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Sample records for parents establishing paternity

  1. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

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    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  2. Proposed amendments to the legal proposition on establishment of non-marital paternity from 1855

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    Kulauzov Maša M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed amendments to the article 130 of Serbian Civil Code (henceforth: SCC of 1844 regarding establishment of non-marital paternity were scrutinized in this paper. Originally, establishment of non-marital paternity was granted, but with significant restriction that presumed parent could have been declared the father of an illegitimate child only if he had recognized paternity. That is the reason why in 1855 the Supreme Court suggested amendment to the provision concerning determination of paternity. According to proposed modification, evidence that presumed father was on intimate terms with child's mother in the time of conception should have been sufficient for establishment of paternity. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Serbian 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, the Ministry of Justice, the State Council and Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević were not interested in bettering their position by widening possibilities of determination of fatherhood. Subsequently, in 1868 the amendment was passed by which non-marital paternity could not have been established by a court order, subject to certain exceptions (if one raped or abducted a woman, and the time of conception coincided with the time of abduction or rape. Since 1868 paternity could have been determined solely subject to the consent, i.e. recognition of the illegitimate father.

  3. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

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    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  4. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for... through video or audio equipment, and in writing, of the alternatives to, the legal consequences of, and...

  5. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence.

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    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems doubled the likelihood of alcohol dependence. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Offspring of parental divorce may be more vulnerable to developing alcohol dependence, particularly when one or both parents have alcohol problems.

  6. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

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    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  7. Paternal Caregivers' Parenting Practices and Psychological Functioning among African American Youth Living in Urban Public Housing.

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    Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E

    2017-09-01

    Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  8. Investigation of paternity establishing without the putative father using hypervariable DNA probes.

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    Yokoi, T; Odaira, T; Nata, M; Sagisaka, K

    1990-09-01

    Seven kinds of DNA probes which recognize hypervariable loci were applied for paternity test. The putative father was decreased and unavailable for the test. The two legitimate children and their mother (the deceased's wife) and the four illegitimate children and their mother (the deceased's kept mistress) were available for analysis. Paternity index of four illegitimate child was investigated. Allelic frequencies and their confidence intervals among unrelated Japanese individuals were previously reported from our laboratory, and co-dominant segregation of the polymorphism was confirmed in family studies. Cumulative paternity indices of four illegitimate children from 16 kinds of standard blood group markers were 165, 42, 0.09, and 36, respectively. On the other hand, cumulative paternity indices from 7 kinds of DNA probes are 2,363, 4,685, 57,678, and 54,994, respectively, which are 14, 113, 640, 864, and 1,509 times higher than that from standard blood group markers. The DNA analyses gave nearly conclusive evidence that the putative father was the biological father of the children. Especially, the paternity relation of the third illegitimate child could not be established without the DNA analyses. Accordingly, DNA polymorphism is considered to be informative enough for paternity test.

  9. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

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    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  10. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

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    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation.

  12. Sex differences in life history drive evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care.

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    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar - that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation - transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parentalpaternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other

  13. Adolescents' perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting styles in a Chinese context.

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    Shek, D T

    1998-09-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 429) were asked to respond to instruments measuring their perception of parents' global parenting styles and specific parenting practices. Results showed that there were significant differences between reported paternal parenting and maternal parenting characteristics, with fathers perceived as relatively less responsive, less demanding, less concerned, and more harsh. Adolescent girls' perceptions of fathers' parenting characteristics generally did not differ from those of the boys, but the girls tended to perceive their mothers as more demanding but less harsh. The present findings provide some support for the popular Chinese saying, "strict father, kind mother," but they also suggest that it requires redefinition.

  14. A Comparison of Maternal and Paternal Experiences of Becoming Parents of a Very Preterm Infant.

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    Provenzi, Livio; Barello, Serena; Fumagalli, Monica; Graffigna, Guendalina; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    To compare maternal and paternal experiences of very preterm (VPT) birth (gestational age < 32 weeks) and the NICU stay. Qualitative study. Data collection took place at parents' homes 3 to 6 months after NICU discharge. Ten parental couples participated in the study (20 parents). All VPT infants were healthy, without any neonatal or postnatal complications or injuries. Computer-assisted content analysis was used to highlight thematic clusters from parents' narratives, which were labeled through qualitative interpretation. Two main dimensions (Adjustment Process to Preterm Birth and Parental Role Assumption) and three main thematic clusters (Facing the Unexpected, Learning to Parent, and Finally Back Home) described the parental experience. Mothers focused mostly on the Finally Back Home cluster, which was characterized by moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by awareness of their own maternal roles. Fathers focused mostly on the Learning to Parent cluster, which was characterized by low to moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by a limited assumption of paternal role. To our knowledge, this study is unique in that we compared mothers and fathers who experienced the VPT births of their infants and described their experiences of the NICU stay. We found that the VPT birth experience for parents involves a dynamic adjustment. Differences in maternal and paternal experiences may indicate the need for tailored supportive interventions in the NICU. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem, Depression and Life-Satisfaction

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    Milevsky, Avidan; Schlechter, Melissa; Netter, Sarah; Keehn, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Our study examined variations in adolescent adjustment as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included 272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological…

  16. Associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors, anxiety and its precursors in early childhood: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, E.L.; Nikolić, M.; Majdandžić, M.; Bögels, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children

  17. Maternal and paternal infant representations: A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants

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    Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakel, van H.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed

  18. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

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    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  19. Maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting as determinants of sport participation of adolescents with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sluijs, E.M.F. van

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with

  20. Maternal and paternal infant representations : A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed

  1. Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress.

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    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira

    2016-12-12

    Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p parenting stress (β = -0.25, p parenting stress partially mediates that association. This result emphasizes the importance of fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress on early infant

  2. Correspondence between Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Early Childhood

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    Winsler, A.; Madigan, A.L.; Aquilino, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate perceived similarities and differences in parenting styles between mothers and fathers in the same family. The 56 parents of 28 preschool children independently completed the parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ) [Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Frost Olsen, S., & Hart, C. H. (2001).…

  3. Paternal and maternal transition to parenthood: the risk of postpartum depression and parenting stress

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    Maria Stella Epifanio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development.

  4. Intergenerational Transmission of Maternal and Paternal Parenting Beliefs: The Moderating Role of Interaction Qualit

    OpenAIRE

    Erzinger Andrea B.; Steiger Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    The finding that values, attitudes, and behaviour can be transmitted across generations is long standing. However, the role of fathers in this process has been underinvestigated. Furthermore, many researchers have not tested moderation effects. We extended the literature by investigating maternal and paternal transmission of harsh parenting beliefs to their children 23 years later. Furthermore, we examined the moderating role of interaction quality and included gender and socioeconomic status...

  5. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspring lifetime suicide attempt.

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    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

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    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dimensions of Short-Term and Long-Term Self-Regulation in Adolescence: Associations with Maternal and Paternal Parenting and Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

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    Moilanen, Kristin L; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Blaacker, Debra R

    2018-02-21

    Relatively little is known about the degree to which subcomponents of self-regulation change during early to middle adolescence. This study considered familial predictors (maternal/paternal regulatory support, antagonistic parenting, and parent-child closeness) of rank-order change in behavioral, emotional and cognitive regulation and perseverance over one year. N = 452 adolescents ages 11-16 years and their parents completed questionnaires and parent-child discussion tasks (48.7% male; 69.6% white). Results indicated minimal direct effects of parenting, though maternal and paternal parenting and parent-child closeness exerted small effects that were moderated by prior levels of cognitive regulation and perseverance. Parents may contribute to the development of complex regulatory capacities that mature after foundational emotional and behavioral regulation competencies.

  8. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

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    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors, anxiety and its precursors in early childhood: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Eline L; Nikolić, Milica; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-04-01

    In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children (0-5years). Two meta-analyses were conducted, one for mothers (k=28, N=5,728), and one for fathers (k=12, N=1,019). In general, associations between parenting and child anxiety were small. Associations between child anxiety and overcontrol, overprotection, and overinvolvement did not differ for mothers and fathers. Maternal autonomy granting was not significantly related to child anxiety, and no studies examined fathers' autonomy granting. A significant difference was found for challenging parenting; mothers' challenging parenting was not significantly related to child anxiety, whereas fathers' challenging parenting was related to less child anxiety. Post-hoc meta-analyses revealed that mothers' and fathers' parenting was more strongly related to children's anxiety symptoms than to child anxiety precursors. Moreover, the association between parenting and child anxiety symptoms was stronger for fathers than for mothers. In conclusion, although parenting plays only a small role in early childhood anxiety, fathers' parenting is at least as important as mothers'. Paternal challenging behavior even seems more important than maternal challenging behavior. Research is needed to determine whether challenging fathering can prevent child anxiety development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Paternity protection can provide a kick-start for the evolution of male-only parental care.

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    Kahn, Andrew T; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2013-08-01

    Sperm competition and uncertainty of paternity hamper the evolution of male parental care. Thus, maternal care predominates in most taxa. What if males can, however, limit cuckoldry by guarding the eggs postmating? Here, we show that this provides a reason to reconsider an old and nowadays rather discredited hypothesis: that external fertilization is associated with male care because the parent who releases its gametes first can depart leaving the other in a "cruel bind," having to care for the offspring. In our model, protection of paternity provides an additional incentive for the male to stay associated with its young. When we then assume that offspring survive better if guarded, paternity protection proves enough to kick-start the evolution of male-only parental care from a scenario with no care. This fits with data from fishes, where male-only care is associated with external fertilization, whereas female-only care almost always evolves after an initial transition to internal fertilization. Our model unifies disparate hypotheses regarding parental care roles and provides support for the idea that care roles can be influenced by sex differences in selection to be physically close to the offspring, including selection that is initially not based on offspring survival. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Large-scale parent-child comparison confirms a strong paternal influence on telomere length.

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    Nordfjäll, Katarina; Svenson, Ulrika; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik; Adolfsson, Rolf; Roos, Göran

    2010-03-01

    Telomere length is documented to have a hereditary component, and both paternal and X-linked inheritance have been proposed. We investigated blood cell telomere length in 962 individuals with an age range between 0 and 102 years. Telomere length correlations were analyzed between parent-child pairs in different age groups and between grandparent-grandchild pairs. A highly significant correlation between the father's and the child's telomere length was observed (r=0.454, Pfather-son: r=0.465, Pfather-daughter: r=0.484, Pmothers, the correlations were weaker (mother-child: r=0.148, P=0.098; mother-son: r=0.080, P=0.561; mother-daughter: r=0.297, P=0.013). A positive telomere length correlation was also observed for grandparent-grandchild pairs (r=0.272, P=0.013). Our findings indicate that fathers contribute significantly stronger to the telomere length of the offspring compared with mothers (P=0.012), but we cannot exclude a maternal influence on the daughter's telomeres. Interestingly, the father-child correlations diminished with increasing age (P=0.022), suggesting that nonheritable factors have an impact on telomere length dynamics during life.

  12. Parents' Relative Socioeconomic Status and Paternal Involvement in Chinese Families: The Mediating Role of Coparenting.

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    Liu, Chang; Wu, Xinchun; Zou, Shengqi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of coparenting in the association between differences/similarities in paternal and maternal socioeconomic status (SES) and paternal involvement in Chinese families. The sample included 244 couples with children aged 3-7 years. Fathers and mothers reported their individual incomes, educational levels, occupations, and coparenting behavior (measured using the Coparenting Scale), and fathers completed the Father Involvement Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the associations between SES and paternal involvement. Results suggested that SES indicator measures were outcome specific. Occupational differences/similarities were associated with paternal involvement indirectly, via fathers' family integrity practices. Income and educational differences/similarities did not affect paternal involvement. The results suggested that the traditional Chinese view that "men are chiefly responsible for activity in society, while women are responsible for the home" has faded.

  13. Sex differences in Little Auk Alle alle parental care: Transition from biparental to paternal-only care

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    Harding, A.M.A.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Lifjeld, J.T.; Mehlum, F.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding differences in male and female care in biparental care systems can help interpret the selective pressures that shape parental strategies. We examined Little Auk Alle alle parental care at a breeding colony during the chick-rearing and fledging periods by conducting observations on marked, known-sex pairs, and by examining the sex ratio of birds carrying food to the colony. Little Auks transitioned from biparental to mostly paternal-only care during late chick-rearing. Males delivered more meals and spent more time at the colony than females during late chick-rearing. Very few females were present at the colony by the end of chick-rearing and through the fledging period, and all marked parents observed accompanying their chick to sea were male. Chick mass loss prior to fledging was associated with the lack of provisioning by the female parent, rather than a reduction in feeding frequency by both parents. The occurrence of paternal-only care during and after fledging is discussed in relation to physiological, ecological and phylogenetic constraints.

  14. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  15. The association of parental education with childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries: comparing the role of paternal and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Bommer, Christian; Krishna, Aditi; Harttgen, Kenneth; Subramanian, S V

    2017-02-01

    Most existing research on the association of parental education with childhood undernutrition focuses on maternal education and often ignores paternal education. We systematically investigate differences in maternal and paternal education and their association with childhood undernutrition. One hundred and eighty Demographic and Health Surveys from 62 countries performed between 1990 and 2014 were analysed. We used linear-probability models to predict childhood undernutrition prevalences, measured as stunting, underweight and wasting, for all combinations of maternal and paternal attainment in school. Models were adjusted for demographic and socio-economic covariates for the child, mother and household, country-level fixed effects and clustering. Additional specifications adjust for local area characteristics instead of country fixed effects. Both higher maternal and paternal education levels are associated with lower childhood undernutrition. In regressions adjusted for child age and sex as well as country-level fixed effects, the association is stronger for maternal education than for paternal education when their combined level of education is held constant. In the fully adjusted models, the observed differences in predicted undernutrition prevalences are strongly attenuated, suggesting a similar importance of maternal and paternal education. These findings are confirmed by the analysis of composite schooling indicators. We find that paternal education is similarly important for reducing childhood undernutrition as maternal education and should therefore receive increased attention in the literature. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  16. Evidence of multiple paternity and cooperative parental care in the so called monogamous silver arowana Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Osteoglossiformes: Osteoglossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Tovar Verba

    Full Text Available Monogamy is rare in fishes and is usually associated with elaborate parental care. When parental care is present in fishes, it is usually the male that is responsible, and it is believed that there is a relationship between the high energetic investment and the certainty of paternity (except in the case of sneaker males. Osteoglossum bicirrhosum is considered a monogamous fish, and has particular behavioral traits that permit the study of mating systems and parental care, such as male mouthbrooding. We investigated the genetic relationships of males with the broods found in their oral cavities in Osteoglossum samples collected in a natural environment in the lower Purus river basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Fourteen broods were analyzed for parentage (268 young and 14 adult males using eight microsatellite loci. The results indicate that eleven broods show a monogamous system. In one brood, however, approximately 50% of the young were genetically compatible with being offspring of another male, and in another two broods, none of the subsampled young were compatible with the genotypes of the brooding male. The result of this first brood may be explained by the extra-parental contribution of a sneaker male, whereas cooperative parental care may explain the result in the other two broods.

  17. Maternal and paternal genomes function independently in mouse ova in establishing expression of the imprinted genes Snrpn and Igf2r: no evidence for allelic trans-sensing and counting mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó, P E; Mann, J R

    1996-01-01

    It has often been suggested that the parental-specific expression of mammalian imprinted genes might be dependent on maternal-paternal intergenomic or interallelic interactions. Using quantitative allele-specific RT-PCR single nucleotide primer extension assays developed for two imprinted genes, Snrpn and Igf2r, we demonstrate: (i) No role for maternal-paternal allelic interactions: the modes of parental-specific expression of Snrpn and Igf2r in normal ova were unchanged in gynogenetic and an...

  18. A study of the efficacy of fathers’ attachment training on paternal-fetal attachment and parental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Setodeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Attachment behaviors play an important role in accepting the identity of the fathers, the pleasant outcome of pregnancy and the child’s growth and development in the future. Objectives . This study aimed to investigate the effect of father’s attachment training (awaiting a child on paternal-fetal attachment and parental anxiety. Material and methods . This clinical trial was conducted on 150 spouses of eligible pregnant women. In the intervention group, four 90-minute training sessions were designed on maternal-fetal attachment, while the control group received routine prenatal care. The questionnaire of paternal-fetal attachment was completed both before and after intervention in both cases and control groups. Data analysis was done in SPSS software using a paired t-test and independent t-test (the significant level was 0.05. Results . The mean score of attachment was reported as 56.61 ± 6.05 and 64.53 ± 6.94 both before and after intervention, respectively. According to the paired t-test, there was a significant difference in the attachment score after intervention (p < 0.001. According to the independent t-test applied a month after intervention, the comparison of fathers’ anxiety scores before and after intervention showed a significant difference between the control and intervention groups (p < 0.001. Conclusions . Training fathers about attachment skills leads to increased paternal-fetal attachment and a lower anxiety score. Therefore, it seems necessary to include education of fathers in prenatal care.

  19. Natural variations in maternal and paternal care are associated with systematic changes in oxytocin following parent-infant contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Gordon, Ilanit; Schneiderman, Inna; Weisman, Omri; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2010-09-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) plays a critical role in processes of parent-infant bonding through mechanisms of early parental care, particularly maternal grooming and contact. Yet, the involvement of OT in human parenting remains poorly understood, no data are available on the role of OT in the development of human fathering, and the links between patterns of parental care and the OT response have not been explored in humans. One hundred and twelve mothers and fathers engaged in a 15-min play-and-contact interaction with their 4-6-month-old infants and interactions were micro-coded for patterns of parental touch. Results showed that baseline levels of plasma and salivary OT in mothers and fathers were similar, OT levels in plasma and saliva were inter-related, and OT was associated with the parent-specific mode of tactile contact. Human mothers who provided high levels of affectionate contact showed an OT increase following mother-infant interaction but such increase was not observed among mothers displaying low levels of affectionate contact. Among fathers, only those exhibiting high levels of stimulatory contact showed an OT increase. These results demonstrate consistency in the neuroendocrine basis of human parental interactions with those seen in other mammals. The findings underscore the need to provide opportunities for paternal care to trigger the biological basis of fatherhood and suggest that interventions that permit social engagement may be recommended in conditions of diminished maternal-infant contact, such as prematurity or postpartum depression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Marital conflict, maternal and paternal parenting, and child adjustment: a test of mediation and moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, Karen J; Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe

    2006-06-01

    Parenting was examined as a mediator of associations between marital and child adjustment, and parent gender was examined as a moderator of associations among marital, parental, and child functioning in 226 families with a school-age child (146 boys). Parenting fully mediated associations between marital conflict and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parent gender did not moderate associations when data from the full sample or families with girls only were evaluated. Parent gender did moderate associations when families with boys were evaluated, with the association between marital conflict and parenting stronger for fathers than mothers. A trend suggested fathers' parenting may be more strongly related to internalizing behavior and mothers' parenting may be more strongly related to externalizing behavior in boys. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Executive functions in early childhood: the role of maternal and paternal parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Nicole; Kok, Rianne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Lambregtse-Van den Berg, Mijke P; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the association between mothers' and fathers' harsh parenting and sensitive parenting practices and child's executive functions (EF) in early childhood in 607 families. We focused on three broad dimensions of child EF: Emergent metacognition, inhibitory self-control, and flexibility measured with the parent-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Less sensitive parenting of the mother and harsher parenting of the father were related to lower scores of emergent metacognition and inhibitory self-control. Parenting was not associated with child flexibility. This study extends previous research on the association between parenting and EF by the focus on the role of the father and demonstrates independent effects of mother and father on child EF. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H; Smeenk, Wilma

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Maladjustment: The Mediating Role of Parental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined parental behaviors as mediators in links between depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers and child adjustment problems. Participants were 4,184 parents and 6,048 10- to 15-year-olds enrolled in the 1998 and 2000 cycles of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Mothers and fathers self-reported…

  4. Children's Intent Attributions and Feelings of Distress: Associations with Maternal and Paternal Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A.; Coyne, Sarah M.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies point to the importance of social information processing mechanisms in understanding distinct child behaviors such as aggression. However, few studies have assessed whether parenting might be related to such mechanisms. This study considers how aversive forms of parenting (i.e., corporal punishment, psychological control) as well as…

  5. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles: Unique and Combined Links to Adolescent and Early Adult Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.; Smeenk, Wilma

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and…

  6. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  7. Avoidant coping moderates the relationship between paternal involvement in the child's type 1 diabetes (T1D) care and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Ashley; Limbers, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Fathers may experience greater parenting stress and anxiety when they are more involved in their child's type 1 diabetes (T1D) care. The present study evaluated whether seeking social support and avoidant coping strategies moderate the relationship between paternal involvement in the child's T1D care and parenting stress in an international sample. Two hundred forty-nine fathers of young children with T1D completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP), Dads' Active Disease Support scale (DADS), COPE Inventory, Self-Care Inventory (SCI-R), and a demographic questionnaire online. Pearson's product moment correlations were computed, and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with three separate models in which the PSI Child Domain, PIP Frequency, and PIP Difficulty scores represented different parenting stress outcomes. The interaction between use of denial coping and DADS Involvement was significantly correlated with general parenting stress ( p diabetes treatment regimen ( p management.

  8. Health behaviours in emerging adulthood: Their relationship with perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and the mediating role of self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The present research examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in the association between perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and health behaviours of males and females in emerging adulthood. Parental attitudes shape children’s self-esteem, positive self-image, and self-competence. This may affect their physical health and health behaviours throughout their lives. Participants and procedure A total of 147 (mean age: 19.70, SD = 0.85, 68.7% females participants took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires measuring health behaviours, perceived parental attitudes, and self-efficacy: the Inventory of Health Behaviours, the Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitude, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Results We found that that female participants exhibited healthier eating habits but lower self-efficacy than male participants did. Accepting and autonomy granting maternal and paternal parental attitudes predicted a positive health attitude (of both male and female participants, preventive behaviours (of male participants, and healthy eating habits (of male participants. As predicted, emerging adults’ self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their health behaviours and perceived parental attitudes. However, the mediation patterns were different for female and male participants. Conclusions The quality of perceived parental attitudes and self-efficacy are important for health-related lifestyle choices among emerging adults. Mothers and fathers may play different roles in the formation of health behaviours.

  9. Fecundity of paternal and maternal non-parental female relatives of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis.

  10. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, K.M.; Lessells, C.M.; Komdeur, J.

    2005-01-01

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  11. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, KM; Lessells, CM; Komdeur, J; Lessells, C(Kate). M.

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  12. Bidirectional Influences between Maternal and Paternal Parenting and Children's Disruptive Behaviour from Kindergarten to Grade 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Therese; Verlaan, Pierrette; Davidson, Marilyne; Vitaro, Frank; Poulin, Francois; Capuano, France

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that children's disruptive behaviour (CDB) and quality of parenting influence one another bidirectionally. However, few studies have considered the separate contribution of the mother--child and father--child relationships to disruptive behaviours within a longitudinal context. Against this background, the reciprocal…

  13. Young Women's Phenomenological Sense of Father and Parental Marital Relationship and Their Relation to Paternal Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Susan

    The meaning fathers have in the lives of women as they are growing up was investigated. Women's perceptions of their fathers on several factors were measured to determine how these perceptions differed with father loss, cause and time of loss, perception of parental marital relationships, and presence of an older brother. Questionnaires were…

  14. The Determinants of Negative Maternal Parenting Behaviours: Maternal, Child, and Paternal Characteristics and Their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…

  15. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Smeenk, W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers’ and mothers’ parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a

  16. Maternal and paternal parenting styles: Unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Laan, P.H. van der; Smeenk, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers’ and mothers’ parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14–22), followed across two measurement waves with a

  17. Paternal Involvement with Children: The Influence of Gender Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanda, Ronald E.

    2004-01-01

    Although prior social science research has established the ability of gender ideologies to influence the domestic division of labor, it has neglected to disentangle their potentially unique influence on paternal involvement with children. Past research examining the influence of gender ideology on parenting behaviors does not acknowledge potential…

  18. Black Hawk Down?: Establishing Helicopter Parenting as a Distinct Construct from Other Forms of Parental Control during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nelson, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to establish a measure of helicopter parenting that was distinct from other forms of parental control, and to examine parental and behavioral correlates of helicopter parenting. Participants included 438 undergraduate students from four universities in the United States (M[subscript age] = 19.65, SD = 2.00,…

  19. Sperm competition games when males invest in paternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Gustavo S; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2017-08-16

    Sperm competition games investigate how males partition limited resources between pre- and post-copulatory competition. Although extensive research has explored how various aspects of mating systems affect this allocation, male allocation between mating, fertilization and parental effort has not previously been considered. Yet, paternal care can be energetically expensive and males are generally predicted to adjust their parental effort in response to expected paternity. Here, we incorporate parental effort into sperm competition games, particularly exploring how the relationship between paternal care and offspring survival affects sperm competition and the relationship between paternity and paternal care. Our results support existing expectations that (i) fertilization effort should increase with female promiscuity and (ii) paternal care should increase with expected paternity. However, our analyses also reveal that the cost of male care can drive the strength of these patterns. When paternal behaviour is energetically costly, increased allocation to parental effort constrains allocation to fertilization effort. As paternal care becomes less costly, the association between paternity and paternal care weakens and may even be absent. By explicitly considering variation in sperm competition and the cost of male care, our model provides an integrative framework for predicting the interaction between paternal care and patterns of paternity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Intergenerational transmission of social anxiety: the role of paternal and maternal fear of negative child evaluation and parenting behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vente, W.; Majdandžić, M.; Colonnesi, C.; Bögels, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Parents' fear of negative child evaluation (FNCE) by others has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety. Parents' FNCE may result in child social anxiety through various learning processes, including those associated with parenting. To test these

  1. Correlated evolution in parental care in females but not males in response to selection on paternity assurance behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, M.L.; Hinde, C.A.; Moore, A.J.; Royle, N.J.

    2014-01-01

    According to classical parental care theory males are expected to provide less parental care when offspring in a brood are less likely to be their own, but empirical evidence in support of this relationship is equivocal. Recent work predicts that social interactions between the sexes can modify

  2. Black Hawk down? Establishing helicopter parenting as a distinct construct from other forms of parental control during emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Nelson, Larry J

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to establish a measure of helicopter parenting that was distinct from other forms of parental control, and to examine parental and behavioral correlates of helicopter parenting. Participants included 438 undergraduate students from four universities in the United States (M(age) = 19.65, SD = 2.00, range = 18-29; 320 women, 118 men), and at least one of their parents. Analyses revealed that helicopter parenting loaded on a separate factor from both behavioral and psychological control, and that helicopter parenting was positively associated with behavioral and psychological control, but not at levels suggesting complete overlap. Results also revealed that helicopter parenting was positively associated with parental involvement and with other positive aspects of the parent-child relationship; but negatively associated with parental autonomy granting and school engagement. Discussion focuses on the implications of helicopter parenting for healthy development during emerging adulthood. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing paternal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, P

    1985-01-01

    Increasing numbers of fathers of children born out of wedlock are not contributing to these children's economic support. In 1981, a tiny minority (14%) of the 1.7 million never-married mothers living with a child with an absent father had a child-support award, and of these, just 112,000 actually received some payment in 1981. The high rates of noncompliance, and the low level of legal efforts to enforce child support, are the result of attempts to collect payments through inefficient traditional methods, not the inability of fathers to pay, a Wisconsin study has shown. A basic problem with collecting child support under the present system is that it relies on fathers to control their expenditures and voluntarily to send the payment on a weekly, biweekly or monthly basis, year after year. As a Wisconsin study shows, full compliance with court-ordered payments dropped from 38% in the 1st year to below 20% by the 5th year among 163 ex-husbands tracked. A proposal by researchers at the University of Wisconsin's Institute for Research on Poverty calls for an "absent-parent tax." The Wisconsin Plan, as it is known, is simply a withholding tax based on the father's gross income and the number of his absent children. If his income falls below a certain level, payments will stop automatically, but will resume if and when it rises above the cutoff point. The Wisconsin plan removes all judicial discretion and lawyer's skill as factors in child-support awards, thus eliminating erratic awards. It also insures that support payments will be maintained during periods of conflict between the father and mother. However, before the Wisconsin Plan can effectively protect children both out of wedlock, a feature needs to be added that will establish paternity at birth. Imposing a real child-support obligation on fathers of children born outside of marriage will introduce a potentially powerful economic incentive for responsible male reproductive and parental behavior.

  4. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect.

  5. Childhood Obesity and Restrictions of Parental Liberty. A Response to "Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to Michael Merry's recent contribution on childhood obesity. Merry's analysis highlights the difficulties in finding an appropriate balance between children's and parents' interests in antiobesity interventions and emphasizes the importance of weight stigma and its effects on the obesity debate. He concludes by recommending…

  6. Effect of extra-pair paternity and parental quality on brood sex ratio in the scarlet rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláková, Radka; Schnitzer, J.; Vinkler, Michal; Bryja, Josef; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 225-232 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/06/0851 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : sex allocation * extra-pair mating * parental attractiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  7. Parent-of-Origin Effects in ADHD: Distinct Influences of Paternal and Maternal ADHD on Neuropsychological Functioning in Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, A.J.A.M.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Altink, M.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Buitelaar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined parent-of-origin effects in transmission of ADHD and neuropsychological functioning. Proof of these effects can identify more etiologically homogeneous ADHD subgroups and facilitate genetic studies. Method: The authors included 238 ADHD and 147 control families. ADHD

  8. High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R

    2015-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain thes...

  9. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Breed

    Full Text Available Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  10. Advanced paternal age and stillbirth rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhøj, Stine Kjær; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2017-01-01

    Advanced paternal age has been associated with a variety of rare conditions and diseases of great public health impact. An increased number of de novo point mutations in sperm with increasing age have been suggested as a mechanism, which would likely also affect fetal viability. We examined...... the association between paternal age and stillbirth rate in a large nationwide cohort. We identified all pregnancies in Denmark from 1994 to 2010 carried to a gestational age of at least 22 completed weeks (n = 944,031) as registered in national registers and linked to individual register data about the parents....... The hazard ratio of stillbirth according to paternal age was estimated, adjusted for maternal age in 1-year categories, year of outcome, and additionally parental educational levels. The relative rate of stillbirth (n = 4946) according to paternal age was found to be J-shaped with the highest hazard ratio...

  11. Who wants paternalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie K.; Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the demand side of paternalism. We investigate attitudes towards paternalism among Danish students. The main question is whether demand for paternalism is related to self-control, either because people with self-control problems seek commitment devices to overcome these prob...

  12. Does parental disapproval of smoking prevent adolescents from becoming established smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D; Dalton, M

    2001-12-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that adolescents are less likely to smoke if their parents voice strong disapproval of smoking. Three-wave school-based cohort study of rural Vermont adolescents attending 3 K-12 schools. We evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between perceived parental disapproval of smoking and the adoption of smoking behavior. Students' perceptions of their parents' reaction to their own smoking was ascertained by asking the following question for mothers and fathers: "How do you think your mother (father) would react if you were smoking cigarettes and she (he) knew about it?" A response of "S/he would tell me to stop and be very upset" was considered to indicate strong parental disapproval. Outcome measures include a 6-level smoking index for cross-sectional analyses and, for a longitudinal analysis of 372 never smokers at baseline, being an established smoker (smoked > or =100 cigarettes lifetime and within the past 30 days) by survey 3. The study samples for the cross-sectional analyses were 662 (baseline), 758 (year 2), and 730 (year 3). Students were equally distributed across grade (4th-11th grades) and gender. At baseline, most (65.9%) adolescents perceived both parents as disapproving of smoking, with 110 (16.6) perceiving 1 parent as disapproving, and 116 (17.5%) perceiving neither parent as disapproving. Perceived disapproval of smoking was inversely associated with adolescent smoking, grade in school, parental and sibling smoking, friend smoking, and ownership of tobacco promotional items. After controlling for confounding influences, adolescents who perceived strong parental disapproval of their smoking were less than half as likely to have higher smoking index levels compared with those who did not perceive strong parental disapproval. In the longitudinal sample of baseline never smokers, those who perceived strong disapproval in both parents at baseline were less than half as likely to become established smokers

  13. How do masculinity, paternity leave, and mortality associate? -A study of fathers in the Swedish parental & child cohort of 1988/89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lundin, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    One of the proposed causes for the gender gap in longevity is the attitudes and practices culturally prescribed for men, often conceptualised as 'masculinity'. It has also been suggested that paternity leave, indicating a change from breadwinning to caring, could benefit men's lifetime health. In this study, the objective was to examine associations between 'masculinity' (assessed at the age of 18-19 years), paternity leave (1988-1990), and mortality patterns (1991-2008) based on a population of Swedish men who had a child in 1988/89 (N=72,569). 'Masculinity' was measured during the compulsory military conscription process by a psychologist based on leisure and occupational interests, and paternity leave was measured in fulltime days by registry data. The main finding was that low 'masculinity' ranking increased the risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality from alcohol and violent causes, while taking paternity leave between 30 and 135 days decreased the risk of all-cause mortality. However, the weak association found between 'masculinity' and paternity leave indicates that entering a caring role as a father is not predicted by 'masculinity' assessed in late adolescence, and that the studied phenomena influence male mortality independently of each other. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Avian paternal care had dinosaur origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Moore, Jason R; Erickson, Gregory M; Norell, Mark A; Jackson, Frankie D; Borkowski, John J

    2008-12-19

    The repeated discovery of adult dinosaurs in close association with egg clutches leads to speculation over the type and extent of care exhibited by these extinct animals for their eggs and young. To assess parental care in Cretaceous troodontid and oviraptorid dinosaurs, we examined clutch volume and the bone histology of brooding adults. In comparison to four archosaur care regressions, the relatively large clutch volumes of Troodon, Oviraptor, and Citipati scale most closely with a bird-paternal care model. Clutch-associated adults lack the maternal and reproductively associated histologic features common to extant archosaurs. Large clutch volumes and a suite of reproductive features shared only with birds favor paternal care, possibly within a polygamous mating system. Paternal care in both troodontids and oviraptorids indicates that this care system evolved before the emergence of birds and represents birds' ancestral condition. In extant birds and over most adult sizes, paternal and biparental care correspond to the largest and smallest relative clutch volumes, respectively.

  15. High Y-chromosomal diversity and low relatedness between paternal lineages on a communal scale in the Western European Low Countries during the surname establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, M H D; Boon, N; Vanderheyden, N; Van Geystelen, A; Larmuseau, H F M; Matthys, K; De Clercq, W; Decorte, R

    2015-07-01

    There is limited knowledge on the biological relatedness between citizens and on the demographical dynamics within villages, towns and cities in pre-17th century Western Europe. By combining Y-chromosomal genotypes, in-depth genealogies and surname data in a strict genetic genealogical approach, it is possible to provide insights into the genetic diversity and the relatedness between indigenous paternal lineages within a particular community at the time of the surname adoption. To obtain these insights, six Flemish communities were selected in this study based on the differences in geography and historical development. After rigorous selection of appropriate DNA donors, low relatedness between Y chromosomes of different surnames was found within each community, although there is co-occurrence of these surnames in each community since the start of the surname adoption between the 14th and 15th century. Next, the high communal diversity in Y-chromosomal lineages was comparable with the regional diversity across Flanders at that time. Moreover, clinal distributions of particular Y-chromosomal lineages between the communities were observed according to the clinal distributions earlier observed across the Flemish regions and Western Europe. No significant indication for genetic differences between communities with distinct historical development was found in the analysis. These genetic results provide relevant information for studies in historical sciences, archaeology, forensic genetics and genealogy.

  16. Intergenerational Comparisons of Paternal Korean Child Rearing Practices and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwanghee; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Explored possible antecedents of paternal child rearing in middle-class, two-parent, Korean families. Found that fathers reported disciplinary practices similar to those of their own fathers. Fathers reported more nurturance and acceptance/flexibility than grandfathers. Paternal job satisfaction, relationship with own mother, and educational…

  17. Konference Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2006), s. 833-835 ISSN 0038-0288. [Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parental leave * paternity leave * fathering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  18. From killer to carer: steroid hormones and paternal behaviour | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammalian parental investment (i.e. care of descendant offspring) is largely biased towards maternal contributions due to the specific feeding needs of mammalian offspring; however, varying degrees of paternal investment have been reported in about 10% of all mammalian species. Within the order Carnivora, paternal ...

  19. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben C Arslan

    Full Text Available Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  20. Multiple paternity in reptiles: patterns and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; Olsson, Mats

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of female promiscuity poses an intriguing problem as benefits of mating with multiple males often have to arise via indirect, genetic, effects. Studies on birds have documented that multiple paternity is common in natural populations but strong evidence for selection via female benefits is lacking. In an attempt to evaluate the evidence more broadly, we review studies of multiple paternity in natural populations of all major groups of nonavian reptiles. Multiple paternity has been documented in all species investigated so far and commonly exists in over 50% of clutches, with particularly high levels in snakes and lizards. Marine turtles and lizards with prolonged pair-bonding have relatively low levels of multiple paternity but levels are nevertheless higher than in many vertebrates with parental care. There is no evidence that high levels of polyandry are driven by direct benefits to females and the evidence that multiple paternity arises from indirect genetic benefits is weak. Instead, we argue that the most parsimonious explanation for patterns of multiple paternity is that it represents the combined effect of mate-encounter frequency and conflict over mating rates between males and females driven by large male benefits and relatively small female costs, with only weak selection via indirect benefits. A crucial step for researchers is to move from correlative approaches to experimental tests of assumptions and predictions of theory under natural settings, using a combination of molecular techniques and behavioural observations.

  1. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjertson, David W; Brenner, Charles H; Baur, Max P

    2007-01-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations...... in paternity cases. In the initial set, the PTC recommended that biostatistical evaluations of paternity are based on a likelihood ratio principle - yielding the paternity index, PI. Here, we have made five supplementary biostatistical recommendations. The first recommendation clarifies and defines basic...... concepts of genetic hypotheses and calculation concerns needed to produce valid PIs. The second and third recommendations address issues associated with population genetics (allele probabilities, Y-chromosome markers, mtDNA, and population substructuring) and special circumstances (deficiency...

