WorldWideScience

Sample records for parents due process

  1. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, David F.

    2009-01-01

    William is 9 years of age, residing with his parent within the boundaries of an unnamed district ("the District"). As a student with autism he is eligible for special education programming and services. There was one issue presented for this due process hearing: What was the appropriate program and placement for him for the 2008-2009 school year?…

  2. Deference and Due Process

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the textbooks, procedural due process is a strictly judicial enterprise; although substantive entitlements are created by legislative and executive action, it is for courts to decide independently what process the Constitution requires. The notion that procedural due process might be committed primarily to the discretion of the agencies themselves is almost entirely absent from the academic literature. The facts on the ground are very different. Thanks to converging strands of caselaw ...

  3. Discipline and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mildred; Dowell, Mary L.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing numbers of parents do not accept a school's discipline policy and are refusing to permit their children to comply with disciplinary sanctions. According to the California Education Code, educators have the right to expect parents to accept disciplinary decisions made in compliance with required procedures. Parental defiance might worsen…

  4. Teacher Dismissal and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichner, Edward C.; Blackstone, Sidney

    1977-01-01

    This article addresses due process requirements in the nonrenewal and dismissal of tenured and nontenured teachers. The Georgia Fair Dismissal Law is used as a basis for discussing the grounds for teacher dismissal. Dismissal grounds discussed are 1) incompetency; 2) insubordination; 3) willful neglect of duties; 4) immorality; 5) inciting,…

  5. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  6. 5 CFR 732.301 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due process. 732.301 Section 732.301...) NATIONAL SECURITY POSITIONS Due Process and Reporting § 732.301 Due process. When an agency makes an... any determination. (b) Comply with all applicable administrative due process requirements, as provided...

  7. Constitutional Due Process and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uerling, Donald F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses substantive and procedural due process as required by the United States Constitution and interpreted by the Supreme Court, with particular reference to situations arising in educational environments. Covers interests protected by due process requirements, the procedures required, and some special considerations that may apply. (PGD)

  8. Procedural Due Process Rights in Student Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Robert; Weinstein, Susan

    To assist administrators in understanding procedural due process rights in student discipline, this manual draws together hundreds of citations and case summaries of federal and state court decisions and provides detailed commentary as well. Chapter 1 outlines the general principles of procedural due process rights in student discipline, such as…

  9. Contract Law, Due Process, and the NCAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jaffe D.; Chapman, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The NCAA has enjoyed almost total freedom from judicial scrutiny of its rules, procedures, and official acts in large part because of its private nature as an unincorporated association. The function of the NCAA, California State University, Hayward v NCAA, and due process of the student-athlete are discussed. (MLW)

  10. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  11. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

  12. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role. Auditory cohesion problems: This is when higher-level listening tasks are difficult. Auditory cohesion skills — drawing inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems — require heightened auditory processing and language levels. ...

  13. Divorce process variables and the co-parental relationship and parental role fulfillment of divorced parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nehami

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the association between two sets of divorce process variables, a) initiation of and responsibility for the divorce and b) difficulty and duration of the legal procedure, and divorced spouses' co-parental relationship and parental functioning. In a random sample of 50 former couples, in Israel, findings showed that the longer and more conflictual the legal proceedings, the worse the coparental relationship in the view of both parents. They also showed that mothers' parental functioning was not significantly associated with any of the divorce variables, but fathers' were. The more responsibility the father assumed for the divorce and the more he viewed himself as the initiator, the more he fulfilled his parental functions. The findings are interpreted in the discussion, and their theoretical and practical implications considered.

  14. Changes in Psychiatric behavior of adolescents due to absence one of the parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, K.; El-Maghraby, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring psychiatric morbidity among adolescents of single parent families. Subjects were recruited from 15 randomly chosen schools distributed in 3 educational districts in Greater Cairo. They were candidates for socio-demographic data sheet, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Children Anxiety Scale(CAS), Children Depression Inventory(CDI), Youth Self Report(YSR), and symptom check list(SCL). Single parenting was due to parental death in 55.67%, parental travel in 29.31% ,divorce in 7.88% and desertion in 7.14%. Stratistically Higher minimal psychiatric morbidity, higher anxiety and depression symptoms, and higher YSR behavioral problem scores were found in single-parent than two-parent adolescents. Single parenting was significantly associated with low scholastic achievement and with diagnosis depression, mixed anxiety depression, and mixed anxiety with somatization disorder and phobias (specially social phobia).Conduct disorder and psychoactive substance experimentation although it is overrepresented, it didn't show a significant correlation. Parent absence (particularly the father), through divorce or death has greater impact on boys than girls. Every type of single parenting has its own profile on adolescent's behavioral and psychiatric problems

  15. Financial Stress, Parental Depressive Symptoms, Parenting Practices, and Children's Externalizing Problem Behaviors: Underlying Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Yuan Steven; Lee, Jaerim; August, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among financial stress encountered by families, parents' social support, parental depressive symptoms, parenting practices, and children's externalizing problem behaviors to advance our understanding of the processes by which family financial stress is associated with children's problem behaviors. We also…

  16. Parental Incarceration, Transnational Migration, and Military Deployment: Family Process Mechanisms of Youth Adjustment to Temporary Parent Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J.; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    The temporary absence of a parent (e.g., due to incarceration, migration, or military deployment) is experienced by many youth and can have profound effects. Available research within these disparate literatures primarily has catalogued contextual and individual variables that influence youth adaptation, which are integrated and summarized here. In addition, we present a systematic review of proximal family process mechanisms by which youth and their family members adapt to periods of temporary parent absence. This systematic review across the different types of parent absence produced four themes: communication among family members, parenting characteristics during absence, negotiation of decision-making power and authority, and shifts in family roles. By juxtaposing the three types of temporary parent absence, we aim to bridge the separate research silos of parent absence due to incarceration, deployment, and migration, and to bring wide-ranging characteristics and processes of temporary parent-absent families into sharper focus. The review highlights possibilities for fuller integration of these literatures, and emphasizes the clinical value of considering these types of experiences from a family and relational perspective, rather than an individual coping perspective. PMID:25304163

  17. Parents and the educational process of art education

    OpenAIRE

    Bobinac, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In this Thesis I have researched the parents and the educational process of art education. I wondered how parents encourage their children in artistic creation. The research was based on 37 parents of 3rd graders. Required information was obtained via questionnaires. I have found that parents support children in artistic activities outside school hours, often providing them with art accessories and materials, with the resulting products being exhibited around their homes. Sometimes th...

  18. Parenting an overweight or obese child: a process of ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Bechensteen, Brit; Hallberg, Ulrika

    2011-03-01

    Childhood overweight represents a health problem, and research points towards parents as key players. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge of how parents of children who are overweight or obese experience their parenthood. Focus group discussions with 17 parents were analysed according to the qualitative method of modified grounded theory. The results expressed the parents' ambivalence between preventing the child's overweight and not negatively affecting the child's self-esteem. The most important issue seemed to be their concern about the child's construction of self-understanding and experiences in interaction with the environment. The parents had become uncertain of their responsibility, priorities and how to act. In conclusion, parenting a child with weight issues could be a process of loving the child the way he/she is while still wanting changes for improved health, resulting in ambivalence. In addition to traditional advice about lifestyle, many parents seem to need counselling assistance with respect to their parental role.

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Special Education Due Process Hearings in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Blackwell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Of the three formal dispute resolution procedures provided by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 2004(IDEA, due process hearings are the most costly in terms of time, fiscal resources, and impact on relationships between school personnel and parents. This study examined 258 due process hearings held over the past 8 years in Massachusetts to examine the characteristics of students at the center of these disputes, the issues that were addressed in the hearings, and the representation utilized by parents and school districts. The findings from this study indicated that (a Massachusetts school districts utilized attorney representation and won due process hearings at notably higher levels than parents, and (b the most frequently addressed issues at due process hearings were Individualized Education Program (IEP development/implementation and educational program placement, which are issues that represent the core mandate of IDEA to provide a free appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment (34 C.F.R. §300.300, 300.550. The authors present recommendations for policy actions and areas for future research.

  20. Religiosity and parenting: recent directions in process-oriented research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark

    2017-06-01

    Most faith traditions, in principle, promote family life and positive parent-child relationships. In recent years, research has moved beyond questions of whether religion supports positive parenting towards addressing more nuanced process-oriented questions, including how, why, and when religion is linked with adaptive or maladaptive parenting. Relations between religion and multiple specific parenting behaviors (e.g., involvement, warmth, authoritative parenting, communication) are identified, including contexts for when and why relations between religion and parenting are adaptive or maladaptive. A next step for research is the development and testing of theoretical models to more comprehensively account for process relations between religion and parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Scope and limitations of due process in administrative proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Carvajal Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to explain in a better way the scope of Due Process in Administrative Law as a legal norm whose respect is essential to all government agencies, three points of view (formal, structural and material are proposed. Those items seem useful to understand “Administrative Due Process” in all its dimensions: as a constitutional norm developed by the enactment of laws and decrees; as a principle inspiring some conducts and new norms; and as an objective and subjective fundamental right. On the other hand, it is shown that Administrative Due Process is not an absolute rule because in some cases its full application is subject to normative relativism. Two opposite trends can be perceived at this point: in the first place, government agencies usually do not act the same way judges do, so Administrative Due Process should be distinguished from Judicial Due Process; therefore, it could actually have a more restricted scope. In the second place, some administrative authorities are nowadays playing a role more or less similar to what judges do. This means that new procedural guarantees will be claimed. In any case, admitting valid limitations to Administrative Due Process leads to the quest of the limits of these limitations. The application of the rule of Due Process cannot be totally suppressed; its scope cannot be completely reduced. This is the result of its fundamental nature as a legal norm that ensures justice and equity in all administrative procedures, and proscribes random decisions.

  2. Long-term effects of early parental loss due to divorce on the HPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Miki; Peleg, Ido; Koren, Danny; Aner, Hamotal; Klein, Ehud

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of divorce and early separation from one parent on HPA axis reactivity, in young adults without psychopathology. Participants were 44 young subjects, 22 whose parents divorced before they reached age 10, and 22 controls. Psychiatric symptomatology was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), family perceived stress by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and bonding by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Assessment of HPA axis function included baseline morning cortisol and ACTH and cortisol response to a CRH stimulation test. No baseline or stimulated group differences were observed for ACTH. Cortisol levels were consistently but insignificantly lower in the divorce group throughout the CRH stimulation reaching statistical significance only at 5 min (p<0.03). Group by time effect reached a trend level (p<0.06). A correlation was found between psychiatric symptomatology and PBI scores; however, both parameters did not correlate with HPA axis activity. A significant correlation was found between DAS scores and ACTH. A regression model revealed a contributing effect for both family stress and child-parent bonding to stimulated ACTH levels. These preliminary findings suggest that even in the absence of adult psychopathology, a history of childhood separation from one parent due to divorce may lead to detectable, albeit mild, long-term alterations in HPA axis activity. Furthermore, they suggest that level of stress at home and parental bonding are important determinants of this effect. It is likely that divorce has significant and sustained effects on children's HPA axis only in the context of a traumatic separation.

  3. The due diligence process for acquiring and building power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallen, M.A.; Bullinger, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    The restructuring of the electric generating business is continuing at a torrid pace. New auctions of generation portfolios are initiated almost monthly, and announcements of new development projects arrive almost daily. It has become imperative, then, that participants in both acquisitions and development projects become conversant with the necessary due diligence process, a complex and critical task that can mean the difference between success and failure. A thorough due diligence process allows bidder/developers to uncover value and quantify liabilities before bidding/building, translating into the best analysis possible and resulting in a winning investment decision. This article describes the process by which buyers and developers approach and manage the due diligence process as a key step in making their investment decision

  4. Sensitivity of Process Design due to Uncertainties in Property Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Jones, Mark Nicholas; Sarup, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a systematic methodology for performing analysis of sensitivity of process design due to uncertainties in property estimates. The methodology provides the following results: a) list of properties with critical importance on design; b) acceptable levels of...... in chemical processes. Among others vapour pressure accuracy for azeotropic mixtures is critical and needs to be measured or estimated with a ±0.25% accuracy to satisfy acceptable safety levels in design....

  5. 34 CFR 300.508 - Due process complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attending; (5) A description of the nature of the problem of the child relating to the proposed or refused initiation or change, including facts relating to the problem; and (6) A proposed resolution of the problem... section, the hearing officer must make a determination on the face of the due process complaint of whether...

  6. "Ingraham v. Wright" and the Decline of Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gerard J.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the constitutional questions in "Ingraham vs Wright" lend credence to a concern that the Court is seeking to eliminate all due process intervention outside of the incorporation and privacy cases and to limit even these cases to defenses of a criminal prosecution. Available from Suffolk University Law Review Office, 41…

  7. Teaching about Due Process of Law. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontz, Thomas S.

    Fundamental constitutional and legal principles are central to effective instruction in the K-12 social studies curriculum. To become competent citizens, students need to develop an understanding of the principles on which their society and government are based. Few principles are as important in the social studies curriculum as due process of…

  8. Basic Substantive Law for Paralegals: Contracts, Torts, and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Raymond B.

    Part of the paralegal, or legal assistant, training materials prepared by the National Paralegal Institution under a Federal grant, the text comprises an overview of the basic legal concepts usually found in introductory law courses concerning contracts, torts, and the due process area of constitutional law. Part 1, Contracts, covers: definition,…

  9. Measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.H.; Hoonhout, B.M.; Vos, S.E.; Cohn, Nicholas; Ruggiero, P; Aagaard, T.; Deigaard, R.; Fuhrman, D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes during the recently conducted SEDEX2 field experiment at Long Beach, Washington, U.S.A.. Beach erosion and sedimentation were derived using series of detailed terrestrial LIDAR measurements

  10. Resurrecting the chimera: Progressions in parenting and peer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgatch, Marion S; Snyder, James J; Patterson, Gerald R; Pauldine, Michael R; Chaw, Yvonne; Elish, Katie; Harris, Jasmine B; Richardson, Eric B

    2016-08-01

    This report uses 6-year outcomes of the Oregon Divorce Study to examine the processes by which parenting practices affect deviant peer association during two developmental stages: early to middle childhood and late childhood to early adolescence. The participants were 238 newly divorced mothers and their 5- to 8-year-old sons who were randomly assigned to Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO®) or to a no-treatment control group. Parenting practices, child delinquent behavior, and deviant peer association were repeatedly assessed from baseline to 6 years after baseline using multiple methods and informants. PMTO had a beneficial effect on parenting practices relative to the control group. Two stage models linking changes in parenting generated by PMTO to children's growth in deviant peer association were supported. During the early to middle childhood stage, the relationship of improved parenting practices on deviant peer association was moderated by family socioeconomic status (SES); effective parenting was particularly important in mitigating deviant peer association for lower SES families whose children experience higher densities of deviant peers in schools and neighborhoods. During late childhood and early adolescence, the relationship of improved parenting to youths' growth in deviant peer association was mediated by reductions in the growth of delinquency during childhood; higher levels of early delinquency are likely to promote deviant peer association through processes of selective affiliation and reciprocal deviancy training. The results are discussed in terms of multilevel developmental progressions of diminished parenting, child involvement in deviancy producing processes in peer groups, and increased variety and severity of antisocial behavior, all exacerbated by ecological risks associated with low family SES.

  11. Statewide Responsibility and Its Effect on Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Paula D.; Ruby, Ralph, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of being fully aware of the school district's, the state's, and the organization's rules, regulations, and laws affecting teachers, students, parents and guardians, and taxpayers regarding student organizations. (JOW)

  12. The best motivator priorities parents choose via analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, R. N.; Latha, P.

    2015-05-01

    Motivation is probably the most important factor that educators can target in order to improve learning. Numerous cross-disciplinary theories have been postulated to explain motivation. While each of these theories has some truth, no single theory seems to adequately explain all human motivation. The fact is that human beings in general and pupils in particular are complex creatures with complex needs and desires. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been proposed as an emerging solution to move towards too large, dynamic and complex real world multi-criteria decision making problems in selecting the most suitable motivator when choosing school for their children. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 ("Statistical Package for Social Science") software. Statistic testing used are descriptive and inferential statistic. Descriptive statistic used to identify respondent pupils and parents demographic factors. The statistical testing used to determine the pupils and parents highest motivator priorities and parents' best priorities using AHP to determine the criteria chosen by parents such as school principals, teachers, pupils and parents. The moderating factors are selected schools based on "Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia" (SKPM) in Ampang. Inferential statistics such as One-way ANOVA used to get the significant and data used to calculate the weightage of AHP. School principals is found to be the best motivator for parents in choosing school for their pupils followed by teachers, parents and pupils.

  13. A Survey of Some Behavioral Disorders Due to Parental Corporal Punishment in School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Qasemi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Qasemi F1, Valizadeh F1, Toulabi T2, Saki M3 1. Instructor, Department of Children, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Instructor, Department of Internal Surgery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Family has an important role on childrens personality and preparing them for future. Corporal punishment involves the application of some forms of physical pain in response to undesirable behavior for the purpose of correction or control of the childs behavior. Corporal punishment constitutes a human-rights violation and has physical and mental health consequences for children. Materials and methods: This survey was conducted to detect and compare some behavioral disorders due to parental corporal punishment in school age children. This case-control trial deals with 240, primary school children aged 7-12 years old. These subjects were selected through cluster randomized sampling in Korramabad and divided into two (case and control groups. Instruments for measuring data consisted of three components: 1 a questionnaire on demographic information, 2 a questionnaire on corporal punishment and, 3 a rating scale about behavioral disorder such as verbal and behavioral aggression, withdrawal, and cooperation in school. Data were analyzed by SPSS ver11. Results: Results indicated that in 92.6% of cases the corporal punishment method was slapping. Significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of mothers educational level (p=0.001, mothers job (p=0.004, mothers child-birth number (p=0.024, verbal aggression (p=0.001, behavioral aggression (p=0.001, withdrawal (p=0.05, and cooperation (p=0.001. Conclusion: Results indicated that housekeeper mothers and mothers with low educational level use more corporal punishment and behavioral

  14. Relationship processes and resilience in children with incarcerated parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Eddy, J Mark; Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Myers, Barbara J; Mackintosh, Virginia; Kuznetsova, Maria I; Lotze, Geri M; Best, Al M; Ravindran, Neeraja; Loper, Ann Booker; Clarke, Caitlin Novero; McHale, James P; Salman, Selin; Strozier, Anne; Cecil, Dawn K; Martinez, Charles R; Burraston, Bert

    2013-06-01

    Children with incarcerated parents are at risk for a variety of problematic outcomes, yet research has rarely examined protective factors or resilience processes that might mitigate such risk in this population. In this volume, we present findings from five new studies that focus on child- or family-level resilience processes in children with parents currently or recently incarcerated in jail or prison. In the first study, empathic responding is examined as a protective factor against aggressive peer relations for 210 elementary school age children of incarcerated parents. The second study further examines socially aggressive behaviors with peers, with a focus on teasing and bullying, in a sample of 61 children of incarcerated mothers. Emotion regulation is examined as a possible protective factor. The third study contrasts children's placement with maternal grandmothers versus other caregivers in a sample of 138 mothers incarcerated in a medium security state prison. The relation between a history of positive attachments between mothers and grandmothers and the current cocaregiving alliance are of particular interest. The fourth study examines coparenting communication in depth on the basis of observations of 13 families with young children whose mothers were recently released from jail. Finally, in the fifth study, the proximal impacts of a parent management training intervention on individual functioning and family relationships are investigated in a diverse sample of 359 imprisoned mothers and fathers. Taken together, these studies further our understanding of resilience processes in children of incarcerated parents and their families and set the groundwork for further research on child development and family resilience within the context of parental involvement in the criminal justice system.

  15. Attachment, mastery, and interdependence: a model of parenting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Martha E

    2002-01-01

    A democratic nation needs an interdependent citizenry who are not only competent but who also can live together cooperatively with an eye toward what will benefit the whole as well as the self. In this article, the concept of interdependence is adopted as the central goal of parenting. The Parenting Processes Model is then presented, specifying how caregivers help children develop this interdependence. This work draws upon and integrates the work of a number of theoreticians, researchers, and clinicians, with the central focus on the work of John Bowlby, Alfred Adler, and Lev Vygotsky.

  16. Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  17. End-of-life parental communication priorities among bereaved fathers due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eliza M; Deal, Allison M; Yopp, Justin M; Edwards, Teresa; Stephenson, Elise M; Hailey, Claire E; Nakamura, Zev M; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2017-05-01

    To elicit widowed fathers' perspectives on which domains of parenting-related communication they consider most important for dying parents to discuss at the end of life (EOL). Two hundred seventy nine fathers widowed by cancer completed a survey about their own depression and bereavement symptoms, their wife's illness, and EOL parental communication priorities. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression were used to evaluate relationships between maternal EOL characteristics and fathers' responses to parenting-related EOL communication priorities. Fathers identified raising children in a manner that reflected maternal wishes, whether/how to talk with children about their mother's death, and how the mother wanted to be remembered as the most important EOL communication domains. Fathers who reported that their dying wives were worried about the children were more likely to prioritize raising children in ways that reflect her wishes (p=0.01). Other EOL characteristics were not associated with communication domains. Communicating with children and maintaining emotional connection with the deceased parent are important priorities for bereaved fathers who lost a spouse to cancer. Health care providers working with seriously ill parents may improve family outcomes by supporting communication at the EOL between co-parents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chondritic Meteorites: Nebular and Parent-Body Formation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is important to identify features in chondrites that formed as a result of parent-body modification in order to disentangle nebular and asteroidal processes. However, this task is difficult because unmetamorphosed chondritic meteorites are mixtures of diverse components including various types of chondrules, chondrule fragments, refractory and mafic inclusions, metal-sulfide grains and fine-grained matrix material. Shocked chondrites can contain melt pockets, silicate-darkened material, metal veins, silicate melt veins, and impact-melt-rock clasts. This grant paid for several studies that went far in helping to distinguish primitive nebular features from those produced during asteroidal modification processes.

  19. Is lower IQ in children with epilepsy due to lower parental IQ? A controlled comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Natalie M; Jackson, Daren C; Dabbs, Kevin; Jones, Jana E; Hsu, David A; Stafstrom, Carl E; Sheth, Raj D; Koehn, Monica A; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between parent and child full-scale IQ (FSIQ) in children with epilepsy and in typically developing comparison children and to examine parent–child IQ differences by epilepsy characteristics. Method The study participants were 97 children (50 males, 47 females; age range 8–18y; mean age 12y 3mo, SD 3y.1mo) with recent-onset epilepsy including idiopathic generalized (n=43) and idiopathic localization-related epilepsies (n=54); 69 healthy comparison children (38 females, 31 males; age range 8–18y; mean age 12y 8mo, SD 3y 2mo), and one biological parent per child. All participants were administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale. FSIQ was compared in children with epilepsy and typically developing children; FSIQ was compared in the parents of typically developing children and the parents of participants with epilepsy; parent–child FSIQ differences were compared between the groups. Results FSIQ was lower in children with epilepsy than in comparison children (pepilepsy did not differ from the FSIQ of the parents of typically developing children. Children with epilepsy had significantly lower FSIQ than their parents (pepilepsy than the comparison group (p=0.043). Epilepsy characteristics were not related to parent–child IQ difference. Interpretation Parent–child IQ difference appears to be a marker of epilepsy impact independent of familial IQ, epilepsy syndrome, and clinical seizure features. This marker is evident early in the course of idiopathic epilepsies and can be tracked over time. PMID:23216381

  20. Effects due to spectator interaction in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilga, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The simplest diagrams describing interaction with the spectator in the e - π→e - + hadrons deep inelastic process are considered. The contribution of the final state interaction diagram to the structure function considerable in the Feynman gauge is suppressed under the temporal gauge choice in accordance with the results of the naive parton model. The expressin for the cross section of the process when large quark momentum is transferred to the spectator is derived

  1. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children

  2. The Surprise Element: How Allaying Parents' Misconceptions Improves a Teacher's Communicative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Challenged by parents' misconceptions about the role of cooperative learning activities in developing their gifted children, a teacher began to mentor the parents. The act of mentoring those parents resulted in the teacher's longer-term professional development: specifically, creating a process of seeking structured feedback from parents and…

  3. Parenting Processes and Aggression: The Role of Self-Control among Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Cok, Figen

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes (parental closeness, parental monitoring, and parental peer approval), low self-control, and aggression. Participants were 546 adolescents aged 14-18 attending state high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of…

  4. Super-Penrose process due to collisions inside ergosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    If two particles collide inside the ergosphere, the energy in the center of mass frame can be made unbound provided at least one of particles has a large negative angular momentum [A. A. Grib and Yu. V. Pavlov, Europhys. Lett. 101 (2013) 20004]. We show that the same condition can give rise to unbounded Killing energy of debris at infinity, i.e. super-Penrose process. Proximity of the point of collision to the black hole horizon is not required.

  5. Eyewitness Identification Reform: Data, Theory, and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E

    2012-05-01

    Some commentators view my analyses (Clark, 2012, this issue) as an important step forward in assessing the costs and benefits of eyewitness identification reform. Others suggest that the trade-off between correct identifications lost and false identifications avoided is well-known; that the expected utility model is misspecified; and that the loss of correct identifications due to the use of reformed eyewitness identification procedures is irrelevant to policy decisions, as those correct identifications are the illegitimate product of suggestion and lucky guesses. Contrary to these criticisms, the loss of correct identifications has not been adequately considered in theoretical or policy matters, criticisms regarding the various utilities do not substantively change the nature of the trade-off, and the dismissal of lost correct identifications is based not on data but on an outdated theory of recognition memory. © The Author(s) 2012.

  6. "Child Divorce": A Break from Parental Responsibilities and Rights Due to the Traditional Socio-Cultural Practices and Beliefs of the Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bekink

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent ground-breaking case the South African courts were for the first time requested to use their discretion to interfere in the parent-child relationship due to the traditional socio-cultural beliefs of the parents. In what has been described as "every parent's nightmare; the fancy of many teenagers", a 16 year-old schoolgirl from Milerton in the Western Cape asked to be "freed" from her parents to live semi-independently from them because of her unhappiness with the conservative manner in which her parents treated her. After considering the matter the judge assigned to the case granted her request to live semi-independently with a school friend and her family (called by the judge the host family until she reaches the age of 18 (her majority. Her parents were accorded permission to have limited contact with her. This case represents an example of the difficulties involved when balancing the rights of a teenager against those of the parents in matters of socio-cultural practice and belief. In a multi-cultural society such as South Africa the case raises numerous serious questions for other families. For instance, what standards will a court use to determine if parents are too conservative in bringing up their children and what factors will be taken into account? How much freedom and autonomy should children be given? How will courts prevent children from misusing the system just to get what their friends have, and - the ultimate question - are the rights of children superior to the traditional rights of parents in matters of socio-cultural practice, with specific reference to their upbringing? In this context it is the aim of this contribution to focus primarily on the questions asked above. Possible solutions for striking a balance between the rights of children and their parents are explored. The submission is made that the best interests principle is still the most important factor to be taken into account when balancing or weighing

  7. Selective modulation of nociceptive processing due to noise distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Yvonne; El-Deredy, Wael; Martínez Montes, Eduardo; Bentley, Deborah E; Jones, Anthony K P

    2008-09-15

    This study investigates the effects of noise distraction on the different components and sources of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) whilst attending to either the spatial component (localisation performance task) or the affective component (unpleasantness rating task) of pain. LEPs elicited by CO2 laser stimulation of the right forearm were recorded from 64 electrodes in 18 consenting healthy volunteers. Subjects reported either pain location or unpleasantness, in the presence and absence of distraction by continuous 85 dBa white noise. Distributed sources of the LEP peaks were identified using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Pain unpleasantness ratings and P2 (430 ms) peak amplitude were significantly reduced by distraction during the unpleasantness task, whereas the localisation ability and the corresponding N1/N2 (310 ms) peak amplitude remained unchanged. Noise distraction (at 310 ms) reduced activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and precuneus during attention to localisation and unpleasantness, respectively. This suggests a complimentary role for these two areas in the control of attention to pain. In contrast, activation of the occipital pole and SII were enhanced by noise during the localisation and unpleasantness task, respectively, suggesting that the presence of noise was associated with increased spatial attentional load. This study has shown selective modulation of affective pain processing by noise distraction, indicated by a reduction in the unpleasantness ratings and P2 peak amplitude and associated activity within the medial pain system. These results show that processing of the affective component of pain can be differentially modulated by top-down processes, providing a potential mechanism for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Process Measurement Deviation Analysis for Flow Rate due to Miscalibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Byung Rae; Jeong, Seog Hwan; Choi, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Chul; Yun, Jae Hee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An analysis was initiated to identify the root cause, and the exemption of high static line pressure correction to differential pressure (DP) transmitters was one of the major deviation factors. Also the miscalibrated DP transmitter range was identified as another major deviation factor. This paper presents considerations to be incorporated in the process flow measurement instrumentation calibration and the analysis results identified that the DP flow transmitter electrical output decreased by 3%. Thereafter, flow rate indication decreased by 1.9% resulting from the high static line pressure correction exemption and measurement range miscalibration. After re-calibration, the flow rate indication increased by 1.9%, which is consistent with the analysis result. This paper presents the brief calibration procedures for Rosemount DP flow transmitter, and analyzes possible three cases of measurement deviation including error and cause. Generally, the DP transmitter is required to be calibrated with precise process input range according to the calibration procedure provided for specific DP transmitter. Especially, in case of the DP transmitter installed in high static line pressure, it is important to correct the high static line pressure effect to avoid the inherent systematic error for Rosemount DP transmitter. Otherwise, failure to notice the correction may lead to indicating deviation from actual value.

  9. Procedural Due Process and Fairness in Student Discipline. A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. Page

    When the Supreme Court decided that the Constitution requires public school principals to follow procedural due process in suspension and expulsion cases, the Justices recognized a link between procedural due process and the fairness of effective discipline. This report reviews the constitutional due process required when public school officials…

  10. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  11. Parental Regulation of Teenagers' Time: Processes and Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarre, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Parental regulation of teenagers' time is pervasive. Parents attempt to constrain, well into adolescence, what their children do with their time, when they do it and how long they do it for. This article draws on interviews with 14- to 16-year-olds in the UK to explore teenagers' experiences of parents' temporal regulation, and whether their…

  12. Multi-Objective Flexible Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Variable Processing Time due to Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative to non-renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint of manufacturing systems. Finding out how to make an alternative energy-efficient scheduling solution when renewable and non-renewable energy drives production is of great importance. In this paper, a multi-objective flexible flow shop scheduling problem that considers variable processing time due to renewable energy (MFFSP-VPTRE is studied. First, the optimization model of the MFFSP-VPTRE is formulated considering the periodicity of renewable energy and the limitations of energy storage capacity. Then, a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with variable local search (HNSGA-II is proposed to solve the MFFSP-VPTRE. An operation and machine-based encoding method is employed. A low-carbon scheduling algorithm is presented. Besides the crossover and mutation, a variable local search is used to improve the offspring’s Pareto set. The offspring and the parents are combined and those that dominate more are selected to continue evolving. Finally, two groups of experiments are carried out. The results show that the low-carbon scheduling algorithm can effectively reduce the carbon footprint under the premise of makespan optimization and the HNSGA-II outperforms the traditional NSGA-II and can solve the MFFSP-VPTRE effectively and efficiently.

  13. Parental Report of the Diagnostic Process and Outcome: ASD Compared with Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Donald P.; Haworth, Shannon M.; Mackenzie, Bernadette K.; Willis, Janet H.

    2017-01-01

    Parents report that the process of getting an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis is arduous, lengthy, and fraught with difficulties. This analysis of the Pathways survey data set examined the experiences of parents who said, at the time of the survey, that their child currently had ASD compared with parents who said, at the time of the…

  14. Due Process in the Realm of Higher Education: Considerations for Dealing with Students Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishner, Jason T.

    2006-01-01

    Court decisions have laid out expectations of what due process procedures need to be followed in student disciplinary cases and academic dismissal cases due to poor academic performance. This paper will give show where due process comes from and how it found its way into higher education. It will show that there are differences in the ways public…

  15. Process into Products: Supporting Teachers to Engage Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the need for novice teachers to receive exposure and experiences related to family engagement as part of their academic preparation to better facilitate their actual parent involvement practices. In a graduate-level parent involvement in education course, early childhood educators had an opportunity to engage in a variety of…

  16. Social signal processing for studying parent-infant interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eAvril

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying early interactions is a core issue of infant development and psychopathology. Automatic social signal processing theoretically offers the possibility to extract and analyse communication by taking an integrative perspective, considering the multimodal nature and dynamics of behaviours (including synchrony. This paper proposes an explorative method to acquire and extract relevant social signals from a naturalistic early parent-infant interaction. An experimental setup is proposed based on both clinical and technical requirements. We extracted various cues from body postures and speech productions of partners using the IMI2S (Interaction, Multimodal Integration, and Social Signal Framework. Preliminary clinical and computational results are reported for two dyads (one pathological in a situation of severe emotional neglect and one normal control as an illustration of our cross-disciplinary protocol. The results from both clinical and computational analyses highlight similar differences: the pathological dyad shows dyssynchronic interaction led by the infant whereas the control dyad shows synchronic interaction and a smooth interactive dialog. The results suggest that the current method might be promising for future studies.

  17. The Effects of Sensory Processing and Behavior of Toddlers on Parent Participation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaLomba, Elaina; Baxter, Mary Frances; Fingerhut, Patricia; O'Donnell, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Occupational therapists treat children with sensory processing and behavioral concerns, however, little information exists on how these issues affect parent participation. This pilot study examined the sensory processing and behaviors of toddlers with developmental delays and correlated these with parents' perceived ability to participate in…

  18. The Analytical Pragmatic Structure of Procedural Due Process: A Framework for Inquiry in Administrative Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James E.; Sealey, Ronald W.

    The study describes the analytical pragmatic structure of concepts and applies this structure to the legal concept of procedural due process. This structure consists of form, purpose, content, and function. The study conclusions indicate that the structure of the concept of procedural due process, or any legal concept, is not the same as the…

  19. 25 CFR 42.6 - When does due process require a formal disciplinary hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does due process require a formal disciplinary... RIGHTS § 42.6 When does due process require a formal disciplinary hearing? Unless local school policies and procedures provide for less, a formal disciplinary hearing is required before a suspension in...

  20. Breaking the sound barrier: exploring parents' decision-making process of cochlear implants for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pamara F

    2017-08-01

    To understand the dynamic experiences of parents undergoing the decision-making process regarding cochlear implants for their child(ren). Thirty-three parents of d/Deaf children participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and coded using iterative and thematic coding. The results from this study reveal four salient topics related to parents' decision-making process regarding cochlear implantation: 1) factors parents considered when making the decision to get the cochlear implant for their child (e.g., desire to acculturate child into one community), 2) the extent to which parents' communities influence their decision-making (e.g., norms), 3) information sources parents seek and value when decision-making (e.g., parents value other parent's experiences the most compared to medical or online sources), and 4) personal experiences with stigma affecting their decision to not get the cochlear implant for their child. This study provides insights into values and perspectives that can be utilized to improve informed decision-making, when making risky medical decisions with long-term implications. With thorough information provisions, delineation of addressing parents' concerns and encompassing all aspects of the decision (i.e., medical, social and cultural), health professional teams could reduce the uncertainty and anxiety for parents in this decision-making process for cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parent-child communication processes: preventing children's health-risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Susan K; Anderson, Lori S; Krueger, Heather A

    2006-01-01

    Review individual, family, and environmental factors that predict health-risk behavior among children and to propose parent-child communication processes as a mechanism to mediate them. Improving parent-child communication processes may: reduce individual risk factors, such as poor academic achievement or self-esteem; modify parenting practices such as providing regulation and structure and acting as models of health behavior; and facilitate discussion about factors that lead to involvement in health-risk behaviors. Assessment strategies to identify youth at risk for health-risk behavior are recommended and community-based strategies to improve communication among parents and children need development.

  2. Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…

  3. Single-machine common/slack due window assignment problems with linear decreasing processing times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingong; Lin, Win-Chin; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Wu, Chin-Chia

    2017-08-01

    This paper studies linear non-increasing processing times and the common/slack due window assignment problems on a single machine, where the actual processing time of a job is a linear non-increasing function of its starting time. The aim is to minimize the sum of the earliness cost, tardiness cost, due window location and due window size. Some optimality results are discussed for the common/slack due window assignment problems and two O(n log n) time algorithms are presented to solve the two problems. Finally, two examples are provided to illustrate the correctness of the corresponding algorithms.

  4. Conceptualizing the key processes of Mindful Parenting and its application to youth mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, Kishani

    2016-12-01

    Youth mental health disorders are rising across the world. Mindful Parenting could be a potential tool to promote youth mental health. The primary distinction between Mindful Parenting programs and other behavioral parenting programs is the focus on emotional literacy and compassion. However, this emerging field has gaps in its theory and evidence. In order to objectively evaluate the impact of Mindful Parenting, it is important to identify how it promotes change. This theoretical paper aims to articulate the key change processes of Mindful Parenting that promote positive outcomes. A literature review was conducted to synthesize the change processes outlined by different authors in the field. Key processes argued to promote Mindful Parenting were aligned with five main categories, namely attention, intention, attitude, attachment and emotion. More specifically the change processes were listening, emotional awareness, emotional regulation, attentional regulation, attunement, attention to variability, intentionality, reperceiving, compassion and non-judgmental acceptance. This preliminary analysis attempted to understand how Mindful Parenting fosters change and transformation. Whilst there are numerous change processes, the essence of Mindful Parenting appears to be the ability to be responsive to a child's needs. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  5. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…

  6. Standard Setting as Psychometric Due Process: Going a Little Further Down an Uncertain Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Gregory J.

