conclusions: Male university hockey players present with a high level of physical fitness in a variety of categories with few differences between forwards and defense. Movement patterns during games suggest that players are performing low to moderate intensity on-ice activities the majority of the time. Paradoxically, HR continues to climb to near maximum during on ice shifts.

  5. Real-Time Tracking of Parental Histones Reveals Their Contribution to Chromatin Integrity Following DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Salomé; Dabin, Juliette; Chevallier, Odile; Leroy, Olivier; Baldeyron, Céline; Corpet, Armelle; Lomonte, Patrick; Renaud, Olivier; Almouzni, Geneviève; Polo, Sophie E

    2016-10-06

    Chromatin integrity is critical for cell function and identity but is challenged by DNA damage. To understand how chromatin architecture and the information that it conveys are preserved or altered following genotoxic stress, we established a system for real-time tracking of parental histones, which characterize the pre-damage chromatin state. Focusing on histone H3 dynamics after local UVC irradiation in human cells, we demonstrate that parental histones rapidly redistribute around damaged regions by a dual mechanism combining chromatin opening and histone mobilization on chromatin. Importantly, parental histones almost entirely recover and mix with new histones in repairing chromatin. Our data further define a close coordination of parental histone dynamics with DNA repair progression through the damage sensor DDB2 (DNA damage-binding protein 2). We speculate that this mechanism may contribute to maintaining a memory of the original chromatin landscape and may help preserve epigenome stability in response to DNA damage. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  7. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clever mothers balance time and effort in parental care: a study on free-ranging dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K.; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of suckling during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously, and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group livi...

  9. Lost in hospital: a qualitative interview study that explores the perceptions of NHS inpatients who spent time on clinically inappropriate hospital wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Lucy; Adamson, Joy; Watt, Ian; Wright, John

    2015-10-01

    Prior research suggests that the placement of patients on clinically inappropriate hospital wards may increase the risk of experiencing patient safety issues. To explore patients' perspectives of the quality and safety of the care received during their inpatient stay on a clinically inappropriate hospital ward. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Nineteen patients who had spent time on at least one clinically inappropriate ward during their hospital stay at a large NHS teaching hospital in England. Patients would prefer to be treated on the correct specialty ward, but it is generally accepted that this may not be possible. When patients are placed on inappropriate wards, they may lack a sense of belonging. Participants commented on potential failings in communication, medical staff availability, nurses' knowledge and the resources available, each of which may contribute to unsafe care. Patients generally acknowledge the need for placement on inappropriate wards due to demand for inpatient beds, but may report dissatisfaction in terms of preference and belonging. Importantly, patients recount issues resulting from this placement that may compromise their safety. Hospital managers should be encouraged to appreciate this insight and potential threat to safe practice and where possible avoid inappropriate ward transfers and admissions. Where such admissions are unavoidable, staff should take action to address the gaps in safety of care that have been identified. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Dyadic Perspective on PTSD Symptoms' Associations with Couple Functioning and Parenting Stress in First-Time Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J; Le, Yunying; Marshall, Amy D; Brick, Timothy R; Feinberg, Mark E

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with disruptions in both couple functioning and parenting, and limited research suggests that, among military couples, perceptions of couple functioning and parenting stress are a function of both one's own and one's partner's mental health symptoms. However, this work has not been generalized to civilian couples, and little is known about the associations between PTSD symptoms and family adjustment in specific family developmental contexts. We examined PTSD symptoms' associations with perceived couple functioning and parenting stress within a dyadic context in civilian couples who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program and at least one member of the couple reported having experienced a Criterion A1 traumatic event. Results of actor-partner interdependence models revealed that parents' own and partners' PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with perceived couple functioning; contrary to expectation, the association of partners' PTSD symptoms with perceived couple functioning was strongest among men who received the intervention. A parent's own PTSD symptoms were positively associated with parenting stress for both men and women and were unexpectedly strongest for men who received the intervention. Partner PTSD symptoms were also positively associated with increased parenting stress for both men and women. Findings support a dyadic conceptualization of the associations between spouses' PTSD symptoms and family outcomes during the transition to parenthood and suggest that participating in a couple-based, psychoeducational program during this phase in the family life cycle may be particularly salient for men.

  11. Educational inequalities in parental care time: Cross-national evidence from Belgium, Denmark, Spain, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Pablo; Ghysels, Joris

    2017-03-01

    This study uses time-diary data for dual-earner couples from Belgium, Denmark, Spain, and the United Kingdom to analyze educational inequalities in parental care time in different national contexts. For mothers, education is significantly associated with parenting involvement only in Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain these differences are largely explained by inequalities in mothers' time and monetary resources, but not in the United Kingdom, where less-educated mothers disproportionally work in short part-time jobs. For fathers, education is associated with parenting time in Denmark, and particularly in Spain, while the wife's resources substantially drive these associations. On weekends, the educational gradient in parental care time applies only to Spain and the United Kingdom, two countries with particularly large inequalities in parents' opportunities to engage in parenting. The study shows country variations in educational inequalities in parenting, suggesting that socioeconomic resources, especially from mothers, shape important variations in parenting involvement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Quality of time spent without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment for transmetatarsal amputation versus digital amputation in diabetic patients with digital gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherif, Mohamed; Tawfick, Wael; Canning, Patrick; Hynes, Niamh; Sultan, Sherif

    2018-04-01

    Aim We aim to compare the outcome of diabetic patients with gangrenous toes who were managed initially either by digital amputation or by transmetatarsal amputation. The null hypothesis is that transmetatarsal amputation had less theatre trips and better healing. Materials and Methods A parallel observational comparative study of all diabetic patients who underwent either digital or transmetatarsal amputation in a tertiary referral center from 2002 through 2015. Comorbid conditions, subsequent amputations, hospital stay, and readmission were noted. Results A total of 223 patients underwent minor amputation during the study period, of which 147 patients were diabetic and 76 patients were non-diabetic. Seventy-seven patients had digital amputation and 70 transmetatarsal amputation in diabetic patients. Demographics were similar in both groups. The median time to major amputation was (400 ± IQR 1205 days) in the digital amputation group, compared to 690 ± IQR 891 days in the transmetatarsal amputation group ( P = 0.974). 29.9% of digital amputations and 15.7% of transmetatarsal amputations in diabetic patients, required minor amputations or revision procedures ( P = 0.04). Median length of hospital stay was (20 days, IQR 27) in the digital group and (17 days, IQR17) in the transmetatarsal amputation group ( P = 0.17). Need for re-admission was 48.1% in digital patients compared to 50% in transmetatarsal amputation patients ( P = 0.81). Quality of time spent without symptoms of disease or toxicity of treatment (Q-TWiST) was (315 days, IQR 45) in digital group and (346 days, IQR 48) in the transmetatarsal amputation patients ( P = 0.099). Conclusion Despite the lack of statistical significance, transmetatarsal amputation offered better outcome in the diabetic patients, with less re-intervention rate, shorter hospital stays, less theatre trips, and longer time without toxicity (TWiST).

  13. Parent-child conflict about children’s tablet use: The role of parental mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyens, I.; Beullens, K.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relations of children’s tablet use and parents’ mediation of children’s tablet use with parent–child conflict about such use. A sample of 364 parents of children aged 2–10 years was used to investigate the relations. The results showed that children who spent more time using

  14. The Effect of High Versus Low Teacher Affect and Passive Versus Active Student Activity During Music Listening on Preschool Children's Attention, Piece Preference, Time Spent Listening, and Piece Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wendy L.

    1986-01-01

    Small-group listening lessons and subsequent individual posttests were used to judge 94 three- through five-year-old subjects' attention, paired-comparison piece preference, time spent listening, and piece recognition. Research procedures included a modified multiple baseline design and split-screen video taping of instructional sessions.…

  15. Time pressure among parents in the Nordic countries: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of time pressure experienced by parents in the Nordic countries and examine potential gender disparities as well as associations to parents' family and/or living conditions. 5949 parents of children aged 2-17 years from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, reported their experience of time pressure when keeping up with duties of everyday life. A postal questionnaire addressed to the most active caretaker of the child, was used for data gathering and logistic regression analysis applied. The mother was regarded as the primary caregiver in 83.9% of the cases. Of the mothers, 14.2% reported that they experienced time pressure "most often", 54.7 % reported "sometimes" and 31.1 % reported they did "not" experience time pressure at all. Time pressure was experienced by 22.2 % of mothers in Sweden, 18.4% in Finland, 13.7% in Norway and 3.9% in Denmark, and could be associated to lack of support, high educational level, financial stress, young child age and working overtime. The mother is regarded as the child's primary caregiver among the vast majority of families in spite of living in societies with gender-equal family policies. The results indicate that time pressure is embedded in everyday life of mainly highly-educated mothers and those experiencing financial stress and/or lack of social support. No conclusion could be made about time pressure from the "normbreaking" fathers participating in the study, but associations were found to financial stress and lack of support.

  16. Family structure and park use among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; French, Simone A; Das, Kirti V

    2012-11-01

    Despite the increasingly diversified family structure in the U.S., little research examines differences in park use between nontraditional and traditional family structures. This study examines family-structure differences in parent park use. It was hypothesized that working single parents and dual-worker parents have lower levels of park use than parents in two-parent, single-worker families. Data from a 2010 park-use survey in three urban neighborhoods in Minneapolis MN (N=261 parents) were analyzed in 2012. Multiple variables of park use were developed, including recalled measures over the past 3 days and over the past year. Family-structure differences in these variables were examined using multivariate regression analyses. After controlling for spatial clustering effects and confounding factors, working single parents reported 32.6% (pparents in two-parent, single-worker families. Dual-worker parents did not report fewer park visits in the past 3 days than parents in two-parent, single-worker families, yet the length of time they spent in parks during these visits was 41.5% (psingle parents and dual-worker parents is needed in descriptive and intervention research aiming to promote park use among families with children. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, A., E-mail: afavalli@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grogan, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jansson, P. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Liljenfeldt, H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwalbach, P. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg); Sjöland, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Tobin, S.J.; Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vaccaro, S. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg)

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute {sup 137}Cs count rate and the {sup 154}Eu/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs, and {sup 144}Ce/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  18. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  19. Maternal employment and adolescents' relations with parents, siblings, and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, R

    1984-12-01

    The association between maternal employment status and the relations that adolescents have with their parents, siblings, and peers was investigated. Three daily reports of conflicts with family members and time spent with parents, peers, and alone were obtained from 64 tenth-grade adolescents using a telephone interviewing technique. Males, but not females, had more arguments, which were of longer duration and greater intensity, with their mothers and siblings when their mothers worked than when they did not. Female conflict behavior was unrelated to the work status of the mother. Adolescents of both sexes spent less time with their parents when their mothers worked, especially when they worked full-time, than when they were nonemployed. Adolescents with employed mothers generally spent less free time with their parents than those with nonemployed mothers. Time spent with parents in the performance of household tasks was not affected by maternal employment status. The need to take a family system perspective in order to understand fully the relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development was emphasized.

  20. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydian Veldhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. METHODS: This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067 collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  1. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  2. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  3. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  4. Associations between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Bjereld, Ylva; Hensing, Gunnel; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2015-04-10

    The home, the family and the parents represent a context of everyday life that is important for child health and development, with parent-child relationships highlighted as crucial for children's mental health. Time pressure is an emerging feature of modern societies and previous studies indicates that parents with children living at home experience time pressure to a greater extent than people with no children living at home. Previous studies of children's mental health in relation to parents' time pressure are lacking. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries as well as potential disparities between boys and girls in different age groups. 4592 children, aged 4-16 from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, were included. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure children's mental health and associations to parents' time pressure were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among children of parents experiencing time pressure, 18.6% had mental health problems compared to 10.1% among children of parents experiencing time pressure not or sometimes. The odds of mental health problems were higher among both boys (OR 1.80 95% CI 1.32-2.46) and girls (OR 1.95 95% CI 1.42-2.66) if their parents experienced time pressure when adjusted for financial stress. The highest prevalence of mental health problems in the case of parental time pressure was found among girls 13-16 years old (23.6%) and the lowest prevalence was found among boys 13-16 years old (10.7%). In this study an association between parents' subjective time pressure and increased mental health problems among children was found. Given that time pressure is a growing feature of modern societies, the results might contribute to an explanation as to mental health problems are common among children

  5. Family structure, parent-child conversation time and substance use among Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Kwok-Kei

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family plays a vital role in shaping adolescent behaviours. The present study investigated the associations between family structure and substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Methods A total of 32,961 Form 1 to 5 (grade 7-12 in the US Hong Kong students participated in the Youth Smoking Survey in 2003-4. An anonymous questionnaire was used to obtain information about family structure, daily duration of parent-child conversation, smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use. Logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (OR for each substance use by family structure. Results Adjusting for sex, age, type of housing, parental smoking and school, adolescents from non-intact families were significantly more likely to be current smokers (OR = 1.62, weekly drinkers (OR = 1.72 and ever drug users (OR = 1.72, with significant linear increases in ORs from maternal, paternal to no-parent families compared with intact families. Furthermore, current smoking (OR = 1.41 and weekly drinking (OR = 1.46 were significantly more common among adolescents from paternal than maternal families. After adjusting for parent-child conversation time, the ORs for non-intact families remained significant compared with intact families, but the paternal-maternal differences were no longer significant. Conclusions Non-intact families were associated with substance use among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. The apparently stronger associations with substance use in paternal than maternal families were probably mediated by the poorer communication with the father.

  6. Timing of cochlear implantation and parents' global ratings of children's health and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Riley, Anne W; Carson, Christine M; Meserole, Rachel L; Lin, Frank R; Eisenberg, Laurie S; Tobey, Emily A; Quittner, Alexandra L; Francis, Howard W; Niparko, John K

    2012-06-01

    To assess children's health-related quality of life (HRQL) and development after cochlear implant (CI) surgery and compare improvements between different age of implantation categories. Prospective, longitudinal study comparing outcomes of deaf children post-CI with hearing controls. Six US CI centers. Deaf children who received CI (n = 188) and hearing children of comparable ages (n = 97). CI before 5 years of age. Parental ratings of global HRQL and development, as assessed over the first 4 years of follow-up using visual analog scales. Development scores assess parental views of children's growth and development, motor skills, ability to express themselves and communicate with others, and learning abilities. Associations of baseline child and family characteristics with post-CI HRQL and development were investigated using multivariable analysis, controlling for factors that influence post-CI language learning. Baseline deficits of CI candidates relative to hearing controls were larger in development than HRQL. Development scores improved significantly by 4 years after CI, particularly in the youngest CI recipients. Developmental deficits of older CI recipients with early, extended hearing aid use were only partially remediated by CI. Overall, no significant health deficits were observed in CI children after 4 years. Cognition and speech recognition were positively associated with both HRQL and development. Parental perspectives on quality of their child's life and development provide practical insight into the optimal timing of interventions for early-onset deafness. Validity of parental global assessments is supported by clinical measures of speech perception and language learning and comparison with a well-validated health status instrument.

  7. Development and Lability in the Parent-Child Relationship During Adolescence: Associations With Pubertal Timing and Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Susman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' and parents' reactions to pubertal development are hypothesized to contribute to changes in family dynamics. Using 7-year longitudinal data from the NICHD-SECCYD (488 boys, 475 girls) we examined relations between pubertal development (timing, tempo) and trajectories (developmental change and year-to-year lability) of parent-child conflict and closeness from age 8.5 to 15.5 years. Changes were mostly characterized by year-to-year fluctuations – lability. Parent-child conflict increased and closeness decreased some with age. Pubertal timing and tempo were more consistently associated with lability in parent-child relationships than with long-term trends, although faster tempo was associated with steeper decreases in parent-child closeness. Findings provide a platform for examining how puberty contributes to both long-term and transient changes in adolescents' relationships and adjustment. PMID:26321856

  8. The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children's Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Verna M.; Finlay, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Examined combined sample of national data to determine impact of parental divorce on children. Found parental divorce associated with lower educational attainment and earlier age at marriage for sons and daughters. Daughters of divorced parents had higher probability of being divorced. For sons of divorced parents, probability of ever marrying and…

  9. Zero Time of Transitory Nuclear Events Derived by Parent-Daughter Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir-El, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The detection and identification of a nuclear event that results in the dissemination of radioactive products into the environment can be realized by dating the age of the event. In order to correct observed activities for the decay since the occurrence of the event, the age must be known to a high level of confidence. Previous papers. described the method to date the age of a nuclear event by measuring the activity of two fission products, which constitute the clock in this application. Within the proficiency test programme for radionuclide laboratories supporting the CTBT, a simulated gamma spectrum with the characteristics of an atmospheric test of a Chinese thermonuclear device, was used to determine the zero time by calculating the theoretical peak area ratio of 95Nb/95Zr. Their approach used only the main gamma lines at 766 and 757 keV and assigned the same detection efficiency to both these close lines. Their methodology of calculating the uncertainty of zero time is subject to comments because it takes the sum of two components (nuclide ratio and activity ratio as function of time) in quadrature. In another paper, the activity of 95Nb as a function of time was presented without any development or expression for the zero time. Analytical equations for zero time and the associated uncertainty calculations were derived in a recent paper using a measured activity ratio of two nuclides and illustrating the procedure by data from the Chinese test. The evaluation of the zero time uncertainty was performed by a very large set of very complicated analytical equations. The present paper aims at developing a procedure to determine the zero time and its uncertainty in a transitory nuclear event by treating a parent-daughter system of 3 nuclides, where one daughter feeds the other one, in addition to its direct feeding by the decay of the parent

  10. How parents of children receiving pediatric palliative care use religion, spirituality, or life philosophy in tough times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexem, Kari R; Mollen, Cynthia J; Carroll, Karen; Lanctot, Dexter A; Feudtner, Chris

    2011-01-01

    How parents of children with life threatening conditions draw upon religion, spirituality, or life philosophy is not empirically well described. Participants were parents of children who had enrolled in a prospective cohort study on parental decision-making for children receiving pediatric palliative care. Sixty-four (88%) of the 73 parents interviewed were asked an open-ended question on how religion, spirituality, or life philosophy (RSLP) was helpful in difficult times. Responses were coded and thematically organized utilizing qualitative data analysis methods. Any discrepancies amongst coders regarding codes or themes were resolved through discussion that reached consensus. Most parents of children receiving palliative care felt that RSLP was important in helping them deal with tough times, and most parents reported either participation in formal religious communities, or a sense of personal spirituality. A minority of parents, however, did not wish to discuss the topic at all. For those who described their RSLP, their beliefs and practices were associated with qualities of their overall outlook on life, questions of goodness and human capacity, or that "everything happens for a reason." RSLP was also important in defining the child's value and beliefs about the child's afterlife. Prayer and reading the bible were important spiritual practices in this population, and parents felt that these practices influenced their perspectives on the medical circumstances and decision-making, and their locus of control. From religious participation and practices, parents felt they received support from both their spiritual communities and from God, peace and comfort, and moral guidance. Some parents, however, also reported questioning their faith, feelings of anger and blame towards God, and rejecting religious beliefs or communities. RSLP play a diverse and important role in the lives of most, but not all, parents whose children are receiving pediatric palliative care.