  2. Influence of paternal age on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Emily G; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-11-01

    There is an increasing trend to delay childbearing to advanced parental age. Increased risks of advanced maternal age and assisted reproductive technologies are widely accepted. There are limited data regarding advanced paternal age. To adequately counsel patients on risk, more research regarding advanced paternal age is necessary. We sought to determine the influence of paternal age on perinatal outcomes, and to assess whether this influence differs between pregnancies achieved spontaneously and those achieved with assisted reproductive technology. A population-based retrospective cohort study of all live births in Ohio from 2006 through 2012 was completed. Data were evaluated to determine if advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in pregnancies. The analysis was stratified by status of utilization of assisted reproductive technology. Generalized linear regression models assessed the association of paternal age on pregnancy complications in assisted reproductive technology and spontaneously conceived pregnancies, after adjusting for maternal age, race, multifetal gestation, and Medicaid status, using Stata software (Stata, Release 12; StataCorp, College Station, TX). Paternal age was documented in 82.2% of 1,034,552 live births in Ohio during the 7-year study period. Paternal age ranged from 12-87 years, with a median of 30 (interquartile range, 26-35) years. Maternal age ranged from 11-62 years, with a median of 27 (interquartile range, 22-31) years. The use of assisted reproductive technology in live births increased as paternal age increased: 0.1% 60 years, P risk factors, increased paternal age was not associated with a significant increase in the rate of preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, congenital anomaly, genetic disorder, or neonatal intensive care unit admission. The influence of paternal age on pregnancy outcomes was similar in pregnancies achieved with and without assisted reproductive

  3. Paternalism and Antipaternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n1p165 This paper aims to examine the relation between paternalism and antipaternalism. The original intention is disable the arguments seeking to justify acceptance on the part of Mill of moral and legal paternalism. The work will also investigate the concern milleans with the concepts of autonomy and self-development, positioning itself for a reading of Mill as a thinker who advocates a weak version of paternalism. This research suggests, moreover, the communication with the interpreters of contemporary Mill, which will assess the impact of their ideas on the current dialogue on the liberty and paternalism.

  4. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  5. Psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontigny, Francine; Girard, Marie-Eve; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane; Devault, Annie

    2013-08-15

    While maternal postpartum depression is a well-known phenomenon, paternal postnatal depression has been less studied. It is known that paternal postnatal depression impacts on children's and families' development, affects marital satisfaction and affects the economic health of industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression. A descriptive-correlational study was conducted with a sample of fathers of infants (average age: 11 months) who were breastfed exclusively or predominantly for at least 6 months, comparing psychosocial factors in fathers with (n: 17, 8.2%) and without a positive score for depression on the EPDS scale (n: 188). Psychosocial factors were assessed through questionnaires. Depression in fathers of breastfed infants is associated with the experience of perinatal loss in a previous pregnancy, parenting distress, infant temperament (difficult child), dysfunctional interactions with the child, decreased marital adjustment and perceived low parenting efficacy. Multivariate analysis suggests an independent effect of psychosocial factors such as parenting distress, quality of the marital relationship and perceived parenting efficacy on paternal depression. The sample focused on fathers of breastfed infant, since breastfeeding has become the feeding norm, and this should be taken into account when considering the generalization of findings. These findings emphasize the need to consider a set of psychosocial factors when examining fathers' mental health in the first year of a child's birth. Health professionals can enhance parenting efficacy and alleviate parenting distress by supporting fathers' unique experiences and addressing their needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of paternity and support. 11.609 Section 11... child and to obtain a judgment for the support of the child. A judgment of the court establishing the...

  7. Pairmate-dependent pup retrieval as parental behavior in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingkun eLiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate parental care by fathers can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. However, much less is known about paternal behavior in animals compared to those regarding maternal behavior. Previously, we reported that male ICR strain laboratory mice, although not spontaneously parental, can be induced to display maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval when separated from their pups by signals from the pairmate dam (Liu et al., Nat. Commun, 4:1346, 2013. This parental behavior by the ICR sires, which are not genetically biparental, is novel and has been designated as pairmate-dependent paternal behavior. However, the factors critical for this paternal behavior are unclear. Here, we report that the pairmate-dependent paternal retrieval behavior is observed especially in the ICR strain and not in C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice. An ICR sire displays retrieval behavior only toward his biological pups. A sire co-housed with an unrelated non-pairing dam in a new environment, under which 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are not detected, does not show parenting behavior. It is important for sires to establish their own home territory (cage by continuous housing and testing to display retrieval behavior. These results indicated that the ICR sires display distinct paternity, including father-child social interaction, and shed light on parental behavior, although further analyses of paternal care at the neuroendocrinological and neurocircuitry levels are required.

  8. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles Associated with Relational Aggression in Children and Adolescents: A Conceptual Analysis and Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tseng, Wan-Ling; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2011-01-01

    How does parenting affect relational aggression in children? The goal of the present series of meta-analyses based on 48 studies (28,097 children) was to analyze and integrate the findings on the associations between various types of parenting behaviors and relational aggression, and to identify potential substantive and methodological factors…

  9. Perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth: an exploratory study from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushaikha, Lubna; Massah, Rana

    2013-03-01

    The barriers that face fathers during childbirth are an understudied phenomenon. The objective of our study was to explore Syrian parents' perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth. A descriptive phenomenological qualitative approach based on Colaizzi's method was used with a purposive sample of 23 mothers and 14 fathers recruited from a major public maternity hospital in Syria. In our study, four themes on barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth were found: 1) sociocultural influences and rigidity; 2) being unprepared; 3) unsupportive policies and attitudes; and 4) unfavorable reactions and circumstances. Common and current sociocultural norms in Syria do not encourage fathers to be present or contribute during childbirth. Therefore, establishing culturally sensitive supportive policies and practices is a vital step toward overcoming these barriers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Who wants paternalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie Kragh; Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    these problems, or because people with good self-control want those who lack it to change their behaviors. We find no evidence linking self-control to attitudes towards weak forms of paternalism (e.g. nudges or information about health consequences). But respondents with good selfcontrol are significantly more...

  11. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Robertson, Raleigh J.

    1998-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males’ confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment.

  12. Maternal and Paternal Plasma, Salivary, and Urinary Oxytocin and Parent-Infant Synchrony: Considering Stress and Affiliation Components of Human Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Gordon, Ilanit; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2011-01-01

    Studies in mammals have implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in processes of bond formation and stress modulation, yet the involvement of OT in human bonding throughout life remains poorly understood. We assessed OT in the plasma, saliva, and urine of 112 mothers and fathers interacting with their 4-6-month-old infants. Parent-infant…

  13. Multiple paternity in the cultured yellow pond turtles (Mauremys mutica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Cheng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Wei; Wei, Cheng-Qing; Zhu, Xin-Ping

    2017-08-01

    As a result of hunting and habitat loss, wild populations of the yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica, are decreasing. The International Union for Conservation of Nature considers M. mutica to be an endangered species. All studied freshwater turtles have polyandrous mating with multiple paternity. To survey the mating strategies of M. mutica, 1year's genetic data of parents and all offspring in an artificially captive population were analyzed. Two groups of multiplex PCR containing 16 microsatellite loci were used to analyze the paternity of 302 hatchlings from 132 parents and from 159 clutches. The genetic data indicated that multiple paternity is rare in M. mutica, occurring in only seven of 138 clutches. Although the frequency of multiple paternity was only 5.07%, results of the present research indicate that M. mutica has a polyandrous mating system. In the breeding season, the successive clutches of 34 females each had the same paternity as the previous clutches. It was observed that four males (f85, f58, f87, and f76) had more than 20 offspring each, totaling 99 and representing 32.78% of all offspring. This finding implies that paternity is competitive in this artificially captive population and might bias the genetic diversity of the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Establishment and Enforcement of Maintenance Obligations in the Relations between Divorced Parents and their Minor Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vǎleanu Maricica

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The entry into force of the new Civil Code has, among other merits, that of calling into question the main institutions of private law. The maintenance obligations occupy in its end a central place in the economic relations between parents and children, whereas it was primarily established to ensure good material conditions of growth and education of minors. Through the clearer marking within the present Civil code of the execution of maintenance obligation in nature, in practice the way in which the sentences regarding the establishment of the maintenance obligation in the relations between divorced parents and their underage children are requested and arranged will have to adapt.

  15. Impact of maternal and paternal smoking on birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Naruse, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, S V

    2017-09-01

    The adverse effects of maternal and paternal smoking on child health have been studied. However, few studies demonstrate the interaction effects of maternal/paternal smoking, and birth outcomes other than birth weight have not been evaluated. The present study examined individual effects of maternal/paternal smoking and their interactions on birth outcomes. A follow-up hospital-based study from pregnancy to delivery was conducted from 1997 to 2010 with parents and newborn infants who delivered at a large hospital in Hamamatsu, Japan. The relationships between smoking and growth were evaluated with logistic regression. The individual effects of maternal smoking are related to low birth weight (LBW), short birth length and small head circumference. The individual effects of paternal smoking are related to short birth length and small head circumference. In the adjusted model, both parents' smoking showed clear associations with LBW (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.27) and short birth length (-1 standard deviation [SD] OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.07-1.79; -2 SD OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.84-4.10). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with birth weight and length, but paternal smoking was not. However, if both parents smoked, the risk of shorter birth length increased. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  17. Paternal identity impacts embryonic development for two species of freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Linhart, Otomar; Krejszeff, Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    then partition variation in embryonic phenotypic performance to maternal, paternal, and parental interactions using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) model. Results showed that paternal, maternal, and the paternal. ×. maternal interaction terms were highly significant for both species; clearly......Paternal, compared to maternal, contributions were believed to have only a limited influence on embryonic development and larval fitness traits in fishes. Therefore, the perspective of male influence on early life history traits has come under scrutiny. This study was conducted to determine...... demonstrating that certain family combinations were more compatible than others. Paternal effects explained 20.24% of the total variance, which was 2-fold higher than the maternal effects (10.73%) in Ide, while paternal effects explained 18.9% of the total variance, which was 15-fold higher than the maternal...

  18. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  19. Paternal understanding of menstrual concerns in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Jane E; Hawthorne, Samuel Cj; Marino, Jennifer L; Nur Azurah, Abdul G; Grover, Sonia R; Jayasinghe, Yasmin L

    2018-04-12

    No studies have specifically considered paternal understanding of menstruation. This study aimed to establish the degree of understanding of fathers of adolescent girls with menstrual symptoms relative to mothers. This is a cross-sectional survey-based study. Adolescent patients attending an outpatient gynaecology clinic for dysmenorrhoea and/or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and their parents were invited to complete surveys. 60 surveys were completed (24/40 daughters, 20/40 mothers, 16/40 fathers). Surveys aimed to test parents' understanding of menstrual symptoms and potential medications, as well as fathers' concerns with their daughters' health. The fathers' knowledge of menstrual symptoms was poorer than mothers, although most knew HMB (93%) and mood swings (87%). Many parents answered 'don't know' or did not answer questions about potential consequences of medications, although parents were clearly concerned about side effects. Most fathers (80%) were open to discussing menstrual concerns with daughters; however, only 52% of daughters were open to such discussions. Of fathers, 80% felt sympathetic/concerned, 53% helpless and 13% frustrated when daughters were in pain. When asked about impacts, 93% of fathers (79% of mothers) were worried about their daughter's welfare and 60% (21%) about schooling. We present the first insight into fathers' knowledge of their daughters' menstrual health. Overall, parents have an incomplete picture of menstrual symptoms. Even in this cohort, which could be expected to be well informed due to their daughters' attendance at a tertiary hospital, it is clear that further knowledge would assist them caring for their daughters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  1. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  2. Establishing the Boundaries and Building Bridges: Research Methods Into the Ecology of the Refugee Parenting Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nombasa Williams

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the suitability of the focus group method for conducting research early in post-resettlement among refugee parents and carers in South Australia. This method was employed to uncover the refugee parenting experience in pre-resettlement contexts. There were three refugee focus groups, consisting of a Sudanese women’s group, an African men’s group, and an Afghani and Iraqi women’s group. To illustrate each group’s differential parenting ecologies in milieus of forced migration ecological matrixes were devised which are presented in the results section. An ecological matrix was also developed to unpack, code and analyse transcripts. The matrix was designed to include categories and actions so as to construct meaning units and subsequent condensed meaning units to determine the concluding themes. These provided an analytical framework with which to illuminate the constructed meanings participants attributed to their refugee parenting experiences. The findings provide insights into the ecology of the refugee parenting experience and might be of considerable importance for Australian resettlement services and state systems of child protection seeking to develop culturally appropriate and relevant services.

  3. Paternal age effect: Replication in schizophrenia with intriguing dissociation between bipolar with and without psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Douglas S; Pato, Michele T; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Miller, Brian R; Malaspina, Dolores; Buckley, Peter F; Sobell, Janet L; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Genomic Psychiatry Cohort Consortium; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is a risk factor for schizophrenia (Sz) and bipolar disorder (BP). Putative mechanisms include heritable genetic factors, de novo mutations, and epigenetic mechanisms. Few studies have explored phenotypic features associated with APA. The Genomic Psychiatry Cohort established a clinically characterized repository of genomic samples from subjects with a Sz-BP diagnosis or unaffected controls, 12,975 with parental age information. We estimated relative risk ratios for Sz, schizoaffective depressed and bipolar types (SA-D, SA-B), and BP with and without history of psychotic features (PF) relative to the control group, comparing each paternal age group to the reference group 20-24 years. All tests were two-sided with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Subjects with fathers age 45+ had significantly higher risk for all diagnoses except for BP w/o PF. APA also bore no significant relation to family psychiatric history. In conclusion, we replicated APA as a risk factor for Sz. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of APA in a BP sample stratified by psychosis history, extending this association only in BP w/PF. This suggests that phenotypic expression of the APA effect in Sz-BP spectrum is psychosis, per se, rather than other aspects of these complex disorders. The lack of a significant relationship between paternal age and familial disease patterns suggests that underlying mechanisms of the paternal age effect may involve a complex interaction of heritable and non-heritable factors. The authors discuss implications and testable hypotheses, starting with a focus on genetic mechanisms and endophenotypic expressions of dopaminergic function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Adolescent obesity and maternal and paternal sensitivity and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal Davis, R; Ashba, Jacqueline; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2011-06-01

    To determine if adolescent obesity is associated with parenting characterized by lower sensitivity and lower monitoring of adolescent activities. We used data from 744 adolescents in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Height and weight were measured at age 15½ years and obesity defined as body mass index ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex. Maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed by direct observation of a parent-adolescent interaction task. Maternal and paternal monitoring were assessed by parent report. Lower sensitivity and lower monitoring were each defined as the lowest quartiles. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to evaluate, individually for mothers and fathers, associations of sensitivity and monitoring with adolescent obesity, controlling for adolescent sex and race, family income-to-needs ratio, and parental obesity. Fourteen percent of the adolescents were obese. Lower sensitivity was associated with adolescent obesity in the maternal parenting model (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-3.86, n = 709), but not paternal parenting model (AOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.38-1.63, n = 460). Neither maternal nor paternal monitoring was associated with adolescent obesity (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.63-1.68; AOR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.52-2.22, respectively). Lower maternal sensitivity, measured by direct observation of parent-adolescent interactions, was associated with adolescent obesity. Efforts to prevent and treat childhood obesity, both at the practitioner level and the community level, may be enhanced by educating parents that their reactions to their children's behaviors may have consequences related to obesity.

  5. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  6. Parenting style and conduct problems in children: Case report of deliberate self poisoning in a Nigerian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Tunde-Ayinmode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between psychosocially unhealthy parenting styles and child psychopathology has been established. This case report describes how chronic harsh and overbearing paternal parenting style tipped a young boy into deliberate self poisoning with the aid of organo-phosphorous chemicals (rat poison. This report is purposed to increase the interest of physicians and psychiatrists in parenting style research and in how potentially its modification could be a therapeutic and preventive tool.

  7. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Mukaida, Naofumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Hirao, Atsushi; Kato, Yukio; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Kato, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Cherepanov, Stanislav M; Salmina, Alla B; Hirai, Hirokazu; Asano, Masahide; Brown, David A; Nagano, Isamu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone stimulation. Without these signals or in the absence of maternal mates, the sires do not retrieve their pups within 5 min. These results show that, in mice, the maternal parent communicates to the paternal parent to encourage pup care. This new paradigm may be useful in the analysis of the parental brain during paternal care induced by interactive communication.

  8. Paternal influences on adolescent sexual risk behaviors: a structured literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia

    2012-11-01

    To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior.

  9. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references

  10. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: The subjects were 664 healthy Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental care and protection were assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Parental rearing was categorized into either optimal parenting (high care/low protection or three dysfunctional parenting styles including affectionless control (low care/high protection. Neuroticism was evaluated by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised.Results: The subjects with paternal affectionless control had higher neuroticism scores than those with paternal optimal parenting. Similar tendency was observed in maternal rearing. Neuroticism scores increased in a stepwise manner with respect to the increase in the number of parents with affectionless control.Conclusion: The present study shows that perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism, suggesting that this parental style increases neuroticism in recipients. Keywords: parenting, attachment, personality, vulnerability, depression, PBI, NEO PI-R

  11. Sexual dimorphism in parental imprint ontogeny and contribution to embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourc'his, Déborah; Proudhon, Charlotte

    2008-01-30

    Genomic imprinting refers to the functional non-equivalence of parental genomes in mammals that results from the parent-of-origin allelic expression of a subset of genes. Parent-specific expression is dependent on the germ line acquisition of DNA methylation marks at imprinting control regions (ICRs), coordinated by the DNA-methyltransferase homolog DNMT3L. We discuss here how the gender-specific stages of DNMT3L expression may have influenced the various sexually dimorphic aspects of genomic imprinting: (1) the differential developmental timing of methylation establishment at paternally and maternally imprinted genes in each parental germ line, (2) the differential dependence on DNMT3L of parental methylation imprint establishment, (3) the unequal duration of paternal versus maternal methylation imprints during germ cell development, (4) the biased distribution of methylation-dependent ICRs towards the maternal genome, (5) the different genomic organization of paternal versus maternal ICRs, and finally (6) the overwhelming contribution of maternal germ line imprints to development compared to their paternal counterparts.

  12. More than re-establishing the partner relationship: Intimate aftercare for Somali parents in diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Pauline; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-08-01

    to explore the sexual relationship and couples' perceptions about intimate partner support following childbirth. a hermeneutic design using a naturalistic inquiry framework as a qualitative proxy for medical anthropology. Data were collected using a fictional and culturally-specific narrative during focus group discussions (FGDs) in early 2011. Analysis was conducted by 'functional narrative analysis' and interpreted for conceptual constructions. Recruitment was by snowball and purposive sampling. a diasporic context among participants living in six urban centres across Sweden. successful recruitment included 16 Somali-Swedish fathers and 27 mothers. Three FDGs were conducted with fathers (3-7 participants) and seven with mothers (3-6 participants). within day 40 post partum, parents learn to rely on each other in the absence of traditional support networks. After the first 40 days, the re-introduction of sexual intimacy is likely to occur. Of the fathers experiencing postpartum sexual aversion, these seemed to experience 'existential angst' resulting from a combination of profound remorse over having put the partner into what they perceived as a life-threatening situation during childbirth and their perceived moral and ethical obligations to provide support in this setting. Mothers in general did not directly discuss their own sexuality. Women could imagine men's sexual aversion after witnessing childbirth. However, they seemed unaware of men's potential for angst. Mothers are situated between the loss of traditional postpartum support networks, comprised of close female kin, and their own newly-defined responsibilities in the host setting. Fathers embrace their new role. Both partners articulated the mother's new role as enhancing autonomy and independence in the host setting. However, women held mixed attitudes about fathers replacing traditional kin support. to date, late postpartum aftercare for immigrant African parents is anecdotally linked to evidence

  13. Paternal Autonomy Restriction, Neighborhood Safety, and Child Anxiety Trajectory in Community Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive parenting, primarily examined among middle to upper-middle class mothers, has been positively associated with the presence and severity of anxiety in children. This study employed cross-sectional linear regression and longitudinal latent growth curve analyses to evaluate the main and interactive effects of early childhood paternal autonomy restriction (AR) and neighborhood safety (NS) on the trajectory of child anxiety in a sample of 596 community children and fathers from the NICHD SECYD. Longitudinal analyses revealed that greater paternal AR at age 6 was actually associated with greater decreases in child anxiety in later childhood. Cross-sectional analyses revealed main effects for NS across childhood, and interactive effects of paternal AR and NS that were present only in early childhood, whereby children living in safer neighborhoods demonstrated increased anxiety when experiencing lower levels of paternal AR. Findings further clarify for whom and when paternal AR impacts child anxiety in community youth. PMID:25242837

  14. Paternal Autonomy Restriction, Neighborhood Safety, and Child Anxiety Trajectory in Community Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E; Chan, Priscilla T; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-07-01

    Intrusive parenting, primarily examined among middle to upper-middle class mothers, has been positively associated with the presence and severity of anxiety in children. This study employed cross-sectional linear regression and longitudinal latent growth curve analyses to evaluate the main and interactive effects of early childhood paternal autonomy restriction (AR) and neighborhood safety (NS) on the trajectory of child anxiety in a sample of 596 community children and fathers from the NICHD SECYD. Longitudinal analyses revealed that greater paternal AR at age 6 was actually associated with greater decreases in child anxiety in later childhood. Cross-sectional analyses revealed main effects for NS across childhood, and interactive effects of paternal AR and NS that were present only in early childhood, whereby children living in safer neighborhoods demonstrated increased anxiety when experiencing lower levels of paternal AR. Findings further clarify for whom and when paternal AR impacts child anxiety in community youth.

  15. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N.; Marlowe, Frank W.; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    The ‘challenge hypothesis’ posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male–male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men. PMID:18826936

  16. Fathers and Asthma Care: Paternal Involvement, Beliefs, and Management Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Deborah; Masek, Bruce; Barreto, Esteban; Baer, Lee; Lapey, Allen; Budge, Eduardo; McQuaid, Elizabeth L

    2015-09-01

    To compare asthma care roles of maternal and paternal caregivers, and examine associations between caregiver involvement and the outcomes of adherence, morbidity, and parental quality of life (QoL). Mothers and fathers in 63 families of children, ages 5-9 years, with persistent asthma completed semistructured interviews and questionnaires. Adherence was measured via electronic monitoring. Paired t tests compared parental asthma care roles, and analysis of covariance, controlling for socioeconomic status, evaluated associations of asthma outcomes with caregiver involvement scores. Mothers had higher scores on measures of involvement, beliefs in medication necessity, and on four subscales of the Family Asthma Management System Scale interview (Asthma Knowledge, Relationship with Provider, Symptom Assessment, and Response to Symptoms). Maternal QoL was lowest when both maternal and paternal involvement was high. Paternal involvement was associated with increased morbidity. There is room for enhancement of fathers' asthma care roles. Higher levels of paternal involvement may be driven by family need. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over 6 years: The contribution of each parent's depressive history to the other's parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen M; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-10-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents' depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. The results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent's permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. The results highlight the importance of considering both parents' depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms.

  18. Translating group programmes into online formats: establishing the acceptability of a parents' sex and relationships communication serious game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Julie E; Brown, Katherine E

    2015-12-09

    With ongoing concerns about the sexual health and wellbeing of young people, there is increasing need to innovate intervention approaches. Engaging parents as agents to support their children, alongside capitalising on increasingly sophisticated technological options could jointly enhance support. Converting existing programmes into interactive game based options has the potential to broaden learning access whilst preserving behaviour change technique fidelity. However the acceptability of this approach and viability of adapting resources in this way is yet to be established. This paper reports on the process of converting an existing group programme ("What Should We Tell the Children?") and tests the acceptability within a community setting. Translation of the original programme included selecting exercises and gathering user feedback on character and message framing preferences. For acceptability testing, parents were randomised to either the game (n = 106) or a control (non-interactive webpage) condition (n = 76). At time 1 all participants completed a survey on demographics, computer literacy and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) items. Post intervention (time 2) users repeated the TPB questions in addition to acceptability items. Interviews (n = 17) were conducted 3 months post intervention to gather qualitative feedback on transfer of learning into real life. The process of conversion identified clear preferences for first person role play, home setting and realistic characters alongside positively phrased feedback. Evaluation results show that the game was acceptable to parents on cognitive and emotional dimensions, particularly for parents of younger children. Acceptability was not influenced by baseline demographics, computer skills or baseline TPB variables. MANOVA analysis and qualitative feedback suggest potential for effective translation of learning into real life. However attrition was more likely in the game condition, potentially due

  19. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Silfver, Karl Ågren; Stenqvist, Amelie; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking. We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring. Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated. In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64%) in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively) if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen. Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  20. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Axelsson

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking.We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring.Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated.In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64% in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen.Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  1. Paternal leakage of mitochondrial DNA in experimental crosses of populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2011-12-01

    Animal mtDNA is typically assumed to be maternally inherited. Paternal mtDNA has been shown to be excluded from entering the egg or eliminated post-fertilization in several animals. However, in the contact zones of hybridizing species and populations, the reproductive barriers between hybridizing organisms may not be as efficient at preventing paternal mtDNA inheritance, resulting in paternal leakage. We assessed paternal mtDNA leakage in experimental crosses of populations of a cyst-forming nematode, Globodera pallida. A UK population, Lindley, was crossed with two South American populations, P5A and P4A. Hybridization of these populations was supported by evidence of nuclear DNA from both the maternal and paternal populations in the progeny. To assess paternal mtDNA leakage, a ~3.4 kb non-coding mtDNA region was analyzed in the parental populations and in the progeny. Paternal mtDNA was evident in the progeny of both crosses involving populations P5A and P4A. Further, paternal mtDNA replaced the maternal mtDNA in 22 and 40 % of the hybrid cysts from these crosses, respectively. These results indicate that under appropriate conditions, paternal leakage occurs in the mtDNA of parasitic nematodes, and supports the hypothesis that hybrid zones facilitate paternal leakage. Thus, assumptions of strictly maternal mtDNA inheritance may be frequently violated, particularly when divergent populations interbreed.

  2. Consequences Paternity Leave on Allocation of Childcare and Domestic Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of parental leave policies aimed exclusively at fathers is to promote gender equality in the productive and reproductive spheres. The aim of this study is to examine whether the use of paternity leave fosters greater involvement of fathers in the division of tasks within the reproductive sphere, specifi cally child care and housework. Based on data from the survey, ?Social use of parental leave in Spain, 2012?, we have created multivariate models using ordinary least squares regression. The sample used in the analysis consists of 600 fathers who have had at least one child since 2007. The results suggest that paternity leave does encourage greater involvement by fathers in childcare, but the effect is limited, as it is only found for fathers after the birth of their fi rst child.

  3. Nature v. Nurture: Children Left Fatherless and Family-Less When Nature Prevails in Paternity Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Niccol Kording

    2004-01-01

    Those words describe the feeling many parents get from parenthood and from being part of a family, regardless of whether the child is their biological offspring, stepchild, surrogate child, or adopted child. All these families and children born of biological connections or traditional families enjoy some protection under statutory or common law paternity or parentage laws. The Uniform Parentage Act and similar paternity laws protect traditional families under the marital or legitimacy presump...

  4. Paternal masculinities in early fatherhood: dominant and counter narratives by Finnish first-time fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Petteri; Mykkänen, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we seek to extend understanding of the role of gender in early fatherhood by examining narratives of paternal masculinities, that is, the social and cultural constructions of gendered practices and conventions produced by men on their roles as male parents. The data comprised interviews with 44 Finnish first-time fathers (aged 20-42 years) living in a heterosexual relationship. The narrative of the “decent father,” was identified as the dominant narrative of paternal masculin...

  5. Paternal Depression and Risk for Child Neglect in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…

  6. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can

  7. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Svensson

    Full Text Available Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875. Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4 points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  8. Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of religious affiliation and attendance on the involvement of residential fathers in one-on-one activities, dinner with their families, and youth activities and found religious effects for each of these three measures. The study indicates that religion is related to paternal involvement in all three areas that were examined.…

  9. Stronger influence of maternal than paternal obesity on infant and early childhood body mass index: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linabery, A M; Nahhas, R W; Johnson, W; Choh, A C; Towne, B; Odegaard, A O; Czerwinski, S A; Demerath, E W

    2013-06-01

    Excessive early childhood adiposity is a prevalent and increasing concern in many parts of the world. Parental obesity is one of the several factors previously associated with infant and early childhood weight, length and adiposity. Parental obesity represents a surrogate marker of the complex interplay among genetic, epigenetic and shared environmental factors, and is potentially modifiable. The relative contributions of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) to infant and early childhood growth, as well as the timing of such effects, have not been firmly established. Utilizing serial infant measurements and growth curve modelling, this is the largest study to fully characterize and formally compare associations between maternal and paternal BMI and offspring growth across the entire infancy and early childhood period. Maternal obesity is a stronger determinant of offspring BMI than paternal obesity at birth and from 2 to 3 years of age, suggesting that prevention efforts focused particularly on maternal lifestyle and BMI may be important in reducing excess infant BMI. The observation that maternal BMI effects are not constant, but rather present at birth, wane and re-emerge during late infancy, suggests that there is a window of opportunity in early infancy when targeted interventions on children of obese mothers may be most effective. Parental obesity influences infant body size. To fully characterize their relative effects on infant adiposity, associations between maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) category (normal: ≤25 kg m(-2) , overweight: 25 - obese: ≥30 kg m(-2) ) and infant BMI were compared in Fels Longitudinal Study participants. A median of 9 serial weight and length measures from birth to 3.5 years were obtained from 912 European American children born in 1928-2008. Using multivariable mixed effects regression, contributions of maternal vs. paternal BMI status to infant BMI growth curves were evaluated. Cubic spline models

  10. Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2007-06-01

    The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.

  11. Strengthening the Role of Unmarried Fathers: Findings from the Co-Parent Court Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Mary S; Becher, Emily H; Hardman, Alisha M; Galos, Dylan L; Ruhland, Ebony

    2015-12-01

    While the importance of fathers in unmarried coparent families is a strong area of social and political interest, a dearth of community-based interventions exists for supporting the role of fathers in at-risk families. The Co-Parent Court (CPC) was a 3-year demonstration project evaluating the effectiveness of a collaborative intervention to support unmarried coparents establishing paternity and improving their coparenting relationships and paternal involvement in their child's life. A randomized-control experimental design was employed. The paper will explore father involvement and coparent relationship outcomes. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  12. Patterns of Parenting during Adolescence: Perceptions of Adolescents and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.; Sputa, Cheryl L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores differences in maternal and paternal parenting styles and involvement, the differences between parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and involvement, and changes in parenting style and involvement between the adolescents' 9th and 12th grade years. Subjects were 244 ninth graders from the Southeast and Midwest. Discusses…

  13. Mutation risk associated with paternal and maternal age in a cohort of retinoblastoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Melissa B; Hudgins, Louanne; Balise, Raymond R; Abramson, David H; Kleinerman, Ruth A

    2012-07-01

    Autosomal dominant conditions are known to be associated with advanced paternal age, and it has been suggested that retinoblastoma (Rb) also exhibits a paternal age effect due to the paternal origin of most new germline RB1 mutations. To further our understanding of the association of parental age and risk of de novo germline RB1 mutations, we evaluated the effect of parental age in a cohort of Rb survivors in the United States. A cohort of 262 Rb patients was retrospectively identified at one institution, and telephone interviews were conducted with parents of 160 survivors (65.3%). We classified Rb survivors into three groups: those with unilateral Rb were classified as sporadic if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, those with bilateral Rb were classified as having a de novo germline mutation if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, and those with unilateral or bilateral Rb, who had a family history of Rb, were classified as familial. We built two sets of nested logistic regression models to detect an increased odds of the de novo germline mutation classification related to older parental age compared to sporadic and familial Rb classifications. The modeling strategy evaluated effects of continuous increasing maternal and paternal age and 5-year age increases adjusted for the age of the other parent. Mean maternal ages for survivors classified as having de novo germline mutations and sporadic Rb were similar (28.3 and 28.5, respectively) as were mean paternal ages (31.9 and 31.2, respectively), and all were significantly higher than the weighted general US population means. In contrast, maternal and paternal ages for familial Rb did not differ significantly from the weighted US general population means. Although we noted no significant differences between mean maternal and paternal ages between each of the three Rb classification groups, we found increased odds of a survivor being in the de novo germline mutation group for each 5-year increase in

  14. Chinese Preschool Children’s Socioemotional Development: The Effects of Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relative prediction and joint effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development. A total of 325 preschool children between the ages of 34 and 57 months (M = 4 years 2 months and their parents participated in the study. Fathers and mothers, respectively, reported their levels of psychological control and mothers evaluated the socioemotional development of children using two indicators (i.e., behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors. The results indicated that the relative predictive effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development differed. Specifically, maternal psychological control was a significant predictor of children’s behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors, whereas the levels of paternal psychological control were unrelated to children’s socioemotional development. With regard to the combined effects of maternal and paternal psychological control, the results of ANOVAs and simple slope analysis both indicated that children would be at risk of behavioral problems as long as they had one highly psychologically controlling parent. High levels of paternal psychological control were associated with increased behavioral problems of children only when maternal psychological control was low. However, the association between maternal psychological control and children’s behavioral behaviors was significant, despite paternal psychological control.

  15. Paternal identity impacts embryonic development for two species of freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Linhart, Otomar; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Żarski, Daniel; Pitcher, Trevor E; Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest

    2017-05-01

    Paternal, compared to maternal, contributions were believed to have only a limited influence on embryonic development and larval fitness traits in fishes. Therefore, the perspective of male influence on early life history traits has come under scrutiny. This study was conducted to determine parental effects on the rate of eyed embryos of Ide Leuciscus idus and Northern pike Esox lucius. Five sires and five dams from each species were crossed using a quantitative genetic breeding design and the resulting 25 sib groups of each species were reared to the embryonic eyed stage. We then partition variation in embryonic phenotypic performance to maternal, paternal, and parental interactions using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) model. Results showed that paternal, maternal, and the paternal×maternal interaction terms were highly significant for both species; clearly demonstrating that certain family combinations were more compatible than others. Paternal effects explained 20.24% of the total variance, which was 2-fold higher than the maternal effects (10.73%) in Ide, while paternal effects explained 18.9% of the total variance, which was 15-fold higher than the maternal effects (1.3%) in Northern pike. Together, these results indicate that male effects are of major importance during embryonic development for these species. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that genetic compatibility between sires and dams plays an important role and needs to be taken into consideration for reproduction of these and likely other economically important fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond Boys' Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2016-12-07

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.

  17. The interactive effect of paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking on adolescent internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of both paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking on adolescent internalizing problems (depression and anxiety symptomatology). Surveys were administered to 566 10th and 11th grade students from the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Although significant main effects were not observed, significant interactions were found between paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking for internalizing problems, especially for boys. In general, these interactions indicated that when paternal problem drinking was high, depression symptomatology and anxiety symptomatology were lower if maternal problem drinking was low. Findings from this study highlight the need to consider both paternal and maternal problem drinking when examining the effects that parental problem drinking may have on adolescent adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  19. Beyond Boys’ Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children’s cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys’ behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented. PMID:28579646

  20. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone ...

  1. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers’ Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers’ lives and/or or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother–child interaction (Time 2). Of the 101 mothers who participated in this longitudinal study with their toddlers, 51 had never experienced an episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 50 had experienced an episode of MDD during the first 18 months of their toddlers’ lives. Maternal depression at Time 1 was significantly associated with toddlers’ externalizing and internalizing behavior problems only when paternal psychopathology was present. As predicted, maternal negativity at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between maternal depression at Time 1 and toddlers’ externalizing behavior problems at Time 3. PMID:19130357

  2. Relations of Parenting Style and Parental Involvement with Ninth-Grade Students' Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Compared adolescents' and parents' perceptions of maternal and paternal demandingness, responsiveness, and parental involvement with schooling. Found that adolescents' reports of parenting correlated only moderately with parents' reports. Adolescents', but not parents', reports of parenting predicted students' achievement outcome, with parental…

  3. Paternal Influences on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L.; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. METHODS: We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:23071205

  4. Adoptive paternal age and risk of psychosis in adoptees: a register based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Ek

    Full Text Available The association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in the off-spring is well established. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. In order to investigate whether the psychosocial environment associated with growing up with an aged father explains the increased risk we conducted a study of all adoptive children in Sweden from 1955-1985 (n =31 188. Their risk of developing schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis in relation to advancing age of their adoptive fathers' was examined. We found no association between risk of psychoses and advancing adoptive paternal age. There was no support of psychosocial environmental factors explaining the "paternal age effect".

  5. Familial Risk Factors to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Parental Psychopathology and Maternal Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In sample of 177 clinic-referred children aged 7-13, association was found between diagnosis of conduct disorder and several aspects of family functioning: maternal parenting (supervision and persistence in discipline) and parent adjustment (paternal antisocial personality disorder and paternal substance abuse). Children with oppositional defiant…

  6. Paternal age in relation to offspring intelligence in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Whitley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of advancing maternal age on offspring's health and development are well understood. Much less is known about the impact of paternal age. METHODS: We explored paternal age-offspring cognition associations in 772 participants from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Offspring cognitive ability was assessed using Part 1 of the Alice Heim 4 (AH4 test of General Intelligence and by reaction time (RT. RESULTS: There was no evidence of a parental age association with offspring RT. However, we observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and offspring AH4 score with the lowest scores observed for the youngest and oldest fathers. Adjustment for parental education and socioeconomic status somewhat attenuated this association. Adjustment for number of, particularly older, siblings further reduced the scores of children of younger fathers and appeared to account for the lower offspring scores in the oldest paternal age group. CONCLUSION: We observed a paternal age association with AH4 but not RT, a measure of cognition largely independent of social and educational experiences. Factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status and number of, particularly older, siblings may play an important role in accounting for paternal age-AH4 associations. Future studies should include parental intelligence.