    The concept of due process provides an analogy for the process of standard setting that emphasizes many of the procedural and substantive elements of the process over technical and statistical concerns. Surely such concerns can and should continue to be addressed. However, a sound rationale for standard setting does not rest on this foundation.…

  7. Parental Involvement and Children's School Achievement: Evidence for Mediating Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Maria A.; Theule, Jennifer; Ryan, Bruce A.; Adams, Gerald R.; Keating, Leo

    2009-01-01

    This study used path analytic techniques and an ecological framework to examine the association between children's perceptions of their parents' educational involvement, children's personal characteristics, and their school achievement. Fathers' academic pressure was predictive of lower achievement, whereas mothers' encouragement and support…

  8. Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…

  9. Parents of children with cerebral palsy : a review of factors related to the process of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentinck, I. C. M.; Ketelaar, M.; Jongmans, M. J.; Gorter, J. W.

    Background Little is known about the way parents adapt to the situation when their child is diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Methods A literature search was performed to gain a deeper insight in the process of adaptation of parents with a child with cerebral palsy and on factors related to this

  10. Help-seeking process of parents for psychopathology in youths with moderate to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.H.; Dekker, M.C.; de Ruiter, K.P.; Verhulst, F.C.; Koot, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the help-seeking process of parents for emotional or behavioral problems in their child with borderline to moderate intellectual disabilities. METHOD: In 2003, in a special education-based sample of 522 youths (ages 10-18years, response = 77.9%), we studied the parents'

  11. Children's Well-Being during Parents' Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2002-01-01

    Examines the extent to which parents' marital disruption process affects children's academic performance and well-being both before and after parental divorce. Compared with peers in intact families, children of divorce faired less well. Discusses how family resources mediate detrimental effects over time. Similar results are noted for girls and…

  12. Modelling of the radioactive daughter elements in soil to assess radiation impact due to contaminated irrigation water by parents of 231Pa, 226Ra, 238U, 237Np and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela Kanyar; Katalin Eged; Tunde Katona; Gerhard Proehl; Ulla Bergstroem; Bengt Hallberg; Shelly Mobbs; Geert Olyslaegers; Theo Zeevaert; Palome Pinedo; Inmaculade Simon

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive wastes may contain both parent and daughter radionuclides. In some cases the transfer parameters of the daughter radio-elements differ significantly from that of the parent ones and therefore the dose contributions in the different pathways might be important to assess separately. The present work has compared 5 different site specific models by a scenario, using contaminated water for drinking and irrigation. Altogether 5 radionuclides from the investigated 10 ones contained radioactive daughter elements. In general, for long term studies in biosphere the steady-state formulations of processes are adequate to assess the contamination, except the infiltration into the deeper soil and sediment layers. According to the results of the modelling and computer simulations, the following daughters are to be assessed separately from their parents with respect to the radiation impact: for parent 231 Pa the daughter 227 Ac, for parent 226 Ra the daughters 222 Rn, 210 Pb and 210 Po and for parent 237 Np the daughter 233 Pa. The dose contributions of the daughters from parents 238 U and 239 Pu are less significant during the considered 100-10000 years. In case of contamination of irrigation water with 1 Bq x m -3 of the parent radionuclide 231 Pa, more than 90% of the external dose from soil exposure comes from the daughter 227 Ac (annually 15 nSv). By a similar contamination with 226 Ra as a parent radionuclide, 60% of the ingestion dose is due to food contamination with the daughters 210 Pb and 210 Po (approximately 150 nSv x a -1 ). (author)

  13. The due-diligence process of purchasing or buying into a dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Vincent L

    2003-01-01

    A due-diligence or evaluation process is necessary when assessing a practice purchase opportunity. The standards for assessing the investment remain the same whether the buyer is purchasing a practice outright or buying a co-ownership interest.

  14. Mediating factors of coping process in parents of children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouie, Fatemeh; Mehrdad, Neda; Ebrahimi, Hossein

    2013-05-14

    Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong condition for children and their parents, the management for which imposes a vast responsibility. This study explores the mediating factors that affect Iranian parents' coping processes with their children's type 1 diabetes. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Participants were selected purposefully, and we continued with theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data. The mediating factors of the parental coping process with their child's diabetes consist of the child's cooperation, crises and experiences, economic challenges, and parental participation in care. Findings highlight the necessity of well-informed nurses with insightful understanding of the mediating factors in parental coping with juvenile diabetes in order to meet the particular needs of this group.

  15. Characterizing Early Psychosocial Functioning of Parents of Children with Moderate to Severe Genital Ambiguity due to Disorders of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suorsa, Kristina I; Mullins, Alexandria J; Tackett, Alayna P; Reyes, Kristy J Scott; Austin, Paul; Baskin, Laurence; Bernabé, Kerlly; Cheng, Earl; Fried, Allyson; Frimberger, Dominic; Galan, Denise; Gonzalez, Lynette; Greenfield, Saul; Kropp, Bradley; Meyer, Sabrina; Meyer, Theresa; Nokoff, Natalie; Palmer, Blake; Poppas, Dix; Paradis, Alethea; Yerkes, Elizabeth; Wisniewski, Amy B; Mullins, Larry L

    2015-12-01

    We examined the psychosocial characteristics of parents of children with disorders of sex development at early presentation to a disorders of sex development clinic. Parental anxiety, depression, quality of life, illness uncertainty and posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed. Additionally we evaluated the relationship of assigned child gender to parental outcomes. A total of 51 parents of children with ambiguous or atypical genitalia were recruited from 7 centers specializing in treatment of disorders of sex development. At initial assessment no child had undergone genitoplasty. Parents completed the Cosmetic Appearance Rating Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, SF-36, Parent Perception of Uncertainty Scale and Impact of Event Scale-Revised. A large percentage of parents (54.5%) were dissatisfied with the genital appearance of their child, and a small but significant percentage reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, diminished quality of life, uncertainty and posttraumatic stress. Few gender differences emerged. Although many parents function well, a subset experience significant psychological distress around the time of diagnosis of a disorder of sex development in their child. Early screening to assess the need for psychosocial interventions is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intervention decision-making processes and information preferences of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, N; Rodger, S; Hoffmann, T

    2016-01-01

    When a child is diagnosed with autism, parents are faced with the task of choosing from many different intervention options. To find information about the options available, parents turn to a number of different sources. This study explores parents' (n = 23) intervention decision-making processes and information preferences following the diagnosis of ASD for their child. Qualitative thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts from interviews and focus groups involving parents of children with an autism diagnosis was undertaken. Analysis of the results revealed that there are concurrent emotional and pragmatic intervention 'journeys' undertaken by parents post diagnosis, which encompass the primary themes of: (1) information sources used, (2) parents' information preferences and (3) factors influencing intervention decision making. Parents described a journey from the point of diagnosis that involved seeking information on ASD interventions from multiple sources, with the Internet being the primary source. They were overwhelmed by the sheer volume of information available, and their preferences for information varied according to their stage in the journey post diagnosis. Parents had a 'trial and error' approach to choosing ASD interventions, with confidence increasing as they became more familiar with their child's condition, and had opportunities to explore numerous information sources about their child's diagnosis. While confidence increased over time, consideration of the effectiveness or evidence supporting interventions remained largely absent throughout the journey. This study highlights the need for parents of children with ASD to be supported to make informed intervention decisions, particularly with consideration for research evidence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Constituents’ formal participation in the IASB’s due process: New insights into the impact of country and due process document characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dobler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts a multi-issue/multi-period approach to provide new insights into key determinants of constituents’ formal participation in the due process of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. Based on an analysis of 8,825 comment letters submitted during the period 2006–2012, we find imbalances in the representation of constituents. Multiple regressions reveal that among various economic and cultural variables equity market capitalization and the society’s level of individualism are the key drivers of the country-level of constituents’ participation, and each variable has explanatory power over the other. The level of constituents’ participation is positively associated with the number of input opportunities offered by a due process document but unrelated to the complexity of a standard-setting project. The results are robust across various sub-samples and to additional sensitivity tests. Our findings indicate threats to the input legitimacy of the IASB and suggest avenues to stimulate constituents’ participation.

  18. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  19. 21st Century Parent-Child Sex Communication in the U.S.: A Process Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Dalmacio; Barroso, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Parent-child sex communication results in the transmission of family expectations, societal values, and role modeling of sexual health risk reduction strategies. Parent-child sex communication’s potential to curb negative sexual health outcomes has sustained a multidisciplinary effort to better understand the process and its impact on the development of healthy sexual attitudes and behaviors among adolescents. This review advances what is known about the process of sex communication in the U.S. by reviewing studies published from 2003 to 2015. We used CINAHL, PsycInfo and Pubmed, the key-terms “parent child” AND “sex education” for the initial query; we included 116 original articles for analysis. Our review underscores long-established factors that prevent parents from effectively broaching and sustaining talks about sex with their children and has also identified emerging concerns unique to today’s parenting landscape. Parental factors salient to sex communication are established long before individuals become parents and are acted upon by influences beyond the home. Child-focused communication factors likewise describe a maturing audience that is far from captive. The identification of both enduring and emerging factors that affect how sex communication occurs will inform subsequent work that will result in more positive sexual health outcomes for adolescents. PMID:28059568

  20. 21st Century Parent-Child Sex Communication in the United States: A Process Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Dalmacio; Barroso, Julie

    Parent-child sex communication results in the transmission of family expectations, societal values, and role modeling of sexual health risk-reduction strategies. Parent-child sex communication's potential to curb negative sexual health outcomes has sustained a multidisciplinary effort to better understand the process and its impact on the development of healthy sexual attitudes and behaviors among adolescents. This review advances what is known about the process of sex communication in the United States by reviewing studies published from 2003 to 2015. We used the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, SocINDEX, and PubMed, and the key terms "parent child" AND "sex education" for the initial query; we included 116 original articles for analysis. Our review underscores long-established factors that prevent parents from effectively broaching and sustaining talks about sex with their children and has also identified emerging concerns unique to today's parenting landscape. Parental factors salient to sex communication are established long before individuals become parents and are acted upon by influences beyond the home. Child-focused communication factors likewise describe a maturing audience that is far from captive. The identification of both enduring and emerging factors that affect how sex communication occurs will inform subsequent work that will result in more positive sexual health outcomes for adolescents.

  1. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  2. Due Process in the Internet Jurisdiction: Landing Softly on the Other Side of the Looking Glass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolb, Natalie A

    2001-01-01

    .... However, even if a U.S. state court exercises improper jurisdiction over a non-resident defendant in an Internet case, due process protection can be revived at the choice-of-law and enforcement stages of the judicial proceeding...

  3. Effects of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetta, Antonella; de Hert, Paul; Wright, D.; Kreissl, R.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the impact of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence, key values and principles of a democratic order. It illustrates how they are implemented and enforced in contemporary surveillance societies, while referring to European law and

  4. Due Process and Higher Education: A Systemic Approach to Fair Decision Making. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ed

    University officials and faculty are frequently required to make decisions based on interpretations of disputed facts. By applying the concept of due process within the context of higher education, they can meet legal challenges of contract and constitutional law and the pedagogical demand for justice. To guide their efforts, decision makers can…

  5. The Procedural Queer: Substantive Due Process, "Lawrence v. Texas," and Queer Rhetorical Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter Odell

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses Justice Anthony M. Kennedy's choice to foreground arguments from due process rather than equal protection in the majority opinion in Lawrence v. Texas. Kennedy's choice can realize constitutional legal doctrine that is more consistent with radical queer politics than arguments from equal protection. Unlike some recent…

  6. Formal participation in the IASB's due process of standard setting : A multi-issue/multiperiod analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.; Lybaert, N.; Orens, R.; van der Tas, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to enquire about the nature of constituents' participation in the IASB's due process in terms of representation (constituents' diversity and characteristics) and drivers to participate. We choose to adopt a multi-issue/multi-period approach to investigate constituents' formal

  7. Parent-identified barriers to pediatric health care: a process-oriented model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J; Seid, Michael; Reyes Gelhard, Leticia

    2006-02-01

    To further understand barriers to care as experienced by health care consumers, and to demonstrate the importance of conjoining qualitative and quantitative health services research. Transcripts from focus groups conducted in San Diego with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children with special health care needs. Participants were asked about the barriers to care they had experienced or perceived, and their strategies for overcoming these barriers. Using elementary anthropological discourse analysis techniques, a process-based conceptual model of the parent experience was devised. The analysis revealed a parent-motivated model of barriers to care that enriched our understanding of quantitative findings regarding the population from which the focus group sample was drawn. Parent-identified barriers were grouped into the following six temporally and spatially sequenced categories: necessary skills and prerequisites for gaining access to the system; realizing access once it is gained; front office experiences; interactions with physicians; system arbitrariness and fragmentation; outcomes that affect future interaction with the system. Key to the successful navigation of the system was parents' functional biomedical acculturation; this construct likens the biomedical health services system to a cultural system within which all parents/patients must learn to function competently. Qualitative analysis of focus group data enabled a deeper understanding of barriers to care--one that went beyond the traditional association of marker variables with poor outcomes ("what") to reveal an understanding of the processes by which parents experience the health care system ("how,"why") and by which disparities may arise. Development of such process-oriented models furthers the provision of patient-centered care and the creation of interventions, programs, and curricula to enhance such care. Qualitative discourse analysis, for example using this project's widely applicable

  8. The bereavement experience of adolescents and early young adults with cancer: Peer and parental loss due to death is associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza-Marie Johnson

    Full Text Available Adolescents commonly experience loss due to death, and perceived closeness to the deceased can often increase the intensity of bereavement. Adolescents and early young adult (AeYA oncology patients may recall previous losses or experience new losses, possibly of other children with cancer, while coping with their own increased risk of mortality. The bereavement experiences of AeYA patients are not well described in the literature.This analysis of bereavement sought to describe the prevalence and types of losses, the support following a death, and the impact of loss on AeYAs aged 13-21 years with malignant disease (or a hematologic disorder requiring allogeneic transplant. Participants were receiving active oncologic therapy or had completed therapy within the past 3 years. Participants completed a bereavement questionnaire and inventories on depression, anxiety, and somatization. The cross-sectional study enrolled 153 AeYAs (95% participation, most (88% of whom had experienced a loss due to death. The most commonly reported losses were of a grandparent (58% or friend (37%. Peer deaths were predominantly cancer related (66%. Many participants (39% self-identified a loss as "very significant." As loss significance increased, AeYAs were more likely to report that it had changed their life "a lot/enormously" (P<0.0001, that they were grieving "slowly or never got over it" (P<0.0001, and that they felt a need for more professional help (P = 0.026. Peer loss was associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes (P = 0.029, as was parental loss (P = 0.018.Most AeYAs with serious illness experience the grief process as slow or ongoing. Peer or parental loss was associated with increased risk of negative mental health outcomes. Given the high prevalence of peer loss, screening for bereavement problems is warranted in AeYAs with cancer, and further research on grief and bereavement is needed in AeYAs with serious illness.

  9. 34 CFR 300.519 - Surrogate parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surrogate parents. 300.519 Section 300.519 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.519 Surrogate parents... parent (as defined in § 300.30) can be identified; (2) The public agency, after reasonable efforts...

  10. Health-related quality of life of the parents of children hospitalized due to acute rotavirus infection: a cross-sectional study in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizane, Gunta; Kivite, Anda; Stars, Inese; Cikovska, Marita; Grope, Ilze; Gardovska, Dace

    2018-03-15

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children and infants worldwide, representing a heavy public health burden. Limited information is available regarding the impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the quality of life of affected children and their families. The objectives of study were to estimate the impact of rotavirus infection on health-related quality of life (HRQL), to assess the social and emotional effects on the families of affected children. This study enrolled all (n = 527) RotaStrip®-positive (with further PCR detection) cases (0-18 years of age) hospitalized from April 2013 to December 2015 and their caregivers. A questionnaire comprising clinical (filled-in by the medical staff) and social (filled by the caregivers) sections was completed per child. Main indicators of emotional burden reported by caregivers were compassion (reported as severe/very severe by 91.1% of parents), worry (85.2%), stress/anxiety (68.0%). Regarding social burden, 79.3% of caregivers reported the need to introduce changes into their daily routine due to rotavirus infection of their child. Regarding economic burden, 55.1% of parents needed to take days off work because of their child's sickness, and 76.1% of parents reported additional expenditures in the family's budget. Objective measures of their child's health status were not associated with HRQL of the family, as were the parent's subjective evaluation of their child's health and some sociodemographic factors. Parents were significantly more worried if their child was tearful (p = 0.006) or irritable (p Parents were more stressful/anxious if their child had a fever (p = 0.003), was tearful (p parents' daily routines were more often reported if the child had a fever (p = 0.02) or insufficient fluid intake (p = 0.04). Objective health status of the child did not influence the emotional, social or economic burden, whereas the parents' subjective perception of the child's health

  11. Culture, context and therapeutic processes: delivering a parent-child intervention in a remote Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.

  12. Understanding Silence: An Investigation of the Processes of Silencing in Parent-Teacher Conferences with Somali Diaspora Parents in Danish Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2016-01-01

    This article questions the dominant understanding that immigrant and refugee parents in parent-teacher conferences are silent because they come from a culture where one does not question the authority of the teacher. Instead, it is argued that they "become" silent through certain interactional processes. Building on material from an…

  13. Perspectives on the divorce process: parental perceptions of the legal system and its impact on family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, M K; Jackson, T D

    2001-01-01

    Through semistructured interviews, divorcing parents provide a consumer perspective of the legal process of divorce discussed in law and mental health literature. The parents offer a heightened awareness of families' basic needs within the legal system that may otherwise be overlooked by professionals. This article focuses on narrative accounts provided by 41 divorcing parents to describe both their positive and negative experiences with the legal system and court-related professionals. Although many parents entered the divorce process with hopes for a fair and reasonable experience and outcome, only 12 percent of the parents ended the process with positive expectations. Parents conveyed feelings of a lack of power and control over divorce outcomes. The responses from parents provide valuable insight into how reforms of the legal system can be structured best to increase the quality of the process and ameliorate potentially destructive effects of divorce on the family.

  14. Insights into the IASB due process: the influence of country characteristics on constituents’ formal participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Eisenschmidt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the impact of country characteristics on constituents’ formal participation in the IASB’s due process. We hypothesize that there is an association between the level of constituents’ partic- ipation and (1 the level of economic development, and (2 the cultural characteristics of the country of origin. We use a number of comment letters (CLs and their length as proxies for constituents’ formal participation in the IASB’s due process. The results indicate that economic development (equity market capitalization is the most important explanatory factor for the different levels of participation. In con- trast, the cultural characteristics measured by Hofstede’s cultural framework can only partially explain that differences. Only individualism is a significant positive influence factor for the level of constituents’ participation. The results of our descriptive analysis for the CLs and the information input provided show that there is still a lack of participation in the IASB’s due process. Despite the huge impact of accounting norms on societies, only a limited number of constituents participate, and some constituent groups, like users or academics, participate less.

  15. Increased Sensory Processing Atypicalities in Parents of Multiplex ASD Families Versus Typically Developing and Simplex ASD Families

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Chelsea K.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; Donkers, Franc C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sensory processing atypicalities may share genetic influences with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further investigate this, the adolescent/adult sensory profile (AASP) questionnaire was distributed to 85 parents of typically developing children (P-TD), 121 parents from simplex ASD families (SPX), and 54 parents from multiplex ASD families (MPX). After controlling for gender and presence of mental disorders, results showed that MPX parents significantly d...

  16. [The diagnostic process in spina bifida: parents perception and viewpoint of clinical specialists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, G; Streeck, S

    1995-01-01

    This is a study of the subjective experience of communicative understanding between parents of spina bifida children and medical personnel. Research methods include content analysis of data from semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire to explore the quality of life as well as conversation analytic reconstructions of the "real" communication processes during outpatient clinic which were tape-recorded. Results of the interviews with parents and personnel demonstrate the great relevance of the quality of the relationship in the providing of clinical care; equally important is that the relationship between parents and clinic staff is shaped in a reciprocal fashion. Discrepancies in the perceptions of parents and personnel indicate individual reality constructions. It is desirable that parents and personnel construct a shared reality during their interaction. With respect to this end, the emotional resources of personnel should be regarded as competences and drawn upon more systematically. The parents' role as "experts" should be validated and their active participation in the construction of the communicative situation - which is normally determined by the institution - should be encouraged.

  17. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children's Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Diana; Sánchez-Oliva, David; González-Ponce, Inmaculada; Pulido-González, Juan José; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130), and team sports (n=191). A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.

  18. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children's Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Amado

    Full Text Available Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child. 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130, and team sports (n=191. A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.

  19. Defective motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment due to periventricular white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Joel M; Gilmore, Rick O; Shaikh, Sumera M; Kunselman, Allen R; Trescher, William V; Tashima, Lauren M; Boltz, Marianne E; McAuliffe, Matthew B; Cheung, Albert; Fesi, Jeremy D

    2012-07-01

    We sought to characterize visual motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) due to periventricular white matter damage caused by either hydrocephalus (eight individuals) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) associated with prematurity (11 individuals). Using steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEP), we measured cortical activity related to motion processing for two distinct types of visual stimuli: 'local' motion patterns thought to activate mainly primary visual cortex (V1), and 'global' or coherent patterns thought to activate higher cortical visual association areas (V3, V5, etc.). We studied three groups of children: (1) 19 children with CVI (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 8mo]; 9 male; 10 female); (2) 40 neurologically and visually normal comparison children (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 1mo]; 18 male; 22 female); and (3) because strabismus and amblyopia are common in children with CVI, a group of 41 children without neurological problems who had visual deficits due to amblyopia and/or strabismus (mean age 7y 8mo [SD 2y 8mo]; 28 male; 13 female). We found that the processing of global as opposed to local motion was preferentially impaired in individuals with CVI, especially for slower target velocities (p=0.028). Motion processing is impaired in children with CVI. ssVEP may provide useful and objective information about the development of higher visual function in children at risk for CVI. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2011.

  20. Induced Current Characteristics Due to Laser Induced Plasma and Its Application to Laser Processing Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2011-01-01

    In laser processing, suitable conditions for laser and gas play important role in ensuring a high quality of processing. To determine suitable conditions, we employed the electromagnetic phenomena associated with laser plasma generation. An electrode circuit was utilised to detect induced current due to the fast electrons propelled from the material during laser material processing. The characteristics of induced current were examined by changing parameters such as supplied voltage, laser pulse energy, number of laser shots, and type of ambient gas. These characteristics were compared with the optical emission characteristics. It was shown that the induced current technique proposed in this study is much more sensitive than the optical method in monitoring laser processing, that is to determine the precise focusing condition, and to accurately determine the moment of completion of laser beam penetration. In this study it was also shown that the induced current technique induced by CW CO 2 laser can be applied in industrial material processing for monitoring the penetration completion in a stainless steel plate drilling process.

  1. Digital Parenting and Changing Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl KABAKÇI YURDAKUL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies are developing rapidly. Developing technologies are integrated in many fields of life. This situation facilitated almost all fields of life. Owing to integration process, children’s technology use and adaption is easy compare to their parents. But technology use and adaption brings several disadvantages for children. Computer and the Internet have been used nearly all home in about last five years. Parents who were worried about their children when they played outside are worried about their children when they are on net at home. Due to these developments, parenting notion has gain new different dimensions and parenting roles are changed. Parents should now be digital parent, the Internet Parent or online parent. In this paper Digital Parenting is examined and described in additon to thisdigital parenting roles are determined. Based on these roles recommendations are presented for future studies and practices

  2. Process Evaluation of a Parenting Program for Low-Income Families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M.; Kelly, Jane; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L.; Hutchings, Judy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This mixed-methods process evaluation examined the feasibility of a parenting program delivered by community facilitators to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in low-income families with children aged 3-8 years in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 68). Method: Quantitative measures included attendance registers, fidelity checklists,…

  3. Impact of the Diagnostic Process on Parents of Infants and Preschool Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Terrence N.; Hanson, Janice L.

    In an investigation of the impact of the psychological/educational diagnostic process on the parents of young children at risk for developmental delay, 18 families completed questionnaires and were interviewed concerning their child's evaluation. Transcribed interviews conducted 1-2 weeks after the evaluation and 4 months after the evaluations…

  4. Analyzing empowerment oriented email consultation for parents : Development of the Guiding the Empowerment Process model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Christa C.C. Nieuwboer

    2014-01-01

    Background. Online consultation is increasingly offered by parenting practitioners, but it is not clear if it is feasible to provide empowerment oriented support in single session email consultation. Method. Based on empowerment theory we developed the Guiding the Empowerment Process model (GEP

  5. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  6. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia); Purbolaksono, J., E-mail: judha@uniten.edu.m [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia); Beng, L.C. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia)

    2010-07-15

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  7. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, J.; Purbolaksono, J.; Beng, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  8. Average thermal stress in the Al+SiC composite due to its manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Carlos A.J.; Libardi, Rosani M.P.; Marcelino, Sergio; Boari, Zoroastro M.

    2013-01-01

    The numerical analyses framework to obtain the average thermal stress in the Al+SiC Composite due to its manufacturing process is presented along with the obtained results. The mixing of Aluminum and SiC powders is done at elevated temperature and the usage is at room temperature. A thermal stress state arises in the composite due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the materials. Due to the particles size and randomness in the SiC distribution, some sets of models were analyzed and a statistical procedure used to evaluate the average stress state in the composite. In each model the particles position, form and size are randomly generated considering a volumetric ratio (VR) between 20% and 25%, close to an actual composite. The obtained stress field is represented by a certain number of iso stress curves, each one weighted by the area it represents. Systematically it was investigated the influence of: (a) the material behavior: linear x non-linear; (b) the carbide particles form: circular x quadrilateral; (c) the number of iso stress curves considered in each analysis; and (e) the model size (the number of particles). Each of above analyzed condition produced conclusions to guide the next step. Considering a confidence level of 95%, the average thermal stress value in the studied composite (20% ≤ VR ≤ 25%) is 175 MPa with a standard deviation of 10 MPa. Depending on its usage, this value should be taken into account when evaluating the material strength. (author)

  9. Due Diligence Processes for Public Acquisition of Mining-Impacted Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Monohan, C.; Keeble-Toll, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The acquisition of public land is critical for achieving conservation and habitat goals in rural regions projected to experience continuously high rates of population growth. To ensure that public funds are utilized responsibly in the purchase of conservation easements appropriate due diligence processes must be established that limit landowner liability post-acquisition. Traditional methods of characterizing contamination in regions where legacy mining activities were prevalent may not utilize current scientific knowledge and understanding of contaminant fate, transport and bioavailability, and therefore are likely to have type two error. Agency prescribed assessment methods utilized under CERLA in many cases fail to detect contamination that presents liability issues by failing to require water quality sampling that would reveal offsite transport potential of contaminants posing human health risks, including mercury. Historical analysis can be used to inform judgmental sampling to identify hotspots and contaminants of concern. Land acquisition projects at two historic mine sites in Nevada County, California, the Champion Mine Complex and the Black Swan Preserve have established the necessity of re-thinking due diligence processes for mining-impacted landscapes. These pilot projects demonstrate that pre-acquisition assessment in the Gold Country must include judgmental sampling and evaluation of contaminant transport. Best practices using the current scientific knowledge must be codified by agencies, consultants, and NGOs in order to ensure responsible use of public funds and to safeguard public health.

  10. Secondary emission from a CuBe target due to bombardment with parent and fragment ions of ammonia and phosphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    The secondary electron emission of the first dynode of a CuBe alloy sixteen dynode electron multiplier has been studied in the course of electron impact ionization studies of ammonia and phosphine. Relative secondary electron emission coefficients have been obtained for the singly and doubly charged parent and fragment ions of ammonia, ammonia-d 3 , phosphine and phosphine-d 3 for kinetic energies of 5,25 and 10,5 keV. It has been found, that in general deuterated ions have smaller γ coefficients, that ammonia ions have larger γ coefficients than corresponding phosphine ions, and that the γ coefficients increase with the complexity of the ion under study. (Auth.)

  11. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Chandramohan, P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Khandelwal, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the Indian PHWRs which used stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit encountered high radiation field in moderator system due to 60 Co. Release of particulate stellite was responsible for the hotspots besides the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with 60 Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these stellite particles by adopting a three step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The concentration of the permanganate was also found to be an important factor in deciding the efficiency of the dissolution of stellite. The efficiency of dissolution as a function of permanganic acid concentration showed a maximum. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had 60 Co activity due to stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R/h to 20 R/h. They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing EDTA, ascorbic acid and citric acid in 4:3:3 ratio by weight (EAC) as reducing formulations. A test rig was fabricated for this purpose. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7 was achieved. The same process but one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. 60 Co activity in the range of 13 - 93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30000 - 40000 dpm/cm 2 observed before decontamination

  12. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, V.; Chandramohan, P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V., E-mail: svn@igcar.gov.in [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Khandelwal, R.C. [Kakrapara Atomic Power Station, KAPS, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2010-07-01

    Some of the Indian PHWRs which used stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit encountered high radiation field in moderator system due to {sup 60}Co. Release of particulate stellite was responsible for the hotspots besides the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with {sup 60}Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these stellite particles by adopting a three step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The concentration of the permanganate was also found to be an important factor in deciding the efficiency of the dissolution of stellite. The efficiency of dissolution as a function of permanganic acid concentration showed a maximum. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had {sup 60}Co activity due to stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R/h to 20 R/h. They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing EDTA, ascorbic acid and citric acid in 4:3:3 ratio by weight (EAC) as reducing formulations. A test rig was fabricated for this purpose. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7 was achieved. The same process but one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. {sup 60}Co activity in the range of 13 - 93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30000 - 40000 dpm/cm{sup 2} observed

  13. The Impact of Social Class on Parent-Professional Interaction in School Exclusion Processes: Deficit or Disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeley, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Although a great deal of previous literature has explored the ways in which social class affects parental engagement in educational processes, there has been surprisingly little discussion of the way in which social class shapes the parent-professional interaction that occurs in school exclusion processes specifically. School exclusion processes…

  14. 20 CFR 670.545 - How does Job Corps ensure that students receive due process in disciplinary actions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... receive due process in disciplinary actions? 670.545 Section 670.545 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... process in disciplinary actions? The center operator must ensure that all students receive due process in disciplinary proceedings according to procedures developed by the Secretary. These procedures must include, at...

  15. Mediation and Due Process Procedures in Special Education: An Analysis of State Policies. Final Report. Project FORUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Eileen M.

    This survey of 50 states and 3 of 10 non-state U.S. jurisdictions concerning state due process procedures focuses mainly on the use of mediation as a form of dispute resolution that offers an alternative to due process hearings in special education. A background section discusses the definition of mediation and the mediation process. Survey…

  16. Psychosocial problems of children whose parents visit the emergency department due to intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E M M; van der Lee, J H; Teeuw, A H; Lindeboom, R; Brilleslijper-Kater, S N; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, T; van Goudoever, J B; Lindauer, R J L

    2017-05-01

    High levels of maltreatment are found in children who are identified because their parents visit the emergency department due to partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt. However, it is unknown if these children experience psychosocial problems. This study aims to assess their levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, behavioural problems and health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted in six hospitals. All consecutive families of which a parent visited the emergency department due to partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt between 1 July 2012 and 1 March 2014 with children aged 1.5-17 years were approached for participation. Parents and children aged 8 years and older filled out questionnaires measuring post-traumatic stress [13-item version of Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13)], anxiety, depression (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale), behavioural problems [Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR)] and health-related quality of life (PedsQL). Scores of participants were compared with reference data obtained in children in similar age ranges from representative Dutch community samples (CRIES-13, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, PedsQL and CBCL) and to a normed cutoff score (CRIES-13). Of 195 eligible families, 89 (46%) participated in the study. Participating children did not score different from community children, both on child-reported and parent-reported instruments. Standardized mean differences of total sum scores were 0 (CRIES-13 and CBCL 1.5-5), 0.1 (YSR), 0.2 (CBCL 6-18) and -0.3 (PedsQL) and not statistically different from community children. Thirty-five percent of the participating children scored above the cutoff score on the CRIES-13, indicating post-traumatic stress disorder, but this difference was not statistically significant from community children (mean difference 8%; 95% CI -4-22%). We found no differences in psychosocial

  17. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Veena; Chandramohan, Palogi; Chandran, Sinu; Srinivasan, Madapusi P.; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam; Narasimhan, Sevilmedu V.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which use Stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit have encountered high radiation fields in the moderator system due to 60 Co. Release of particulate Stellite is responsible for the hotspots in addition to the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with 60 Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these Stellite particles by adopting a three-step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive Stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The susceptibility of Stellite to corrode or dissolve was found to depend on the concentration of the permanganate, pH and temperature of the process and microstructure of the Stellite alloy. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had 60 Co activity due to Stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R . h -1 to 20 R . h -1 . They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ascorbic acid and citric acid in a 4:3:3 ratio by weight as the reducing formulation. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7, was achieved. The same process but with one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. 60 Co activity in the range of 13-93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30 000-40 000 decays per min and cm 2 observed

  18. Evaluation of a process for the decontamination of radioactive hotspots due to activated stellite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Veena; Chandramohan, Palogi; Chandran, Sinu; Srinivasan, Madapusi P.; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam; Narasimhan, Sevilmedu V. [BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Div.

    2011-06-15

    Some of the Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which use Stellite balls in the ball and screw mechanism of the adjustor rod drive mechanism in the moderator circuit have encountered high radiation fields in the moderator system due to {sup 60}Co. Release of particulate Stellite is responsible for the hotspots in addition to the general uniform contamination of internal surfaces with {sup 60}Co. Extensive laboratory studies have shown that it is possible to dissolve these Stellite particles by adopting a three-step redox process with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent. These investigations with inactive Stellite in powder form helped to optimize the process conditions. Permanganic acid was found to have the highest dissolution efficiency as compared to alkaline and nitric acid permanganate. The susceptibility of Stellite to corrode or dissolve was found to depend on the concentration of the permanganate, pH and temperature of the process and microstructure of the Stellite alloy. This process was evaluated for its effectiveness on components from nuclear power plants. Component decontamination was carried out on adjustor rod drive assemblies which had {sup 60}Co activity due to Stellite particles with the radiation field ranging from 3 R . h{sup -1} to 20 R . h{sup -1}. They were subjected to decontamination with permanganic acid as the oxidizing agent, followed by citric acid and a solution containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ascorbic acid and citric acid in a 4:3:3 ratio by weight as the reducing formulation. In the first trial, one adjustor rod drive mechanism was subjected to decontamination. After two cycles of treatment, an average decontamination factor (DF) of 6.8, with a maximum DF of 11.7, was achieved. The same process but with one cycle was repeated on eight more adjustor rod drive mechanisms. {sup 60}Co activity in the range of 13-93 mCi was removed from these adjustor rods. Loose contamination of the order of 30 000-40 000

  19. Temperature resolution enhancing of commercially available THz passive cameras due to computer processing of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2014-06-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection of concealed object: minimal size of the object, maximal distance of the detection, image detail. One of probable ways for a quality image enhancing consists in computer processing of image. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts. We demonstrate new possibilities for seeing the clothes details, which raw images, produced by the THz cameras, do not allow to see. We achieve good quality of the image due to applying various spatial filters with the aim to demonstrate independence of processed images on math operations. This result demonstrates a feasibility of objects seeing. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp., and Capital Normal University (Beijing, China).

  20. Adaptive memory: the survival-processing memory advantage is not due to negativity or mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P; Buchner, Axel

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has highlighted the adaptive function of memory by showing that imagining being stranded in the grasslands without any survival material and rating words according to their survival value in this situation leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. Studies examining the role of emotions in causing the survival-processing memory advantage have been inconclusive, but some studies have suggested that the effect might be due to negativity or mortality salience. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared the survival scenario to a control scenario that implied imagining a hopeless situation (floating in outer space with dwindling oxygen supplies) in which only suicide can avoid the agony of choking to death. Although this scenario was perceived as being more negative than the survival scenario, the survival-processing memory advantage persisted. In Experiment 3, thinking about the relevance of words for survival led to better memory for these words than did thinking about the relevance of words for death. This survival advantage was found for concrete, but not for abstract, words. The latter finding is consistent with the assumption that the survival instructions encourage participants to think about many different potential uses of items to aid survival, which may be a particularly efficient form of elaborate encoding. Together, the results suggest that thinking about death is much less effective in promoting recall than is thinking about survival. Therefore, the survival-processing memory advantage cannot be satisfactorily explained by negativity or mortality salience.

  1. Accommodaton of constitutional due process rights within the new patients' rights legislation in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanc, Blaz

    2011-09-01

    The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia issued several decisions concerning the protection of patients' rights (e.g. decisions on involuntary commitment, on access to health care, on rights related to obligatory and voluntary health insurance). Consequently, the Parliament renewed Health Legislation by the enactment of the Patients' Rights Act (February 2008) and of the Mental Health Act (July 2008). Both bills enshrine a charter of patients' rights that may be considered as concretization of several human rights that are protected by the Constitution. The discussion is focused on the due process rights (e.g. equal protection of rights, right to judicial protection, right to legal remedies, legal guarantees in proceedings related to deprivation of personal liberty) that were in particular addressed by the Court. The results demonstrate that their effective implementation was one of the most important demands that the Legislature had to accommodate when enacting new bills.