  11. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  12. Strategic Inventory Positioning in BOM with Multiple Parents Using ASR Lead Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the lead time that the customers require, work-in-process inventory (WIPI is necessary at almost every station in most make-to-order manufacturing. Depending on the station network configuration and lead time at each station, some of the WIPI do not contribute to reducing the manufacturing lead time of the final product at all. Therefore, it is important to identify the optimal set of stations to hold WIPI such that the total inventory holding cost is minimized, while the required due date for the final product is met. The authors have presented a model to determine the optimal position and quantity of WIPI for a given simple bill of material (S-BOM, in which any part in the BOM has only one immediate parent node. In this paper, we extend the previous study to the general BOM (G-BOM in which parts in the BOM can have more than one immediate parent and present a new solution procedure using genetic algorithm.

  13. Expectant Fathers’ Intuitive Parenting: Associations with Parent Characteristics and Postpartum Positive Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Altenburger, Lauren E.; Settle, Theresa A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior, its correlates, and its associations with fathers’ postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers’ and mothers’ intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time they spent in developmentally appropriate positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers’ greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers’ greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492

  14. Could Trends in Time Children Spend with Parents Help Explain the Black-White Gap in Human Capital? Evidence from the American Time Use Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that the time children spend with parents significantly impacts human capital formation. If time varies significantly between black and white children, this may help explain the large racial gap in test scores and wages. In this study, I use data from the American Time Use Survey to examine the patterns in the time black and…

  15. Non-participant fathers in time-use studies: uninvolved or data artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholok, S.; Gauthier, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    It is well-established that time spent with parents is beneficial for children’s development. However, time-use studies from various countries consistently indicate that there are a substantial number of parents, especially fathers, who report spending no time with their children. Much of the

  16. The Influence of Parental Education on Timing and Type of Union Formation: Changes Over the Life Course and Over Time in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooyaart, Jarl E; Liefbroer, Aart C

    2016-08-01

    Family background shapes young adults' decisions in their transition to adulthood, and the outcomes of these decisions lay the foundation for their subsequent life course. This study examines the influence of parental education on their children's union formation. We examine the timing of entry into a first union (a married or a cohabiting union), the choice between marriage and cohabitation, and the timing of first marriage. Data from eight nationally representative surveys conducted in the Netherlands are pooled (N = 39,777), with respondents being born between 1930 and 1990, to examine not only the effect of parental education on union formation but also whether this effect changes over birth cohorts, periods, and the life course, and varies by gender. Results from discrete-time hazard analyses show little change in the effect of parental education across cohorts and periods but strong life-course effects. Gender differences in the effect of parental education are relatively small.

  17. The impact of children's internalizing and externalizing problems on parenting: Transactional processes and reciprocal change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A; Kingdon, Danielle; Ruttle, Paula L; Stack, Dale M

    2015-11-01

    Most theoretical models of developmental psychopathology involve a transactional, bidirectional relation between parenting and children's behavior problems. The present study utilized a cross-lagged panel, multiple interval design to model change in bidirectional relations between child and parent behavior across successive developmental periods. Two major categories of child behavior problems, internalizing and externalizing, and two aspects of parenting, positive (use of support and structure) and harsh discipline (use of physical punishment), were modeled across three time points spaced 3 years apart. Two successive developmental intervals, from approximately age 7.5 to 10.5 and from 10.5 to 13.5, were included. Mother-child dyads (N = 138; 65 boys) from a lower income longitudinal sample of families participated, with standardized measures of mothers rating their own parenting behavior and teachers reporting on child's behavior. Results revealed different types of reciprocal relations between specific aspects of child and parent behavior, with internalizing problems predicting an increase in positive parenting over time, which subsequently led to a reduction in internalizing problems across the successive 3-year interval. In contrast, externalizing predicted reduced levels of positive parenting in a reciprocal sequence that extended across two successive intervals and predicted increased levels of externalizing over time. Implications for prevention and early intervention are discussed.

  18. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  19. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  20. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. The Association between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Conduct Problems over Time: Results from a Longitudinal Adoption Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    A handful of prior adoption studies have confirmed that the cross-sectional relationship between child conduct problems and parent/child conflict is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, as the direction of causation between parenting and delinquency remains unclear, this relationship could be better explained by the adolescent's propensity to elicit conflictive parenting, a phenomenon referred to as an evocative gene-environment correlation. The current study thus examined the prospective relationship between conduct problems and parent-child conflict in a sample of adoptive families. Participants included 672 adolescents in 405 adoptive families assessed at two time points roughly 4 years apart. Results indicated that parent-child conflict predicts the development of conduct problems, whereas conduct problems do not predict increases in parent-child conflict. Such findings suggest that evocative gene-environment correlations are highly unlikely as an explanation of prior shared environmental effects during adolescence. Moreover, because the adolescents in this study do not share genes with their adoptive parents, the association between conduct problems and parent-child conflict is indicative of shared environmental mediation in particular. Implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:21038930

  2. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  3. Mind the Gap! Differences between Parents' Childhood Games and Their Children's Game Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sibel; Ahi, Berat

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses the differences between parents' childhood games and their children's game preferences. Four hundred and nineteen parents were surveyed to determine their play experiences as children as well as their children's play experiences today. The results of the study indicate that there is a gap between the time spent outdoors by…

  4. The mediating role of the home environment in relation to parental educational level and preschool children's screen time: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Suvi; Kaukonen, Riikka; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Lehto, Elviira; Ylönen, Anna; Ray, Carola; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva

    2017-09-02

    Previous studies suggest that preschoolers from low socioeconomic backgrounds engage in more screen time. Still, the factors in the social and physical home environment driving these differences in preschool children's screen time are poorly understood. This study examines potential home environment mediators in the associations between parental educational level and preschoolers' screen time. A total of 864 children aged 3-6 years and their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS study in 2015-2016. Parents recorded their children's screen time in a diary (N = 823). For the analyses, the daily average screen time at home was calculated. Parental questionnaires (N = 808) assessed educational level and eight social and physical environment factors in the home (i.e., descriptive norm for children's screen time, parental screen use in front of children, parental importance for limiting children's screen time, parental attitude toward societal pressures for children's screen time, access to screens at home, parental self-efficacy for limiting children's screen time, satisfaction of children's screen time, and rules for limiting children's screen time). Parental education was grouped into low, middle, and high education. The associations were tested by conducting mediation analyses adjusted by season and children's sex and age. The significant mediators in the single-mediator models were included in the final multiple-mediator models. Of the potential eight mediators, the following four had a significant indirect association: descriptive norm for children's screen time, parental screen use in front of children, parental importance for limiting children's screen time, and parental attitude toward societal pressures for children's screen time. Parents with high education had lower descriptive norm and used fewer screens in front of children compared to parents with middle or low education, and in turn, these factors were associated with less screen time among

  5. The mediating role of the home environment in relation to parental educational level and preschool children’s screen time: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggest that preschoolers from low socioeconomic backgrounds engage in more screen time. Still, the factors in the social and physical home environment driving these differences in preschool children’s screen time are poorly understood. This study examines potential home environment mediators in the associations between parental educational level and preschoolers’ screen time. Methods A total of 864 children aged 3–6 years and their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS study in 2015–2016. Parents recorded their children’s screen time in a diary (N = 823. For the analyses, the daily average screen time at home was calculated. Parental questionnaires (N = 808 assessed educational level and eight social and physical environment factors in the home (i.e., descriptive norm for children’s screen time, parental screen use in front of children, parental importance for limiting children’s screen time, parental attitude toward societal pressures for children’s screen time, access to screens at home, parental self-efficacy for limiting children’s screen time, satisfaction of children’s screen time, and rules for limiting children’s screen time. Parental education was grouped into low, middle, and high education. The associations were tested by conducting mediation analyses adjusted by season and children’s sex and age. The significant mediators in the single-mediator models were included in the final multiple-mediator models. Results Of the potential eight mediators, the following four had a significant indirect association: descriptive norm for children’s screen time, parental screen use in front of children, parental importance for limiting children’s screen time, and parental attitude toward societal pressures for children’s screen time. Parents with high education had lower descriptive norm and used fewer screens in front of children compared to parents with middle or

  6. Spent fuel storage for ISER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takasuke; Kimura, Yuzi

    1987-01-01

    ISER is an intrinsically safe reactor basing its safety only on physical laws, and uses a steel reactor vessel in order to be economical. For such a new type reactor, it is essentially important to be accepted by the society by showing that the reactor is more profitable than conventional reactors to the public in both technical and economic viewpoint. It is also important that the reactor raises no serious problem in the total fuel cycle. Reprocessing seems one of the major worldwide fuel cycle issues. Spent fuel storage is also one of the key technologies for fuel cycle back end. Various systems for ISER spent fuel storages are examined in the present report. Spent fuel specifications of ISER are similar to those of LWR and therefore, most of LWR spent fuel technologies are basically applicable to ISER spent fuel. Design requirements and examples of storage facilities are also discussed. Dry storage seems to be preferable for the relatively long cooling time spent fuel like ISER's one from economical viewpoint. Vault storage will possibly be the most advantageous for large storage capacity. Another point for discussion is the location and international collaboration for spent fuel storages: ISER expected to be a worldwide energy source and therefore, international spent fuel management seems to be fairly attractive way for an energy recipient country. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Understanding mother-adolescent conflict discussions: concurrent and across-time prediction from youths' dispositions and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Hofer, Claire; Spinrad, Tracy L; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Valiente, Carlos; Losoya, Sandra H; Zhou, Qing; Cumberland, Amanda; Liew, Jeffrey; Reiser, Mark; Maxon, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is often thought of as a period during which the quality of parent-child interactions can be relatively stressed and conflictual. There are individual differences in this regard, however, with only a modest percent of youths experiencing extremely conflictual relationships with their parents. Nonetheless, there is relatively little empirical research on factors in childhood or adolescence that predict individual differences in the quality of parent-adolescent interactions when dealing with potentially conflictual issues. Understanding such individual differences is critical because the quality of both parenting and the parent-adolescent relationship is predictive of a range of developmental outcomes for adolescents. The goals of the research were to examine dispositional and parenting predictors of the quality of parents' and their adolescent children's emotional displays (anger, positive emotion) and verbalizations (negative or positive) when dealing with conflictual issues, and if prediction over time supported continuity versus discontinuity in the factors related to such conflict. We hypothesized that adolescents' and parents' conflict behaviors would be predicted by both childhood and concurrent parenting and child dispositions (and related problem behaviors) and that we would find evidence of both parent- and child-driven pathways. Mothers and adolescents (N5126, M age513 years) participated in a discussion of conflictual issues. A multimethod, multireporter (mother, teacher, and sometimes adolescent reports) longitudinal approach (over 4 years) was used to assess adolescents' dispositional characteristics (control/ regulation, resiliency, and negative emotionality), youths' externalizing problems, and parenting variables (warmth, positive expressivity, discussion of emotion, positive and negative family expressivity). Higher quality conflict reactions (i.e., less negative and/or more positive) were related to both concurrent and antecedent

  8. Parenting and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Future Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu-Gherasim, Loredana R; Bucci, Colleen M; Giuseppone, Kathryn R; Brumariu, Laura E

    2017-10-03

    This study investigated the relations between maternal and paternal rearing practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, and whether time perspective in adolescence explains these links. The sample included 306 students (158 girls), aged between 10.83 and 14.42 years. Adolescents completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance and psychological control, and of their future time perspective and depressive symptoms. Adolescents who rated their mothers as more accepting and those who rated their fathers as less psychologically controlling also reported lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater future time perspective. Further, adolescents who had greater future time perspective reported lower levels of depressive symptoms. Finally, time perspective partially mediated the relations of maternal and paternal acceptance, and paternal control with depressive symptoms in adolescence. The findings highlight the unique relations of maternal acceptance and paternal psychological control with adolescents' depressive symptoms, and that future time perspective is one mechanism that might explain why parenting strategies are linked with depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  9. One Family at a Time: A Prevention Program for At-Risk Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Bonnie; Anderson, Michelle; Fox, Robert; Brenner, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of a psychoeducational parenting program with at-risk parents of young children. Results showed that compared with the control group, parents participating in the program significantly decreased their levels of verbal and corporal punishment, anger, stress, and reported child behavior problems; results were maintained at…

  10. Putting Parenting First: Why It's Time for Universal Paid Leave. PPI Policy Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    Although the Family and Medical Leave Act enabled some parents to take unpaid parental leave in order to fulfill family responsibilities, it did not cover all workers and did not provide workers the financial support to do so. This policy report calls for Congress to: require states to allow new parents who have been working to collect…

  11. Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

  12. Health-Related Physical Fitness, BMI, physical activity and time spent at a computer screen in 6 and 7-year-old children from rural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Elżbieta; Mleczko, Edward; Bergier, Józef; Markowska, Małgorzata; Nowak-Starz, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was determination of the effect of various forms of physical activity, BMI, and time devoted to computer games on the level of Health-Related Physical Fitness (H-RF) in 6-7-year-old children from Polish rural areas. The study covered 25,816 children aged 6-7: 12,693 girls and 13,123 boys. The evaluations included body height and weight, and 4 H-RF fitness components (trunk strength, explosive leg power, arm strength and flexibility). The BMI was calculated for each child. The Questionnaire directed to parents was designed to collect information concerning the time devoted by children to computer games, spontaneous and additional physical activity. The strength of the relationships between dependent and independent variables was determined using the Spearman's rank correlation (RSp), and the relationship by using the regression analysis. The BMI negatively affected the level of all the H-RF components analysed (p=0.000). The negative effect of computer games revealed itself only with respect to flexibility (p=0.000), explosive leg power (p=0.000) and trunk muscle strength (p=0.000). A positive effect of spontaneous activity was observed for flexibility (p=0.047), explosive leg power (p=0.000), and arm strength (p=0.000). Additional activity showed a positive relationship with trunk muscles strength (p=0.000), and explosive leg power (p=0.000). The results of studies suggest that it is necessary to pay attention to the prevention of diseases related with the risk of obesity and overweight among Polish rural children as early as at pre-school age. There is also a need during education for shaping in these children the awareness of concern about own body, and the need for active participation in various forms of physical activity.

  13. [Young first-time parents' experiences with family-centred postpartal health care in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläusler-Troxler, Marianne; Kurth, Elisabeth; Spirig, Rebecca

    2014-08-01

    Routine postnatal care normally addresses only the mother and her child. In Switzerland, counselling for all parents and their children is provided by family nurses in a community-based health care setting. We implemented a new approach to ensure father involvement within the framework of the Calgary Family Assessment (CFAM) and the Calgary Intervention Model CFIM of Wright and Leahey (2013) in the northwest of Switzerland. This qualitative study explored how mothers and fathers experienced the newly developed family-centred consultation. Data collection was performed by means of participant observation and semi- structured interviews with a sample of five first-time parents with healthy neonates. Data were analysed by using content analysis according to Mayring. Mothers and fathers experienced family-centred consultation as effective. They felt more secure and confident "to handle the new situation" and obtained trustful, concrete and professional support to take care of their baby, particularly with regard to breast feeding, crying and sleeping patterns. Fathers felt included into postnatal care from the beginning. Family nursing offers a useful framework for family-centred postnatal health care.