  7. Recompositions et résistances de la masculinité et de la féminité, de la paternité et de la maternité à l’épreuve du congé parental pris par les hommes en France Recombinations and Resistances of Masculinity and Feminity, of Paternity and Maternity in the Case of Fathers’ Parental Leave in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Trellu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En France, rares sont les pères qui prennent un congé parental d’éducation ; cet article porte sur ces hommes très peu nombreux au plan statistique. Nous nous demandons dans quelle mesure l’expérience du père au foyer permet de construire une paternité et une maternité singulières ? Cette contribution se base sur une recherche empirique menée auprès de pères en congé parental et de leur conjointe. Tout d’abord, il convient de décrire le profil de ces couples qui sont atypiques par rapport aux autres couples avec enfants. Notre réflexion porte ensuite sur la dimension créatrice ou le caractère novateur des pratiques parentales des pères rencontrés et, au-delà, sur les recompositions des rôles parentaux engagées à cette occasion. De nouvelles pratiques se mettent en place, des renégociations apparaissent et contribuent à une redéfinition des identités masculines et féminines.In France, rare are the fathers who take a parental leave. This article relates to these very few men. We wonder to which extent their experience makes it possible to build up a singular paternity and maternity ? This empirical survey is based on 27 interviews of some of these men together with their partners. First of all, we look at the profile of these atypical couples. We then focus on the creative dimension of the parental practices of the fathers interviewed, and beyond on the reshaping of the parental roles. New practices are set up ; renegotiations appear and contribute to a redefinition of the male and female identities.

  8. Paternal perception of infant sleep risks and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Heather M; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-10

    Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) results in 3400 sleep-related deaths yearly in the United States, yet caregivers' compliance with safe sleep recommendations remains less than optimal. Paternal caregiver's attitudes toward infant safe sleep messages are largely unaddressed, despite established differences between female and male caregiver perceptions. This study aimed to explore the determinants of safe sleep practices among male caregivers. Focus groups were conducted in Arkansas with male caregivers of infants ages 2-12 months to discuss infant sleep routines, parental roles, sources for safe sleep information, and messaging suggestions for safe sleep promotion. The Health Belief Model of behavior change framed a moderator guide. Transcript-based analysis was used, and data were managed using HyperRESEARCH (version 2.8.3). The transcribed data were coded to identify significant themes. Ten focus groups were conducted with 46 participants. Inconsistent adherence to safe sleep practices was reported. Participants were more likely to describe safe location (57% of participants) and supine position behaviors (42%) than an uncluttered bed environment (26%). Caregivers acknowledged the importance of recommended safe sleep behavior, but admitted to unsafe practices, such as co-sleeping and unsafe daytime sleep. Lack of perceived risk, comfort, and/or resources, and disagreement among family members about safety practices were identified as barriers. Participants voiced concerns that current advertising portrays males as incompetent caregivers. Suggestions included portraying positive images of fathers and male caregivers acting to promote safety and the incorporation of statistics about the hazards of unsafe sleep to better engage fathers. Potential distribution venues included sporting events, home improvement and/or automotive stores, and social media from trusted sites (e.g. hospitals or medical professionals). Male caregivers demonstrate some knowledge base

  9. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  10. The relation between maternal schizophrenia and low birth weight is modified by paternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Tang, Chao-Hsuin; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2010-06-01

    Paternal characteristics have never been considered in the relation between maternal schizophrenia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of our study was to consider different paternal ages while investigating the relation between maternal schizophrenia and low birth weight (LBW), using a nationwide population-based dataset. Our study used data from the 2001 to 2003 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset and birth certificate registry. A total of 543 394 singleton live births were included. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore the relation between maternal schizophrenia and the risk of LBW, taking different paternal age groups into account (aged 29 years or younger, 30 to 39 years, and 40 years and older), and after adjusting for other characteristics of infant, mother, and father as well as the difference between the parent's ages. Mothers with schizophrenia had a higher percentage of LBW infants than mothers who did not (11.8%, compared with 6.8%). For infants whose mothers had schizophrenia, the adjusted odds ratios of LBW were 1.47 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.27, P paternal age groups of 30 to 39 years and 40 years or older, respectively. However, maternal schizophrenia was not a significant predictor of LBW for infants whose fathers were aged 29 years and younger. The relation between LBW and maternal schizophrenia is modified by paternal age. More attention should be paid to the interaction of paternal characteristics and maternal psychiatric disorders in producing adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Establishing oral health promoting behaviours in children - parents' views on barriers, facilitators and professional support: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; de Jong-Lenters, Maddelon; Verrips, Erik; van Loveren, Cor

    2015-12-10

    The prevention of childhood dental caries relies on adherence to key behaviours, including twice daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and reducing the consumption of sugary foods and drinks. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore parents' perceptions of barriers and facilitators that influence these oral health behaviours in children. A further objective was to explore parents' views on limitations and opportunities for professional support to promote children's oral health. Six focus group interviews were conducted, including a total of 39 parents of 7-year old children, who were recruited from paediatric dental centres in The Netherlands. Interviews were held with Dutch parents of low and high socioeconomic status and parents from Turkish and Moroccan origin. Focus group interviews were conducted on the basis of a pre-tested semi-structured interview guide and topic list. Content analysis was employed to analyse the data. Analysis of interview transcripts identified many influences on children's oral health behaviours, operating at child, family and community levels. Perceived influences on children's tooth brushing behaviour were primarily located within the direct family environment, including parental knowledge, perceived importance and parental confidence in tooth brushing, locus of control, role modelling, parental monitoring and supervision, parenting strategies and tooth brushing routines and habituation. The consumption of sugary foods and drinks was influenced by both the direct family environment and factors external to the family, including the school, the social environment, commercials and television, supermarkets and affordability of foods. Parents raised several suggestions for professional oral health support, which included the provision of clear and consistent oral health information using a positive approach, dietary regulations at school and a multidisciplinary approach among dental professionals, child health centres and

  12. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  13. Influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in Holocaust survivor offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Lehrner, Amy; Desarnaud, Frank; Bader, Heather N; Makotkine, Iouri; Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Differential effects of maternal and paternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been observed in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors in both glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and vulnerability to psychiatric disorder. The authors examined the relative influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on DNA methylation of the exon 1F promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-1F) gene (NR3C1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its relationship to glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in Holocaust offspring. Adult offspring with at least one Holocaust survivor parent (N=80) and demographically similar participants without parental Holocaust exposure or parental PTSD (N=15) completed clinical interviews, self-report measures, and biological procedures. Blood samples were collected for analysis of GR-1F promoter methylation and of cortisol levels in response to low-dose dexamethasone, and two-way analysis of covariance was performed using maternal and paternal PTSD as main effects. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to permit visualization of maternal compared with paternal PTSD effects on clinical variables and GR-1F promoter methylation. A significant interaction demonstrated that in the absence of maternal PTSD, offspring with paternal PTSD showed higher GR-1F promoter methylation, whereas offspring with both maternal and paternal PTSD showed lower methylation. Lower GR-1F promoter methylation was significantly associated with greater postdexamethasone cortisol suppression. The clustering analysis revealed that maternal and paternal PTSD effects were differentially associated with clinical indicators and GR-1F promoter methylation. This is the first study to demonstrate alterations of GR-1F promoter methylation in relation to parental PTSD and neuroendocrine outcomes. The moderation of paternal PTSD effects by maternal PTSD suggests different mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related vulnerabilities.

  14. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  15. [Forensic hematology genetics--paternity testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, A; Bär, W

    1997-05-01

    In Switzerland paternity investigations are carried out using DNA analysis only since 1991. DNA patterns are inherited and only with the exception of genetically identical twins they are different in everyone and therefore unique to an individual. Hence DNA-systems are an excellent tool to resolve paternity disputes. DNA polymorphisms used for paternity diagnosis are length polymorphisms of the highly polymorphic VNTR loci [variable number of tandem repeats]. The most frequently applied systems are the DNA single locus systems. In addition to the DNA single locus systems the application of PCR (PCR = polymerase chain reaction) based DNA systems has increased particularly in difficult deficiency cases or in cases where only small evidential samples or partially degraded DNA are available. Normally four independent DNA single probes are used to produce a DNA profile from the mother, the child and the alleged father. A child inherits half the DNA patterns from its mother and the other half from its true biological father. If an alleged father doesn't possess the paternal specific DNA pattern in his DNA profile he is excluded from the paternity. In case of non-exclusion the probability for paternity is calculated according to Essen-Möller. When applying four highly polymorphic DNA single locus systems the biostatistical evaluation leads always to W-values exceeding 99.8% [= required value for positive proof of paternity]. DNA analysis is currently the best available method to achieve such effective conclusions in paternity investigations.

  16. Temperature, paternity and asynchronous hatching influence early developmental characteristics of larval Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Dahlke, Flemming T.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Offspring, especially during early development, are influenced by both intrinsic properties endowed to them by their parents, extrinsic environmental factors as well as the interplay between genes and the environment. We investigated the effects of paternity (P), temperature (T), and asynchronous...

  17. Early Determinants of Maternal and Paternal Harsh Discipline: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; van IJzendoorn, M. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Research described risk factors for maternal use of harsh discipline, but knowledge about determinants of paternal harsh discipline is lacking. This study aimed to identify determinants of harsh discipline and whether this differed between mothers and fathers. Harsh disciplining practices were self-reported by Dutch parents of 3-year-old children.…

  18. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  19. Should advertising parental care be honest?

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, H.

    1998-01-01

    Species with paternal care show less exaggerated sexual ornamentation than those in which males do not care, although direct benefits from paternal care can vastly exceed the indirect benefits of mate choice. Whether condition-dependent handicaps can signal parenting ability is controversial. The good-parent process predicts the evolution of honest signals of parental investment, whereas the differential-allocation model suggests a trade-off between the attractiveness of a mate and his care-p...

  20. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.

  1. Reciprocity Between Parental Psychopathology and Oppositional Symptoms From Preschool to Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Zayra; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common disorder in preschool children. Evidence indicates that maternal and paternal psychopathology, particularly aggressive behavior and anxious and depressed symptoms, contributes to the development of this disorder. The latest research also suggests that ODD symptoms may exacerbate the mental health problems of parents. Our aim was to establish the existence of a reciprocal association between paternal and maternal psychopathology (aggression, depression, and anxiety) and child ODD at ages 3 and 8, using a longitudinal design in a community sample of preschoolers. The sample included 331 children evaluated at ages 3 and 8 through questionnaires and a semistructured diagnostic interview with parents. Parents also informed about their own psychopathology. At 3 years of age, higher levels of ODD symptoms in girls were concurrently associated with maternal anxious and depressed symptoms and paternal aggressive behavior, and higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys were concurrently associated with maternal aggressive behavior. Longitudinally, for boys, higher levels of maternal anxious and depressed symptoms at child age 3 predicted increases in ODD symptoms from 3 to 8 years of age. In addition, higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys aged 3-8 years predicted increases in fathers' anxious and depressive symptoms. Children with ODD should be evaluated and treated promptly, but efforts should be extended to their parents. Mothers' and fathers' mental health must be explored because the psychopathologies of children and parents reciprocally affect each other. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    McGhee, Katie E.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole...

  3. Maternal or paternal suicide and offspring's psychiatric and suicide-attempt hospitalization risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Runeson, Bo; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; Wilcox, Holly C

    2010-11-01

    We examined whether the risk for psychiatric morbidity requiring inpatient care was higher for offspring who experienced parental suicide, compared with offspring of fatal accident decedents, and whether the association varied according to the deceased parent's gender. Children and adolescents (0-17 years of age) who experienced maternal (N = 5600) or paternal (N = 17,847) suicide in 1973-2003 in Sweden were identified by using national, longitudinal, population-based registries. Cox regression modeling was used to compare psychiatric hospitalization risks among offspring of suicide decedents and propensity score-matched offspring of accident decedents. Offspring of maternal suicide decedents had increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, after controlling for psychiatric hospitalization for decedents and surviving parents, compared with offspring of maternal accidental decedents. Offspring of paternal suicide decedents had similar risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, compared with offspring of accident decedents, but had increased risk of hospitalization attributable to depressive and anxiety disorders. The magnitude of risks for offspring suicide-attempt hospitalization was greater for those who experienced maternal versus paternal suicide, compared with their respective control offspring (interaction P = .05; offspring of maternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.80 [95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.74]; offspring of paternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.35]). Maternal suicide is associated with increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization for offspring, beyond the risk associated with maternal accidental death. However, paternal suicide is not associated with suicide-attempt hospitalization. Future studies should examine factors that might differ between offspring who experience maternal versus paternal suicide, including genetic or early environmental determinants.

  4. Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: mediators and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Galve, Leticia; Stein, Alan; Hanington, Lucy; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul

    2015-02-01

    To explore potential mediating and moderating factors that influence the association between paternal depression in the postnatal period and subsequent child behavioral and emotional problems. A population-based cohort (N = 13,822) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) was recruited during pregnancy. Paternal and maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8 weeks after the birth of the child. Child outcomes were assessed at 3.5 years by using the Rutter revised preschool scales and at 7 years by using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Path analysis was used to assess hypothesized mediators (ie, depression in the other parent, couple conflict, and paternal noninvolvement) of the associations between both paternal and maternal depression and child outcomes. We also tested for hypothesized moderators (ie, paternal education and antisocial traits). Family factors (maternal depression and couple conflict) mediated two-thirds of the overall association between paternal depression and child outcomes at 3.5 years. Similar findings were seen when children were 7 years old. In contrast, family factors mediated less than one-quarter of the association between maternal depression and child outcomes. There was no evidence of moderating effects of either parental education or antisocial traits. The majority of the association between depression in fathers postnatally and subsequent child behavior is explained by the mediating role of family environment, whereas the association between depression in mothers and child outcomes appears to be better explained by other factors, perhaps including direct mother-infant interaction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Preconception maternal and paternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and birth size: the LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Candace A; Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84-195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98-170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring.

  6. Public Service Motivation and Paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Pedersen, Lene; Qvistgaard, Lars

    holds a potential to improve public service provision (Belle, 2013, Andersen et al., 2014), it also has dark sides (Van Loon et al., 2015, forthcoming). The aim of this paper is to analyze and discuss how one type of public service motivated individuals (paternalistic knights) and constitute a problem...... of democratic accountability. The setting of this discussion is unusual for the PSM literature, and takes PSM into the analysis and discussion of motivation and paternalism in trade unions. This setting is relevant and interesting as the election of representatives is based on elections, and hence trade unions...... variables are two dimensions of the PSM construct; namely self-sacrifice and commitment to the public interest, whereas the central independent variable is paternalistic orientation. All three variables are measured with survey constructs in a cross sectional survey design. The survey is made among...

  7. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. Results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent’s permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering both parents’ depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms. PMID:28414019

  8. Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692

  9. Maternal and paternal pragmatic speech directed to young children with Down syndrome and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional features of maternal and paternal speech directed to children with Down syndrome and developmental age-matched typically developing children. Altogether 88 parents (44 mothers and 44 fathers) and their 44 young children (22 children with Down syndrome and 22 typically developing children) participated. Parents' speech directed to children was obtained through observation of naturalistic parent-child dyadic interactions. Verbatim transcripts of maternal and paternal language were categorized in terms of the primary function of each speech unit. Parents (both mothers and fathers) of children with Down syndrome used more affect-salient speech compared to parents of typically developing children. Although parents used the same amounts of information-salient speech, parents of children with Down syndrome used more direct statements and asked fewer questions than did parents of typically developing children. Concerning parent gender, in both groups mothers used more language than fathers and specifically more descriptions. These findings held controlling for child age and MLU and family SES. This study highlights strengths and weaknesses of parental communication to children with Down syndrome and helps to identify areas of potential improvement through intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Actual and Potential Participation of Primary School Pupils at Parents' Evenings: A Challenge to the Established Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    As curricular development in Scotland espoused the importance of pupil participation, the extent to which this has been embedded across teachers' pedagogy into assessment and reporting practices warranted investigation. This article reports a mixed-methods study with parents, pupils and teachers from three Scottish primary schools that examined…

  11. Maternal care and paternal protection influence response to psychotherapy treatment for adult depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Jeanette M; Carter, Janet D; Luty, Suzanne E; Mulder, Roger T; Frampton, Christopher M; Joyce, Peter R

    2013-07-01

    Adverse childhood experiences of neglect, overprotection and abuse, well-recognized risk factors for the development of adult psychopathology, were examined as predictors of response to psychotherapy treatment for adults with depression. Outpatients in a randomized clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) completed the parental bonding instrument (PBI) at baseline to establish levels of care and protection. Childhood abuse was asked about using clinical interviews. The PBI variables were examined in tertiles while the abuse variables were categorized as "none," "some," and "severe." Associations between these childhood adversities and treatment response were examined in those who completed the trial. Of 177 outpatients with depression who were randomized, 159 completed an adequate trial of therapy. Within these 159 patients, 57% were categorized as responders to treatment. The mean percentage improvement on the MADRS was 57.7% (±31.4). Across both treatments, patients reporting intermediate levels of maternal care had the best response to treatment. Also across both treatments, the interaction effects of maternal care and paternal protection by treatment were statistically significant. Examining the two therapies independently, maternal care and paternal protection were associated with a differential response to IPT but not CBT. Reports of abuse, whether physical, emotional or sexual, did not impact treatment response. This study examined patients who completed treatment, which may have attenuated the findings. Two categories of childhood adversity were measured although a range of other adverse childhood experiences exist. The results were from exploratory analyses and require replication. Maternal care, demonstrating a robust main effect across treatments, appears to be the childhood variable most strongly associated with response to psychotherapy in this sample. In addition, maternal care and paternal protection

  12. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...

  13. Parental rearing and eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz-Serrrano, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Latorre-Postigo, José Miguel; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between perceived rearing styles and the clinical expression of Eating Disorders (ED). One hundred and ninety-six patients diagnosed of an ED and 127 healthy student as controls selected from the Nursing College were evaluated for general psychopathology (STAI, BDI II, RSE), and for abnormal eating attitudes (EAT, EDI-II, BITE). The EMBU (‘my memories of upbringing’) was administered for the assessment of perceived parental rearing styles and was used a questionnaire to assess familial variables. In relation to the control group, patients with ED perceived greater rejection, overprotection and less warmth than the controls. Patients who perceived greater paternal favoritism, maternal overprotection and low paternal emotional warmth, showed higher levels of anxiety. Paternal affection and maternal attitudes of rejection, overprotection and favoritism were related to lower self-esteem. Regarding abnormal eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction inversely correlated with paternal emotional care and maternal favoritism. The EDI subscales: ineffectiveness, perfectionism and ascetism were associated to parental rejection. Maternal rejection also related with drive for thinness, interoceptive awareness and impulse regulation. Perceived emotional warmth was related with perfectionism. Bulimia subscale and BITE scores were inversely associated to paternal overprotection and affection, and scored significantly higher in paternal favoritism and rejection from both parents. Perceived parental bonding is different in the various subtypes of EDs. Patients diagnosed of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified perceived greater rejection, less affection and a greater overprotection than Anorexia Nervosa patients and controls.

  14. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  15. Libertarian Paternalism Is Not an Oxymoron

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2003-01-01

    The idea of libertarian paternalism might seem to be an oxymoron, but it is both possible and legitimate for private and public institutions to affect behavior while also respecting freedom of choice. Often people’s preferences are ill-formed, and their choices will inevitably be influenced by default rules, framing effects, and starting points. In these circumstances, a form of paternalism cannot be avoided. Equipped with an understanding of behavioral findings of bounded rationality and bou...

  16. Divergent Trends in US Maternity and Paternity Leave, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorsky, Jay L

    2017-03-01

    To determine the number and type of US workers taking maternity or paternity leave. We created a publicly available ecological long-term series for measuring parental leave from 1994 to 2015 by using the Current Population Survey, which interviews about 60 000 randomly selected households monthly. The average month from 1994 to 2015 saw 273 000 women and 13 000 men on maternity or paternity leave. Maternity leave rates per 10 000 births showed no trend over 22 years (mean = 677.6). Paternity figures increased by a factor of 3, but started from a small base (14.7-54.6). We observed no national impact on maternity or paternity leave after implementation of state laws that provided paid leave. About half (51.1%) of employees on maternity or paternity leave during 2015 received paid time off. The typical woman on maternity leave was older, more likely married, more likely non-Hispanic White, and more educated than the typical woman who gave birth. Although the US economy has expanded dramatically since 1994, this improvement does not appear to have translated into more women taking maternity leave.

  17. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Paternal B vitamin intake is a determinant of growth, hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal tumor volume in female Apc1638N mouse offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well. Objective: In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin inta...

  19. Child gender influences paternal behavior, language, and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Rentscher, Kelly E; Hackett, Patrick D; Mehl, Matthias R; Rilling, James K

    2017-06-01

    Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli. Compared with fathers of sons, fathers of daughters were more attentively engaged with their daughters, sang more to their daughters, used more analytical language and language related to sadness and the body with their daughters, and had a stronger neural response to their daughter's happy facial expressions in areas of the brain important for reward and emotion regulation (medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]). In contrast, fathers of sons engaged in more rough and tumble play (RTP), used more achievement language with their sons, and had a stronger neural response to their son's neutral facial expressions in the medial OFC (mOFC). Whereas the mOFC response to happy faces was negatively related to RTP, the mOFC response to neutral faces was positively related to RTP, specifically for fathers of boys. These results indicate that real-world paternal behavior and brain function differ as a function of child gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Paternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension affects the prevalence and phenotype of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Zhang, Haolin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine if paternal or maternal history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) contributes to the prevalence and phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We performed an epidemiologic study about PCOS from four districts in Beijing, China, between 2008 and 2009. Parental histories of DM and HT were collected, and the basic characteristics and serum indices of 123 PCOS patients and 718 non-PCOS controls were tested. The prevalence of a parental history of DM and HT was significantly higher in PCOS patients than non-PCOS women (17.1 % vs. 9.2 % and 42.3 % vs. 26.0 %, P PCOS and non-PCOS patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.42, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.69-6.91; OR = 2.50, 95 % CI = 1.58-3.93, respectively). A paternal history of both DM and HT was significantly associated with sex hormone-binding globulin, fasting plasma glucose, and fasting insulin levels, the free androgen index, and the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance in PCOS patients (P PCOS. PCOS patients with a positive paternal history of both DM and HT have an adverse endocrine and metabolic profile. A paternal history of DM and HT poses a risk to PCOS.

  1. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Thomsen, Dana A; Roberts, Claire T; Burns, Brian M; Anderson, Gail I; Greenwood, Paul L; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (Pmaternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, Pmaternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, Pmaternal weight effect (5-6%, Ppaternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, Pinteraction between maternal and paternal genomes (Pmaternal weight (Pmaternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle.

  2. Suboptimal maternal and paternal mental health are associated with child bullying perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying.

  3. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A; Collier, David A; Li, Tao

    2012-08-15

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25-29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30-34 and ≥35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30-34 and ≥35. For offspring with paternal age of maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Family roots of empathy-related characteristics: the role of perceived maternal and paternal need support in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklikowska, Marta; Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart

    2011-09-01

    Theories on empathy development have stressed the role of socialization in general and the role of parental support in particular. This 3-wave longitudinal study of middle adolescents (N = 678) aimed to contribute to the extant research on the socialization of empathy (a) by examining the relative contribution of perceived maternal and paternal need supportive parenting on over-time changes in adolescents' emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy (i.e., empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively) and (b) by considering the possibility of reciprocal relations between perceived parenting and adolescent empathy. Whereas paternal need support consistently predicted over-time changes in perspective taking in both sons and daughters, perceived maternal need support predicted changes in empathic concern among daughters only. In addition, although less consistently so, empathy dimensions also predicted over-time changes in perceived parenting. Results are discussed in terms of the nature of empathy and in the light of domain-specific effects of each parent.

  5. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies

  6. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  7. Paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Rihayani Budi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased 10 times over the past half century, while paternal and maternal age at pregnancy has also increased. Studies looking for an association between paternal or maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring have not been conclusive. Objective To assess for possible associations between paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring. Methods This case-control study had 50 case and 100 control subjects, each case was matched for age and gender to two controls. Case subjects were obtained by consecutive sampling of patients aged 18 months to 7 years who visited the Developmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic and private growth and development centers from January to April 2013, while control group were children of the same age range and same gender who visited pediatric outpatient clinic at Sanglah Hospital mostly due to acute respiratory tract infection, without ASDs as assessed by the DSM-IV-TR criteria. We interviewed parents to collect the following data: maternal and paternal age at pregnancy, child’s birth weight, history of asphyxia, hospital admission during the neonatal period, pathological labor, maternal smoking during pregnancy, paternal smoking, and gestational age. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Multivariable analysis showed that higher paternal age at pregnancy was associated with ASDs in offspring (OR 6.3; 95%CI 2.0 to 19.3; P 0.001. However, there was no significant association between maternal age during pregnancy and the incidence of ASDs. Asphyxia and paternal smoking were also associated with higher incidence of ASDs in the offspring (OR 10.3; 95%CI 1.9 to 56.5; P 0.007 and OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.5 to 6.9; P 0.003, respectively. Conclusion Paternal age >=40 years increased the risk of ASDs in offspring by 6.3 times. In addition, paternal smoking increased the risk of ASDs in

  8. Paternal overprotection in obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression with obsessive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takafumi; Taga, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Yoshitake; Fukui, Kenji

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a parental rearing style showing a low level of care on the parental bonding instrument (PBI) is a risk factor for depression, and that there is a relationship between the overprotective rearing style on the PBI and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, there is no study on the parental rearing attitudes in depressive patients divided into two groups based on their obsessive traits. In this study, we evaluated the parental rearing attitudes and examined the differences among four groups: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. We divided the depressive patients into severe and mild groups based on their obsessive traits on the Mausdley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). We compared PBI scores among four groups of 50 subjects matched for age and sex: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. The paternal protection scores in the depressive patients with severely obsessive traits and the OCD patients were significantly higher than those in the depressive patients with mildly obsessive traits and healthy volunteers. This study indicated that the depressive patients with severe obsessive traits and the OCD patients have similar paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes. We conclude that the paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes are linked to the development of OCD and depression with obsessive traits, and are not linked to the development of depression itself.

  9. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.

  10. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  11. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother–offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection. PMID:25937911

  12. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship.We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour.This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  13. The effect of multiple paternity on genetic diversity of small populations during and after colonisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rafajlović

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by [Formula: see text] males increased the heterozygosity by [Formula: see text] in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was [Formula: see text] compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity.

  14. The Effect of Multiple Paternity on Genetic Diversity of Small Populations during and after Colonisation

    KAUST Repository

    Rafajlović, Marina

    2013-10-28

    Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration) has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by 2-10 males increased the heterozygosity by 10-300% in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was 10-50% compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity. 2013 Rafajlovi? et al.

  15. Effects of paternal deprivation on cocaine-induced behavioral response and hypothalamic oxytocin immunoreactivity and serum oxytocin level in female mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianli; Fang, Qianqian; Yang, Chenxi

    2017-09-15

    Early paternal behavior plays a critical role in behavioral development in monogamous species. The vast majority of laboratory studies investigating the influence of parental behavior on cocaine vulnerability focus on the effects of early maternal separation. However, comparable studies on whether early paternal deprivation influences cocaine-induced behavioral response are substantially lacking. Mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus) is a monogamous rodent with high levels of paternal care. After mandarin vole pups were subjected to early paternal deprivation, acute cocaine- induced locomotion, anxiety- like behavior and social behavior were examined in 45day old female pups, while hypothalamic oxytocin immunoreactivity and serum oxytocin level were also assessed. We found that cocaine increased locomotion and decreased social investigation, contact behavior and serum oxytocin level regardless of paternal care. Cocaine increased anxiety levels and decreased oxytocin immunoreactive neurons of the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei in the bi-parental care group, whilst there were no specific effects in the paternal deprivation group. These results indicate that paternal deprivation results in different behavioral response to acute cocaine exposure in adolescents, which may be in part associated with the alterations in oxytocin immunoreactivity and peripheral OT level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of paternal age in achondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, and osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orioli, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castilla, E.E. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigacion Clinica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Scarano, G.; Mastroiacovo, P. [Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)

    1995-11-06

    The paternal ages of nonfamilial cases of achondroplasia (AC) (n = 78), thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) (n = 64), and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (n = 106), were compared with those of matched controls, from an Italian Indagine Policentrica Italiana sulle Malformazioni Congenite (IPIMC) and a South American Estudio Colaborativo Latinoamericano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) series. The degree of paternal age effect on the origin of these dominant mutations differed among the three conditions. Mean paternal age was highly elevated in AC, 36.30 {plus_minus} 6.74 years in the IPIMC, and 37.19 {plus_minus} 10.53 years in the ECLAMC; less consistently elevated in TD, 33.60 {plus_minus} 7.08 years in the IPIMC, and 36.41 {plus_minus} 9.38 years in the ECLAMC; and only slightly elevated in OI in the ECLAMC, 31.15 {plus_minus} 9.25 years, but not in the IPIMC, 32.26 {plus_minus} 6.07 years. Increased maternal age or birth order in these conditions disappeared when corrected for paternal age. Approximately 50% of AC and TD cases, and only 30% of OI cases, were born to fathers above age 35 years. For AC and TD, the increase in relative incidence with paternal age fitted an exponential curve. The variability of paternal age effect in these new mutations could be due, among other reasons, to the high proportion of germ-line mosaicism in OI parents, or to the localization of the AC gene, mapped to the 4p16.3 region, in the neighborhood of an unstable DNA area. 28 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  17. Effects of a Paternal Participation Program during Cesarean Section on Paternal Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyoung Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeIn this study effects of a paternal participation program during cesarean section on paternal infant attachment were investigate. The experimental treatment was an integrative nursing intervention to promote father to infant attachment.MethodsStudy design was a non-equivalent control group posttest design. The program consisted of emotional support to spouse and father towards infant attachment immediately following cesarean birth. Participants were 66 men, partners of women with normal full term pregnancy having a cesarean section with spinal or epidural anesthesia, (experimental group, 34; control group, 32. The experiment was carried out from August 1 to October 30, 2010. Control group data were obtained from May 1 to June 30, 2012. Posttest was performed 72 hours after cesarean birth. A self-report questionnaire including a paternal attachment instrument was used. Data were analyzed using t-test, propensity score matching, and analysis of covariance with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program.ResultsTotal score for paternal infant attachment in the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<.001. After matching, significant differences were found between the two groups through all subcategories. Adjusted mean score for paternal infant attachment verified experimental effects.ConclusionResults indicate that this paternal participation program during cesarean section is effective in improving paternal infant attachment.

  18. Is advanced paternal age a health risk for the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Urhoj, Stine Kjaer

    2017-01-01

    consistently associated with increased paternal age are stillbirths, musculo-skeletal syndromes, cleft palate, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and retinoblastoma, and neurodevelopmental disorders in the autism spectrum and schizophrenia. Finally, we consider the public health impact of the increasing paternal age...

  19. Demonstration of paternal inheritance of plastids in Picea (Pinaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, M.

    1988-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was purified from Picea glauca, P. pungens, P. engelmannii, and P. omorika, and was digested with several restriction endonucleases. Interspecific restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of cpDNA were identified. The RFLPs were identified as cpDNA by the hybridization of cloned, 32 -P labeled, petunia cpDNA to the polymorphic bands, and by the lack of hybridization of a cloned and labeled mtDNA probe from maize. Chloroplast DNA RFLPs that showed no intraspecific variation when examined across the natural range for each species, were used as markers to follow the inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids. The inheritance of plastids was determined for F 1 -hybrids from reciprocal crosses of P. glauca and P. pungens, P. glauca and P. omorika, and F 1 -hybrids of P. engelmannii x pungens. All 31 F 1 -hybrids examined showed the cpDNA genotypes of the pollen parent, or the paternal species

  20. Schizophrenia and birthplace of paternal and maternal grandfather in the Jerusalem perinatal cohort prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlap, S; Perrin, M C; Deutsch, L; Kleinhaus, K; Fennig, S; Nahon, D; Teitelbaum, A; Friedlander, Y; Malaspina, D

    2009-06-01

    Some forms of epigenetic abnormalities transmitted to offspring are manifested in differences in disease incidence that depend on parent-of-origin. To explore whether such phenomena might operate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we estimated the relative incidence of these conditions in relation to parent-of-origin by considering the two grandfathers' countries of birth. In a prospective cohort of 88,829 offspring, born in Jerusalem in 1964-76 we identified 637 cases through Israel's psychiatric registry. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for paternal and maternal grandfathers' countries of birth using proportional hazards methods, controlling for parents' ages, low social class and duration of marriage. After adjusting for multiple observations, we found no significant differences between descendants of maternal or paternal grandfathers born in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Yemen, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya/Egypt, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Germany or the USA. Those with paternal grandfathers from Romania (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3-2.8) or Hungary (1.6, 1.0-2.6) showed an increased incidence; however, those with maternal grandfathers from these countries experienced reduced incidence (RR=0.5, 0.3-0.8 and 0.4, 0.2-0.8). In post-hoc analyses we found that results were similar whether the comparison groups were restricted to descendants of other Europeans or included those from Western Asia and North Africa; and effects of paternal grandfathers from Romania/Hungary were more pronounced in females, while effects of maternal grandfathers from these countries were similar in males and females. These post-hoc "hypothesis-generating" findings lead one to question whether some families with ancestors in Romania or Hungary might carry a variant or mutation at a parentally imprinted locus that is altering susceptibility to schizophrenia. Such a locus, if it exists, might involve the X chromosome.

  1. SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIRTHPLACE OF PATERNAL AND MATERNAL GRANDFATHER IN THE JERUSALEM PERINATAL COHORT PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlap, S; Perrin, M C; Deutsch, L; Kleinhaus, K; Fennig, S; Nahon, D; Teitelbaum, A; Friedlander, Y; Malaspina, D

    2009-01-01

    Some forms of epigenetic abnormalities transmitted to offspring are manifest in differences in disease incidence that depend on parent-of-origin. To explore whether such phenomena might operate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we estimated the relative incidence of these conditions in relation to parent-of-origin by considering the two grandfathers' countries of birth. In a prospective cohort of 88,829 offspring, born in Jerusalem in 1964–76 we identified 637 cases through Israel's psychiatric registry. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for paternal and maternal grandfathers' countries of birth using proportional hazards methods, controlling for parents' ages, low social class and duration of marriage. After adjusting for multiple observations, we found no significant differences between descendants of maternal or paternal grandfathers born in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Yemen, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya/Egypt, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Germany or the USA. Those with paternal grandfathers from Romania (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3–2.8) or Hungary (1.6, 1.0–2.6) showed an increased incidence; however, those with maternal grandfathers from these countries experienced reduced incidence (RR=0.5, 0.3–0.8 and 0.4, 0.2–0.8). In post-hoc analyses we found that results were similar whether the comparison groups were restricted to descendants of other Europeans or included those from Western Asia and North Africa; and effects of paternal grandfathers from Romania/Hungary were more pronounced in females, while effects of maternal grandfathers from these countries were similar in males and females. These post-hoc “hypothesis-generating” findings lead one to question whether some families with ancestors in Romania or Hungary might carry a variant or mutation at a parentally imprinted locus that is altering susceptibility to schizophrenia. Such a locus, if it exists, might involve the X chromosome. PMID:19361958

  2. Maternal and paternal pragmatic speech directed to young children with Down syndrome and typical development

    OpenAIRE

    de Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional features of maternal and paternal speech directed to children with Down syndrome and developmental age-matched typically developing children. Altogether 88 parents (44 mothers and 44 fathers) and their 44 young children (22 children with Down syndrome and 22 typically developing children) participated. Parents’ speech directed to children was obtained through observation of naturalistic parent–child dyadic interactions. Verbatim transcripts of m...

  3. Widespread differential maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone phenotype at mid-gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Lee, Alice M C; Eindorf, Tanja; Javadmanesh, Ali; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Gugger, Madeleine; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Pitchford, Wayne S; Leviton, Alison J; Thomsen, Dana A; Beckman, Ian; Anderson, Gail I; Burns, Brian M; Rutley, David L; Xian, Cory J; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Parent-of-origin-dependent (epi)genetic factors are important determinants of prenatal development that program adult phenotype. However, data on magnitude and specificity of maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone are lacking. We used an outbred bovine model to dissect and quantify effects of parental genomes, fetal sex, and nongenetic maternal effects on the fetal skeleton and analyzed phenotypic and molecular relationships between fetal muscle and bone. Analysis of 51 bone morphometric and weight parameters from 72 fetuses recovered at day 153 gestation (54% term) identified six principal components (PC1-6) that explained 80% of the variation in skeletal parameters. Parental genomes accounted for most of the variation in bone wet weight (PC1, 72.1%), limb ossification (PC2, 99.8%), flat bone size (PC4, 99.7%), and axial skeletal growth (PC5, 96.9%). Limb length showed lesser effects of parental genomes (PC3, 40.8%) and a significant nongenetic maternal effect (gestational weight gain, 29%). Fetal sex affected bone wet weight (PC1, p maternal genome effects on bone wet weight (74.1%, p paternal genome controlled limb ossification (95.1%, p maternal genome effects on growth plate height (98.6%, p maternal genome effects on fetal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (96.9%, p paternal genome effects on alkaline phosphatase (90.0%, p maternally controlled bone wet weight and paternally controlled limb ossification, respectively. Bone wet weight and flat bone size correlated positively with muscle weight (r = 0.84 and 0.77, p maternally expressed H19 regulates growth factors by miRNA interference, this suggests muscle-bone interaction via epigenetic factors. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. Male ornamentation and within-pair paternity are not associated with male provisioning rates in scarlet rosefinches Carpodacus erythrinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnitzer, J.; Exnerová, A.; Poláková, Radka; Vinkler, Michal; Tomášek, Oldřich; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2014), s. 89-97 ISSN 0873-9749 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carotenoid-based ornamentation * Extra-pair paternity * Feeding effort * Parental care Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  5. The Link between Perceived Maternal and Paternal Autonomy Support and Adolescent Well-Being across Three Major Educational Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duineveld, Jasper J.; Parker, Philip D.; Ryan, Richard M.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2017-01-01

    To what extent does maternal and paternal autonomy support enhance well-being across the major transitions of high school? We tested the degree to which perceived autonomy supportive parenting facilitated positive changes in self-esteem and life satisfaction and buffered against negative changes in depressive symptoms and school related burnout in…

  6. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  7. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  8. Multiple song features are related to paternal effort in common nightingales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Conny; Weiss, Michael; Kipper, Silke

    2015-06-18

    Sexual ornamentation may be related to the degree of paternal care and the 'good-parent' model predicts that male secondary characters honestly advertise paternal investment. In most birds, males are involved in bringing up the young and successful reproduction highly depends on male contribution during breeding. In passerines, male song is indicative of male attributes and for few species it has been shown that song features also signal paternal investment to females. Males of nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos are famous for their elaborate singing but so far there is only little knowledge on the role of male song in intersexual communication, and it is unknown whether male song predicts male parenting abilities. Using RFID technology to record male feeding visits to the nest, we found that nightingale males substantially contribute to chick feeding. Also, we analyzed male nocturnal song with focus on song features that have been shown to signal male quality before. We found that several song features, namely measures of song complexity and song sequencing, were correlated with male feeding rates. Moreover, the combination of these song features had strong predictive power for male contribution to nestling feeding. Since male nightingales are involved in chick rearing, paternal investment might be a crucial variable for female mate choice in this species. Females may assess future paternal care on the basis of song features identified in our study and thus these features may have evolved to signal direct benefits to females. Additionally we underline the importance of multiple acoustic cues for female mating decisions especially in species with complex song such as the nightingale.