  2. South African, Rural ICT Implementation: a critical retrospective application of Latour's due process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Rhodes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential developmental role of ICTs can pressurise governments to engage in ‘catch up’ and ‘leapfrog’. Consequently, analysis of the accompanying socio-political dimensions and risks can be, disastrously, neglected. This paper examines a specific technology implementation – a South African government sponsored telecentre using Latour’s Due Process model, an analytical tool grounded in Actor-Network Theory, where technology implementation is viewed as a symmetrical treatment of technology and society within a single collective. It is used here, retrospectively, to make sense of why the telecentre both failed to institutionalise within a successful actor-network, and, contributed to the destabilization and partial destruction of a successfully established women’s development organisation.

  3. Anomalous diffusion due to hindering by mobile obstacles undergoing Brownian motion or Orstein-Ulhenbeck processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Hugues; Chaté, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    In vivo measurements of the passive movements of biomolecules or vesicles in cells consistently report "anomalous diffusion," where mean-squared displacements scale as a power law of time with exponent αmovement hindrance by obstacles is often invoked. However, our understanding of how hindered diffusion leads to subdiffusion is based on diffusion amidst randomly located immobile obstacles. Here, we have used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate transient subdiffusion due to mobile obstacles with various modes of mobility. Our simulations confirm that the anomalous regimes rapidly disappear when the obstacles move by Brownian motion. By contrast, mobile obstacles with more confined displacements, e.g., Orstein-Ulhenbeck motion, are shown to preserve subdiffusive regimes. The mean-squared displacement of tracked protein displays convincing power laws with anomalous exponent α that varies with the density of Orstein-Ulhenbeck (OU) obstacles or the relaxation time scale of the OU process. In particular, some of the values we observed are significantly below the universal value predicted for immobile obstacles in two dimensions. Therefore, our results show that subdiffusion due to mobile obstacles with OU type of motion may account for the large variation range exhibited by experimental measurements in living cells and may explain that some experimental estimates are below the universal value predicted for immobile obstacles.

  4. Research Amplitudo Vibration On Holder Due To The Process Of Lathe Nozzle Rocket RX 450

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediwan; Budi Djatmiko, Agus; Dody Arisandi, EfFendy; Purnomo, Heri; Ibadi, Mahfud

    2018-04-01

    The main function of the rocket nozzle is to convert the enthalpy efficiency from combustion gas to kinetic energy and also to make high velocity out of the gas. The rocket nozzle usually consists of a converging and diverging part. With a smaller area on the neck and enlarged at the exit area. The velocity flow through the nozzle enlarges into the speed of sound through the neck and then becomes super sonic in the divergent part. Nozzle making or machining using conventional lathes, first performed is drilling on a massive metal that is bonded to the veneer, then after a sufficient gap is done deep-boring. At the time of the process of lathe in the nozzle RX 450 there is an obstacle that is vibrating tool holder chisel or holder so it is worried about not precision of the process of lathe. This should not happen because it can cause failure in the latter for it needs to be studied and studied further so that the lathe process goes accordingly. The holder material of ST 60 with a modulus of elasticity 200 GPa and a nozzle material of AISI 4340 alloy steel with σyield = 470 MPa, Shear Modulus G = 80 GPa. The purpose of this research is to observe the amplitude of vibration on the holder due to RX- 450 nozzle lathe processing for the purpose of amplitude that occurs in accordance with the desired so that the nozzle structure is no damage process. The result of the research was obtained holder with length (L) 80cm, profile width (B) 5 cm, height of profile (H) 10 cm, turning machine ω = 8.98 rad / sec and natural holder frequency ωn = 89.8 rad / second, Amplitude of vibration of δ = 1.21 mm, while the amplitude of the design X = 1.22 mm From the results of this study it can be said that the holder of a chisel or holder can be used as a tool at the time of RX nozzle retrieval process and is quite safe because it works under the condition ω/ω n Rocket Payload "AKPV Engineering University of Wyoming 2009 )

  5. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  6. Parent and Family Processes Related to ADHD Management in Ethnically Diverse Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidipati, Cynthia P; Brawner, Bridgette; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Deatrick, Janet A

    Previous research has shown major disparities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for diverse youth across America. We do not fully understand, however, how parent and family processes are related to the identification, care-seeking approaches, treatment preferences, and engagement with care systems and services for youth with ADHD. The present study aimed to explore parent and family processes related to the management of ADHD in racially and ethnically diverse youth. This integrative review was structured with the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl. Three major electronic databases yielded a final sample of 32 articles (24 quantitative, 6 qualitative, and 2 mixed methods). Nine themes emerged within three overarching meta-themes. Understanding the unique perspectives of families from diverse backgrounds is essential for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers, who are dedicated to understanding racial and ethnic perspectives and developing ecologically appropriate and family-based interventions for youth with ADHD.

  7. Harsh, inconsistent parental discipline and romantic relationships: mediating processes of behavioral problems and ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S

    2013-10-01

    According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. [2002]. Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. [2000] interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.

  8. Evidences of landslide earthquake triggering due to self-excitation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzano, F.; Lenti, L.; Martino, Salvatore; Paciello, A.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.

    2011-06-01

    The basin-like setting of stiff bedrock combined with pre-existing landslide masses can contribute to seismic amplifications in a wide frequency range (0-10 Hz) and induce a self-excitation process responsible for earthquake-triggered landsliding. Here, the self-excitation process is proposed to justify the far-field seismic trigger of the Cerda landslide (Sicily, Italy) which was reactivated by the 6th September 2002 Palermo earthquake ( M s = 5.4), about 50 km far from the epicentre. The landslide caused damage to farm houses, roads and aqueducts, close to the village of Cerda, and involved about 40 × 106 m3 of clay shales; the first ground cracks due to the landslide movement formed about 30 min after the main shock. A stress-strain dynamic numerical modelling, performed by FDM code FLAC 5.0, supports the notion that the combination of local geological setting and earthquake frequency content played a fundamental role in the landslide reactivation. Since accelerometric records of the triggering event are not available, dynamic equivalent inputs have been used for the numerical modelling. These inputs can be regarded as representative for the local ground shaking, having a PGA value up to 0.2 m/s2, which is the maximum expected in 475 years, according to the Italian seismic hazard maps. A 2D numerical modelling of the seismic wave propagation in the Cerda landslide area was also performed; it pointed out amplification effects due to both the structural setting of the stiff bedrock (at about 1 Hz) and the pre-existing landslide mass (in the range 3-6 Hz). The frequency peaks of the resulting amplification functions ( A( f)) fit well the H/ V spectral ratios from ambient noise and the H/ H spectral ratios to a reference station from earthquake records, obtained by in situ velocimetric measurements. Moreover, the Fourier spectra of earthquake accelerometric records, whose source and magnitude are consistent with the triggering event, show a main peak at about 1 Hz

  9. Impact of pH on hydrogen oxidizing redox processes in aquifers due to gas intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzgen, Adrian; Berta, Marton; Dethlefsen, Frank; Ebert, Markus; Dahmke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen production from excess energy and its storage can help increasing the efficiency of solar and wind in the energy mix. Therefore, hydrogen needs large-scale intermediate storage independent of the intended later use as hydrogen gas or as reactant to produce methane in the Sabatier process. A possible storage solution is using the geological subsurface such as caverns built in salt deposits or aquifers that are not used for drinking water production. However, underground storage of hydrogen gas potentially leads to accidental gas leakages into near-surface potable aquifers triggering subsequent geochemical processes. These leakages pose potential risks that are currently not sufficiently understood. To close this gap in knowledge, a high-pressure laboratory column system was used to simulate a hydrogen gas intrusion into a shallow aquifer. Water and sediment were gained from a sandy Pleistocene aquifer near Neumünster, Germany. In the first stage of the experiment, 100% hydrogen gas was used to simulate dissolved hydrogen concentrations between 800 and 4000 µM by varying pH2 between 2 and 15 bars. pH values rose to between 7.9 and 10.4, partly due to stripping CO2 from the groundwater used during H2 gas addition. In a second stage, the pH was regulated in a range of 6.7 to 7.9 by using a gas mixture of 99% H2 and 1% CO2 at 5 bars of total gas pressure. Observed processes included hydrogen oxidation, sulfate reduction, acetogenesis, formate production, and methanogenesis, which were independent of the hydrogen concentration. Hydrogen oxidation and sulfate reduction showed zeroth order reaction rates and rate constants (106 to 412 µM/h and 12 to 33 µM/h, respectively) in the pH range between 8 and 10. At pH levels between 7 and 8, both reactions started out faster near the column's inflow but then seemed limited towards the columns outflow, suggesting the dependence of sulfate reduction on the pH-value. Acetogenesis dominated the pH range between 8 and 10

  10. SILTATION AND EROSION PROCESSES ON A TRIBUTARY OF LAKE ITAIPU DUE A DAM RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2012-12-01

    creating an imbalance between the small amount of sediment transported after the hydroelectric and flow transport capacity. There are two cases occurring in a dam: 1 the dam upstream has a reduction of velocity and it start a process of sedimentation that will accelerate its siltation and reducing its useful life, 2 dam downstream has water velocity again and then initiate erosion process due the lack of sediments in the liquid mass. It can be concluded that changes of use and occupation of land in the watershed generate increased occurrence of peak flow and sediment transport, but the inadequate management of the area (with removal of riparian vegetation and lack of energy sinks in outputs of drainage systems potentiates the increasing the instability of water bodies morphology. In case of presence of reservoirs, the alterations are worst because they create siltation and erosion process at the same river.

  11. Towards a Model of Contemporary Parenting: The Parenting Behaviours and Dimensions Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Carly A. Y.; Roberts, Lynne D.; Roberts, Clare M.; Piek, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of parenting has been problematic due to theoretical disagreement, concerns over generalisability, and problems with the psychometric properties of current parenting measures. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound self-report parenting measure for use with parents of preadolescent children, and to use this empirical scale development process to identify the core dimensions of contemporary parenting behaviour. Following item generation and ...

  12. A Model of Family Background, Family Process, Youth Self-Control, and Delinquent Behavior in Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, So-Hee; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of two-parent families with 11- and 12-year-old youths (N = 591), we tested a structural model of family background, family process (marital conflict and parenting), youth self-control, and delinquency four years later. Consistent with the conceptual model, marital conflict and youth self-control are directly…

  13. The Broader Cognitive Phenotype of Autism in Parents: How Specific Is the Tendency for Local Processing and Executive Dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the tendency for local processing style ("weak central coherence") and executive dysfunction in parents of subjects with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with parents of individuals with early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and mental retardation (MR). Method: Sixty-two…

  14. Increased Sensory Processing Atypicalities in Parents of Multiplex ASD Families versus Typically Developing and Simplex ASD Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Chelsea K.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; Donkers, Franc C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sensory processing atypicalities may share genetic influences with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further investigate this, the adolescent/adult sensory profile (AASP) questionnaire was distributed to 85 parents of typically developing children (P-TD), 121 parents from simplex ASD families (SPX), and 54…

  15. Can We Fix This? Parent-Child Repair Processes and Preschoolers' Regulatory Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Christine J; Lunkenheimer, Erika; Albrecht, Erin C; Chen, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The repair of difficult parent-child interactions is a marker of healthy functioning in infancy, but less is known about repair processes during early childhood. We used dynamic systems methods to investigate dyadic repair in mothers and their 3-year-old children ( N = 96) and its prediction of children's emotion regulation and behavior problems at a four-month follow-up. Mothers and children completed free play and challenging puzzle tasks. Repair was operationalized as the conditional probability of moving into a dyadic adaptive behavior region after individual or dyadic maladaptive behavior (e.g., child noncompliance, parental criticism). Overall, dyads repaired approximately half their maladaptive behaviors. A greater likelihood of repair during the puzzle task predicted better child emotion regulation and fewer behavior problems in preschool. Results suggest dyadic repair is an important process in early childhood and provide further evidence for the connection between parent-child coregulation and children's developing regulatory capacities. Implications for family-based interventions are discussed.

  16. Parent material and weldments degradation on SASOL reduction reactors due to combined effect of thermal fatigue, vibration and hydrogen attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borla, Jan Z.

    2002-01-01

    All six installed reduction reactors showed the same failure pattern, which can be attributed to inadequate original design, material degradation due to service conditions and improper maintenance activities. Service is typically low frequency fatigue load conditions with changes of pressure, temperature and batch load. All revealed defects severely affected the integrity of the pressure envelope and vessels were classified for major repair work with subsequent in situ monitoring program. The justification for such extensive and costly repair required a positive evaluation of the current condition of equipment. After complete study, a report was prepared which included the fitness for purpose evaluation, remaining life assessment and recommendation for future field inspections. All reactors were found to be suitable for repair. Within the scope of repair a number of critical elements were redesigned and replaced. The repair was successful and all reactors were put back into operation. Unique expertise was obtained regarding setting the parameters of dehydrogenation in reference to the heavy wall items. Taking replicas and surface sampling appeared to be very reliable and simple tools in monitoring the condition of pressure envelope. For the purpose of future inspection shutdowns specific inspection requirements were put in place to ensure continuous monitoring of the vessel integrity

  17. Functional priorities reported by parents of children with cerebral palsy: contribution to the pediatric rehabilitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina B. Brandão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collaborative actions between family and therapist are essential to the rehabilitation process, and they can be a catalyst mechanism to the positive outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Objectives: To describe functional priorities established by caregivers of CP children by level of severity and age, and to assess changes on performance and satisfaction on functional priorities reported by caregivers, in 6-month interval. Method: 75 CP children, weekly assisted at Associação Mineira de Reabilitação, on physical and occupational therapy services. The following information was collected: gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Classification System-GMFCS and functional priorities established by caregivers (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure-COPM. Data were collected in two moments, with a 6-month interval. Results: The main functional demands presented by caregivers were related to self-care activities (48.2%. Parents of children with severe motor impairment (GMFCS V pointed higher number of demands related to play (p=0.0036, compared to the other severity levels. Parents of younger children reported higher number of demands in mobility (p=0.025 and play (p=0.007, compared to other age groups. After 6 months, there were significant increase on COPM performance (p=0.0001 and satisfaction scores (p=0.0001. Conclusions: Parents of CP children identified functional priorities in similar performance domains, by level of severity and age. Orienting the pediatric rehabilitation process to promote changes in functional priorities indentified by caregivers can contribute to the reinforcement of the parent-therapist collaboration.

  18. The Effects of Parental Acculturation and Parenting Practices on the Substance Use of Mexican-Heritage Adolescents from Southwestern Mexican Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARSIGLIA, FLAVIO F.; NAGOSHI, JULIE L.; PARSAI, MONICA; CASTRO, FELIPE GONZÁLEZ

    2014-01-01

    A sample of 189 Mexican-heritage seventh grade adolescents reported their substance use, while one of the child’s parents reported parent’s acculturation and communication, involvement, and positive parenting with his or her child. Higher levels of parental acculturation predicted greater marijuana use, whereas parent communication predicted lower cigarette and marijuana use among girls. A significant parent acculturation by parent communication interaction for cigarette use was due to parent communication being highly negatively associated with marijuana use for high acculturated parents, with attenuated effects for low acculturated parents. A significant child gender by parent acculturation by parent positive parenting interaction was found. For girls, positive parenting had a stronger association with lower cigarette use for high acculturated parents. For boys, positive parenting had a stronger association with reduced cigarette use for low acculturated parents. Discussion focuses on how acculturation and gender impact family processes among Mexican-heritage adolescents. PMID:25176121

  19. On the Internal Structure of Mobile Barchan Sand Dunes due to Granular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, N. M.; Arran, M.; Louge, M. Y.; Hay, A. G.; Valance, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we visualize the internal structure of mobile barchan desert dunes at the avalanche scale. We reveal an intriguing history of dune building using a novel combination of local sand sampling and advanced geophysical techniques resulting in high resolution measurements of individual avalanche events. Due to progressive rebuilding, granular avalanching, erosional and depositional processes, these marching barchan dunes are reworked every few years and a characteristic zebra-pattern (figure 1a), orientated parallel to the slipface at the angle of repose, appears at regular intervals. We present scientific data on the structure obtained from several mobile barchan dunes of different sizes during recent desert field campaigns (2014, 2015, 2017) in a mobile barchan dune field in Qatar (25.01°N, 51.34°E in the AlWakrah municipality). The site has been equipped with a weather station and has been regularly visited by a multidisciplinary research team in recent years (e.g. [1]). By applying high-frequency (1200 MHz) ground penetrating radar (GPR) transects across the midline (figure 1b) we map the continuous evolution of this cross-bedding at high resolution deep within the dune. The GPR reveals a slope reduction of the slipface near the base of the dune; evidence of irregular wind reversals; and the presence of a harder aeolian cap around the crest and extending to the brink. The data is supplemented with granulometry from layers stabilized by dyed water injection and uncovered by excavating vertical walls perpendicular to old buried avalanches. We attribute visible differences in water penetration between adjacent layers to fine particle segregation processes in granular avalanches. This work was made possible by the support of NPRP grant 6-059-2-023 from the Qatar National Research Fund to MYL and AGH, and a Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellowship to NMV. We thank Jean-Luc Métayer for performing detailed particle size distribution measurements

  20. New hospital-based policy for children whose parents present at the ER due to domestic violence, substance abuse and/or a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; van der Lee, Johanna H; Teeuw, Arianne H

    2013-02-01

    Child maltreatment is a major social problem with many adverse consequences, and a substantial number of maltreated children are not identified by health care professionals. In 2010, in order to improve the identification of maltreated children in hospitals, a new hospital-based policy was developed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This policy was adapted from another policy that was developed in The Hague, the Netherlands, in 2007. In the new Amsterdam policy, all adults presenting at the emergency department due to domestic violence, substance abuse, and/or a suicide attempt are asked whether they have any children in their care. If this is the case, parents are urged to visit the outpatient pediatric department together with all of their children. During this visit, problems are evaluated and voluntary referrals can be arranged to different care organizations. If parents refuse to cooperate, their children are reported to the Dutch Child Abuse Counseling and Reporting Centre. The two aims of this study are to describe (1) characteristics of the identified families and (2) the referrals made to different voluntary and involuntary care organizations during the first 2 years after implementation of the policy. Data were collected from medical records. One hundred and six children from 60 households were included, of which 68 children because their mother was a victim of domestic violence. Referrals to care organizations were arranged for 99 children, of which 67 on a voluntary basis. The Amsterdam policy seems successful in arranging voluntary support for the majority of identified children.

  1. Spectral evidence for amorphous silicates in least-processed CO meteorites and their parent bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Margaret M.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Howard, Kieren T.; Alexander, Conel M.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Bus, Schelte J.

    2018-05-01

    Least-processed carbonaceous chondrites (carbonaceous chondrites that have experienced minimal aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism) are characterized by their predominately amorphous iron-rich silicate interchondrule matrices and chondrule rims. This material is highly susceptible to destruction by the parent body processes of thermal metamorphism or aqueous alteration. The presence of abundant amorphous material in a meteorite indicates that the parent body, or at least a region of the parent body, experienced minimal processing since the time of accretion. The CO chemical group of carbonaceous chondrites has a significant number of these least-processed samples. We present visible/near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra of eight least-processed CO meteorites (petrologic type 3.0-3.1). In the visible/near-infrared, these COs are characterized by a broad weak feature that was first observed by Cloutis et al. (2012) to be at 1.3-μm and attributed to iron-rich amorphous silicate matrix materials. This feature is observed to be centered at 1.4-μm for terrestrially unweathered, least-processed CO meteorites. At mid-infrared wavelengths, a 21-μm feature, consistent with Si-O vibrations of amorphous materials and glasses, is also present. The spectral features of iron-rich amorphous silicate matrix are absent in both the near- and mid-infrared spectra of higher metamorphic grade COs because this material has recrystallized as crystalline olivine. Furthermore, spectra of least-processed primitive meteorites from other chemical groups (CRs, MET 00426 and QUE 99177, and C2-ungrouped Acfer 094), also exhibit a 21-μm feature. Thus, we conclude that the 1.4- and 21-μm features are characteristic of primitive least-processed meteorites from all chemical groups of carbonaceous chondrites. Finally, we present an IRTF + SPeX observation of asteroid (93) Minerva that has spectral similarities in the visible/near-infrared to the least-processed CO carbonaceous chondrites

  2. Parent-child coregulation of parasympathetic processes varies by social context and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika; Tiberio, Stacey S; Skoranski, Amanda M; Buss, Kristin A; Cole, Pamela M

    2018-02-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system supports social interaction and varies in relation to psychopathology. However, we know little about parasympathetic processes from a dyadic framework, nor in early childhood when parent-child social interactions become more complex and child psychopathology first emerges. We hypothesized that higher risk for psychopathology (maternal psychopathology symptoms and child problem behavior) would be related to weaker concordance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) between mothers and children (M = 3½ years old; N = 47) and that these relations could vary by social contextual demands, comparing unstructured free play, semistructured cleanup, and structured teaching tasks. Multilevel coupled autoregressive models of RSA during parent-child interactions showed overall dynamic, positive concordance in mother-child RSA over time, but this concordance was weaker during the more structured teaching task. In contrast, higher maternal psychological aggression and child externalizing and internalizing problems were associated with weaker dyadic RSA concordance, which was weakest during unstructured free play. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were related to disrupted individual mother and child RSA but not to RSA concordance. Thus, risk for psychopathology was generally related to weaker dyadic mother-child RSA concordance in contexts with less complex structure or demands (free play, cleanup), as compared to the structured teaching task that showed weaker RSA concordance for all dyads. Implications for the meaning and utility of the construct of parent-child physiological coregulation are discussed. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Mapping Cardiac Physiology and Parenting Processes in Maltreating Mother–Child Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Loke, Eric; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth A.; Woehrle, Petra L.; Van Epps, John J.; Gowda, Anjali; Ammerman, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) lies on an extreme end of the continuum of parenting-at-risk, and while CM has been linked with a variety of behavioral indicators of dysregulation in children, less is known about how physiological markers of regulatory capacity contribute to this association. The present study examined patterns of mother and child physiological regulation and their relations with observed differences in parenting processes during a structured interaction. Abusing, neglecting, and non-CM mothers and their 3- to 5-year-old children completed a resting baseline and moderately challenging joint task. The structural analysis of social behavior was used to code mother–child interactions while simultaneous measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia were obtained. Results indicated that physically abusive mothers were more likely to react to children’s positive bids for autonomy with strict and hostile control, than either neglecting or non-CM mothers. CM exposure and quality of maternal responding to children’s autonomous bids were uniquely associated with lower parasympathetic tone in children. Results provide evidence of neurodevelopmental associations between early CM exposure, the immediate interactive context of parenting, and children’s autonomic physiology. PMID:21842991

  4. Parent Perspectives on the Individual Education Program Process and Product for the Child with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Camille M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of parents of children with autism receiving special education services in an upper Midwestern state. This study sought to determine parent perspectives of priorities for the child's IEP, parent perspectives of content of the child's IEP, and parent perspectives of their experiences at the school, comfort level…

  5. Bidirectional Relationships Between Parenting Processes and Deviance in a Sample of Inner-City African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charlene; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Bolland, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study assessed for bidirectional relationships among supportive parenting (knowledge), negative parenting (permissiveness), and deviance in a sample (N = 5,325) of poor, inner-city African American youth from the Mobile Youth Survey (MYS) over 4 years. Cross-lagged path analysis provided evidence of significant bidirectional paths among parenting processes (knowledge and permissiveness) and deviance over time. Follow-up multigroup tests provided only modest evidence of dissimilar relationships by sex and by developmental periods. The findings improve our understanding of developmental changes between parenting behaviors and deviance during adolescence and extended current research of the bidirectionality of parent and child relationships among inner-city African American youth. PMID:28316460

  6. Heterogeneity of glucagonomas due to differential processing of proglucagon-derived peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challis, Benjamin G; Albrechtsen, Nicolai J Wewer; Bansiya, Vishakha

    2015-01-01

    activities including critical roles in glucose and amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal physiology.The clinical manifestations of proglucagon-expressing tumours may exhibit marked phenotypic variation due to the biochemical heterogeneity of their secreted peptide repertoire...... the rash. Case 2, a 48-year-old male presented with diabetes mellitus, diarrhoea, weight loss, nausea, vomiting and perineal rash due to a grade 1 metastatic pNET and hyperglucagonaemia. In both cases, plasma levels of all measured PGDPs were elevated and attenuated following SSA therapy. In case 1...

  7. The Word Game: an innovative strategy for assessing implicit processes in parents at risk for child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Wells, Brett M; Shelton, Christopher R; Skowronski, John J; Milner, Joel S

    2012-06-01

    Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed. To address this need, the present study was designed to examine the utility of the Word Game, an innovative procedure designed to assess implicit changes in schema accessibility during the course of an interpersonal exchange involving aggressive response options. The game involves a series of competitive reaction time trials which are actually lexical decision making trials designed to determine the accessibility of schema throughout the game. Each parent was led to believe that they were competing against another player with whom they exchanged sound blasts of varying intensities. Participants in the present study were parents who were either low (n=50) or high (n=20) risk for CPA. Results revealed that high CPA risk parents behaved more aggressively than low CPA risk parents and that provocation augmented the aggressiveness of all participants. Among high CPA risk parents, positive schema became less accessible (whereas negative schema became more accessible) following lost rounds. At the conclusion of the game, high CPA risk parents reported more aggressive motives than low CPA risk parents. Further, aggressive motives significantly mediated the association between CPA risk status and aggressiveness (i.e., mean sound blast selections). Collectively, results support the potential utility of the Word Game as a means of advancing the study of social cognitive processes involved in parental aggression. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Equilibrium positions due to different cooling processes in superconducting levitation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navau, C; Sanchez, A; Pardo, E; Chen, D-X

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium position of a superconducting levitation device is determined not only by the geometry and electromagnetic properties of its components, but also by the cooling process of the superconductor. In this work we study the dependence of the equilibrium positions upon the cooling process by introducing diagrams of a new kind which display the different possibilities for a given levitation system. Using the critical state model and the principle of magnetic energy, we calculate different diagrams of this type for the case of a cylindrically symmetric permanent magnet-superconductor system. The results allow us to find out, for a given levitation system, which cooling process improves the capabilities of the system

  9. Culture and Family Process: Measures of Familism for Filipino and Korean American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, Tae Yeun; Noh, Samuel; Lee, Jeanette; Takeuchi, David

    2017-10-15

    This study tests the psychometric properties of multiple survey items and scales that are either underused or newly developed to assess familism among Asian Americans. Using data collected from 150 Filipino and 188 Korean American parents (mostly mothers) in the Midwest region in 2013, the measures were examined for validity and reliability for each group and, when appropriate, for cross-cultural equivalence across the groups. Several scales and their items showed high quality psychometric properties and are ready for use to more accurately assess family process of each target group and to conduct comparative analyses. The findings also show that, contrary to the expectation, Filipino American families express more traditional aspects of familism than do Korean American families, and are more likely to reinforce traditional familism beliefs and behaviors among their children. This study reinforces a need for more empirical- and subgroup-specific research effort. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  10. Designing quality of care--contributions from parents: Parents' experiences of care processes in paediatric care and their contribution to improvements of the care process in collaboration with healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Susanne; Gremyr, Ida; Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article was to explore whether current quality dimensions for health care services are sufficient to capture how parents perceive and contribute to quality of health care. New quality improvement initiatives that actively involve patients must be examined with a critical view on established quality dimensions to ensure that these measures support patient involvement. This paper used a qualitative and descriptive design. This paper is based on interviews with parents participating in two experience-based co-design projects in a Swedish hospital that included qualitative content analysis of data from 12 parent interviews in paediatric care. Health care professionals often overemphasize their own significance for value creation in care processes and underappreciate parents' ability to influence and contribute to better quality. However, quality is not based solely on how professionals accomplish their task, but is co-created by health care professionals and parents. Consequently, assessment of quality outcomes also must include parents' ability and context. This paper questions current models of quality dimensions in health care, and suggests additional sub-dimensions, such as family quality and involvement quality. This paper underscores the importance of involving parents in health care improvements with health care professionals to capture as many dimensions of quality as possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP OF PERSONAL MATURITY OF THE ADOPTIVE PARENTS AND THE PROCESS OF SOCIALIZATIONAND IDENTIFICATION OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Pronina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topic of the development of children from orphanage in a foster home, showing the importance of personal maturity of the adoptive parents. The authors present the results of a study showing that there is a relationship between the individual criteria of personal maturity of the adoptive parents and the process of socialization and individualization of the children from orphanage.

  12. Evaluation of consequence due to higher hydrazine content in partitioning stream of PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Suresh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Special Nuclear Recycle Facility

    2016-07-01

    Hydrazine nitrate is being used as a stabilizer for U(IV) as well as Pu(III) during partitioning of Pu in PUREX process by scavenging the nitrous acid present along with nitric acid. As hydrazine hydrate as well as its salts have been successfully used for scrubbing of degradation products of TBP to aqueous phase, experiments were conducted to evaluate the consequence of hydrazine content during Pu partitioning. It was observed that higher amount of hydrazine nitrate along with uranous nitrate in the partitioning stream of PUREX process leads to build up of DBP in aqueous phase and resulted in precipitation of Pu.

  13. The Process of Parents' Decision-Making to Discharge Their Child against Medical Advice (DAMA: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Discharge against medical advice (DAMA refers to the phenomenon that patient or the patient’s surrogate decides to leave the hospital before the attending physician confirms the patient is discharged. Children are much more vulnerable to such discharges. This process occurs with different mechanisms that identifying them can be helpful in reducing this phenomenon. We aimed to explore the process of parents' decision-making to discharge their child against medical advice. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 fathers, 10 mothers, 6 nurses and 3 physician assistants and the data were collected to the point of saturation. Grounded theory methodology was adopted for data collection and analysis. The results of qualitative analysis in the field of the parents' decisionmaking on the DAMA revealed 4 main themes: "lack of family-centered care", "disruption of the parenting process", "distrust to the medical team and center" and "psychological strategy of shirk responsibility for child care and treatment ". By providing family-centered care, adopting measures to empowering the families, developing the trust of parents to the health care team and developing a discharge plan from the beginning of children hospitalization with the cooperation of health care team and parents and considering all factors such as child's special health condition and parent's health related perceptions and beliefs, children will not be discharged against medical advice and will experience better outcomes.

  14. Estimation of the Past and Future Infrastructure Damage Due the Permafrost Evolution Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, D. O.; Chesnokova, I. V.; Morozova, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The geocryological processes such as thermokarst, frost heaving and fracturing, icing, thermal erosion are the source of immediate danger for the structures. The economic losses during the construction procedures in the permafrost area are linked also with the other geological processes that have the specific character in cold regions. These processes are swamping, desertification, deflation, flooding, mudflows and landslides. Linear transport structures are most vulnerable component of regional and national economy. Because the high length the transport structures have to cross the landscapes with different permafrost conditions that have the different reaction to climate change. The climate warming is favorable for thermokarst and the frost heaving is linked with climate cooling. In result the structure falls in the circumstances that are not predicted in the construction project. Local engineering problems of structure exploitation lead to global risks of sustainable development of regions. Authors developed the database of geocryological damage cases for the last twelve years at the Russian territory. Spatial data have the attributive table that was filled by the published information from various permafrost conference proceedings. The preliminary GIS-analysis of gathered data showed the widespread territorial distribution of the cases of negative consequences of geocryological processes activity. The information about maximum effect from geocryological processes was validated by detailed field investigation along the railways in Yamal and Transbaicalia Regions. Authors expect the expanding of database by similar data from other sectors of Arctic. It is important for analyzing the regional, time and industrial tendencies of geocryological risk evolution. Obtained information could be used in insurance procedures and in information systems of decisions support in different management levels. The investigation was completed with financial support by Russian

  15. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Due Process in Dual Process: Model-Recovery Simulations of Decision-Bound Strategy Analysis in Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Charlotte E. R.; Milton, Fraser; Wills, Andy J.

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral evidence for the COVIS dual-process model of category learning has been widely reported in over a hundred publications (Ashby & Valentin, 2016). It is generally accepted that the validity of such evidence depends on the accurate identification of individual participants' categorization strategies, a task that usually falls to…

  17. Implementation and Process Issues in Using Group Triple P with Chinese Parents: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisante, Lea; Ng, Sally

    2003-01-01

    Implements and evaluates a positive parenting program intervention with Chinese parents. Results reveal significant improvements on the Prosocial Behavior Score. Given the unwillingness of some parents to complete questionnaires, the difficulties encountered in conducting evaluation in cross-cultural contexts are discussed, along with…

  18. Parental Reactions to the Special Education Individual Education Program Process: Looking through the Lens of Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Melinda; Hammond, Helen; Ingalls, Lawrence; Marín, Merranda Romaro

    2013-01-01

    Parental grief reactions have typically been examined in situations where parents have a child diagnosed with a major medical or mental health condition. This study used the grief and loss model as conceptualized by Kubler-Ross (1969), Lamb (1988), and Kubler-Ross and Kessler (2005) as a foundation in examining parental reactions when a child has…

  19. Anomalous scaling due to correlations: limit theorems and self-similar processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, Attilio L; Baldovin, Fulvio

    2010-01-01

    We derive theorems which outline explicit mechanisms by which anomalous scaling for the probability density function of the sum of many correlated random variables asymptotically prevails. The results characterize general anomalous scaling forms, explain their universal character, and specify universality domains in the spaces of joint probability density functions of the summand variables. These density functions are assumed to be invariant under arbitrary permutations of their arguments. Examples from the theory of critical phenomena are discussed. The novel notion of stability implied by the limit theorems also allows us to define sequences of random variables whose sum satisfies anomalous scaling for any finite number of summands. If regarded as developing in time, the stochastic processes described by these variables are non-Markovian generalizations of Gaussian processes with uncorrelated increments, and provide, e.g., explicit realizations of a recently proposed model of index evolution in finance

  20. Maximum Lateness Scheduling on Two-Person Cooperative Games with Variable Processing Times and Common Due Date

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    A new maximum lateness scheduling model in which both cooperative games and variable processing times exist simultaneously is considered in this paper. The job variable processing time is described by an increasing or a decreasing function dependent on the position of a job in the sequence. Two persons have to cooperate in order to process a set of jobs. Each of them has a single machine and their processing cost is defined as the minimum value of maximum lateness. All jobs have a common due ...

  1. The "Word Game": An Innovative Strategy for Assessing Implicit Processes in Parents at Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L.; Irwin, Lauren M.; Wells, Brett M.; Shelton, Christopher R.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed.…

  2. Towards a model of contemporary parenting: the parenting behaviours and dimensions questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Carly A Y; Roberts, Lynne D; Roberts, Clare M; Piek, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of parenting has been problematic due to theoretical disagreement, concerns over generalisability, and problems with the psychometric properties of current parenting measures. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound self-report parenting measure for use with parents of preadolescent children, and to use this empirical scale development process to identify the core dimensions of contemporary parenting behaviour. Following item generation and parent review, 846 parents completed an online survey comprising 116 parenting items. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a six factor parenting model, comprising Emotional Warmth, Punitive Discipline, Anxious Intrusiveness, Autonomy Support, Permissive Discipline and Democratic Discipline. This measure will allow for the comprehensive and consistent assessment of parenting in future research and practice.

  3. Towards a model of contemporary parenting: the parenting behaviours and dimensions questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly A Y Reid

    Full Text Available The assessment of parenting has been problematic due to theoretical disagreement, concerns over generalisability, and problems with the psychometric properties of current parenting measures. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound self-report parenting measure for use with parents of preadolescent children, and to use this empirical scale development process to identify the core dimensions of contemporary parenting behaviour. Following item generation and parent review, 846 parents completed an online survey comprising 116 parenting items. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a six factor parenting model, comprising Emotional Warmth, Punitive Discipline, Anxious Intrusiveness, Autonomy Support, Permissive Discipline and Democratic Discipline. This measure will allow for the comprehensive and consistent assessment of parenting in future research and practice.

  4. Impact of residual by-products from tungsten film deposition on process integration due to nonuniformity of the tungsten film

    CERN Document Server

    Sidhwa, A; Gandy, T; Melosky, S; Brown, W; Ang, S; Naseem, H; Ulrich, R

    2002-01-01

    The effects of residual by products from a tungsten film deposition process and their impact on process integration due to the nonuniformity of the tungsten film were investigated in this work. The tungsten film deposition process involves three steps: nucleation, stabilization, and tungsten bulk fill. Six experiments were conducted in search for a solution to the problem. The resulting data suggest that excess nitrogen left in the chamber following the tungsten nucleation step, along with residual by products, causes a shift in the tungsten film uniformity during the tungsten bulk fill process. Data reveal that, due to the residual by products, an abnormal grain growth occurs causing a variation in the tungsten thickness across the wafer during the bulk fill step. Although several possible solutions were revealed by the experiments, potential integration problems limited the acceptable solutions to one. The solution chosen was the introduction of a 10 s pumpdown immediately following the nucleation step. Thi...