  14. The effect of an online video intervention ‘Movie Models’ on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to children’s physical activity, screen-time and healthy diet: a quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Lepeleere

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In children, being sufficiently physically active, having low levels of screen-time and having a healthy diet are largely influenced by parenting practices. Children of parents applying positive parenting practices are at lower risk for overweight and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a health promoting online video intervention for parents (‘Movie Models’ on children’s physical activity (PA, screen-time and healthy diet, and on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to these parenting practices. The online videos are delivered to parents of primary schoolchildren, and were based on real-life scenarios. Methods A two-armed, quasi experimental design was used. Parents of primary schoolchildren were recruited between November and December 2013 by spreading an appeal in social media, and by contacting primary schools. Participating parents were predominantly of high socio-economic status (SES (83.1%, and only 6.8% of children were overweight/obese. Intervention group participants were invited to watch online videos for 4 weeks. Specific parenting practices, parental self-efficacy, PA, screen-time and healthy diet of the child were assessed at baseline (T0, at one (T1 and at four (T2 months post baseline. Repeated Measures (Multivariate ANOVAs were used to examine intervention effects. The potential moderating effect of age and gender of the child and parental SES was also examined. Results Between T0 and T2, no significant intervention effects were found on children’s PA, screen-time or healthy diet. Most significant intervention effects were found for more complex parenting practices (e.g., an increase in motivating the child to eat fruit. Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had more effect on the actual parenting practices related to PA, screen-time and healthy diet in parents of older children (10–12 years old, whereas intervention effects on parental self

  15. The effect of an online video intervention 'Movie Models' on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to children's physical activity, screen-time and healthy diet: a quasi experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lepeleere, Sara; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Verloigne, Maïté

    2017-04-27

    In children, being sufficiently physically active, having low levels of screen-time and having a healthy diet are largely influenced by parenting practices. Children of parents applying positive parenting practices are at lower risk for overweight and obesity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a health promoting online video intervention for parents ('Movie Models') on children's physical activity (PA), screen-time and healthy diet, and on specific parenting practices and parental self-efficacy related to these parenting practices. The online videos are delivered to parents of primary schoolchildren, and were based on real-life scenarios. A two-armed, quasi experimental design was used. Parents of primary schoolchildren were recruited between November and December 2013 by spreading an appeal in social media, and by contacting primary schools. Participating parents were predominantly of high socio-economic status (SES) (83.1%), and only 6.8% of children were overweight/obese. Intervention group participants were invited to watch online videos for 4 weeks. Specific parenting practices, parental self-efficacy, PA, screen-time and healthy diet of the child were assessed at baseline (T0), at one (T1) and at four (T2) months post baseline. Repeated Measures (Multivariate) ANOVAs were used to examine intervention effects. The potential moderating effect of age and gender of the child and parental SES was also examined. Between T0 and T2, no significant intervention effects were found on children's PA, screen-time or healthy diet. Most significant intervention effects were found for more complex parenting practices (e.g., an increase in motivating the child to eat fruit). Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention had more effect on the actual parenting practices related to PA, screen-time and healthy diet in parents of older children (10-12 years old), whereas intervention effects on parental self-efficacy related to those behaviors were stronger in parents of

  16. Spent sulfite liquor developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, H H

    1958-01-01

    A review of methods of utilizing spent sulfite liquor, including evaporation and burning, fermentation to produce yeast or alcohol, production of vanillin and lignosulfonates, and use as a roadbinder.

  17. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO 2 fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO 2 dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with 238 Pu doped UO 2 M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO 2 studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with α doped UO 2 in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO 2 / water interfaces under He 2+ beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO 2 alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines (M. Kelm), On the potential catalytic behavior of

  18. Spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The production of nuclear electricity results in the generation of spent fuel that requires safe, secure and efficient management. Appropriate management of the resulting spent fuel is a key issue for the steady and sustainable growth of nuclear energy. Currently about 10,000 tonnes heavy metal (HM) of spent fuel are unloaded every year from nuclear power reactors worldwide, of which 8,500 t HM need to be stored (after accounting for reprocessed fuel). This is the largest continuous source of civil radioactive material generated, and needs to be managed appropriately. Member States have referred to storage periods of 100 years and even beyond, and as storage quantities and durations extend, new challenges arise in the institutional as well as in the technical area. The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs

  19. Parental Appraisal of the Family Impact of Childhood Developmental Disability: Times of Sadness and Times of Joy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trute, Barry; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Levine, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Background: Parental positive and negative appraisals of the family impact of childhood disability are tested as early predictors of parental self-esteem and overall family adjustment in households with young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Within 103 Canadian families, 103 mothers and 55 fathers independently…

  20. Communicating with parents of premature infants: who is the informant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, W J; Leef, K H; Mackley, A; Spear, M L; Paul, D A

    2006-01-01

    To determine what sources of information are most helpful for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parents, who provides NICU parents with the information, and also what expectations parents have regarding obtaining information. A 19-item questionnaire was given to the parents of infants 32 weeks or younger prior to discharge from the NICU. Out of the 101 parents who consented, almost all of the parents (96%) felt that 'the medical team gave them the information they needed about their baby' and that the 'neonatologist did a good job of communicating' with them (91%). However, the nurse was chosen as 'the person who spent the most time explaining the baby's condition, 'the best source of information,' and the person who told them 'about important changes in their baby's condition' (Pparent education is satisfactory, the parents identified the nurses as the primary source of information.

  1. Making time for family meals: Parental influences, home eating environments, barriers and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Blake L

    2018-04-06

    Frequent family mealtimes have been associated with numerous positive dietary, health, and behavioral outcomes for children and families. This review article summarizes some of the beneficial outcomes associated with having frequent family dinners. Current trends in family dinner frequency are discussed in the context of barriers that influence how often families eat dinner together, including time issues, work issues, and distractions in the home environment. Next, several parental influences and home environment factors that promote healthy and consistent family dinners are outlined. Finally, limitations are discussed and a few practical suggestions are mentioned to help encourage families, employers, and policy-makers to make family mealtimes a regular practice for as many families as possible. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Time-Resolved Records of Magnetic Activity on the Pallasite Parent Body and Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, J. F. J.; Nichols, C. I. O.; Herrero-Albillos, J.; Kronast, F.; Kasama, T.; Alimadadi, H.; van der Laan, G.; Nimmo, F.; Harrison, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although many small bodies apparently generated dynamo fields in the early solar system, the nature and temporal evolution of these fields has remained enigmatic. Time-resolved records of the Earth's planetary field have been essential in understanding the dynamic history of our planet, and equivalent information from asteroids could provide a unique insight into the development of the solar system. Here we present time-resolved records of magnetic activity on the main-group pallasite parent body and (16) Psyche, obtained using newly-developed nanomagnetic imaging techniques. For the pallasite parent body, the inferred field direction remained relatively constant and the intensity was initially stable at ~100 μT before it decreased in two discrete steps down to 0 μT. We interpret this behaviour as due to vigorous dynamo activity driven by compositional convection in the core, ultimately transitioning from a dipolar to multipolar field as the inner core grew from the bottom-up. For Psyche (measured from IVA iron meteorites), the inferred field direction reversed, while the intensity remained stable at >50 μT. Psyche cooled rapidly as an unmantled core, although the resulting thermal convection alone cannot explain these observations. Instead, this behaviour required top-down core solidification, and is attributed either to compositional convection (if the core also solidified from the bottom-up) or convection generated directly by top-down solidification (e.g. Fe-snow). The mechanism governing convection in small body cores is an open question (due partly to uncertainties in the direction of core solidification), and these observations suggest that unconventional (i.e. not thermal) mechanisms acted in the early solar system. These mechanisms are very efficient at generating convection, implying a long-lasting and widespread epoch of dynamo activity among small bodies in the early solar system.

  3. Chinese Undergraduate Students' Work Values: The Role of Parental Work Experience and Part-Time Work Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis Yue-lok; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the association of perceived parental job insecurity and students' part-time work quality on work values among 341 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. Correlation and regression results showed that work values were strongly related to students' part-time work satisfaction and work quality. In…

  4. Has the Association between Parental Divorce and Young Adults' Psychological Problems Changed over Time? Evidence from Sweden, 1968-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Garriga, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with psychological maladjustment in children. Less is known about whether the magnitude of this association has changed over time. This is mainly because of the lack of repeated data, containing identical measures over time. In the present article, the authors use data from…

  5. Spent fuel storage facility, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreekumar, B.; Anthony, S.

    2017-01-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF), Kalpakkam is designed to store spent fuel arising from PHWRs. Spent fuel is transported in AERB qualified/authorized shipping cask by NPCIL to SFSF by road or rail route. The spent fuel storage facility at Kalpakkam was hot commissioned in December 2006. All systems, structures and components (SSCs) related to safety are designed to meet the operational requirements

  6. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  7. Factors influencing parenting efficacy of Asian immigrant, first-time mothers: A cross-sectional, correlational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eun Ha; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, Somi; Song, Ju-Eun

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we determined the factors influencing parenting efficacy of Asian immigrant, first-time mothers. The research design was a cross-sectional, correlational study. The study included 125 first-time mothers who immigrated and married Korean men, and were living in Korea. Data were collected using translated questionnaires, and analyzed for descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The major finding was that the parenting efficacy of immigrant women was influenced by childcare support from their husbands, maternal identity, and original nationality. The findings suggest that customized programs be developed and used to enhance parenting efficacy for Asian immigrant, first-time mothers. In developing such programs, the advantages of maternal identity, social support from the husband, and women's cultural context should be considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  9. TRIGA Mark II Ljubljana - spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Dimic, V.

    2008-01-01

    The most important activity in 1999 was shipment of the spent fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal. This activity started already in 1998 with some governmental support. In July 1999 all spent fuel elements (219 pieces) from the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana were shipped back to the United Stated by the ship from the port Koper in Slovenia. At the same time shipment of the spent fuel from the research reactor in Pitesti, Romania, and the research reactor in Rome, Italy, was conducted. During the loading the radiation exposure to the workers was rather low. The loading and shipment of the spent nuclear fuel went very smoothly and according the accepted time table. During the last two years the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana has been in operation about 1100 hours per year and without any undesired shut-down. (authors)

  10. Assessment of parental presence during bedside pediatric intensive care unit rounds: effect on duration, teaching, and privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Lorri M; Bartke, Cheryl N; Spear, Debra A; Jones, Linda F; Foerster, Carolyn P; Killian, Marie E; Hughes, Jennifer R; Hess, Joseph C; Johnson, David R; Thomas, Neal J

    2007-05-01

    There is a paucity of literature evaluating the effects of family member presence during bedside medical rounds in the pediatric intensive care unit. We hypothesized that, when compared with rounds without family members, parental presence during morning medical rounds would increase time spent on rounds, decrease medical team teaching/education, increase staff dissatisfaction, create more stress in family members, and violate patient privacy in our open unit. Prospective, blinded, observational study. Academic pediatric intensive care unit with 12 beds. A total of 105 admissions were studied, 81 family members completed a survey, and 187 medical team staff surveys were completed. Investigators documented parental presence and time allocated for presentation, teaching, and answering questions. Surveys related to perception of goals, teaching, and privacy of rounds were distributed to participants. Time spent on rounds, time spent teaching on rounds, and medical staff and family perception of the effects of parental presence on rounds. There was no significant difference between time spent on rounds in the presence or absence of family members (p = NS). There is no significant difference between the time spent teaching by the attending physician in the presence or absence of family members (p = NS). Overall, parents reported that the medical team spent an appropriate amount of time discussing their child and were not upset by this discussion. Parents did not perceive that their own or their child's privacy was violated during rounds. The majority of medical team members reported that the presence of family on rounds was beneficial. Parental presence on rounds does not seem to interfere with the educational and communication process. Parents report satisfaction with participation in rounds, and privacy violations do not seem to be a concern from their perspective.

  11. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  12. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  13. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  14. Direct Observations of Parenting and Real-time Negative Affect among Adolescent Smokers and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melanie J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and non-smokers. Method Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6- and 24-months via ecological momentary assessment. Results Among both smoking and non-smoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for non-smokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  15. The dynamic still-face effect: do infants decrease bidding over time when parents are not responsive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V; Haltigan, John D; Messinger, Daniel S

    2013-06-01

    The still-face paradigm (SFP) was designed to assess infant expectations that parents will respond to infant communicative signals. During the still-face (SF) episode, the parent ceases interaction and maintains a neutral expression. Original, qualitative descriptions of infant behavior suggested changes within the SF episode: infants decrease bidding and disengage from their impassive parent. Research has documented changes in mean levels of infant behavior between episodes of the SFP. The hypothesis that infant behavior changes within the SF episode has not been empirically tested. In this study, hierarchical linear modeling indicated that infant gazing at the parent, smiling, and social bidding (smiling while gazing at the parent) decreased with time in the SF episode, while infant cry-face expressions increased. Changes in infant behaviors within the SF episode were associated with infant attachment and infant internalizing problems. The dynamic still-face effect quantifies infant initiation of interaction in the face of parental unresponsiveness and is a potential predictor of individual differences in development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Eating Behaviours of Preadolescent Children over Time: Stability, Continuity and the Moderating Role of Perceived Parental Feeding Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Houldcroft

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The links between childhood eating behaviours and parental feeding practices are well-established in younger children, but there is a lack of research examining these variables in a preadolescent age group, particularly from the child’s perspective, and longitudinally. This study firstly aimed to examine the continuity and stability of preadolescent perceptions of their parents’ controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction over a 12 month period. The second aim was to explore if perceptions of parental feeding practices moderated the relationship between preadolescents’ eating behaviours longitudinally. Two hundred and twenty nine preadolescents (mean age at recruitment 8.73 years completed questionnaires assessing their eating behaviours and their perceptions of parental feeding practices at two time points, 12 months apart (T1 and T2. Preadolescents’ perceptions of their parental feeding practices remained stable. Perceptions of restriction and pressure to eat were continuous. Perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction significantly moderated the relationships between eating behaviours at T1 and T2. The findings from this study suggest that in a preadolescent population, perceptions of parental pressure to eat and restriction of food may exacerbate the development of problematic eating behaviours.

  17. Spent Fuel Working Group Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary's initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group's Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities

  18. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Students' Attitude toward Leisure Time Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rena, Syahidah; Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Leng, Chin Hai

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to state the relationship between the parenting style and students' attitude toward leisure reading. A total of 147 (65 male and 82 female) students from two classes (class five, 80 and class six, 67) were participated in the present study. The Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Elementary Reading…

  19. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems: A Transactional Relationship across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…

  20. Syndrome Specificity and Mother-Child Interactions: Examining Positive and Negative Parenting across Contexts and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.; Kaladjian, Araksia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which child syndromes and observation context related to mothers' parenting behaviors. Longitudinal observations were conducted of parenting behavior across ages 3, 4, and 5 years during structured and unstructured activities. The 183 participants included mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders,…

  1. Disaggregating the Distal, Proximal, and Time-Varying Effects of Parent Alcoholism on Children's Internalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, A. M.; Cai, L.; Curran, P. J.; Flora, D. B.; Chassin, L. A.; Zucker, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    We tested whether children show greater internalizing symptoms when their parents are actively abusing alcohol. In an integrative data analysis, we combined observations over ages 2 through 17 from two longitudinal studies of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls recruited from the community. Using a mixed modeling approach, we tested…

  2. The search for a timely diagnosis: Parents' experiences of their child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of South African parents whose children had received Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses. Method: A qualitative approach involving semi-structured interviews with a sample of eight parents (seven mothers and one father) of ASD children was ...

  3. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  4. Improved and consistent determination of the nuclear inventory of spent PWR-fuel on the basis of time-dependent cell-calculations with KORIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Wiese, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    For safe handling, processing and storage of spent nuclear fuel a reliable, experimentally validated method is needed to determine fuel and waste characteristics: composition, radioactivity, heat and radiation. For PWR's, a cell-burnup procedure has been developed which is able to calculate the inventory in consistency with cell geometry, initial enrichment, and reactor control. Routine calculations can be performed with KORIGEN using consistent cross-section sets - burnup-dependent and based on the latest Karlsruhe evaluations for actinides - which were calculated previously with the cell-burnup procedure. Extensive comparisons between calculations and experiments validate the presented procedure. For the use of the KORIGEN code the input description and sample problems are added. Improvements in the calculational method and in data are described, results from KORIGEN, ORIGEN and ORIGEN2 calculations are compared. Fuel and waste inventories are given for BIBLIS-type fuel of different burnup. (orig.) [de

  5. 'Inconvenient biology:' advantages and disadvantages of first-time parenting after age 40 using in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, K; Beyene, Y; Nachtigall, R D

    2012-04-01

    As ages at first birth have steadily risen in the industrial west over the last several decades, the phenomenon of 'delayed childbearing' has come under research scrutiny by demographers, medical specialists and social scientists. In this study, we specifically explore the perceived advantages and disadvantages of postponed conception as well as participants' retrospective opinions on the 'optimal age' for parenting. To this end, we examined a cohort purposely chosen to epitomize delayed childbearing, i.e. men and women who used IVF to conceive at the very end of their reproductive capability. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 with 46 couples and 15 individual self-selected US women and men who had used IVF to conceive their first child when the woman was aged 40 or older at the time of delivery. Although the demographics of this cohort were consistent with others who use IVF in the USA, their median income was 3-4 times higher than that of the average US family, which may bias their largely positive parenting experiences. Most women and men believed that childbearing later in life resulted in advantages for themselves and their families. These included having established careers with financial security and career-time flexibility, enhanced emotional preparedness, committed co-parenting relationships and a positive overall family experience. The main disadvantage was the unexpected difficulty in conceiving that culminated in the use of IVF and resulted in a smaller family than desired, although many expressed feeling 'lucky' to have children at all. Other disadvantages were lack of energy for parenting, less available lifetime to spend with children and anticipated stigma as older parents. These disadvantages appear to have influenced conception and parenting experiences so that in hindsight the majority of participants identified the optimal age for first-time parenting as 5-10 years earlier than they had conceived. This age

  6. A comparison of Theory of Planned Behavior beliefs and healthy eating between couples without children and first-time parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) beliefs and eating behavior, explore which beliefs have the greatest association with eating behavior, and explore differences between adults without children and first-time parents. Longitudinal evaluation via questionnaires and food records at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Couples without children (n = 72) and first-time parents (n = 100). fruit and vegetable consumption and fat consumption. TPB beliefs. Pearson correlations between TPB beliefs and eating behavior; exploratory data reduction via linear regression. Control beliefs were associated with eating behavior (r = .26-.46; P controlling for past behavior, control beliefs were associated with eating behavior for first-time parents only. Control beliefs regarding preparation and time had the strongest associations with fruit and vegetable consumption for mothers (β = .26; P control beliefs suggests room for improvement via intervention. Interventions guided by TPB should target control beliefs to enhance healthy eating among new parents. Strategies (eg, individual, environmental, policy) to enhance control beliefs regarding healthy eating despite limited time and opportunity for preparation may be particularly valuable. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insufficient time for leisure and perceived health and stress in working parents with small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Carita; Axmon, Anna; Eek, Frida

    2016-10-17

    More knowledge about how recovery may promote health among parents with small children is needed. To explore whether insufficient time for leisure was associated with poorer perceived health and higher stress in working parents. A further aim was to explore potential gender differences in the association between insufficient time for leisure and poor perceived health. A postal survey including the perceived stress scale and three measures of subjective health - self-rated health (SF-36), work-related fatigue (Swedish occupational fatigue questionnaire), and Lund subjective health complaints - as well as questions about time for leisure was completed by 965 women and 597 men. Risk ratios for poor perceived health and stress were estimated using Poisson regression, in which also gender interaction was analysed. The results showed higher risk for perceived stress among parents reporting insufficient time for relaxation, and more subjective health complaints among those reporting insufficient time to spend with their children. Overall, effects were larger among women than among men. A good balance between work and leisure seems to be of importance for working parents' perceived health and stress.