  9. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively. PMID:22568861

  10. Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi; Fernandez, Renae C

    2012-05-08

    Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent's age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  11. Paternal epigenetic effects of population density on locust phase-related characteristics associated with heat-shock protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Li, Shaoqin; Ren, Qiang; Tong, Xiwen; Zhang, Xia; Kang, Le

    2015-02-01

    Many species exhibit transgenerational plasticity by which environmental cues experienced by either parent can be transmitted to their offspring, resulting in phenotypic variants in offspring to match ancestral environments. However, the manner by which paternal experiences affect offspring plasticity through epigenetic inheritance in animals generally remains unclear. In this study, we examined the transgenerational effects of population density on phase-related traits in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Using an experimental design that explicitly controls genetic background, we found that the effects of crowd or isolation rearing on phase plasticity could be inherited to the offspring. The isolation of gregarious locusts resulted in reduced weight in offspring eggs and altered morphometric traits in hatchlings, whereas crowding of solitarious locusts exhibited opposite effects. The consequences of density changes were transmitted by both maternal and paternal inheritance, although the expression of paternal effects was not as pronounced as that of maternal effects. Prominent expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsps), such as Hsp90, Hsp70 and Hsp20.6, could be triggered by density changes. Hsps were significantly upregulated upon crowding but downregulated upon isolation. The variation in parental Hsp expression was also transmitted to the offspring, in which the pattern of inheritance was consistent with that of phase characteristics. These results revealed a paternal effect on phase polyphenism and Hsp expression induced by population density, and defined a model system that could be used to study the paternal epigenetic inheritance of environmental changes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The influence of paternal and maternal drinking patterns within two-partner families on the initiation and development of adolescent drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Koning, I.M.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As it is still unclear to what extent parental drinking is a predictor of children's alcohol use, we tested the association of specific paternal and maternal drinking patterns with both initiation and development of adolescent alcohol use. Longitudinal data (four annual measurements) of parent-child

  13. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  14. What Exactly (If Anything) Is Wrong with Paternalism towards Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drerup, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and practical issues concerning the justification of paternalism towards children are widely debated in a variety of philosophical contexts. The major focus of these debates lies either on questions concerning the general legitimacy of paternalism towards children or on justifications of paternalism in concrete situations involving…

  15. Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Oliver J

    2012-11-09

    The once popular and then heretical idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disrupting Dominant Discourses about Paternal Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Chris

    It is clear that the impact of paternal participation on children is overwhelmingly positive. Despite the benefits, men still lag behind women as equal and responsible contributors in childcare although their participation is increasing. This paper focuses on why men are not more involved in childcare and recognizes the ways in which…

  17. The Definition of Nudge and Libertarian Paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2016-01-01

    paternalism, but also clarifies how nudges relate to incentives and information, and may even be consistent with the removal of certain types of choices. In the end we are left with a revised definition of the concept of nudge that allows for consistently categorising behaviour change interventions...

  18. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Natasha B.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2009-01-01

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of c...

  19. Father Involvement, Paternal Sensitivity, and Father-Child Attachment Security in the First Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    To reach a greater understanding of the early father-child attachment relationship, this study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among father involvement, paternal sensitivity, and father-child attachment security at 13 months and 3 years of age. Analyses revealed few associations among these variables at 13 months of age, but involvement and sensitivity independently predicted father-child attachment security at age 3. Moreover, sensitivity moderated the association between involvement and attachment security at 3 years. Specifically, involvement was unrelated to attachment security when fathers were highly sensitive, but positively related to attachment security when fathers were relatively less sensitive. Father involvement was also moderately stable across the two timepoints, but paternal sensitivity was not. Furthermore, there was significant stability in father-child attachment security from 13 months to 3 years. Secure attachment at 13 months also predicted greater levels of paternal sensitivity at 3 years, with sensitivity at age 3 mediating the association between 13 month and 3 year attachment security. In sum, a secure father-child attachment relationship a) was related to both quantity and quality of fathering behavior, b) remained relatively stable across early childhood, and c) predicted increased paternal sensitivity over time. These findings further our understanding of the correlates of early father-child attachment, and underscore the need to consider multiple domains of fathers’ parenting and reciprocal relations between fathering behavior and father-child attachment security. PMID:22468691

  20. The Effect of Preconception Paternal Alcohol Exposure on Epigenetic Remodelling of the H19 and Rasgrf1 Imprinting Control Regions in Mouse Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaysen Gregory Knezovich

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted loci play a critical role in fetal development. Their expression is often regulated by CTCF protein binding at imprinting control regions (ICRs. Parental alcohol exposure has been shown to reduce global DNA methylation in the developing mouse fetus. This study explored the effect of preconception paternal alcohol exposure on DNA methylation at two paternally methylated ICRs (H19 and Rasgrf1 in the sperm of exposed males and somatic DNA of sired offspring. Significant reductions at the H19 CTCF 1 (p=0.0027 and CTCF 2 (p=0.0009 binding sites were observed in the offspring of ethanol-treated sires, which was significantly correlated with reduced weight at postnatal days 35 to 42 (p<0.05. As birth weight was unaffected and growth was only delayed during the postnatal weaning period, with subsequent re-convergence, we hypothesise that this may be the result of a mental deficit causing delayed establishment of independent feeding following weaning and would explain why this effect is transient. No difference in DNA methylation was observed in the sperm of alcohol-exposed males, indicating that the transmission of the epigenetic signal at conception is not due to altered methylation, but may be the result of an RNA-mediated mechanism or altered chromatin remodelling.

  1. Effects of Parental Job Insecurity and Parenting Behaviors on Youth's Self-Efficacy and Work Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vivien K. G.; Loo, Geok Leng

    2003-01-01

    Structural equation modeling results from data on 178 undergraduates and their parents in Singapore indicated that paternal job insecurity was associated positively and maternal job insecurity negatively with authoritarian parenting. Mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to young adults' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was positively…

  2. The mediational role of parenting on the longitudinal relation between child personality and externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting,

  3. Child Temperamental Flexibility Moderates the Relation between Positive Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jill A.; Drabick, Deborah A.G.; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Olino, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Temperamental flexibility and lower positive parenting are associated with internalizing and externalizing problems; however, youth varying in flexibility may be differentially affected by positive parenting in the prediction of symptoms. We examined whether children's flexibility moderated prospective relations between maternal and paternal positive parenting and youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence. Participants (N =775, 71% male) and their caregivers completed measures when youth were 10-12 and 12-14 years old. Father positive parenting interacted with child flexibility to predict father-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. Consistent with the diathesis-stress model, children lower in flexibility experienced greater symptoms than children higher in flexibility in lower positive parenting contexts. Among children lower in flexibility, lower paternal positive parenting was associated with greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms compared to higher paternal positive parenting. However, among youth higher in flexibility, symptom levels were similar regardless of whether youth experienced lower or higher paternal positive parenting. PMID:26834305

  4. [Career perspectives of hospital health workers after maternity and paternity leave: survey and observational study in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, C; Grote, G; Miemietz, B; Vaske, B; Geyer, S

    2015-02-01

    A term of maternity and paternity (parental) leave becomes frequent on the career paths of medical personnel. Hospitals are highly competitive environments. The question employees universally face is how such a leave will alter their personal work situation and prospects upon return. We questioned 709 leave-takers and 88 department heads of a German university hospital (2009-12; full data sets: n = 406 and n = 63) about their experiences. This data was validated by epidemiology data extraction and expert interviews, also in a Swiss and in a Norwegian institution. Parental leave elicited high emotionality (score: 4.0 +/- 2 out of 5). Superiors' appraisal of employees' parental leave was more positive than negative (p leave takers doubled to 39 %; 51 % of leave-takers experienced significant task profile changes. 58 % of doctors thought about changing their employer and 17 % of leave-taking executives lost status after return. Employees' "power" and "influence" dropped significantly (p leave. The Swiss and Norwegian comparators appeared to have more liberal substitution and part-time schemes than the German institution. A competitive hospital environment can effectively demote leave-taking medical employees in their jobs. Despite sufficient financial arrangements high-commitment staff will only take parental leave of adequate length when an institutional framework protects their status. Data support four requirements: 1. Formal recognition of the leave taker's status pre-leave. 2. Establishment of a written ("claimable") return policy. 3. Substitution scheme for each individual, preferably by a locum. 4. Redirection of funds to facilitate part-time work schemes temporarily after return. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Estimating the relative contributions of maternal genetic, paternal genetic and intrauterine factors to offspring birth weight and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2010-07-01

    Genetic factors and the prenatal environment contribute to birth weight. However, very few types of study design can disentangle their relative contribution. To examine maternal genetic and intrauterine contributions to offspring birth weight and head circumference. To compare the contribution of maternal and paternal genetic effects. Mothers and fathers were either genetically related or unrelated to their offspring who had been conceived by in vitro fertilization. 423 singleton full term offspring, of whom 262 were conceived via homologous IVF (both parents related), 66 via sperm donation (mother only related) and 95 via egg donation (father only related). Maternal weight at antenatal booking, current weight and maternal height. Paternal current weight and height were all predictors. Infant birth weight and head circumference were outcomes. Genetic relatedness was the main contributing factor between measures of parental weight and offspring birth weight as correlations were only significant when the parent was related to the child. However, there was a contribution of the intrauterine environment to the association between maternal height and both infant birth weight and infant head circumference as these were significant even when mothers were unrelated to their child. Both maternal and paternal genes made contributions to infant birth weight. Maternal height appeared to index a contribution of the intrauterine environment to infant growth and gestational age. Results suggested a possible biological interaction between the intrauterine environment and maternal inherited characteristics which suppresses the influence of paternal genes. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dangerous dads? Ecological and longitudinal analyses of paternity leave and risk for child injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Lucie; Månsdotter, Anna; Lundberg, Michael; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    In 1974, Sweden became the first country to permit fathers to take paid parental leave. Other countries are currently following suit issuing similar laws. While this reform supports the principles of the United Nations convention of the right for children to be with both parents and enshrines the ethos of gender equality, there has been little systematic examination of its potential impact on child health. Instead, there is uninformed debate that fathers may expose their children to greater risks of injury than mothers. In this Swedish national study, the authors therefore assess whether fathers' parental leave can be regarded as a more serious risk factor for child injuries than that of mothers. Nationwide register-based ecological and longitudinal studies of hospitalisation due to injury (and intoxication) in early childhood, involving the Swedish population in 1973-2009 (ecological design), and children born in 1988 and 1989 (n=118 278) (longitudinal design). An increase in fathers' share of parental leave over time was parallelled by a downward trend in child injury rates (age 0-4 years). At the individual level, the crude incidence of child injury (age 0-2 years) was lower during paternity as compared with maternity leave. This association was, however, explained by parental socio-demographic characteristics (multivariate HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.2). There is no support for the notion that paternity leave increases the risk of child injury.

  7. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms (rs53576) and early paternal care sensitize males to distressing female vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Anna; Poquérusse, Jessie; Setoh, Peipei; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Bornstein, Marc H; Esposito, Gianluca

    2018-04-01

    The oxytocinergic system is highly involved in social bonding and early caregiver-infant interactions. Here, we hypothesize that oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene genotype and parental bonding history interact in influencing social development. To address this question, we assessed adult males' arousal (heart rate changes) in response to different distress vocalizations (human female, human infant and bonobo). Region rs53576 of the OXTR gene was genotyped from buccal mucosa cell samples, and a self-report Parental Bonding Instrument was used (which provide information about parental care or parental overprotection). A significant gene-environment interaction between OXTR genotype and parenting style was found to influence participants' social responsivity to female cry vocalizations. Specifically, a history of appropriate paternal care in participants accentuated the heightened social sensitivity determined by G/G homozygosity, while higher versus lower paternal overprotection lead to distinct levels of physiological arousal particularly in A carriers individuals. These results add to our understanding of the dynamic interplay between genetic susceptibility and early environmental experience in shaping the development of appropriate social sensitivity in males. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Consecutive five-year analysis of paternal and maternal gene flow and contributions of gametic heterogeneities to overall genetic composition of dispersed seeds of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto; Isoda, Keiya; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    Genetic variability in monoecious woody plant populations results from the assemblage of individuals issued from asymmetrical male and female reproductive functions, produced during spatially and temporarily heterogeneous reproductive and dispersal events. Here we investigated the dispersal patterns and levels of genetic diversity and differentiation of both paternal and maternal gametes in a natural population of Pinus densiflora at the multiple-year scale as long as five consecutive years. • We analyzed the paternity and maternity for 1576 seeds and 454 candidate adult trees using nuclear DNA polymorphisms of diploid biparental embryos and haploid maternal megagametophytes at eight microsatellite loci. • Despite the low levels of genetic differentiation among gamete groups, a two-way AMOVA analysis showed that the parental origin (paternal vs. maternal gametes), the year of gamete production and their interaction had significant effects on the genetic composition of the seeds. While maternal gamete groups showed a significant FST value across the 5 years, this was not true for their paternal counterparts. Within the population, we found that the relative reproductive contributions of the paternal vs. the maternal parent differed among adult trees, the maternal contributions showing a larger year-to-year fluctuation. • The overall genetic variability of dispersed seeds appeared to result from two sources of heterogeneity: the difference between paternal and maternal patterns of reproduction and gamete dispersal and year-to-year heterogeneity of reproduction of adult trees, especially in their maternal reproduction.

  9. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Katie E; Bell, Alison M

    2014-11-07

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care, that the direct care provided by fathers affects offspring anxiety and the potential for epigenetic alterations to the offspring genome. We find that families are differentially vulnerable to early stress and fathers can compensate for this differential sensitivity with the quality of their care. This variation in paternal care is also linked to the expression in offspring brains of a DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) responsible for de novo methylation. We show that these paternal effects are potentially adaptive and anxious offspring are unlikely to survive an encounter with a predator. By supplying offspring care, fathers reduce offspring anxiety thereby increasing the survival of their offspring-not in the traditional sense through resource provisioning but through an epigenetic effect on offspring behavioural development. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; de Roode, Jacobus C; Hunter, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favouring the evolution of trans-generational defences. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species and then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed, while maternal diet had less of an effect. We also found that eggs contained the highest levels of cardenolides when both parents were reared on the medicinal species. Moreover, females reared on non-medicinal milkweed produced eggs with significantly higher levels of cardenolides if they mated with males reared on the medicinal milkweed species. However, we found an equivocal relationship between the cardenolides present in eggs and parasite resistance in the offspring. Our results demonstrate that males reared on medicinal plants can transfer protection to their offspring, but the exact mechanism remains unresolved. This suggests that paternal protection from parasitism might be important, particularly when there are environmental sources of parasite resistance and when males transfer spermatophores during mating. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  11. Perceived childhood paternal acceptance-rejection among adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Alvi, T.; Zeeshan, A.; Nadeem, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the childhood perceptual difference of paternal acceptance-rejection between those having psychological disorders and non-clinical population during adulthood. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Karwan-e-Hayat, Psychiatric Care and Rehabilitation Centre, Keamari, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to August 2011. Methodology: To test our hypotheses, 69 participants were selected from Karwan-e-Hayat Psychiatric Care and Rehabilitation Centre, Karachi on the basis of purposive sampling technique and 79 from Karachi city on the basis of convenient sampling technique. To measure their perceived paternal acceptance-rejection during childhood, Adult Parental acceptance-rejection questionnaire (PARQ)/control: father-short form (Urdu translation) was administered. The statistical analysis of data was done with the predictive analytics software (PASW). Results: One hundred and forty eight (78 males and 70 females) participants with mean age of 31.28 +- 9.54 years were included. Out of them 69 (40 males and 29 females) were clinical cases of depression, mania and psychosis with mean age of 33.26 +- 9.51 years. Seventy nine (38 males and 41 females) were normal individuals with mean age of 29.54 +- 9.29 years of the demographics corresponding to the clinical population. Independent t-test revealed a significant difference in perceived childhood father acceptance-rejection between clinical and non-clinical population (p < 0.05) and significant gender difference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The studied clinical population and male participants perceived to be more rejected by their father during their childhood than non-clinical population and female participants. (author)

  12. Who takes paternity leave? A cohort study on prior social and health characteristics among fathers in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Fredlund, Peeter; Hallqvist, Johan; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2010-09-01

    Progress towards gender equality involves changes in the traditional parental division - female caring and male breadwinning. One aspect is increased parental leave for fathers, which may benefit the health of mothers, children, and fathers themselves. We examined how social and health characteristics (2002) were associated with paternity leave in excess of the 'father quota' of 60 days (2003-2006) in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort. Generally, fathers with stable social position, fit lifestyles, and good health had increased chances of paternity leave uptake. Our findings may contribute to identifying target groups for parental leave strategies among fathers; they indicate also that research on gender equality and public health must carefully address the problems of confounding and health-related selection.

  13. Shared decision making, paternalism and patient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In patient centred care, shared decision making is a central feature and widely referred to as a norm for patient centred medical consultation. However, it is far from clear how to distinguish SDM from standard models and ideals for medical decision making, such as paternalism and patient choice, and e.g., whether paternalism and patient choice can involve a greater degree of the sort of sharing involved in SDM and still retain their essential features. In the article, different versions of SDM are explored, versions compatible with paternalism and patient choice as well as versions that go beyond these traditional decision making models. Whenever SDM is discussed or introduced it is of importance to be clear over which of these different versions are being pursued, since they connect to basic values and ideals of health care in different ways. It is further argued that we have reason to pursue versions of SDM involving, what is called, a high level dynamics in medical decision-making. This leaves four alternative models to choose between depending on how we balance between the values of patient best interest, patient autonomy, and an effective decision in terms of patient compliance or adherence: Shared Rational Deliberative Patient Choice, Shared Rational Deliberative Paternalism, Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision, and Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise. In relation to these models it is argued that we ideally should use the Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision model. However, when the patient and professional fail to reach consensus we will have reason to pursue the Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise model since this will best harmonise between the different values at stake: patient best interest, patient autonomy, patient adherence and a continued care relationship.

  14. Maternal and Paternal Height and the Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunsung; Magnus, Per

    2018-04-01

    The etiology of preeclampsia is unknown. Tall women have been found to have lower incidence of preeclampsia. This points to a possible biological causal effect but may be because of socioeconomic confounding. We used paternal height as an unexposed control to examine confounding. The MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study) was used to extract data on parental heights, maternal prepregnancy weight, other background factors, and pregnancy outcomes for 99 968 singleton births. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for preeclampsia according to parental height. The adjusted odds ratio for preeclampsia was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for women >172 cm as compared with women 186 cm was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.15) compared with men <178 cm. The association between maternal height and preeclampsia is unlikely to be because of confounding by familial, socioeconomic factors or by fetal genes related to height. The observed association between maternal height and preeclampsia merits further investigation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Religion as a means to assure paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-19

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy.

  16. Infant sleep and paternal involvement in infant caregiving during the first 6 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Glickman-Gavrieli, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess: (a) the involvement of fathers and mothers in overall and nighttime infant caregiving; (b) the links between paternal involvement in infant care and infant sleep patterns during the first 6 months. Fifty-six couples recruited during their first pregnancy, participated in the study. After delivery (1 and 6 months), both parents completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. Infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Mothers were significantly more involved than fathers in daytime and nighttime caregiving. A higher involvement of fathers in overall infant care predicted and was associated with fewer infant night-wakings and with shorter total sleep time after controlling for breastfeeding. The findings highlight the importance of including fathers in developmental sleep research. Future studies should explore mechanisms underlying the relations between paternal involvement and infant sleep.

  17. Paternal experience during the child’s first year of life: integrative review of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social transformations have raised reflection about the paternal role and pointed to new fatherhoods, characterized by more effective involvement of the father in the family routine and in childcare. The present integrative review of qualitative studies aimed to synthetize the literature evidence about fatherhood experience throughout the first year of the child’s life, attentive to gender questions. Twenty three studies integrated this review. It was observed that fathers had positive experience with their babies and, still, craved for more time and space to dedicate to the family. However, inequality between genders, continuous requirement of financial provision at home and their inaptitude for breastfeeding moment impeded more paternal involvement. We concluded that new fatherhoods movement is present in the father experience and contemporary gender tendencies are challenges for parenting support.

  18. Paternal psychopathology and maternal depressive symptom trajectory during the first year postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal G. Ross

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers’ psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression.

  19. Paternal psychopathology and maternal depressive symptom trajectory during the first year postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Zerbe, Gary O; Hunter, Sharon K; Ross, Randal G

    2013-02-11

    Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers' psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression.

  20. The effect of paternal factors on perinatal and paediatric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldereid, Nan B; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Pinborg, Anja

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstet...... IMPLICATIONS: Although the increased risks of adverse outcome in offspring associated with paternal factors and identified in this report represent serious health effects, the magnitude of these effects seems modest....

  1. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-07

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.

  2. Paternal retrieval behavior regulated by brain estrogen synthetase (aromatase in mouse sires that engage in communicative interactions with pairmates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin eAkther

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parental behaviors involve complex social recognition and memory processes and interactive behavior with children that can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. Fathers play a substantial role in child care in a small but significant number of mammals, including humans. However, the brain mechanism that controls male parental behavior is much less understood than that controlling female parental behavior. Fathers of non-monogamous laboratory ICR mice are an interesting model for examining the factors that influence paternal responsiveness because sires can exhibit maternal-like parental care (retrieval of pups when separated from their pups along with their pairmates because of olfactory and auditory signals from the dams. Here we tested whether paternal behavior is related to femininity by the aromatization of testosterone. For this purpose, we measured the immunoreactivity of aromatase (cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19, which synthesizes estrogen from androgen, in nine brain regions of the sire. We observed higher levels of aromatase expression in these areas of the sire brain when they engaged in communicative interactions with dams in separate cages. The capacity of sires to retrieve pups was increased following a period of five days spent with the pups as a whole family after parturition, whereas the acquisition of this ability was suppressed in sires treated daily with an aromatase inhibitor. These results suggest that brain aromatization regulates the initiation, development, and maintenance of paternal behavior in the ICR mice.

  3. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Influence of paternal age in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A; Szöke, A; Leboyer, M; Schürhoff, F

    2011-06-01

    Schizophrenia is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, with a strong genetic component. Despite a reduced fertility in this disorder, its prevalence is maintained and could be explained by de novo genetic mutations. Advanced paternal age (APA) is a major source of new mutations in human beings and could thus be associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in offspring. New mutations related to APA have been implicated as a cause of sporadic cases in several autosomal dominant diseases and also in neurodevelopmental diseases, autism, intellectual disabilities, and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to summarize the results of studies investigating the role of APA, and to discuss some interpretations. All relevant studies were identified through the National Library of Medicine (PubMed(®) database). Keywords used for research were "age" and "schizophrenia" linked to "paternal or father". We have identified and analysed eight cohort studies, five case-control studies, two meta-analyses, and one review concerning different father's mutations potentially transmitted, two studies comparing paternal age at conception between sporadic versus familial cases of schizophrenia. All studies selected have been published between 2000 and 2009. After controlling for several confounding factors including maternal age, the relative risk of schizophrenia increased from 1.84 to 4.62 in offspring of fathers with an older age of fatherhood. Mother's age showed no significant effects after adjusting for paternal age. There was a significant association between paternal age and risk of developing schizophrenia, there was a weaker association with psychosis. The results of these different studies are confirmed by two recent meta-analyses which found an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring of fathers older than 35 years. Two main hypotheses could explain these results. The first one is based on the presence of new mutations in the

  5. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  6. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  7. Paternalism, Public Health Ethics, and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2015-01-01

    . The consequence is deep inequalities in health. The state, to the extent it is part of its role to prevent harm and to reduce inequality, appears obliged to try to influence people’s health choices in the interest of their own health and general well-being. However, the state acting to prevent people from harming...... of the problem of paternalism than their proponents are inclined to think. More familiar measures aiming to make the health-endangering behavior more expensive and/or difficult or outright prohibiting it stand a good chance of reducing inequalities, whilst not being more controversial than nudging policies...

  8. The impact of parental self-esteem and parental rearing behavior on adolescent attachment to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationship of parental self-esteem, parental rearing and adolescent adult attachment was investigated. A total 448 senior high school students completed EMBU(Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, or ―Own memories of parental rearing‖, Perris et al., 1980, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR; Brennan, Clark, &Shaver, 1998, and their parents completed The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES; Rosenberg, 1965. The results suggested that parental global self-esteem has no effect on the adolescent attachment to parents. Parental positive rearing behaviors have been significantly associated with avoidance to parents. Furthermore, the negative rearing behaviors, such as paternal denying and rejecting, maternal punitiveness, maternal overinvolved and overprotective behavior, can predict the adolescent avoidance and anxiety to parents.

  9. Parental depression and child well-being: Young children's self-reports helped addressing biases in parent reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Ringoot (Ank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); P. So (Pety); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Effects of maternal and paternal depression on child development are typically evaluated using parental reports of child problems. Yet, parental reports may be biased. Methods In a population-based cohort, parents reported lifetime depression (N = 3,178) and depressive

  10. Reported parental characteristics in relation to trait depression and anxiety levels in a non-clinical group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G

    1979-09-01

    Care and overprotection appear to reflect the principal dimensions underlying parental behaviours and attitudes. In previous studies of neurotically depressed patients and of a non-clinical group, subjects who scored their parents as lacking in care and/or overprotective had the greater depressive experience. The present study of another non-clinical group (289 psychology students) replicated those findings in regard to trait depression levels. In addition, associations between those parental dimensions and trait anxiety scores were demonstrated. Multiple regression analyses established that 9-10% of the variance in mood scores was accounted for by scores on those parental dimensions. Low maternal care scores predicted higher levels of both anxiety and depression, while high maternal overprotection scores predicted higher levels of anxiety but not levels of depression. Maternal influences were clearly of greater relevance than paternal influences.

  11. Parental history of psychiatric diagnoses and unipolar depression: a Danish National Register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musliner, K L; Trabjerg, B B; Waltoft, B L; Laursen, T M; Mortensen, P B; Zandi, P P; Munk-Olsen, T

    2015-10-01

    Depression is known to run in families, but the effects of parental history of other psychiatric diagnoses on depression rates are less well studied. Few studies have examined the impact of parental psychopathology on depression rates in older age groups. We established a population-based cohort including all individuals born in Denmark after 1954 and alive on their 10th birthday (N = 29 76 264). Exposure variables were maternal and paternal history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety or 'other' psychiatric diagnoses. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using Poisson regressions. Parental history of any psychiatric diagnosis increased incidence rates of outpatient (maternal: IRR 1.88, p history. IRRs for parental history of non-affective disorders remained relatively stable across age groups, while IRRs for parental affective disorders (unipolar or bipolar) decreased with age from 2.29-3.96 in the youngest age group to 1.53-1.90 in the oldest group. IRR estimates for all parental diagnoses were similar among individuals aged ⩾41 years (IRR range 1.51-1.90). Parental history of any psychiatric diagnosis is associated with increased incidence rates of unipolar depression. In younger age groups, parental history of affective diagnoses is more strongly associated with rates of unipolar depression than non-affective diagnoses; however, this distinction disappears after age 40, suggesting that parental psychopathology in general, rather than any one disorder, confers risk for depression in middle life.

  12. Individual variation in paternal responses of virgin male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): behavioral and physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, T.R.; Korosi, A.; Harris, B.N.; Perea-Rodriguez, J.P.; Saltzman, W.

    2012-01-01

    California mice Peromyscus californicus are a rodent species in which fathers provide extensive paternal care; however, behavioral responses of virgin males toward conspecific neonates vary from paternal behavior to tolerance to infanticide. Indirect evidence suggests that paternal responses might

  13. When Both Parents May Be a Source of Support and Problems: An Analysis of Pregnant and Parenting Female African American Adolescents' Relationships with Their Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anita A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied influence of maternal versus paternal support for pregnant and parenting African American adolescents who reported supportive or problematic interactions, or both, with their parents. Found more support from mothers despite equal relationship problem levels with both parents; support of both parents was associated with lower depression…

  14. Prenatal exposure to maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and white matter microstructure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Zou, Runyu; Muetzel, Ryan L; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2018-04-01

    Prenatal maternal depression has been associated with multiple problems in offspring involving affect, cognition, and neuroendocrine functioning. This suggests that prenatal depression influences neurodevelopment. However, the underlying neurodevelopmental mechanism remains unclear. We prospectively assessed whether maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and at the child's age 3 years are related to white matter microstructure in 690 children. The association of paternal depressive symptoms with childhood white matter microstructure was assessed to evaluate genetic or familial confounding. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Brief Symptom Inventory. In children aged 6-9 years, we used diffusion tensor imaging to assess white matter microstructure characteristics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was associated with higher MD in the uncinate fasciculus and to lower FA and higher MD in the cingulum bundle. No associations of maternal depressive symptoms at the child's age of 3 years with white matter characteristics were observed. Paternal depressive symptoms also showed a trend toward significance for a lower FA in the cingulum bundle. Prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher MD in the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum bundle. These structures are part of the limbic system, which is involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. As paternal depressive symptoms were also related to lower FA in the cingulum, the observed effect may partly reflect a genetic predisposition and shared environmental family factors and to a lesser extent a specific intrauterine effect. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L. [Salisbury District Hospital, Wiltshire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

  16. Paternal effects on the human sex ratio at birth: evidence from interracial crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, M J; Erickson, J D; James, L M

    1984-01-01

    The effects of interracial crossing on the human sex ratio at birth were investigated using United States birth-certificate data for 1972-1979. The sex ratio was 1.059 for approximately 14 million singleton infants born to white couples, 1.033 for 2 million born to black couples, and 1.024 for 64,000 born to American Indian couples. Paternal and maternal race influences on the observed racial differences in sex ratio were analyzed using additional data on approximately 97,000 singleton infants born to white-black couples and 60,000 born to white-Indian couples. After adjustment for mother's race, white fathers had significantly more male offspring than did black fathers (ratio of sex ratios [RSR] = 1.027) and Indian fathers (RSR = 1.022). On the other hand, after adjustment for father's race, white mothers did not have more male offspring than did black mothers (RSR = 0.998) or Indian mothers (RSR = 1.009). The paternal-race effect persisted after adjustment for parental ages, education, birth order, and maternal marital status. The study shows that the observed racial differences in the sex ratio at birth are due to the effects of father's race and not the mother's. The study points to paternal determinants of the human sex ratio at fertilization and/or of the prenatal differential sex survival. PMID:6496474

  17. Paternal age at birth is associated with offspring leukocyte telomere length in the nurses' health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Du, M; Wong, J Y Y; Han, J; De Vivo, I

    2012-12-01

    current analysis was limited to healthy controls. We also included existing LTL data from a small random sample of women participating in a cognitive sub-study. LTL was measured using the quantitative PCR-based method. Exposure and covariate information are extracted from biennial questionnaires completed by the participants. We found a strong association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)) that remained robust after controlling for indicators of early life SES. Maternal age at birth showed a weak inverse association with participant LTL after adjusting for age at blood collection and paternal age at birth (P = 0.01). We also noted a stronger association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL among premenopausal than among postmenopausal women (P(interaction) = 0.045). However, this observation may be due to chance as premenopausal women represented only 12.6% (N = 535) of the study population and LTL was not correlated with age at menopause, total or estrogen-only hormone therapy (HT) use suggesting that changes in in vivo estrogen exposure do not influence telomere length regulation. The women in our study are not representative of the general US female population, with an underrepresentation of non-white and low social class groups. Although the interaction was not significant, we noted that the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL appeared weaker among women whose parents did not own their home at the time of the participant's birth. As telomere dynamics may differ among individuals who are most socioeconomically deprived, SES indicators may have more of an influence on the relationship between paternal age at birth and offspring LTL in such populations. As of yet, our and prior studies have not identified childhood or adult characteristics that confound the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL, supporting the hypothesis that offspring may inherit the longer telomeres found in sperm of older

  18. A Model of Maternal and Paternal Ethnic Socialization of Mexican-American Adolescents' Self-Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P; Carlo, Gustavo; Streit, Cara; White, Rebecca M B

    2017-11-01

    Data from a sample of 462 Mexican-American adolescents (M = 10.4 years, SD = .55; 48.1% girls), mothers, and fathers were used to test an ethnic socialization model of ethnic identity and self-efficacy that also considered mainstream parenting styles (e.g., authoritative parenting). Findings supported the ethnic socialization model: parents' endorsement of Mexican-American values were associated with ethnic socialization at fifth grade and seventh grade; maternal ethnic socialization at fifth grade and paternal ethnic socialization at seventh grade were associated with adolescents' ethnic identity exploration at 10th grade and, in turn, self-efficacy at 12th grade. The findings support ethnic socialization conceptions of how self-views of ethnicity develop from childhood across adolescence in Mexican-American children. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC).

  20. Trajectories of growth in body mass index across childhood: Associations with maternal and paternal employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2013-10-01

    Research links mothers' employment to higher body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight-for-height, among their children. However, how maternal employment patterns relate to their children's BMI trajectories, and the role that fathers' employment plays in when and at what rate children grow, remain unclear. With data on children from 2 to 15 years of age living in two-parent families from the U.S. NICHD's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1107), individual growth models are used to describe American children's BMI trajectories as predicted by maternal and paternal employment characteristics. Results indicate that, by age 15, children's BMIs are, on average, nearly one-half of a standard deviation above recommended levels, and the majority of growth occurs during the preschool period. The duration of maternal employment, and combined measures of maternal and paternal employment duration, are both associated with higher child BMI across childhood. Associations are small but cumulative. Notably, the association between the duration of time children lived in dual-earner families and child BMI is larger than that between maternal employment duration alone and children's BMI, which is strongest during the preschool period. Combined measures of maternal and paternal employment intensity, defined as the number of periods both parents worked 35 or more hours per week, are associated with higher child BMI during the preschool period only. Findings highlight the importance of taking into account both parents' employment characteristics in investigating children's physical development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Parenting Moderates the Association between Parental Depression and Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-07-01

    Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential assessment and the feedback negativity (FN) was measured following rewards and losses ( N =344). Maternal authoritative parenting moderated the effect of maternal depression; among offspring of mothers with histories of depression, low authoritative parenting predicted a blunted FN. Observed maternal positive parenting interacted with paternal depression in a comparable manner, indicating that maternal parenting may buffer the effects of paternal depression. Early parenting may be important in shaping the neural systems involved in reward processing among children at high risk for depression.

  2. What influences parental controlling behavior? The role of parent and child trait anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bruggen, C.O.; Bögels, S.M.; Zeilst, N.

    2010-01-01

    The relative contribution of child and parent trait anxiety on paternal and maternal controlling behaviour was examined. Thirty-seven children, aged 8-11 years, completed two difficult Tangram puzzles, one with their father and one with their mother. Videotapes of the parent-child interactions were

  3. Paternal Influences and Adolescents' Sexual Risky Behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    05) and adolescents' sexual risky behaviour. The results further showed the significant position between Parents adolescent disclosure (X2 cal = 32.856) is the most potent factor followed Parental autonomy (X2 cal = 24.642); Parent adolescent relationship (X2 cal = 18.986); Positive adolescent behaviour (X2 cal = 11.626); ...

  4. Factors Associated with Perceived Paternal Involvement in Childrearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Susan; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed African American and white fathers living with their young children and the children's mothers regarding variables associated with perceived paternal involvement in child care. Results indicated that ethnicity, gender role orientation, and perceived skill at child care related to higher levels of perceived paternal engagement in and…

  5. Birth outcomes after preconception paternal exposure to methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Rachel W; Larsen, Michael Due; Magnussen, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is often prescribed for moderate to severe inflammatory related diseases. The safety of paternal MTX use prior to conception is unknown. This study, using the National Danish Registries, aimed to examine the association between paternal MTX...

  6. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  7. Fathers in Turkey: Paternity Characteristics, Gender Role, Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ünüvar, Perihan

    2017-01-01

    Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…

  8. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Souza, E; Morris, David Jackson; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome.......To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome....

  9. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie D Ellis

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  10. Paternal Involvement in Child- Rearing Activities: The Perspective of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recognition of the need to widen the scope of fatherhood scholarship, this article centered on examining paternal involvement but in a socio- cultural context and developmental stage that has headed little attention in previous research. An attempt was made to investigate the nature of paternal involvement (ways, desires ...

  11. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Xiang

    Full Text Available Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96% and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively. Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05 explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA of fast myotubes (68%, while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01. Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001 or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86% with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05, was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001 or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001 genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01 and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05 on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P

  12. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Angquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    body mass index (BMI) with child anthropometric measurements from birth through infancy and at 7 y of age exceed those of paternal associations. Design: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, information on parental and child anthropometric measures is available for 30,655 trio families from maternal...