  5. Parenting Seminars for Divorcing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the parenting seminars and counseling services for divorcing parents offered by the Children of Separation and Divorce Center, a community service agency in Maryland. The seminars are designed to help parents adjust to divorce and understand the needs of their children during and after the divorce process. (MDM)

  6. Torque strength of an endplate welding due to process parameters using a fuel assembling welder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Soo-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    As fuel bundles in a PHWR core irradiated, inner pressure in the claddings of the fuel rods increases owing to the outer pressure and fission products of the nuclear fissions. Because of a leak possibility from a welding between a cladding and end plug, this welding part is connected with the safety of nuclear fuel rods. Endplug-cladding welding of nuclear fuel rods in a PHWR takes advantage of a resistance upset butt welding. The weldment between a cladding and endplug is to be sound to prevent a leakage of fission products from a cladding as a UO{sub 2} pellet is irradiated. Weld flash was made from a deformation due to a welding heat and increasing the pressure of the resistivity and resistance from a cladding and endplug. Weld line of a welding interface, microstructure of a weldment and a crystallographic structure change were sources of an iodine induced SCC in a reactor. The soundness of a weldment is important because a weld line connects the leakage of fission products from an operational reactor. In this study, welding specimens were fabricated by a resistance welding method using a bundle fuel welder to measure and analyze the torque of an endplug-endplate welding. The torque of a weldment between an endplug and endplate was measured and analyzed with the welding time. The weldability of a weldment between an endplug and endplate was investigated by a metallographic examination.

  7. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution in parent and aluminum-modified eggshells: thermodynamics and kinetics, adsorption mechanism, and diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ziyan; Li, Jiuhai; Guo, Zhaobing; Guo, Qingjun; Zhu, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Parent and aluminum-modified eggshells were prepared and characterized with X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurements, infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscope, respectively. Besides, phosphorus adsorptions in these two eggshells at different temperatures and solution pH were carried out to study adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics as well as the mechanisms of phosphorus adsorption and diffusion. The results indicated that high temperature was favorable for phosphorus adsorption in parent and aluminum-modified eggshells. Alkaline solution prompted phosphorus adsorption in parent eggshell, while the maximum adsorption amount was achievable at pH 4 in aluminum-modified eggshell. Adsorption isotherms of phosphorus in these eggshells could be well described by Langmuir and Freundlich models. Phosphorus adsorption amounts in aluminum-modified eggshell were markedly higher compared to those in parent eggshell. Adsorption heat indicated that phosphorus adsorption in parent eggshell was a typically physical adsorption process, while chemical adsorption mechanism of ion exchange between phosphorus and hydroxyl groups on the surface of eggshells was dominated in aluminum-modified eggshell. The time-resolved uptake curves showed phosphorus adsorption in aluminum-modified eggshell was significantly faster than that in parent eggshell. Moreover, there existed two clear steps in time-resolved uptake curves of phosphorus in parent eggshell. Based on pseudo-second order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion model, we inferred more than one process affected phosphorus adsorption. The first process was the diffusion of phosphorus through water to external surface and the opening of pore channel in the eggshells, and the second process was mainly related to intraparticle diffusion.

  9. Limitations Of The Current State Space Modelling Approach In Multistage Machining Processes Due To Operation Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán-Nebot, J. V.; Liu, J.; Romero, F.

    2009-11-01

    The State Space modelling approach has been recently proposed as an engineering-driven technique for part quality prediction in Multistage Machining Processes (MMP). Current State Space models incorporate fixture and datum variations in the multi-stage variation propagation, without explicitly considering common operation variations such as machine-tool thermal distortions, cutting-tool wear, cutting-tool deflections, etc. This paper shows the limitations of the current State Space model through an experimental case study where the effect of the spindle thermal expansion, cutting-tool flank wear and locator errors are introduced. The paper also discusses the extension of the current State Space model to include operation variations and its potential benefits.

  10. Clarifying Cutting and Sewing Processes with Due Windows Using an Effective Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hwa Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting and sewing process is a traditional flow shop scheduling problem in the real world. This two-stage flexible flow shop is often commonly associated with manufacturing in the fashion and textiles industry. Many investigations have demonstrated that the ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm is effective and efficient for solving scheduling problems. This work applies a novel effective ant colony optimization (EACO algorithm to solve two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problems and thereby minimize earliness, tardiness, and makespan. Computational results reveal that for both small and large problems, EACO is more effective and robust than both the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm and the ACO algorithm. Importantly, this work demonstrates that EACO can solve complex scheduling problems in an acceptable period of time.

  11. Physical quality characteristics of the microwave-dried breadfruit powders due to different processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruna, I.; Hakim, A. L.; Sutarsi

    2018-03-01

    Production of breadfruit powder has been an option to make easy its uses in various food processing. Accordingly, there is a need recently to apply advanced drying method, i.e. microwave drying, for improving quality since conventional methods produced highly variable product quality and required longer process. The present work was aimed to study the effect of microwave power and grinding time on physical quality of breadfruit powders. The experiment was done initially by drying breadfruit slices in a microwave dryer at power level of 420, 540, and 720 W and then grinding for 3, 5, and 7 min to get powdery product of less than 80 mesh. The physical quality of breadfruit powders were measured in terms of fineness modulus (FM), average particle size (D), whiteness (WI), total color difference (ΔE), water absorption (Wa), oil absorption (La), bulk density (ρb) and consistency gel (Gc). The results showed that physical quality of powders and its ranged-values included the FM (2.08-2.62), D (0.44-0.68 mm), WI (75.2-77.9), ΔE (7.4-10.5), Wa (5.5-6.2 ml/g), La (0.7-0.9 ml/g), ρb (0.62-0.70 g/cm3) and Gc (41.3-46.8 mm). The experiment revealed that variation of microwave power and grinding time affected significantly the quality of the breadfruit powders. However, microwave power was more dominant factor to affect quality of breadfruit powder in comparison to the grinding time.

  12. Enhancing Title Ix Due Process Standards in Campus Sexual Assault Adjudication: Considering the Roles of Distributive, Procedural, and Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shannon; Maskaly, Jon; Kirkner, Anne; Lorenz, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Title IX prohibits sex discrimination--including sexual assault--in higher education. The Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' 2011 "Dear Colleague Letter" outlines recommendations for campus sexual assault adjudication allowing a variety of procedures that fail to protect accused students' due process rights and victims'…

  13. Home-Schools and Interscholastic Sports: Denying Participation Violates United States Constitutional Due Process and Equal Protection Rights. Chalk Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Derwin L.

    1997-01-01

    Participation in sports, in some instances, is considered a right which grants students the opportunity to be involved in extracurricular activities. Discusses the potential violation of home-schooled students' constitutional due process and equal protection rights and the pertinent laws regarding students and their ability to participate in…

  14. Single Machine Scheduling and Due Date Assignment with Past-Sequence-Dependent Setup Time and Position-Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Li Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers single machine scheduling and due date assignment with setup time. The setup time is proportional to the length of the already processed jobs; that is, the setup time is past-sequence-dependent (p-s-d. It is assumed that a job's processing time depends on its position in a sequence. The objective functions include total earliness, the weighted number of tardy jobs, and the cost of due date assignment. We analyze these problems with two different due date assignment methods. We first consider the model with job-dependent position effects. For each case, by converting the problem to a series of assignment problems, we proved that the problems can be solved in On4 time. For the model with job-independent position effects, we proved that the problems can be solved in On3 time by providing a dynamic programming algorithm.

  15. Modeling deformation processes of salt caverns for gas storage due to fluctuating operation pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, N.; Nagel, T.; Goerke, U.; Khaledi, K.; Lins, Y.; König, D.; Schanz, T.; Köhn, D.; Attia, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bauer, S.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the Energy Transition in Germany, the focus of the country's energy sources is shifting from fossil to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Since renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, are subjected to annual, seasonal, and diurnal fluctuations, the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. Common methods of energy storage are the utilization of subsurface caverns as a reservoir for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or the storage of compressed air. The construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to the possibility of solution mining. Another advantage of evaporite as a host material is the self-healing capacity of salt rock. Gas caverns are capable of short-term energy storage (hours to days), so the operating pressures inside the caverns are fluctuating periodically with a high number of cycles. This work investigates the influence of fluctuating operation pressures on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of the gas during the loading/ unloading of the cavern. This provides information on the transient pressure and temperature distribution on the cavern boundary to calculate the deformation of its geometry. Non-linear material models are used for the mechanical analysis, which describe the creep and self-healing behavior of the salt rock under fluctuating loading pressures. In order to identify the necessary material parameters, we perform experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of salt rock under varying pressure and temperature conditions. Based on the numerical results, we further derive concepts for monitoring THM quantities in the

  16. Simulation of the charging process of the LISA test masses due to solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocca, H; Grimani, C; Amico, P; Bosi, L; Marchesoni, F; Punturo, M; Travasso, F; Barone, M; Stanga, R; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A

    2004-01-01

    Cosmic-ray and solar high energy particles penetrate the LISA experiment test masses. Consequently, an electric charge accumulates in the bodies of the masses, generating spurious Coulomb forces between the masses and the surrounding electrodes. This process increases the noise level of the experiment. We have estimated the amount of charge deposited per second on the LISA test masses by solar flares and primary cosmic-ray protons at solar minimum. The simulation has been carried out with the Fluka Monte Carlo program. A simplified geometry for the experiment has been considered. We have found a net charging rate of 37 ± 1 e + /s for primary protons at solar minimum between 0.1 and 1000 GeV/n. The amount of charge released by a medium-strong solar flare, like that of 16 February 1984, is 10 732 ± 30 e + /s in the energy range 0.1-10 GeV/n. This value increases or decreases by approximately one order of magnitude for strong (weak) solar flares

  17. Interfacial reaction between SiC and aluminium due to extrusion and heat treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidah Jai; Fauzi Ismail; Samsiah Sulaiman; Patthi Hussain, Azmi Idris; Yoichi Murakoshi

    1999-01-01

    Chemical interaction between aluminium (Al) and silicon carbide (SiC) produces aluminium carbide (Al 4 C 3 ) which presents potential problems in the production and application of Al/SiC Metal Matrix Composit (MMC). The Al 4 C 3 formed can reduce material properties such as strength in the MMC. This research work investigates the interface reaction in Al 7075/SiC MMC made through hot extrusion process. Mixed Al 7075/SiC MMC powders were pressed at 300 degree C and extruded at 500 degree C, with a reduction ratio of 20:1. The extruded MMC was then heat-treated in air at various temperatures from 560 degree C, 600 degree C, 640 degree C, 700 degree C to 800 degree C in order to observe the interface reaction of the MMC materials. The heat-treated MMCs were then analyzed under the optical microscope, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Spectroscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAZ) attachment to observe the interface reaction within the MMCs. This investigation confirms there was interface reaction between SiC and aluminium

  18. Process evaluation of the Teamplay parenting intervention pilot: implications for recruitment, retention and course refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J; Bentley, Georgina F; Turner, Katrina M; Goodred, Joanna K; Fox, Kenneth R; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-12-01

    Parenting programs could provide effective routes to increasing children's physical activity and reducing screen-viewing. Many studies have reported difficulties in recruiting and retaining families in group parenting interventions. This paper uses qualitative data from the Teamplay feasibility trial to examine parents' views on recruitment, attendance and course refinement. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 intervention and 10 control group parents of 6-8 year old children. Topics discussed with the intervention group included parents' views on the recruitment, structure, content and delivery of the course. Topics discussed with the control group included recruitment and randomization. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and thematically analyzed. Many parents in both the intervention and control group reported that they joined the study because they had been thinking about ways to improve their parenting skills, getting ideas on how to change behavior, or had been actively looking for a parenting course but with little success in enrolling on one. Both intervention and control group parents reported that the initial promotional materials and indicative course topics resonated with their experiences and represented a possible solution to parenting challenges. Participants reported that the course leaders played an important role in helping them to feel comfortable during the first session, engaging anxious parents and putting parents at ease. The most commonly reported reason for parents returning to the course after an absence was because they wanted to learn new information. The majority of parents reported that they formed good relationships with the other parents in the group. An empathetic interaction style in which leaders accommodated parent's busy lives appeared to impact positively on course attendance. The data presented indicate that a face-to-face recruitment campaign which built trust and emphasized how the program was

  19. Characterization of ultrathin insulators in CMOS technology: Wearout and failure mechanisms due to processing and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat

    In the CMOS technology the gate dielectric is the most critical layer, as its condition directly dictates the ultimate performance of the devices. In this thesis, the wear-out and failure mechanisms in ultra-thin (around 50A and lower) oxides are investigated. A new degradation phenomenon, quasi-breakdown (or soft-breakdown), and the annealing and stressing behavior of devices after quasi-breakdown are considered in detail. Devices that are in quasi-breakdown continue to operate as switches, but the gate leakage current is two orders of magnitude higher than the leakage in healthy devices and the stressing/annealing behavior of the devices are completely altered. This phenomenon is of utmost interest, since the reduction in SiO2 dielectric thickness has reached its physical limits, and the quasi-breakdown behavior is seen to dominate as a failure mode in this regime. The quasi-breakdown condition can be brought on by stresses during operation or processing. To further study this evolution through stresses and anneals, cyclic current-voltage (I-V) measurement has been further developed and utilized in this thesis. Cyclic IV is a simple and fast, two terminal measurement technique that looks at the transient current flowing in an MOS system during voltage sweeps from accumulation to inversion and back. During these sweeps, carrier trapping/detrapping, generation and recombination are observed. An experimental setup using a fast electrometer and analog to digital conversion (A/D) card and the software for control of the setup and data analysis were also developed to gain further insight into the detailed physics involved. Overall, the crucial aspects of wear-out and quasi-breakdown of ultrathin dielectrics, along with the methods for analyzing this evolution are presented in this thesis.

  20. Progressive softening of brittle-ductile transition due to interplay between chemical and deformation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeřábek, Petr; Bukovská, Zita; Morales, Luiz F. G.

    2017-04-01

    The micro-scale shear zones (shear bands) in granitoids from the South Armorican Shear Zone reflect localization of deformation and progressive weakening in the conditions of brittle-ductile transition. We studied microstructures in the shear bands with the aim to establish their P-T conditions and to derive stress and strain rates for specific deformation mechanisms. The evolving microstructure within shear bands documents switches in deformation mechanisms related to positive feedbacks between deformation and chemical processes and imposes mechanical constraints on the evolution of the brittle-ductile transition in the continental transform fault domains. The metamorphic mineral assemblage present in the shear bands indicate their formation at 300-350 ˚ C and 100-400 MPa. Focusing on the early development of shear bands, we identified three stages of shear band evolution. The early stage I associated with initiation of shear bands occurs via formation of microcracks with possible yielding differential stress of up to 250 MPa (Diamond and Tarantola, 2015). Stage II is associated with subgrain rotation recrystallization and dislocation creep in quartz and coeval dissolution-precipitation creep of microcline. Recrystallized quartz grains in shear bands show continual increase in size, and decrease in stress and strain rates from 94 MPa to 17-26 MPa (Stipp and Tullis, 2003) and 3.8*10-12 s-1- 1.8*10-14 s-1 (Patterson and Luan, 1990) associated with deformation partitioning into weaker microcline layer and shear band widening. The quartz mechanical data allowed us to set some constrains for coeval dissolution-precipitation of microcline which at our estimated P-T conditions suggests creep at 17-26 MPa differential stress and 3.8*10-13 s-1 strain rate. Stage III is characterized by localized slip along interconnected white mica bands accommodated by dislocation creep at strain rate 3.8*10-12 s-1 and stress 9.36 MPa (Mares and Kronenberg, 1993). The studied example

  1. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children’s Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130), and team sports (n=191). A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences. PMID:26039062

  2. Family identification: A beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mary Naughton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. Intimate partner violence (IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female, investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention and social policy.

  3. Maximum Lateness Scheduling on Two-Person Cooperative Games with Variable Processing Times and Common Due Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new maximum lateness scheduling model in which both cooperative games and variable processing times exist simultaneously is considered in this paper. The job variable processing time is described by an increasing or a decreasing function dependent on the position of a job in the sequence. Two persons have to cooperate in order to process a set of jobs. Each of them has a single machine and their processing cost is defined as the minimum value of maximum lateness. All jobs have a common due date. The objective is to maximize the multiplication of their rational positive cooperative profits. A division of those jobs should be negotiated to yield a reasonable cooperative profit allocation scheme acceptable to them. We propose the sufficient and necessary conditions for the problems to have positive integer solution.

  4. Transactional processes in children born preterm: Influences of mother-child interactions and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie

    2015-10-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined the transactional relations among perceived maternal parenting stress, maternal insensitivity, and child behavior across toddlerhood through age 6 within families of a child born preterm. A sample of 173 mother-child dyads were followed from just before the infant was discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit to 6 years of age, with observational measurements of maternal insensitivity and child noncompliance (24 and 36 months), maternal self-reports of perceived parenting stress (24 months, 36 months, 6 years), and maternal reports of child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Results indicated that maternal insensitivity at 36 months significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress at 24 months and externalizing behaviors at 6 years. Parenting stress was also directly associated with child noncompliance at 36 months and with child externalizing behavior at 6 years. Neonatal risk was associated with increased maternal insensitivity at 24 months, but also decreased parenting stress at 24 months. No significant "child effects" from child behavior to either maternal insensitivity or parenting stress were found. Parenting stress appears to play a critical role for children born preterm, and it is associated with children's behavior both directly and through its influence on parenting. The role of neonatal risk needs continued investigation, as families traditionally considered to be at lower risk may still face significant challenges. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents' Perceptions of the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Durán, Lillian K.

    2013-01-01

    Many parents of students with disabilities face barriers to meaningful participation in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meetings; parents who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) encounter additional challenges. Given the changing demographics of the United States and the central role of the IEP in special education, it is important…

  6. Parent-Child and Triadic Antecedents of Children's Social Competence: Cultural Specificity, Shared Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq

    2010-01-01

    Guided by theories of cultural participation, the authors examined mother-child, father-child, and triadic interactive behaviors in 141 Israeli and Palestinian couples and their firstborn child at 5 and 33 months as antecedents of children's social competence. Four parent-child measures (parent sensitivity, child social engagement, parental…

  7. Parenting intervention and the caregiving environment : cumulative risk and process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Mirjam Neeltje

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to study single and cumulative family risk in relation to early childhood externalizing problems and the effectiveness of a parenting intervention program. The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive

  8. Hearing Parents of Children with Hearing Loss: Perceptions of the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Robin Fern

    2016-01-01

    Under federal guidelines, parents of school-aged children with hearing loss are required to attend an individualized education program (IEP) meeting on behalf of their child. However, it remains unclear how prepared hearing parents are to oversee development of IEPs that guarantee their children the best educational outcomes, as well as how much…

  9. Parenting Processes and Dating Violence: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem in Low- and High-SES Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2006-01-01

    The current investigation tested a model in which low self-esteem mediated the effects by parenting processes (monitoring, closeness, and support) on measures of dating violence (victimization, perpetration, attitudes, and perceptions) in a sample of adolescents (n=809; mean age=16.4 years) from both low- and high-socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds.…

  10. Perceived Parenting Dimensions and Identity Styles: Exploring the Socialization of Adolescents' Processing of Identity-Relevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). "Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation." "Advances in Personal Construct…

  11. Shaping internal working models : parental love withdrawal, oxytocin, and asymmetric frontal brain activity affect socio-emotional information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, Renske

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to gain insight into the associations between experiences of parental love withdrawal, oxytocin, and asymmetric frontal brain activity (reflecting basic motivational tendencies) on the one hand, and (neural) processing of and responses to socio-emotional stimuli on the

  12. Protecting Children from the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Clorinda E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and discipline led to short-term (6 months) and long-term (6 years) changes in children's coping processes in a sample of 240 youth aged 9-12 years when assessed initially. Data were from a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting-focused preventive…

  13. The Decision-Making Processes of Early Childhood Teachers When Working with Children Experiencing Parental Separation and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, L.; Lunn, J.; Petriwskyj, A.; Walsh, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pedagogical decision-making processes of 21 Australian early childhood teachers working with children experiencing parental separation and divorce were examined. Transcripts from interviews and a focus group with teachers were analysed using grounded theory methodology. The findings showed that as teachers interacted with young…

  14. “If it Feels Good…”: Research on School Selection Process Motives Among Parents of Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, I.; Bertram-Troost, G.D.; Miedema, S.

    2015-01-01

    From (inter)national research we know about parents’ priorities in the school selection process. In this research the authors focus on parents’ motivations underpinning these priorities. The question is: “What motivates parents to send their child to a Christian primary school?” In the Dutch plural

  15. Are Parents Doing Better When They Are Together? A Study on the Association between Parental Sensitivity and Family-Level Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry-Jørgensen, Laura; Tissot, Hervé; Frascarolo, France; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Favez, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of one parent's presence on the quality of the interaction between the other parent and their three-month-old infant. Family interactions were observed in a sample of 69 two-parent families. Parental sensitivity was assessed during two sessions, first in a "dyadic" context (D) and then…

  16. Influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet processes during an accidental release of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Chang Woo

    2003-01-01

    The influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to the wet processes as well as dry processes from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency is comprehensively analyzed. The previous dynamic food chain model DYNACON considering Korean agricultural and environmental conditions, in which the initial input parameter was radionuclide concentrations on the ground, is improved so as to evaluate radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radioactive air concentrations or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As for the results, wet deposition is a more dominant mechanism than dry deposition in contamination on the ground. While, the contamination levels of agricultural products are strongly dependent on radionuclide and precipitation when the deposition of radionuclides occurs. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is the more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception to agricultural plants

  17. Factors Influencing the Decision-Making Process and Long-Term Interpersonal Outcomes for Parents Who Undergo Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Fanconi Anemia: a Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haude, K; McCarthy Veach, P; LeRoy, B; Zierhut, H

    2017-06-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat FA, and best results are attained with sibling donors who are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical matches. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers parents of an affected child the opportunity to have an unaffected child who is an HLA match. While some research has investigated parents' experiences during the PGD process, no published studies specifically address factors influencing their decision-making process and long-term interpersonal outcomes. The aims of this study are to: (1) examine parents' expectations and the influence of media, bioethics, and religion on their decision to undergo PGD; (2) examine parents' social support and emotional experiences during their PGD process; and (3) characterize long-term effects of PGD on relationship dynamics (partner, family, friends), others' attitudes, and parental regret. Nine parents participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed their decision to use PGD was variously influenced by media, bioethics, and religion, in particular, affecting parents' initial confidence levels. Moreover, the PGD process was emotionally complex, with parents desiring varying amounts and types of support from different sources at different times. Parents reported others' attitudes towards them were similar or no different than before PGD. Parental regret regarding PGD was negligible. Results of this study will promote optimization of long-term care for FA families.

  18. Intergenerational associations linking identity styles and processes in adolescents and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Schwartz, S.J.; Rassart, J.; Klimstra, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Identity formation is a lifelong task, yet much research focuses on adolescence and emerging adulthood. Little is known about whether parents' identities are related to their adolescent children's identities. The present studies were designed to examine intergenerational associations. Specifically,

  19. Individualized Education Programs for Students with Autism: Including Parents in the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    The involvement of parents in developing individualized education programs (IEPs) for their children with autism is discussed. Essential components of IEP documents are outlined, and strategies that professionals can use to promote significant family involvement are considered. (Author/SW)

  20. Parenting while Being Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  1. Longitudinal associations between marital stress and externalizing behavior: Does parental sense of competence mediate processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, Willemijn M; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; de Haan, Amaranta D

    2017-06-01

    Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation of these associations by parental sense of competence, and (c) the extent to which associations are similar for mothers and fathers. The sample consisted of 369 two-parent families (46.1% boys; Mage at Time 1 = 7.70 years; 368 mothers, 355 fathers). Marital stress related to having a child, children's externalizing behavior, and perceived parental competence were assessed three times across 8 years. Multigroup analyses were used to examine models for both parents simultaneously and test for similarity in associations across spouses. A bivariate latent growth model indicated positive associated change between marital stress and externalizing behavior, supporting the idea of codevelopment. The cross-lagged panel model revealed a reciprocal relation between marital stress and perceived parental competence across a time interval of 6 years. Additionally, two elicitation effects appeared during adolescence, showing that parents who reported higher externalizing problems in early adolescence reported more marital stress and a lower sense of competence two years later. Similar associations were found for mothers and fathers. Overall, this study indicates that marital stress and externalizing behavior codevelop over time and supports literature on developmental differences regarding interrelations between subsystems and individuals within the family system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Frequency of deflagration in the in-tank precipitation process tanks due to loss of nitrogen purge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.M.; Mason, C.L.; Olsen, L.M.; Shapiro, B.J.; Gupta, M.K.; Britt, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    High-level liquid wastes (HLLW) from the processing of nuclear material at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are stored in large tanks in the F- and H-Area tank farms. The In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process is one step in the processing and disposal of HLLW. The process hazards review for the ITP identified the need to implement provisions that minimize deflagration/explosion hazards associated with the process. The objective of this analysis is to determine the frequency of a deflagration in Tank 48 and/or 49 due to nitrogen purge system failures (including external events) and coincident ignition source. A fault tree of the nitrogen purge system coupled with ignition source probability is used to identify dominant system failures that contribute to the frequency of deflagration. These system failures are then used in the recovery analysis. Several human actions, recovery actions, and repair activities are identified that reduce total frequency. The actions are analyzed and quantified as part of a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). The probabilities of failure of these actions are applied to the fault tree cutsets and the event trees

  3. Determinaton of Depression, Anxiety and Hopelessness Situations at Parents whose Children Are Followed in Gulhane Military Medical Faculty, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinics Due to Any Malignancy or Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kamil Tuna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic systemic diseases in childhood have negatively affecting the quality of life and debilitating effects for both children and parents. In our study, we investigated depression, anxiety and hopelessness situations at parents of children with these diseases. Materials and methods: The study was done at parents of children diagnosed with malignancy or chronic disease in GATA Department of Pediatrics Heath and Disease, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Clinics. Beck Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale were applied to the participants. Results: Parents of children, who are followed due to malignancy or chronic disease in department of pediatrics heath and disease, pediatric hematology and oncology clinics, constituted the study group. 60 mothers and 51 fathers as study group and 64 mothers and 45 fathers as control group were enrolled in the study between 1st July 2009 and 1st June 2010. The mean age of the parents in study group was 35,7±5,1 and 33,3 5,6 age in control group. The depression score was significantly higher statistically in study group (p=0,035. No difference was fond for the anxiety and hopelessness scores between the groups (p=0,064 and p=0,695 respectively. There was no difference for depression, hopelessness and anxiety scores between mothers and fathers of the children (p=0,217, p=0,447, p=0,102, respectively. Conclusion: Without gender discrimination the parents of children with malignancy and chronic disease are in the risk group for depression. It is necessary to support the parents both socially and psychologically. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 577-582

  4. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet deposition processes during a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo

    2002-01-01

    Combined with deposition model onto the ground of radionuclides, the influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products was analyzed due to wet deposition as well as dry deposition from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency. The previous dynamic food chain model, in which initial input parameter is only radionuclide concentrations on the ground, was improved for the evaluating of radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radionuclide concentrations in air or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As the results, in case of deposition onto the ground, wet deposition was more dominant process than dry deposition. While the contamination levels of agricultural products were dependent on the a variety of factors such as radionuclides and rainfall rate. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception onto agricultural plants

  5. Analysis of the Processes in Spent Fuel Pools in Case of Loss of Heat Removal due to Water Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Kaliatka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe storage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pools is very important. These facilities are not covered by leaktight containment; thus, the consequences of overheating and melting of fuel in the spent fuel pools can be very severe. On the other hand, due to low decay heat of fuel assemblies, the processes in pools are slow in comparison with processes in reactor core during LOCA accident. Thus, the accident management measures play a very important role in case of some accidents in spent fuel pools. This paper presents the analysis of possible consequences of fuel overheating due to leakage of water from spent fuel pool. Also, the accident mitigation measure, the late injection of water was evaluated. The analysis was performed for the Ignalina NPP Unit 2 spent fuel pool, using system thermal hydraulic code for severe accident analysis ATHLET-CD. The phenomena, taking place during such accident, are discussed. Also, benchmarking of results of the same accident calculation using ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAPSIM codes is presented here.

  6. U.S. Case Law and Legal Precedent Affirming the Due Process Rights of Immigrants Fleeing Persecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Shawn S; Boodoo, Ramnarine

    2017-09-01

    The political discourse on domestic immigration policy has shifted rapidly in recent years, mirrored by similar shifts in the geopolitical climate worldwide. However, a nuanced assessment of the legal basis backing such rhetoric is sorely lacking. This article examines the historical, legal, and case law precedent as it pertains specifically to immigrants who are fleeing persecution and residing within the United States. Due process rights emerged from the Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Constitutional Amendments and have been expanded to include this population through several sequential United States Supreme Court Cases. We review the 1951 Convention Related to the Status of Refugees and 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees and examine subsequent case law and legal precedent. We then present evidence documenting widespread violations of due process rights for immigrants fleeing persecution. Specifically, we address the right to a fair hearing for individuals fearing for their lives upon return to their home country, the right against wrongful detainment, and the right to apply for asylum regardless of religion or country of origin. We conclude by addressing potential counterarguments to our thesis, future directions, and the role of forensic psychiatrists. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: the role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment.

  8. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  9. Adoptive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Lo, Albert Yh

    2017-06-01

    Challenges in adoptive parenting continue to emerge as adoption policies and practices evolve. We review three areas of research in adoptive parenting that reflect contemporary shifts in adoption. First, we highlight recent findings concerning openness in adoption contact arrangements, or contact between a child's families of birth and rearing. Second, we examine research regarding racial and cultural socialization in transracial and international adoptions. Finally, we review investigations of parenting experiences of lesbian and gay adoptive parents. Overall, parenting processes (e.g., supportive vs. problematic family interaction) are better predictors of child adjustment than are group differences (e.g., open vs. closed adoptions; adoption by heterosexual vs. same-sex parents). The distinctive needs of adopted children call for preparation of adoption-competent mental health, casework, education, and health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A qualitative process evaluation of a randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention in community (school) settings for children at risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John A; Valentine, Althea Z; Sellman, Edward; Bransby-Adams, Kate; Daley, David; Sayal, Kapil

    2015-11-17

    Interventions for parents of children experiencing emotional and/or behavioural difficulties can help to improve their children's health, educational and social outcomes. However, the desirability and acceptability of screening and offering such interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-type problems are currently unclear. This article is a qualitative process evaluation of a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial (Trial registration: ISRCTN87634685; reported elsewhere) to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based parenting intervention programme for parents and teachers of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. Parents (n = 22) and teaching staff (n = 29) took part in semi-structured group or individual interviews, either by telephone or face-to-face, following the main trial. Interviews were digitally-recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis. The parenting intervention was acceptable to parents and teachers, and they were enthusiastic about the need for parenting groups in the school environment and stressed the importance of parent-school collaboration. Parents generally stated a preference for universal recruitment approaches to such programmes whilst teachers described the need to target specific parents. Most parents who took part in the parenting intervention described it favourably and many saw benefits, at least in the short-term. Parents differed in their preferred group size, with some desiring one-to-one sessions and others favouring a larger group. Non-attending parents reported barriers to attendance such as fear of attending in a group, previous use of the programme, work and other commitments. Suggestions to improve the programme included: clearer communication; offering booster sessions; and greater collaboration with teachers. It is feasible to deliver parenting intervention programmes within or near schools. The intervention was acceptable to the majority of

  11. Enrolling adolescents in asthma research: adolescent, parent, and physician influence in the decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Janet L; Annett, Robert D; Scherer, David G; Turner, Charles; Dalen, Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    The factors influencing family decisions to participate in adolescent asthma research are not well understood. Legal and ethical imperatives require adolescent research participation to be voluntary. While parents and adolescents often agree about research decisions, disagreements may also occur with relative frequency. Physician recommendations are also known to influence research participation decisions. Little attention has been given to how these dynamics may affect adolescents' involvement in decisions to participate in research. To examine the influence of family and physician-investigator relationships and recommendations on adolescent asthma clinical research participation decisions. A statewide community sample of 111 adolescents 11 to 17 years of age, with a diagnosis of asthma, and their parents participated in this study. Adolescents received a medical evaluation from an asthma specialist and then the family was offered participation in a hypothetical asthma clinical trial. By random assignment, the research study was presented by either the same or an unknown asthma specialist, and half the families in each group also received affirmative recommendations from the asthma specialist to participate in the hypothetical asthma clinical trial. Parents and adolescents made initial private decisions about participating in the trial. Then, following a family discussion of the clinical trial, a final research participation decision was made. Thirty-three percent of parents and adolescents initially disagreed about the research participation decision. When disagreements occurred, final decisions followed the parents' initial views except when the physician-investigator was known and a recommendation was made. Families with initial disagreement about participating were less likely to enroll when the investigator was unknown or when no recommendation was made. Adolescents who initially disagreed with parents' views were less likely to concur with the final research

  12. Organisational systems and services for children of parents with mental illness and their families: processes of change and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susanne

    2010-09-01

    Adult mental illness in the community including depression and anxiety has achieved greater public awareness and visibility in recent years and this has also resulted in increased recognition about the widespread impact on dependent children. During the past decade in Australia, policies and specific programs for infants, children and youth in terms of prevention, early intervention and promotion in relation to children of parents with a mental illness ('copmi') have been devised. However, these have generally been disconnected projects, essentially supported only by non-recurrent funding. In more recent years, systematic and interconnected responses involving a wider range of government, non-government and consumer and carer organisations to build sustainability have become the focus. However, little research about change processes affecting the organisational systems serving children of parents with mental illness and their families has been undertaken. This aim of the current study is to describe the enablers and barriers that contribute to change in systems and government and non-government organisations in relation to children of parents with a mental illness in Australia over the past decade, within the context of sustainability. The study involved interviews, focus groups and website and literature searches regarding systems change across Australian states and territories and nationally in relation to the enablers, barriers and future directions. Strategic and intentional processes within organisations, more evolutionary ongoing cross-agency processes and links to sustained changes are key systems change findings. Relevance for change in other health services is highlighted.

  13. Retardation of the dewetting process due to the addition of functional copolymers at polymer-polymer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wunnicke, O; Lorenz-Haas, C; Leiner, V

    2002-01-01

    We studied the retardation of the dewetting process due to the addition of a functional copolymer in a polymer bilayer film. The model system consists of fully deuterated polystyrene (PS-d) on top of an amorphous polyamide (PA) sublayer on silicon substrates. Bilayer films were prepared with different content (0, 5, 10 and 30 vol. %) of a statistical copolymer (protonated styrene maleic anhydride acid (SMA2) containing 2% MA groups along the chain) being capable of forming hydrogen bonds with PA. The as-prepared as well as the annealed samples were investigated by neutron-reflectivity (NR) experiments, scanning force microscopy and optical microscopy. A significant retardation of dewetting is observed with the addition of SMA2. From model fits of NR curves the scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the sample surface were determined and an enrichment layer of SMA2 is detected. Retardation is explained by the intermixing of SMA2 and PS-d at the interface. (orig.)

  14. Processes linking parents' and adolescents' religiousness and adolescent substance use: monitoring and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P; Holmes, Christopher; Longo, Gregory S; McCullough, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent substance use; yet, we know little about how such protective effects might occur. The current study examined whether parents' and adolescents' religiousness are associated positively with parental, religious, and self-monitoring, which in turn are related to higher self-control, thereby related to lower adolescent substance use. Participants were 220 adolescents (45 % female) who were interviewed at ages 10-16 and again 2.4 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that higher adolescents' religiousness at Time 1 was related to lower substance use at Time 2 indirectly through religious monitoring, self-monitoring, and self-control. Higher parents' religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher parental monitoring at Time 2, which in turn was related to lower adolescent substance use at Time 2 directly and indirectly through higher adolescent self-control. The results illustrate that adolescents with high awareness of being monitored by God are likely to show high self-control abilities and, consequently, low substance use. The findings further suggest that adolescents' religiousness as well as their religious environments (e.g., familial context) can facilitate desirable developmental outcomes.

  15. Parents' Positive Role in Students' Learning Process at Ishik University Preparatory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The reason that motivated me to initiate this writing is to emphasize the deficiency in the motivation and unwillingness of university youth cause of the parents approach toward the education at preparatory school. Moreover, my aim is to declare realistic suggestions about the issue with the help of observations that have been gained during the…

  16. Landau-Kleffner Syndrome: An Exploration of Parent Experience of the Diagnostic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemard-Reid, Daunette

    2014-01-01

    Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare childhood disorder that is often misdiagnosed as autism or childhood psychosis because of overlapping symptom presentation. Favorable prognoses in LKS depend on early diagnosis and treatment. While much is known about the clinical basis for LKS diagnosis, little is known about parents' lived experience with…

  17. Study of test-mass charging process in the LISA missions due to diffuse γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finetti, N; Scrimaglio, R; Grimani, C; Fabi, M

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational inertial sensors will be placed on board the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and aboard its precursor mission LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) in order to detect low frequency gravitational waves in space. Free-floating test-masses (Au 7 Pt 3 cubes) will be housed in inertial sensors for detecting possible laser signal variations induced by gravitational waves. Charging of the LISA test-masses due to exposure of the spacecraft to cosmic radiation and energetic solar particles will affect operation of gravitational inertial sensors. In this paper we report on the role of diffuse γ-rays in charging the LISA and LISA-PF test-masses with respect to protons and helium nuclei. The diffuse γ-ray flux in the Galaxy has been interpolated taking into account the outcomes of recent calculations. A comparison with γ-ray observations gathered by different experiments (COMPTEL and EGRET, Milagro, Whipple, HEGRA, TIBET) has been carried out. Simulations of the test-mass charging process have been performed by means of the FLUKA2006.3b package. Monte Carlo simulations of the interaction of cosmic particles with the LISA spacecraft indicate that the diffuse γ-ray contribution to the average steady-state test-mass charging rate and to the single-sided power spectrum of the charge rate noise is marginal with respect to that due to galactic cosmic-rays.