  8. Built environment, parents' perception, and children's vigorous outdoor play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Grize, Leticia; Mäder, Urs; Ruch, Nicole; Sennhauser, Felix H; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the combined effects and relative importance of socio-cultural factors as well as parents' subjectively perceived and objectively assessed environment on time children spent vigorously playing outdoors. Cross-sectional study conducted in Berne, Biel-Bienne, and Payerne (Switzerland) during the school year 2004/2005. Included 1345 parental questionnaires from children out of three age groups (6/7, 9/10, and 13/14 years). A total of 1081 (80%) provided a home address, which could be linked to environmental data using a geographic information system (GIS). GIS-derived main street density in a buffer of 100 m around the home was inversely associated with time playing outdoors in adolescents and younger children, but only in more urbanized areas. In addition and independently of GIS-based main street density, parental concern about traffic safety was associated with less time playing outdoors in primary school children. Girls, adolescents, and children from the French speaking part of the country spent less time playing outdoors. A non-Swiss nationality and having younger siblings increased time playing vigorously outdoors in adolescents. In addition to socio-cultural factors, parents' perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors were significantly associated with the time spent vigorously playing outdoors. These associations differed by age group. Copyright (c) 2010 The Institute For Cancer Prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenting, relational aggression, and borderline personality features: associations over time in a Russian longitudinal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A; Coyne, Sarah M; Swanson, Savannah M; Hart, Craig H; Olsen, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    Crick, Murray-Close, and Woods (2005) encouraged the study of relational aggression as a developmental precursor to borderline personality features in children and adolescents. A longitudinal study is needed to more fully explore this association, to contrast potential associations with physical aggression, and to assess generalizability across various cultural contexts. In addition, parenting is of particular interest in the prediction of aggression or borderline personality disorder. Early aggression and parenting experiences may differ in their long-term prediction of aggression or borderline features, which may have important implications for early intervention. The currrent study incorporated a longitudinal sample of preschool children (84 boys, 84 girls) living in intact, two-parent biological households in Voronezh, Russia. Teachers provided ratings of children's relational and physical aggression in preschool. Mothers and fathers also self-reported their engagement in authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and psychological controlling forms of parenting with their preschooler. A decade later, 70.8% of the original child participants consented to a follow-up study in which they completed self-reports of relational and physical aggression and borderline personality features. The multivariate results of this study showed that preschool relational aggression in girls predicted adolescent relational aggression. Preschool aversive parenting (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and psychologically controlling forms) significantly predicted aggression and borderline features in adolescent females. For adolescent males, preschool authoritative parenting served as a protective factor against aggression and borderline features, whereas authoritarian parenting was a risk factor for later aggression.

  10. Reprocessing of spent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for removing helium and other impurities from a mixture containing deuterium and tritium, a deuterium/tritium mixture when purified in accordance with such a process and, more particularly, to a process for the reprocessing of spent plasma removed from a thermofusion reactor. (U.K.)

  11. The Influence of Parental Education on Timing and Type of Union Formation : Changes Over the Life Course and Over Time in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooyaart, Jarl E.; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    Family background shapes young adults' decisions in their transition to adulthood, and the outcomes of these decisions lay the foundation for their subsequent life course. This study examines the influence of parental education on their children's union formation. We examine the timing of entry into

  12. Clever mothers balance time and effort in parental care: a study on free-ranging dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian offspring require parental care, at least in the form of nursing during their early development. While mothers need to invest considerable time and energy in ensuring the survival of their current offspring, they also need to optimize their investment in one batch of offspring in order to ensure future reproduction and hence lifetime reproductive success. Free-ranging dogs live in small social groups, mate promiscuously and lack the cooperative breeding biology of other group-living canids. They face high early-life mortality, which in turn reduces fitness benefits of the mother from a batch of pups. We carried out a field-based study on free-ranging dogs in India to understand the nature of maternal care. Our analysis reveals that mothers reduce investment in energy-intensive active care and increase passive care as the pups grow older, thereby keeping overall levels of care more or less constant over pup age. Using the patterns of mother-pup interactions, we define the different phases of maternal care behaviour.

  13. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; DU, Wenyong; Gao, Yan; Ma, Changlin; Ban, Chunxia; Meng, Fu

    2017-12-25

    Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional investment, negligence of inner feelings

  14. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Qing; DU, Wenyong; GAO, Yan; MA, Changlin; BAN, Chunxia; MENG, Fu

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. Aims To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Methods The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Results a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. Conclusions There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional

  15. Indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescents’ sexual behaviors and emotions through global self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, D.; Reitz, E.; Deković, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of

  16. A psychosocial analysis of parents' decisions for limiting their young child's screen time: An examination of attitudes, social norms and roles, and control perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Spinks, Teagan; White, Katherine M; Kavanagh, David J; Walsh, Anne M

    2016-05-01

    Preschool-aged children spend substantial amounts of time engaged in screen-based activities. As parents have considerable control over their child's health behaviours during the younger years, it is important to understand those influences that guide parents' decisions about their child's screen time behaviours. A prospective design with two waves of data collection, 1 week apart, was adopted. Parents (n = 207) completed a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-based questionnaire, with the addition of parental role construction (i.e., parents' expectations and beliefs of responsibility for their child's behaviour) and past behaviour. A number of underlying beliefs identified in a prior pilot study were also assessed. The model explained 77% (with past behaviour accounting for 5%) of the variance in intention and 50% (with past behaviour accounting for 3%) of the variance in parental decisions to limit child screen time. Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, parental role construction, and past behaviour predicted intentions, and intentions and past behaviour predicted follow-up behaviour. Underlying screen time beliefs (e.g., increased parental distress, pressure from friends, inconvenience) were also identified as guiding parents' decisions. Results support the TPB and highlight the importance of beliefs for understanding parental decisions for children's screen time behaviours, as well as the addition of parental role construction. This formative research provides necessary depth of understanding of sedentary lifestyle behaviours in young children which can be adopted in future interventions to test the efficacy of the TPB mechanisms in changing parental behaviour for their child's health. What is already known on this subject? Identifying determinants of child screen time behaviour is vital to the health of young people. Social-cognitive and parental role constructions are key influences of parental decision-making. Little is known about the

  17. Partners expectations about the parenting role at the time of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Guštin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore what pregnant couples expect of their parenting role and how their expectations are related to partnership satisfaction. In accordance with the snowball effect principle and in cooperation with the School for Parents in Ljubljana, we included 90 couples, who were expecting a child, into our study. They filled out Survey concerning their expectations about parenting roles, where they evaluated how often they and their partners would be carrying out a given action in the first three years after the birth of the child and Relationship Satisfaction Survey (Gaultiere, 1995. We have established that men and women expect higher participation in the parenting role for mothers. It seems that women are taking over a part of the male parenting roles. Research results shows that higher relationship satisfaction is positively associated with stronger division of parenting tasks between the partners. We are assuming that men are the least active at routine chores in connection with their child, therefore their higher participation or equal participation of both partners has positive influence on partnership satisfaction.

  18. Shorter time since inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis in children is associated with lower mental health in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, H; Braegger, Cp; Buehr, P; Koller, R; Nydegger, A; Spalinger, J; Heyland, K; Schibli, S; Landolt, Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the mental health of parents of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared their mental health with age-matched and gender-matched references and examined parental and child predictors for mental health problems. A total of 125 mothers and 106 fathers of 125 children with active and inactive IBD from the Swiss IBD multicentre cohort study were included. Parental mental health was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 27 and child behaviour problems by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Child medical data were extracted from hospital records. While the mothers reported lower mental health, the fathers' mental health was similar, or even better, than in age-matched and gender-matched community controls. In both parents, shorter time since the child's diagnosis was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, the presence of their own IBD diagnosis and child behaviour problems predicted maternal mental health problems. Parents of children with IBD may need professional support when their child is diagnosed, to mitigate distress. This, in turn, may help the child to adjust better to IBD. Particular attention should be paid to mothers who have their own IBD diagnosis and whose children display behaviour problems. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Flexible parents: joint effects of handicapping and brood size manipulation on female parental care in Nicrophorus vespilloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Tom; Smiseth, Per T

    2018-02-22

    Parental care is highly variable, reflecting that parents make flexible decisions in response to variation in the cost of care to themselves and the benefit to their offspring. Much of the evidence that parents respond to such variation derives from handicapping and brood size manipulations, the separate effects of which are well understood. However, little is known about their joint effects. Here, we fill this gap by conducting a joint handicapping and brood size manipulation in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We handicapped half of the females by attaching a lead weight to their pronotum, leaving the remaining females as controls. We also manipulated brood size by providing each female with 5, 20 or 40 larvae. In contrast to what we predicted, handicapped females spent more time provisioning food than controls. We also found that handicapped females spent more time consuming carrion. Furthermore, handicapped females spent a similar amount of time consuming carrion regardless of brood size, whereas controls spent more time consuming carrion as brood increased. Females spent more time provisioning food towards larger broods, and females were more likely to engage in carrion consumption when caring for larger broods. We conclude that females respond to both handicapping and brood size manipulations, but these responses are largely independent of each other. Overall, our results suggest that handicapping might lead to a higher investment into current reproduction and that it might be associated with compensatory responses that negate the detrimental impact of higher cost of care in handicapped parents. © 2018 Crown copyright. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland. Note: some government agencies may require additional wording and acknowledgement.

  20. Automatic spent fuel ID number reader (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, S.; Kawamoto, H.; Fujimaki, K.; Kobe, A.

    1991-01-01

    An effective and efficient technique has been developed for facilitating identification works of LWR spent fuel stored in large scale spent fuel storage pools of such as processing plants. Experience shows that there are often difficulties in the implementation of operator's nuclear material accountancy and control works as well as safeguards inspections conducted on spent fuel assemblies stored in deep water pool. This paper reports that the technique is realized as an automatic spent fuel ID number reader system installed on fuel handling machine. The ID number reader system consists of an optical sub-system and an image processing sub-system. Thousands of spent fuel assemblies stored in under water open racks in each storage pool could be identified within relatively short time (e.g. within several hours) by using this combination. Various performance tests were carried out on image processing sub-system in 1990 using TV images obtained from different types of spent fuel assemblies stored in various storage pools of PWR and BWR power stations

  1. Spent fuel dry storage in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buday, G.; Szabo, B.; Oerdoegh, M.; Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. Since 1989, approximately 40-50% of the total annual electricity generation of the country has been supplied by this plant. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia. Most of the spent fuel assemblies have been shipped back to Russia. Difficulties with spent fuel transportation to Russia have begun in 1992. Since that time, some of the shipments were delayed, some of them were completely cancelled, thus creating a backlog of spent fuel filling all storage positions of the plant. To provide assurance of the continued operation, Paks NPPs management decided to implement an independent spent fuel storage facility and chose GEC-Althom's MVDS design. The construction of the facility started in February 1995 and the first spent fuel assembly was placed in the store in September 1997. The paper gives an overview of the situation, describing the conditions leading to the construction of the dry storage facility at Paks and its implementation. Finally, some information is given about the new Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management established this year and responsible for managing the issues related to spent fuel management. (author)

  2. Pyrochemical processing of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development. This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or open-quotes pyroprocessing,close quotes provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (>99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess, are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and avoid the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory

  3. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  4. Spent fuel dissolution mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1993-11-01

    This study is a literature survey on the dissolution mechanisms of spent fuel under disposal conditions. First, the effects of radiolysis products on the oxidative dissolution mechanisms and rates of UO 2 are discussed. These effects have mainly been investigated by using electrochemical methods. Then the release mechanisms of soluble radionuclides and the dissolution of the UO 2 matrix including the actinides, are treated. Experimental methods have been developed for measuring the grain-boundary inventories of radionuclides. The behaviour of cesium, strontium and technetium in leaching tests shows different trends. Comparison of spent fuel leaching data strongly suggests that the release of 90 Sr into the leachant can be used as a measure of the oxidation/dissolution of the fuel matrix. Approaches to the modelling UO 2 , dissolution are briefly discussed in the next chapter. Lastly, the use of natural material, uraninite, in the evaluation of the long-term performance of spent fuel is discussed. (orig.). (81 ref., 37 figs., 8 tabs.)

  5. Dynamic changes in parent affect and adolescent cardiac vagal regulation: a real-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    The current study explored the role of parents' negative and positive affect in adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during a parent-adolescent conflict discussion task and the moderating effects of adolescent sex and age. Questionnaire data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age; M = 13.37 years) and their primary caregivers (83.3% biological mothers). Electrocardiogram and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA variables were computed. Parent affect was coded during the conflict discussion task. Multilevel modeling was used to distinguish the between- and within-individual effects of parent affect on adolescent RSA. Results indicated that observed within-parent-teen dyad anger was negatively associated with adolescent RSA, controlling for previous-minute RSA level, particularly among adolescents 13 years and older. In addition, observed between-dyad positive affect was positively linked to RSA for both boys and girls when previous-minute RSA level was controlled. Within-dyad positive affect was positively related to girl's RSA only. These findings suggest that expressions of positive affect may be related to better vagal regulation (RSA increases), whereas expressions of anger may be related to poor vagal regulation (RSA decreases) during social engagement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Indirect Over-Time Relations Between Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Behaviors and Emotions Through Global Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Deković, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (M = 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of their relationship with parents, their global self-esteem, and their experience with various sexual behaviors. Sexually experienced adolescents (n = 168) evaluated their sexual experiences using six emotions. Path model results showed that a higher-quality relationship with parents at T1 predicted higher levels of self-esteem at T2, which in turn predicted less experience with sexual behaviors and more positive sexual emotions at T3. The indirect over-time path from relationship quality through self-esteem to adolescents' sexual emotions was significant; the indirect path to adolescents' experience with sexual behaviors was not significant at the .05 level. No significant age or gender differences were found in the path models. The findings indicate that self-esteem plays an important role in adolescent sexuality and that parents can contribute to positive sexual experiences of adolescents indirectly--through the enhancement of self-esteem--by fostering a high-quality relationship with their children. Implications for theory, future research, and strategies to promote healthy and positive youth sexuality are discussed.

  7. The first commercial spent fuel shipment in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, N.M. [NAC International, Norcross, GA (United States); Xiaoqing Li [Everclean Environmental Engineering Corp., Beijing, BJ (China)

    2004-07-01

    In two and a half years, government regulatory agencies and contractors from three countries worked together to design, license, fabricate, and transport the first commercial spent fuel shipment in China. Their cooperative efforts helped avoid the loss of full core reserve at a nuclear power plant serving two of China's largest cities. In March 2001, Everclean Environmental Engineering Corporation (EEEC) selected NAC International (NAC) to supply two United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) licensed Storable Transport Casks (NACSTC) and technology support, to ensure that qualified Chinese operators would be ready to load the first cask in late 2003. EEEC is a subsidiary of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), which sets nuclear policy in China. EEEC is responsible for implementing nuclear transportation policy set forth from its parent corporation. Timely implementation of EEEC's ambitious plan would avoid loss of full core reserve at Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (Daya Bay) Unit-1, which supplies power to Hong Kong and Schenzen. The spent fuel would be transported to the Lanzhou Nuclear Fuel Complex (LNFC), a reprocessing facility, approximately 4,000 kilometers Northwest of Daya Bay.