  13. Postnatal paternal involvement and maternal emotional disturbances: The effect of maternal employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Chien; Chang, Shin-Yow; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Recently, studies have begun emphasizing paternal involvement during the perinatal period and its impact on maternal health. However, most studies have assessed maternal perception and focused on adolescents or minority groups in Western countries. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between paternal involvement and maternal postnatal depression and anxiety, along with the effects of maternal job status in the Asian society of Taiwan. This study recruited pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy as well as their partners on prenatal visits from July 2011 to September 2013 at four selected hospitals in metropolitan areas of Taipei, Taiwan. In total, 593 parental pairs completed the first interview and responded to the follow-up questionnaires until 6 months postpartum. Self-reported data were collected, and multiple logistic regression models were used for analyses. Lower paternal childcare and nursing frequency was independently associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.34-13.98), particularly among unemployed mothers. Furthermore, among unemployed mothers, the risk of postnatal anxiety was 3.14 times higher in couples with fathers spending less time with the child, compared with couples with fathers spending more time (95% CI=1.10-8.98). However, no significant findings were obtained for employed mothers. The high prevalence of maternal postnatal emotional disturbances warrants continual consideration. Higher paternal involvement in childcare arrangements should be emphasized to aid in ameliorating these maternal emotional disturbances, particularly among unemployed mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental alcohol use disorders and child delinquency: the mediating effects of executive functioning and chronic family stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R; Brennan, Patricia A; Hammen, Constance

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and child violent and nonviolent delinquency. It also explores the mediating effects of executive functioning and chronic family stress on the parental AUD/child delinquency relationship. Participants were 816 families with children (414 boys and 402 girls) born between 1981 and 1984 at Mater Misericordiae Mother's Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Parents and children completed semistructured interviews, questionnaires and neuropsychological tests that assessed parental alcohol use, family psychiatric history, chronic family stress, child delinquency and child executive functioning. Paternal (but not maternal) AUDs predicted child violent and nonviolent delinquency. Executive functioning mediated the relationship between paternal AUDs and violent delinquency, whereas family stress mediated the relationship between paternal AUDs and both violent and nonviolent delinquency. Results support a biosocial conceptualization of the paternal AUD/delinquency relationship. They suggest that paternal AUDs may be associated with child executive functioning and family stress, which may in turn lead to child delinquency.

  15. Contributions maternelles et paternelles au developpement des representations symboliques et categorielles des objets par les jeunes enfants (Materal and Paternal Contributions to the Development of Symbolic and Categorical Representation of Objects by Young Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrell, Florence

    1998-01-01

    Theory and research on parent-child linguistic interactions that focus on the symbolic representation or categorization of objects are discussed, noting the role of such variables as the age of the children, linguistic context, and sex of the involved parent. During the second year of life, even if maternal and paternal games with toddlers are…

  16. Paternal mtDNA and maleness are co-inherited but not causally linked in mytilid mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L Kenchington

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In marine mussels of the genus Mytilus there are two mitochondrial genomes. One is transmitted through the female parent, which is the normal transmission route in animals, and the other is transmitted through the male parent which is an unusual phenomenon. In males the germ cell line is dominated by the paternal mitochondrial genome and the somatic cell line by the maternal. Research to date has not allowed a clear answer to the question of whether inheritance of the paternal genome is causally related to maleness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present results from hybrid crosses, from triploid mussels and from observations of sperm mitochondria in fertilized eggs which clearly show that maleness and presence of the paternal mitochondrial genome can be decoupled. These same results show that the female mussel has exclusive control of whether her progeny will inherit the mitochondrial genome of the male parent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are important in our efforts to understand the mechanistic basis of this unusual mode of mitochondrial DNA inheritance that is common among bivalves.

  17. Father-child and mother-child interaction in families with a child feeding disorder: The role of paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal; Millikovsky, Maaian; Barkai, Anat; Dunaevsky-Idan, Maayan; Yerushalmi, Baruch

    2010-11-01

    To date, research about feeding disorder (FD) has focused almost exclusively on the mother-child dyad, ignoring fathers' roles. The current study investigated father-child interactions with children having FD. The sample consisted of 67 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Thirty-four children, diagnosed with a nonorganic-based FD (FD group) and 33 children without an FD (control group) were matched for age, gender, birth order, and maternal education. Data were collected during home visits. Mothers were interviewed about their and the father's involvement in childcare. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped during play and feeding. Both mothers and fathers from the FD group experienced less positive parent-child interactions than did parents in the control group. Furthermore, mothers in the FD group reported greater maternal versus paternal childcare involvement than did control group mothers. Finally, FD group mothers exhibited more parental sensitivity than did fathers during feeing interactions; however, this difference was observed only when coupled with low paternal involvement. In families where fathers were highly involved, no difference was evident in paternal and maternal sensitivity. These findings highlight the importance of fathers' involvement, especially in families with children exhibiting an FD. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Parental Warmth, Control, and Involvement in Schooling: Predicting Academic Achievement among Korean American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungho; Rohner, Ronald P.

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement of Korean American adolescents, investigating the influence of perceived parental warmth and control and improvement in schooling. Survey data indicated that authoritative paternal parenting related to optimal academic achievement. Differences in maternal parenting styles…

  19. Parents' age and the risk of oral clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, C.; Skytthe, A.; Vach, W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some malformations are clearly associated with older maternal age, but the effect of older age of the father is less certain. The aim of this study is to determine the degree to which maternal age and paternal age independently influence the risk of having a child with oral clefts....... In a joint analysis, both maternal and paternal ages were associated with the risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, but the contribution of each was dependent on the age of the other parent. In the analysis of cleft palate only, the effect of maternal age disappeared, leaving only paternal age...... as a risk factor. CONCLUSION: Both high maternal age and high paternal age were associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Higher paternal age but not maternal age increased the risk of cleft palate only....

  20. Multilocus DNA fingerprinting in paternity analysis: a Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes O. Lucía

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA polymorphism is very useful in paternity analysis. The present paper describes paternity studies done using DNA profiles obtained with the (CAC5 probe. All of the subjects studied were involved in nonjudicial cases of paternity. Genomic DNA digested with HaeIII was run on agarose gels and hybridized in the gel with the (CAC5 probe labeled with 32P. The mean number of bands larger than the 4.3 kb per individual was 16.1. The mean proportion of bands shared among unrelated individuals was 0.08 and the mean number of test bands was 7.1. This corresponded to an exclusion probability greater than 0.999999. Paternity was excluded in 34.5% of the cases. The mutation frequency estimated from non-excluded cases was 0.01143 bands per child. In these cases, the paternity was confirmed by a locus-specific analysis of eight independent PCR-based loci. The paternity index was computed in all non-excluded cases. It can be concluded that this method is a powerful and inexpensive alternative to solve paternity doubts.

  1. Maternal modulation of paternal effects on offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoodh, Rahia; Habrylo, Ireneusz B; Gudsnuk, Kathryn M; Pelle, Geralyn; Champagne, Frances A

    2018-03-14

    The paternal transmission of environmentally induced phenotypes across generations has been reported to occur following a number of qualitatively different exposures and appear to be driven, at least in part, by epigenetic factors that are inherited via the sperm. However, previous studies of paternal germline transmission have not addressed the role of mothers in the propagation of paternal effects to offspring. We hypothesized that paternal exposure to nutritional restriction would impact male mate quality and subsequent maternal reproductive investment with consequences for the transmission of paternal germline effects. In the current report, using embryo transfer in mice, we demonstrate that sperm factors in adult food restricted males can influence growth rate, hypothalamic gene expression and behaviour in female offspring. However, under natural mating conditions females mated with food restricted males show increased pre- and postnatal care, and phenotypic outcomes observed during embryo transfer conditions are absent or reversed. We demonstrate that these compensatory changes in maternal investment are associated with a reduced mate preference for food restricted males and elevated gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Therefore, paternal experience can influence offspring development via germline inheritance, but mothers can serve as a modulating factor in determining the impact of paternal influences on offspring development. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Dads make a difference: an exploratory study of paternal support for breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howat Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to breastfeed and continue the practice requires dedication, commitment, persistence and support. Mothers often need to overcome many obstacles to successfully breastfeed their babies and maintain their balance of home, family and work commitments. Evidence suggests that fathers want to be involved and be part of the parenthood process, including infant feeding. The role transition from couple to family poses challenges to both parents. Sharing the experience of childbirth and supporting each other in the subsequent infant feeding practices is one of those challenges. Methods A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to identify parents' perceptions of what constitutes support for breastfeeding, particularly focusing upon paternal support. Focus groups were conducted with mothers and a focus group, interviews and an online survey were developed for fathers. Thematic analysis was used to identify the main themes. Results From a total of 76 participants, the major theme emerging from mothers' data identified that "Dads do make a difference". Three sub-themes included: Anticipating needs and getting the job done; Encouragement to do your best; and Paternal determination and commitment, associated with effective partner support. "Wanting to be involved" was identified from fathers' data as the major theme around their needs. Three sub-themes included: Wanting more information; Learning the role; and Being an advocate. Conclusion Sharing the experience of childbirth and supporting each other in the subsequent infant feeding practices was perceived as the best outcome for the majority of new mothers and fathers. Paternal emotional, practical and physical supports were identified as important factors to promote successful breastfeeding and to enrich the experience for the mother and subsequently the father. Trail Regristration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000667213.

  3. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  4. Theory of Patronized Goods. Liberal Evolution of Paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinstein Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The neo-classical principles of rational behavior are considered in the context of the nature of paternalism as the basis of the Theory of patronized goods. The formation of society’s normative interests is discussed in concern of political aspects. The article illustrates the theoretical and the practical aspects of the concept of consociation democracy, providing liberalization of the institutions for making political and economic decisions. The results of analysis reveal a pattern of paternalism drifting towards institutional liberalization. Proposed a hypothesis explaining why the economic policy in modern Russia still remains somewhere between archaic and merit paternalism.

  5. Association of paternal IQ in early adulthood with offspring mortality and hospital admissions for injuries: a cohort study of 503 492 Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-07-01

    Higher intelligence (IQ) has been related to a lower risk of mortality and hospital admissions for injuries, but little is known about the effect of parental IQ on offspring outcomes. We explored associations of paternal IQ with mortality and hospitalisations for injuries from all external causes in offspring. A cohort of 503 492 Swedish children under 5 years of age with information on paternal IQ was obtained by record linkage of national registers. HR with 95% CIs were estimated using Cox regression. There was some evidence that paternal IQ was inversely associated with total and external-cause mortality in offspring, although the effects were modest and disappeared when controlling for parents' socioeconomic position (SEP). The only robust gradient was found between paternal IQ and hospital admissions for injuries (HRper 1-SD increase in IQ 0.93, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.94; pIQ may have an increased risk of injury by external causes. Messages on family safety and injury prevention might be tailored according to parental cognitive abilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Paternal and maternal obesity but not gestational weight gain is associated with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granstrom, Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    100 000 person-years in MoBa and 28.5 per 100 000 person-years in DNBC. Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.89] and paternal obesity, adjusted HR 1.51 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.04), were associated with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes......Background: Our objective was to examine the associations of parental body mass index (BMI) and maternal gestational weight gain with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Comparing the associations of maternal and paternal BMI with type 1 diabetes in the offspring will provide further insight...... included parental BMI and maternal gestational weight gain obtained by maternal report. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression to examine the risk of type 1 diabetes (n=499 cases), which was ascertained by national childhood diabetes registers. Results: The incidence of type 1 diabetes was 32.7 per...

  7. Histone H3 Methylated at Arginine 17 Is Essential for Reprogramming the Paternal Genome in Zygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hatanaka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At fertilization, the paternal genome undergoes extensive reprogramming through protamine-histone exchange and active DNA demethylation, but only a few maternal factors have been defined in these processes. We identified maternal Mettl23 as a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT, which most likely catalyzes the asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3R17 (H3R17me2a, as indicated by in vitro assays and treatment with TBBD, an H3R17 PRMT inhibitor. Maternal histone H3.3, which is essential for paternal nucleosomal assembly, is unable to be incorporated into the male pronucleus when it lacks R17me2a. Mettl23 interacts with Tet3, a 5mC-oxidizing enzyme responsible for active DNA demethylation, by binding to another maternal factor, GSE (gonad-specific expression. Depletion of Mettl23 from oocytes resulted in impaired accumulation of GSE, Tet3, and 5hmC in the male pronucleus, suggesting that Mettl23 may recruit GSE-Tet3 to chromatin. Our findings establish H3R17me2a and its catalyzing enzyme Mettl23 as key regulators of paternal genome reprogramming.

  8. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. An analysis of national data on care-seeking behaviour by parents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    age, education of the mother, past experiences, traditional beliefs, cost and location of health ... Paternal education and joint decision-making are key determinants of parents seeking appropriate .... Possible interactions between maternal and ...

  10. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao

    2016-01-01

    developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels......Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we...... paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future....

  12. the realities surrounding the applicability of medical paternalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theories and arguments for and against medical paternalism, this study further ... situations yet the process of medical decision ... Poststgraduate School, Faculty of Law, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. ..... 'patient-centered' medicine now.

  13. Paternal exposure and counselling: experience of a Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; Cavaliere, Annafranca; Ligato, Maria Serena; Nobili, Elena; Visconti, Daniela; Caruso, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    We describe paternal exposure and counselling in a selected population calling to an Italian Teratology Information Service (TIS). The majority of callers asked for paternal drug exposure (76%, drugs except chemotherapy) and treatment for cancer (17%, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). Others asked for exposure to diagnostic radiations (4%), recreational drugs (2%) and occupational chemicals (1%). Among paternal drugs neurological compounds, immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral agents were the main reasons for calling. In humans, there are no evidences of birth defects after paternal exposures, but to minimize any possible risk, counselling in men exposed to radio and chemotherapy should recommend delaying conception for at least 3 months after the end of the therapy. Male patients treated with drugs, whose teratogenic potential has been well assessed or suspected for maternal exposure, should be advised to practice effective birth control during therapy and up to one or two cycles of spermatogenesis and to avoid semen contact with vaginal walls during first trimester of pregnancy.

  14. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  15. Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascati, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

  16. Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Dasgupta P., Halder S. and Nandy B. 2016 Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in Drosophila .... allowed to the competitor male to interact with the female. Following ... conditions including maternal environment.

  17. Mutations in fibroblast growth-factor receptor 3 in sporadic cases of achondroplasia occur exclusively on the paternally derived chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, D J; Szabo, J K; Cameron, R; Henderson, S; Bellus, G A; Mack, M L; Kaitila, I; Loughlin, J; Munnich, A; Sykes, B; Bonaventure, J; Francomano, C A

    1998-01-01

    More than 97% of achondroplasia cases are caused by one of two mutations (G1138A and G1138C) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, which results in a specific amino acid substitution, G380R. Sporadic cases of achondroplasia have been associated with advanced paternal age, suggesting that these mutations occur preferentially during spermatogenesis. We have determined the parental origin of the achondroplasia mutation in 40 sporadic cases. Three distinct 1-bp polymorphisms were identified in the FGFR3 gene, within close proximity to the achondroplasia mutation site. Ninety-nine families, each with a sporadic case of achondroplasia in a child, were analyzed in this study. In this population, the achondroplasia mutation occurred on the paternal chromosome in all 40 cases in which parental origin was unambiguous. This observation is consistent with the clinical observation of advanced paternal age resulting in new cases of achondroplasia and suggests that factors influencing DNA replication or repair during spermatogenesis, but not during oogenesis, may predispose to the occurrence of the G1138 FGFR3 mutations. PMID:9718331

  18. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. Methods One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. Results High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. Conclusions These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  19. Paternal care and male mate-attraction effort in the European starling is adjusted to clutch size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komdeur, Jan; Wiersma, Popko; Magrath, Michael

    2002-06-22

    In facultative polygynous birds with biparental care, a trade-off may occur between male parental care and attraction of additional mates. If there is a cost associated with reduced male parental care, the relative benefit of mate attraction may be predicted to decrease as the size of a male's clutch or brood increases. We tested this prediction in monogamous pairs of facultatively polygynous European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). The larger the clutch, the more time the male spent incubating and the less time he spent attracting an additional female (i.e. singing near and carrying green nesting material into adjacent empty nest-boxes). Reduced paternal incubation resulted in lower overall incubation (the female did not compensate) and lower hatching success. Immediately after experimental reduction of clutches, males spent significantly less time incubating and more time singing and carrying greenery, and vice versa for experimentally enlarged clutches. Males with experimentally reduced clutches attracted a second female more often than males with experimentally enlarged clutches. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to provide experimental evidence for an adjustment of paternal care and male mate-attraction effort to clutch size. However, a trade-off between paternal nestling provisioning and mate attraction was not revealed, probably due to the absence of unpaired females by that time in the breeding season. Experiments showed that the relative contribution of the male and female to nestling provisioning was unrelated to brood size.

  20. Early-Onset Paternal Smoking and Offspring Adiposity: Further Investigation of a Potential Intergenerational Effect Using the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carslake

    Full Text Available Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Using the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT Study, we find that paternal smoking during pre-adolescence (45,000 offspring, we cannot rule out a weaker association, perhaps common to sons and daughters, which would be consistent with the ALSPAC study. Alternatively, we discuss whether confounding, chance in parallel tests, or sample selection effects might explain the observed associations of early paternal smoking with offspring BMI.

  1. The effect of maternal and paternal immune challenge on offspring immunity and reproduction in a cricket.

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    McNamara, K B; van Lieshout, E; Simmons, L W

    2014-06-01

    Trans-generational immune priming is the transmission of enhanced immunity to offspring following a parental immune challenge. Although within-generation increased investment into immunity demonstrates clear costs on reproductive investment in a number of taxa, the potential for immune priming to impact on offspring reproductive investment has not been thoroughly investigated. We explored the reproductive costs of immune priming in a field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. To assess the relative importance of maternal and paternal immune status, mothers and fathers were immune-challenged with live bacteria or a control solution and assigned to one of four treatments in which one parent, neither or both parents were immune-challenged. Families of offspring were reared to adulthood under a food-restricted diet, and approximately 10 offspring in each family were assayed for two measures of immunocompetence. We additionally quantified offspring reproductive investment using sperm viability for males and ovary mass for females. We demonstrate that parental immune challenge has significant consequences for the immunocompetence and, in turn, reproductive investment of their male offspring. A complex interaction between maternal and paternal immune status increased the antibacterial immune response of male offspring. This increased immune response was associated with a reduction in son's sperm viability, implicating a trans-generational resource trade-off between investment into immunocompetence and reproduction. Our data also show that these costs are sexually dimorphic, as daughters did not demonstrate a similar increase in immunity, despite showing a reduction in ovary mass. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Low birthweight and prematurity in relation to paternal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing

  3. The causal effect of paternal unemployment on children's personality

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Viola; Bertoni, Marco; Corazzini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we show that paternal unemployment has a surprisingly positive causal effect on the "Big 5" personality traits of children aged 17 to 25. In particular, our results from longitudinal value-added models for personality suggest that paternal unemployment makes children significantly more conscientious and less neurotic. Our results are robust to different estimation methods and to selection on unobservables. Furthermore, these...

  4. The making and breaking of paternity secrets in donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Lyn

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the complex issues faced by regulators of the infertility treatment industry in response to the social and technological changes that heralded a new openness in knowledge about genetics, paternity and the concomitant need for donor offspring to know their genetic origins. The imperative for full information about their donor and biological father, who contributed to their creation and half of their genome, was an outcome unanticipated by the architects of the donor insemination programme. Genetic paternity testing realised the possibility of fixed and certain knowledge about paternity. This paper outlines medicine's role in the formation of normative families through the use of donor insemination. Extending information from an Australian study on the use of DNA paternity testing, it analyses what the social and scientific changes that have emerged and gained currency in the last several decades mean for the new 'openness' and the role of paternity testing in this context. It concludes with recommendations about how to deal with the verification of paternity in linking donor conceived adult children to their donor.

  5. Differential Parenting between Mothers and Fathers: Implications for Late Adolescents

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    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between parenting and outcomes for children and adolescents has been examined, differences between maternal and paternal parenting styles have received less attention, particularly in the case of late adolescents. As a result, this article examines the relationship between late adolescents' perceptions of their mothers'…

  6. The role of the father in child sleep disturbance: child, parent, and parent-child relationship.

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    Millikovsky-Ayalon, Maaian; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The majority of studies on child sleep problems focus primarily on mothers, neglecting paternal influences. Guided by the transactional framework, we explored how child temperament, paternal and maternal stress, and the parent-child interactions differ between families having children with sleep disturbances and a selected comparison group. The role of paternal involvement in child caregiving as a moderator of these differences was assessed. The sample consisted of 51 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Data were collected during home visits, when mothers and fathers completed questionnaires and were interviewed. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped. Results indicate that compared to the comparison group, fathers rated children with sleep disturbances as fussier, both their mothers and fathers experienced higher levels of stress, and reported using more bedtime interactions that interfere with child's sleep-wake self-regulation. In addition, their fathers were less sensitive during father-child interaction and less involved in child caregiving. Finally, paternal involvement moderated the group differences seen in maternal stress, suggesting that high paternal involvement acted as a buffer to protect parents of children with sleep disturbances from experiencing parental stress. The important role of fathers in families having children with sleep disturbances is discussed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Psychopathology in 7-year-old children: Differences in maternal and paternal ratings and the genetic epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseldijk, Laura W; Fedko, Iryna O; Bartels, Meike; Nivard, Michel G; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Middeldorp, Christel M

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of children's psychopathology is often based on parental report. Earlier studies have suggested that rater bias can affect the estimates of genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences on differences between children. The availability of a large dataset of maternal as well as paternal ratings of psychopathology in 7-year old children enabled (i) the analysis of informant effects on these assessments, and (ii) to obtain more reliable estimates of the genetic and non-genetic effects. DSM-oriented measures of affective, anxiety, somatic, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, oppositional-defiant, conduct, and obsessive-compulsive problems were rated for 12,310 twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register by mothers (N = 12,085) and fathers (N = 8,516). The effects of genetic and non-genetic effects were estimated on the common and rater-specific variance. For all scales, mean scores on maternal ratings exceeded paternal ratings. Parents largely agreed on the ranking of their child's problems (r 0.60-0.75). The heritability was estimated over 55% for maternal and paternal ratings for all scales, except for conduct problems (44-46%). Unbiased shared environmental influences, i.e., on the common variance, were significant for affective (13%), oppositional (13%), and conduct problems (37%). In clinical settings, different cutoffs for (sub)clinical scores could be applied to paternal and maternal ratings of their child's psychopathology. Only for conduct problems, shared environmental and genetic influences explain an equal amount in differences between children. For the other scales, genetic factors explain the majority of the variance, especially for the common part that is free of rater bias. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley

  8. Perceived Parental Authority: Reasonable and Unreasonable.

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    Harris, Irving D.; Howard, Kenneth I.

    1981-01-01

    This questionnaire study investigated personality phenomena in adolescents who described their parents along two dimensions: exercise of family authority and reasonableness. The main area of analysis concerned the extent to which male and female adolescents react differently to reasonable or unreasonable paternal and maternal authority. (Author/GK)

  9. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

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    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  10. Parental responses to child support obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam

    find that larger obligations are associated with higher new-partner fertility among both parents. The maternal fertility response is consistent with a positive income-fertility relationship, while the paternal fertility response may reflect increased demand for new offspring as a result of reduced...

  11. The Associations between Perceived Parenting Styles, Empathy, and Altruistic Choices in Economic Games: A Study of Chinese Children.

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    Guo, Qingke; Feng, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    Parenting styles are critical for fostering children's empathy and prosociality. Yet these relations haven't been well established for Chinese children, and the underlying mechanisms were seldom explored. Drawing upon parental acceptance-rejection theory and empathy-altruism hypothesis, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting styles and altruistic behavior of children, and the intervening role of children's empathy and the moderating role of in-group and out-group conditions. What is novel about this study is that it contains both survey data and experimental data. Four hundred and ninety-four children ( M age = 8.92 years) completed four simple binary-choice dictator games which are widely used in the study of other-regarding preferences (concerns for the interests of others). These children also reported their perceived parenting styles. And children's empathy was reported by their mothers. Each child's altruism score, which was used in the subsequent analyses, was derived from the altruistic choices in these games. Mediation analyses indicated that, when age and gender were controlled for, maternal and paternal emotional warmth were positively associated with children's altruism via children's empathy, while maternal and paternal rejection were negatively associated with children's altruism via children's empathy. Multi-group analyses showed that the influences of perceived parenting styles on children's altruistic behavior via children's empathy were consistent for in-group and out-group conditions. These findings suggest that enhancing parental emotional warmth and reducing parental rejection may foster children's empathy, which in turn promote children's altruism. Limitations and future directions of this study were also discussed.

  12. The Associations between Perceived Parenting Styles, Empathy, and Altruistic Choices in Economic Games: A Study of Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingke Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Parenting styles are critical for fostering children’s empathy and prosociality. Yet these relations haven’t been well established for Chinese children, and the underlying mechanisms were seldom explored. Drawing upon parental acceptance-rejection theory and empathy-altruism hypothesis, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting styles and altruistic behavior of children, and the intervening role of children’s empathy and the moderating role of in-group and out-group conditions. What is novel about this study is that it contains both survey data and experimental data. Four hundred and ninety-four children (Mage = 8.92 years completed four simple binary-choice dictator games which are widely used in the study of other-regarding preferences (concerns for the interests of others. These children also reported their perceived parenting styles. And children’s empathy was reported by their mothers. Each child’s altruism score, which was used in the subsequent analyses, was derived from the altruistic choices in these games. Mediation analyses indicated that, when age and gender were controlled for, maternal and paternal emotional warmth were positively associated with children’s altruism via children’s empathy, while maternal and paternal rejection were negatively associated with children’s altruism via children’s empathy. Multi-group analyses showed that the influences of perceived parenting styles on children’s altruistic behavior via children’s empathy were consistent for in-group and out-group conditions. These findings suggest that enhancing parental emotional warmth and reducing parental rejection may foster children’s empathy, which in turn promote children’s altruism. Limitations and future directions of this study were also discussed.

  13. Is maternal transmission of coronary heart disease risk stronger than paternal transmission?

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    Kinra, S; Davey Smith, G; Okasha, M; McCarron, P; McEwen, J

    2003-08-01

    To test whether intergenerational transmission of coronary heart disease (CHD) to offspring is greater from the mother than from the father, the association between parental history of CHD and coronary mortality in male offspring was examined. Prospective cohort study with 43 years of follow up. University of Glasgow. Male students (n = 8402) aged 16-30 years when examined in 1948 to 1968. Fatal CHD. Of the 8402 men studied, 615 (7.3%) reported a history of CHD in at least one of the parents: 479 (5.8%) for fathers only, 124 (1.6%) for mothers only, and a further 12 (0.2%) for both their parents. During follow up, 373 (4.4%) men died of CHD. Parental history of disease was associated with fatal CHD and controlling for personal risk factors such as cigarette smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and father's social class did not attenuate this relation. The fully adjusted hazard ratios were 1.53 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 2.18), 1.19 (95% CI 0.61 to 2.32), and 8.65 (95% CI 2.65 to 28.31) for father only, mother only, and both parents with CHD, respectively, compared with men whose parents did not have CHD. There was some evidence for interaction between parental histories (p = 0.049), with particularly high risk if both parents reported a history of CHD. This study found no differential transmission of CHD. Paternal history of CHD was at least as important as maternal history. Data from other comparable cohorts provide no consistent evidence of differential transmission. Intergenerational transmission of CHD does not appear to have differential effects between mothers and fathers.

  14. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  15. Paternal Retrieval Behavior Regulated by Brain Estrogen Synthetase (Aromatase) in Mouse Sires that Engage in Communicative Interactions with Pairmates.

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    Akther, Shirin; Huang, Zhiqi; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Fakhrul, Azam A K M; Yuhi, Teruko; Lopatina, Olga; Salmina, Alla B; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Matsuo, Mie; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Parental behaviors involve complex social recognition and memory processes and interactive behavior with children that can greatly facilitate healthy human family life. Fathers play a substantial role in child care in a small but significant number of mammals, including humans. However, the brain mechanism that controls male parental behavior is much less understood than that controlling female parental behavior. Fathers of non-monogamous laboratory ICR mice are an interesting model for examining the factors that influence paternal responsiveness because sires can exhibit maternal-like parental care (retrieval of pups) when separated from their pups along with their pairmates because of olfactory and auditory signals from the dams. Here we tested whether paternal behavior is related to femininity by the aromatization of testosterone. For this purpose, we measured the immunoreactivity of aromatase [cytochrome P450 family 19 (CYP19)], which synthesizes estrogen from androgen, in nine brain regions of the sire. We observed higher levels of aromatase expression in these areas of the sire brain when they engaged in communicative interactions with dams in separate cages. Interestingly, the number of nuclei with aromatase immunoreactivity in sires left together with maternal mates in the home cage after pup-removing was significantly larger than that in sires housed with a whole family. The capacity of sires to retrieve pups was increased following a period of 5 days spent with the pups as a whole family after parturition, whereas the acquisition of this ability was suppressed in sires treated daily with an aromatase inhibitor. The results demonstrate that the dam significantly stimulates aromatase in the male brain and that the presence of the pups has an inhibitory effect on this increase. These results also suggest that brain aromatization regulates the initiation, development, and maintenance of paternal behavior in the ICR male mice.

  16. Design and Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of a Paternal Adaptation Questionnaire.

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    Eskandari, Narges; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vadadhir, AbouAli; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2016-07-25

    The present study aimed to design and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Paternal Adaptation Questionnaire (PAQ). The study was a mixed (qualitative and quantitative) sequential exploratory study. In the qualitative phase, a preliminary questionnaire with 210 items emerged from in-depth interviews with 17 fathers and 15 key informants. In the quantitative phase, psychometric properties of the PAQ were assessed. Considering cutoff points as 1.5 for item impact, 0.49 for content validity ratio (CVR), and 0.7 for content validity index (CVI), items of the questionnaire were reduced from 210 to 132. Assessment of the content validity of the questionnaire demonstrated S-CVR = 0.68 and S-CVI = 0.92. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in the development of a PAQ with 38 items classified under five factors (ability in performing the roles and responsibilities; perceiving the parental development; stabilization in paternal position; spiritual stability and internal satisfaction; and challenges and concerns), which explained 52.19% of cumulative variance. Measurement of internal consistency reported a Cronbach's α of .89 for PAQ (.61-.86 for subscales), and stability assessment of the PAQ through the test-retest demonstrated Spearman's correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficient of .96 (.81-.97 for subscales). It was identified that the PAQ is a valid and reliable instrument that could be used to assess fatherhood adaptation with the paternal roles and fathers' needs, as well as to design appropriate interventions and to evaluate their effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Cryptic species? Patterns of maternal and paternal gene flow in eight neotropical bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7(th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of

  18. Paternity tests in Mexico: Results obtained in 3005 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aceves, M E; Romero Rentería, O; Díaz-Navarro, X X; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2018-04-01

    National and international reports regarding the paternity testing activity scarcely include information from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Therefore, we report different results from the analysis of 3005 paternity cases analyzed during a period of five years in a Mexican paternity testing laboratory. Motherless tests were the most frequent (77.27%), followed by trio cases (20.70%); the remaining 2.04% included different cases of kinship reconstruction. The paternity exclusion rate was 29.58%, higher but into the range reported by the American Association of Blood Banks (average 24.12%). We detected 65 mutations, most of them involving one-step (93.8% and the remaining were two-step mutations (6.2%) thus, we were able to estimate the paternal mutation rate for 17 different STR loci: 0.0018 (95% CI 0.0005-0.0047). Five triallelic patterns and 12 suspected null alleles were detected during this period; however, re-amplification of these samples with a different Human Identification (HID) kit confirmed the homozygous genotypes, which suggests that most of these exclusions actually are one-step mutations. HID kits with ≥20 STRs detected more exclusions, diminishing the rate of inconclusive results with isolated exclusions (Powerplex 21 kit (20 STRs) and Powerplex Fusion kit (22 STRs) offered similar PI (p = 0.379) and average number of exclusions (PE) (p = 0.339) when a daughter was involved in motherless tests. In brief, besides to report forensic parameters from paternity tests in Mexico, results describe improvements to solve motherless paternity tests using HID kits with ≥20 STRs instead of one including 15 STRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Advancing paternal age and schizophrenia: the impact of delayed fatherhood.

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    Ek, Mats; Wicks, Susanne; Svensson, Anna C; Idring, Selma; Dalman, Christina

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that advancing paternal age is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring, but the mechanism behind this association remains unknown. This study investigates if delayed fatherhood rather than advancing paternal age per se might explain the increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring associated with advancing paternal age. This is a register-based study of the Swedish population looking at people born 1955-1985 who have 1 or 2 siblings (n = 2 589 502). The main analysis investigated whether the association between advancing paternal age and schizophrenia was explained by delayed fatherhood. Possible confounding factors were taken into account. Cox regression was used throughout. In the main analysis the association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring disappeared after controlling for delayed fatherhood (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.72-1.21 comparing 45+ years old fathers to those 25-29), whereas delayed fatherhood showed an association with increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring comparing 35-39 and 40-44 years old fathers to 25-29 year olds (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.58; HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.44-2.28, respectively). The results remained when controlling for possible confounders. This study suggests that the association between paternal age and schizophrenia is not due to paternal age per se, but rather to an unknown factor associated with both delayed fatherhood and schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sex Differences in Parent-Child Interaction Styles during a Free-Play Session.

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    Tauber, Margaret A.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of videotapes of 145 third graders playing with a parent showed (1) that parents of girls were more likely to engage in sociable play, parents of boys in active play; and (2) that maternal behavior remained relatively constant regardless of child's sex while paternal behavior varied for boys and girls. (JMB)

  1. Parental representations of transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Barr, R

    1982-06-01

    The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered.

  2. Family interaction: parental representation in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, S; Skre, I; Torgersen, S; Kringlen, E

    1994-01-01

    12 monozygotic (MZ) and 19 same-sexed dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for DSM-III-R schizophrenia completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The schizophrenic twins described their parents as less caring and being more overprotective compared to their non-schizophrenic co-twins. These results were independent of age, sex and zygosity. Difference in paternal overprotection was the most important variable discriminating between the schizophrenic probands and their co-twins. Three different hypotheses regarding these findings are discussed.

  3. Knowledge Exchange and Discovery in the Age of Social Media: The Journey From Inception to Establishment of a Parent-Led Web-Based Research Advisory Community for Childhood Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dianne J; Sprung, Jennifer; McCauley, Dayle; Kraus de Camargo, Olaf; Buchanan, Francine; Gulko, Roman; Martens, Rachel; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2016-11-11

    % (5/9) of researchers indicated they felt safe to share sensitive or personal information. While researchers shared evidence-based resources and consulted with families to get guidance on specific issues, there was an unexpected benefit of gaining an understanding of what issues were important to families in their daily lives. Parents felt a sense of belonging to this community where they could share their stories but also wanted more researcher participation and clarity on the purpose of the group. The PPR community grew from inception to an established community with active engagement and knowledge exchange. Both parents and researchers described valuable experiences. Researchers should consider social media as a means of engaging families in all phases of research to ensure that research and its outcomes are meaningful to those who need it most. ©Dianne J Russell, Jennifer Sprung, Dayle McCauley, Olaf Kraus de Camargo, Francine Buchanan, Roman Gulko, Rachel Martens, Jan Willem Gorter. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.11.2016.

  4. Effects of neonatal paternal deprivation or early deprivation on anxiety and social behaviors of the adults in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao; An, Shucheng; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined whether neonatal paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed and pups were raised just by mother) or early deprivation (ED: pups were raised by both parents except separated from not only the dam but also the peers for three hours a day from PND 0 to 13) has long-term effects on anxiety and social behaviors of adult mandarin voles. Newborn mandarin voles of F2 generation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bi-parental care (PC: pups were raised by both parents), PD and ED. The parental care behaviors of F1 generation were observed at the age of 0, 13 and 21 days (PND 0, 13, 21) of F2 generation of PC and PD groups. Moreover, each mandarin vole of F2 generation received an open field test and a social interaction test on PND 70 and PND 75, respectively. No significant differences of parental behavior were observed between mothers and fathers from PC families, showing typical parental behavior of socially monogamous rodents. In addition, no significant differences of maternal behaviors were found between mothers from PC and PD families, indicating no maternal compensation towards pups for the absence of the paternal care. In the open field test, mandarin voles from both PD and ED families displayed higher levels of anxiety and lower locomotor activity, relative to offspring of PC family. In the social interaction test, both PD and ED mandarin voles also showed lower levels of social behavior and higher levels of anxiety. Thus, both PD and ED significantly increase anxiety and reduce social behavior of adult mandarin voles, suggesting that variation in parental investment may lead to variation in anxiety and social behaviors in rodents with different mating systems.

  5. The association between paternal and adolescent depressive symptoms: evidence from two population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Neary, Martha; Polek, Ela; Flouri, Eirini; Lewis, Glyn

    2017-12-01

    Incidence of depression increases markedly around age 13 years, and nearly three-quarters of adults report that their mental health problems started in adolescence. Although maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression, evidence about the association between paternal and adolescent depression is inconclusive, and many studies have methodological limitations. We aimed to assess the association between paternal and adolescent depressive symptoms in two large population-based cohort studies. We used data for two-parent families from two representative prospective cohorts in Ireland (Growing up in Ireland [GUI]) and the UK (Millennium Cohort Study [MCS]). Parental depressive symptoms were measured with the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in the GUI cohort when children were 9 years old, and the Kessler six-item psychological distress scale in the MCS cohort when children were 7 years old. Adolescent depressive symptoms were measured with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at age 13 years in the GUI cohort and age 14 years in the MCS cohort. We analysed data using linear regression models, before and after adjustment for confounders, in both multiply imputed and complete case samples. There were 6070 families in GUI and 7768 in MCS. After all adjustments, a 1 SD (three-point) increase in paternal depressive symptoms was associated with an increase of 0·24 SMFQ points (95% CI 0·03-0·45; p=0·023) in the GUI cohort and 0·18 SMFQ points (0·01-0·36; p=0·041) in the MCS cohort. This association was independent of, and not different in magnitude to, the association between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms (Wald test p=0·435 in the GUI cohort and 0·470 in the MCS cohort). Our results show an association between depressive symptoms in fathers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent offspring. These findings support the involvement of fathers as well as mothers in early interventions to reduce the

  6. Paternal Alcoholism: Consequences for Female Children

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    Dehn, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of substance abuse and addiction are profound and depredating. The desolation is incalculable in estimating the psychological damage and trauma inflicted on the children of addicted parents. According to studies and statistics gathered by the National Association for Children of Alcoholics, "there are more than 20 million children…

  7. Parental age and child growth and development: child health check-up data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Mariko; Kira, Ryutaro; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakai, Yasunari; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Nose, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Toshimichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether parental age has any influence on child health. Well-baby check-up data at 1 month and at 12 months of age were used. The trends of parental age in association with growth measurements, incidence of physical and developmental abnormalities, occurrence of low birthweight, and maternal history of spontaneous abortion were analyzed. Associations between increasing paternal age and incidence of psychomotor developmental delay at 12 months, increasing paternal and maternal age and increasing birthweight, and increasing parental age and higher incidence of history of spontaneous abortion were found. The incidence of low-birthweight infants was significantly decreased with increasing paternal age. Not only increasing maternal age but also increasing paternal age have influences on child development and growth in the general population. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Who's your daddy?: paternal inheritance of metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Suehiro, Harumi; Cardona, Connie

    2017-02-01

    Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation. Recent data, both from humans and experimental models, demonstrate that paternal obesity and undernutrition result in epigenetic reprogramming of male germ cells, notably altered DNA methylation, histone retention, and expression of small noncoding RNAs and transfer RNA fragments. Novel mechanisms have also been identified, such as epididymal transport vesicles, seminal fluid hormones and metabolites, and a unique seminal fluid microbiome. Paternal nutritional and other perturbations are linked to risk of metabolic disease and obesity in offspring. Germ cell-dependent mechanisms have recently been linked to these intergenerational effects. Nongenetic, paternal inheritance of chronic disease has important implications for public health, and may provide novel opportunities for multigenerational disease prevention.