  18. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  19. Brief report: identity processes in Filipino late adolescents and young adults: parental influences and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Luyckx, Koen; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2014-07-01

    This study focused on a process-oriented approach to identity formation using a sample of Filipino late adolescents and young adults (17-30 years; N = 779). Indirect relations between parenting and mental health via identity formation processes were examined. Two parenting dimensions (psychological control and support), two types of mental health outcomes (depression and psychological well-being), and five identity dimensions (commitment making (CM), identification with commitment (IC), exploration in breadth (EB), exploration in depth (ED), and ruminative exploration (RE)) were assessed. Recursive path analysis showed indirect relations between parenting and mental health via EB, ED, RE, and IC. Model differences between late adolescents (17-21 year olds) and young adults (22-30 year olds) were examined using multigroup path analysis. Results showed that the direct effect of psychological control on RE, and its indirect effect on depression through RE differed between the age groups. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Length of proceedings as standard of due process of law in the practise of the Constitutional Court of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Toska Dobjani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ECHR, as an international treaty is part of the Albanian legal system. Among international law instruments, the ECHR enjoys a privileged status in the Albanian legal system by virtue of Article 17 paragraph 2 of the Constitution according to which restrictions to human rights and freedoms cannot infringe the substance of those rights and freedoms and in no case can exceed the restrictions provided for in the ECHR. Article 1 of the Convention requires States to secure the substance of the rights to those in their jurisdiction. The effect of Article 13 is thus to require the provision of a domestic remedy to deal with the substance of an arguable complaint under the Convention and to grant appropriate relief. The scope of this paper is to analyse the effectiveness of the complaint to the Constitutional Court with regard to length of proceedings as part of due process of law in terms of proceedings during the court trial and after the process has been finalized and the final decision should be executed.

  1. Path Analysis: Health Promotion Information Access of Parent Caretaking Pattern through Parenting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarsih, Tri; Murti, Bhisma; Anantanyu, Sapja; Wijaya, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Parents often inhibit learning process organized by education, due to their ignorance about how to educate child well. Incapability of dealing with those changes leads to dysfunctional families, and problematic children. This research aimed: to analyzed the health promotion information access pattern of parent caretaking pattern through parenting…

  2. Parent and Patient Perceptions of Functional Impairment Due to Tourette Syndrome: Development of a Shortened Version of the Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfell, Kara S Francis; Snyder, Ryan R; Isaacs-Cloes, Kelly M; Garris, Jordan F; Roeckner, Alyssa R; Horn, Paul S; Guthrie, Michael D; Wu, Steve W; Gilbert, Donald L

    2017-07-01

    The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale (CTIM) rates 37 problems in school, social, and home domains separately for tics and for comorbid diagnoses. However, a shorter version would be easier to implement in busy clinics. Using published data from 85 children with Tourette syndrome, 92 controls, and parents, factor analysis was used to generate a "mini-CTIM" composed of 12 items applied to tic and comorbid diagnoses. Child- and parent-rated mini-CTIM scores were compared and correlated across raters and accounting for clinician-rated tic severity and presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The mini-CTIM achieved domain Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.71 to 0.94 and intra-item correlation coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.96. The resulting scale correlated with clinician-rated tic severity and reflected the presence of ADHD and OCD. The mini-CTIM appears promising as a practical assessment tool for tic- and non-tic-related impairment in children with Tourette syndrome.

  3. Culture's Influence on Stressors, Parental Socialization, and Developmental Processes in the Mental Health of Children of Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J; Perreira, Krista M; Juang, Linda P

    2018-05-07

    Children of immigrants represent one in four children in the United States and will represent one in three children by 2050. Children of Asian and Latino immigrants together represent the majority of children of immigrants in the United States. Children of immigrants may be immigrants themselves, or they may have been born in the United States to foreign-born parents; their status may be legal or undocumented. We review transcultural and culture-specific factors that influence the various ways in which stressors are experienced; we also discuss the ways in which parental socialization and developmental processes function as risk factors or protective factors in their influence on the mental health of children of immigrants. Children of immigrants with elevated risk for mental health problems are more likely to be undocumented immigrants, refugees, or unaccompanied minors. We describe interventions and policies that show promise for reducing mental health problems among children of immigrants in the United States.

  4. Don't end up in the fields: identity construction among Mexican adolescent immigrants, their parents, and sociocontextual processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Jose A; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2014-10-01

    This grounded theory study of 16 Mexican immigrant adolescents and 20 of their parents examines how they construct relational identities within their families, at school, with friends, and in the larger society. Results focus on a core identity bind faced by the adolescents: immigration messages from parents that say, "don't be like me" and the societal message, "you're not like us." Response to this bind was guided by two contrasting sets of identity narratives: Empowering narratives invited an intentional approach to school and life choices. Restricting narratives maintained an ambivalent approach to school and life choices. Resolution of the identity bind was a collective, ongoing process that has implications for Mexican immigrant families and the professionals who work with them. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  5. An Assessment of the Effects of Hydrotherapy During the Active Phase of Labor on the Labor Process and Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Semra; Kaplan, Sena; Moraloglu Tekin, Ozlem

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect on labor process and parenting behavior of hydrotherapy applied during the active phase of labor. This quasi-experimental study was conducted by using an equivalent comparison group ( n = 40). The participants in the experimental group whose cervical dilation was 5 cm were taken to the hydrotherapy tub. This application continued until cervical dilation reached 10 cm. The Participants Questionnaire, The Birth Follow-up Questionnaire, The Postpartum ]collection tools. The duration of the active phase and second stage of labor was extremely short in the experimental group in comparison with the equivalent comparison group ( p = .001). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores of the experimental group were lower than those of the equivalent comparison group when cervical dilation was 6 cm and 10 cm ( p = .001). The experimental group also displayed more positive parenting behavior and positive labor feeling ( p = .001).

  6. The Impact of the Parental Support on Risk Factors in the Process of Gender Affirmation of Transgender and Gender Diverse People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Bruna L; de Brito Silva, Bruno; Fontanari, Anna M V; Catelan, Ramiro F; Bercht, Ana M; Stucky, Juliana L; DeSousa, Diogo A; Cerqueira-Santos, Elder; Nardi, Henrique C; Koller, Silvia H; Costa, Angelo B

    2018-01-01

    Research involving transgender and gender diverse people (TGD) increased in the last years, mostly concerning healthcare associated to this population. Few studies dedicated their analysis to the impact of parental support on transgender people, even though this is an important aspect in creating a safe environment on which these individuals can build their identity. In addition, the link between family support, TGD identity and homelessness is not completely established. Thus, due to the specificities of the family context of TGD individuals, the aim of this study is to investigate the association between family support and TGD in different moments of the process of gender affirmation. In addition, this study also aims to explore the relationship between a lack of social support and low self-esteem, home abandonment, and dwelling in the street. The survey was designed based on the TransPULSE project and was made available in electronic format. The sample was constituted of 423 TGD residents in two Brazilian states. A Structural Equation Model analysis suggested that the impact of gender affirmation status on homelessness was mediated by parental support, through self-esteem, and the need to move from home. The association between the status of the gender affirmation procedures, family support and self-esteem was significant and indicated that the further TGD individuals advanced in gender affirmation, the more self-esteem and family support they would have. The association between family support and self-esteem indicated that family support was associated with higher self-esteem. Low family support was associated with the willingness to move from home due to one's TGD status and there was also a significant correlation between low self-esteem and the willingness to move from home due to one's TGD status. Finally, homelessness was associated with the willingness to move with a large effect size. Limitations include the sample that was constituted by individuals

  7. The Impact of the Parental Support on Risk Factors in the Process of Gender Affirmation of Transgender and Gender Diverse People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Bruna L.; de Brito Silva, Bruno; Fontanari, Anna M. V.; Catelan, Ramiro F.; Bercht, Ana M.; Stucky, Juliana L.; DeSousa, Diogo A.; Cerqueira-Santos, Elder; Nardi, Henrique C.; Koller, Silvia H.; Costa, Angelo B.

    2018-01-01

    Research involving transgender and gender diverse people (TGD) increased in the last years, mostly concerning healthcare associated to this population. Few studies dedicated their analysis to the impact of parental support on transgender people, even though this is an important aspect in creating a safe environment on which these individuals can build their identity. In addition, the link between family support, TGD identity and homelessness is not completely established. Thus, due to the specificities of the family context of TGD individuals, the aim of this study is to investigate the association between family support and TGD in different moments of the process of gender affirmation. In addition, this study also aims to explore the relationship between a lack of social support and low self-esteem, home abandonment, and dwelling in the street. The survey was designed based on the TransPULSE project and was made available in electronic format. The sample was constituted of 423 TGD residents in two Brazilian states. A Structural Equation Model analysis suggested that the impact of gender affirmation status on homelessness was mediated by parental support, through self-esteem, and the need to move from home. The association between the status of the gender affirmation procedures, family support and self-esteem was significant and indicated that the further TGD individuals advanced in gender affirmation, the more self-esteem and family support they would have. The association between family support and self-esteem indicated that family support was associated with higher self-esteem. Low family support was associated with the willingness to move from home due to one’s TGD status and there was also a significant correlation between low self-esteem and the willingness to move from home due to one’s TGD status. Finally, homelessness was associated with the willingness to move with a large effect size. Limitations include the sample that was constituted by individuals

  8. The Impact of the Parental Support on Risk Factors in the Process of Gender Affirmation of Transgender and Gender Diverse People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna L. Seibel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research involving transgender and gender diverse people (TGD increased in the last years, mostly concerning healthcare associated to this population. Few studies dedicated their analysis to the impact of parental support on transgender people, even though this is an important aspect in creating a safe environment on which these individuals can build their identity. In addition, the link between family support, TGD identity and homelessness is not completely established. Thus, due to the specificities of the family context of TGD individuals, the aim of this study is to investigate the association between family support and TGD in different moments of the process of gender affirmation. In addition, this study also aims to explore the relationship between a lack of social support and low self-esteem, home abandonment, and dwelling in the street. The survey was designed based on the TransPULSE project and was made available in electronic format. The sample was constituted of 423 TGD residents in two Brazilian states. A Structural Equation Model analysis suggested that the impact of gender affirmation status on homelessness was mediated by parental support, through self-esteem, and the need to move from home. The association between the status of the gender affirmation procedures, family support and self-esteem was significant and indicated that the further TGD individuals advanced in gender affirmation, the more self-esteem and family support they would have. The association between family support and self-esteem indicated that family support was associated with higher self-esteem. Low family support was associated with the willingness to move from home due to one’s TGD status and there was also a significant correlation between low self-esteem and the willingness to move from home due to one’s TGD status. Finally, homelessness was associated with the willingness to move with a large effect size. Limitations include the sample that was

  9. Parental acceptance, postpartum depression, and maternal sensitivity: mediating and moderating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockenberg, Susan C; Leerkes, Esther M

    2003-03-01

    Mothers (n = 92), fathers (n = 84), and their infants (60% male) participated in a longitudinal study of postpartum depression and maternal sensitivity. Mothers completed questionnaire measures of remembered parental acceptance, depressive symptoms, and infant distress to novelty and limits. Mothers and partners reported on marital aggression and avoidance. Maternal sensitivity was observed in the laboratory at 6 months. Characteristics of mothers, partners, and infants combined to predict postpartum depression and maternal sensitivity. Remembered parental rejection predicted postpartum depressive symptoms with prenatal depression controlled; self-esteem mediated this effect. Paternal acceptance buffered against postpartum depression when infants were highly reactive and when partners were aggressive. Paternal acceptance reduced the impact of postpartum depression on maternal sensitivity; having an aggressive marital partner exacerbated the effect.

  10. Chemical and Isotopic Diversity of Organic Particles in Chondrites: Parent Body vs. Nebular Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM), the main organic constituent in chondrites, has been extensively studied after HF/HCl isolation techniques. Bulk isotopic compositions and elemental ratios show variations between chondrite groups, whereas they are quite homogeneous within each class [1]. Recent isotopic measurements by ion probes have revealed that IOM is heterogeneous at the sub-micron scale [2,3]. Does this heterogeneity reflect parent body evolution or reactions in the gas...

  11. The process of institutionalization-deinstitutionalization and children’s psychological adjustment in Rwanda:: Parents matter

    OpenAIRE

    Nsabimana, Epaphrodite; Martin-Sölch, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Negative effects of institutionalization and positive effects of deinstitutionalization on children’s wellbeing have been well documented. However, the majority of reports on institutional care rely on adult interviews and there is a wide disparity of results and methodologies in few result-oriented studies of deinstitutionalization outcome. In addition, though all over the world, especially in developed countries, many children in orphanage have parents; little is known about on the effect o...

  12. How National Culture and Parental Style Affect the Process of Adolescents’ Ecological Resocialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Gentina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of adolescents as influencers on their families’ environmental behavior is potentially a catalyst for change towards increasing eco-friendly actions. In this paper, the authors report on a cross-cultural study of ecological resocialization in France and India. Using in-depth dyadic interviews, they investigated parental styles, cultural attributes and extent of adolescents’ influence over parental eco-behavior. The study reveals that ecological resocialization across countries differs substantially, according to a combination of national cultural values, parental style and influence strategy. French teens exhibit a greater impact than Indian teens on their parents’ eco-behavior and use bilateral influence strategies. In India, not all mothers engage in ecological resocialization, but those who do are susceptible to unilateral strategies. The role of environmental knowledge, and the context and effectiveness of each kind of strategy is discussed. The findings have implications for how public policy officials and agencies can encourage adolescents as key resocialization agents to influence their parents’ pro-environmental consumption by using the most adapted influence strategy across cultures.

  13. Process-oriented dose assessment model for 14C due to releases during normal operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin; Hallberg, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Swedish nuclear utility companies are required to assess doses due to releases of radionuclides during normal operation. In 2001, calculation methods used earlier were updated due to new authority regulations. The isotope 14 C is of special interest in dose assessments due to the role of carbon in the metabolism of all life forms. Earlier, factors expressing the ratio between concentration of 14 C in air and in various plants were used. In order to extend the possibility to take local conditions into account, a process-oriented assessment model for uptake of carbon and doses from releases of 14 C to air was developed (POM 14 C). The model uses part of Daisy which has been developed to model the turnover of carbon in crops. [Hansen, S., Jensen, H.E., Nielsen, N.E., Svendsen, H., 1993. Description of the Soil Plant System Model DAISY, Basic Principles and Modelling Approach. Simulation Model for Transformation and Transport of Energy and Matter in the Soil Plant Atmosphere System. Jordbruksfoerlaget, The Royal Veterianary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark]. The main objectives were to test model performance of the former method, and to investigate if taking site specific parameters into account to a greater degree would lead to major differences in the results. Several exposure pathways were considered: direct consumption of locally grown cereals, vegetables, and root vegetables, as well as consumption of milk and meat from cows having eaten fodder cereals and green fodder from the area around the nuclear plant. The total dose of the earlier model was compared with that of POM 14 C. The result of the former was shown to be slightly higher than the latter, but POM 14 C confirmed that the earlier results were of a reasonable magnitude. When full account of local conditions was taken, e.g. as regards solar radiation, temperature, and concentration of 14 C in air at various places in the surroundings of each nuclear plant, a difference in dose between

  14. The role of interpretation processes and parental discussion in the media's effects on adolescents' use of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E W; Pinkleton, B E; Fujioka, Y

    2000-02-01

    The process that connects media use with alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors has not been well documented. To address this issue, we examined adolescents' viewing patterns, beliefs about alcohol and media messages, and parental discussion of media messages in the context of a theoretical model of message interpretation processes. Measures included the degree to which adolescents found portrayals desirable, realistic, and similar to their own lives; the degree to which they wanted to be like (identify with) the portrayals; and the degree to which they associated positive outcomes with drinking alcohol (expectancies). Cross-sectional survey. Two public high schools in the California central coastal area that include a diverse population in terms of ethnic origin, income level, and education level. Ninth-grade students (n = 252) and 12th-grade students (n = 326). Students reported the number of days within the past week watching various genres of television content, along with perceptions of realism of content, desirability of portrayals, identification with portrayals, expectancies toward alcohol use, personal norms for alcohol use, desire for products with alcohol logos, current alcohol use, frequency of parental reinforcement, and counter-reinforcement of television messages. Associations were examined via hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Effects of media exposure on drinking behavior, controlling for grade level, ethnicity, gender, household income, and education levels were primarily positive and indirect, operating through a number of intervening beliefs, especially expectancies (beta =.59; r(2) =.33). Direct associations, primarily with exposure to late-night talk shows (beta =.12; r(2) =.01), were small. Parental discussion also affected behavior indirectly, operating through expectancies, identification, and perceived realism. The appeal of products with alcohol logos, which was higher among the younger students (t = 3.44) and predicted by

  15. Examining the Process of Change in an Evidence-Based Parent Training Intervention: A Qualitative Study Grounded in the Experiences of Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal N.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence-based parent training intervention known as Parent Management Training-the Oregon Model (PMTO) is one particularly well-supported treatment approach for addressing child behavioral problems. Yet, there remains a need to further examine how this intervention promotes change. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory…

  16. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  17. Perceived parenting dimensions and identity styles: exploring the socialization of adolescents' processing of identity-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation. Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, 155-186.]. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific pattern of perceived parenting dimensions. Hypotheses were examined in a sample of middle and late adolescents (n=674). An information-oriented style was positively predicted by parental support. Contrary to expectations, however, an information-oriented style was also positively predicted by psychological control. A normative identity style was positively predicted by support and behavioral control. In line with expectations, a diffuse-avoidant identity style was positively predicted by psychological control and negatively by maternal (but not paternal) behavioral control. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on the socialization of identity formation and directions for future research are outlined.

  18. Spiritual Occlusion and Systemic Integrity: Legal Evaluations of Due Process Protections and Freedom of Religious Expression and Practices Safeguards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Jolicoeur

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As is the case with other constitutionally protected rights, the freedom of religion is not unlimited nor without restriction or constraint. Rather, the courts have long held that the state may have legitimate reasons for placing reasonable restrictions on the otherwise free exercise of religious practice. The courts have also held that the state cannot restrict religious practice in a capricious or gratuitous manner. However, the courts have also held that individuals have a constitutional right to due process legal protections. In many instances, these two freedoms exist independently of each other. In instances when they intersect, conflict may result from one right seeking hegemony over the other. In instances such as these, the courts may have to resolve conflicts by establishing legal principles and precedents regarding which of these constitutional protections will be granted contextual prominence over the other. Thus far, the legal evaluation of this important question has been confused at best and contradictory at worst. This has resulted in a number of substantive outcomes that pose significant challenges to the practice and application of both rights and an underlying avoidance of broader constitutional questions.

  19. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thoughts. Teens going through major life changes (parents' divorce, moving, a parent leaving home due to military service or parental separation, financial changes) and those who are victims of ...

  20. Hispanic parents' experiences of the process of caring for a child undergoing routine surgery: a focus on pain and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen; Zender, Robynn; Kain, Zeev N; Rosales, Alvina; Guadarrama, Josue; Fortier, Michelle A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose was to understand the processes Hispanic parents undergo in managing postoperative care of children after routine surgical procedures. Sixty parents of children undergoing outpatient surgery were interviewed. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Parents experienced five subprocesses that comprised the overall process of caring for a child after routine surgery: (a) becoming informed; (b) preparing; (c) seeking reassurance; (d) communicating with one's child; and (e) making pain management decisions. Addressing cultural factors related to pain management in underserved families may instill greater confidence in managing pain. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Beliefs regarding child anxiety and parenting competence in parents of children with separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Chantal; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that numerous developmental models have highlighted the role of parental cognitive processes in connection with anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, the role of parents' beliefs about their children and parenting remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the specific association between parental beliefs and child separation anxiety. Parents of children with a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) reported on beliefs and expectations related to their child's fears and own parenting competence. To study the potential specificity of relationships, a clinical control group of mothers of children with social phobia (SoP) and a group of mothers of children without a mental disorder (healthy controls, HC) were included. Results indicated that parents of anxious children had significantly higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs than the parents in the HC group. Mothers of children with SAD showed lower levels of parenting self-efficacy than mothers of children with SoP. They also demonstrated lower parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction compared to mothers of healthy children. Parental dysfunctional beliefs about child anxiety and paternal parenting self-efficacy were significantly positively associated with child anxiety. The effects remained significant after controlling for parental anxiety and depression. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causality of the found effects cannot be inferred. Data suggest that children's anxiety and parents' beliefs about their child's anxiety, coping skills and parenting are strongly associated. Further research is needed to investigate whether addressing parental cognitions in addition to parents' anxiety may improve prevention and intervention of child anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes to processes in estuaries and coastal waters due to intense multiple pressures - An introduction and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Steven B.; Jennerjahn, Tim C.; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Zhang, Weiguo

    2015-04-01

    From the 2013 ECSA conference 'Estuaries and Coastal Areas in Times of Intense Change' a theme emerged that has ended up being the focus of this Special Issue of Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, namely 'Changes to processes in estuaries and coastal waters due to intense multiple pressures'. Many parts of the world are continuing to experience unprecedented rates of economic growth, and those responsible for managing coastal and estuarine areas must respond accordingly. At the same time, global climate change and sea level rise are also continuing, placing new or more intense pressures on coastal areas that must be dealt with in ways that are as far as possible managed as a result of good scientific understanding. There are other pressures too, which depend on the system concerned. This article provides an overview of the papers contained within the Special Issue and provides a discussion of how these fit within the main theme of intense multiple stressors, considering how a balance can be achieved between the needs of various different stakeholders and interest groups, and the sustainability of the system concerned. We categorise the papers in four main groupings: (1) stressors related to sea level rise; (2) stressors related to changes in fresh water inputs; (3) stressors related to anthropogenic pollution; and (4) the use of indicators as a means of assessing the effects of stressors, and reflect on the fact that despite the diversity of different challenges and geographical regions involved many of the approaches and discussions contained within the Special Issue have strong similarities, leading to a set of overarching principles that should be considered when making recommendations on management strategies.

  3. Isotopic Investigations of Nebular and Parent Body Processes with a High Sensitivity Ion Microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2005-01-01

    systematics by a combined approach of high-precision multiple-collector SIMS analyses, traditional analyses on the UCLA ims 1270, and high-spatial resolution analyses using a NanoSIMS instrument. The data help to deconvolve effects due to partial resetting of the A1-Mg system by multiple thermal events. Finally, we initiated investigations related to nebular heterogeneity with a new initiative of in situ high-precision sulfur isotope analyses of sulfides from a wide variety of components of chondrites. The ultimate goal of all this work is to help develop a better understanding of the relationships between CAIs and chondrules, the astrophysical environments in which they formed, and the timescales of nebular processes. As detailed in Table 1, for the project period, 14 manuscripts were published and 17 abstracts were presented describing the work.

  4. Are the different gully morphologies due to different formation processes on the Kaiser dune field on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquon, K.; Gargani, J.; Nachon, M.; Conway, S. J.; Massé, M.; Jouannic, G.; Balme, M. R.; Costard, F.; Vincendon, M.

    2017-12-01

    Diverse gully morphologies are seen on Mars and differences are often neglected for simplification. Here we describe in detail the morphology and present-day activity of two gully-systems on the Kaiser dune field in the southern hemisphere of Mars. We then compare their activity with that of the morphologically distinct linear dune gullies present on the same dunes. The studied gully-systems have large depositional aprons (named "large apron gullies") and occur on dune faces oriented westward. They are active from mid-autumn to late winter (i.e. from Ls 50° to Ls 180°) coinciding with CO2 ice condensation/sublimation cycles. Sandy material collapses from the alcove flanks onto the alcove floor sporadically throughout this period. This accumulated sand is remobilized by punctuated mass flows which we estimate to be up to 7100 m3 in volume. These flows run out on to the apron and occur between Ls 120° and Ls 160°. These mass flow events occur when the number of "digitate flows" is at its seasonal maximum. Digitate flows are characterized by long-narrow zig-zagging low-albedo tracks and do not seem to transport appreciable sediment, and they can number in the hundreds. Small pits appear at their termini or midway along and sometimes these pits are re-deepened by subsequent flows. These events repeat every year and using volume balance calculations we find that the whole system could be built on a timescale of hundreds of martian ears. These large apron gullies differ in morphology and timing from the linear dune gullies. The linear dune gullies are active in late winter, or beginning of spring when the CO2 frost finally sublimates, which occurs after the activity of the large apron gullies. Due to the difference of orientation between large apron gullies and linear dune as well as timing, we infer that insolation, which may influence (i) the depth to ground ice, (ii) the amount of volatiles deposits, is the main cause their differences. Sediment transport by CO2

  5. Peer support for parents of disabled children part 2: how organizational and process factors influenced shared experience in a one-to-one service, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, V; Bailey, S; Logan, S; Morris, C

    2015-07-01

    Parents of disabled children often seek support from their peers. The shared experience between parents appears to be a crucial mediating factor. Understanding how a sense of shared experience is fostered can help to design and evaluate services that seek to provide peer support. We carried out a qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants were 12 parents and 23 befrienders who had contact with the Face2Face one-to-one befriending service in Devon and Cornwall during a 12-month period, and 10 professionals from health, social care and education. Formal structures and processes in place such as training and ongoing supervision and support were highly valued as was the highly personalized, confidential, flexible, one-to-one at-home nature of the service. Crucial to establishing rapport was putting the right people together and ensuring a good match between befrienders and parents. Clearly, the befriending parent has to be emotionally prepared to provide help. However, if the parent being offered support was not ready to accept help at the time it was offered or the type of support was not right for them, they are less likely to engage with the service. Organizational and process factors as well as characteristics of the parents offering and receiving support contribute to the sense of shared experience in one-to-one peer support. These factors interact to influence whether peer support is effective and should be explicitly considered when designing and evaluating services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Introduction to the special section: Mind and matter: New insights on the role of parental cognitive and neurobiological functioning in process models of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L

    2017-02-01

    This is an introduction to the special section on neurobiological and neurocognitive factors in parenting. The collection of 11 papers are published in 2 serial subsections of consecutive issues of the journal. The science they present captures the leading edge of work examining the interface of cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and physiological self-regulation in parenting and how these operate to protect or increment risk for poorer parenting among families who face chronic stressors (e.g., poverty, single parenthood, homelessness, mood disorders). Samples span the poor to the affluent, many ethnicities, several nationalities, and a wide variety of geographic locations. The studies also are diverse in the methods employed, spanning behavioral and questionnaire indicators of executive function and effortful control, attentional and social-cognitive biases, and psychophysiology. Taken together, the papers present clear and compelling evidence for the crucial role of parental neurobiological and neurocognitive deficits and strengths in the etiology of distressed and resilient parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Completing the surrogate motherhood process: parental order reporters' attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements, role ambiguity and role conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Satvinder; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parental order reporters (PORs) towards their work with surrogacy arrangements and their experiences of role conflict and role ambiguity. A questionnaire was used to assess PORs' perceptions of their role in parental order [PO] applications, attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements and the legal process and the influence of role ambiguity or conflict. Questionnaires were distributed to all PORs employed by the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in England. Thirty-three PORs participated (response rate 46%) who, on average, had each completed five PO applications (range 1-40). Positive attitudes towards surrogacy and the child's needs for openness about origins were found. Concerns about the inadequacy of preparation and assessment arrangements, overseas arrangements and non-regulation of surrogacy agencies were evident. PORs with high-role ambiguity were more likely to report less positive attitudes towards the emotional consequence of surrogacy on offspring. High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area.

  8. Multimethod prediction of physical parent-child aggression risk in expectant mothers and fathers with Social Information Processing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Smith, Tamika L; Silvia, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    The Social Information Processing (SIP) model postulates that parents undergo a series of stages in implementing physical discipline that can escalate into physical child abuse. The current study utilized a multimethod approach to investigate whether SIP factors can predict risk of parent-child aggression (PCA) in a diverse sample of expectant mothers and fathers. SIP factors of PCA attitudes, negative child attributions, reactivity, and empathy were considered as potential predictors of PCA risk; additionally, analyses considered whether personal history of PCA predicted participants' own PCA risk through its influence on their attitudes and attributions. Findings indicate that, for both mothers and fathers, history influenced attitudes but not attributions in predicting PCA risk, and attitudes and attributions predicted PCA risk; empathy and reactivity predicted negative child attributions for expectant mothers, but only reactivity significantly predicted attributions for expectant fathers. Path models for expectant mothers and fathers were remarkably similar. Overall, the findings provide support for major aspects of the SIP model. Continued work is needed in studying the progression of these factors across time for both mothers and fathers as well as the inclusion of other relevant ecological factors to the SIP model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of social and cognitive processes in the relationship between fear network and psychological distress among parents of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtue, Shannon Myers; Manne, Sharon; Mee, Laura; Bartell, Abraham; Sands, Stephen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Gajda, Tina Marie

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether cognitive and social processing variables mediated the relationship between fear network and depression among parents of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Parents whose children were initiating HSCT (N = 179) completed survey measures including fear network, Beck Depression Inventory, cognitive processing variables (positive reappraisal and self-blame) and social processing variables (emotional support and holding back from sharing concerns). Fear network was positively correlated with depression (p fear network and depression. Together they accounted for 34.3% of the variance in the relationship between fear network and depression. Positive reappraisal and emotional support did not have significant mediating effects. Social and cognitive processes, specifically self-blame and holding back from sharing concerns, play a negative role in parents' psychological adaptation to fears surrounding a child's HSCT.

  10. The Examination of Views of Parents about the Web-Based Performance Evaluation Program in the Science Teaching Process

    OpenAIRE

    Bakırcı, Hasan; KARA, YILMAZ; ÇEPNİ, Salih

    2018-01-01

    The research was aimed to reveal the views of parents on web-based performance evaluation program. The case study method adopted for this study. The research was conducted in the central district of Trabzon province during the fall semester of 2012-2013 academic years. A questionnaire was administered to three hundred parents and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 10 of those parents. The obtained data was analyzed through descriptive and content analysis. Majority of the parents wer...

  11. Local processing enhancements associated with superior observational drawing are due to enhanced perceptual functioning, not weak central coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Rebecca; McManus, I C; Riley, Howard; Rankin, Qona; Brunswick, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with drawing talent have previously been shown to exhibit enhanced local visual processing ability. The aim of the current study was to assess whether local processing biases associated with drawing ability result from a reduced ability to cohere local stimuli into global forms, or an increased ability to disregard global aspects of an image. Local and global visual processing ability was assessed in art students and controls using the Group Embedded Figures Task, Navon shape stimuli, the Block Design Task and the Autism Spectrum Quotient, whilst controlling for nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. Local processing biases associated with drawing appear to arise from an enhancement of local processing alongside successful filtering of global information, rather than a reduction in global processing. The relationship between local processing and drawing ability is independent of individual differences in nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. These findings have implications for bottom-up and attentional theories of observational drawing, as well as explanations of special skills in autism.

  12. Flows of a Vapor due to Phase Change Processes at the Condensed Phases with Temperature Fields as their Internal Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Onishi, Yoshimoto; Ooshida, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Transient to steady motions of a vapor caused by the evaporation and condensation processes occurring at the condensed phases placed in parallel have been studied based on the Boltzmann equation of BGK type...

  13. Dyadic analysis of child and parent trait and state pain catastrophizing in the process of children's pain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Kathryn A; Chambers, Christine T; Chorney, Jill; Fernandez, Conrad V; McGrath, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    When explored separately, child and parent catastrophic thoughts about child pain show robust negative relations with child pain. The objective of this study was to conduct a dyadic analysis to elucidate intrapersonal and interpersonal influences of child and parent pain catastrophizing on aspects of pain communication, including observed behaviours and perceptions of child pain. A community sample of 171 dyads including children aged 8 to 12 years (89 girls) and parents (135 mothers) rated pain catastrophizing (trait and state versions) and child pain intensity and unpleasantness following a cold pressor task. Child pain tolerance was also assessed. Parent-child interactions during the cold pressor task were coded for parent attending, nonattending, and other talk, and child symptom complaints and other talk. Data were analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model and hierarchical multiple regressions. Children reporting higher state pain catastrophizing had greater symptom complaints regardless of level of parent state pain catastrophizing. Children reporting low state pain catastrophizing had similar high levels of symptom complaints, but only when parents reported high state pain catastrophizing. Higher child and parent state and/or trait pain catastrophizing predicted their own ratings of higher child pain intensity and unpleasantness, with child state pain catastrophizing additionally predicting parent ratings. Higher pain tolerance was predicted by older child age and lower child state pain catastrophizing. These newly identified interpersonal effects highlight the relevance of the social context to children's pain expressions and parent perceptions of child pain. Both child and parent pain catastrophizing warrant consideration when managing child pain.

  14. "Giving us hope": Parent and neonatal staff views and expectations of a planned family-centred discharge process (Train-to-Home).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie; Manns, Sarah; Beasant, Lucy; Johnson, Debbie; Fleming, Peter; Pontin, David

    2017-08-01

    Preparing families and preterm infants for discharge is relatively unstructured in many UK neonatal units (NNUs). Family-centred neonatal care and discharge planning are recommended but variable. Qualitative interviews with 37 parents of infants in NNUs, and 18 nursing staff and 5 neonatal consultants explored their views of discharge planning and perceptions of a planned family-centred discharge process (Train-to-Home). Train-to-Home facilitates communication between staff and parents throughout the neonatal stay, using a laminated train and parent booklets. Parents were overwhelmingly positive about Train-to-Home. They described being given hope, feeling in control and having something visual to show their baby's progress. They reported positive involvement of fathers and families, how predicted discharge dates helped them prepare for home and ways staff engaged with Train-to-Home when communicating with them. Nursing staff reactions were mixed-some were uncertain about when to use it, but found the visual images powerful. Medical staff in all NNUs were positive about the intervention recognizing that it helped in communicating better with parents. Using a parent-centred approach to communication and informing parents about the needs and progress of their preterm infant in hospital is welcomed by parents and many staff. This approach meets the recommended prioritization of family-centred care for such families. Predicted discharge dates helped parents prepare for home, and the ways staff engaged with Train-to-Home when communicating with them helped them feel more confident as well as having something visual to show their baby's progress. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of family-centred services from parents of Chinese children with cerebral palsy with the Measure of Processes of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Petrini, M A; Guan, Q

    2015-05-01

    Family-centred service (FCS) has become essential to parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and professionals in Chinese paediatric rehabilitation services. FCS practice meets the unique needs of the child and family, through facilitation of optimal service provision delivered by professionals, and ensures service systems to be flexible, appropriate and actively responsive to the family needs. Parents used the Measure of Processes of Care 20 (MPOC-20) questionnaire to evaluate and verify the efficacy of use in China. The aims of the present study were twofold: to assess the validity and reliability of the Chinese MPOC-20, and investigate the range of parents' satisfaction with service provision in an FCS practice using the MPOC-20. The Chinese MPOC-20 was selected to assess parent satisfaction with service provision of professionals in FCS practice. Participants were parents of children under 8 years of age with CP, who had received rehabilitation services between May 2012 and May 2013, and were receiving rehabilitation services in May 2013 at a hospital outpatient department and a rehabilitation centre. The reliability and validity of the Chinese MPOC-20 were confirmed. Parents evaluated FCS practice with the MPOC-20 survey. Respectful and supportive care was rated with the highest score and providing general information the lowest. Parents according to the data were dissatisfied with the lack of information. Parents fairly evaluated service provision of professionals in FCS practice with the Chinese MPOC-20. Professionals received feedback reports of parents, summaries of the inadequacy of service delivery, and developed and implemented ameliorated measures in the FCS policy to strive to provide exemplary service. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sensory Processing Sensitivity as a Marker of Differential Susceptibility to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagt, Meike; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ellis, Bruce J.; Dekovic, Maja

    2018-01-01

    In this longitudinal multiinformant study negative emotionality and sensory processing sensitivity were compared as susceptibility markers among kindergartners. Participating children (N = 264, 52.9% boys) were Dutch kindergartners (M[subscript age] = 4.77, SD = 0.60), followed across three waves, spaced seven months apart. Results show that…

  17. Demystifying the IEP Process for Diverse Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lusa

    2012-01-01

    The complicated individualized education program (IEP) process and annual team meetings can be very stressful for families of children with disabilities, especially for those whose primary language is not English and those who are unfamiliar with the American special education system. Cultural and language barriers and lack of information…

  18. Attorney General forces Infectious Diseases Society of America to redo Lyme guidelines due to flawed development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L; Stricker, R B

    2009-05-01

    Lyme disease is one of the most controversial illnesses in the history of medicine. In 2006 the Connecticut Attorney General launched an antitrust investigation into the Lyme guidelines development process of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). In a recent settlement with IDSA, the Attorney General noted important commercial conflicts of interest and suppression of scientific evidence that had tainted the guidelines process. This paper explores two broad ethical themes that influenced the IDSA investigation. The first is the growing problem of conflicts of interest among guidelines developers, and the second is the increasing centralisation of medical decisions by insurance companies, which use treatment guidelines as a means of controlling the practices of individual doctors and denying treatment for patients. The implications of the first-ever antitrust investigation of medical guidelines and the proposed model to remediate the tainted IDSA guidelines process are also discussed.