  8. The first commercial spent fuel shipment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinert, N.M.; Xiaoqing Li

    2004-01-01

    In two and a half years, government regulatory agencies and contractors from three countries worked together to design, license, fabricate, and transport the first commercial spent fuel shipment in China. Their cooperative efforts helped avoid the loss of full core reserve at a nuclear power plant serving two of China's largest cities. In March 2001, Everclean Environmental Engineering Corporation (EEEC) selected NAC International (NAC) to supply two United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) licensed Storable Transport Casks (NACSTC) and technology support, to ensure that qualified Chinese operators would be ready to load the first cask in late 2003. EEEC is a subsidiary of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), which sets nuclear policy in China. EEEC is responsible for implementing nuclear transportation policy set forth from its parent corporation. Timely implementation of EEEC's ambitious plan would avoid loss of full core reserve at Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (Daya Bay) Unit-1, which supplies power to Hong Kong and Schenzen. The spent fuel would be transported to the Lanzhou Nuclear Fuel Complex (LNFC), a reprocessing facility, approximately 4,000 kilometers Northwest of Daya Bay

  9. Understanding and Improving Health Education Among First-time Parents of Infants With Sickle Cell Anemia in Alabama: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D.; Grosse, Scott D.; Altice, Jessica L.; Thierry, JoAnn M.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary With the increase in access to medical information, parents can acquire health information from multiple sources. An understanding of parents' reactions to a newborn infant's diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and how they acquire knowledge can identify parent beliefs and preferences about the process of sickle cell education. This study utilized a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First, qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 parents of infants with sickle cell anemia to understand the process of health education. Second, quantitative surveys were conducted with 22 other parents to test qualitative findings. Parents of infants with sickle cell anemia expressed a high level of fear at the time of notification of a positive screen. Parents desired an understanding of how to identify acute complications of disease and how sickle cell will alter their child's life. Parents actively sought information at the time they were told their child had sickle cell disease. Sickle cell education should begin at time of notification of positive newborn screening results and address identified parent concerns. Health care providers should build trust with parents and provide them with immediate access to educational materials. Hematologists should work with primary care providers to develop complementary educational programs and resources. PMID:25072367

  10. Parent-child associations for changes in diet, screen time, and physical activity across two decades in modernizing China: China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fei; Howard, Annie Green; Herring, Amy H; Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M; Aiello, Allison E; Zhang, Bing; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-11-11

    While the household context is important for lifestyle behavior interventions, few studies have examined parent-child associations for diet and physical activity (PA) changes over time in a rapidly urbanizing country. We aimed to investigate changes in diet, screen time, and PA behaviors over time in children and their parents living in the same household, and examine the parent-child association for these behaviors. We studied dietary, screen time, and PA behaviors in 5,201 parent-child pairs (children aged 7-17y) using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, and 2009). We collected three-day 24-h recall diet data to generate percentages of energy from animal-source foods, away-from-home eating, and snacking from 1991-2009, which are known urbanization-related behaviors. We used a seven-day PA recall to collect screen time (hours/week) and leisure-time sports participation (yes/no) since 2004. We examined the changes in children's and parents' behaviors over time using random-effects negative binomial regression for diet and screen time, and random-effects logistic regression for leisure-time sports. We then regressed each of the behaviors of offspring on each of their parents' same behaviors to examine the parent-child association, using the same set of models. We observed increases in energy from animal-source foods, eating away-from-home, and snacking, as well as screen time and leisure-time sports in parents and children over time, with different rates of change between children and their parents for some behaviors. We found positive parent-child associations for diet, screen time, and PA. When parental intakes increased by 10 % energy from each dietary behavior, children's increase in intakes ranged from 0.44 to 1.59 % total energy for animal-source foods, 0.17 % to 0.45 % for away-from-home eating, and 2.13 % to 7.21 % for snacking. Children were also more likely to participate in leisure-time

  11. Elementary Schoolchildren's Perceived Competence and Physical Activity Involvement: The Influence of Parents' Role Modelling Behaviours and Perceptions of their Child's Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Bois, Julien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Brustad, Robert; Trouilloud, David; Cury, François

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Objectives. To study the influence of fathers' and mothers' physical activity involvement and perceptions of their children's physical competence upon children's perceptions of competence and children's time spent in physical activity. Two forms of parental socialization influence were assessed: the direct influence of parents' actual physical activity (PA) behaviour (role modelling) on children's physical activity and the indirect influence of parents' beliefs systems...

  12. Time spent on health-related activities by senior Australians with chronic diseases: what is the role of multimorbidity and comorbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S; Yen, Laurann; Jowsey, Tanisha; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-06-01

    To examine the effect of various morbidity clusters of chronic diseases on health-related time use and to explore factors associated with heavy time burden (more than 30 hours/month) of health-related activities. Using a national survey, data were collected from 2,540 senior Australians. Natural clusters were identified using cluster analysis and clinical clusters using clinical expert opinion. We undertook a set of linear regressions to model people's time use, and logistic regressions to model heavy time burden. Time use increases with the number of chronic diseases. Six of the 12 diseases are significantly associated with higher time use, with the highest effect for diabetes followed by depression; 18% reported a heavy time burden, with diabetes again being the most significant disease. Clusters and dominant comorbid groupings do not contribute to predicting time use or time burden. Total number of diseases and specific diseases are useful determinants of time use and heavy time burden. Dominant groupings and disease clusters do not predict time use. In considering time demands on patients and the need for care co-ordination, care providers need to be aware of how many and what specific diseases the patient faces. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. The development of spent fuel storage process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Kim, Ho Dong; Kim, Ki Joon; Kim, Bum Hoe

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear material accounting system were designed to track the transitions of nuclear materials at the spent-fuel technology research facility. It is embedded in a distributed control system real-time structure of the system gives timely on-line accountancy. And performance of AC servo motor with fuzzy logic control and its applicability to spent fuel management were experimentally evaluated. (Author)

  14. Clinical Trial Decisions in Difficult Circumstances: Parental Consent Under Time Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Caldwell, Patrina H. Y.; Young, Bridget; de Vries, Martine C.; Willems, Dick L.; van't Hoff, William; Woolfall, Kerry; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Offringa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Treatments and interventions used to care for children in emergencies should be based on strong evidence. Well-designed clinical trials investigating these interventions for children are therefore indispensable. Parental informed consent is a key ethical requirement for the enrollment of children in

  15. Parental Effects on Children's Emotional Development over Time and across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Dale M.; Serbin, Lisa A.; Enns, Leah N.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Barrieau, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Principal tasks of the early childhood years, including attaining self-efficacy, self-control, social integration, and preparedness for education, require the development of adaptive and competent emotional development. Results from longitudinal and intergenerational studies examining the effect of parenting behaviors on children's emotional…

  16. Time Spent on Dedicated Patient Care and Documentation Tasks Before and After the Introduction of a Structured and Standardized Electronic Health Record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joukes, Erik; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Cornet, Ronald; de Keizer, Nicolette F.

    2018-01-01

    Physicians spend around 35% of their time documenting patient data. They are concerned that adopting a structured and standardized electronic health record (EHR) will lead to more time documenting and less time for patient care, especially during consultations.  This study measures the effect of the

  17. Impact of chronic illness timing and persistence at school entry on child and parent outcomes: Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Barnett, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To understand the prevalence and timing of child chronic illness at school entry; associations with child learning, behavior and health-related quality of life and parent mental health at ages 6 to 7, 8 to 9, and 10 to 11 years; and cumulative health care costs. Data were drawn from the first 4 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children were aged 4 to 5 years at wave 1, with data collection every 2 years. Parent-reported timing of child chronic illness at school entry was categorized into 4 chronic illness groups based on changes between waves 1 and 2: none, resolving, incident and persistent. Child outcomes included: parent-reported quality of life, parent- and teacher-reported behavior, teacher-reported child learning, teacher-reported child-teacher relationship, directly assessed nonverbal and verbal cognition and parent self-reported mental health. Linear regression, adjusted for gender and socioeconomic position, was used to quantify longitudinal associations between chronic illness timing at school entry with outcomes at age 6 to 7 years, 8 to 9 years and 10 to 11 years. Of the 4983 children enrolled in the study, chronic illness data was available for 4464 children (89.6%) at both waves 1 and 2. From wave 1, 6.1% had a condition that persisted until wave 2, while 14.1% had a condition that resolved. Furthermore, 4.7% had a newly emerging condition at wave 2. Compared with the no chronic illness group, children with persistent or emerging chronic illness during school entry had the poorest outcomes (except father's mental health) at all time points, while children with resolving conditions had smaller differences. Child chronic illness at school entry is associated with poorer longitudinal child and maternal outcomes. Therefore, future research should aim to determine the risk and protective factors that contribute to the poorer child and parent outcomes experienced in this growing population. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric

  18. A Responsive Parenting Intervention: The Optimal Timing Across Early Childhood For Impacting Maternal Behaviors And Child Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Guttentag, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the optimal timing (infancy, toddler–preschool, or both) for facilitating responsive parenting and the intervention effects on maternal behaviors and child social and communication skills for children who vary in biological risk. The intervention during infancy, Playing and Learning Strategies (PALS I), showed strong changes in maternal affective–emotional and cognitively responsive behaviors and infants’ development. However, it was hypothesized that a 2nd intervention do...

  19. What time periods of the day are concerning for parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Usami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: The questionnaire-children with difficulties (QCD is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate a child's difficulties in functioning during specific time periods of the day. In this study, the QCD was applied to determine the time periods of the day that are concerning for the parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The results were compared with those for a community sample. METHODS: Elementary and junior high school students with ADHD (243 boys, 55 girls and a community sample of children (518 boys, 618 girls were enrolled in this study. Their behaviors were assessed by the QCD, the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS, and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI. The effects of gender (boy/girl and diagnosis (ADHD/community sample on the total QCD score were analyzed across each school grade (elementary/junior high school. Correlation coefficients between QCD and ADHD-RS/ODBI scores were analyzed. RESULTS: The QCD score for the ADHD group was significantly lower than that for the community sample (P 0.41, P 0.40, P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Parents reported that children with ADHD faced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities compared with the community controls, particularly in the evening. Furthermore, these difficulties were related to the severity of ADHD symptoms. The parents' perceptions depended on the gender, ADHD and oppositional symptoms, and the time period of the day. This study determined that children with ADHD face greater difficulties in daily functioning compared with community sample children, that these difficulties are time-dependent, and that these difficulties were particularly experienced in the evening.

  20. The relationship of maternal employment to early adolescent daily experience with and without parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M H; Duckett, E

    1994-02-01

    This study examines how maternal work may shape pre- and young adolescents' daily life experience. According to the procedures of the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 295 10-13-year-old children carried electronic pagers for 1 week and completed self-report forms in response to random signals sent every other hour. Their daily experience did not differ by maternal employment status, with the following exceptions: full-time maternal employment was associated with more time doing homework with mothers and less time in general leisure, while part-time employment was associated with more time doing sports with parents. Relative to those with nonemployed mothers, youth with part-time employed mothers reported more positive daily moods and higher self-esteem, while youth reported time with full-time employed mothers to be the friendliest. While children with employed mothers spent no less time with family, parents, friends, in class or alone, they spent more time alone with fathers.

  1. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  2. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  3. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    How should the decision in favour of reprocessing and against alternative waste management concepts be judged from an economic standpoint. Reprocessing is not imperative neither for resource-economic reasons nor for nuclear energy strategy reasons. On the contrary, the development of an ultimate storage concept representing a real alternative promising to close, within a short period of time, the nuclear fuel cycle at low cost. At least, this is the result of an extensive economic efficiency study recently submitted by the Energy Economics Institute which investigated all waste management concepts relevant for the Federal Republic of Germany in the long run, i.e. direct ultimate storage of spent fuel elements (''Other waste disposal technologies'' - AE) as well as reprocessing of spent fuel elements where re-usable plutonium and uranium are recovered and radioactive waste goes to ultimate storage (''Integrated disposal'' - IE). Despite such fairly evident results, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has favoured the construction of a reprocessing plant. From an economic point of view there is no final answer to the question whether or not the argumentation is sufficient to justify the decision to construct a reprocessing plant. This is true for both the question of technical feasibility and issues of overriding significance of a political nature. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values for describing dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel. Data obtained during observation of the offloading of research reactor spent fuel at Newport News Terminal in the Port of Hampton Roads, Virginia, are described. These data include estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors, and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Other workers include crane operators, scale operators, security personnel, and truck drivers. The data are compared to the default data in RADTRAN 4, and the latter are found to be conservative. The casks were loaded under IAEA supervision at their point of origin, and three separate radiological inspections of each cask were performed at the entry to the port (Hampton Roads) by the U.S. Coast Guard, the state of Virginia, and the shipping firm. As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handler exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. (author)

  5. Response time scores on a reflexive attention task predict a child's inattention score from a parent report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundwall, Rebecca A; Sgro, Jordan F; Fanger, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Compared to sustained attention, only a small proportion of studies examine reflexive attention as a component of everyday attention. Understanding the significance of reflexive attention to everyday attention may inform better treatments for attentional disorders. Children from a general population (recruited when they were from 9-16 years old) completed an exogenously-cued task measuring the extent to which attention is captured by peripheral cue-target conditions. Parents completed a questionnaire reporting their child's day-to-day attention. A general linear model indicated that parent-rated inattention predicted the increase in response time over baseline when a bright cue preceded the target (whether it was valid or invalid) but not when a dim cue preceded the target. More attentive children had more pronounced response time increases from baseline. Our findings suggest a link between a basic measure of cognition (response time difference scores) and parent observations. The findings have implications for increased understanding of the role of reflexive attention in the everyday attention of children.

  6. Keeping Our Eyes on the Prize: Focusing on Parenting Supports Depressed Parents' Involvement in Home Visiting Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Fitzgerald, Shalese; Conners Edge, Nicola A; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2018-05-28

    Objectives Improving family retention and engagement is crucial to the success of home visiting programs. Little is known about retaining and engaging depressed parents in services. The purpose of the study is to examine how home visit content moderates the association between depression and retention and engagement. Methods The sample (N = 1322) was served by Healthy Families America (n = 618) and Parents as Teachers (n = 704) between April 1, 2012 and June 30, 2016. Parents averaged 23 years (SD = 6). Nearly half of the parents were White (48%) and the majority was single (71%). Depression was screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Home visitors reported the percent of time focused on particular content and parent engagement at every home visit. Results Multilevel regression analyses showed the amount of time that home visitors spent supporting parent-child interaction moderated the association between depression and retention at 6 (B = .08, SE = .03, p = .003) and 12 (B = .1, SE = .03, p < .001) months, such that there was a stronger positive association for depressed parents. The main effects of child development focused content and retention at 6 (B = .07, SE = .01, p < .001) and 12 (B = .08, SE = .01, p < .001) months were positive, while effects of case management focused content at 6 (B = - .06, SE = .01, p < .001) and 12 (B = - .07, SE = .01, p < .001) months were negative. Conclusions Families were more likely to be retained when home visitors focused on child development and parent-child interaction, but less likely with more case management focus. Parents with positive depression screens were more likely to remain in services with more time spent focused on supporting parent-child interactions.

  7. Spent fuel reprocessing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Mizuguchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1996-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels containing oxides of uranium and transuranium elements are dismantled and sheared, then oxide fuels are reduced into metals of uranium and transuranium elements in a molten salt with or without mechanical removal of coatings. The reduced metals of uranium and transuranium elements and the molten salts are subjected to phase separation. From the metals of uranium and transuranium elements subjected to phase separation, uranium is separated to a solid cathode and transuranium elements are separated to a cadmium cathode by an electrolytic method. Molten salts deposited together with uranium to the solid cathode, and uranium and transuranium elements deposited to the cadmium cathode are distilled to remove deposited molten salts and cadmium. As a result, TRU oxides (solid) such as UO 2 , Pu 2 in spent fuels can be reduced to U and TRU by a high temperature metallurgical method not using an aqueous solution to separate them in the form of metal from other ingredients, and further, metal fuels can be obtained through an injection molding step depending on the purpose. (N.H.)

  8. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  9. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kumagaya, Naomi; Oda, Masashi; Matsuda, Masami; Maruyama, Hiromi; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of a spent fuel storage rack is determined by the material, thickness, size of square cylindrical tubes (the gap between spent fuel assemblies and the square cylindrical tubes) and pitch of the arrangement (the gap between each of the square cylindrical tubes). In the present invention, the thickness and the pitch of the arrangement of the square tubes are optimized while evaluating subcriticality. Namely, when the sum of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side (the pitch of arrangement of the cylindrical tubes) and the thickness of the cylindrical tubes is made constant, the storage rack is formed by determining the thickness of the cylindrical tubes which is smaller than the optimum value among the combination of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side and that of the cylindrical tube under the effective multiplication factor to be performed. Then, the weight of the rack can be reduced, and the burden of the load on the bottom of the pool can be reduced. Further, the amount of the constitutional materials of the rack itself can be reduced thereby capable of reducing the cost for the materials of the rack. (T.M.)

  10. Parental Leave Policies, Intra-household Time Allocations and Children's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Raquel; Fruttero, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium model of marriage and divorce to assess how public policies on parental leave and leave benefits affect intra-household decision making, family structure, intergenerational mobility, and the distribution of income. The benchmark economy is calibrated to US data to replicate some characteristics relevant to the interaction between the marriage and labor markets. The effects of unpaid leave, paid leave benefits, and mandated leave on human capital investmen...

  11. Storing the world's spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Weinberg, A.M.; Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    Given the world's prodigious future energy requirements and the inevitable depletion of oil and gas, it would be foolhardy consciously to seek limitations on the growth of nuclear power. Indeed, the authors continue to believe that the global nuclear power enterprise, as measured by installed reactor capacity, can become much larger in the future without increasing proliferation risks. To accomplish this objective will require renewed dedication to the non-proliferation regime, and it will require some new initiatives. Foremost among these would be the establishment of a spent fuel take-back service, in which one or a few states would retrieve spent nuclear fuel from nations generating it. The centralized retrieval of spent fuel would remove accessible plutonium from the control of national leaders in non-nuclear-weapons states, thereby eliminating the temptation to use this material for weapons. The Soviets already implement a retrieval policy with the spent fuel generated by East European allies. The authors believe that it is time for the US to reopen the issue of spent-fuel retrieval, and thus to strengthen its non-proliferation policies and the nonproliferation regime in general. 7 references

  12. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  13. Significance of campaigned spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, J.W.; Tehan, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Operational experience associated with spent fuel or irradiated hardware shipments to or from the General Electric Morris Facility is presented. The following specific areas are addressed: Problems and difficulties associated with meeting security and safeguard requirements of 10 CFR Part 73; problems associated with routing via railroad; problems associated with scheduling and impact on affected parties when a shipment is delayed or cancelled; and impact on training when shipments spread over many years. The lessons learned from these experiences indicate that spent fuel shipments are best conducted in dedicated open-quotes campaignsclose quotes that concentrate as much consecutive shipping activity as possible into one continuous time frame

  14. Method of processing spent fuel cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ouchi, Atsuhiro; Imahashi, Hiromichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the residual activity of spent fuel cladding tubes in a short period of time and enable safety storage with simple storage equipments. Constitution: Spent fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys discharged from a nuclear fuel reprocessing step are exposed to a grain boundary embrittling atmosphere to cause grain boundary destruction. This causes grain boundary fractures to the zirconium crystal grains as the matrix of nuclear fuels and then precipitation products precipitated to the grain boundary fractures are removed. The zirconium constituting the nuclear fuel cladding tube and other ingredient elements contained in the precipitation products are separated in this removing step and they are separately stored respectively. As a result, zirconium constituting most part of the composition of the spent nuclear fuel cladding tubes can be stored safely at a low activity level. (Takahashi, M.)