  9. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure modifies memory retention in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Shlomo; Rogers, Jake; Short, Annabel K; Renoir, Thibault; Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring. Paternal CORT treatment was associated with decreased body weights of female offspring and a marked reduction of the male offspring. There were no differences in social behavior of adult F1 offspring in the three-chamber social interaction test. Despite male offspring of CORT-treated fathers displaying hyperactivity in the Y-maze, there was no observable difference in short-term spatial working memory. Spatial learning and memory testing in the Morris water maze revealed that female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers had impaired memory retention. We used our recently developed methodology to analyze the spatial search strategy of the mice during the learning trials and determined that the impairment could not be attributed to underlying differences in search strategy. These results provide evidence for the impact of paternal corticosterone administration on offspring cognition and complement the cumulative knowledge of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of acquired traits in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of paternity leave on maternal postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Beaumé, M; Vaslot, V; Chabrol, H

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of the paternity leave in the appearance of the maternal postpartum depression. Fifty-one couples took part in the whole study. Between the second and the fifth day after the childbirth, the mother completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), which measures the symptoms of depression and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) which measures the social support the mother has become. The father completed the EPDS. Two months and then the second time four months after the childbirth, the mother received the EPDS, the MSPSS, and questionnaires measuring the temperament of the baby, the maternal skills, the feeling of being a mother and the quality of life postpartum. In order to evaluate the paternal involvement, the father completed the EPDS and questions about paternal skills and involvement. The paternity leave seemed not to have any consequences on the results at the EPDS or other questionnaires. However, lack of paternal involvement was a significant predictor of the intensity of the depressive symptoms of the mothers. It is not the presence of the father wich seems important to take into account for detection and the traitement of postpatum depression but his participation in the care of the baby. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple paternity and hybridization in two smooth-hound sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Ilaria A M; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-10

    Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N = 792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations.

  12. Nudging towards nutrition? Soft paternalism and obesity-related reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most contentious issues facing the United States today. Some researchers warn of an obesity "epidemic" that poses a grave threat to our nation's health, while others attack these claims as alarmist and misguided. This divide reinforces the political schism between advocates of government intervention and anti-regulatory groups. As a result, obesity science finds itself entangled in partisan battles that leave little room for compromise. This paper explores the potential for the political philosophy of soft paternalism to provide a regulatory framework that may appeal to both sides of the obesity reform debate. Soft paternalism draws upon social science research in order to develop policies that encourage better decision-making, while preserving individual choice. Applying this framework to the issue of obesity, I look at two areas of potential reform: 1) information-based policies such as nutritional label design, and 2) policies that affect default choices, such as portion size norms. I find that while soft paternalism is an appealing framework that offers many promising reforms, it is not a panacea. Instead, I argue that these proposals should be considered on their own merit, not as a complete solution precluding other measures. In addition, in light of potential criticism concerning the stigmatizing effect of some obesity-related measures, I suggest that reforms based on soft paternalism can and should be tailored to promote more mindful eating habits. With these concerns in mind, I conclude that soft paternalism is a promising approach that warrants serious consideration by policymakers.

  13. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Paula; Hobson, Liane

    2016-04-27

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Rethinking work and family policy: the making and taking of parental leave in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M; Litwin, A S

    2005-10-01

    Despite the continued increase in female participation rates, Australia remains one of only two developed nations in the world without a paid maternity leave scheme. While research interest and public policy debate about paid maternity leave entitlements continues, little is known about the actual utilization of the 52 weeks unpaid parental leave that is currently available to all employees. Moreover, research and policy debate on the availability and provision of paid paternity leave has only just begun. This paper argues that, given the gendered nature of employee entitlements, it is time to re-evaluate all aspects of parental leave policy in Australia. Using unique data from a national survey of Australian employees, the paper provides a statistical analysis of the use of unpaid parental leave and the availability of paid maternity leave. The paper models the availability of paid maternity leave to Australian employees as a function of demographic and organizational characteristics, including annual income, union status, and establishment size. A parallel analysis of the likelihood that an individual has used the unpaid parental leave provision is also provided. The results show that the existing unpaid parental leave provision is rarely used and that the current availability of paid maternity leave is inequitable. The paper discusses the conceptual and policy implications of these results and concludes that a re-thinking of parental leave policy in Australia is essential if gender inequities at work and in society are to be addressed.

  15. Paternal versus maternal coping styles with child diagnosis of developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Levy, Yael; Atzaba-Poria, Na'ama

    2013-06-01

    Parents of children with disabilities vary in their reaction to their children's diagnosis. The current study focused on fathers in addition to mothers and examined their resolution and coping styles when having children diagnosed with developmental delay (DD). Sixty-five fathers and 71 mothers were interviewed using the reaction to the diagnosis interview (RDI; Pianta & Marvin, 1992a). Results indicated that the majority of parents were unresolved with their child's diagnosis, with no differences found between fathers' and mothers' rates of resolution. Furthermore, both parents of children that were diagnosed at a later age and parents that were less educated tended to be unresolved, as did fathers of a lower socioeconomic status. Older age of both children and mothers was related to maternal lack of resolution. Finally, an in-depth examination revealed significant differences in the manner in which fathers and mothers cope with their children's diagnosis: whereas mothers were more prone to using an emotional coping style, fathers tended to use a cognitive coping style. The clinical implications of paternal versus maternal coping styles are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug-abusing fathers: patterns of pair bonding, reproduction, and paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Thomas J; Winkel, Justin D; Suchman, Nancy E; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2007-10-01

    Despite concerns about compromise of fathering as a public policy issue, very little is known about the status of drug-abusing men as parents. In this pilot study, 50 men enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment completed a structured research interview designed to generate basic information about patterns of pair bonding, reproduction, and paternal involvement. Descriptive analysis of these data highlighted a number of trends in the nature of fathering that, although at odds with popular stereotypes, were similar to trends noted in research conducted with other populations of disenfranchised men. Consistent with a developmental-ecological perspective on parenting, the findings suggest that historical and situational influences interact within this population to compromise socially responsible efforts to function as a parent. The results also raise questions about the extent to which public policy initiatives designed to promote more responsible fathering are reaching this population, and they highlight ways that the drug abuse treatment system might better support men interested in being a more effective parent.

  17. Parental Differential Treatment of Siblings in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental differential treatment is an important feature of non-shared family environment which contributes to the development of behavioural differences between siblings growing up in the same family. To investigate the frequency, direction, and patterns of parental differential treatment of siblings in Slovene families, mothers and fathers of 93 sibling-pairs in early/middle childhood provided self-reports in a two-wave longitudinal study. Most of the parents reported on low levels of differential treatment, predominantly expressing somewhat more affection and control towards the older than towards the younger sibling. Over a one-year time period, the average frequency of parental differential treatment did not change significantly, whereas the stability was estimated as moderate for maternal and low for paternal assessments. Maternal and paternal self-ratings were moderately correlated. However, the mothers reported on somewhat higher levels of differential control and (only in wave 1 affection than the fathers. Nearly half of the families were characterized by a congruent pattern of parental differential treatment indicating that both parents showed more affection and control towards the older of the two siblings. A complementary family pattern reflecting an opposite direction of maternal and paternal differential treatment emerged in approximately a quarter of the participating families.

  18. If Parents Establish a No-Smoking Agreement with Their Offspring, Does This Prevent Adolescents from Smoking? Findings from Three Dutch Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Exter Blokland, Endy A. W.; Engels, Rutger C.; Harakeh, Zeena; Hale, William W., III.; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Data from three studies were used to investigate whether the establishment of a no-smoking agreement is related to lower odds of adolescent smoking. The prevalence of a no-smoking agreement was first explored by using a national sample involving 4,501 Dutch adolescents. Second, data from a longitudinal study among 595 early adolescents and their…

  19. Advanced paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia in Iranians

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    Mokri Bahareh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1958 many, but not all studies have demonstrated that paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia. There may be many different explanations for differences between studies, including study design, sample size, collection criteria, heterogeneity and the confounding effects of environmental factors that can for example perturb epigenetic programming and lead to an increase in disease risk. The small number of children in Western families makes risk comparisons between siblings born at different paternal ages difficult. In contrast, more Eastern families have children both at early and later periods of life. In the present study, a cross-sectional population study in an Iranian population was performed to compare frequency of schizophrenia in younger offspring (that is, older paternal age versus older offspring. Methods A total of 220 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (cases from both psychiatric hospitals and private clinics and 220 individuals from other hospital wards (controls, matched for sex and age were recruited for this study. Patients with neurological problem, substance abuse, mental retardation and mood disorder were excluded from both groups. Results Birth rank comparisons revealed that 35% vs 24% of the cases vs the controls were in the third or upper birth rank (P = 0.01. Also, the mean age of fathers at birth in case group (30 ± 6.26 years was significantly more than the control group (26.45 ± 5.64 years; P = 0.0001. The age of 76 fathers at birth in case group was over 32 versus 33 fathers in control group. Individuals whose fathers' age was more than 32 (at birth were at higher risk (2.77 times for schizophrenia versus others (P P = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis suggests that maternal age is less likely to be involved in the higher risk of schizophrenia than advanced parental age. Discussion This study demonstrates a relationship between paternal age and schizophrenia in large

  20. Role of Parenting Style in Achieving Metabolic Control in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA1c values. RESULTS An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and...

  1. The certainty that engendered doubt: paternity and DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fonseca

    Full Text Available There has been a surge in the use of DNA paternity tests in Brazil in both private and government laboratories. This raises interesting questions about the influence of the medical and legal spheres on gender and kinship relations in contemporary society. To analyze this phenomenon, we conducted research and observations in various government agencies in Porto Alegre (the Public Defender's office, Mediation Hearings, Family Court and the Court's Medical Service of people involved in legal disputes over paternal identification. We also studied how recent changes in the laws concerning paternal recognition are applied by the different personalities on the scene. Based on this data, we present the hypothesis that far from inspiring greater tranquility, the simple existence of the test instigates doubt. This has profound repercussions on our form of "knowing" who is the father. The situation described in this paper raises new challenges for an anthropology of knowledge, which focuses on an analysis of Western beliefs - including scientific ones.

  2. The effect of pregnancy on paternal skin allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Elucidation of maternal-fetal tolerance mechanisms clarifies the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) in transplant tolerance. This study aim to investigate the effect of pregnancy on paternal skin allograft survival. Flow cytometry techniques, mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR), PCR, real-time PCR and skin transplantation were key methods. Treg increased significantly from 4.2% before pregnancy to peak at 6.8% day 8 after pregnancy. Both heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA express high in placenta while low in spleen (P<0.05). Although Treg increased during pregnancy, and splenocytes from the pregnant mice showed lower MLR response toward the paternal stimulator, single time pregnancy showed no significant protective effect on paternal skin allograft survival in the tested condition.

  3. Paternal care decreases foraging activity and body condition, but does not impose survival costs to caring males in a Neotropical arachnid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Gustavo S; Buzatto, Bruno A; Martins, Eduardo G; Machado, Glauco

    2012-01-01

    Exclusive paternal care is the rarest form of parental investment in nature and theory predicts that the maintenance of this behavior depends on the balance between costs and benefits to males. Our goal was to assess costs of paternal care in the harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa, for which the benefits of this behavior in terms of egg survival have already been demonstrated. We evaluated energetic costs and mortality risks associated to paternal egg-guarding in the field. We quantified foraging activity of males and estimated how their body condition is influenced by the duration of the caring period. Additionally, we conducted a one-year capture-mark-recapture study and estimated apparent survival probabilities of caring and non-caring males to assess potential survival costs of paternal care. Our results indicate that caring males forage less frequently than non-caring individuals (males and females) and that their body condition deteriorates over the course of the caring period. Thus, males willing to guard eggs may provide to females a fitness-enhancing gift of cost-free care of their offspring. Caring males, however, did not show lower survival probabilities when compared to both non-caring males and females. Reduction in mortality risks as a result of remaining stationary, combined with the benefits of improving egg survival, may have played an important and previously unsuspected role favoring the evolution of paternal care. Moreover, males exhibiting paternal care could also provide an honest signal of their quality as offspring defenders, and thus female preference for caring males could be responsible for maintaining the trait.

  4. Paternal care decreases foraging activity and body condition, but does not impose survival costs to caring males in a Neotropical arachnid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S Requena

    Full Text Available Exclusive paternal care is the rarest form of parental investment in nature and theory predicts that the maintenance of this behavior depends on the balance between costs and benefits to males. Our goal was to assess costs of paternal care in the harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa, for which the benefits of this behavior in terms of egg survival have already been demonstrated. We evaluated energetic costs and mortality risks associated to paternal egg-guarding in the field. We quantified foraging activity of males and estimated how their body condition is influenced by the duration of the caring period. Additionally, we conducted a one-year capture-mark-recapture study and estimated apparent survival probabilities of caring and non-caring males to assess potential survival costs of paternal care. Our results indicate that caring males forage less frequently than non-caring individuals (males and females and that their body condition deteriorates over the course of the caring period. Thus, males willing to guard eggs may provide to females a fitness-enhancing gift of cost-free care of their offspring. Caring males, however, did not show lower survival probabilities when compared to both non-caring males and females. Reduction in mortality risks as a result of remaining stationary, combined with the benefits of improving egg survival, may have played an important and previously unsuspected role favoring the evolution of paternal care. Moreover, males exhibiting paternal care could also provide an honest signal of their quality as offspring defenders, and thus female preference for caring males could be responsible for maintaining the trait.

  5. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Iacolino, Calogero; Mannino, Giuseppe; Formica, Ivan; Zabbara, Simona Maria

    2017-01-01

    The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders. This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females) living in Sicily (Italy) aged between 20 and 60 years ( M = 37.52; SD = 11.42). The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns. Data show that being a younger adult male with mother's parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and rejection domain, whereas, being a younger adult woman, with a higher level of maternal control is predictive of the impaired limits domain. This study underlines that because mothers and fathers establish different bonds with their children, care and control by both parents might impact different domains of development.

  6. Parenting and Children's Internalizing Symptoms: How Important are Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Cathy M; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M

    Parenting behaviors are associated with children's internalizing symptoms, however, it is not often examined which factors could possibly influence this relationship. The goals of this study were twofold. One goal was to examine whether the association between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms would increase if parenting behaviors were assessed behaviorally and in a context where the child displayed specific anxious behaviors. Another goal was to examine whether this relationship was influenced by the age and gender of the child, and by possible parenting differences between mothers and fathers. These questions were examined in a sample of 211 children aged 4-12 years; 140 community children and 71 clinically referred anxious children. Parents completed questionnaires regarding children's internalizing symptoms and parenting behaviors (positive reinforcement, punishment, force, reinforcement of dependency, and modeling/reassurance). In line with expectations, more punishment and less modeling/reassurance by parents were related to more internalizing symptoms in children. Child gender, child age, parent gender and clinical anxiety status were not found to influence the relationship between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms. Our results suggest that paternal parenting is as important as maternal parenting with respect to children's internalizing symptoms, and therefore, fathers could be included in child treatment as well.

  7. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M.

    2011-04-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but to my knowledge, their combined effects have not yet been tested. Here, I found that in bulb mites ( Rhizoglyphus robini), maternal nutrition, offspring nutrition, and paternal phenotype (males are fighters, able to kill other mites, or benign scramblers) interactively affected offspring age and size at maturity. The largest effect occurred when both maternal and offspring nutrition was poor: in that case offspring from fighter sires required a significantly longer development time than offspring from scrambler sires. Investigating parental effects on the relationship between age and size at maturity revealed no paternal effects, and only for females was its shape influenced by maternal nutrition. Overall, this reaction norm was nonlinear. These non-genetic intergenerational effects may play a complex, yet unexplored role in influencing population fluctuations—possibly explaining why results from field studies often do not match theoretical predictions on maternal effects on population dynamics.

  8. Dominance of paternalism in family-centered care in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU): an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasli, Parvaneh; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Borim-Nezhad, Leili; Vedadhir, AbouAli

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the culture of family-centered care (FCC) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) using focused ethnography. Data collection strategy was participant observation, fieldwork, and interviews with main actors of the PICU, namely supervisors, nurses, and parents. This study took place in one PICU in a hospital in Tehran, Iran. The results were in the main named as paternalism and were presented as five themes: "non-possessed environment," "separation of the children from their parents," non-interactive communication," "limited participation," and "affection and sympathy combined with superiority." In conclusion, the prevailing atmosphere in care was paternalistic as there was a huge gap between conceptually or theoretically accepted application of FCC in PICU and what is practically administrated. Bridging such a gap between theory and practice can be helpful in improving social, environment, and organizational culture for the children, their parents, and health care providers as well as their performance in the context of PICU.

  9. Resolving Questioned Paternity Issues Using a Philippine Genetic Database

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    Maria Corazon De Ungria

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of the Philippines genetic database consisting of seven Short Tandem Repeat (STR markers for testing of ten questioned paternity cases was investigated. The markers used were HUMvWA, HUMTH01, HUMCSF1PO, HUMFOLP23, D8S306, HUMFES/FPS, and HUMF13A01. These markers had a combined Power of Paternity Exclusion of 99.17%. Due to the gravity of some cases handled in the laboratory, routine procedures must be assessed to determine the capacity of the analysis to exclude a non-father of predict paternity. Clients showed a preference for only testing father and child to lower costs and reduce conflicts, particularly when the mother objects to the conduct of DNA tests, or when she is deceased or cannot be located. The Probability of Paternity was calculated with and without the mother’s profile in each of the cases. In all instances, results were more informative when the mother’s DNA profile was included. Moreover, variations in the allelic distribution of five STR markers among eight Caucasian, one African-American, and two Amerindian (Argentina populations resulted in significant differences in Probability of Paternity estimates compared to those calculated using the Philippine Database.Based on the results of the present study, it is recommended that tests on alleged father-child samples be performed to screen for at least two mismatches. In the absence of theses mismatches, further analysis that includes the mother’s DNA profile is recommended. Moreover, it is recommended that a Philippines genetic database be used for DNA-based paternity testing in the Philippines.

  10. The link between perceived maternal and paternal autonomy support and adolescent well-being across three major educational transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duineveld, Jasper J; Parker, Philip D; Ryan, Richard M; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2017-10-01

    To what extent does maternal and paternal autonomy support enhance well-being across the major transitions of high school? We tested the degree to which perceived autonomy supportive parenting facilitated positive changes in self-esteem and life satisfaction and buffered against negative changes in depressive symptoms and school related burnout in 3 Finnish longitudinal studies, each with a measurement point before and after a major transition (middle school, N1 = 760, 55.7% girls; high school, N2 = 214, 51.9% girls; post high school, N3 = 858, 47.8% girls). Results showed that perceived parental autonomy support was negatively related to depressive symptoms and positively related to self-esteem. The findings for the effects on depressive symptoms were replicated across all 3 transitions, while effects on self-esteem were only found for the high school and post high school transitions. Moreover, evidence of coregulation was found for depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms before the transition were found to decrease autonomy support after the transition for both the high school and post high school transitions. Maternal and paternal autonomy support was of equal importance. Importantly, the effects on depressive symptoms increased as children developed, suggesting the continual importance of parents throughout high school and into emerging adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Longer Duration and Earlier Age of Onset of Paternal Betel Chewing and Smoking Increase Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Human Offspring, Independently, in a Community-Based Screening Program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Boucher, Barbara J; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-08-02

    Transgenerational effects of paternal Areca catechu nut chewing on offspring metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in humans, on obesity and diabetes mellitus experimentally, and of paternal smoking on offspring obesity, are reported, likely attributable to genetic and epigenetic effects previously reported in betel-associated disease. We aimed to determine the effects of paternal smoking, and betel chewing, on the risks of early MetS in human offspring. The 13 179 parent-child trios identified from 238 364 Taiwanese aged ≥20 years screened at 2 community-based integrated screening sessions were tested for the effects of paternal smoking, areca nut chewing, and their duration prefatherhood on age of detecting offspring MetS at screen by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Offspring MetS risks increased with prefatherhood paternal areca nutusage (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.53) versus nonchewing fathers (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.67-6.43) with >10 years paternal betel chewing, 1.62 (95% CI, 0.88-2.96) for 5 to 9 years, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.80-2.54) for betel usage prefatherhood (Ptrend=0.0002), with increased risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.26-3.04) for paternal areca nut usage from 20 to 29 years of age, versus from >30 years of age (adjusted hazard ratio,1.61; 95% CI, 0.22-11.69). MetS offspring risk for paternal smoking increased dosewise (Ptrendbetel quid chewing and smoking, prefatherhood, independently predicted early occurrence of incident MetS in offspring, corroborating previously reported transgenerational effects of these habits, and supporting the need for habit-cessation program provision. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  13. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND PARENTING STYLES INFLUENCE ON ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Krasnov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign psychologists believe that parenting may influence children’s development of emotional intelligence. However, little research has been done in this area. In view of the reviewed literature and given the scarcity of data, we conducted an exploratory study in an as yet unexplored field. The present study aims at examining relationships between the parenting practices and adolescents’ emotional intelligence. 74 students (17-18 years, females were surveyed to assess their perception of parenting styles and their own emotional intelligence. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients showed that adolescents’ emotional intelligence correlated with one of maternal parenting styles (positive attitude and four of paternal parenting styles (positive attitude, directivity, autonomy, incoherence. Positive interest of parents positively correlated with adolescents’ ability for understanding their own emotions. Paternal positive interest positively correlated with adolescents’ ability for managing their own emotions and emotional intelligence. Paternal directivity positively correlated with adolescents’ ability for understanding emotions (their own and other people’s. Paternal autonomy negatively correlated with adolescents’ emotional intelligence and ability for understanding other people’s emotions. Paternalincoherence negatively correlated with adolescents’ ability for understanding and managing their own emotions.

  14. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  15. Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubry Adelheid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of methylation profiles at imprinted genes at a much earlier time point, such as during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, has not previously been considered. In this study, our aim was to determine associations between preconceptional obesity and DNA methylation profiles in the offspring, particularly at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs of the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2 gene. Methods We examined DNA from umbilical cord blood leukocytes from 79 newborns, born between July 2005 and November 2006 at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC. Their mothers participated in the Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST during pregnancy. Parental characteristics were obtained via standardized questionnaires and medical records. DNA methylation patterns at two DMRs were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing; one DMR upstream of IGF2 (IGF2 DMR, and one DMR upstream of the neighboring H19 gene (H19 DMR. Multiple regression models were used to determine potential associations between the offspring's DNA methylation patterns and parental obesity before conception. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Results Hypomethylation at the IGF2 DMR was associated with paternal obesity. Even after adjusting for several maternal and newborn characteristics, we observed a persistent inverse association between DNA methylation in the offspring and paternal obesity (β-coefficient was -5.28, P = 0.003. At the H19 DMR, no significant associations were detected between methylation patterns and paternal obesity. Our data suggest an increase in DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 DMRs among

  16. Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubry, Adelheid; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Murtha, Amy; Wang, Frances; Huang, Zhiqing; Bernal, Autumn; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-02-06

    Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of methylation profiles at imprinted genes at a much earlier time point, such as during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, has not previously been considered. In this study, our aim was to determine associations between preconceptional obesity and DNA methylation profiles in the offspring, particularly at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene. We examined DNA from umbilical cord blood leukocytes from 79 newborns, born between July 2005 and November 2006 at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC. Their mothers participated in the Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) during pregnancy. Parental characteristics were obtained via standardized questionnaires and medical records. DNA methylation patterns at two DMRs were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing; one DMR upstream of IGF2 (IGF2 DMR), and one DMR upstream of the neighboring H19 gene (H19 DMR). Multiple regression models were used to determine potential associations between the offspring's DNA methylation patterns and parental obesity before conception. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m². Hypomethylation at the IGF2 DMR was associated with paternal obesity. Even after adjusting for several maternal and newborn characteristics, we observed a persistent inverse association between DNA methylation in the offspring and paternal obesity (β-coefficient was -5.28, P = 0.003). At the H19 DMR, no significant associations were detected between methylation patterns and paternal obesity. Our data suggest an increase in DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 DMRs among newborns from obese mothers, but a larger study

  17. Paternal and maternal bonding styles in childhood are associated with the prevalence of chronic pain in a general adult population: the Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2015-07-31

    Previous research has suggested that extraordinary adverse experiences during childhood, such as abuse, are possible risk factors for the development of chronic pain. However, the relationship between the perceived parental bonding style during childhood and chronic pain has been much less studied. In this cross-sectional study, 760 community-dwelling Japanese adults were asked if they had pain that had been present for six months or more. They completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), a self-administrated questionnaire designed to assess perceived parental bonding, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess current depressive symptoms. The PBI consists of care and overprotection subscales that are analyzed by assigning the parental bonding style to one of four quadrants: Optimal bonding (high care/low overprotection), neglectful parenting (low care/low overprotection), affectionate constraint (high care/high overprotection), and affectionless control (low care/high overprotection). Logistic regression analysis was done to estimate the contribution of the parental bonding style to the risk of chronic pain, controlling for demographic variables. Compared to the optimal bonding group, the odds ratios (ORs) for having chronic pain were significantly higher in the affectionless control group for paternal bonding (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.50-3.27) and for maternal bonding (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.09-2.36). After adjusting for depression, significance remained only for paternal bonding. The results demonstrate that the parental bonding style during childhood is associated with the prevalence of chronic pain in adults in the general population and that the association is more robust for paternal bonding than for maternal bonding.

  18. Associations Between Paternal Responsiveness and Stress Responsiveness in the Biparental California Mouse, Peromyscus californicus

    OpenAIRE

    Chauke, Miyetani

    2012-01-01

    The mechanistic basis of paternal behavior in mammals is poorly understood. Assuming there are parallels between the factors mediating maternal and paternal behavior, it can be expected that the onset of paternal behavior is facilitated by reductions in stress responsiveness, as occurs in females of several mammalian species. This dissertation describes studies investigating the role of stress responsiveness in the expression of paternal behavior in biparental, monogamous California mice (Per...

  19. Role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA(1c) values. An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions.

  20. From here to paternity: neural correlates of the onset of paternal behavior in California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Chauke, Miyetani; Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2009-08-01

    In a minority of mammalian species, including humans, fathers play a significant role in infant care. Compared to maternal behavior, the neural and hormonal bases of paternal care are poorly understood. We analyzed behavioral, neuronal and neuropeptide responses towards unfamiliar pups in biparental California mice, comparing males housed with another male ("virgin males") or with a female before ("paired males") or after ("new fathers") the birth of their first litter. New fathers approached pups more rapidly and spent more time engaging in paternal behavior than virgin males. In each cage housing two virgin males, one was spontaneously paternal and one was not. New fathers and paired males spent more time sniffing and touching a wire mesh ball containing a newborn pup than virgin males. Only new fathers showed significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) following exposure to a pup-containing ball, as compared to an empty ball. Moreover, Fos-LIR in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (STMV and STMPM) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) was increased in new fathers, independent of test condition. No differences were found among the groups in Fos-LIR in oxytocinergic or vasopressinergic neurons. These results suggest that sexual and paternal experiences facilitate paternal behavior, but other cues play a role as well. Paternal experience increases Fos-LIR induced by distal pup cues in the MPO, but not in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons. Fatherhood also appears to alter neurotransmission in the BNST and DRC, regions implicated in emotionality and stress-responsiveness.

  1. c-Fos expression in the paternal mouse brain induced by communicative interaction with maternal mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jing; Liang, Mingkun; Akther, Shirin; Higashida, Chiharu; Tsuji, Takahiro; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-09-11

    Appropriate parental care by fathers greatly facilitates health in human family life. Much less is known from animal studies regarding the factors and neural circuitry that affect paternal behavior compared with those affecting maternal behavior. We recently reported that ICR mouse sires displayed maternal-like retrieval behavior when they were separated from pups and caged with their mates (co-housing) because the sires receive communicative interactions via ultrasonic and pheromone signals from the dams. We investigated the brain structures involved in regulating this activity by quantifying c-Fos-immunoreactive cells as neuronal activation markers in the neural pathway of male parental behavior. c-Fos expression in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) was significantly higher in sires that exhibited retrieval behavior (retrievers) than those with no such behavior (non-retrievers). Identical increased expression was found in the mPOA region in the retrievers stimulated by ultrasonic vocalizations or pheromones from their mates. Such increases in expression were not observed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAcc) or ventral palladium (VP). On the following day that we identified the families of the retrievers or non-retrievers, c-Fos expression in neuronal subsets in the mPOA, VTA, NAcc and VP was much higher in the retriever sires when they isolated together with their mates in new cages. This difference was not observed in the singly isolated retriever sires in new cages. The non-retriever sires did not display expression changes in the four brain regions that were assessed. The mPOA neurons appeared to be activated by direct communicative interactions with mate dams, including ultrasonic vocalizations and pheromones. The mPOA-VTA-NAcc-VP neural circuit appears to be involved in paternal retrieval behavior.

  2. Maternity and paternity leave and career progression of black African women in dual-career couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky L. Motaung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focused on examining the perceptions of dual-career couples at a stateowned company about the influence of taking maternity and paternity leave on the career progression of black African women in middle management and leadership occupations. Research purpose: The primary purpose of the study was to identify core barriers in relation to maternity and paternity leave that contribute negatively in the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples. Motivation for the study: To obtain insight into the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Research design, approach and method: This study was qualitative, comprising a sample of 10 black African women and 10 black African men, with data collected through in-depth semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the interview dialogues. Main findings: The findings established that taking maternity leave has a negative influence on the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples at the state-owned company. The participants further confirmed that involuntary time off work and productiveness were principal influencing barriers of taking maternity leave, leading to other undesirable consequences, such as unproductiveness and reliability. Practical and managerial implications: The state-owned company should review its current talent management and recruitment and selection policies, in order to positively contribute to increasing the representation and facilitating career progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Contributions or value-add: Insights were provided on the influences of taking maternity and paternity leave in the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations.

  3. Parental Incarceration and Child Mortality in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. Methods. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. Conclusions. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent. PMID:24432916

  4. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-9 - Maternity and paternity absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maternity and paternity absence. 1.410(a)-9... Maternity and paternity absence. (a) Elapsed time—(1) Rule. For purposes of applying the rules of § 1.410(a...)(5)(E) and 411(a)(6)(E) (relating to maternity or paternity absence), the severance from service date...

  5. Paternal involvement in pediatric Type 1 diabetes: fathers' and mothers' psychological functioning and disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jennifer A; Weissbrod, Carol; Schwartz, David D; Taylor, W Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Psychological functioning in fathers of children with Type 1 diabetes has received relatively little attention compared to mothers. This study examined fathers' perceived involvement in their children's diabetes care as it related to mothers' and fathers' pediatric parenting stress, depression, anxiety, marital satisfaction, and sleep, and to their children's diabetes regimen adherence and glycemic control. Eighty-two mothers and 43 fathers completed questionnaires. Multivariate linear regressions were conducted separately for mothers and fathers to determine the relationships between the perceived amount and the perceived helpfulness of father involvement in child diabetes care on parental psychosocial functioning and child diabetes control. Maternal perceptions of father helpfulness and amount of involvement in illness care were related to improved marital satisfaction and fewer depressive symptoms in mothers. In fathers, perception of their own amount of involvement was related to increased pediatric parenting stress and anxiety. Better child regimen adherence was associated with maternal perceptions of father helpfulness but not the amount of their involvement, while paternal perceptions of their own helpfulness were related to poorer glycemic control. These findings suggest that fathers and mothers may react differently to their roles in childhood illness and that perceptions of their involvement may be differently associated with children's glycemic control and regimen adherence.

  6. Genetic analysis of maternal and paternal lineages in Kabardian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high mitochondrial and also remarkable paternal diversity of the Kabardian horse is caused by its long history with a widely spread maternal origin and the introduction of Arabian as well as Thoroughbred influenced stallions for improvement. This high genetic diversity provides a good situation for the ongoing breed ...

  7. Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

    2010-01-01

    Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…

  8. Those They Leave behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…

  9. Falling Behind? Children's Early Grade Retention after Paternal Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Haskins, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature documents the myriad penalties for children of incarcerated fathers, but relatively little is known about how paternal incarceration contributes to educational outcomes in early and middle childhood. In this article, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to provide the first estimates of the…

  10. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  11. Soft Paternalism and Nudging - Critique of the Behavioral Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This brief note rises doubts on the argument that nudging will help people to behave more rational in terms of their own preferences. This justification of soft paternalism overlooks some methodological problems of expected utility theory which are one of the roots of behavioral economics.

  12. Characterizing the association between parenting and adolescent social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Fehm, Lydia; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-06-01

    For characterizing the association between parenting and offspring social phobia (SP), contrasting maternal vs. paternal contributions, putative predictors of unfavorable parenting behaviors and its specificity for SP are warranted to delineate targeted prevention and intervention strategies. A population-based sample of 1053 adolescents was followed-up using the M-CIDI. Parenting was assessed via questionnaire in offspring passing the high risk period for SP-onset. Natal complications and childhood serious health problems as assessed by maternal reports were hypothesized to relate to unfavorable parenting. The pattern of maternal overprotection, paternal rejection and lower emotional warmth was associated with SP, but not with other offspring anxiety disorders. Natal complications were related to overprotection and lower emotional warmth; trend-level associations emerged for serious health problems and unfavorable parenting. Paternal behavior appears particularly relevant for SP. The pattern of maternal overprotection, paternal rejection and lower emotional warmth was observed in SP only, suggesting that its detailed assessment provides a promising opportunity for targeted prevention and intervention in SP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Paternal predictors of the mental health of children of Vietnamese refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intergenerational transmission of trauma as a determinant of mental health has been studied in the offspring of Holocaust survivors and combat veterans, and in refugee families. Mainly negative effects on the children are reported, while a few studies also describe resilience and a possible positive transformation process. A longitudinal prospective cohort study of Vietnamese refugees arriving in Norway in 1982 reports a 23 years follow-up, including spouses and children born in Norway, to study the long-term effects of trauma, flight, and exile on the offspring of the refugees. Objectives of the study: 1. To study the association between the psychological distress of Vietnamese refugee parents and their children after 23 years resettlement. 2. To analyse paternal predictors for their children's mental health. Methods Information from one or both parents at arrival in 1982 (T1, at follow-up in 1985 (T2, and 23 years after arrival (T3 was included. The mental health was assessed by the Global Severity Index (GSI of the self-report Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R for parents (n = 88 and older children (age 19-23 yrs, n = 12, while children aged 4-18 (n = 94 were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Results Thirty percent of the families had one parent with a high psychological distress score ("probable caseness" for a mental disorder, while only 4% of the children aged 10 - 23 years were considered as probable cases. In spite of this, there was an association between probable caseness in children and in fathers at T3. A significant negative paternal predictor for the children's mental health at T3 was the father's PTSD at arrival in Norway, while a positive predictor was the father's participation in a Norwegian network three years after arrival. Conclusions Children of refugees cannot be globally considered at risk for mental health problems. However, the preceding PTSD in their fathers may

  14. Parental age in relation to severity of clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron Andre; Kreiborg, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Lip and/or Palate (IC). Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test (5% significance level) was applied in order to test for group differences. Standard logistic regression was used in order to estimate the risk of developing CC relative to IC. Results. In the group with CC mean paternal age was 29.5+/-4.5 (1SD) years...... parental ages in the group with IC did not differ from normative population values during the same time period. Logistic regression showed for paternal age OR=1.1[1.04,1.16](Wald confidence limits); for maternal age 1.08[1.01,1.15]. Conclusions. The hypothesis was rejected. Parental age was significantly...... of cleft individuals, as well as to compare parental age in the cleft population with normative values of parental age. It was hypothesized that there was no difference in parental age between the cleft groups with incomplete and complete clefts, respectively. Methods/Descriptions. The consecutive non...

  15. Adolescent males' orientation toward paternity and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglio, W

    1993-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of 1,880 young men aged 15-19 reveal that neighborhood quality, parental education, race or ethnicity, and attitudes about male gender roles are related to young men's attitudes toward an unplanned pregnancy and to their contraceptive experiences. Young men who live in poor neighborhoods are more likely to be pleased about an unplanned pregnancy than those who have better living conditions (12% vs. 2%) and are also more likely to view impregnating a woman as enhancing their masculinity (8% vs. 3%). Among men with average living conditions, 12% of black adolescents view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity, compared with 6% of white adolescents; among those with very good living conditions, these proportions were 10% and 2%, respectively. Young men whose parents had less education and those who held traditional male gender role attitudes were also more likely than their counterparts to view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity. Regarding contraceptive behavior, sexually active black men and Hispanic men were more likely than white men to have discussed contraception with their last partner; black men were more likely to have used an effective contraceptive method the last time they had intercourse; and black men were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse. However, young men who were aware that they had been responsible for a previous pregnancy were less likely than those who reported no pregnancies to have used an effective contraceptive the last time they had intercourse. These same young men were also more likely to report that fathering a child would please them and enhance their masculinity.