  19. Phase-matched light amplification by three-wave mixing process in a birefringent fiber due to externally applied stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, M.; Kitayama, K.; Ishida, Y.; Uchida, N.

    1982-01-01

    A novel method to achieve phase-matched light amplification in a birefringent fiber via the three-wave mixing is proposed by using frequency shift change due to the stress applied to the fiber. It is confirmed that the signal power from a cw laser diode at lambda = 1.292 μm is amplified by 6.1 x 10 3 times in the birefringent fiber pumped with a Q-switched Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet laser at lambda = 1.064 μm. This will provide a new fiber-optic light signal amplifier having a good tolerance for variation of signal wavelengths

  20. Probabilistic analysis and fatigue damage assessment of offshore mooring system due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anteng; Li, Huajun; Wang, Shuqing; Du, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Both wave-frequency (WF) and low-frequency (LF) components of mooring tension are in principle non-Gaussian due to nonlinearities in the dynamic system. This paper conducts a comprehensive investigation of applicable probability density functions (PDFs) of mooring tension amplitudes used to assess mooring-line fatigue damage via the spectral method. Short-term statistical characteristics of mooring-line tension responses are firstly investigated, in which the discrepancy arising from Gaussian approximation is revealed by comparing kurtosis and skewness coefficients. Several distribution functions based on present analytical spectral methods are selected to express the statistical distribution of the mooring-line tension amplitudes. Results indicate that the Gamma-type distribution and a linear combination of Dirlik and Tovo-Benasciutti formulas are suitable for separate WF and LF mooring tension components. A novel parametric method based on nonlinear transformations and stochastic optimization is then proposed to increase the effectiveness of mooring-line fatigue assessment due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension responses. Using time domain simulation as a benchmark, its accuracy is further validated using a numerical case study of a moored semi-submersible platform.

  1. Popularity of processed foodstuffs for infants and small children among parents

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Górecka; Barbara Szczepaniak; Krystyna Szymandera-Buszka; Ewa Flaczyk

    2007-01-01

    The popularity of seven groups of processed foodstuffs (soups, dinners, pulverized fruits and vegetables, desserts, dairy desserts, juices, teas) for infants and small children aged 4 months up to 3 years, available on the market and comprising a total of 154 products, was investigated in this study. A survey was carried out in the group of 100 individuals. They were mothers and fathers bringing their children to crèche as well as buying analysed products. Among 24 soups vegetable so...

  2. Altered joint tribology in osteoarthritis: Reduced lubricin synthesis due to the inflammatory process. New horizons for therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szychlinska, M A; Leonardi, R; Al-Qahtani, M; Mobasheri, A; Musumeci, G

    2016-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. This review aimed to consolidate the current evidence that implicates the inflammatory process in the attenuation of synovial lubrication and joint tissue homeostasis in OA. Moreover, with these findings, we propose some evidence for novel therapeutic strategies for preventing and/or treating this complex disorder. The studies reviewed support that inflammatory mediators participate in the onset and progression of OA after joint injury. The flow of pro-inflammatory cytokines following an acute injury seems to be directly associated with altered lubricating ability in the joint tissue. The latter is associated with reduced level of lubricin, one of the major joint lubricants. Future research should focus on the development of new therapies that attenuate the inflammatory process and restore lubricin synthesis and function. This approach could support joint tribology and synovial lubrication leading to improved joint function and pain relief. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A case of mental nerve paresthesia due to dynamic compression of alveolar inferior nerve along an elongated styloid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooris, Peter J J; Zijlmans, Jan C M; Bergsma, J Eelco; Mensink, Gertjan

    2014-07-01

    Spontaneous paresthesia of the mental nerve is considered an ominous clinical sign. Mental nerve paresthesia has also been referred to as numb chin syndrome. Several potentially different factors have been investigated for their role in interfering with the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and causing mental nerve neuropathy. In the present case, the patient had an elongated calcified styloid process that we hypothesized had caused IAN irritation during mandibular movement. This eventually resulted in progressive loss of sensation in the mental nerve region. To our knowledge, this dynamic irritation, with complete recovery after resection of the styloid process, has not been previously reported. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The changes of astaxanthin content and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) due to processing: boiling, smoking and frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastawati, F.

    2018-03-01

    Food processing using high temperatures can cause changes in pigment color and chemical characteristics in food stuffs, including prawn. The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in pigment and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn caused by boiling, smoking and frying. Ten kg of tiger prawn was boiled, smoked and fried at the temperature of ± 100 °C for ± 10 min. The results showed that boiling, smoking and frying gave a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the astaxanthin pigment, pH, moisture, protein, salt content, Aw and color. The content of astaxanthin pigments in fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 132.79 ± 1.5 μg·g-1 82.89 ± 0.92 μg·g-1 78.28 ± 0.1 μg·g-1 and 91.35 ± 2.59 μg·g-1, respectively. The value of °Hue on fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 87.85° 52.5° 55.94° and 53.98°. The tiger prawn processed by the smoking method has preferable by panelist rather than processed by boiling and frying.

  5. Enhancement of the neutral-beam stopping cross section in fusion plasmas due to multistep collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boley, C.D.; Janev, R.K.; Post, D.E.

    1983-10-01

    Multistep processes involving excited atomic states are found to produce a substantial increase in the stopping cross section for a neutral hydrogen beam injected into a plasma, and thus to reduce the beam penetration. For typical plasma and beam parameters of current large tokamak experiments, the stopping cross-sectional enhancement is found to vary from 25% to 50% depending on the beam energy, plasma density, and impurity level. For neutral hydrogen beams with energies greater than or equal to 500 keV, envisioned in tokamak amd mirror reactor designs, the enhancement can be as large as 80 to 90%

  6. Modelling of nitric acid production in the Advanced Cold Process Canister due to irradiation of moist air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarises the work performed for SKB of Sweden on the modelling of nitric acid production in the gaseous environment of the Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC). The model solves the simultaneous chemical rate equations describing the radiation chemistry of He/Ar/N 2 /O 2 /H 2 O gas mixture, involving over 200 chemical reactions. The amount of nitric acid produced as a function of time for typical ACPC conditions has been calculated using the model and the results reported. 11 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  7. Numerical simulation of the bubble growth due to hydrogen isotopes inventory processes in plasma-irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Bonnin, Xavier; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Dezhen

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes (HI) inventory is a key issue for fusion devices like ITER. It is especially urgent to understand how HI are retained in tungsten since it currently is the most important candidate material for the plasma-facing wall. Bubble growth is an important experimental complication that yet prevents a full understanding of HI retention processes in tungsten walls and most critically the divertor elements. In this work, we develop a model based on rate equations, which includes the bubble growth in tungsten being exposed to a HI plasma. In the model, HI molecules can be produced through recombination processes on the inner surface of a bubble, and HI molecules can also dissociate themselves to solute atoms, and the latter diffuse into the bulk wall because of very high pressures inside the bubble. The present model is applied to simulate how HI are retained in plasma-irradiated tungsten in the form of molecules to explain the wall temperature, trap concentration, incident HI flux and fluence dependencies of bubble growth

  8. Calcification in the staghorn coral Acropora acuminata: variations in apparent skeletal incorporation of radioisotopes due to different methods of processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, C.J.; Barnes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Pieces of branch from the staghorn coral Acropora acuminata were incubated with 45 CaCl 2 and NaH 14 CO 3 under identical conditions in the light or in the dark. Specimens were then processed in different ways. All specimens were placed in N KOH to digest tissues. Some were placed in KOH immediately after incubation; others were placed in KOH after 2 h washing, or after 2 h extraction with methanol-chloroform-water. Specimens were washed in running fresh water or running seawater; some were killed in liquid N 2 before washing. Radioactivity associated with skeleton and tissues was determined. The method of processing profoundly affected the results. In dark incubations, there was up to a four-fold difference in apparent skeletal incorporation of 45 Ca ++ between average values obtained for the different treatments. For 14 C incorporation, there was a difference of up to 2.5 times. In light incubations, skeletal incorporation of both radioisotopes showed a two-fold difference between high and low average values obtained for the different treatments. (orig.) [de

  9. Can a new behaviorally oriented training process to improve lifting technique prevent occupationally related back injuries due to lifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Steven A; Lorenz, Eric P; Andersson, Gunnar B J

    2007-02-15

    A prospective randomized control trial. To determine the degree to which a new behavior-based lift training program (LiftTrainer; Ascension Technology, Burlington, VT) could reduce the incidence of low back disorder in distribution center jobs that require repetitive lifting. Most studies show programs aimed at training lifting techniques to be ineffective in preventing low back disorders, which may be due to their conceptual rather than behavioral learning approach. A total of 2144 employees in 19 distribution centers were randomized into either the LiftTrainer program or a video control group. In the LiftTrainer program, participants were individually trained in up to 5, 30-minute sessions while instrumented with motion capture sensors to quantify the L5/S1 moments. Twelve months following the initial training, injury data were obtained from company records. Survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier) indicated that there was no difference in injury rates between the 2 training groups. Likewise, there was no difference in the turnover rates. However, those with a low (<30 Nm) average twisting moment at the end of the first session experienced a significantly (P < 0.005) lower rate of low back disorder than controls. While overall the LiftTrainer program was not effective, those with twisting moments below 30 Nm reported fewer injuries, suggesting a shift in focus for "safe" lifting programs.

  10. Study of parent-child communication in joint-reading process according the investigation of Beth Ann Beschorner, foreign researcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimova A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis carried out by Ph. D. Beth Ann Beschorner (University of Iowa, USA which concerns the training program for parents aimed at teaching them how to arrange the Dialogic reading with their childrenand and which makes it possible to conclude that due to the experience and direct contact with the written language in preschool age the idea of literacy was being formed. The article compares the empirical data obtained independently in different areas of scientific knowledge, i.e., philosophy and psychology: the study of B.A. Beschorner has a lot in common with the principles of cultural-historical psychology, formulated by L. Vygotsky, M. Lisina and other national psychologists. Although B. A. Beschorner do not stick directly to cultural-historical and activity theory, her results correspond with the basic provisions of these theories. The analysis of B.A. Beschorner’s works confirms the commonality of her findings to those obtained in terms of the cultural-historical theory. It proves that scientific thoughts even going in independent ways, may lead to similar results, which ultimately demonstrates the validity of the findings and the versatility of approaches to the problem

  11. Supervisors’ experiences with the return-to-work process of hospital workers absent from work due to a health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan

    context. Aim: In order to gain knowledge about the potential role of supervisors in supporting RTW of a sick listed worker in Denmark, an exploratory qualitative pilot study will be conducted. We seek to open a window of understanding into the experience of managers who have been involved in RTW...... procedures, including the managers’ roles and contributions to the process. Methods: Using purposive sampling, approximately 20 hospital supervisors in charge of conducting sick leave interviews will participate in a face‐to‐face or focus group interviews in order to identify barriers and facilitators...... comparison analysis approach and computer assisted qualitative data analysis. Results: The study is in progress. Results will be available at the time of the conference. Conclusion: We will address questions regarding which factors supervisors feel are important to them in supporting returning workers...

  12. Analysis of residual stresses due to roll-expansion process: Finite element computation and validation by experimental tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufaure, M.; Boudot, R.; Zacharie, G.; Proix, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The steam generator heat exchangers of pressurized water reactors are made of U-shaped tubes, both ends of them being fixed to a plate by roll-expansion. This process consists in increasing the tube section by means of a rotating tool in order to apply its outer side to the surface of the hole through the plate. As reported by de Keroulas (1986), in service cracks appeared on these tubes in the transition from expanded to nonexpanded portions. So we developed a program to compute residual stresses at the surface of the tubes, which caused their cracking, and to endeavour to lower their level by acting on some parameters. This program was validated by experimental tests. (orig.)

  13. Effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery in pain processing due to carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Cleland, J; Palacios-Ceña, M; Fuensalida-Novo, S; Alonso-Blanco, C; Pareja, J A; Alburquerque-Sendín, F

    2017-08-01

    People with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) exhibit widespread pressure pain and thermal pain hypersensitivity as a manifestation of central sensitization. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery for improving pain and nociceptive gain processing in people with CTS. The trial was conducted at a local regional Hospital in Madrid, Spain from August 2014 to February 2015. In this randomized parallel-group, blinded, clinical trial, 100 women with CTS were randomly allocated to either manual therapy (n = 50), who received three sessions (once/week) of manual therapies including desensitization manoeuvres of the central nervous system, or surgical intervention (n = 50) group. Outcomes including pressure pain thresholds (PPT), thermal pain thresholds (HPT or CPT), and pain intensity which were assessed at baseline, and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the intervention by an assessor unaware of group assignment. Analysis was by intention to treat with mixed ANCOVAs adjusted for baseline scores. At 12 months, 95 women completed the follow-up. Patients receiving manual therapy exhibited higher increases in PPT over the carpal tunnel at 3, 6 and 9 months (all, p < 0.01) and higher decrease of pain intensity at 3 month follow-up (p < 0.001) than those receiving surgery. No significant differences were observed between groups for the remaining outcomes. Manual therapy and surgery have similar effects on decreasing widespread pressure pain sensitivity and pain intensity in women with CTS. Neither manual therapy nor surgery resulted in changes in thermal pain sensitivity. The current study found that manual therapy and surgery exhibited similar effects on decreasing widespread pressure pain sensitivity and pain intensity in women with carpal tunnel syndrome at medium- and long-term follow-ups investigating changes in nociceptive gain processing after treatment in carpal tunnel syndrome. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  14. Constitutional Law--Procedural Due Process--Student Has Right to Have Attorney Present at University Disciplinary Hearing When Criminal Charges Are Pending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessels, Rodney Jay

    1978-01-01

    In the case of Gabrilowitz v Newman the court used the due process balancing test to conclude that a student has a right to have counsel present at a university disciplinary hearing where the conduct in question is the object of a pending criminal proceeding. Available from J. Reuben Clark Law School, Brigham Young U., Provo, UT 84602. (MSE)

  15. The Substantive and Procedural Due Process Rights of Students Accused of Criminal Behavior in School and the Educational Rights of Adjudicated Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank

    This paper--part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002-- addresses juvenile justice. Its central issue is how to protect children of color in elementary and secondary schools with constitutional due process where attendance is compulsory and, at the same time, maintain a…

  16. Elemental, isotopic, and structural changes in Tagish Lake insoluble organic matter produced by parent body processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Cody, G. D.; Kebukawa, Y.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Nittler, L. R.; Herd, C. D. K.

    2014-04-01

    Here, we present the results of a multitechnique study of the bulk properties of insoluble organic material (IOM) from the Tagish Lake meteorite, including four lithologies that have undergone different degrees of aqueous alteration. The IOM C contents of all four lithologies are very uniform and comprise about half the bulk C and N contents of the lithologies. However, the bulk IOM elemental and isotopic compositions vary significantly. In particular, there is a correlated decrease in bulk IOM H/C ratios and δD values with increasing degree of alteration—the IOM in the least altered lithology is intermediate between CM and CR IOM, while that in the more altered lithologies resembles the very aromatic IOM in mildly metamorphosed CV and CO chondrites, and heated CMs. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, C X-ray absorption near-edge (XANES), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirm and quantitate this transformation from CR-like, relatively aliphatic IOM functional group chemistry to a highly aromatic one. The transformation is almost certainly thermally driven, and probably occurred under hydrothermal conditions. The lack of a paramagnetic shift in 13C NMR spectra and 1s-σ* exciton in the C-XANES spectra, both typically seen in metamorphosed chondrites, shows that the temperatures were lower and/or the timescales were shorter than experienced by even the least metamorphosed type 3 chondrites. Two endmember models were considered to quantitatively account for the changes in IOM functional group chemistry, but the one in which the transformations involved quantitative conversion of aliphatic material to aromatic material was the more successful. It seems likely that similar processes were involved in producing the diversity of IOM compositions and functional group chemistries among CR, CM, and CI chondrites. If correct, CRs experienced the lowest temperatures, while CM and CI chondrites experienced similar more elevated temperatures

  17. Changes in guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Paluma nectar volatile compounds concentration due to thermal processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivaneide Coutinho Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava nectars were formulated for approximately 10, 12, or 14 ºBrix, with 40% guava pulp. Sodium benzoate, 500 mg.kg-1 was used as preservative. The Brix value was adjusted with saturated sucrose syrup. The guava nectar was pasteurized (85 ºC/42 seconds in tubular heat exchanger and then hot filled in 500 mL white glass bottles. The products were stored either at room temperature (25 ± 5 ºC or refrigerated (5 ± 2 ºC under fluorescent light exposure and analyzed on the day after processing (time zero and also 40, 80, and 120 days of storage. Eight compounds were identified and quantified by Gas Chromatography (GC -Mass Spectrometry (MS: hexanal, (E-hex-2-enal, 1-hexenol, (Z-hex-3-enol, (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate, phenyl-3-propyl acetate, cinnamyl acetate, and acetic acid. There was no significant effect of thermal treatment on the volatile compound concentrations, except for a significant decrease (p = 0.0001 in hexanal and (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate (p = 0.0029. As for the storage time, there was a much greater decrease in the esters contents, such as (Z-hex-3-enyl and phenyl-3-propyl acetates. Cinnamyl acetate had the greatest decrease over storage time. Refrigeration was better than room temperature for guava nectar volatile compounds stability over storage time, mainly for esters compounds, which are important for the product aroma and flavor

  18. Losses of neutral injected fast ions due to adiabaticity breaking processes in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiki; Inoue, Koji; Ishizuka, Takashi; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Iwasawa, Naotaka

    2004-02-01

    Losses of neutral beam (NB) injected fast ions from the confinement region of a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) with a strong magnetic mirror are numerically analyzed for parameters relevant to NB injection experiments on the FIX (FRC injection experiment) device [T. Asai et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2294 (2000)]. Ionization processes of beam particles are calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The confinement of beam ions is discussed with the concept of accessible regions that restrict the ion excursion and are determined from two constants of motion, the kinetic energy and canonical angular momentum, in the case of an axisymmetric and a steady state FRC without an electrostatic field. From the calculation of the accessible regions, it is found that all the fast ions suffer from the orbit loss on the wall surface and/or the end loss. Single particle orbits are also calculated to find a difference of confinement properties from the results by employing the accessible regions. The magnetic moment is observed to show non-adiabatic motions of the beam ions, which cause a gradual orbit loss on the wall even in a case that a strong magnetic mirror is applied. The results show that the correlation of the magnetic moment disappears as the fast ions experience the density gradient around the separatrix surface and the field-null points. (author)

  19. Alterations in soil microbial activity and N-transformation processes due to sulfadiazine loads in pig-manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzerke, Anja; Sharma, Shilpi; Schauss, Kristina; Heuer, Holger; Thiele-Bruhn, Soeren; Smalla, Kornelia; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Schloter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Most veterinary drugs enter the environment via manure application. However, it is unclear how these substances interact with soil biota. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to investigate the effects of manure containing different concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) on the soil microbial communities. It was shown that manure alone has a stimulating effect on microbial activity. Only potential nitrification was negatively influenced by manure application. The addition of SDZ to the manure reduced microbial activity. Depending on the SDZ concentration, levels of activity were in the range of the control soil without manure application. Also, selected processes in nitrogen turnover were negatively influenced by the addition of SDZ to the manure, with nitrification being the only exception. The effects were visible for up to 4 days after application of the manure with or without SDZ and were correlated with the bioavailability of the antibiotic. - This study gives first insights into the effects of manure containing the antibiotic sulfadiazine on microbial activity and nitrogen transformation potentials in soil

  20. Medial temporal lobe-dependent repetition suppression and enhancement due to implicit versus explicit processing of individual repeated search displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGeyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Using visual search, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and patient studies have demonstrated that medial temporal lobe (MTL structures differentiate repeated from novel displays – even when observers are unaware of display repetitions. This suggests a role for MTL in both explicit and, importantly, implicit learning of repeated sensory information (Greene et al., 2007. However, recent behavioral studies suggest, by examining visual search and recognition performance concurrently, that observers have explicit knowledge of at least some of the repeated displays (Geyer et al., 2010. The aim of the present fMRI study was thus to contribute new evidence regarding the contribution of MTL structures to explicit versus implicit learning in visual search. It was found that MTL activation was increased for explicit and, respectively, decreased for implicit relative to baseline displays. These activation differences were most pronounced in left anterior parahippocampal cortex, especially when observers were highly trained on the repeated displays. The data are taken to suggest that explicit and implicit memory processes are linked within MTL structures, but expressed via functionally separable mechanisms (repetition enhancement vs. -suppression. They further show that repetition effects in visual search would have to be investigated at the display level.

  1. Pollution Status of Trace Metals in Groundwater Due to Industrail Activities in and Around Dhaka Export Processing Zone, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOLAM AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from multiindustrail activities influence inland water system directly, which subsiquently affect groundwater quality and human health. Some previous reports indicated that inadequate treatment process of discharged effluent of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ increased the concentrations of pollutants in surface water system and deteriorated total fishing and agricultural system around DEPZ and its connected area. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate wether the concentration of selective metals viz. Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U in two types of groundwater sources were either with in the permissible guidlines or influenced by DEPZ multi industrail on their levels of contamination. The concentrations of metals were determined using inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of the elements in both types of groundwater were in the levels of their permissible guidlines, except for Ni (12.91 µg/L, Ga (0.48µg/L, Sr (90.26 µg/L and Cs (0.07µg//Lin groundwater inside DEPZ, which were 1.30, 5.00, 1.50 and 1.40 times higher than the maximum permissible limit (MPL of 10 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L, and 0.05µg/L, respectively. The mean concentrations of Li (6.85 µg/L, Zn(268 µg/L, Ga (0.12 µg/L, Sr (131 µg/L and Cs (0.07 µg/L were 3.43, 1.34, 1.33, 2.18, 1.40 times higher then the MPL of 2 µg/L, 200 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L and 0.05 µg/L, respectively, in groundwater around DEPZ. Comparatively Zn and Sr possessed higher concentrations, and Cs and U possessed lower concentration in both types of groundwater sources. The elements were distributed in homogeneous and hetrogeneous manner among the source points for deep-tubewell (DTWS and shallow tubewell (STWs, respectively. The significant positive correlations were found between the elements viz., Co-V (0.85, Ni-Sr ((0.70, Co-Cd (0.86, As-Se (0.99, Cs-Zn (0.95, Li-U (0.,71, Zn-U (0

  2. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) accelerates the sternomastoid muscle regeneration process after myonecrosis due to bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi Pissulin, Cristiane Neves; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Sanchez Orellana, Alejandro Manuel; Rossi E Silva, Renata Calciolari; Michelin Matheus, Selma Maria

    2017-03-01

    Because of its long-lasting analgesic action, bupivacaine is an anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block and relief of postoperative pain. Muscle degeneration and neurotoxicity are its main limitations. There is strong evidence that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) assists in muscle and nerve repair. The authors evaluated the effects of a Gallium Arsenide laser (GaAs), on the regeneration of muscle fibers of the sternomastoid muscle and accessory nerve after injection of bupivacaine. In total, 30 Wistar adult rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (C: n=15) and laser group (L: n=15). The groups were subdivided by antimere, with 0.5% bupivacaine injected on the right and 0.9% sodium chloride on the left. LLLT (GaAs 904nm, 0,05W, 2.8J per point) was administered for 5 consecutive days, starting 24h after injection of the solutions. Seven days after the trial period, blood samples were collected for determination of creatine kinase (CK). The sternomastoid nerve was removed for morphological and morphometric analyses; the surface portion of the sternomastoid muscle was used for histopathological and ultrastructural analyses. Muscle CK and TNFα protein levels were measured. The anesthetic promoted myonecrosis and increased muscle CK without neurotoxic effects. The LLLT reduced myonecrosis, characterized by a decrease in muscle CK levels, inflammation, necrosis, and atrophy, as well as the number of central nuclei in the muscle fibers and the percentage of collagen. TNFα values remained constant. LLLT, at the dose used, reduced fibrosis and myonecrosis in the sternomastoid muscle triggered by bupivacaine, accelerating the muscle regeneration process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of children's internalizing and externalizing problems on parenting: Transactional processes and reciprocal change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, Lisa A; Kingdon, Danielle; Ruttle, Paula L; Stack, Dale M

    2015-11-01

    Most theoretical models of developmental psychopathology involve a transactional, bidirectional relation between parenting and children's behavior problems. The present study utilized a cross-lagged panel, multiple interval design to model change in bidirectional relations between child and parent behavior across successive developmental periods. Two major categories of child behavior problems, internalizing and externalizing, and two aspects of parenting, positive (use of support and structure) and harsh discipline (use of physical punishment), were modeled across three time points spaced 3 years apart. Two successive developmental intervals, from approximately age 7.5 to 10.5 and from 10.5 to 13.5, were included. Mother-child dyads (N = 138; 65 boys) from a lower income longitudinal sample of families participated, with standardized measures of mothers rating their own parenting behavior and teachers reporting on child's behavior. Results revealed different types of reciprocal relations between specific aspects of child and parent behavior, with internalizing problems predicting an increase in positive parenting over time, which subsequently led to a reduction in internalizing problems across the successive 3-year interval. In contrast, externalizing predicted reduced levels of positive parenting in a reciprocal sequence that extended across two successive intervals and predicted increased levels of externalizing over time. Implications for prevention and early intervention are discussed.

  4. Financial stress, parent functioning and adolescent problem behavior: an actor-partner interdependence approach to family stress processes in low-, middle-, and high-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen

    2014-10-01

    The family stress model proposes that financial stress experienced by parents is associated with problem behavior in adolescents. The present study applied an actor-partner interdependence approach to the family stress model and focused on low-, middle-, and high-income families to broaden our understanding of the pathways by which the financial stress of mothers and fathers are related to adolescent outcomes. The study uses dyadic data (N = 798 heterosexual couples) from the Relationship between Mothers, Fathers and Children study in which two-parent families with an adolescent between 11 and 17 years of age participated. Path-analytic results indicated that in each of the families the association between parents' financial stress and problem behavior in adolescents is mediated through parents' depressive symptoms, interparental conflict, and positive parenting. Family stress processes also appear to operate in different ways for low-, middle-, and high-income families. In addition to a higher absolute level of financial stress in low-income families, financial stress experienced by mothers and fathers in these families had significant direct and indirect effects on problem behavior in adolescents, while in middle- and high-income families only significant indirect effects were found. The financial stress of a low-income mother also had a more detrimental impact on her level of depressive feelings than it had on mothers in middle-income families. Furthermore, the study revealed gender differences in the pathways of mothers and fathers. Implications for research, clinical practice, and policy are also discussed.

  5. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  6. The Association between Positive Parenting and Externalizing Behavior1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, Debra L.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Schulz-Heik, R. Jay; Corley, Robin P.; Young, Susan E.; Hewitt, John. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive parenting on externalizing behaviors in a longitudinal, genetically informative sample. It often is assumed that positive parenting prevents behavior problems in children via an environmentally mediated process. Alternatively, the association may be due to either an evocative gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children’s genetically-influenced behavior in a positive way, or a passive gene-environment correlation, where parents passively transmit a risk environment and the genetic risk factor for the behavioral outcome to their children. The present study estimated the contribution of these processes in the association between positive parenting and children’s externalizing behavior. Positive parenting was assessed via observations at ages 7, 9, 14, 24, and 36 months and externalizing behaviors were assessed through parent report at ages 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years. The significant association between positive parenting and externalizing behavior was negative, with children of mothers who showed significantly more positive parenting during toddlerhood having lower levels of externalizing behavior in childhood; however, there was not adequate power to distinguish whether this covariation was due to genetic, shared environmental, or nonshared environmental influences. PMID:22577341

  7. The Association between Positive Parenting and Externalizing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, Debra L; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Dilalla, Lisabeth F; Mullineaux, Paula Y; Schulz-Heik, R Jay; Corley, Robin P; Young, Susan E; Hewitt, John K

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive parenting on externalizing behaviors in a longitudinal, genetically informative sample. It often is assumed that positive parenting prevents behavior problems in children via an environmentally mediated process. Alternatively, the association may be due to either an evocative gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children's genetically-influenced behavior in a positive way, or a passive gene-environment correlation, where parents passively transmit a risk environment and the genetic risk factor for the behavioral outcome to their children. The present study estimated the contribution of these processes in the association between positive parenting and children's externalizing behavior. Positive parenting was assessed via observations at ages 7, 9, 14, 24, and 36 months and externalizing behaviors were assessed through parent report at ages 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 12 years. The significant association between positive parenting and externalizing behavior was negative, with children of mothers who showed significantly more positive parenting during toddlerhood having lower levels of externalizing behavior in childhood; however, there was not adequate power to distinguish whether this covariation was due to genetic, shared environmental, or nonshared environmental influences.

  8. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

  9. Children's and parents' perceptions of care during the peri-radiographic process when the child is seen for a suspected fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Björkman, B.; Enskär, K.; Nilsson, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visiting a Radiology department may elicit both positive and negative feelings for children and parents alike. This study investigated children's and parents' perceptions of care during the peri-radiographic process and whether these perceptions correlated with the child's perceptions of pain and distress. Methods: This study utilized a quantitative descriptive design. Its data was collected in five Radiology departments, two where examinations are performed exclusively on children and three that treat both children and adults. Data collection contained questionnaires from children (n = 110) and their parent (n = 110) as well as children's self-reports of pain and distress. Results: The findings illustrated that the children and their parent were satisfied with the care provided throughout the peri-radiographic process, unrelated to the child's self-reported levels of pain and distress or examination setting (i.e. children's department or general department). The highest scores of satisfaction were ascribed to “the radiographer's kindness and ability to help in a sufficient way,” whereas “available time to ask questions and to meet the child's emotional needs” received the lowest scores. Conclusions: Parents and children alike perceived the radiographers as skilled and sensitive throughout the examination, while radiographers' time allocated to interacting with the child was not perceived be sufficiently covered. - Highlights: • Children seen for an acute radiographic examination were satisfied with the provided care. • The radiographers were perceived as both skilled and sensitive to the children's needs. • Children experienced pain and distress during examination on levels ranging from mild to severe. • The allocated time for the children to ask questions were not sufficiently covered. • It is suggested that routines be implemented to reduce children's pain and distress

  10. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  11. Neurocognitive and electrophysiological evidence of altered face processing in parents of children with autism: implications for a model of abnormal development of social brain circuitry in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara Jane; Wijsman, Ellen; Schellenberg, Gerard; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Faja, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Neuroimaging and behavioral studies have shown that children and adults with autism have impaired face recognition. Individuals with autism also exhibit atypical event-related brain potentials to faces, characterized by a failure to show a negative component (N170) latency advantage to face compared to nonface stimuli and a bilateral, rather than right lateralized, pattern of N170 distribution. In this report, performance by 143 parents of children with autism on standardized verbal, visual-spatial, and face recognition tasks was examined. It was found that parents of children with autism exhibited a significant decrement in face recognition ability relative to their verbal and visual spatial abilities. Event-related brain potentials to face and nonface stimuli were examined in 21 parents of children with autism and 21 control adults. Parents of children with autism showed an atypical event-related potential response to faces, which mirrored the pattern shown by children and adults with autism. These results raise the possibility that face processing might be a functional trait marker of genetic susceptibility to autism. Discussion focuses on hypotheses regarding the neurodevelopmental and genetic basis of altered face processing in autism. A general model of the normal emergence of social brain circuitry in the first year of life is proposed, followed by a discussion of how the trajectory of normal development of social brain circuitry, including cortical specialization for face processing, is altered in individuals with autism. The hypothesis that genetic-mediated dysfunction of the dopamine reward system, especially its functioning in social contexts, might account for altered face processing in individuals with autism and their relatives is discussed.

  12. Communication Process Between Parents And Children Of Rohingya Refugees To Solve Childrens Traumatic Condition In Termination Medan Northern Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imeldarina Ginting

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Staying in the termination environment for a long time as well as very limited facilities is certainly very influential on the physical and psychological development of children Rohingya refugees. Limitations of interaction with the surrounding environment limited financial condition of the family unmet need for continuing education and environmental conditions and shelter that has not been fully adequate. This condition certainly affects the rate of development of refugee children some of whom are very anxious and feel they have no future. Based on the initial observations of refugees both parents and children are very open the main problem is that there is no certainty in the future when they will be placed into a third country and the lack of educational facilities for their children. The average family of refugees has been living in a termination of more than 5 years. Parent-child communication can affect the overall functioning of the family and the psychosocial well-being of the child Shek 2000. Therefore the role of parental communication is needed to overcome traumatic in the Rohingya refugee children. This study aims to find out how the parent communication to overcome the traumatic conditions of children by forming childrens self-concept giving recognition and support and create models. The research method used is descriptive qualitative method by collecting data through interviews to some parents and children in termination both experiencing direct violent conflict and discrimination that happened in during their stay in their country Interpersonal communication between parents and their children in a conflicting situation was interested to be analyzed by using Coordinated Management Meaning Theory because in a conflicting condition parents should set their psychological condition aside as the traumatic victims. The result of the research showed that the function of parents communication with their children could help solve the

  13. Development of family and dietary habits questionnaires: the assessment of family processes, dietary habits and adolescents' impulsiveness in Norwegian adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Mona; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Andersen, Lene F; Lie, Hanne C; Finset, Arnstein; Maes, Lea; Melbye, Elisabeth L; Glavin, Kari; Hanssen-Bauer, Merete W; Lien, Nanna

    2014-10-15

    There is a need for valid and comprehensive measures of parental influence on children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB). Such measures should be based on a theoretical framework, acknowledging the dynamic and complex nature of interactions occurring within a family. The aim of the Family & Dietary habits (F&D) project was to develop a conceptual framework identifying important and changeable family processes influencing dietary behaviours of 13-15 year olds. A second aim was to develop valid and reliable questionnaires for adolescents and their parents (both mothers and fathers) measuring these processes. A stepwise approach was used; (1) preparation of scope and structure, (2) development of the F&D questionnaires, (3) the conducting of pilot studies and (4) the conducting of validation studies (assessing internal reliability, test-retest reliability and confirmatory factor analysis) using data from a cross-sectional study. The conceptual framework includes psychosocial concepts such as family functioning, cohesion, conflicts, communication, work-family stress, parental practices and parental style. The physical characteristics of the home environment include accessibility and availability of different food items, while family meals are the sociocultural setting included. Individual characteristics measured are dietary intake (vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages) and adolescents' impulsivity. The F&D questionnaires developed were tested in a test-retest (54 adolescents and 44 of their parents) and in a cross-sectional survey including 440 adolescents (13-15 year olds), 242 mothers and 155 fathers. The samples appear to be relatively representative for Norwegian adolescents and parents. For adolescents, mothers and fathers, the test-retest reliability of the dietary intake, frequencies of (family) meals, work-family stress and communication variables was satisfactory (ICC: 0.53-0.99). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Brief (BIS-Brief) was included

  14. Law n. 13.015/2014: Amendment of Labor Magazine Feature and Possible offenses to Constitutional Principles of Due Process Legal Access to Jurisdiction and Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henriques Zandona Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article aims to study the reforms undertaken by the Law 13.015/2014 under the proposed amendments to the labor resources of magazines, and a growing demand in the edition of overviews by the Regionals Labors Court. At first, the theoretical basis, we analyze the prospects of the constitutional process model within the framework leveraged as a democratic state. After, it enters to the principle concept of due process of law, the access Jurisdiction and Effectiveness, doing, in a third moment, a brief survey and survey as the main proposals of changes made by Law n. 13.015/2014, demonstrating the likelihood that some provisions of this standard or not contradict principles and constitutional guarantees. Trough the deductive method and the bibliographic research this article has been written from a large conception to a small one. And as technical proceeding were used the theme analysis as a way of looking for a solution for the problem.

  15. Online interferometric study of viscoelastic rupture and necking deformation of as-spun (iPP) fibres due to creep process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokkar, Taha; El-Farahaty, Kermal; Azzam, Amira

    2015-01-01

    Creep deformation under constant load leads to rupture when the polymer chains can no longer separate and accommodate the load. This fracture phenomenon is investigated interferometrically. The creep behaviour of as-spun isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) fibres is studied at different stresses, different initial lengths and different radii. The creep rate, which defines the velocity of the creep deformation and the dimensional stability of the material, is studied. The failure time and stress of iPP due to creep process is determined. The necking deformation was in situ detected during creep process. The mean refractive indices (n(P) andn⊥) profiles of iPP fibres were determined at different positions along the fibre axis before and after necking. The relation between the creep behaviour and different optical and structural parameters is investigated. Microinterferograms are given for illustration. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  17. Parents' and Teachers' Reflections on the Process of Daily Transitions in an Infant and Toddler Laboratory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Linda C.; Moran, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study considered values, beliefs, perspectives, and meanings of 7 parents and 3 teachers within the context of daily home-to-child care transitions in one infant-toddler center in an early childhood laboratory school. Sociocultural and attachment theories anchored the study and the developmental niche framework informed…

  18. Parenting Outside the Box, Part 2: Sorting through the Information and Navigating the Individualized Education Program Process | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editor’s note: This article is the second in a series describing one NCI at Frederick parent’s perspective on special needs parenting. Many people living and working in the Washington, D.C., metro area have learned to speak the special language of acronyms, whether they are referring to the federal government, political groups, or other organizations.