  15. Status of spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, I.K.; Hinschberger, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how several new-generation shopping cask systems are being developed for safe and economical transport of commercial spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes for the generating sites to a federal geologic repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Primary objectives of the from-reactor spent fuel cask development work are: to increase cask payloads by taking advantage of the increased at-reactor storage time under the current spent fuel management scenario, to facilitate more efficient cask handling operations with reduced occupational radiation exposure, and to promote standardization of the physical interfaces between casks and the shipping and receiving facilities. Increased cask payloads will significantly reduce the numbers of shipments, with corresponding reductions in transportation costs and risks to transportation workers, cask handling personnel, and the general public

  16. Parenting Style, the Home Environment, and Screen Time of 5-Year-Old Children; The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. Methods This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Conclusion The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room. PMID:24533092

  17. The spent fuel safety experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmms, G.A.; Davis, F.J.; Ford, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting an ongoing investigation of the consequences of taking fuel burnup into account in the design of spent fuel transportation packages. A series of experiments, collectively called the Spent Fuel Safety Experiment (SFSX), has been devised to provide integral benchmarks for testing computer-generated predictions of spent fuel behavior. A set of experiments is planned in which sections of unirradiated fuel rods are interchanged with similar sections of spent PWR fuel rods in a critical assembly. By determining the critical size of the arrays, one can obtain benchmark data for comparison with criticality safety calculations. The integral reactivity worth of the spent fuel can be assessed by comparing the measured delayed critical fuel loading with and without spent fuel. An analytical effort to model the experiments and anticipate the core loadings required to yield the delayed critical conditions runs in parallel with the experimental effort

  18. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  19. Spent fuel: prediction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almassy, M.Y.; Bosi, D.M.; Cantley, D.A.

    1979-07-01

    The need for spent fuel disposal performance modeling stems from a requirement to assess the risks involved with deep geologic disposal of spent fuel, and to support licensing and public acceptance of spent fuel repositories. Through the balanced program of analysis, diagnostic testing, and disposal demonstration tests, highlighted in this presentation, the goal of defining risks and of quantifying fuel performance during long-term disposal can be attained

  20. Spent fuel. Dissolution and oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1989-03-01

    Data from studies of the low temperature air oxidation of spent fuel were retrieved in order to provide a basis for comparison between the mechanism of oxidation in air and corrosion in water. U 3 O 7 is formed by diffusion of oxygen into the UO 2 lattice. A diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the fuel matric was calculated for 25 degree C to be in the range of 10 -23 to 10 -25 m 2 /s. The initial rates of U release from spent fuel and from UO 2 appear to be similar. The lowest rates (at 25 degree c >10 -4 g/(m 2 d)) were observed under reducing conditions. Under oxidizing conditions the rates depend mainly of the nature and concentraion of the oxidant and/or on corbonate. In contact with air, typical initial rates at room temperature were in the range between 0.001 and 0.1 g/(m 2 d). A study of apparent U solubility under oxidizing conditions was performed and it was suggested that the controlling factor is the redox potential at the UO 2 surface rather than the E h of the bulk solution. Electrochemical arguments were used to predict that at saturation, the surface potential will eventually reach a value given by the boundaries at either the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 or the U 3 O 7 /schoepite stability field, and a comparison with spent fuel leach data showed that the solution concentration of uranium is close to the calculated U solubility at the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 boundary. The difference in the cumulative Sr and U release was calculated from data from Studsvik laboratory. The results reveal that the rate of Sr release decreases with the square root of time under U-saturated conditions. This time dependence may be rationalized either by grain boundary diffusion or by diffusion into the fuel matrix. Hence, there seems to be a possibility of an agreement between the Sr release data, structural information and data for oxygen diffusion in UO 2 . (G.B.)

  1. Learning Style versus Time Spent Studying and Career Choice: Which Is Associated with Success in a Combined Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n?=?492) from the fall semester course completed…

  2. The Role of Parents in Problematic Internet Use among US Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Bleakley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The internet has transformed the way youth communicate, learn, and network, with implications for their broader social, psychological, and physical health and well-being. With the technological capability of accessing the internet from anywhere, at any time, paired with the enormous variety of internet activities in which youth engage—from social networking to chatting to streaming videos to playing games to watching television content—instances of problematic internet behavior have emerged. We conducted an online national survey of 629 US adolescents ages 12–17 years old and a matching survey of one of their parents. We investigated the relationship between problematic internet behavior and parental monitoring, parental mediation of internet use, and parental estimates of their adolescent’s time spent using computers. Analyses showed that problematic internet use was associated with less parental monitoring and parental mediation and poorer parental relationships. Adolescents that spent a lot of time on the computer were also more likely to engage in problematic internet use. Although we cannot determine the direction of the relationships, results support the important role of parents in adolescents’ problematic internet use.

  3. A Longitudinal Comparison of Parent and Child Influence on Sports Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arena Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study examines children’s motivational attributes and parental influences on how children spend their leisure time in middle childhood and adolescence. Specifically, the study examined if parent encouragement and beliefs (i.e., perceived importance of sports and perceived child ability and child motivation (expectancy and value for sports are predictive of sports participation over the course of middle childhood and adolescence. Parent and child reports are compared using data from the Childhood and Beyond (CAB longitudinal study. Findings reveal that parent beliefs and encouragement and child motivation were positively associated with sports participation in middle childhood. Both parental influences and children’s motivation measured in middle childhood were predictive of time spent participating in adolescence. However, only parent influences were predictive of whether the child continued to participate in sports in adolescence.

  4. Quality of life among pediatric patients with cancer: Contributions of time since diagnosis and parental chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Taralee; Latzman, Robert D; Latzman, Natasha E; Elkin, T David; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2015-07-01

    Pediatric cancer is associated with a host of negative psychosocial consequences; however, outcomes vary extensively suggesting a need to better understand this variation. Empirical research suggests a positive association between time since diagnosis (TSD) and Quality of Life (QoL). In addition to TSD, family stressors have been found to be particularly important in predicting QoL among children. The current study examined parental chronic stress beyond TSD in explanation of QoL functioning among a sample of pediatric patients with cancer. Participants included 43 pediatric patients aged 5-18 years (M(age) = 10.2 ± 3.6) who were undergoing oncological treatment. Parents reported on TSD, child's QoL, and their own chronic stress. TSD was associated with greater physical functioning (r = 0.30, P stress was associated with poorer emotional (r = -0.54, P stress contributed incrementally beyond TSD in the explanation of physical (β = -0.37, t = -2.58, P stress is associated with reduced levels of emotional, physical, and social functioning among pediatric patients. Future research is needed to further investigate the process by which chronic stress within the family interferes with adaptive coping among pediatric patients. In addition, clinical services may benefit from increased consideration of family factors, such as parental chronic stress, during oncological treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Don't Trust Anyone over 30: Parental Legitimacy as a Mediator between Parenting Style and Changes in Delinquent Behavior over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S.; Rebellon, Cesar J.; Van Gundy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception…

  6. Parent-child interaction over time in families of young children with borderline intellectual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Rachel M; Baker, Jason K; Baker, Bruce L; Crnic, Keith A

    2014-06-01

    A previous study suggested that mothers of 5-year-old children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed lower positive engagement with their children as compared with both mothers of typically developing children and mothers of children with significant developmental delays (Fenning, Baker, Baker, & Crnic, 2007). The current study integrated father data and followed these families over the subsequent 1-year period. Parent and child behavior were coded from naturalistic home observations at both waves. Results revealed that mothers of children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed a greater increase in negative-controlling parenting from child age 5 to 6 than did other mothers; fathers displayed more negative-controlling behavior in comparison to fathers of typically developing children. In addition, children with borderline intellectual functioning themselves exhibited a more significant escalation in difficult behavior than did typically developing children. Cross-lagged analyses for the sample as a whole indicated that maternal negative-controlling behavior predicted subsequent child difficulties, whereas negative paternal behavior was predicted by earlier child behavior. In conjunction with evidence from Fenning et al. (2007), these findings suggest a complex, dynamic, and systemic developmental pattern in the emotional behavior of families of children with borderline intellectual functioning. Implications and areas in need of additional research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. O tempo na trajetória das famílias que buscam a justiça Time spent by families in search for justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Ribeiro dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudar o tempo em sua multiplicidade de entendimentos é importante para os profissionais psicossociais na medida em que a experiência de atuação com famílias em litígio e que buscam a justiça exige celeridade. Como conciliar os diferentes tempos do indivíduo, da família, da lei, do juiz, do profissional nas decisões sobre a família? A sociedade exige que a Justiça seja feita de forma mais rápida, mas os prazos estabelecidos em lei nem sempre são compatíveis com o tempo "exigido" pelo indivíduo ou pela sociedade. Por outro lado os prazos processuais têm a função de proteger a sociedade em seus anseios.To study time, in its multiplicity of understanding, is important for psychosocial professionals inasmuch as the experience of dealing with families who are in dispute and search for Justice demand celerity. How to reconcile the different times of the individual, the family, the law, the judge and the professional in the decisions about the family? Society demands that Justice is made in the fastest way but the terms stablished by law are not always compatible with the term "required" by the individual or the society. On the other hand, the process terms have to protect the society in its spectations.

  8. Correlation between depression and burden observed in informal caregivers of people suffering from dementia with time spent on caregiving and dementia severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of thestudy is to compare data on the examined populationof informal caregivers of people sufferingfrom dementia with previous studies, aswell as to assess the correlation between (i) depressiondetermined on the basis of the Centerfor Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scaleand (ii) caregiver...... dementia fromdifferent backgrounds were evaluated usingthe Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale and the Centerfor Epidemiologic Studies DepressionScale. Demographic data about the time devotedto caregiving and the number of hoursspend on caregiving weekly were gathered. Thetype of dementia and its stage were...... registeredusing the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS).With the aid of the Statistica StatSoft program,mutual correlations between the parameterswere measured. The study was conducted withinthe framework of AAL UnderstAID – a platformthat supports and helps to understandand assist caregivers in the care...

  9. Sorption of lead from aqueous solutions by spent tea leaf | Yoshita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pb) from solution. The Pb removal by the spent tea leaf adsorbent depended on pretreatment of spent tea leaf, adsorption contact time and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pretreatment conditions were confirmed to be that tea leaf was ground ...

  10. The time-concept of Grade 11 learners and that of their parents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    This refers to the time of events with a definite beginning, middle and end. This measurable ... These three views of time are not necessarily mutually exclusive, al- though one of .... Independent utilisation of time (2 items) could be regarded as.

  11. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  12. Impact of Caregiving for a Child With Cancer on Parental Health Behaviors, Relationship Quality, and Spiritual Faith: Do Lone Parents Fare Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland

    2016-09-01

    Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate "single" on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the current study, we report the results from our exploratory analyses of parent self-reports of behavior changes during their child's treatment. Parents (N = 263) of children diagnosed with cancer were enrolled at 10 cancer centers. Parents reported significant worsening of all their own health behaviors surveyed, including poorer diet and nutrition, decreased physical activity, and less time spent engaged in enjoyable activities 6 to 18 months following their child's diagnosis. More partnered parents found support from friends increased or stayed the same since their child's diagnosis, whereas a higher proportion of lone parents reported relationships with friends getting worse. More lone parents reported that the quality of their relationship with the ill child's siblings had gotten worse since their child's diagnosis. Spiritual faith increased for all parents. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  13. Methodological issues in the estimation of parental time – Analysis of measures in a Canadian time-use survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cara B. Fedick; Shelley Pacholok; Anne H. Gauthier

    2005-01-01

    Extensive small scale studies have documented that when people assume the role of assisting a person with impairments or an older person, care activities account for a significant portion of their daily routines. Nevertheless, little research has investigated the problem of measuring the time that carers spend in care-related activities. This paper contrasts two different measures of care time – an estimated average weekly hours question in the 1998 Australian Survey of Disability, Ageing and...

  14. Modality Use in Joint Attention between Hearing Parents and Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eDepowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined differences in modality use during episodes of joint attention between hearing parent-hearing child dyads and hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Hearing children were age-matched to deaf children. Dyads were video recorded in a free play session with analyses focused on uni- and multimodality use during joint attention episodes. Results revealed that adults in hearing parent-deaf child dyads spent a significantly greater proportion of time interacting with their children using multiple communicative modalities than adults in hearing parent-hearing child dyads, who tended to use the auditory modality (e.g., oral language most often. While these findings demonstrate that hearing parents accommodate their children's hearing status, we observed greater overall time spent in joint attention in hearing parent-hearing child dyads than hearing parent-deaf child dyads. Our results point to important avenues for future research on how parents can better accommodate their child’s hearing status through the use of multimodal communication strategies.

  15. Containing method for spent fuel and spent fuel containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi; Hanada, Yoshine.

    1996-01-01

    Upon containing spent fuels, a metal vessel main body and a support spacer having fuel containing holes are provided. The support spacer is disposed in the inside of the metal vessel main body, and spent fuel assemblies are loaded in the fuel containing holes. Then, a lid is welded at the opening of the metal vessel main body to provide a sealing state. In this state, heat released from the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the wall of the metal vessel main body via the support spacer. Since the support spacer has a greater heat conductivity than gases, heat of the spent fuel assemblies tends to be released to the outside, thereby capable of removing heat of the spent fuel assemblies effectively. In addition, since the surfaces of the spent fuel assemblies are in contact with the inner surface of the fuel containing holes of the support spacer, impact-resistance and earthquake-resistance are ensured, and radiation from the spent fuel assemblies is decayed by passing through the layer of the support spacer. (T.M.)

  16. Are parental concerns for child TV viewing associated with child TV viewing and the home sedentary environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Natalie; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen; Timperio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Time spent watching television affects multiple aspects of child and adolescent health. Although a diverse range of factors have been found to be associated with young people's television viewing, parents and the home environment are particularly influential. However, little is known about whether parents, particularly those who are concerned about their child's television viewing habits, translate their concern into action by providing supportive home environments (e.g. r...

  17. Cardiac Vagal Tone and Quality of Parenting Show Concurrent and Time-Ordered Associations That Diverge in Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Lorna Smith; Pincus, Aaron L.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent and lagged maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was monitored in the context of parenting. One hundred and forty-one preschooler-mother dyads—involved with child welfare as documented perpetrators of child abuse or neglect, or non-maltreating (non-CM)—were observed completing a resting baseline and joint challenge task. Parenting behaviors were coded using SASB (Benjamin, 1996) and maternal RSA was simultaneously monitored, longitudinally-nested within-person (WP), and subjected to MLM. Abusive and neglectful mothers displayed less positive parenting and more strict/hostile control, relative to non-CM mothers. Non-CM mothers displayed greater WP heterogeneity in variance over time in their RSA scores, and greater consistency over time in their parenting behaviors, relative to abusive or neglectful mothers. CM group also moderated concurrent and lagged WP associations in RSA and positive parenting. When abusive mothers displayed lower RSA in a given epoch, relative to their task average, they showed concurrent increases in positive parenting, and higher subsequent levels of hostile control in the following epoch, suggesting that it is physiologically taxing for abusive mothers to parent in positive ways. In contrast, lagged effects for non-CM mothers were observed in which RSA decreases led to subsequent WP increases in positive parenting and decreases in control. Reversed models were significant only for neglectful mothers: Increases in positive parenting led to subsequent increases in RSA levels, and increases in strict, hostile control led to subsequent RSA decreases. These results provide new evidence that concurrent and time-ordered coupling in maternal physiology and behavior during parenting vary in theoretically meaningful ways across CM and non-CM mothers. Implications for intervention and study limitations are discussed. PMID:24729945

  18. Cardiac Vagal Tone and Quality of Parenting Show Concurrent and Time-Ordered Associations That Diverge in Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Lorna Smith; Pincus, Aaron L; Van Ryzin, Mark J

    2013-06-01

    Concurrent and lagged maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was monitored in the context of parenting. One hundred and forty-one preschooler-mother dyads-involved with child welfare as documented perpetrators of child abuse or neglect, or non-maltreating (non-CM)-were observed completing a resting baseline and joint challenge task. Parenting behaviors were coded using SASB (Benjamin, 1996) and maternal RSA was simultaneously monitored, longitudinally-nested within-person (WP), and subjected to MLM. Abusive and neglectful mothers displayed less positive parenting and more strict/hostile control, relative to non-CM mothers. Non-CM mothers displayed greater WP heterogeneity in variance over time in their RSA scores, and greater consistency over time in their parenting behaviors, relative to abusive or neglectful mothers. CM group also moderated concurrent and lagged WP associations in RSA and positive parenting. When abusive mothers displayed lower RSA in a given epoch, relative to their task average, they showed concurrent increases in positive parenting, and higher subsequent levels of hostile control in the following epoch, suggesting that it is physiologically taxing for abusive mothers to parent in positive ways. In contrast, lagged effects for non-CM mothers were observed in which RSA decreases led to subsequent WP increases in positive parenting and decreases in control. Reversed models were significant only for neglectful mothers: Increases in positive parenting led to subsequent increases in RSA levels, and increases in strict, hostile control led to subsequent RSA decreases. These results provide new evidence that concurrent and time-ordered coupling in maternal physiology and behavior during parenting vary in theoretically meaningful ways across CM and non-CM mothers. Implications for intervention and study limitations are discussed.

  19. WWER spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C C; Lettington, C [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs.