  16. Parental Depression, Overreactive Parenting, and Early Childhood Externalizing Problems: Moderation by Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2018-02-20

    This study used a large (N = 519), longitudinal sample of adoptive families to test overreactive parenting as a mediator of associations between parental depressive symptoms and early childhood externalizing, and parents' social support satisfaction as a moderator. Maternal parenting (18 months) mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms (9 months) and child externalizing problems (27 months). Paternal parenting was not a significant mediator. Unexpectedly, we found a cross-over effect for the moderating role of social support satisfaction, such that partners' social support satisfaction reduced the strength of the association between each parent's own depressive symptoms and overreactive parenting. Results point to the importance of accounting for broader family context in predicting early childhood parenting and child outcomes. © 2018 The Authors. Child Development © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Parental smoking, rejection of parental smoking, and smoking susceptibility and behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjiu; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2018-07-01

    We explored the role of rejection of parental smoking in the association between parental smoking and smoking in adolescents. In 2010-11 cross-sectional survey, 61,810 Hong Kong secondary school students (mean age 14.6 years, 50.5% boys) reported their smoking (never, not susceptible; never, susceptible; ever, not current; current), paternal and maternal smoking, and whether they accepted paternal and maternal smoking (acceptance/rejection). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of students' smoking in relation to acceptance and rejection of parental smoking, compared with no parental smoking. The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of paternal smoking was 1.81 (1.67-1.96), 2.46 (2.25-2.69), and 2.79 (2.51-3.10), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.70 (0.64-0.76), 1.23 (1.13-1.35), and 0.47 (0.40-0.56). The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of maternal smoking was 2.05 (1.80-2.33), 2.57 (2.29-2.88), and 6.33 (5.39-7.44), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.85 (0.69-1.05), 1.59 (1.39-1.81), and 2.14 (1.71-2.68). No overlapping was observed between the 95% CIs for acceptance and rejection of paternal or maternal smoking. While adolescent smoking was associated with parental smoking, especially in those who accepted parental smoking, the association was attenuated or reversed in those who rejected parental smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  19. Facial averageness and genetic quality: Testing heritability, genetic correlation with attractiveness, and the paternal age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2016-01-01

    Popular theory suggests that facial averageness is preferred in a partner for genetic benefits to offspring. However, whether facial averageness is associated with genetic quality is yet to be established. Here, we computed an objective measure of facial averageness for a large sample ( N = 1,823) of identical and nonidentical twins and their siblings to test two predictions from the theory that facial averageness reflects genetic quality. First, we use biometrical modelling to estimate the heritability of facial averageness, which is necessary if it reflects genetic quality. We also test for a genetic association between facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Second, we assess whether paternal age at conception (a proxy of mutation load) is associated with facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Our findings are mixed with respect to our hypotheses. While we found that facial averageness does have a genetic component, and a significant phenotypic correlation exists between facial averageness and attractiveness, we did not find a genetic correlation between facial averageness and attractiveness (therefore, we cannot say that the genes that affect facial averageness also affect facial attractiveness) and paternal age at conception was not negatively associated with facial averageness. These findings support some of the previously untested assumptions of the 'genetic benefits' account of facial averageness, but cast doubt on others.

  20. Paternally expressed Peg3 controls maternally expressed Zim1 as a trans factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Ye

    Full Text Available The expression of two adjacent imprinted genes, Peg3 and Zim1, is inversely correlated: down-regulation of Peg3 coinciding with up-regulation of Zim1. The current study characterized this inverse correlation using a mutant allele targeting Peg3. According to the results, the mutation on the paternal allele of Peg3 resulted in a dramatic increase in the transcription levels of the maternal allele of Zim1, suggesting the involvement of unknown trans factors in this trans-allelic event. Subsequent ChIP experiments revealed that the protein encoded by Peg3 itself binds to the zinc finger exon of Zim1, which is modified with the repression mark H3K9me3. Interestingly, the levels of H3K9me3 on Zim1 are also reduced in the mutant cells lacking the protein PEG3, suggesting potential roles for PEG3 in establishing H3K9me3 on Zim1. Reintroducing PEG3 into the mutant cell restored down-regulation of Zim1, confirming the predicted repressor role for Peg3 on Zim1. Overall, these results demonstrated that paternally expressed Peg3 controls maternally expressed Zim1 as a trans factor. The current study also provides the first case for the trans-allelic interaction of two oppositely imprinted genes through their gene products.

  1. Predicting the filial behaviors of Chinese-Malaysian adolescents from perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and parental warmth and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Dysfunctional parenting styles increase interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Shibuya, Naoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Kamata, Mitsuhiro

    2009-12-01

    The effects of dysfunctional parenting styles on interpersonal sensitivity were studied in 640 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was assessed by the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM), and perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which is consisted of care and protection factors. Parental rearing was classified into 4 types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Males with paternal affectionless control showed higher total IPSM scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (p = 0.022). Females with maternal affectionate constraint (p = 0.001), neglectful parenting (p = 0.022), and affectionless control (p = 0.003) showed higher total IPSM scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. In males and females, dysfunctional parenting styles by the opposite-sex parents did not affected total IPSM scores. The present study suggests that in both males and females interpersonal sensitivity is increased by dysfunctional parenting styles by the same-sex parents.

  3. The influence of paternal and maternal drinking patterns within two-partner families on the initiation and development of adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Koning, Ina M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-11-01

    As it is still unclear to what extent parental drinking is a predictor of children's alcohol use, we tested the association of specific paternal and maternal drinking patterns with both initiation and development of adolescent alcohol use. Longitudinal data (four annual measurements) of parent-child dyads (N=2319) have been used. Parental drinking patterns have been identified using latent class analysis. The association of parental drinking patterns with the initiation and development of 12-15 year olds' drinking have been examined with latent growth curve modeling. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns were related to adolescent drinking. That is, having a heavy drinking father or two heavy episodic drinking parents particularly predicts early and heavier adolescent drinking. When controlled for parenting behaviors and background variables, such as adolescent gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES), these findings remained significant. Interaction analyses revealed that the influence of parental heavy (episodic) drinking differs across gender and is especially strong among adolescents with lower SES. Thus, parental heavy (episodic) drinking, and not so much the frequency of drinking, predicts the initiation and development of alcohol consumption in their offspring. Parents and professionals must be aware that parental heavy drinking affects their offspring, particularly adolescents with lower SES, resulting in earlier and heavier drinking among this high-risk group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bidirectional associations between mothers' and fathers' parenting consistency and child bmi

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Pauline; Giallo, Rebecca; Westrupp, Elizabeth; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Research suggests that general parenting dimensions and styles are associated with children's BMI, but directionality in this relationship remains unknown. Moreover, there has been little attention to the influences of both mothers' and fathers' parenting. We aimed to examine reciprocal relationships between maternal and paternal parenting consistency and child BMI. METHODS: Participants were 4002 children and their parents in the population-based Longitudinal Study of...

  6. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT-INFANT INTERACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.

  7. The association between unequal parental treatment and the sibling relationship in Finland: The difference between full and half-siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O

    2015-06-24

    Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults), we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206) from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  8. The Association between Unequal Parental Treatment and the Sibling Relationship in Finland: The Difference between Full and Half-Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkka Danielsbacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults, we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206 from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  9. Paternal deprivation during infancy results in dendrite- and time-specific changes of dendritic development and spine formation in the orbitofrontal cortex of the biparental rodent Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmeke, C; Seidel, K; Poeggel, G; Bredy, T W; Abraham, A; Braun, K

    2009-10-20

    The aim of this study in the biparental rodent Octodon degus was to assess the impact of paternal deprivation on neuronal and synaptic development in the orbitofrontal cortex, a prefrontal region which is essential for emotional and cognitive function. On the behavioral level the quantitative comparison of parental behaviors in biparental and single-mother families revealed that (i) degu fathers significantly participate in parental care and (ii) single-mothers do not increase their maternal care to compensate the lack of paternal care. On the brain structural level we show in three-week-old father-deprived animals that layer II/III pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex displayed significantly lower spine densities on apical and basal dendrites. Whereas biparentally raised animals have reached adult spine density values at postnatal day 21, fatherless animals seem "to catch up" by a delayed increase of spine density until reaching similar values as biparentally raised animals in adulthood. However, in adulthood reduced apical spine numbers together with shorter apical dendrites were observed in father-deprived animals, which indicates that dendritic growth and synapse formation (seen in biparental animals between postnatal day 21 and adulthood) were significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that paternal deprivation delays and partly suppresses the development of orbitofrontal circuits. The retarded dendritic and synaptic development of the apical dendrites of layer II/III pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex of adult fatherless animals may reflect a reduced excitatory connectivity of this cortical subregion.

  10. Brief pup exposure induces Fos expression in the lateral habenula and serotonergic caudal dorsal raphe nucleus of paternally experienced male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, T R; Measor, K R; Chauke, M; Harris, B N; Saltzman, W

    2010-09-01

    Fathers play a substantial role in infant care in a small but significant number of mammalian species, including humans. However, the neural circuitry controlling paternal behavior is much less understood than its female counterpart. In order to characterize brain areas activated by paternal care, male California mice were separated from their female mate and litter for 3 h and then exposed to a pup or a control object (a glass pebble with the approximate size and oblong shape of a newborn pup) for 10 min. All males receiving a pup showed a strong paternal response towards it, whereas males receiving a pebble interacted with it only occasionally. Despite the clear behavioral differences, exposure to a pup did not increase Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LIR) compared to a pebble in brain areas previously found to be associated with parental care, including the medial preoptic nucleus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Pup exposure did, however, significantly increase Fos-LIR in the lateral habenula (LHb) and in predominantly serotonergic neurons in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), as compared to pebble exposure. Both the LHb and DRC are known to be involved in the behavioral responses to strong emotional stimuli; therefore, these areas might play a role in controlling parental behavior in male California mice. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental residential and partnering transitions and the initiation of adolescent romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, René

    This study focused on the possible links between parental residential and partnering transitions (a parent's move out of the household, introduction of a new maternal and paternal partner) and the initiation of romantic relationships in adolescence. Using data from a prospective cohort study of

  12. Ready to Make Nice: Parental Socialization of Young Sons' and Daughters' Prosocial Behaviors with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D.; McShane, Kelly E.; Parker, Richard; Ladha, Farriola

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the extent to which maternal and paternal parenting styles, cognitions, and behaviors were associated with young girls' and boys' more compassionate (prototypically feminine) and more agentic (prototypically masculine) prosocial behaviors with peers. Parents of 133 preschool-aged children reported on their…

  13. Parental Leave and Work Adaptation at the Transition to Parenthood: Individual, Marital, and Social Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Sussman, Amy L.; Zigler, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This study examined individual, marital, and social--contextual factors associated with the length of maternity and paternity leave and the parents' work adaptation at the transition to parenthood. Ninety-eight dual-earner parents of 3- to 5-month-old infants were surveyed following the mother's return to work. A shorter maternity leave (less than…

  14. Interplay between childhood maltreatment, parental bonding, and gender effects: impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhye, Kobita; Tyrka, Audrey R; Kelly, Megan M; Gagne, Gerard G; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood adversity, parental bonding, gender, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in non-treatment-seeking adults from the community. Effects of differential parental rearing were compared in adults who reported a high degree of childhood maltreatment (n=72) and those who reported no significant adverse events in childhood (n=69). Subjects completed retrospective measures of childhood maltreatment and perceived parenting style, as well as measures of current depressive symptoms and quality of life. The subjects without childhood maltreatment were younger and endorsed less current depressive symptomatology than did subjects with childhood maltreatment. While the subjects without a history of maltreatment reported more "optimal" bonding experiences with their parents, the maltreatment group members were more likely to characterize their early parental bonding experiences in terms of "affectionless control" (pparenting), "affectionate constraint" (p=.025 for maternal parenting and p=.004 for paternal parenting), or "weak or absent" bonding (pparenting). Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that overall quality of paternal care (p=.015) and current level of depressive symptoms (pparental bonding data were limited to the group with childhood maltreatment. These findings extend previous work documenting a relationship between early life maltreatment and suboptimal parental bonding, suggesting gender-specific effects of maternal and paternal care. Effects of childhood maltreatment on quality of life in adulthood appear to be linked with the quality of childhood paternal care and the occurrence of depressive symptomatology in adulthood, suggesting possible targets for primary or secondary prevention.

  15. A Mediation Model of Interparental Collaboration, Parenting Practices, and Child Externalizing Behavior in a Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjobli, John; Hagen, Kristine Amlund

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined maternal and paternal parenting practices as mediators of the link between interparental collaboration and children's externalizing behavior. Parent gender was tested as a moderator of the associations. A clinical sample consisting of 136 children with externalizing problems and their families participated in the study.…

  16. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  17. Parenting Practices and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Findings Suggest Partial Specificity of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Brandi; Nigg, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parenting practices is examined by assessing 182 children for ADHD and non ADHD status through parent semistructured clinical interview. Results show that maternal inconsistent discipline and paternal low involvement is associated with the disorder.

  18. Self-Image and Parental Attachment among Late Adolescents in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Griffiths, Joann; Grossman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of ethnicity, parental education, gender, and parental attachment to multiple dimensions of self-image among 285 (161 female and 124 male) late adolescent Belizean students. Student ratings of self-image were unrelated to paternal education and student ethnicity. For maternal education, ethnic identity was…

  19. Hong Kong Chinese adolescents' self-reported smoking and perceptions of parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Lai, Hak Kan; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent smoking has been associated with general parenting style, although potential differences between fathers and mothers were seldom investigated, especially in non-Western populations. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between Hong Kong adolescents' smoking and their perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting styles. In a school-based survey in 2006-2007, 33,408 adolescents (44.6 % boys; mean age 14.5 ± 1.3 years) provided information on smoking and the frequency of care and control by each parent, who was classified into one of four adolescent-reported parenting styles: authoritative (high care, high control), authoritarian (low care, high control), permissive (high care, low control), or neglectful (low care, low control). Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of current smoking (past 30 days) for parenting variables, considering potential effect modification by age, sex and parental smoking. Maternal care and control were strongly and significantly associated with lower odds of adolescent current smoking. However, such association was weak for paternal care and observed only in girls. Conversely, paternal control was positively associated with current smoking, especially if the father smoked. The lowest AORs of current smoking were associated with authoritative mothers, permissive fathers and combinations of maternal and paternal parenting styles with an authoritative mother whether or not the father was authoritative. Maternal care, control and authoritative parenting were associated with lower odds of adolescent smoking in Hong Kong. Paternal care was only weakly associated with lower odds of adolescent smoking, and paternal control was even associated with higher odds of smoking.

  20. The origin of parental care in relation to male and female life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care has been the focus of a great deal of research. Males and females vary in basic life-history characteristics (e.g., stage-specific mortality, maturation) in ways that are unrelated to parental investment. Surprisingly, few studies have examined the effect of this variation in male and female life history on the evolution of care. Here, we use a theoretical approach to determine the sex-specific life-history characteristics that give rise to the origin of paternal, maternal, or bi-parental care from an ancestral state of no care. Females initially invest more into each egg than males. Despite this inherent difference between the sexes, paternal, maternal, and bi-parental care are equally likely when males and females are otherwise similar. Thus, sex differences in initial zygotic investment do not explain the origin of one pattern of care over another. However, sex differences in adult mortality, egg maturation rate, and juvenile survival affect the pattern of care that will be most likely to evolve. Maternal care is more likely if female adult mortality is high, whereas paternal care is more likely if male adult mortality is high. These findings suggest that basic life-history differences between the sexes can alone explain the origin of maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. As a result, the influence of life-history characteristics should be considered as a baseline scenario in studies examining the origin of care.

  1. Perceived Parenting Style of Fathers and Iranian Adolescents' Self-efficacy: The Moderating Role of Gender and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Somayeh; Mounts, Nina S

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of adolescent's gender and father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and self-efficacy in a socioeconomical diverse sample of Iranian ado-lescents (n = 382). Results revealed that paternal authoritative parenting was significantly and positively related to self-efficacy. Interestingly, a significant and positive relation was also found between paternal authoritarian parenting and self-efficacy. This finding might have been the result of the fact that this study was conducted as part of a collectivist culture. In addition, the results indicated that boys who perceived their fathers as highly authoritative indicated higher self-efficacy than girls did. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that higher educational levels attenuate the negative impact of the permissive parenting style on self-efficacy. The present findings underscore the need to focus on the role of gender and father's education when assessing the link between parenting style and adolescents' self-efficacy.

  2. Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; den Boer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been cond...... the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution....

  3. Beyond the Consent Dilemma in Libertarian Paternalism, a Normative Void

    OpenAIRE

    Baujard, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    CNRS : NR; AERES: NR; International audience; I am convinced by Alain Marciano’s argument (Marciano 2015). He remarks that consent to the condition of choice is considered by neoclassicaleconomics to be an external issue. And although it does remain an issue as far as the theory of rational choice is concerned, there too it is notunjustified to consider it as an external one. For libertarian paternalism, though, it becomes an internal issue as soon as the suppositions ofrationality and perfec...

  4. Behavioral economics and the ‘new’ paternalism1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav Kapeliushnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical appraisal of the normative program of behavioral economics known as ‘new paternalism’. First, it explores the theoretical foundations of behavioral economics, describes major behavioral anomalies associated with bounded rationality of economic agents and discusses its normative principles and political implications. It then discusses the main empirical and conceptual drawbacks of new paternalism and provides arguments for the alternative non-welfarist normative tradition based on the idea of freedom.

  5. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  6. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  7. Advanced parental age and the risk of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Maureen S; Maenner, Matthew J; Newschaffer, Craig J; Lee, Li-Ching; Cunniff, Christopher M; Daniels, Julie L; Kirby, Russell S; Leavitt, Lewis; Miller, Lisa; Zahorodny, Walter; Schieve, Laura A

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated independent effects of maternal and paternal age on risk of autism spectrum disorder. A case-cohort design was implemented using data from 10 US study sites participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. The 1994 birth cohort included 253,347 study-site births with complete parental age information. Cases included 1,251 children aged 8 years with complete parental age information from the same birth cohort and identified as having an autism spectrum disorder based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria. After adjustment for the other parent's age, birth order, maternal education, and other covariates, both maternal and paternal age were independently associated with autism (adjusted odds ratio for maternal age > or =35 vs. 25-29 years = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.6; adjusted odds ratio for paternal age > or =40 years vs. 25-29 years = 1.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.8). Firstborn offspring of 2 older parents were 3 times more likely to develop autism than were third- or later-born offspring of mothers aged 20-34 years and fathers aged autism risk with both maternal and paternal age has potential implications for public health planning and investigations of autism etiology.

  8. Perceived Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanda, Ronald E.; Majumdar, Debarun

    2009-01-01

    We used data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess the independent and interactive correlations of maternal and paternal parenting with adolescent self-esteem. Specifically, ordinary least squares regression was used to provide estimates for a large, culturally diverse sample of married, biological…

  9. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS TARGETING PATERNAL MENTAL HEALTH IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominov, Holly; Pilkington, Pamela D; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Interventions targeting parents' mental health in the perinatal period are critical due to potential consequences of perinatal mental illness for the parent, the infant, and their family. To date, most programs have targeted mothers. This systematic review explores the current status and evidence for intervention programs aiming to prevent or treat paternal mental illness in the perinatal period. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed studies that described an intervention targeting fathers' mental health in the perinatal period. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, and stress as well as more general measures of psychological functioning. Eleven studies were identified. Three of five psychosocial interventions and three massage-technique interventions reported significant effects. None of the couple-based interventions reported significant effects. A number of methodological limitations were identified, including inadequate reporting of study designs, and issues with the timing of interventions. The variability in outcomes measures across the studies made it difficult to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the interventions. Father-focused interventions aimed at preventing perinatal mood problems will be improved if future studies utilize more rigorous research strategies. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Maternal and Paternal Distress and Coping Over Time Following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narad, Megan E; Yeates, Keith O; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-04-01

    Examine differences in maternal and paternal coping and distress following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injuries (OI). Concurrent cohort/prospective design with five assessments between 1 and an average of 7 years after injury of children aged 3-6 years hospitalized for TBI ( n  = 87) or OI ( n  = 119). Mixed models analyses were used to examine hypotheses. Overall, fathers reported greater depression and general distress than mothers 18 months after injury, but not at long-term follow-up. Active and acceptance coping were unrelated to parental sex, injury factors, or time since injury. A group × rater × time interaction was noted for Denial coping. Following severe TBI, fathers reported greater denial at 18 months, whereas mothers reported greater denial at the long-term follow-up. Denial coping did not differ between mothers and fathers following OI and moderate TBI. Parental response to early TBI is complex and may warrant clinical intervention even years after injury. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Parenting stress and harsh discipline in China: The moderating roles of marital satisfaction and parent gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-05-01

    This research examined the relationships between parents' parenting stress and their harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction and parent gender in Chinese societies. Using a sample of 639 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' parenting stress were directly associated with their harsh discipline. Mothers' marital satisfaction attenuated the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. However, fathers' marital satisfaction did not moderate the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of considering how the dyadic marital relationship factors may interact with individuals' parenting stress to influence both maternal and paternal disciplinary behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba.

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    Isabelle Henry

    Full Text Available In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8% second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring and of the 20 2(nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd male which is commonly a yearling individual.

  13. Parental affectionless control and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschin, Simona; Briggs, Jessica; Blanco-Lutzen, Sally; Cohen, Lisa J; Galynker, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Although poor parental bonding is a known risk factor for suicidality, current literature is inconsistent about the relative role of low parental care and parental overprotection, as well as the combination of the two, termed "affectionless control". This review presents the current state of knowledge of the relationship between suicidality and these two aspects of parental bonding. The computerized databases Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychLit, and Google Scholar were searched using combinations of the following keywords: suicidality, suicide, suicide attempt, suicidal behavior, parental bonding, and parental bonding instrument. Using the results, we reviewed the reports on the relationship between suicidality and parental bonding as measured by validated parental bonding instruments. Twelve papers were analyzed. All of them used the parental bonding instrument (PBI) and one used both the PBI and the object representation inventory (ORI). Most reports agreed that, in mothers, either lack of maternal care and/or overprotection was associated with an increase in suicidal behavior, while in fathers only low care was consistently associated with suicidality. This lack of constancy with regard to the effect of paternal overprotection appears to be due to cultural differences in fathers' role in child rearing. With these differences acknowledged, affectionless control in both parents emerges as the parenting style most strongly associated with suicidal behavior. Common methodological problems included low numbers of subjects, inconsistent control groups, and the lack of a uniform definition of suicidality. Despite methodological limitations, current literature consistently indicates that parental affectionless control is associated with suicidal behavior. Recognizing affectionless control as a risk factor for suicide and developing early interventions aimed at modifying affectionless and overprotective parenting style in families with a history of affective disorders

  14. From maternity to parental leave policies: women's health, employment, and child and family well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerman, S B

    2000-01-01

    Pregnancy and maternity are increasingly viewed as social as well as individual risks that require health protection, employment protection and security, and protection against temporary loss of income. Begun more than a century ago in Germany, paid and job-protected maternity leaves from work were established in most countries initially out of concern for maternal and child physical health. Beginning in the 1960s, these policies have expanded to cover paternity and parental leaves following childbirth and adoption as well. Moreover, they have increasingly emerged as central to the emotional and psychological well-being of children as well as to the employment and economic security of their mothers and fathers. They are modest social policies, but are clearly an essential part of any country's child and family policy. No industrialized country today can be without such provision, and the United States is a distinct laggard in these developments.

  15. The impact of family intactness on family functioning, parental control and parent-child relational qualities in a Chinese context

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    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the differences between intact and non-intact families in family processes, including systematic family functioning, parental behavioral control, parental psychological control, and parent-child relational qualities. The participants were 3,328 Secondary One students, with a mean age of 12.59 years, recruited from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Four validated scales were used to assess family processes. Results showed that adolescents in non-intact families perceived relatively poorer family functioning, lower level of paternal and maternal behavioral control, lower level of paternal psychological control and poorer parent-child relational qualities than did adolescents in intact families. This generally indicated that family processes were poorer in non-intact families, compared with those in intact families. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  16. The relationship between proxy reported health-related quality of life and parental distress: gender differences.

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    Davis, E; Davies, B; Waters, E; Priest, N

    2008-11-01

    Although primary caregiver proxy reports of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are often used for healthcare decision making when child self-reports are unable to be collected (because of a variety of reasons such as child illness, disability or age), we have little understanding of the correlates of parent-proxy reports. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between parental depression and parent-proxy reported QOL for primary caregivers (mothers and fathers), using a multidimensional HRQOL instrument. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would be negatively correlated with maternal reported HRQOL, but that paternal depression would not be correlated with paternal reported HRQOL. Data were from parents of children aged 4-5 years (n = 4983) involved in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. A questionnaire assessing parental depression (Kessler-6) and proxy reported HRQOL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) was completed by the primary caregiver. For maternal primary caregivers, maternal depression was negatively correlated with all domains of maternal proxy reports of HRQOL (r = -0.24 to r = -0.36). For paternal primary caregivers, there was no relationship between paternal depression and paternal proxy reports of HRQOL. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that maternal depression was a significant predictor of total HRQOL, accounting for 12% of the variance. For paternal mental health, depression did not predict parent-proxy reported total HRQOL. These results highlight the importance of assessing maternal mental health when measuring proxy reported QOL. Further research is needed in this area to examine the relationship between parental depression and proxy reported HRQOL (including both mothers and fathers, where possible), as well as child self-reported HRQOL.

  17. Parental Divorce and Children’s Schooling in Rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children’s schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children’s schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from t...

  18. Childhood myopia and parental smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S-M; Chia, K-S; Lindstrom, J M; Tan, D T H; Stone, R A

    2004-07-01

    To examine the relation between exposure to passive parental smoke and myopia in Chinese children in Singapore. 1334 Chinese children from three schools in Singapore were recruited, all of whom were participants in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM). Information on whether the father or mother smoked, number of years smoked, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day during the child's lifetime were derived. These data were correlated with contemporaneously obtained data available in SCORM. The children's cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius, and biometry measures were compared with reported parental smoking history. There were 434 fathers (33.3%) and 23 mothers (1.7%) who smoked during their child's lifetime. There were no significant trends observed between paternal smoking and refractive error or axial length. After controlling for age, sex, school, mother's education, and mother's myopia, children with mothers who had ever smoked during their lifetime had more "positive" refractions (adjusted mean -0.28 D v -1.38 D) compared with children whose mother did not smoke (p = 0.012). The study found no consistent evidence of association between parental smoking and refractive error. There was a suggestion that children whose mothers smoked cigarettes had more hyperopic refractions, but the absence of a relation with paternal smoking and the small number of mothers who smoked in this sample preclude definite conclusions about a link between passive smoking exposure and myopia.

  19. Adolescent impulsivity and soft drink consumption: The role of parental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Bergh, Ingunn H; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Nanna; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paternal genetic contribution influences fetal vulnerability to maternal alcohol consumption in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

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    Laura J Sittig

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure causes in the offspring a collection of permanent physiological and neuropsychological deficits collectively termed Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The timing and amount of exposure cannot fully explain the substantial variability among affected individuals, pointing to genetic influences that mediate fetal vulnerability. However, the aspects of vulnerability that depend on the mother, the father, or both, are not known.Using the outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD and inbred Brown Norway (BN rat strains as well as their reciprocal crosses, we administered ethanol (E, pair-fed (PF, or control (C diets to the pregnant dams. The dams' plasma levels of free thyroxine (fT4, triiodothyronine (T3, free T3 (fT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured to elucidate potential differences in maternal thyroid hormonal environment, which affects specific aspects of FASD. We then compared alcohol-exposed, pair fed, and control offspring of each fetal strain on gestational day 21 (G21 to identify maternal and paternal genetic effects on bodyweight and placental weight of male and female fetuses.SD and BN dams exhibited different baseline hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid function. Moreover, the thyroid function of SD dams was more severely affected by alcohol consumption while that of BN dams was relatively resistant. This novel finding suggests that genetic differences in maternal thyroid function are one source of maternal genetic effects on fetal vulnerability to FASD. The fetal vulnerability to decreased bodyweight after alcohol exposure depended on the genetic contribution of both parents, not only maternal contribution as previously thought. In contrast, the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on placental weight was consistent and not strain-dependent. Interestingly, placental weight in fetuses with different paternal genetic contributions exhibited opposite responses to caloric restriction (pair feeding. In summary

  1. Different Implications of Paternal and Maternal Atopy for Perinatal IgE Production and Asthma Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-...

  2. Impact of parental emotional support and coercive control on adolescents' self-esteem and psychological distress: results of a four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault-Bouchard, Anne-Marie; Dion, Jacinthe; Hains, Jennifer; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Laberge, Luc; Perron, Michel

    2013-08-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of parental practices on youths' adjustment. In all, 605 adolescents completed questionnaires at ages 14, 16 and 18. Self-esteem, psychological distress as well as parental emotional support and coercive control were measured. Analyses based on individual growth models revealed that self-esteem increased with age, but psychological distress remained stable over time. Boys reported higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of psychological distress than girls. Maternal and paternal emotional support reinforced self-esteem over time. Maternal coercive control undermined self-esteem, but only at ages 16 and 18. Psychological distress decreased with parental emotional support but increased with parental coercive control at ages 14, 16 and 18. Overall, these results indicate that positive parental practices are related to youths' well-being. These findings support the importance of establishing intervention strategies designed to promote best practices among parents of teenagers to help them develop into well-adjusted adults. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of parental workaholism and body mass index of offspring: A prospective study among Japanese dual workers

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    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between parental workaholism and child body mass index (BMI among Japanese dual-income families. In 2011, 379 dual-income families from urban Tokyo with children aged 0–5 years were recruited for a baseline survey, and 160 (42.2% were followed up in 2012. Demographics, workaholism, work demands, work control, time spent with children, and parental and child weights and heights were assessed using a questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to determine the association between maternal and paternal workaholism in 2011 and child BMI in 2012, considering the mediating effects of time spent with children. Paternal workaholism showed a direct significant positive association with child BMI after 1 year (standardized coefficient: 0.19; p < 0.001, while maternal workaholism was not associated with child BMI. Both maternal and paternal time spent with children did not mediate the association. Paternal work demands showed a strong positive association with workaholism, but paternal work control did not. Paternal, but not maternal, workaholism was associated with an increase in child BMI over 1 year. Interventions that target workaholism by reducing paternal work demands might be effective in preventing overweight in offspring.

  4. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, Jesse R J; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-06-22

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations.

  5. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations. PMID:24789892

  6. Consistent paternity skew through ontogeny in Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii.

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    Craig D H Sherman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of studies in postcopulatory sexual selection use paternity success as a proxy for fertilization success. However, selective mortality during embryonic development can lead to skews in paternity in situations of polyandry and sperm competition. Thus, when assessment of paternity fails to incorporate mortality skews during early ontogeny, this may interfere with correct interpretation of results and subsequent evolutionary inference. In a previous series of in vitro sperm competition experiments with amphibians (Litoria peronii, we showed skewed paternity patterns towards males more genetically similar to the female. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use in vitro fertilizations and sperm competition trials to test if this pattern of paternity of fully developed tadpoles reflects patterns of paternity at fertilization and if paternity skews changes during embryonic development. We show that there is no selective mortality through ontogeny and that patterns of paternity of hatched tadpoles reflects success of competing males in sperm competition at fertilization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study shows that previous inferences of fertilization success from paternity data are valid for this species, rigorous testing of these assumptions is required to ensure that differential embryonic mortality does not confound estimations of true fertilization success.

  7. Parent-adolescent attachment and procrastination: The mediating role of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of attachment theory, the author examined associations between adolescents' procrastination and their attachment relationships with both mothers and fathers, and explored the potential mediation role of self-worth in these associations. Participants were 384 Chinese adolescents (49.6% boys, average age 15.13 years) from public schools in Shanghai, China. They completed self-report measures of 3 dimensions of parental attachment (i.e., trust, communication, and alienation), general self-worth, and procrastination. The results indicated that both paternal and maternal trust and paternal communication were negatively associated with higher levels of procrastination whereas both paternal and maternal alienation were positively associated with procrastination. In addition, self-worth mediated the associations among 3 dimensions of parental attachment and procrastination. The findings highlighted the importance of parental attachment-based intervention strategies to reduce procrastination among adolescents.

  8. The intergenerational transmission of at-risk/problem gambling: The moderating role of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A; Shandley, Kerrie A; Oldenhof, Erin; Affleck, Julia M; Youssef, George J; Frydenberg, Erica; Thomas, Shane A; Jackson, Alun C

    2017-10-01

    Although parenting practices are articulated as underlying mechanisms or protective factors in several theoretical models, their role in the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems has received limited research attention. This study therefore examined the degree to which parenting practices (positive parenting, parental involvement, and inconsistent discipline) moderated the intergenerational transmission of paternal and maternal problem gambling. Students aged 12-18 years (N = 612) recruited from 17 Australian secondary schools completed a survey measuring parental problem gambling, problem gambling severity, and parenting practices. Participants endorsing paternal problem gambling (23.3%) were 4.3 times more likely to be classified as at-risk/problem gamblers than their peers (5.4%). Participants endorsing maternal problem gambling (6.9%) were no more likely than their peers (4.0%) to be classified as at-risk/problem gamblers. Paternal problem gambling was a significant predictor of offspring at-risk/problem gambling after controlling for maternal problem gambling and participant demographic characteristics. The relationship between maternal problem gambling and offspring at-risk/problem gambling was buffered by parental involvement. Paternal problem gambling may be important in the development of adolescent at-risk/problem gambling behaviours and higher levels of parental involvement buffers the influence of maternal problem gambling in the development of offspring gambling problems. Further research is therefore required to identify factors that attenuate the seemingly greater risk of transmission associated with paternal gambling problems. Parental involvement is a potential candidate for prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems. (Am J Addict 2017;26:707-712). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  10. Parenting styles, parenting practices, and physical activity in 10- to 11-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Davison, Kirsten K; Brockman, Rowan; Page, Angie S; Thompson, Janice L; Fox, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether parenting styles and practices are associated with children's physical activity. Cross-sectional survey of seven hundred ninety-two 10- to 11-year-old UK children in Bristol (UK) in 2008-2009 was conducted. Accelerometer-assessed physical activity and mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (mean MVPA) and mean counts per minute (mean CPM) were obtained. Maternal parenting style and physical activity parenting practices were self-reported. In regression analyses, permissive parenting was associated with higher mean MVPA among girls (+6.0 min/day, pparents. Maternal logistic support was associated with mean CPM for girls (+36.2 counts/min, p=0.001), while paternal logistic support was associated with boys' mean MVPA (+4.0 min/day, p=0.049) and mean CPM (+55.7 counts/min, p=0.014). Maternal permissive parenting was associated with higher levels of physical activity than authoritative parenting, but associations differed by child gender and type of physical activity. Maternal logistic support was associated with girls' physical activity, while paternal logistic support was associated with boys' physical activity. Health professionals could encourage parents to increase logistic support for their children's physical activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of the "affectionless control" parenting style on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-30

    The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.

  12. Securing Paternity by Mutilating Female Genitalia in Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginot, Pierick; Prügel, Josepha; Thom, Ulrike; Steinhoff, Philip O M; Kupryjanowicz, Janusz; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-11-16

    Competition between males and their sperm over access to females and their eggs has resulted in manifold ways by which males try to secure paternity, ranging from physically guarding the female after mating to reducing her receptivity or her attractiveness to subsequent males by transferring manipulative substances or by mechanically sealing the female reproductive tract with a copulatory plug. Copulations may also result in internal damage of the female genitalia; however, this is not considered as a direct adaptation against sperm competition but as a collateral effect. Here, we present a drastic and direct mechanism for securing paternity: the removal of coupling structures on female genitalia by males. In the orb-weaving spider Larinia jeskovi males remove the scapus, a crucial coupling device on the female external genital region. Reconstruction of the coupling mechanism using micro-CT-scanned mating pairs revealed that several sclerites of the male genitalia interact to break off the scapus. Once it is removed, remating cannot occur due to mechanical coupling difficulties. In the field, male-inflicted genital damage is very prevalent since all female L. jeskovi were found to be mutilated at the end of the mating season. External genital mutilation is an overlooked but widely spread phenomenon since 80 additional spider species were found for which male genital manipulation can be suspected. Interlocking genitalia provide an evolutionary platform for the rapid evolution of this highly effective mechanism to secure paternity, and we suspect that other animal groups with interlocking genital structures might reveal similarly drastic male adaptations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring.

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    Julia A Sabet

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL, mildly deficient (DEF, or supplemental (SUPP quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating

  14. The Indirect Effect of Positive Parenting on the Relationship Between Parent and Sibling Bereavement Outcomes After the Death of a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam T; Gabert-Quillen, Crystal; Friebert, Sarah; Carst, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    Families are referred to pediatric palliative care (PPC) programs when a child is diagnosed with a medical condition associated with less than a full life expectancy. When a child dies, PPC programs typically offer a range of bereavement interventions to these families, often focusing on parents. Currently, it is unclear which factors increase the likelihood that bereaved siblings will experience negative outcomes, limiting the development of empirically supported interventions that can be delivered in PPC programs. The present study explored the relationship between parents' and surviving sibling's mental health symptoms (i.e., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], prolonged grief disorder (PGD), and depression symptoms) after a child's death. Additionally, the extent to which parent functioning indirectly impacted sibling functioning through parenting behaviors (i.e., positive parenting and parent involvement) was also examined, with a specific focus on differences based on parent gender. Sixty bereaved parents and siblings (aged 8-18) who enrolled in a PPC program from 2008 to 2013 completed measures of PTSD, PGD, and depression related to the loss of a child/sibling. Siblings also completed a measure of general parenting behaviors. Maternal, but not paternal, symptoms of PTSD and PGD were directly associated with sibling outcomes. Paternal symptoms were associated with sibling symptoms indirectly, through parenting behaviors (i.e., via decreasing positive parenting). These results underscore the importance of examining both maternal and paternal influences after the death of a child, demonstrate differential impact of maternal vs. paternal symptoms on siblings, and stress the importance of addressing postloss symptoms from a family systems perspective. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Offspring mortality was a determinant factor in the evolution of paternal investment in humans: An evolutionary game approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, Diego; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Isabel M

    2017-04-21

    Some researchers support the belief that man evolved philandering behavior because of the greater reproductive success of promiscuous males. According to this idea, deserting behavior from the man should be expected along with null paternal involvement in offspring care. Paradoxically however, the average offspring investment in the human male is far higher than that of any other male mammal, including other primates. In our work, we have addressed this conundrum by employing evolutionary game theory, using objective payoffs instead of, as are commonly used, arbitrary payoffs. Payoffs were computed as reproductive successes by a model based on trivial probabilities, implemented within the Barreto's Population Dynamics Toolbox (2014). The evolution of the parent conflict was simulated by a game with two players (the woman and the man). First, a simple game was assayed with two strategies, 'desert-unfaithful' and 'care-faithful'. Then, the game was played with a third mixed strategy, 'care-unfaithful'. The two-strategy game results were mainly determined by the offspring survival rate (s) and the non-paternity rate (z), with remaining factors playing a secondary role. Starting from two empirical estimates for both rates (s = 0.617 and z = 0.033) and decreasing the offspring mortality from near 0.4 to 0.1, the results were consistent with a win for the 'care-faithful' strategy. The 'desert-unfaithful' strategy only won at unrealistically high non-paternity rates (z>0.2). When three-strategy games were played, the mixed strategy of 'care-unfaithful' man could win the game in some less frequent cases. Regardless of the number of game strategies, 'care' fathers always won. These results strongly suggest that offspring mortality was the key factor in the evolution of paternal investment within the Homo branch. The 'care-faithful' strategy would have been the main strategy in human evolution but 'care-unfaithful' men did evolve at a lesser frequency. It can therefore be

  16. A longitudinal study of parenting and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between parenting behavior and adolescent adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behavior) in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that parenting characteristics were concurrently and longitudinally related to measures of adolescent adjustment, particularly adolescent problem behavior. Compared with the norm based on adolescents of a community sample, poor adolescents perceived parenting characteristics to be more negative and they had relatively lower life satisfaction. Paternal parenting was perceived to be more negative than maternal parenting and parenting behavior was perceived to deteriorate over time.