  19. Parenting Coordinators' Practices Recommendations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barbara Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of seven parenting coordinators in using parenting coordination practices that they have found to be effective and would recommend to other parenting coordinators to achieve the following goals: educating parents, increasing the quality of parenting and co-parenting, managing conflict, and involving children and other family members in the process of parenting coordination. Data were collected with semi-str...

  20. "Parents a dead end life": The main experiences of parents of children with leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidi, Rahmatollah; Hekmatpou, Davood; Eghbali, Aziz; Memari, Fereshteh; Anbari, Zohreh

    2014-11-01

    The quantitative studies show that due to the widespread prevalence, high death rate, high treatment expenses, and long hospital stay, leukemia influences the families and their children to a great extent. In this regard, no qualitative study has been conducted in Iran. So, this study was conducted in Arak in 2011 with the aim of expressing the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from leukemia. Using qualitative research approach, by applying content analysis method, 22 participants were interviewed in two educational hospitals during 2 months. The study was started by purposive sampling and continued by theoretical one. The data were analyzed based on the content analysis method. Data analysis showed that insolvency, knapsack problems, cancer secrecy, trust on God, self-sacrifice, adaptation, medical malpractice, and hospital facilities were the level 3 codes of parents' experiences and "parents a dead end life" was the main theme of this study. In this study, the experiences of the parents whose children suffered from cancer were studied deeply by the use of qualitative method, especially by the use of resources syncretism rather than studying quantitatively. Parents a dead end life emerged as the main theme of this study, emphasizing the necessity of paying further attention to the parents. On the other hand, making more use of parents' experiences and encouraging them helps make the treatment more effective. It is suggested that these experiences be shared with parents in the form of pamphlets distributed right at the beginning of the treatment process.

  1. Brand-name drug, generic drug, orphan drug. Pharmacological therapy with biosimilar drugs – provision of due diligence in the treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    Due diligence in the process of provision of healthcare services refers, among other elements, to the application of pharmacological therapy at a time which offers the greatest chance for a successful outcome of treatment, i.e. for achieving the optimum expected effect understood as an improvement in the patient's health, reduction of health risks or elimination of the disease. However, due diligence may also refer to actions aimed at ensuring that neither the patient nor the healthcare payer is required to incur unreasonable costs in the process of treatment. The validity of that statement stems not only from normative acts but also from ethical standards laid down in the Medical Code of Ethics (Article 57 section 2). It often happens that the provision of optimal treatment calls for deviations from the formal provisions included in Summary Product Characteristics (SPCs), and the application of drugs that are bioequivalent to reference drugs, which translates into a significant reduction of costs. The present study addresses the problem of acceptability of a specific form of drug substitution consisting in the replacement of a reference drug with a generic drug. Also explored are legal aspects associated with the possibility of therapy based on “off-label use”. The study reviews normative acts existing in the Polish and EU legislation. It also provides a clear definition of orphan drug, which has made it possible to make a distinction and investigate mutual relations between the concepts of brand-name (reference) drug, orphan drug and generic drug. PMID:24592133

  2. Brand-name drug, generic drug, orphan drug. Pharmacological therapy with biosimilar drugs - provision of due diligence in the treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Justyna; Zajdel, Radosław

    2013-01-01

    Due diligence in the process of provision of healthcare services refers, among other elements, to the application of pharmacological therapy at a time which offers the greatest chance for a successful outcome of treatment, i.e. for achieving the optimum expected effect understood as an improvement in the patient's health, reduction of health risks or elimination of the disease. However, due diligence may also refer to actions aimed at ensuring that neither the patient nor the healthcare payer is required to incur unreasonable costs in the process of treatment. The validity of that statement stems not only from normative acts but also from ethical standards laid down in the Medical Code of Ethics (Article 57 section 2). It often happens that the provision of optimal treatment calls for deviations from the formal provisions included in Summary Product Characteristics (SPCs), and the application of drugs that are bioequivalent to reference drugs, which translates into a significant reduction of costs. The present study addresses the problem of acceptability of a specific form of drug substitution consisting in the replacement of a reference drug with a generic drug. Also explored are legal aspects associated with the possibility of therapy based on "off-label use". The study reviews normative acts existing in the Polish and EU legislation. It also provides a clear definition of orphan drug, which has made it possible to make a distinction and investigate mutual relations between the concepts of brand-name (reference) drug, orphan drug and generic drug.

  3. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Barbara C; Gografe, Sylvia; Pritt, Stacy; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; McWhirter, Camille A; Barman, Susan M; Comuzzie, Anthony; Greene, Molly; McNulty, Justin A; Michele, Daniel Eugene; Moaddab, Naz; Nelson, Randall J; Norris, Karen; Uray, Karen D; Banks, Ron; Westlund, Karin N; Yates, Bill J; Silverman, Jerald; Hansen, Kenneth D; Redman, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Every institution that is involved in research with animals is expected to have in place policies and procedures for the management of allegations of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act and the U.S. Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. We present here a model set of recommendations for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials to ensure appropriate consideration of allegations of noncompliance with federal Animal Welfare Act regulations that carry a significant risk or specific threat to animal welfare. This guidance has 3 overarching aims: 1 ) protecting the welfare of research animals; 2 ) according fair treatment and due process to an individual accused of noncompliance; and 3 ) ensuring compliance with federal regulations. Through this guidance, the present work seeks to advance the cause of scientific integrity, animal welfare, and the public trust while recognizing and supporting the critical importance of animal research for the betterment of the health of both humans and animals.-Hansen, B. C., Gografe, S., Pritt, S., Jen, K.-L. C., McWhirter, C. A., Barman, S. M., Comuzzie, A., Greene, M., McNulty, J. A., Michele, D. E., Moaddab, N., Nelson, R. J., Norris, K., Uray, K. D., Banks, R., Westlund, K. N., Yates, B. J., Silverman, J., Hansen, K. D., Redman, B. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials. © FASEB.

  4. Meghan Rene, et al., v. Dr. Suellen Reed, et al. "Due Process." Lesson Plans for Secondary School Teachers on the Constitutional Requirement of "Due Process of Law." Courts in the Classroom: Curriculum Concepts and Other Information on Indiana's Courts for the K-12 Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Elizabeth

    In the Rene v. Reed case, Meghan Rene and other disabled students argued that their due process rights were violated in regard to the Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) graduation examination. This set of four lesson plans uses the case of Rene v. Reed, which was first argued before the Indiana Supreme Court, to study the…

  5. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  6. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  7. Variation Process of Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes due to Interaction With Chorus and EMIC Rising-tone Emissions Localized in Longitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Y.; Omura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using results of test particle simulations of a large number of electrons interacting with a pair of chorus emissions, we create Green's functions to model the electron distribution function after all of the possible interactions with the waves [Omura et al., 2015]. Assuming that the waves are generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dawn side, we repeat taking the convolution integral of the Green's function with the distribution function of the electrons injected into the generation region of the localized waves. From numerical and theoretical analyses, we find that electron acceleration process only takes place efficiently below 4 MeV. Because extremely relativistic electrons go through the wave generation region rapidly due to grad-B0 and curvature drift, they don't have enough interaction time to be accelerated. In setting up the electrons after all interaction with chorus emissions as initial electron distribution function, we also compute the loss process of radiation belt electron fluxes due to interaction with EMIC rising-tone emissions generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dusk side [Kubota and Omura,2017]. References: (1) Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562, doi:10.1002/2015JA021563. (2) Kubota, Y., and Y. Omura (2017), Rapid precipitation of radiation belt electrons induced by EMIC rising tone emissions localized in longitude inside and outside the plasmapause, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 293-309, doi:10.1002/2016JA023267.

  8. Due diligence

    OpenAIRE

    Rohanová, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    One of the main strategic goals of an owner is the growth of their company. To seek company growth in todays ever changing world, company owners and their management frequently turn to the discipline of mergers and acquisitions (hereinafter M&A). This M&A focus is evidenced by the sustained long term growth of the M&A markets, which for example in the Czech Republic alone amounted to a 38% increase between the years 2015 and 2016. The transaction decision making process takes place with an in...

  9. Teachers' and parents' conceptions of students' academic success and failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hočevar, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Personal conceptions regarding academic (in)efficiency are directing the thinking and behaviour of all those involved in the educational process. Due to the subjectivity and complexity of personal conceptions, the individuals are experiencing academic (in)efficiency differently. Also, various factors contribute to students academic (in)efficiency, including teachers and parents. The Master's thesis deals with personal conceptions of teachers and parents about academic (in)efficiency. In the t...

  10. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  11. Broadband generation by multiple four-wave mixing process due to ASE Q-switching in high-power double-clad ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sourav D.; Shekhar, Nishant; Saha, Maitreyee; Sen, Ranjan; Pal, Mrinmay

    2014-11-01

    Broadband output from 1060nm to 1700nm and cascaded four-wave mixing generated red light pulsing is observed in a fiber amplifier set up consisting of a 5.5m double clad, double D shaped Ytterbium doped fiber, a single clad passive fiber for excess pump absorption and a splitter, both with and without a CW seed. Self-pulsing occurs from ASE due to passive Q-switching by saturable absorption effect of the active fiber and also depends on splice loss. The pulses generate broadband output by multiple four-wave mixing process with maximum broadening efficiency near 1300nm which is the zero dispersion wavelength for silica fiber. Pulses traveling both in forward and backward direction have enough peak power and energy to damage splice points and fiber components. When seeded the self-pulsing and broadband generation is often suppressed but again generate at increased pump powers.

  12. Assessment of structural integrity of Monju steel liner against sodium leakage and combustion. Modeling of thinning process of liner due to corrosion in structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukimori, K.; Kato, T.; Furuhashi, I.; Iwata, K.; Akatsu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The lining structure of LMFBR (Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor) has an important role to prohibit leaking sodium from touching a concrete floor in a sodium leakage incident. JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) experienced a sodium leakage incident in 1995 in the secondary heat transport system room of the prototype LMFBR MONJU. In this incident, a part of the liner was covered with a certain amount of high temperature leaked sodium and its compounds. Visible but small distortion and thinning of the liner were detected, which were due to heating by sodium fire and chemical corrosion, respectively. To simulate the MONJU incident, JNC conducted a series of sodium leakage tests, in one of which severer corrosion (molten salt type corrosion) than that in the MONJU incident was observed. In order to secure the conservativeness in the integrity assessment of the liner, consideration of a severest corrosion process was demanded. This means that the loss of parts of the structure with time should be considered in the structural analyses. In this study a modeling of thinning process of the liner was developed in order to realize reasonable analysis from the point of view of actual phenomena. The concept of the method is to release the stress of the lost region by using artificial creep and reducing Young's modulus. The necessity of this kind of model and the validity was verified through an application analysis of the liner in the secondary heat transport system room of MONJU. (authors)

  13. Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Paul J.

    Path analysis techniques were used to test a hypothesized structural model of direct and indirect causal effects of student variables on science process skills. The model was tested twice using data collected at the beginning and end of the school year from 67 9th- and 10th-grade biology students who lived in a rural Franco-American community in New England. Each student variable was found to have significant effects, accounting for approximately 80% of the variance in science process skills achievement. Academic ability, biology knowledge, and language preference had significant direct effects. There were significant mediated effects by cognitive development, parents' education, and attitude toward science in school. The variables of cognitive development and academic ability had the greatest total effects on science process skills. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  14. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, Jesse R J; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-06-22

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations.

  15. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations. PMID:24789892

  16. Characteristics of the gait adaptation process due to split-belt treadmill walking under a wide range of right-left speed ratios in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hikaru; Sato, Koji; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Kawashima, Noritaka

    2018-01-01

    The adaptability of human bipedal locomotion has been studied using split-belt treadmill walking. Most of previous studies utilized experimental protocol under remarkably different split ratios (e.g. 1:2, 1:3, or 1:4). While, there is limited research with regard to adaptive process under the small speed ratios. It is important to know the nature of adaptive process under ratio smaller than 1:2, because systematic evaluation of the gait adaptation under small to moderate split ratios would enable us to examine relative contribution of two forms of adaptation (reactive feedback and predictive feedforward control) on gait adaptation. We therefore examined a gait behavior due to on split-belt treadmill adaptation under five belt speed difference conditions (from 1:1.2 to 1:2). Gait parameters related to reactive control (stance time) showed quick adjustments immediately after imposing the split-belt walking in all five speed ratios. Meanwhile, parameters related to predictive control (step length and anterior force) showed a clear pattern of adaptation and subsequent aftereffects except for the 1:1.2 adaptation. Additionally, the 1:1.2 ratio was distinguished from other ratios by cluster analysis based on the relationship between the size of adaptation and the aftereffect. Our findings indicate that the reactive feedback control was involved in all the speed ratios tested and that the extent of reaction was proportionally dependent on the speed ratio of the split-belt. On the contrary, predictive feedforward control was necessary when the ratio of the split-belt was greater. These results enable us to consider how a given split-belt training condition would affect the relative contribution of the two strategies on gait adaptation, which must be considered when developing rehabilitation interventions for stroke patients.

  17. Nuclide Release Behavior from a Repository for a Pyro-process HLW and SF due to Variation of the MWCF Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2009-01-01

    An assessment program for an optional evaluation of a repository both for disposal of such high-level wastes (HLWs) from various steps of pyro-processes of PWR spent nuclear fuel (SF) and for direct disposal of PWR and CANDU SFs has been developed by utilizing general purpose GoldSim developing tool, by which nuclide transports in the near- and far-field of a repository as well as a transport through a biosphere under various natural and manmade disruptive events affecting a nuclide release could be modeled and evaluated. KAERI has been in charge of modeling and developing assessment tools by which the above mentioned repository system could be assessed in accordance with various features, events, and processes (FEPs) that could happen in and around the repository system. To cope with such various natural and manmade disruptive FEPs as well as normal release scenarios, all the possible cases in view of the Korean circumstances should be modeled and have been evaluated even though we have not yet have any repository. A possible case, among many others, with the variation of such physical properties as the fracture width and the rock matrix diffusion depth, associated with the natural fractures in the geological rock media, along which nuclide could be transported preferentially with the flow of groundwater is considered in the current study. Due to whatever the reason, such as e,g., the earthquake or human intrusion, it is assumed that the physical properties of the major water conducting fault (MWCF) is changed resulting in the size of fracture width and the matrix diffusion depth. For such case another illustration is made for probabilistic evaluation of a hypothetical Korean HLW repository, as similarly done in the previous studies

  18. Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2008-01-01

    Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975

  19. Parenting Stress in Parents of Infants With Congenital Heart Disease and Parents of Healthy Infants: The First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfenshtein, Nadya; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Deatrick, Janet A; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    While we know that the parents of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most prevalent group of congenital anomalies, experience increased parenting stress, the stress levels throughout infancy have yet to be studied. Stress experienced by parents beyond the normative stress of parenting can interfere with parenting processes, and bear adverse family outcomes. This prospective cohort study was conducted to describe and compare parenting stress levels during infancy between parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants. The Parenting Stress Index-Long Form was distributed to parents of infants with complex CHD and parents of healthy infants (N = 129). T-tests were used to compare stress between groups at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Parents of infants with complex CHD had higher parenting stress than parents of healthy infants on multiple subscales on the Child and Parent Domains, at 3 months of age. The stress remained higher on the demandingness subscale throughout infancy. Parents of CHD infants also demonstrated significantly higher stress scores on the life stress subscale at 12 months of age. Findings highlight stressful periods related to parenting infants with CHD, which may increase existing psycho-social risk for parents of infants with CHD. Early family intervention may promote parental adaptation to the illness, and help establishing healthy parenting practices.

  20. Cognitive functioning and behaviour of epileptic children in parents' assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarska, Dorota; Steinborn, Barbara; Michalak, Michał

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive functioning and behaviour of chronically ill children are affected by many factors, including anxiety due to hospitalization, persistent symptoms of sickness and adverse side effects of medications. The aim of this work was to seek out parents' opinion concerning cognitive functioning and behaviour of children with epilepsy. The study comprised 156 children with epilepsy aged 7-18 and treated in the Department of Developmental Neurology at Karol Marcinkowski Poznan University of Medical Sciences and in an outpatient clinic. The research tool used was the questionnaire Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) completed by parents. Assessment of cognitive functioning and behaviour was based on the analysis of the areas V (cognitive processes) and VII (behaviour). Parents assessed children's functioning in the areas of cognitive processes and behaviour at a similar level - 55 points. In the area of cognitive processes, concentration while performing some tasks and reading was assessed as the worst. A significant difference in caregivers' assessment was found according to age, frequency of seizures and duration of disease. In the area analysing the child's behaviour, parents indicated getting angry easily and not being upset by other people's opinions. The display of aggression towards others got the lowest number of comments. The children's functioning was assessed by parents as rather poor in both analysed areas. Parents of children treated with polytherapy noticed more difficulties in cognitive functioning and behaviour than parents of children treated with one medication.

  1. Observation of interior and boundary-layer mixing processes due to near-inertial waves in a stratified basin without tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Eefke; Umlauf, Lars

    2010-05-01

    Near-inertial waves form an important contribution to oceanic energy and shear spectra, and thus play a major role in mixing the ocean's interior. Here, we compare internal-wave mixing processes in the interior of a stratified basin to those occurring on the sloping boundaries. We use the virtually tideless Baltic Sea as a natural laboratory, allowing us to isolate the effect of near-inertial waves that is otherwise (often) overshadowed by internal tides. The measurements presented here consist of moored ADCPs and CTD loggers in the center of the basin and on the slopes, combined with densely spaced shear-microstructure and ADCP cross-slope transects. During summer stratification, a three-layer density structure, with a thermocline and a deeper halocline, was observed with clear signals of downward near-inertial energy propagation after a short wind event. These motions are interpreted as near-inertial wave modes interacting with the sloping topography. Dissipation rates observed in the center of the basin scale with shear and stratification parameters in the way suggested by MacKinnon and Gregg (2003) for the shelf. On the slopes, microstructure transects reveal a periodic near-bed dissipation rate signal and a growing and decaying bottom boundary layer (BBL) thickness; both signals are triggered by near-bottom currents oscillating with a near-inertial frequency. Near-bottom dissipation rates are greatly enhanced compared to the interior, and, due to the straining of lateral density gradients by the cross-slope velocity, mixing is rather efficient, and contributes significantly to the basin-scale mixing.

  2. Choice Processes and Satisfaction with Care According to Parents of Children and Young Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieboer, Anna P.; Cramm, Jane M.; van der Meij, Birgitha; Huijsman, Robbert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the expressed desire for access to information on care providers and increased availability of this information, the use of available information falls short of expectations. We lack research on the decision-making processes and on how these processes are influenced. A study that employs "real-life" decisions is…

  3. Coping with stress and social network among parents participating in the process of early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wrona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Early intervention and  early support are actions aimed at  a child with disturbed development and  their families. The emergence of any developmental disorders in a child is always a stressful situation and demanding changes and taking action to support parents. The resource enabling one to get additional help is the social network of the family. The quality of services depends on the size and category of persons that compose it. It should be borne in mind that focusing solely on the rehabilitation of the child – taking for granted the needs of the remaining family members – may lead over time to the dysfunction of the whole family. Restrictions that appear and result from the child’s disability, create a real threat of marginalising or even exclusion of the family from social life. It is unable to overcome the crisis without any help, therefore the actions of family support networks also play an important role. The main objective of this article centred around the information on the relationship between the size of a support network, the kind of the disorder in children and strategies for coping with stress in parents of children participating in the process of early support or early intervention. The study covered 93 parents. The Map and Questionnaire of Social Support of Zdzisław Bizoń and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress – Brief COPE were applied. Analysis of the results showed no significant correlation between the two variables. The applied statistical analysis allowed us to identify the most commonly used strategies to cope with stress by parents and enabled us to characterise the size of the network and the categories of people who create it. The article ends with conclusions concerning the areas of practical actions under early intervention.

  4. An Alternative to Residential Neighborhoods: An Exploratory Study of How Activity Spaces and Perception of Neighborhood Social Processes Relate to Maladaptive Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Thomas, Crystal A.; Curry, Susanna R.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Background: The environments where parents spend time, such as at work, at their child's school, or with friends and family, may exert a greater influence on their parenting behaviors than the residential neighborhoods where they live. These environments, termed activity spaces, provide individualized information about the where parents go,…

  5. Conflict Resolution in the Parent-Child, Marital, and Peer Contexts and Children's Aggression in the Peer Group: A Process-Oriented Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq; Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Theories of socialization propose that children's ability to handle conflicts is learned at home through mechanisms of participation and observation--participating in parent-child conflict and observing the conflicts between parents. We assessed modes of conflict resolution in the parent-child, marriage, and peer-group contexts among 141 Israeli…

  6. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms......In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups....... However, a strong continuity in the debates was the negative influence parents were seen as having on children’s media consumption due to their lack of insight and interest in the topic. Drawing upon recent works on children’s media, consumption and enculturation, I analyse why the negative description...

  7. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  8. Retrospective reports of parental physical affection and parenting style: a study of Finnish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Santtila, Pekka; Björklund, Johanna; Alanko, Katarina; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2008-08-01

    Individual differences in parenting behaviors are due, in part, to genetic factors. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether the degree of genetic influence varied according to the type of parental behavior under consideration. A population-based sample of 2,334 pairs of Finnish twins provided ratings on the physical affection, control, abusiveness, and indifference shown by their father and mother during childhood. Genetic influences, shared environmental influences, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for a small-to-medium proportion (17%-30%), a small-to-large proportion (22%-44%), and a medium-to-large proportion (37%-55%) of the variance in each parenting measure, respectively. There were no significant differences in effect sizes for mothers and fathers or across the 4 types of parental behavior. The genetic results may reflect characteristic styles with which parents respond to genetically influenced behaviors of individuals (gene-environment correlations) or individual perceptions of this relationship (gene-person correlation processes). The findings have implications for intervention and prevention work with families and for interpretation of evidence for interactions between genes and parenting behaviors.

  9. Effect of Feed Composition Changing at Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Unit Due to Involvement of Gasoline Fraction Obtained by Diesel Fuels Hydrodewaxing into the Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Natalia Sergeevna; Ivanchina, Emilia Dmitrievna; Ivashkina, Elena Nikolaevna; Frantsina, Evgeniya Vladimirovna; Silko, Galina Yurievna

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary products of hydrodewaxing process is stable gasoline, which is characterized by low octane number on the one hand. On the other hand, it contains a significant amount of iso-paraffins (on average 45% wt.) and naphthenes (on average 25% wt.), which are reagents in the naphtha catalytic reforming process primary reactions. Feasibility of stable gasoline obtained by means of diesel fuel catalytic hydrodewaxing process involving into the processing at the naphtha catalytic refo...

  10. Process evaluation of the parental component in the Boost study - a school-randomized trial targeting fruit and vegetable intake among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine

    . Dose received: if parents had seen and read the newsletters. Appreciation: perceived usefulness of newsletters. Reach: dose received stratified by gender and parental occupational social class (OSC). Results: Questionnaires were completed by parents of 58.7% of the students (N=658) and by teachers...... at 18 out of 20 intervention schools. Dose delivered: 11 teachers (61.1%) uploaded all newsletters. Dose received: 65.5% of the parents had seen the newsletters; 49.2% had read at least one. Appreciation: 39.2% found the newsletters useful. Reach by OSC and gender: Among parents, 56.1% of high OSC, 46.......8% of medium OSC, and 40.0% of low OSC had read at least one newsletter; 30.6% of mothers and 18.0% of fathers had read at least one newsletter. Conclusions: Parental involvement was challenged by the fact that all newsletters were not uploaded. Newsletters were read by only half of the parents, especially...

  11. One size does not fit all-qualitative process evaluation of the Healthy School Start parental support programme to prevent overweight and obesity among children in disadvantaged areas in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Åsa; Nyberg, Gisela; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer; Berlin, Anita

    2016-01-14

    Parental support interventions have shown some effectiveness in improving children's dietary and physical activity habits and preventing overweight and obesity. To date, there is limited research on barriers and facilitators of school-based parental support interventions targeting overweight and obesity. This study aimed to describe barriers and facilitators influencing implementation of the Healthy School Start (HSS) intervention in disadvantaged areas in Stockholm, Sweden, from the perspective of parents and teachers. Focus groups and individual interviews with teachers (n = 10) and focus groups with parents (n = 14) in the intervention group of the HSS were undertaken, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Transcriptions were analysed using qualitative content analysis in two steps: deductive sorting in two domains of the CFIR (intervention characteristics and process), and subsequent inductive analysis. The overarching theme "tailoring the intervention to increase participant engagement" was found. Among teachers, barriers and facilitators were related to how the intervention was introduced, perceptions of the usefulness of the classroom material, preparation ahead of the start of the intervention, cooperation between home and school and children's and parents' active engagement in the intervention activities. For parents, barriers and facilitators were related to the perceived relevance of the intervention, usefulness of the material, experiences of the Motivational Interviewing (MI) sessions, the family member targeted by the intervention, cooperation between home and school and parents' ability to act as good role models. It seems important to tailor the intervention to the abilities of the target group in order to increase participant engagement. Including activities that focus on parents as role models and cooperation between parents seems important to bring about changes in the home environment. It also appears important

  12. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  13. Identity Processes and Parent-Child and Sibling Relationships in Adolescence : A Five-Wave Multi-Informant Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Branje, Susan; Rubini, Monica; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, Wim

    The purpose of this study was to examine reciprocal associations between identity processes (commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and dimensions (support, negative interaction, and power) of maternal, paternal, and sibling relationships. A total of 497 Dutch families

  14. Identity processes and parent-child and sibling relationships in adolescence : A five-wave multi-informant longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E; Branje, S; Rubini, M; Koot, H; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reciprocal associations between identity processes (commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and dimensions (support, negative interaction, and power) of maternal, paternal, and sibling relationships. A total of 497 Dutch families

  15. Parenting and Parenthood as Research Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polivanova K.N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of a number of publications which concern the modern socio-cultural situation and its consequences on contemporary parenthood. The constructs "parenthood" and "parenting" are presented:. the first one refers to a social role of an adult with a child in relation to other social roles and the latter with the process of child rearing. The major social trends are presented: Contemporary parenthood is analyzed and problematized due to the nature of modern challenges faced by educated parents. The following trends are discussed: erosion of understandable, clearly presented stereotypes and patterns of child rearing in the family, increase of variability of practices of child-parent interaction, growth of supply on the market of goods and services. All these major social trends bring to the sunset of "natural" parenthood and the decision to have a child turns to be a consciously planned strategy. The article shows that the appeal to expert knowledge in child rearing which is characteristic of postmodern era leads to new uncertainties due to the variety of inconsistent advice and expertise. Discussion of the transformations experienced by the family shows the transition from child-centered to adult-centered pattern. Thus, the conclusion is that contemporary parenting takes place against many (conscious and unconscious contradictions, particularly between the growing importance of the values of self-realization and commitment and the value of parenthood. This contradiction brings to stress and anxiety which in turn damages the perception of oneself as a parent. The growth of interest in the study of parental identity and self-efficacy is considered to be a promising direction of research

  16. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  17. Parenting and Digital Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Radesky, Jenny; Collier, Kevin M; Gentile, Douglas A; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Nathanson, Amy I; Rasmussen, Eric E; Reich, Stephanie M; Rogers, Jean

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the family dynamic surrounding media use is crucial to our understanding of media effects, policy development, and the targeting of individuals and families for interventions to benefit child health and development. The Families, Parenting, and Media Workgroup reviewed the relevant research from the past few decades. We find that child characteristics, the parent-child relationship, parental mediation practices, and parents' own use of media all can influence children's media use, their attitudes regarding media, and the effects of media on children. However, gaps remain. First, more research is needed on best practices of parental mediation for both traditional and new media. Ideally, this research will involve large-scale, longitudinal studies that manage children from infancy to adulthood. Second, we need to better understand the relationship between parent media use and child media use and specifically how media may interfere with or strengthen parent-child relationships. Finally, longitudinal research on how developmental processes and individual child characteristics influence the intersection between media and family life is needed. The majority of children's media use takes place within a wider family dynamic. An understanding of this dynamic is crucial to understanding child media use as a whole. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Parent Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    and parents say given these assumptions? Which management responsibility is addressed through such training of the difficult conversation?  My conclusions are, briefly, that the difficult conversation is more correctly to be called an impossible conversation. It is an asking for the parent's consent...

  19. Children's Experiences of Time when a Parent Travels for Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkovic, Anisa; Swenson, Andrea; Cornwell, Zoë

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative study focuses on different ways time is experienced by children in families who face time challenges due to a family member's job that required work travel. Data are from a family-level study that includes interviews of all family members over the age of 7. Using grounded theory methodology, this study illustrates ways in which job demands and family processes interact. Analysis centers on the 75 children's perspectives from 43 families. Holding together assessments of having enough time while wanting more time with their parents, children express emotion, generally unrecognized by parents, around the topic of family time. Children's experience of time with parents is rushed or calm, depending on the activities done in time and the gender of the parent with whom they spend time. Findings are interpreted through a feminist social constructionist lens.

  20. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    OpenAIRE

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested th...

  1. Dynamic carbon content as an indicator of desertification processes in soils developed from volcanic parental material in the Region of Murcia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Martinez, S.; Faz Cano, A.; Acosta Aviles, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC is an essential components of the global carbon cycle, especially in soils developed from volcanic rocks, due to these soils does not have inorganic carbon. In arid and semiarid areas mineralization of organic carbon is very intense due to climatic conditions, causing soils depletion and therefore desertification. The objective of this study is to determine the content of OC, as a first step in the assessment of desertification. The objective of this study is to determine the content of OC, as a first step in the assessment of desertification processes affecting this area of the southeast of Spain. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. The association between time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents in Norway: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Laukeland Djupegot

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of ultra-processed foods has expanded rapidly over the last decades and high consumption has been positively associated with risk of e.g. overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ultra-processed foods offer convenience as they require minimal time for preparation. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such foods are consumed more often among people who experience time scarcity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between time scarcity and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents of 2-year olds in Norway. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between sociodemographic correlates, weight status and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Methods This cross-sectional study included 497 participants. Chi-square and cross tabulations were used to calculate proportions of high vs. low consumption of ultra-processed foods in relation to time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and weight status. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between independent variables and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Results Participants reporting medium and high time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of ultra-processed dinner products (OR = 3. 68, 95% CI = 2. 32–5.84 and OR = 3.10, 1.80–5.35, respectively and fast foods (OR = 2.60, 1.62–4.18 and OR = 1.90, 1.08–3.32, respectively compared to those with low time scarcity. Further, participants with medium time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of snacks and soft drinks compared to participants with low time scarcity (OR = 1.63, 1.06–2.49. Finally, gender, ethnicity, educational level, number of children in the household and weight status were identified as important factors associated with the consumption of certain types of ultra-processed foods. Conclusions Results from the present study showed that time scarcity, various sociodemographic

  3. The association between time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djupegot, Ingrid Laukeland; Nenseth, Camilla Bengtson; Bere, Elling; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit Torgeirsdotter; Helland, Sissel Heidi; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte

    2017-05-15

    Use of ultra-processed foods has expanded rapidly over the last decades and high consumption has been positively associated with risk of e.g. overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ultra-processed foods offer convenience as they require minimal time for preparation. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such foods are consumed more often among people who experience time scarcity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between time scarcity and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents of 2-year olds in Norway. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between sociodemographic correlates, weight status and consumption of ultra-processed foods. This cross-sectional study included 497 participants. Chi-square and cross tabulations were used to calculate proportions of high vs. low consumption of ultra-processed foods in relation to time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and weight status. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between independent variables and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Participants reporting medium and high time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of ultra-processed dinner products (OR = 3. 68, 95% CI = 2. 32-5.84 and OR = 3.10, 1.80-5.35, respectively) and fast foods (OR = 2.60, 1.62-4.18 and OR = 1.90, 1.08-3.32, respectively) compared to those with low time scarcity. Further, participants with medium time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of snacks and soft drinks compared to participants with low time scarcity (OR = 1.63, 1.06-2.49). Finally, gender, ethnicity, educational level, number of children in the household and weight status were identified as important factors associated with the consumption of certain types of ultra-processed foods. Results from the present study showed that time scarcity, various sociodemographic factors and weight status was associated with consumption of processed foods

  4. Parental Socialization of Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children's emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children's emotions, (b) socializers' discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers' expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children's emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children's expression of emotion are associated with children's negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed.

  5. Surrogacy: the parents' story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Christine B

    2002-08-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of 26 parents who were involved in surrogate parenting arrangements in a California-based surrogacy program. Participants were mostly white (n = 23). married (n = 25), females (n = 24), with high levels of education and income. The mean age at the time of the first child's birth was 39 yr. (SD = 5.06). The majority of parents reported having one (n = 10) or two (n = 8) children. All subjects reported infertility as their reason to explore surrogacy as a method of building a family. 18 participants chose in vitro fertilization as heir method of conception. Telephone interviews explored their decision-making, ethod of fertilization, their relationship with their surrogate, and the support that they received during the surrogacy process. Results indicate that parents were able to nticipate some potential pitfalls prior to their experience but did not realize the imortance of other potential difficulties. A conceptual model is presented with implications for helping professionals.

  6. Higher levels of protective parenting are associated with better young adult health: exploration of mediation through epigenetic influences on pro-inflammatory processes

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Dogan, Meeshanthini V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation was designed to examine the association of parenting during late childhood and early adolescence, a time of rapid physical development, with biological propensity for inflammation. Based on life course theory, it was hypothesized that parenting during this period of rapid growth and development would be associated with biological outcomes and self-reported health assessed in young adulthood. It was expected that association of parenting with health would be mediate...

  7. Higher Levels of Protective Parenting are Associated with Better Young Adult Health: Exploration of Mediation through Epigenetic Influences on Pro-Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. H. Beach

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was designed to examine the association of parenting during late childhood and early adolescence, a time of rapid physical development, with biological propensity for inflammation. Based on life course theory, it was hypothesized that parenting during this period of rapid growth and development would be associated with biological outcomes and self-reported health assessed in young adulthood. It was expected that association of parenting with health would be mediated either by effects on methylation of a key inflammatory factor, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, or else by association with a pro-inflammatory shift in the distribution of mononuclear blood cells. Supporting expectations, in a sample of 398 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from age 11 to age 19, parenting at ages 11-13 was associated with youth reports of better health at age 19. We found that parenting was associated with changes in TNF methylation as well as with changes in cell-type composition. However, whereas methylation of TNF was a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health, variation in mononuclear white blood cell types was not a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health. The current research suggests the potential value of examining the health-related effects of parenting in late childhood and early adolescence. Further examination of protection against pro-inflammatory tendencies conferred by parenting appears warranted.

  8. Parental Depression and Economic Disadvantage: The Role of Parenting in Associations with Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Michelle M; Watson, Kelly H; Hardcastle, Emily J; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lorinda; Forehand, Rex; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effects of parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and parenting behaviors in 180 children and adolescents of depressed parents (ages 9-15 years-old). Analyses revealed that while parental depression symptoms, economic disadvantage, and disrupted parenting behaviors were related to children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms, disrupted parenting (e.g., intrusive, neglectful parenting) accounted for the association of parental depressive symptoms and economic disadvantage with children's symptoms. This study provides evidence that disrupted parenting may be a common or shared process through which both parental depression and economic disadvantage are associated with children's internalizing and externalizing problems.