  20. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  1. Spent fuel management overview: a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Crijns, M.J.; Dyck, P.H.; Fukuda, K.; Mourogov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper defines the main spent fuel management strategies and options, highlights the challenges for spent fuel storage and gives an overview of the regional balances of spent fuel storage capacity and spent fuel arising. The relevant IAEA activities in the area of spent fuel management are summarised. (author)

  2. Parental TV viewing, parental self-efficacy, media equipment and TV viewing among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-11-01

    This study examined if parental TV viewing, parental self-efficacy or access to media equipment were associated with TV viewing among UK preschool-aged children. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 252 parents of 3-5-year-old children. Parents reported child and parent TV viewing and the number of TVs, DVDs, computers, games consoles, hand-held games consoles, music players and laptop computers in the home. Parents also completed scales which assessed their self-efficacy to limit the screen viewing (SV) and promote the physical activity (PA) and their own PA self-efficacy. Analysis indicated that around two thirds of the children spent two or more hours per day watching TV while 75 % of parents watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Logistic regression models showed that children who had a parent who watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day were over five times more likely to also watch ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Each unit increase in parental self-efficacy to limit SV was associated with a 77 % reduction in the likelihood that the child watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Each additional piece of media equipment in the home was associated with a 28 % increase in the likelihood that parents watched ≥ 2 h of TV per day. Family-based interventions focusing on changing access to home media equipment and building parental self-efficacy to reduce child TV viewing could form part of efforts to reduce TV viewing among preschool children.

  3. Software to improve spent fuel measurements using the FDET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, P.; Beddingfield, D.; Lestone, J.; Pelowitz, D.; Sprinkle, J.; Bytchkov, V.; Starovich, Z.; Harizanov, I.; Vellejo-Luna, J.; Lavender, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Vast quantities of spent fuel are available for safeguard measurements, primarily in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) of the former Soviet Union. This spent fuel, much of which consists of long cooling time material, is going to become less unique in the world safeguards arena as reprocessing projects or permanent repositories continue to be delayed or postponed. The long cooling time of many of the spent fuel assemblies in the CIS countries being prepared for intermediate term storage promotes the possibility of increased accuracy in spent fuel assays. An important point to consider for the future that could advance safeguards measurements for re-verification and inspection measurements would be to determine what safeguards requirements should be imposed upon this 'new' class of spent fuel. Improvements in measurement capability will obviously affect the safeguards requirements. What most significantly enables this progress in spent fuel measurements is the improvement in computer processing power and software enhancements leading to user-friendly Graphical User Interfaces (GUI's). The software used for these projects significantly reduces the IAEA inspector's time both learning and operating computer and data acquisition systems. While at the same time by standardizing the spent fuel measurements it is possible to increase reproducibility and reliability of the measurement data. The inclusion of various analysis algorithms into the operating environment, which can be performed in real time upon the measurement data, can also lead to increases in safeguard reliability and improvements in efficiency to plant operations. (author)

  4. The psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, J.; Eraenen, L.

    1999-03-01

    In this report the potential psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal to inhabitants of a community are assessed on the basis of earlier research. In studying the situation, different interpretations and meanings given to nuclear power are considered. First, spent fuel disposal is studied as fear-arousing and consequently stressful situation. Psychosomatic effects of stress and coping strategies used by an individual are presented. Stress as a collective phenomenon and coping mechanisms available for a community are also assessed. Stress reactions caused by natural disasters and technological disasters are compared. Consequences of nuclear power plant accidents are reviewed, e.g. research done on the accident at Three Mile Island power plant. Reasons for the disorganising effect on a community caused by a technological disaster are compared to the altruistic community often seen after natural disasters. The potential reactions that a spent fuel disposal plant can arouse in inhabitants are evaluated. Both short-term and long-term reactions are evaluated as well as reactions under normal functioning, after an incident and as a consequence of an accident. Finally an evaluation of how the decision-making system and citizens' opportunity to influence the decision-making affect the experience of threat is expressed. As a conclusion we see that spent fuel disposal can arouse fear and stress in people. However, the level of the stress is probably low. The stress is at strongest at the time of the starting of the spent fuel disposal plant. With time people get used to the presence of the plant and the threat experienced gets smaller. (orig.)

  5. Spent fuel treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  6. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  7. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  8. Parental Education and Pre-School Children’s Objectively Measured Sedentary Time: The Role of Co-Participation in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Määttä

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children’s sedentary time (ST. Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864, mean age 4.8, 52% boys with their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS (Increased Health and Wellbeing in Pre-schools study between years 2015 and 2016. Children (N = 821 wore an accelerometer for one week. Parents were informed of their educational background, and the frequency of visits with their child in nature, to parks or playgrounds, their own yard, and indoor sport facilities (N = 808. Testing the associations required multiple regression analyses. Parents with a low educational background reported more frequent visits with their child to their own yard, and these visits were associated with children’s lower ST. More highly educated parents co-visited indoor sport facilities more frequently, although this did not have a significant association with children’s ST. More frequent visits in nature were associated with a lower ST at weekdays, regardless of educational background. Future health promotion strategies should inform parents that frequent co-participation in PA, for example, in one’s own yard, is beneficial for lowering children’s ST.

  9. Parents and teachers reporting on a child's emotional and behavioural problems following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI): the moderating effect of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Tamar; Tal-Jacobi, Dana; Levav, Miriam; Brezner, Amichai; Rassovsky, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Gathering information from parents and teachers following paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has substantial clinical value for diagnostic decisions. Yet, a multi-informant approach has rarely been addressed when evaluating children at the chronic stage post-injury. In the current study, the goals were to examine (1) differences between parents' and teachers' reports on a child's emotional and behavioural problems and (2) the effect of time elapsed since injury on each rater's report. A sample of 42 parents and 42 teachers of children following severe TBI completed two standard rating scales. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine whether time elapsed since injury reliably distinguished children falling above and below clinical levels. Emotional-behavioural scores of children following severe TBI fell within normal range, according to both teachers and parents. Significant differences were found between parents' reports relatively close to the time of injury and 2 years post-injury. However, no such differences were observed in teachers' ratings. Parents and teachers of children following severe TBI differ in their reports on a child's emotional and behavioural problems. The present study not only underscores the importance of multiple informants, but also highlights, for the first time, the possibility that informants' perceptions may vary across time.

  10. The timing of maternal depressive symptoms and mothers' parenting practices with young children: implications for pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLearn, Kathryn Taaffe; Minkovitz, Cynthia S; Strobino, Donna M; Marks, Elisabeth; Hou, William

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms and its associated consequences on parental behaviors, child health, and development are well documented. Researchers have called for additional work to investigate the effects of the timing of maternal depressive symptoms at various stages in the development of the young child on the emergence of developmentally appropriate parenting practices. For clinicians, data are limited about when or how often to screen for maternal depressive symptoms or how to target anticipatory guidance to address parental needs. We sought to determine whether concurrent maternal depressive symptoms have a greater effect than earlier depressive symptoms on the emergence of maternal parenting practices at 30 to 33 months in 3 important domains of child safety, development, and discipline. Secondary analyses from the Healthy Steps National Evaluation were conducted for this study. Data sources included a self-administered enrollment questionnaire and computer-assisted telephone interviews with the mother when the Healthy Steps children were 2 to 4 and 30 to 33 months of age. The 30- to 33-month interview provided information about 4 safety practices (ie, always uses car seat, has electric outlet covers, has safety latches on cabinets, and lowered temperature on the water heater), 6 child development practices (ie, talks daily to child while working, plays daily with child, reads daily to child, limits child television and video watching to or = 3 daily routines, and being more nurturing), and 3 discipline practices (ie, uses more reasoning, uses more harsh punishment, and ever slapped child on the face or spanked the child with an object). The parenting practices were selected based on evidence of their importance for child health and development, near complete data, and sample variability. The discipline practices were constructed from the Parental Response to Misbehavior Scale. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using a 14-item

  11. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  13. Exploring Parental and Staff Perceptions of the Family-Integrated Care Model: A Qualitative Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Margaret; Parsons, Georgia; Carlisle, Hazel; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Thibeau, Shelley

    2017-12-01

    Family-integrated care (FICare) is an innovative model of care developed at Mount Sinai Hospital, Canada, to better integrate parents into the team caring for their infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The effects of FICare on neonatal outcomes and parental anxiety were assessed in an international multicenter randomized trial. As an Australian regional level 3 NICU that was randomized to the intervention group, we aimed to explore parent and staff perceptions of the FICare program in our dual occupancy NICU. This qualitative study took place in a level 3 NICU with 5 parent participants and 8 staff participants, using a post implementation review design. Parents and staff perceptions of FICare were explored through focus group methodology. Thematic content analysis was done on focus group transcripts. Parents and staff perceived the FICare program to have had a positive impact on parental confidence and role attainment and thought that FICare improved parent-to-parent and parent-to-staff communication. Staff reported that nurses working with families in the program performed less hands-on care and spent more time educating and supporting parents. FICare may change current NICU practice through integrating and accepting parents as active members of the infant's care team. In addition, nurse's roles may transition from bedside carer to care coordinator, educating and supporting parents during their journey through the NICU. Further research is needed to assess the long-term impact of FICare on neonates, parents, and staff.

  14. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD's work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools

  15. Children's GPS-determined versus self-reported transport in leisure time and associations with parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanwolleghem, Griet; Schipperijn, Jasper; Gheysen, Freja

    2016-01-01

    measured transport in leisure time and filled out a diary to assess self-reported transport in leisure time. Parents completed a questionnaire to assess parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment. Pearson correlations and t-tests were used to test for concurrent validity and differences between...... GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time. Generalized linear models were used to determine the associations between the parental perceptions of the neighborhood environment and GPS-determined transport in leisure time. RESULTS: Overall, children under-reported their walking......BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine both GPS-determined and self-reported walking, cycling and passive transport in leisure time during week- and weekend-days among 10 to 12-year old children. Comparisons between GPS-determined and self-reported transport in leisure time were investigated...

  16. Parental mediation of television viewing and videogaming of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Melissa H; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of different strategies, and whether mediation strategies changed over time. A secondary purpose was to examine whether parents applied different mediation strategies to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder versus siblings, and the factors that created stress related to managing media use. Parents of 29 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 16 siblings completed questionnaires at two time points. Parents most frequently supervised their television viewing by watching it with the adolescents, and used restrictive strategies to regulate their videogaming. Parents used similar strategies for siblings, but more frequently applied restrictive and instructive strategies for videogaming with adolescents with autism spectrum disorder than their siblings. Restrictive mediation of television viewing for the adolescents decreased significantly over the year. Adolescents' time spent in media activities, age, and behavior problems, and parents' concerns about media use were significant factors associated with the strategies that parents employed. Parents' stress related to the adolescents' behavioral and emotional responses to parental restrictions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Decision-making around moving on from full-time education: the roles and experiences of parents of disabled young people with degenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Jane; Beresford, Bryony

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about the decision-making processes that take place within families when a disabled young person is moving on from full-time education and, particularly, parents' roles and experiences. This paper reports the analysis of data collected from a subsample of parents (representing seventeen families) participating in the Choice and Change Project who had discussed choices associated with their child leaving full-time education. (The Choice and Change Project is a longitudinal, qualitative study of choice-making by four different groups of service users including disabled young people with degenerative conditions and their parents.) The data were collected from parents during up to three semi-structured interviews conducted over a thirty-month period. Descriptive theories of decision-making informed the analysis. Parents differed in the extent to which they were actively involved in making choices about the 'destination' of their child after leaving full-time education. To some extent, the ability of the young person to make choices themselves influenced this. Parents who were assuming responsibility for making choices stressed the importance of having relevant information and felt professionals had a key role to play in supporting access to information. Parents used a number of criteria to guide their choice-making, including distance from home, perceived quality of the environment and staff and the young person's responses to the setting. Much of the information needed to make a choice required a visit to all the possible options. Ensuring such visits were positive and useful experiences for themselves and their child could be very difficult; support to achieve these visits was highly valued but not routinely provided. The study also highlights the lack of recognition given to the significant amount of work that many parents undertake to ensure that a choice is realised, and also to the emotional journey parents take when making or assisting in such

  18. History of Maltreatment in Childhood and Subsequent Parenting Stress in At-Risk, First-Time Mothers: Identifying Points of Intervention During Home Visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Ammerman, Robert T; Teeters, Angelique R; Bensman, Heather E; Allen, Elizabeth K; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2017-04-01

    Home visiting is an effective preventive intervention that can improve parenting outcomes for at-risk, new mothers, thereby optimizing subsequent child development. A history of maltreatment in childhood is common in mothers participating in home visiting, yet the extent to which such a history is related to parenting outcomes during home visiting is unknown. The current study evaluated whether mothers with a history of maltreatment in childhood respond less favorably to home visiting by examining the direct and indirect pathways to subsequent parenting stress, a key parenting outcome affecting child development. First-time mothers (N = 220; age range = 16-42) participating in one of two home visiting programs, Healthy Families America or Nurse Family Partnership, were evaluated at enrollment and again at 9-and 18-month post-enrollment assessments. Researchers administered measures of maternal history of maltreatment in childhood, depressive symptoms, social support, and parenting stress. Maternal history of maltreatment in childhood predicted worsening parenting stress at the 18-month assessment. Mediation modeling identified two indirect pathways, one involving social support at enrollment and one involving persistent depressive symptoms during home visiting, that explained the relation between a history of maltreatment in childhood and parenting stress at the 18-month assessment. Ways to improve the preventive effects of home visiting for mothers with a history of maltreatment in childhood through the identification of relevant intervention targets and their ideal time of administration are discussed.

  19. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal expe...

  20. When Twenty-Four Hours Is Not Enough: Time Poverty of Working Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew S.; Mukhopadhyay, Arun K.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals can be money poor, time poor or both. While income is the most used indicator of poverty, broader indexes including non-monetary aspects of deprivation have been proposed and measured. As one such measure, our study focuses on the element of deprivation arising from the time deficit of many working people. The usual poverty threshold…

  1. Spent fuel element storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukaji, Hideo; Yamashita, Rikuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To always keep water level of a spent fuel cask pit equal with water level of spent fuel storage pool by means of syphon principle. Constitution: The pool water of a spent fuel storage pool is airtightly communicated through a pipe with the pool water of a spent fuel cask, and a gate is provided between the pool and the cask. Since cask is conveyed into the cask pit as the gate close while conveying, the pool water level is raised an amount corresponding to the volume of the cask, and water flow through scattering pipe and the communication pipe to the storage pool. When the fuel is conveyed out of the cask, the water level is lowered in the amount corresponding to the volume in the cask pit, and the water in the pool flow through the communication pipe to the cask pit. (Sekiya, K.)

  2. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  3. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Pattantyus, P.

    1999-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian spent fuel storage is presented. This includes wet and dry interim storage. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is nor planned, as dry technologies have found wide acceptance. The Canadian nuclear program is sustained by commercial Ontario Hydro CANDU type reactors, since 1971, representing 13600 MW(e) of installed capacity, able to produce 9200 spent fuel bundles (1800 tU) every year, and Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick CANDU reactors each producing 685 MW(e) and about 100 tU of spent fuel annually. The implementation of various interim (wt and dry) storage technologies resulted in simple, dense and low cost systems. Economical factors determined that the open cycle option be adopted for the CANDU type reactors rather that recycling the spent fuel. Research and development activities for immobilization and final disposal of nuclear waste are being undertaken in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  4. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs

  5. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  6. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  7. The association between parent-reported provider communication quality and child obesity status: Variation by parent obesity and child race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle S; Showell, Nakiya N; Bleich, Sara N; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Chan, Kitty S

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between healthcare provider communication quality and child obesity status, and the role of parent obesity and child race/ethnicity regarding this association. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis with the 2011-2013 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey of parents with children ages 6-12 (n=5390). We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of parent-reported healthcare provider communication quality (explaining well, listening carefully, showing respect, and spending enough time) with child obesity status, and effect modification by parent obesity and child race/ethnicity. Parents of obese children were more likely to report that their child's healthcare provider listened carefully (OR=1.41, p=0.002) and spent enough time (OR=1.33, p=0.022) than parents of non-obese children. Non-obese parents of obese children experienced better communication in the domains of listening carefully (pobese non-Hispanic Asian children and non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to report that providers explained things well (p=0.043) and listened carefully (p=0.012), respectively. Parents of obese children experienced better communication if parents were non-obese or children were non-Hispanic Black or Asian. Healthcare providers should ensure effective communication with obese parents of obese children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between Screen-Time and Motor Proficiency in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Geneviève; Bigras, Nathalie; Lemay, Lise; Lehrer, Joanne; Lemire, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between screen time (ST) and children's motor proficiency. The amount of time 113 children spent watching television, using a computer, and playing video games as reported by parents at ages 4, 5, and 7 was measured and children's motor skills were evaluated at age 7 with the…

  9. Time use of parents in the United States: What difference did the Great Recession make?

    OpenAIRE

    Kongar, Ebru; Berik, Günseli

    2014-01-01

    Feminist and institutionalist literature has challenged the "Mancession" narrative of the 2007-09 recession and produced nuanced and gender-aware analyses of the labor market and well-being outcomes of the recession. Using American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data for 2003-12, this paper examines the recession's impact on gendered patterns of time use over the course of the 2003-12 business cycle. We find that the gender disparity in paid and unpaid work hours followed a U-shaped pattern, narrowin...