  17. Differential Influences of Parental Home Literacy Practices and Anxiety in English as a Foreign Language on Chinese Children's English Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Chui, Barbie Hiu-Tung; Lai, Michael Wei-Chun; Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the differential influences of maternal and paternal factors on Chinese children's English as a foreign language development. It took into account both behavioral (i.e. parental home literacy practices, HLP; and children's vocabulary knowledge) and emotional (i.e. parental and children's foreign language reading anxiety,…

  18. Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed.

  19. The mediational role of parenting on the longitudinal relation between child personality and externalizing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Prinzie, P.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Building on prior cross-sectional work, this longitudinal study evaluated the proposition that maternal and paternal overreactive and authoritative parenting mediates the effect of child personality characteristics on externalizing behavior. Data from the Flemish Study on Parenting, Personality, and Problem Behavior were used in a moderated mediation analysis (N=434). Teachers rated children's Big Five characteristics, fathers and mothers rated their parenting, and 3 years later, chi...

  20. Culture-general and -specific associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with perceived parental warmth and psychological control among Turk and Belgian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H

    2010-10-01

    Both the adolescent peer attachment and perceived parenting style literatures emphasize the role of the quality of the parent-child relationship in children's healthy adjustment beyond the family, but few studies have investigated links between adolescents' peer attachment and perceptions of parenting. We investigate relations of adolescents' perceptions of warmth and psychological control from parents with avoidance and anxiety in attachment to close friends in two contrasting cultures. Altogether, 262 Turk and 263 Belgian youth between 14 and 18 years of age participated. Cross-culturally, attachment avoidance was negatively related to maternal warmth, and attachment anxiety positively related to maternal and paternal control and negatively to paternal warmth. Beyond these general relations, attachment avoidance was associated with paternal psychological control in Belgians but not in Turks. The study provides cross-cultural evidence for specific relations between peer attachment and perceived parenting and suggests a culture-specific pathway for the development of attachment avoidance.

  1. Contemporary Fatherhood and Its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being - A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19-72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father-child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes.

  2. Contemporary Fatherhood and Its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being – A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19–72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father–child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes. PMID:27679796

  3. Contemporary Fatherhood and its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being – A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Waldvogel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers and foster fathers across the German speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19-72 with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785. The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of socio-demographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father-child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes.

  4. The role of parental personality traits in differential parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T; Meunier, Jean Christophe; O'Connor, Thomas G; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2012-08-01

    Significant relationships have been demonstrated between parental personality and parenting toward individual children, but there is little research exploring the relationship between parental personality and differential parenting (DP). The present study examined the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and differential positivity and negativity in parenting (observed and self-report measures). The analyses are based on a sample of 867 children nested within 381 families. Using multilevel modeling and controlling for child age, gender, birth order, behavior, and family socioeconomic status analyses revealed that maternal and paternal agreeableness were inversely related to reports of differential positivity. Agreeableness predicted observed differential negativity, and the relationship was curvilinear (at both high and low levels of agreeableness, differential negativity was higher). Finally, mothers with the most openness to experience exhibited the highest levels of reported differential negativity. The findings suggest that parental personality is a modest yet important influence to consider when conceptualizing the sources of DP. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Adolescents' prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totland, Torunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Grydeland, May; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Andersen, Lene F

    2013-07-06

    The present study investigated associations in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' time spent on television and video viewing (TV/DVD), and computer and electronic game use (PC/games) at the ages of 11 and 13 years. Possible mediating effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD and PC/game time were further examined. A total of 908 adolescents, participating at both ages 11 and 13 years in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-2009), were included in the analyses. Data on adolescents', mothers' and fathers' self reported time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games were measured at both time points by questionnaires. Correlation coefficients were used to examine gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' reports. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated possible mediation effects of parental modelling and parental regulation in the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' time spent on TV/DVD and PC/games between the ages of 11 and 13 years. Correlations of screen time behaviours in gender dyads of parents and adolescents showed significant associations in time spent on TV/DVD at the age of 11 and 13 years. Associations between mothers and sons and between fathers and daughters were also observed in time spent on PC/games at the age of 11 years. Maternal and paternal modelling was further found to mediate the relationship between parental education and adolescents' prospective TV/DVD time between the ages of 11 and 13 years. No mediation effect was observed for parental regulation, however a decrease in both maternal and paternal regulation at the age of 11 years significantly predicted more TV/DVD time among adolescents at the age of 13 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships were observed in gender dyads of parents' and adolescents' screen time behaviours at the ages of 11 and 13 years, and further

  6. Chinese adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles of fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1995-06-01

    Father Treated and Mother Treated subscales of the Parent Image Differential were used to assess recalled parental treatment styles of 2,150 Chinese secondary school students. Results from reliability and factor analyses showed that both scales were internally consistent, and two factors (Concern and Restrictiveness) were abstracted from each of these scales. The data on gender differences in parenting revealed significant differences, across socioeconomic classes, between paternal and maternal treatment styles, with the fathers perceived to be relatively more restrictive and showing less concern than the mothers. The data suggest that differences between paternal and maternal treatment styles exist in the Chinese context but that signs of gradual change in the differences are appearing.

  7. Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S M; Stoneking, Mark

    2004-02-03

    The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups. We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society.

  8. PPO.46 Risk of Miscarriage associated with Maternal and Paternal Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O'Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal smoking has been associated with increased risk of miscarriage. However little is known about the influence of paternal smoking. The study aimed to examine maternal and paternal smoking as risk factors for miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was conducted in a large,

  9. Habitat geometry does not affect levels of extrapair paternity in an extremely unfaithful fairy-wren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, L.; Van de Pol, M.; Cockburn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Density of potential mates has often been proposed to explain the enormous variation in extrapair paternity. However, density is often confounded by other ecological factors that might affect extrapair paternity in their own way. Furthermore, extrapair mating shows strong phylogenetic inertia,

  10. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...

  11. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  12. The paternal-sex-ratio (PSR) chromosome in natural populations of Nasonia (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L.W.; Werren, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Selfish genetic elements may be important in promoting evolutionary change. Paternal sex ratio (PSR) is a selfish B chromosome that causes all-male families in the haplodiploid parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, by inducing paternal genome loss in fertilized eggs. The natural distribution and

  13. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  14. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and Their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic…

  15. Father-Son Inter-Generational Transmission of Authoritarian Paternal Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Statum, Jo Ann

    1984-01-01

    Attempted to determine authoritarian paternal attitude inter-generational transmission in fathers and sons (N=75). Results suggested that authoritarian paternal attitudes could be indicated in terms of five factors: Dominant, Rigidity, Conformity, Intolerant, and Uncreative; and that the sons expressed strongly the authoritarian attitudes of their…

  16. Contracts and Capabilities: An Evolutionary Perspective on the Autonomy-Paternalism Debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Deakin (Simon)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAn evolutionary conception of contract law is suggested as a basis for assessing claims made in the autonomy-paternalism debate. Paternalism forms one part – although by no means the whole – of a discriminating approach to contract enforcement. Selective enforcement is a long-standing

  17. [Exploring some clinical aspects of the issue of Québec paternity.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinat, S

    1985-01-01

    This article is part of a P.R.D. Research in Clinical Psychology on the father and, on a broader base, on Fatherhood ir} Quebec. The research was initiated in 1979 by the Department of Psychology of Quebec University jointly with the creation of a research laboratory around the theme "the role of the father in the Quebec society in evolution". The question of the father's place and functions in the society of Quebec is raised. The emphasis of the maternal presence in the relationship between parents and children is examined as well as the function of certain cultural traditions, religious ones in particular, in the resolution of certain problems of fatherhood. According to the author, the socio-cultural past of Quebec has a distinct influence on the problem of fatherhood. In a Quebec family the father is traditionally absent and a figure of authority. What is the situation today? Some clinical examples taken from the research are used to illustrate better certain aspects of the paternal dynamics.

  18. Paternal or Maternal Uniparental Disomy of Chromosome 16 Resulting in Homozygosity of a Mutant Allele Causes Fanconi Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Frank X; Kimble, Danielle C; Kim, Yonghwan; Lach, Francis P; Harper, Ursula; Kamat, Aparna; Jones, MaryPat; Sanborn, Erica M; Tryon, Rebecca; Wagner, John E; MacMillan, Margaret L; Ostrander, Elaine A; Auerbach, Arleen D; Smogorzewska, Agata; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C

    2016-05-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited disorder caused by pathogenic variants in one of 19 FANC genes. FA patients display congenital abnormalities, and develop bone marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. We identified homozygous mutations in four FA patients and, in each case, only one parent carried the obligate mutant allele. FANCA and FANCP/SLX4 genes, both located on chromosome 16, were the affected recessive FA genes in three and one family respectively. Genotyping with short tandem repeat markers and SNP arrays revealed uniparental disomy (UPD) of the entire mutation-carrying chromosome 16 in all four patients. One FANCA patient had paternal UPD, whereas FA in the other three patients resulted from maternal UPD. These are the first reported cases of UPD as a cause of FA. UPD indicates a reduced risk of having another child with FA in the family and has implications in prenatal diagnosis. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  19. Perceived parenting and risk for major depression in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Li, Y; Cai, Y; Chen, J; Shen, Y; Ni, S; Wei, Y; Qiu, Y; Zhu, X; Liu, Y; Lu, C; Chen, C; Niu, Q; Tang, C; Yang, Y; Wang, Q; Cui, W; Xia, J; Liu, T; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Guo, Z; Pan, J; Chen, H; Luo, Y; Sun, L; Xiao, X; Chen, Q; Zhao, X; He, F; Lv, L; Guo, L; Liu, L; Li, H; Shi, S; Flint, J; Kendler, K S; Tao, M

    2012-05-01

    In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD. Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.

  20. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.

  1. Perceived parenting and risk for major depression in Chinese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J.; Li, Y.; Cai, Y.; Chen, J.; Shen, Y.; Ni, S.; Wei, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Zhu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lu, C.; Chen, C.; Niu, Q.; Tang, C.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Q.; Cui, W.; Xia, J.; Liu, T.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Guo, Z.; Pan, J.; Chen, H.; Luo, Y.; Sun, L.; Xiao, X.; Chen, Q.; Zhao, X.; He, F.; Lv, L.; Guo, L.; Liu, L.; Li, H.; Shi, S.; Flint, J.; Kendler, K. S.; Tao, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Method Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. Results Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD. Conclusions Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD. PMID:21943491

  2. Prospective associations between recalled parental bonding and perinatal depression: a cohort study in urban and rural Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Berker; Senturk Cankorur, Vesile; Taylor, Clare; Stewart, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Recalled experiences of parental bonding may be important in the aetiology of perinatal depression. We hypothesized that lower recalled parental bonding would be associated with perinatal depression. In a cohort study of perinatal depression in Turkey, 677 women were recruited in their third trimester. Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI) scores at baseline were investigated as predictors of depression on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4, 14 and 21 months after childbirth in mothers without depression at baseline. Poor parental bonding scores, apart from paternal control and overprotection, were independently associated with antenatal depression. Incident postnatal depression at 4 months was predicted by parental overprotection, at 14 months by parental care and overprotection, and at 21 months by paternal control and overprotection. Less satisfactory parenting recalled in the antenatal period was an independent predictor of postnatal depression; however, the different bonding subscales varied as predictors according to the timing of the depression assessment after childbirth.

  3. Interaction between Maternal and Paternal SHMT1 C1420T Predisposes to Neural Tube Defects in the Fetus: Evidence from Case-Control and Family-Based Triad Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Rebekah, Prasoona; Tella, Sunitha; Buragadda, Srinadh; Tiruvatturu, Muni Kumari; Akka, Jyothy

    2017-07-17

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are caused by the failure of neural tube formation which occurs during early embryonic development. NTDs are the most severe and leading cause of fetal mortality. Serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT1) provides one-carbon units necessary for embryogenesis and defects in one-carbon production result in specific pathological conditions during pregnancy. The present study is aimed to evaluate the association of SHMT1 C1420T with NTD risk in the fetus using fetal, maternal and paternal groups by applying both case-control and family-based triad approaches. A total of 924 subjects including 124 NTD case-parent trios (n = 124 × 3 = 372) and 184 healthy control-parent trios (n = 184 × 3 = 552) from Telangana State, South India were analyzed. DNA from umbilical cord tissues and parental blood samples were extracted, and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistical analysis used were SPSS, parent-of-origin effect (POE) analysis. Case-control study design demonstrated fetuses with homozygous variant genotype (TT) to be at risk toward spina bifida subtype (p = 0.022). Among parents, fathers with TT genotype were associated with anencephaly (p = 0.018) and spina bifida subtypes (p = 0.027) in the offspring. Of interest, maternal-paternal-offspring genotype incompatibility revealed maternal CT genotype in combination with paternal TT genotype increased risk for NTDs in the fetus (CTxTT = TT; p = 0.021). Family-based parent-of-origin effect linkage analysis revealed significant maternal over-transmission of variant allele to NTD fetuses (p < 0.01). The present study, using both case-control and family-based triad approach is the first report to demonstrate parental association of SHMT1 C1420T variant in conferring NTD risk in the fetus. Birth Defects Research 109:1020-1029, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Chronic variable stress in fathers alters paternal and social behavior but not pup development in the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Breanna N; de Jong, Trynke R; Yang, Vanessa; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-11-01

    Stress and chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels have been shown to disrupt parental behavior in mothers; however, almost no studies have investigated corresponding effects in fathers. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that chronic variable stress inhibits paternal behavior and consequently alters pup development in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). First-time fathers were assigned to one of three experimental groups: chronic variable stress (CVS, n=8), separation control (SC, n=7), or unmanipulated control (UC, n=8). The CVS paradigm (3 stressors per day for 7 days) successfully stressed mice, as evidenced by increased baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations, increased adrenal mass, decreased thymus mass, and a decrease in body mass over time. CVS altered paternal and social behavior of fathers, but major differences were observed only on day 6 of the 7-day paradigm. At that time point, CVS fathers spent less time with their pairmate and pups, and more time autogrooming, as compared to UC fathers; SC fathers spent more time behaving paternally and grooming the female mate than CVS and UC fathers. Thus, CVS blocked the separation-induced increase in social behaviors observed in the SC fathers. Nonetheless, chronic stress in fathers did not appear to alter survival or development of their offspring: pups from the three experimental conditions did not differ in body mass gain over time, in the day of eye opening, or in basal or post-stress corticosterone levels. These results demonstrate that chronic stress can transiently disrupt paternal and social behavior in P. californicus fathers, but does not alter pup development or survival under controlled, non-challenging laboratory conditions. © 2013.

  5. Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Kasper Daniel; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2004-01-01

    Cohort from 1997 to 1999 to assess the association between paternal age and fetal death. Fathers of the pregnancies were identified by record linkage to population registers. The paternal age-related risks of fetal death and its components, early and late fetal loss, were estimated using survival......A possible detrimental paternal age effect on offspring health due to mutations of paternal origin should be reflected in an association between paternal age and fetal loss. The authors used data from a prospective study of 23,821 pregnant women recruited consecutively to the Danish National Birth...... analysis. Pregnancies fathered by a man aged 50 or more years (n = 124) had almost twice the risk of ending in a fetal loss compared with pregnancies with younger fathers (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.93, 3.82), after adjustment for maternal age, reproductive history, and maternal...

  6. Different implications of paternal and maternal atopy for perinatal IgE production and asthma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  7. Different Implications of Paternal and Maternal Atopy for Perinatal IgE Production and Asthma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chiang Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  8. Evolution of monogamy, paternal investment, and female life history in Peromyscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Bailey, Drew H; Crossland, Janet P; Dawson, Wallace D; Szalai, Gabor; Ellersieck, Mark R; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Geary, David C

    2013-02-01

    The timing of reproductive development and associated trade-offs in quantity versus quality of offspring produced across the life span are well documented in a wide range of species. The relation of these aspects of maternal life history to monogamy and paternal investment in offspring is not well studied in mammals, due in part to the rarity of the latter. By using five large, captive-bred populations of Peromyscus species that range from promiscuous mating with little paternal investment (P. maniculatus bairdii) to social and genetic monogamy with substantial paternal investment (P. californicus insignis), we modeled the interaction between monogamy and female life history. Monogamy and high paternal investment were associated with smaller litter size, delayed maternal reproduction that extended over a longer reproductive life span, and larger, higher quality offspring. The results suggest monogamy and paternal investment can alter the evolution of female life-history trajectories in mammals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: Evidence from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A.; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child’s sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son or a daughter differentially affects the wellbeing of older parents, measured by depressive symptoms and self-rated health. We find that for mothers, a son’s death is associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and a decline in self-rated health, but fathers’ health is not adversely affected by a son’s death. There is little evidence that a daughter’s death has a negative effect on either maternal or paternal wellbeing. We situate these findings within their social and cultural contexts and discuss social policies that would reduce gender and health inequality. PMID:24054310

  10. Death of a child and parental wellbeing in old age: evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    The death of a child is one of the most traumatic events that a parent can experience. The psychological and physical consequences of bereavement are well established, and the consequences are more severe for mothers than fathers. However, little is known about how the death of an adult child affects parental wellbeing in old age or how the deceased child's sex may moderate the association. We use data from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA) to investigate how the death of a son or a daughter differentially affects the wellbeing of older parents, measured by depressive symptoms and self-rated health. We find that for mothers, a son's death is associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and a decline in self-rated health, but fathers' health is not adversely affected by a son's death. There is little evidence that a daughter's death has a negative effect on either maternal or paternal wellbeing. We situate these findings within their social and cultural contexts and discuss social policies that would reduce gender and health inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Paternal body mass index (BMI is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental alternations leading to fetal programming of cardiovascular diseases in later life have been attributed to maternal factors. However, animal studies showed that paternal obesity may program cardio-metabolic diseases in the offspring. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that paternal BMI may be associated with fetal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI and birth weight, ultrasound parameters describing the newborn's body shape as well as parameters describing the newborns endocrine system such as cortisol, aldosterone, renin activity and fetal glycated serum protein in a birth cohort of 899 father/mother/child triplets. Since fetal programming is an offspring sex specific process, male and female offspring were analyzed separately. Multivariable regression analyses considering maternal BMI, paternal and maternal age, hypertension during pregnancy, maternal total glycated serum protein, parity and either gestational age (for birth weight or time of ultrasound investigation (for ultrasound parameters as confounding showed that paternal BMI is associated with growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI correlated with birth parameters of male offspring only: birth weight; biparietal diameter, head circumference; abdominal diameter, abdominal circumference; and pectoral diameter. Cortisol was likewise significantly correlated with paternal BMI in male newborns only. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal BMI affects growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI may thus represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases of male offspring in later life. It remains to be demonstrated whether this is linked to an offspring sex specific paternal programming of cortisol secretion.

  12. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

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    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  13. The new guidelines for paternity analysis in Germany-how many STR loci are necessary when investigating duo cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Micaela; Preusse-Prange, Andrea; Schwark, Thorsten; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole

    2013-07-01

    The requirements in the new German guidelines for paternity analysis have not only changed according to the so-called Gendiagnostikgesetz, the new German law regulating human genetic as well as paternity analyses, but also regarding the minimal number of short tandem repeats (STRs) which should be investigated (15 STRs) and the minimal required average exclusion chance (99.999 %). Even in paternity analyses involving only two people (e.g., father and child or mother and child), this exclusion chance is mandatory. A retrospective analysis of 330 father-child cases from our routine investigations showed in 142 cases (43 %) an individual exclusion chance below 99.999 % when using 15 STRs as required, in our routine work provided by the Powerplex® 16 kit which is reported to have an average exclusion chance of 99.988 %. Therefore, these same 330 father-child pairs were additionally analysed using the Powerplex® 21 kit and 120 of these duos were additionally analysed using the Powerplex® ESX17 kit enabling the analysis of 20 or 16 loci respectively. Now, an individual exclusion chance of more than 99.999 % could be achieved in 95.5 % (Powerplex® 21; calculation without the results of D6S1043), 98.8 % (Powerplex® 21; calculation with the results of D6S1043, using allele frequencies established in this study for a German and a West African population) and 98.3 % (Powerplex® ESX17). These data clearly demonstrate that in duo cases, more than the required 15 STR loci have to be investigated to obtain sufficient results.

  14. Sanctification of Parenting, Moral Socialization, and Young Children's Conscience Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; Mahoney, Annette; Rauer, Amy J

    2009-02-01

    Religion is important to most U.S. families, but is often overlooked in research on children's development. This study examined parental religious beliefs about the sanctification of parenting, parental disciplinary strategies, and the development of young children's conscience in a sample of 58 two-parent families with a preschool child. Fathers were more punitive and used less induction when disciplining their children than did mothers. Maternal and paternal reports of the sanctification of parenting were positively related to positive socialization/praise and the use of induction. When mothers and fathers in the family were both using induction, children had higher scores on moral conduct. Parents' use of positive socialization combined with a belief in the sanctification of parenting predicted children's conscience development.

  15. Paternal HLA-C and Maternal Killer-Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genotypes in the Development of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Moriya; Anderson, Karen L; Ebstein, Richard P; Yirmiya, Nurit; Mankuta, David

    2016-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of cell surface proteins found on natural killer cells, which are components of the innate immune system. KIRs recognize MHC class I proteins, mainly HLA-C and are further divided into two groups: short-tailed 2/3DS activating receptors and long-tailed 2/3DL inhibitory receptors. Based on the Barker Hypothesis, the origins of illness can be traced back to embryonic development in the uterus, and since KIR:HLA interaction figures prominently in the maternal-fetal interface, we investigated whether specific KIR:HLA combinations may be found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) children compared with their healthy parents. This study enrolled 49 ASD children from different Israeli families, and their healthy parents. Among the parents, a higher frequency of HLA-C2 allotypes was found in the fathers, while its corresponding ligand 2DS1 was found in higher percentage in the maternal group. However, such skewing in KIR:HLA frequencies did not appear in the ASD children. Additionally, analysis of "overall activation" indicated higher activation in maternal than in paternal cohorts.

  16. The influence of parenting on maladaptive cognitive schema: a cross-sectional research on a group of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Calogero Iacolino,1 Giuseppe Mannino,2 Ivan Formica,3 Simona Maria Zabbara1 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Sicily, Italy; 2Department of Jurisprudence, “LUMSA” University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Cognitive, Psychological, Pedagogical Sciences and Cultural Studies, University of Study of Messina, Messina, Sicily, Italy Background: The literature emphasizes the role of early interpersonal experiences in the development of cognitive vulnerability; in particular, interruptions in early family relationships, parental unavailability and dysfunctional parenting are potential evolutionary precursors to negative cognitive style and emotional disorders.Materials and methods: This study measured the relationship of retrospective ratings on parental bonding with cognitive patterns in a group of Italian adults. The objectives of this study were as follows: to analyze the influence of age and education level on cognitive domains; to verify whether being parents and living at home with parents affect both parenting style and cognitive domains; to investigate how the type of the maternal and paternal parenting independently affects cognitive styles; to measure the predictive variables for the use of cognitive dysfunctional patterns and to investigate age as a moderating variable of the relation between parenting styles and cognitive domains in a group of adult men and women. The research involved 209 adults (118 males and 91 females living in Sicily (Italy aged between 20 and 60 years (M = 37.52; SD = 11.42. The research lasted for 1 year. The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument to measure the perception of parenting during childhood and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 to investigate cognitive patterns.Results: Data show that being a younger adult male with mother’s parenting style characterized by a lower level of nurturance is predictive of the disconnection and

  17. Parenting style and mental disorders in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, John David; Paksarian, Diana; He, Jian-Ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2018-01-01

    We examined associations between parenting style and past-year mental disorders in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of US adolescents and whether the associations differed by adolescent demographic characteristics. The sample included 6483 adolescents aged 13-18 years who were interviewed for a full range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Parenting style was assessed by adolescent-reported maternal and paternal care and control using items from the Parental Bonding Instrument. We controlled for socio-demographics, parental history of mental disorders, stressful life events, sexual violence, inter-parental conflict, and household composition. We also tested for two-way interactions between parental care and control and adolescent age, sex, and race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, high maternal care was associated with lower odds of depressive, eating, and behavioral disorders, and high maternal control was associated with greater odds of depressive, anxiety, eating, and behavioral disorders. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of social phobia and alcohol abuse/dependence. High paternal control was associated with greater odds of agoraphobia and alcohol abuse/dependence but with lower odds of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Associations of maternal and paternal control with anxiety disorders and substance abuse/dependence differed by sex. High paternal care was associated with lower odds of anxiety disorders only among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Perceived parental care and control were associated with adolescent mental disorders after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Differential patterns of association were found according to adolescent sex and race/ethnicity. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention programs that incorporate familial contextual factors.

  18. Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nancy E.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Silberg, Judy L.; Canino, Glorisa; Rosner, Bernard A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about paternal psychosocial factors and childhood asthma. Objective To examine the link between maternal and paternal psychosocial stress and asthma outcomes in young children. Methods Parents of 339 pairs of Puerto Rican twins were interviewed individually about their own psychosocial stress and about asthma in their children at age 1 and again about their child’s asthma at age 3. Fathers were asked about symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anti-social behavior. Mothers were asked about depressive symptoms. Outcomes assessed in children included recent asthma symptoms, oral steroid use and hospitalizations for asthma in the prior year, and asthma diagnosis. Generalized estimated equation models were used for the multivariate analysis of parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in childhood. Results After multivariable adjustment, paternal PTSD symptoms, depression, and anti-social behavior were each associated with increased asthma symptoms at age 1 (e.g., OR =1.08 for each 1-point increase in PTSD score, 95% CI=1.03–1.14). Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations at age 1 year. At age 3 years, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma diagnosis and hospitalizations for asthma (OR for each 1-point increase in symptoms=1.16, 95% CI=1.00–1.36]). In an analysis combining 1 and 3 year outcomes, paternal depression was associated with oral steroid use, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma hospitalizations and asthma diagnosis, and parental depression was associated with hospitalizations for asthma. Conclusions Both paternal and maternal psychosocial factors may influence asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children. PMID:21194742

  19. Stress and Family Quality of Life in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parent Gender and the Double ABCX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Rebecca L.; Trembath, David; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Past research has supported the utility of the Double ABCX model of family adaptation for parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). What remains unclear is the impact of family-related variables on outcomes in both mothers and fathers within the same family. We explored the potential predictors of maternal and paternal stress…

  20. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Are Dimensions of Parenting Differentially Linked to Substance Use Across Caucasian and Asian American College Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Parental warmth and autonomy granting are commonly thought of as protective factors against substance use among Caucasians. However, limited research has examined whether associations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes are the same or different among Asian Americans. A final analytic sample of 839 college students was used to test whether race (Caucasian vs. Asian American) moderated the relations between parenting dimensions and substance use outcomes across Caucasians and Asian Americans. We utilized the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker, Tupling, & Brown, 1979) to measure maternal and paternal warmth, encouragement of behavioral freedom, and denial of psychological autonomy. Multivariate regression models controlling for covariates including age, gender, and paternal education indicated four significant parenting by race interactions on alcohol problems and/or marijuana use. Specifically, maternal warmth was inversely associated with both alcohol problems and marijuana use among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Both maternal and paternal denial of psychological autonomy were positively associated with alcohol problems among Caucasians but not among Asian Americans. Consistent with emerging cross-cultural research, the associations between parenting dimensions and substance use behaviors observed in Caucasian populations may not be readily generalized to Asian Americans. These findings highlight the importance of considering different parenting dimensions in understanding substance use etiology among Asian Americans. Future research should use longitudinal data to replicate these findings across development and seek to identify other parenting dimensions that may be more relevant for Asian American youth.

  2. Parental corporal punishment in relation to children's executive function and externalizing behavior problems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaopei; Wang, Meifang; Wang, Zhengyan

    2018-04-01

    The current study examined the relationship among paternal and maternal corporal punishment (CP), children's executive function (EF), and children's externalizing behavior problems. In total, 328 Chinese preschool-aged children and their parents and teachers participated. Paternal and maternal CP was assessed by father-reports and by mother-reports, respectively. Children's EF was assessed by the Executive Function Touch program. Children's externalizing behavior problems were assessed by mother-reports and by teacher-reports. The results of structural equation modeling generally supported working memory as a mediator linking paternal CP and children's externalizing behaviors and inhibitory control as a mediator linking maternal CP and children's externalizing behaviors. No differences by children's gender were found. The current findings highlight the importance of EF in behavioral outcomes of children who experience parental CP.

  3. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  4. Beliefs regarding child anxiety and parenting competence in parents of children with separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Chantal; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that numerous developmental models have highlighted the role of parental cognitive processes in connection with anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, the role of parents' beliefs about their children and parenting remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the specific association between parental beliefs and child separation anxiety. Parents of children with a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) reported on beliefs and expectations related to their child's fears and own parenting competence. To study the potential specificity of relationships, a clinical control group of mothers of children with social phobia (SoP) and a group of mothers of children without a mental disorder (healthy controls, HC) were included. Results indicated that parents of anxious children had significantly higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs than the parents in the HC group. Mothers of children with SAD showed lower levels of parenting self-efficacy than mothers of children with SoP. They also demonstrated lower parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction compared to mothers of healthy children. Parental dysfunctional beliefs about child anxiety and paternal parenting self-efficacy were significantly positively associated with child anxiety. The effects remained significant after controlling for parental anxiety and depression. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causality of the found effects cannot be inferred. Data suggest that children's anxiety and parents' beliefs about their child's anxiety, coping skills and parenting are strongly associated. Further research is needed to investigate whether addressing parental cognitions in addition to parents' anxiety may improve prevention and intervention of child anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Siring Success and Paternal Effects in Heterodichogamous Acer opalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Gabriela; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Pannell, John Richard; Verdú, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Heterodichogamy (a dimorphic breeding system comprising protandrous and protogynous individuals) is a potential starting point in the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. In the genus Acer, previous work suggests that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy through an initial spread of unisexual males. Here, the question is asked as to whether the different morphs in Acer opalus, a species in which males co-exist with heterodichogamous hermaphrodites, differ in various components of male in fitness. Methods Several components of male fertility were analysed. Pollination rates in the male phase were recorded across one flowering period. Pollen viability was compared among morphs through hand pollinations both with pollen from a single sexual morph and also simulating a situation of pollen competition; in the latter experiment, paternity was assessed with microsatellite markers. It was also determined whether effects of genetic relatedness between pollen donors and recipients could influence the siring success. Finally, paternal effects occurring beyond the fertilization process were tested for by measuring the height reached by seedlings with different sires over three consecutive growing seasons. Key Results The males and protandrous morphs had higher pollination rates than the protogynous morph, and the seedlings they sired grew taller. No differences in male fertility were found between males and protandrous individuals. Departures from random mating due to effects of genetic relatedness among sires and pollen recipients were also ruled out. Conclusions Males and protandrous individuals are probably better sires than protogynous individuals, as shown by the higher pollination rates and the differential growth of the seedlings sired by these morphs. In contrast, the fertility of males was not higher than the male fertility of the protandrous morph. While the appearance of males in sexually specialized heterodichogamous populations is possible

  6. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases children...

  7. Paternal ADHD Symptoms and Child Conduct Problems: Is Father Involvement Always Beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romirowsky, Abigail Mintz; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Results Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. Conclusions The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems. PMID:25250402

  8. Multiple ways to prevent transmission of paternal mitochondrial DNA for maternal inheritance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken; Sato, Miyuki

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondria contain their own DNA (mtDNA). In most sexually reproducing organisms, mtDNA is inherited maternally (uniparentally); this type of inheritance is thus referred to as 'maternal (uniparental) inheritance'. Recent studies have revealed various mechanisms to prevent the transmission of sperm-derived paternal mtDNA to the offspring, thereby ensuring maternal inheritance of mtDNA. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA degenerate almost immediately after fertilization and are selectively degraded by autophagy, which is referred to as 'allophagy' (allogeneic [non-self] organelle autophagy). In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, paternal mtDNA is largely eliminated by an endonuclease G-mediated mechanism. Paternal mitochondria are subsequently removed by endocytic and autophagic pathways after fertilization. In many mammals, including humans, paternal mitochondria enter fertilized eggs. However, the fate of paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA in mammals is still a matter of debate. In this review, we will summarize recent knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the prevention of paternal mtDNA transmission, which ensures maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Fontaine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs. We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  10. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathryn M; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris

    2007-09-12

    Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  11. Is There an Association between Advanced Paternal Age and Endophenotype Deficit Levels in Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, Debby; Esterberg, Michelle; Braff, David; Calkins, Monica; Cadenhead, Kristin; Dobie, Dorcas; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben; Horan, William; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Light, Gregory A.; Millard, Steven P.; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith; Seidman, Larry; Siever, Larry; Silverman, Jeremy; Stone, William; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal; Tsuang, Ming; Turetsky, Bruce; Radant, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS). All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293) or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382). Paternal age at the time of subjects’ birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age–endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia. PMID:24523888

  12. Is there an association between advanced paternal age and endophenotype deficit levels in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, Debby; Esterberg, Michelle; Braff, David; Calkins, Monica; Cadenhead, Kristin; Dobie, Dorcas; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben; Horan, William; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Millard, Steven P; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith; Seidman, Larry; Siever, Larry; Silverman, Jeremy; Stone, William; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal; Tsuang, Ming; Turetsky, Bruce; Radant, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS). All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293) or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382). Paternal age at the time of subjects' birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age-endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia.

  13. Paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems: is father involvement always beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romirowsky, A M; Chronis-Tuscano, A

    2014-09-01

    Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems.

  14. Paternal and maternal birthweights and the risk of infant preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    Increasing paternal birthweight has been associated with increased risk of fathering a preterm infant, causing speculation that a fetus programmed to grow rapidly can trigger preterm labor. Pregnancies occurring from 1974-1989 among women themselves born in the Danish Perinatal Study (1959-1961) were identified through the Population Register; obstetric records were abstracted. Paternal birthweight was obtained by linking Personal Identification Numbers of the fathers to archived midwifery records. Paternal birthweight was not associated with preterm infants overall. However, there was a significant interaction between paternal and maternal birthweights (P = .003). When the mother weighed less than 3 kg at birth, increasing paternal birthweight was associated with increased occurrence of preterm birth (P for trend = .02); paternal birthweight was unassociated with preterm birth for mothers weighing 3 kg or more at birth (P = .34). When the mother was born small, increasing paternal birthweight was associated with increased risk of preterm birth, suggesting that a fetus growing faster than its mother can accommodate might trigger preterm birth.

  15. Is there an association between advanced paternal age and endophenotype deficit levels in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Tsuang

    Full Text Available The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS. All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293 or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382. Paternal age at the time of subjects' birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age-endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia.

  16. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardakis Manolis K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  17. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Niaounaki, Dora; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-06-14

    Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents), and interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers). Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  18. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Nora

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  19. Elucidating the mechanisms of paternal non-disjunction of chromosome 21 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A R; Petersen, M B; Pettay, D; Taft, L; Allran, K; Freeman, S B; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Torfs, C; Mikkelsen, M; Hassold, T J; Sherman, S L

    1998-08-01

    Paternal non-disjunction of chromosome 21 accounts for 5-10% of Down syndrome cases, therefore, relative to the maternally derived cases, little is known about paternally derived trisomy 21. We present the first analysis of recombination and non-disjunction for a large paternally derived population of free trisomy 21 conceptuses ( n = 67). Unlike maternal cases where the ratio of meiosis I (MI) to meiosis II (MII) errors is 3:1, a near 1:1 ratio exists among paternal cases, with a slight excess of MII errors. We found no paternal age effect for the overall population nor when classifying cases according to stage of non-disjunction error. Among 22 MI cases, only five had an observable recombinant event. This differs significantly from the 11 expected events ( P < 0.02, Fisher's exact), suggesting reduced recombination along the non-disjoined chromosomes 21 involved in paternal MI non-disjunction. No difference in recombination was detected among 27 paternal MII cases as compared with controls. However, cases exhibited a slight increase in the frequency of proximal and medial exchange when compared with controls (0.37 versus 0.28, respectively). Lastly, this study confirmed previous reports of excess male probands among paternally derived trisomy 21 cases. However, we report evidence suggesting an MII stage-specific sex ratio disturbance where 2.5 male probands were found for each female proband. Classification of MII cases based on the position of the exchange event suggested that the proband sex ratio disturbance was restricted to non-telomeric exchange cases. Based on these findings, we propose new models to explain the association between paternally derived trisomy 21 and excessive male probands.

  20. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.