  10. A survey in rural China of parent-absence through migrant working: the impact on their children's self-concept and loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Methods Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. Results The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians were found for self-concept among the comparison children. Conclusions The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The

  11. A survey in rural China of parent-absence through migrant working: the impact on their children's self-concept and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Juan; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Chun-Li; Wang, Yue; Guo, Qiang

    2010-01-23

    Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians) were found for self-concept among the comparison children. The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The acceptance and support from their parents could not be fully

  12. A survey in rural China of parent-absence through migrant working: the impact on their children's self-concept and loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the rapid increase of migrant workers in China, the number of "absent migrant parents" children is also rising fast. The "absent migrant parents" children might have an insecure relationship with their parents, have a different view of them, and be prone to have the feeling of loneliness. The purpose of the study was to compare the self-concept and loneliness between the "absent migrant parents" children and comparison children, to examine the relationship between self-concept and loneliness among the two groups, and to study the predictors of self-concept among the two groups. Methods Participants were 230 "absent migrant parents" children and 250 comparison children in the rural area of a county, China. The self-concept and loneliness of children were assessed using Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and Childhood Loneliness Scale. Results The "absent migrant parents" children were more likely to dislike their parents or be uncertain whether they like their parents, and they reported less time spent in physical and leisure time activities, higher loneliness and lower self-concept in comparison with the comparison children. Loneliness was significantly negatively correlated with all the dimensions of self-concept among the two groups. Regression analysis showed that self-concept was positively related to the relationship with parents and guardians and time spent in physical and leisure activities among the "absent migrant parents" children. The same factors (except the relationship with guardians) were found for self-concept among the comparison children. Conclusions The "absent migrant parents" children were more inclined to have lower self-concept and higher loneliness. The lower self-concept seemed to contribute to the higher loneliness of the "absent migrant parents" children. The lower self-concept of the "absent migrant parents" children was mainly related with their relationship with parents and guardians. The acceptance and support from

  13. Survey of experience with dry storage of spent nuclear fuel and update of wet storage experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Spent fuel storage is an important part of spent fuel management. At present about 45,000 t of spent water reactor fuel have been discharged worldwide. Only a small fraction of this fuel (approximately 7%) has been reprocessed. The amount of spent fuel arisings will increase significantly in the next 15 years. Estimates indicate that up to the year 2000 about 200,000 t HM of spent fuel could be accumulated. In view of the large quantities of spent fuel discharged from nuclear power plants and future expected discharges, many countries are involved in the construction of facilities for the storage of spent fuel and in the development of effective methods for spent fuel surveillance and monitoring to ensure that reliable and safe operation of storage facilities is achievable until the time when the final disposal of spent fuel or high level wastes is feasible. The first demonstrations of final disposal are not expected before the years 2000-2020. This is why the long term storage of spent fuel and HLW is a vital problem for all countries with nuclear power programmes. The present survey contains data on dry storage and recent information on wet storage, transportation, rod consolidation, etc. The main aim is to provide spent fuel management policy making organizations, designers, scientists and spent fuel storage facility operators with the latest information on spent fuel storage technology under dry and wet conditions and on innovations in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Evaluation of Timing and Dosage of a Parent-Based Intervention to Minimize College Students’ Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Cleveland, Michael J.; Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Abar, Caitlin; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study evaluated the timing and dosage of a parent-based intervention to minimize alcohol consumption for students with varying drinking histories. Method: First-year students (N = 1,900) completed Web assessments during the summer before college (baseline) and two follow-ups (fall of first and second years). Students were randomized to one of four conditions (pre-college matriculation [PCM], pre-college matriculation plus boosters [PCM+B], after college matriculation [ACM], and control conditions). Seven indicators of drinking (drink in past month, been drunk in past month, weekday [Sunday to Wednesday] drinking, Thursday drinking, weekend [Friday, Saturday] drinking, heavy episodic drinking in past 2 weeks, and peak blood alcohol concentration students. PMID:23200148

  15. Evaluation of timing and dosage of a parent-based intervention to minimize college students' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A; Cleveland, Michael J; Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Abar, Caitlin; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the timing and dosage of a parent-based intervention to minimize alcohol consumption for students with varying drinking histories. First-year students (N = 1,900) completed Web assessments during the summer before college (baseline) and two follow-ups (fall of first and second years). Students were randomized to one of four conditions (pre-college matriculation [PCM], pre-college matriculation plus boosters [PCM+B], after college matriculation [ACM], and control conditions). Seven indicators of drinking (drink in past month, been drunk in past month, weekday [Sunday to Wednesday] drinking, Thursday drinking, weekend [Friday, Saturday] drinking, heavy episodic drinking in past 2 weeks, and peak blood alcohol concentration students.

  16. Communicating a ‘Time-out’ in Parent-Child Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    2009-01-01

    to discipline young children who are misbehaving. Rather than debate the merits of the ‘time-out’ as an appropriate disciplinary instrument, this paper explores the local, emergent and negotiated accomplishment of disciplinary practices of temporal and spatial restraint that involve embodied (inter...

  17. Parents' Family Time and Work Schedules: The Split-Shift Schedule in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.; Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data on couples from the 2003 Spanish Time Use Survey (N = 1,416) to analyze how work schedules are associated with family, couple, parent–child, and non-family leisure activities. Spain is clearly an interesting case for the institutionalized split-shift schedule, a long lunch break

  18. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriweradechachai Suntree

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.

  19. Comparison of spent fuel management fee collection alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Engel, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Five alternative methods for recovering the costs of spent fuel management were evaluated. These alternatives consist of collecting the fee for various components of spent fuel management cost (AFR basin storage, transportation from AFR basin to the repository, packaging, repository, R and D, and government overhead) at times ranging from generation of power to delivery of the spent fuel to the government. The five fee collection mechanisms were analyzed to determine how well they serve the interests of the public and the electricity ratepayer

  20. Spent-fuel transport: available as needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, L.

    1976-01-01

    As a result of the general uncertainty as to when commercial reprocessing will actually take place in the United States (U.S.) and the long lead times now required before bringing a spent-fuel cask system in operation, it appears that serious problems can arise by 1979-1980 in cask capacity availability. Compounding the uncertainty with respect to cask capacity availability is the position taken by some of the U.S. railroad systems and some state and local governmental agencies in imposing restraints in the movement of spent fuel. By utility companies taking risk in committing to casks in advance of the actual requirement dates and by cask suppliers assuming the risks of licensing, costs, and delivery schedules, this potential bottleneck could be minimized

  1. Impact analysis of spent fuel jacket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the analyses performed in support of the reracking of the High Flux Isotope Reactor pool, it became necessary to prove the structural integrity of the spent fuel jacket assemblies subjected to gravity drop that result from postulated accidents associated with the handling of these assemblies while submerged in the pool. The spent fuel jacket assemblies are an integral part of the reracking project, and serve to house fuel assemblies. The structure integrity of the jacket assemblies from loads that result from impact from a height of 10 feet onto specified targets has been performed analytically using the computer program LS-DYNA3D. Nine attitudes of the assembly at the time of impact have been considered. Results of the analyses show that there is no failure of the assemblies as a result of the impact scenarios considered

  2. ENVI Model Development for Korean Nuclear Spent Fuel Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sunyoung; Jeong, Yon Hong; Han, Jae-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Hwang, Yong-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be operated from 2051. This paper presents the ENVI code developed by GoldSim Software to simulate options for managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in South Korea. The ENVI is a simulator to allow decision-makers to assist to evaluate the performance for spent nuclear fuel management. The multiple options for managing the spent nuclear fuel including the storage and transportation are investigated into interim storage, permanent disposal in geological repositories and overseas and domestic reprocessing. The ENVI code uses the GoldSim software to simulate the logistics of the associated activities. The result by the ENVI model not only produces the total cost to compare among the multiple options but also predict the sizes and timings of different facilities required. In order to decide the policy for spent nuclear management this purpose of this paper is to draw the optimum management plan to solve the nuclear spent fuel issue in the economical aspects. This paper is focused on the development of the ENVI's logic and calculations to simulate four options(No Reprocessing, Overseas Reprocessing, Domestic Reprocessing, and Overseas and Domestic Reprocessing) for managing the spent nuclear fuel in South Korea. The time history of the spent nuclear fuel produced from both the existing and future NPP's can be predicted, based on the Goldsim software made available very user friendly model. The simulation result will be used to suggest the strategic plans for the spent nuclear fuel management.

  3. ENVI Model Development for Korean Nuclear Spent Fuel Options Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sunyoung; Jeong, Yon Hong; Han, Jae-Jun; Lee, Aeri; Hwang, Yong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be operated from 2051. This paper presents the ENVI code developed by GoldSim Software to simulate options for managing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in South Korea. The ENVI is a simulator to allow decision-makers to assist to evaluate the performance for spent nuclear fuel management. The multiple options for managing the spent nuclear fuel including the storage and transportation are investigated into interim storage, permanent disposal in geological repositories and overseas and domestic reprocessing. The ENVI code uses the GoldSim software to simulate the logistics of the associated activities. The result by the ENVI model not only produces the total cost to compare among the multiple options but also predict the sizes and timings of different facilities required. In order to decide the policy for spent nuclear management this purpose of this paper is to draw the optimum management plan to solve the nuclear spent fuel issue in the economical aspects. This paper is focused on the development of the ENVI's logic and calculations to simulate four options(No Reprocessing, Overseas Reprocessing, Domestic Reprocessing, and Overseas and Domestic Reprocessing) for managing the spent nuclear fuel in South Korea. The time history of the spent nuclear fuel produced from both the existing and future NPP's can be predicted, based on the Goldsim software made available very user friendly model. The simulation result will be used to suggest the strategic plans for the spent nuclear fuel management

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  5. Container for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The container of the present invention comprises a container main body having a body portion which can contain spent fuel assemblies and a lid, and heat pipes having an evaporation portion disposed along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies to be contained and a condensation portion exposed to the outside of the container main body. Further, the heat pipe is formed spirally at the evaporation portions so as to surround the outer circumference of the spent fuel assemblies, branched into a plurality of portions at the condensation portion, each of the branched portion of the condensation portion being exposed to the outside of the container main body, and is tightly in contact with the periphery of the slit portions disposed to the container main body. Then, since released after heat is transferred to the outside of the container main body from the evaporation portion of the heat pipe along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies by way of the condensation portion of the heat pipes exposed to the outside of the container main body, the efficiency of the heat transfer is extremely improved to enhance the effect of removing heat of spent fuel assemblies. Further, cooling effect is enhanced by the spiral form of the evaporation portion and the branched condensation portion. (N.H.)

  6. Chimeric β-Lactamases: Global Conservation of Parental Function and Fast Time-Scale Dynamics with Increased Slow Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouthier, Christopher M.; Morin, Sébastien; Gobeil, Sophie M. C.; Doucet, Nicolas; Blanchet, Jonathan; Nguyen, Elisabeth; Gagné, Stéphane M.; Pelletier, Joelle N.

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme engineering has been facilitated by recombination of close homologues, followed by functional screening. In one such effort, chimeras of two class-A β-lactamases – TEM-1 and PSE-4 – were created according to structure-guided protein recombination and selected for their capacity to promote bacterial proliferation in the presence of ampicillin (Voigt et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 2002 9:553). To provide a more detailed assessment of the effects of protein recombination on the structure and function of the resulting chimeric enzymes, we characterized a series of functional TEM-1/PSE-4 chimeras possessing between 17 and 92 substitutions relative to TEM-1 β-lactamase. Circular dichroism and thermal scanning fluorimetry revealed that the chimeras were generally well folded. Despite harbouring important sequence variation relative to either of the two ‘parental’ β-lactamases, the chimeric β-lactamases displayed substrate recognition spectra and reactivity similar to their most closely-related parent. To gain further insight into the changes induced by chimerization, the chimera with 17 substitutions was investigated by NMR spin relaxation. While high order was conserved on the ps-ns timescale, a hallmark of class A β-lactamases, evidence of additional slow motions on the µs-ms timescale was extracted from model-free calculations. This is consistent with the greater number of resonances that could not be assigned in this chimera relative to the parental β-lactamases, and is consistent with this well-folded and functional chimeric β-lactamase displaying increased slow time-scale motions. PMID:23284969

  7. Parent-child attitude congruence on type and intensity of physical activity: Testing multiple mediators of sedentary behavior in older children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined parent–child attitudes on value of specific types and intensities of physical activity, which may explain gender differences in child activity, and evaluated physical activity as a mechanism to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors. A community sample of 681 parents and 433 ch...

  8. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B S; Park, Y S; Oh, S C; Kim, S H; Cho, M W; Hong, D H

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  9. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H.

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation's policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  10. Spent Pot Lining Characterization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Gustavo; Hassan, Mohamed I.

    2017-09-01

    Spent pot lining (SPL) management represents a major concern for aluminum smelters. There are two key elements for spent pot lining management: recycling and safe storage. Spent pot lining waste can potentially have beneficial uses in co-firing in cement plants. Also, safe storage of SPL is of utmost importance. Gas generation of SPL reaction with water and ignition sensitivity must be studied. However, determining the feasibility of SPL co-firing and developing the required procedures for safe storage rely on determining experimentally all the necessary SPL properties along with the appropriate test methods, recognized by emissions standards and fire safety design codes. The applicable regulations and relevant SPL properties for this purpose are presented along with the corresponding test methods.

  11. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and Department of Energy (DOE) estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented for the next 20 years, through the year 2007. The eventual needs for additional spent fuel storage capacity are estimated. These estimates are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December 1987 and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to DOE through the 1988 RW-859 data survey and by DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 12 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs

  12. Do children report differently from their parents and from observed data? Cross-sectional data on fruit, water, sugar-sweetened beverages and break-time foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Gaar, V M; Jansen, W; van der Kleij, M J J; Raat, H

    2016-04-18

    Reliable assessment of children's dietary behaviour is needed for research purposes. The aim of this study was (1) to investigate the level of agreement between observed and child-reported break-time food items; and (2) to investigate the level of agreement between children's reports and those of their parents regarding children's overall consumption of fruit, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The children in this study were 9-13 years old, attending primary schools in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Children were observed with respect to foods brought for break-time at school. At the same day, children completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to recall the food(s) they brought to school to consume during break-time. Only paired data (observed and child-reported) were included in the analyses (n = 407 pairs). To determine each child's daily consumption and average amounts of fruit, water and SSB consumed, children and their parents completed parallel questionnaires. Only paired data (parent-reported and child-reported) were included in the analyses (n = 275 pairs). The main statistical measures were level of agreement between break-time foods, fruit, water and SSB; and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC). More children reported bringing sandwiches and snacks for break-time than was observed (73 % vs 51 % observed and 84 % vs 33 % observed). The overall agreement between observed and child-reported break-time foods was poor to fair, with ICC range 0.16-0.39 (p Children reported higher average amounts of SSB consumed than did their parents (1.3 vs 0.9 L SSB, p parent estimations of the child's water and fruit consumption were similar. ICC between parent and child reports was poor to good (range 0.22-0.62, p Children report higher on amount of break-time foods as compared to observations and children's reports of SSB consumption are higher than those of their parents. Since the level of agreement between the observed break-time

  13. A pilot, family-based randomised controlled trial to reduce screen time and unhealthy snacking in children and their parents: Kids FIRST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Pearson

    2015-10-01

    To our knowledge, Kids FIRST is the first pilot RCT to examine the effectiveness of behaviour change strategies for reducing children’s screen-time and unhealthy snacking. The integration of consistent, evidence-based and theory informed strategies and messages to children and their parents in the family and school settings are critical components of this pilot study. The results of this study will provide evidence on the feasibility and effectiveness of single versus multiple behaviour intervention strategies. If shown to be feasible and effective, the Kids FIRST study may have a significant impact on the home environment and parenting practices relating to screen time and unhealthy snacking.

  14. Do children report differently from their parents and from observed data? Cross-sectional data on fruit, water, sugar-sweetened beverages and break-time foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. van de Gaar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable assessment of children’s dietary behaviour is needed for research purposes. The aim of this study was (1 to investigate the level of agreement between observed and child-reported break-time food items; and (2 to investigate the level of agreement between children’s reports and those of their parents regarding children’s overall consumption of fruit, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB. Methods The children in this study were 9–13 years old, attending primary schools in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Children were observed with respect to foods brought for break-time at school. At the same day, children completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to recall the food(s they brought to school to consume during break-time. Only paired data (observed and child-reported were included in the analyses (n = 407 pairs. To determine each child’s daily consumption and average amounts of fruit, water and SSB consumed, children and their parents completed parallel questionnaires. Only paired data (parent-reported and child-reported were included in the analyses (n = 275 pairs. The main statistical measures were level of agreement between break-time foods, fruit, water and SSB; and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC. Results More children reported bringing sandwiches and snacks for break-time than was observed (73 % vs 51 % observed and 84 % vs 33 % observed. The overall agreement between observed and child-reported break-time foods was poor to fair, with ICC range 0.16–0.39 (p < 0.05. Children reported higher average amounts of SSB consumed than did their parents (1.3 vs 0.9 L SSB, p < 0.001. Child and parent estimations of the child’s water and fruit consumption were similar. ICC between parent and child reports was poor to good (range 0.22–0.62, p < 0.05. Conclusion Children report higher on amount of break-time foods as compared to observations and children’s reports of

  15. Economics of National Waste Terminal Storage Spent Fuel Pricing Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    The methodology for equitably pricing commercial nuclear spent fuel management is developed, and the results of four sample calculations are presented. The spent fuel management program analyzed places encapsulated spent fuel in bedded salt while maintaining long-term retrievability. System design was reasonable but not optimum. When required, privately-owned Away From Reactor (AFR) storage is provided and the spent fuel placed in AFR storage is eventually transported to final storage. Applicable Research and Development and Government Overhead are included. The cost of each component by year was estimated from the most recent applicable data source available. These costs were input to the pricing methodology to establish a one-time charge whose present value exactly recovered the present value of the expenditure flow. The four cases exercised were combinations of a high and a low quantity of spent fuel managed, with a single repository (venture) or a multiple repository (campaign) approach to system financial structure. The price for spent fuel management calculated ranged from 116 to 152 dollars (1978) per kilogram charged initially to the reactor. The effect of spent fuel receiving rate on price is illustrated by the fact that the extremes of price did not coincide with the cases having the extremes of undiscounted cost. These prices for spent fuel management are comparable in magnitude to other fuel cycle costs. The range of variation is small because of compensating effects, i.e., additional costs for high early deliveries (AFR and transportation) versus lower present value of future revenue for later delivery cases. The methodology contains numerous conservative assumptions, provisions for contingencies, and covers the complete set of spent fuel management expenses

  16. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, J.A.; Gravalos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    There are presently nine Light Water Reactors in operation, representing around a 34% of the overall electricity production. In the early years, a small amount of spent fuel was sent to be reprocessed, although this policy was cancelled in favor of the open cycle option. A state owned company, ENRESA, was created in 1984, which was given the mandate to manage all kinds of radioactive wastes generated in the country. Under the present scenari