  9. Parental Perceived Control and Social Support: Linkages to Change in Parenting Behaviors During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2018-06-01

    Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  10. The Experience of Prisoners' Parents: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueta, Keren

    2017-08-19

    The parents of prisoners have long drawn the attention of researchers, due to their role in the etiology of criminality as well as the importance of their support of their offspring during and after incarceration. However, although studies have shown that the parents of prisoners experience high levels of distress, burden, and social stigma, research into their experience is only now beginning to emerge. This metasynthesis examined the limited body of qualitative research on the experience of prisoners' parents, as an exploratory step toward advancing the understanding of their experience. Relevant terms were used to systematically search key databases. Ten small-scale studies, which varied in focus, location, and disciplinary orientation, met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis produced four core themes, reflecting findings regarding parents' (primarily mothers') experience of their offspring's incarceration: parenting from a distance; the burden of care; troubled parental identity; and social reaction. Furthermore, the findings suggested a number of possible mediating factors of this experience, such as parents' social capital and their cognitive appraisal of their offspring's criminality. These themes imply a possible experience of "imprisonment by association" among the parents of inmates and illuminate features that may be unique to them. Given the inherent limitations regarding generalizability of a metasynthesis and the heterogeneity of the experiences of the parents represented by the articles reviewed, the findings call for future large-scale quantitative studies to explore the challenges and therapeutic needs of parents of prisoners regarding the themes identified. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  11. Perceived Parenting Style and Adolescent Adjustment: Revisiting Directions of Effects and the Role of Parental Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-01-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have…

  12. Cultural processes in parenting and youth outcomes: examining a model of racial-ethnic socialization and identity in diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, James; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana; Smith, Emilie Phillips; Johnson, Deborah J

    2009-04-01

    We review and summarize the findings across 7 studies contained in the special section titled, "Racial-Ethnic Socialization, Identity, and Youth Outcomes: Excavating Culture." These studies represent a significant advance for research in issues related to the impact of racial-ethnic socialization and identity on child outcomes. All 7 studies attempted to test in whole or part a hypothetical model in which ethnic-racial socialization in families of color is related to child psychosocial and academic outcomes directly and indirectly through effects on self-system variables such as racial-ethnic identity and self-esteem. Two types of racial socialization messages were of particular interest: messages that promote cultural pride (referred to as ethnic or cultural socialization) and messages that address children's exposure to discrimination (referred to as racial socialization). Collectively, the studies suggest that ethnic-racial socialization processes are related to youth outcomes through indirect associations with ethnic-racial identity and self-esteem. Findings were most consistent in the studies with African American youth and some aspects of the model were not supported for American Indian and Chinese youth. Ethnic and racial group differences and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Hepatic processing determines dual activity of alpha-tocopheryl succinate: a novel paradigm for a shift in biological activity due to provitamin-to-vitamin conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Massa, H.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 327, č. 4 (2005), s. 1024-1027 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : vitamin E * alpha-tocopheryl succinate * hepatic processing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2005

  14. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  15. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  16. Parental affectionless control and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschin, Simona; Briggs, Jessica; Blanco-Lutzen, Sally; Cohen, Lisa J; Galynker, Igor

    2013-10-01

    Although poor parental bonding is a known risk factor for suicidality, current literature is inconsistent about the relative role of low parental care and parental overprotection, as well as the combination of the two, termed "affectionless control". This review presents the current state of knowledge of the relationship between suicidality and these two aspects of parental bonding. The computerized databases Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychLit, and Google Scholar were searched using combinations of the following keywords: suicidality, suicide, suicide attempt, suicidal behavior, parental bonding, and parental bonding instrument. Using the results, we reviewed the reports on the relationship between suicidality and parental bonding as measured by validated parental bonding instruments. Twelve papers were analyzed. All of them used the parental bonding instrument (PBI) and one used both the PBI and the object representation inventory (ORI). Most reports agreed that, in mothers, either lack of maternal care and/or overprotection was associated with an increase in suicidal behavior, while in fathers only low care was consistently associated with suicidality. This lack of constancy with regard to the effect of paternal overprotection appears to be due to cultural differences in fathers' role in child rearing. With these differences acknowledged, affectionless control in both parents emerges as the parenting style most strongly associated with suicidal behavior. Common methodological problems included low numbers of subjects, inconsistent control groups, and the lack of a uniform definition of suicidality. Despite methodological limitations, current literature consistently indicates that parental affectionless control is associated with suicidal behavior. Recognizing affectionless control as a risk factor for suicide and developing early interventions aimed at modifying affectionless and overprotective parenting style in families with a history of affective disorders

  17. Improved performance of solution-processed a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors due to Ar/O{sub 2} mixed-plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwan-Soo; Hwang, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, In-Chan; Cho, Won-Ju [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the effects of Ar and O{sub 2} treatment and of Ar/O{sub 2} mixed plasma treatment on the electrical characteristics of solution-processed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The electrical performance and the instability of a-IGZO TFTs were significantly improved by the plasma treatments. The plasma treatments reduced the carbon-based residual contamination that acted as possible trap sites. In particular, the O{sub 2}-plasma treatment produced a significant improvement in the reliability of a-IGZO TFTs when compared with the Ar-plasma-treated device, owing to the elimination of residual carbon in the active channel of the solution-processed a-IGZO. However, the optimized improvement of the solution-processed a-IGZO TFT under a gate bias stress was obtained for the device treated with an Ar/O{sub 2} mixed-gas plasma. The plasma treatment in the Ar/O{sub 2}-mixed ambience remarkably enhanced not only the reliability but also the electrical performance of the a-IGZO TFT; the on/off-current ratio, the field-effect mobility, and the subthreshold slope were 6.78 x 10{sup 7}, 1.24 cm{sup 2}/V·s, and 513 mV/dec, respectively.

  18. Improved performance of solution-processed a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors due to Ar/O2 mixed-plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan-Soo; Hwang, Yeong-Hyeon; Hwang, In-Chan; Cho, Won-Ju

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Ar and O 2 treatment and of Ar/O 2 mixed plasma treatment on the electrical characteristics of solution-processed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The electrical performance and the instability of a-IGZO TFTs were significantly improved by the plasma treatments. The plasma treatments reduced the carbon-based residual contamination that acted as possible trap sites. In particular, the O 2 -plasma treatment produced a significant improvement in the reliability of a-IGZO TFTs when compared with the Ar-plasma-treated device, owing to the elimination of residual carbon in the active channel of the solution-processed a-IGZO. However, the optimized improvement of the solution-processed a-IGZO TFT under a gate bias stress was obtained for the device treated with an Ar/O 2 mixed-gas plasma. The plasma treatment in the Ar/O 2 -mixed ambience remarkably enhanced not only the reliability but also the electrical performance of the a-IGZO TFT; the on/off-current ratio, the field-effect mobility, and the subthreshold slope were 6.78 x 10 7 , 1.24 cm 2 /V·s, and 513 mV/dec, respectively.

  19. Parent-daughter equilibria in ocean arising out of disposal of solid radioactive wastes on the sea bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, T.P.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    One dimension diffusion model, incorporating geochemical elimination and reflection at ocean boundaries, is employed to show the differences in spatial and temporal distribution of parent and daughter radionuclides, produced in situ, due to the discharge of solid radioactive wastes on to the sea bed. Concentration of daughter is generally lower than that of parent in deep waters. Short-lived daughters (relative to parent) reach spatial equilibrium with parent for finite periods whereas long-lived daughters attain only a fraction of the parent activity. However, when the dumping operation is assumed to be for infinite period, the relative ratio of concentration of daughter to parent would reach value > 1 in surface waters irrespective of the half-lives of the daughter and the magnitude of this ratio increases with increase in half-life of the daughter relative to the parent. This is the result of steep vertical gradient for the parent due to the small physical half-life and more or less uniform concentration of long-lived daughter. Geochemical elimination rate, when becomes significant in the overall removal processes, controls this differential spatial gradient of daughter and parent. However, the integrated activity of daughter over the entire depth is equal to or less than the parent activity. (author)

  20. Parental representations of transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Barr, R

    1982-06-01

    The parental representations of 30 male-to-female transsexuals were rated using a measure of fundamental parental dimensions and shown to be of acceptable validity as a measure both of perceived and actual parental characteristics. Scores on that measure were compared separately against scores returned by matched male and female controls. The transsexuals did not differ from the male controls in their scoring of their mothers but did score their fathers as less caring and more overprotective. These differences were weaker for the comparisons made against the female controls. Item analyses suggested that the greater paternal "overprotection" experienced by transsexuals was due to their fathers being perceived as offering less encouragement to their sons' independence and autonomy. Several interpretations of the findings are considered.

  1. A phenomenologic investigation of pediatric residents' experiences being parented and giving parenting advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, A C; Shawler, P M; Blackmon, D L; DeGrace, E W; Wolraich, M L

    2016-09-01

    Factors surrounding pediatricians' parenting advice and training on parenting during residency have not been well studied. The primary purpose of this study was to examine pediatric residents' self-reported experiences giving parenting advice and explore the relationship between parenting advice given and types of parenting residents received as children. Thirteen OUHSC pediatric residents were individually interviewed to examine experiences being parented and giving parenting advice. Phenomenological methods were used to explicate themes and secondary analyses explored relationships of findings based upon Baumrind's parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive). While childhood experiences were not specifically correlated to the parenting advice style of pediatric residents interviewed, virtually all reported relying upon childhood experiences to generate their advice. Those describing authoritative parents reported giving more authoritative advice while others reported more variable advice. Core interview themes related to residents' parenting advice included anxiety about not being a parent, varying advice based on families' needs, and emphasis of positive interactions and consistency. Themes related to how residents were parented included discipline being a learning process for their parents and recalling that their parents always had expectations, yet always loved them. Pediatric residents interviewed reported giving family centered parenting advice with elements of positive interactions and consistency, but interviews highlighted many areas of apprehension residents have around giving parenting advice. Our study suggests that pediatric residents may benefit from more general educational opportunities to develop the content of their parenting advice, including reflecting on any impact from their own upbringing.

  2. Disruption of TLR3 signaling due to cleavage of TRIF by the hepatitis A virus protease-polymerase processing intermediate, 3CD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Qu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and cytosolic RIG-I-like helicases (RIG-I and MDA5 sense viral RNAs and activate innate immune signaling pathways that induce expression of interferon (IFN through specific adaptor proteins, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF, and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS, respectively. Previously, we demonstrated that hepatitis A virus (HAV, a unique hepatotropic human picornavirus, disrupts RIG-I/MDA5 signaling by targeting MAVS for cleavage by 3ABC, a precursor of the sole HAV protease, 3C(pro, that is derived by auto-processing of the P3 (3ABCD segment of the viral polyprotein. Here, we show that HAV also disrupts TLR3 signaling, inhibiting poly(I:C-stimulated dimerization of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3, IRF-3 translocation to the nucleus, and IFN-β promoter activation, by targeting TRIF for degradation by a distinct 3ABCD processing intermediate, the 3CD protease-polymerase precursor. TRIF is proteolytically cleaved by 3CD, but not by the mature 3C(pro protease or the 3ABC precursor that degrades MAVS. 3CD-mediated degradation of TRIF depends on both the cysteine protease activity of 3C(pro and downstream 3D(pol sequence, but not 3D(pol polymerase activity. Cleavage occurs at two non-canonical 3C(pro recognition sequences in TRIF, and involves a hierarchical process in which primary cleavage at Gln-554 is a prerequisite for scission at Gln-190. The results of mutational studies indicate that 3D(pol sequence modulates the substrate specificity of the upstream 3C(pro protease when fused to it in cis in 3CD, allowing 3CD to target cleavage sites not normally recognized by 3C(pro. HAV thus disrupts both RIG-I/MDA5 and TLR3 signaling pathways through cleavage of essential adaptor proteins by two distinct protease precursors derived from the common 3ABCD polyprotein processing intermediate.

  3. Disruptive behavior disorders in offspring of parents with major depression: associations with parental behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Petty, Carter; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Park, Jennifer; Beilin, Ari; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Although the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk to develop disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in addition to MDD, it remains unclear whether this heightened risk is due to MDD or to comorbid DBD in the parents. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from offspring at risk for MDD and panic disorder and comparison children, we stratified 169 children of parents who had been treated for MDD based upon presence (n=50) or absence (n=119) of parental history of DBD (ADHD, oppositional disorder, and conduct disorder) and contrasted them with children of parents with DBD but without MDD (n=19) and children whose parents had neither MDD nor DBD (n=106). The children had been assessed in middle childhood using structured diagnostic interviews. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD had significantly higher rates of MDD, DBD in general, and ADHD in particular, compared with offspring of parents with MDD alone. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD also had higher rates of mania than controls. Both parental MDD and DBD conferred independent risk for MDD and DBD in the offspring. However, only parental DBD conferred independent risk for conduct disorder and ADHD and only parental MDD conferred independent risk for oppositional defiant disorder. Elevated rates of DBD in the offspring of parents with MDD appear to be due in part to the presence of DBD in the parents. Further studies of samples not selected on the basis of parental panic disorder are needed to confirm these results.

  4. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a chrono-sequence of alluvial and degraded soils due to mining processes in bajo cauca antioqueno, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina S, Marisol; Orozco P, Francisco H; Marquez F, Maria E

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) presence and diversity were evaluated in undisturbed and disturbed soils form alluvial mining processes. The soils belong to the Tropic Fluvaquent, Typical Dystropept, and Typical Paleudult sub-groups which corresponded to Low, Middle and High terraces, respectively, of the Cauca river at Taraza town. AMF propagules were multiplied in Leonard jars under glass house conditions using sterile substrate, modified Hoagland's solution and different fractions of soil used as sources of inoculum, which corresponded to the size of the spores. A first assay was made in maize (Zea mays) which allowed mycorrhizal colonization in roots but not spore production. In a second assay, in kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) AMF spores and colonized roots were obtained with the treatments corresponding to propagules obtained from high terrace and disturbed soil. These treatments presented a significant effect on kudzu yield (P?0,001) respect to the other treatments. The AMF spores of undisturbed and disturbed soils showed low infective capacity. Nevertheless, propagules of AMF were multiplied in trap cultures, which produced spores of four morpho types. One of these was identified as G. microagregatum. The polymorphism obtained by RAPD's made possible the differentiation of these morpho types with the primer OPA2. Similitude above 38% was achieved using UPGMA system. The results indicated that four morpho types belong to the genus Glomus, but they possibly belong to different species. Our results are promissory in the differentiation of native strains of AMF with low number of spores collected from soil samples in rehabilitation processes, which normally is unknown.

  5. Logistics for evaluation of doses received by IOE due to handling 18FDG-radiopharmaceutical during processing (IEN/CNEN) and in radiodiagnostic (clinical)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Osvaldir P. dos; Silva, Joao Carlos P.; Silva, Luiz Carlos Reina P.; Cortines, Geraldo, E-mail: osvaldir@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcarlos@ien.gov.br, E-mail: reina@ien.gov.br, E-mail: gcortines@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to propose an improvement in radiological practices involving production, transportation and application of radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F, by tracking the radiation doses received by occupationally exposed individuals (OEI) that develop production practices, transportation and application of some patients in hospitals and clinics in Rio de Janeiro, the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}FDG. In light of the results and observations of how these practices are developed, it's necessary to evaluate and suggest a logistics to minimize the doses received by OEI during these practices, seeking improvements in the actions and procedures for radiological protection. In practice the production of the radiopharmaceutical, the study focuses on the time of withdrawal of {sup 18}FDG cell processing, where the technician is exposed to higher dose rates. At this stage, we take to accomplish, yet two other reviews: the first is the placement of electronic dosimeters inside and outside the lead apron, whose objective is to assess the attenuation capacity of the apron. This last procedure refers to the use of a phantom cylindrical containing TLD 700 dosimeter in order to evaluate, using a mathematical model (MCNP), the doses ends (hand) of the technician, the process of removing the radiopharmaceutical of the cell and to compare the dosimetric dose recorded in the ring. Regarding the transport of {sup 18}FDG, we take into account the doses recorded in the cabin of the vehicle and the doses recorded in the dosimeter of the carrier. Finally, the doses received by health professionals who handle {sup 18}FDG are analyzed, since its withdrawal from the packing until administration to the patient. (author)

  6. Study of Air Pollution Due to Plasma Cutting Process and Designing Local Ventilation System with Collector in Central Workshop of Mobarakeh Steel Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Atabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Cutting leads to production of different hazardous agents such as fumes, particles, gases and vapors. In various studies, the effects of fumes, gases, and vapors on workers and environment have been proved. Meanwhile, cutting alloying plates with plasma cutting machine due to containing various alloy materials produces a lot of air pollution. Therefore, using the ventilation system to remove the mentioned pollution has always been noteworthy. Method: This study was performed on plasma cutting machine at Mobarakeh Steel Company. At first, according to ASTM the elements from alloy plates with optical emission spectrometry crm-35000-quantometery were detected, the air pollution from cutting the mentioned plates was sampled and measured using NIOSH 7300 method and according to the ACGIH:VS-72-20, VS-70-12, VS-70-11 VS-916 push-pull ventilation with bag filter collector was designed. Results: Results of sampling from pollution of cutting the alloy material, concentration of iron, lead and cadmium fumes were more than the standard limits. After calculation for push system, air flow volume of 195.163 cfm, outgoing air velocity of 5937.4 fpm and for pull system air flow volume of 12498 cfm, minimum duct velocity of 3000 fpm and velocity pressure of duct of 0.717 inwg, for fan, total pressure of 6.301 inwg, static pressure of 0.587 inwg and power of 20.65 Bhp and for collector with pulse jet cleaning system air to cloth ratio of 7 and dimensions of 6.88ft × 6.56ft × 9.84ft were obtained. Conclusion: The result of study indicated that push pull ventilation compared to other ventilation system s for plasma cutting has more efficiency and makes suitable control for pollution.

  7. Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Rachel H.; Forssell, Stephen L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2010-01-01

    This study, funded by Williams Institute, investigated child development and parenting in 106 families headed by 27 lesbian, 29 gay, and 50 heterosexual couples with young adopted children. Parents and teachers reported that, on average, children were developing in typical ways. Measures of children’s adjustment, parenting approaches, parenting stress, and couple relationship adjustment were not significantly associated with parental sexual orientation. However, several family process variabl...

  8. Parents and School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Vogels

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Ouders bij de les. The government is increasingly withdrawing from playing a foreground role in primary and secondary education, transferring competences to local authorities, school boards and school management. Parents are also assigned a role in this process, based on

  9. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sexual Orientation KidsHealth / For Parents / Sexual Orientation What's in this ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the gender ( ...

  10. Exploring the return-to-work process for workers partially returned to work and partially on long-term sick leave due to common mental disorders: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; Van Dijk, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to work, all as

  11. Constitutional Law--Irrebuttable Statutory Presemption of Student Non-Residency Held Violative of Due Process Clause of Fourteenth Amendment--Vlandis v. Kline, 93 S. Ct. 2230 (1973)

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Richmond Law Review, 1974

    1974-01-01

    In the past the durational residence requirement in colleges and universities has been subject to constitutional challenge under the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment. The durational residence requirement in this case displays a further fourteenth amendment vulnerability--the contravention of procedural due process. (Author/PG)

  12. Exploring the return-to-work process for workers partially returned to work and partially on long-term sick leave due to common mental disorders : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, Erik; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Varekamp, Inge; van der Klink, Jac J.; van Dijk, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. We conducted a qualitative study into the return-to-work process of workers partially on sick leave due to common mental disorders. Our objectives were to describe the barriers to a full return to work, solutions, communicating to the working environment and the aim of a full return to

  13. Initiation process of the Mw 6.2 central Tottori, Japan, earthquake on October 21, 2016: Stress transfer due to its largest foreshock of Mw 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, S.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    On October 21, 2016, a strike-slip earthquake with Mw 6.2 occurred in the central Tottori prefecture, Japan. It was preceded by a foreshock sequence that began with a Mw 4.1 event, the largest earthquake for the sequence, and lasted about two hours. According to the JMA catalog, the largest foreshock had a similar focal mechanism as the mainshock and was located in the immediate vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The goal of this study is to understand the relationship between the foreshock and the initial rupture of the mainshock. We first determine the relative hypocenter distance between the foreshock and mainshock using the P-wave onsets on Hi-net station records. The initiation points of the two events are likely about 100 m apart according to the current results, but could be closer. Within the location uncertainty, they might either be coplanar or on subparallel planes. Next, we obtain the slip-history models from a kinematic inversion method using empirical Green's functions derived from other foreshocks with M 2.2 - 2.4. The Mw 4.1 foreshock and Mw 6.2 mainshock started in a similar way until approximately 0.2 s after their onsets. For the foreshock, the rapid growth stage completed by 0.2 s even though the rupture propagation continued for 0.4 - 0.5 s longer (note that 0.2 s is significantly shorter than the typical source duration of a Mw 4.1 earthquake). On the other hand, the mainshock rupture continued to grow rapidly after 0.2 s. The comparison between the relative hypocenter locations and the slip models shows that the mainshock nucleated within the area strongly effected by both static and dynamic stress changes created by the foreshock. We also find that the mainshock initially propagated away from the foreshock hypocenter. We consider that the stress transfer process is a key to understand the mainshock nucleation as well as its rupture growth process.

  14. Life cycle assessment applied to two different municipal solid waste processes; Analisi del ciclo di vita di due diverse possibilita' di smaltimento di rifiuti solidi urbani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corti, A. [Florence Univ., Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica Sergio Stecco; Sirini, P. [Florence Univ., Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile

    2001-12-01

    The application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology as environmental balance tool is particularly suitable for the study of complex system such as municipal solid waste (MSW) collection, treatment and disposal systems. In this case a detailed analysis is carried out referring to an overall environmental balance based on two different waste treatments: land filling and incineration. The comparison carried out based on the LCA methodology and referring to specific process assumptions allowed to foreground that waste to energy treatments get a net overall balance lower than all the different land filling options, referring also to energy recovery from collected biogas. [Italian] La applicazione di metodologie di bilancio ambientale LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) si adatta particolarmente allo studio disistemi complessi quali quelli di raccolta, trattamento e smaltimento di rifiuti. In questo caso viene affrontata nel dettaglio la valutazione in termini di bilancio complessivo di diverse opzioni di trattamento basate su posa a discarica e trattamento termico. Il confronto effettuato mediante il percorso metodologico seguito, ha permesso di valutare, sulla base delle ipotesi di processi fatte, come il trattamento termico con recupero energetico abbia un bilancio netto ambientale inferiore rispetto a qualsiasi opzione di posa a discarica, anche dotata di recupero energetico dal biogas.

  15. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal

  16. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes.

  17. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  18. Family and College Environmental Exposures Mediate the Relationship between Parental Education and Depression among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hui; Chen, Lu; Yang, Yanjie; Sun, Hailian; Pan, Hui; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Sui, Hong; Wang, Wenbo; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Ban, Bo; He, Changzhi

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a major health concern for college students due to its substantial morbidity and mortality. Although low parental education has been identified as a factor in depression in college students, the mechanisms through which parental educational achievement affects students' depression are not well understood. We tested whether adverse family and college environments mediate the relationship between parental educational level and depression among Chinese college students. A total of 5180 respondents were selected using a cross-sectional survey. We examined the association of parental education, adverse family and college environments with depression in college students using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory and socio-demographic questionnaires. Lower parental educational level is significantly correlated with depression in college students in our sample. Additionally, low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, having been scolded and beaten by parents, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends, heavy course load and failure in selection processes are also associated with parental education. Low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends and heavy course load mediated the relationship between parental education and depression in college students. Adverse family and college environments could explain the influence of parental educational level on depression in college students.

  19. Parental Power and Adolescents' Parental Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acock, Alan C.; Yang, Wen Shan

    1984-01-01

    Combines McDonald's social power of parental identification with sex-linked models of parental identification to account for the identification of daughters (N=199) and sons (N=147) with their parents. Found that because of a halo effect, a gain in identification with one parent is not at the other parent's expense. (JAC)

  20. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth / For Parents / Prenatal Genetic Counseling What's in ... can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating family ...

  1. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  2. PARENTING AND ITS INFLUENCE ON CHILD BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Jiji Mary Antony; Suresh Sebastian Vadakedom

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Parenting is the process of giving care to the young and preparing them to face the challenges of life. Diana Baumrind introduced the models of parenting, authoritative, authoritarian and permissive depending on the level of demandingness and responsiveness. Defective parenting is associated with problem behaviours in children. This study was undertaken to find out which parenting style is least associated with behavioural problems and what are the problems associated w...

  3. What parents find important in the support of a child with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S L G; van der Putten, A A J; Vlaskamp, C

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a partnership between parents and professionals in the support of children with disabilities is widely acknowledged and is one of the key elements of 'family-centred care'. To what extent family-centred principles are also applied to the support of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is not yet known. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine what parents with a child with PIMD find important in the support of their child. In addition, we examined which child or parent characteristics influence these parental opinions. In total, 100 parents completed an adapted version of the Measure of Processes of Care. Mean unweighted and weighted scale scores were computed. Non-parametric tests were used to examine differences in ratings due to child (gender, age, type and number of additional disabilities, type of services used and duration of service use) and parent characteristics (gender, involvement with support and educational level). Parents rated situations related to 'Respectful and Supportive Care' and 'Enabling and Partnership' with averages of 7.07 and 6.87 respectively on a scale from 1 to 10. They were generally satisfied with the services provided, expressed in a mean score of 6.88 overall. The age of the child significantly affected the scores for 'Providing Specific Information about the Child'. Parents of children in the '6-12 years' age group gave significantly higher scores on this scale than did parents of children in the '≥17 years' age group (U = 288, r = -0.34). This study shows that parents with children with PIMD find family-centred principles in the professional support of their children important. Although the majority of parents are satisfied with the support provided for their children, a substantial minority of the parents indicated that they did not receive the support they find important. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... before an appeals panel that— (i) May not include current members of the agency's decision-making body... significance and materiality are determined by the agency. (iii) The only remaining deficiency cited by the...

  5. The Drone Court And Due Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    authority, even during wartime, when it heard Youngstown Tube and Sheet Co. v. Sawyer.68 In 1951, when the United States went to war with Korea , labor...national origin, religion , alienage, and poverty.” See “Strict Scrutiny,” Legal Information Institute, accessed December 9, 2016, https

  6. Parental Engagement: Beyond Parental Involvement in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kathleen

    This study critically analyzes parents' complex stories of engagement in school and science education. The purpose is not to essentialize parental involvement, but rather to understand the processes of parental involvement and push forward the current discourse on the engagement of low-income minority and immigrant parents in schools and specifically science education. Employing critical grounded theory methods over a four-year span, this study had three areas of focus. First, voices of marginalized parents in the context of various spaces within the school system are examined. Using a qualitative approach, informal, formal, and research spaces were explored along with how minority parents express voice in these various spaces. Findings indicate parents drew on capital to express voice differently in different spaces, essentially authoring new spaces or the type of engagement in existing spaces. Second, the values and beliefs of traditionally marginalized people, the Discourse of mainstream society, and how they can inform a third, more transformative space for parental engagement in science are considered. The voices of low-income, marginalized parents around science and parental engagement (i.e., first space) are contrasted with the tenets of major national science policy documents (i.e., second space). Findings indicate a disparity between the pathways of engagement for low-income parents and policymakers who shape science education. Third, methodological questions of responsibility and assumption in qualitative research are explored. The author's complex struggle to make sense of her positionality, responsibilities, and assumptions as a researcher is chronicled. Findings focused on insider/outsider issues and implications for culturally sensitive research are discussed. Finally, the implications for policy, teaching, and research are discussed.

  7. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooten Anneke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA, n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual, a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG. The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, anxiety and feelings of anger and hostility. Infant secondary outcomes are behavioral aspects such as crying

  8. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  9. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-03-17

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  10. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Liebrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  11. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  12. A 4-Year Longitudinal Investigation of the Processes by Which Parents and Peers Influence the Development of Early Adolescent Girls' Bulimic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Bulimic symptoms are fairly common among adolescent girls, and the dual pathway model outlines one possible etiological chain leading to bulimic symptoms. The present study seeks to longitudinally examine the pathways proposed by this model while focusing on the relative contribution of parents and peers (via direct encouragement or pressure to be…

  13. Bringing the Community into the Process: Issues and Promising Practices for Involving Parents & Business in Local Smart Start Partnerships. UNC Smart Start Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Mary; Noblit, George

    Smart Start is North Carolina's partnership between state government and local leaders, service providers, and families to better serve children under age 6 and their families. The aim of the program is ensuring that all children enter school healthy and ready to learn. This study examined parent and business involvement in local Smart Start…

  14. The Impact of a Holistic Conditional Cash Transfer Program in New York City on Parental Financial Investment, Student Time Use, and Educational Processes and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Wolf, Sharon; Berg, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Opportunity New York City-Family Rewards, the first holistic conditional cash transfer (CCT) program evaluated in the United States, on parental financial investments in children, and high school students' academic time use, motivations and self-beliefs, and achievement outcomes. Family Rewards, launched by the…

  15. Parental monitoring protects against the effects of parent and adolescent depressed mood on adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lourah M; Becker, Sara J; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    Parental monitoring is a well-established protective factor for adolescent drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring protected against three common risk factors for alcohol use in a sample of high-risk adolescents: parental depressed mood, adolescent depressed mood, and parental alcohol use. Participants included 117 adolescents (mean age=15.5; 52% female) who presented to the hospital emergency department due to an alcohol-related event and their primary parent/guardian. Adolescents completed self-report measures of alcohol use frequency, depressed mood, and parental monitoring, while parents completed self-report measures of problematic alcohol use and depressed mood. Hierarchical regression confirmed that parental monitoring was associated with lower frequency of adolescent alcohol use, even after controlling for the three risk factors. Significant interactions were found between parental monitoring and both adolescent and parental depressed mood. Parental monitoring had significant protective effects against drinking frequency among adolescents with higher levels of depressed mood, but not among adolescents with lower levels of depressed mood. By contrast, parental monitoring only had protective effects among those parents with lower levels of depressed mood. Parental problematic alcohol use did not affect the relationship between parental monitoring and adolescent alcohol use. Our results suggest that adolescents with high levels of depressed mood may be more likely to benefit from parental monitoring, whereas parents with high levels of depressed mood may be less likely to monitor effectively. Interventions targeting parental monitoring in high-risk adolescents should take into account the influence of both adolescent and parental depressed mood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Parenting Moderates the Association between Parental Depression and Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H.; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential as...

  17. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  18. 34 CFR 300.148 - Placement of children by parents when FAPE is at issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the child, and the question of financial reimbursement, are subject to the due process procedures in... with a disability, who previously received special education and related services under the authority... and that the private placement is appropriate. A parental placement may be found to be appropriate by...

  19. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  20. Making the Difference with Active Parenting; Forming Educational Partnerships between Parents and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostdam, Ron; Hooge, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Although parental involvement is often a priority on the quality agenda of schools for primary and secondary education, it is still not usual to involve parents as an educational partner in the actual learning process of their child. Rather than adopting an open approach, teachers tend to tell parents what they should do or keep them at a safe…

  1. Collaboration Between Childcare and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn Larsen, Maja

    2017-01-01

    other’s arrangements, but on the other hand, they are structurally connected and continuously interacting due to the crossover of the children’s activities. Therefore, collaboration and coordination between parents and professionals is an important part of childcare practice. Based on comprehensive...... empirical work in different Danish childcare centres, this chapter discusses how parental collaboration in the pedagogical practice is often a rather paradoxical effort, developed in relation to contradictory historical and institutional conditions and requirements to treat parents both as equal...... participants, consumers and clients. In this way, challenges and dilemmas in parental collaboration in childcare are analysed in relation to larger societal conflicts about the relation between society and citizen and the overall purpose of childcare as state institutions....

  2. Early Parenting Moderates the Association between Parental Depression and Neural Reactivity to Rewards and Losses in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Proudfit, Greg H; Laptook, Rebecca; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-07-01

    Children of parents with depression exhibit neural abnormalities in reward processing. Examining contributions of parenting could provide insight into the development of these abnormalities and to the etiology of depression. We evaluated whether early parenting moderates the effects of parental depression on a neural measure of reward and loss processing in mid-late childhood. Parenting was assessed when children were preschoolers. At age nine, children completed an event-related potential assessment and the feedback negativity (FN) was measured following rewards and losses ( N =344). Maternal authoritative parenting moderated the effect of maternal depression; among offspring of mothers with histories of depression, low authoritative parenting predicted a blunted FN. Observed maternal positive parenting interacted with paternal depression in a comparable manner, indicating that maternal parenting may buffer the effects of paternal depression. Early parenting may be important in shaping the neural systems involved in reward processing among children at high risk for depression.

  3. Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.; Thunström, Linda

    Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint? While becoming a parent is transformational as one focuses more on the future, the time constraints are more binding right now. Using a unique data set that allows us to compare CO2 emissions from Swedish two-adult households with and without children......, we find becoming a Swedish parent causes a person to leave a larger carbon ootprint—due to changes in transportation patterns and food consumption choices....

  4. Approaches used by parents to keep their children safe at home: a qualitative study to explore the perspectives of parents with children aged under five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablewhite, Joanne; McDaid, Lisa; Hawkins, Adrian; Peel, Isabel; Goodenough, Trudy; Deave, Toity; Stewart, Jane; Watson, Michael; Kendrick, Denise

    2015-09-29

    Childhood unintentional injury represents an important global health problem. Many unintentional injuries experienced by children aged under 5 years occur within the home and are preventable. The aim of this study was to explore the approaches used by parents of children under five in order to help prevent unintentional injuries in the home and the factors which influence their use. Understanding how parents approach risk-management in the home has important implications for injury practitioners. A multi-centre qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Sixty five parents of children aged under 5 years, from four study areas were interviewed: Bristol, Newcastle, Norwich and Nottingham. Three main injury prevention strategies used by parents were: a) Environmental such as removal of hazards, and use of safety equipment; b) parental supervision; and c) teaching, for example, teaching children about safety and use of rules and routine. Strategies were often used in combination due to their individual limitations. Parental assessment of injury risk, use of strategy and perceived effectiveness were fluid processes dependent on a child's character, developmental age and the prior experiences of both parent and child. Some parents were more proactive in their approach to home safety while others only reacted if their child demonstrated an interest in a particular object or activity perceived as being an injury risk. Parents' injury prevention practices encompass a range of strategies that are fluid in line with the child's age and stage of development; however, parents report that they still find it challenging to decide which strategy to use and when.

  5. DECOVALEX-THMC Task D: Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems, Status Report October 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2005-01-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The name DECOVALEX stands for DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation against Experiments. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled ''Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems''. In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D

  6. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how educational expectations parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children’s attainment, and how parents’ own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a prospective longitudinal study that followed participants from ages 18 to 64. Compared to the norm, parents with mild intellectual deficits expected thei...

  7. Parental Influences on Adolescent Adjustment: Parenting Styles Versus Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Daniels, M. Harry; Kissinger, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    The study identified distinct patterns of parental practices that differentially influence adolescent behavior using the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS:88) database. Following Brenner and Fox's research model (1999), the cluster analysis was used to classify the four types of parental practices. The clusters of parenting practices…

  8. “My Child has Cerebral Palsy”: Parental Involvement and Children’s School Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armanda Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process, high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children’s education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy has received little direct attention from researchers.These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with Cerebral Palsy. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level

  9. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of social economic status (SES on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1 home monitoring; (2 parent-child communication; and (3 parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  10. Gender Differences in How Family Income and Parental Education Relate to Reading Achievement in China: The Mediating Role of Parental Expectation and Parental Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaolin; Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Kexin; Luo, Liang

    2018-01-01

    The impact of social economic status (SES) on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls) in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls. The results revealed that parental expectation and specific parental involvement behaviors played critical mediating roles between family SES and reading achievement. Moreover, the exact nature of these links differed by the gender of children. For boys, both the effect of parental education and the effect of family income were partially mediated by parental expectation and parent-child communication orderly. For girls, the effect of parental education was partially mediated by three separate pathways: (1) home monitoring; (2) parent-child communication; and (3) parental expectation followed by parent-child communication, while the effect of family income was fully mediated by parent-child communication. These findings suggest a process through which SES factors are related to children's academic development and identify a context under which these associations may differ. The practical implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible future research directions.

  11. Proactive Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

  12. Parent-child communication: a model for Hispanics on HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Raquel; Bonazzo, Claude; Torres, Rosamar

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome has become a global epidemic that has affected many different racial and ethnic groups. One group that has lacked attention is the Hispanic population, due to its distinctive cultural characteristics. Many of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections in Hispanics occur in adolescents. A protective factor for preventing HIV infections in adolescents is parent-child communication about sexual intercourse; however discussions about sexuality are uncommon in Hispanic families. When promoting parent-child communication among Hispanics regarding sex, it is essential to include cultural characteristics and the use of a model for empowering both parents and adolescents. The cultural characteristics examined in this article are allocentrism, familialism, personal space, time orientation, power distance, gender roles, and fatalism. A partnership model for empowering parents and adolescents, and 5 steps of the partnership process are discussed.

  13. Fe isotope composition of bulk chondrules from Murchison (CM2): Constraints for parent body alteration, nebula processes and chondrule-matrix complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Dominik C.; Wilden, Johanna S.; Becker, Daniel; Steinbach, Sonja; Wombacher, Frank; Harak, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Chondrules are a major constituent of primitive meteorites. The formation of chondrules is one of the most elusive problems in cosmochemistry. We use Fe isotope compositions of chondrules and bulk chondrites to constrain the conditions of chondrule formation. Iron isotope compositions of bulk chondrules are so far only known from few studies on CV and some ordinary chondrites. We studied 37 chondrules from the CM chondrite Murchison. This is particularly challenging, as CM chondrites contain the smallest chondrules of all chondrite groups, except for CH chondrites. Bulk chondrules have δ56Fe between -0.62 and +0.24‰ relative to the IRMM-014 standard. Bulk Murchison has as all chondrites a δ56Fe of 0.00‰ within error. The δ56Fe distribution of the Murchison chondrule population is continuous and close to normal. The width of the δ56Fe distribution is narrower than that of the Allende chondrule population. Opaque modal abundances in Murchison chondrules is in about 67% of the chondrules close to 0 vol.%, and in 33% typically up to 6.5 vol.%. Chondrule Al/Mg and Fe/Mg ratios are sub-chondritic, while bulk Murchison has chondritic ratios. We suggest that the variable bulk chondrule Fe isotope compositions were established during evaporation and recondensation prior to accretion in the Murchison parent body. This range in isotope composition was likely reduced during aqueous alteration on the parent body. Murchison has a chondritic Fe isotope composition and a number of chondritic element ratios. Chondrules, however, have variable Fe isotope compositions and chondrules and matrix have complementary Al/Mg and Fe/Mg ratios. In combination, this supports the idea that chondrules and matrix formed from a single reservoir and were then accreted in the parent body. The formation in a single region also explains the compositional distribution of the chondrule population in Murchison.

  14. Nursemaid's Elbow (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... For Parents / Nursemaid's Elbow Print About Nursemaid's Elbow Toddlers and preschoolers are at risk for a common ...

  15. Parental influence on adolescents' imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, A; Engelberg, D

    1984-09-01

    It was hypothesized that a permissive democratic parental attitude towards childrearing and favorable accepting attitude towards children's imagination are conducive to the development of their adolescent children's imaginative ability. It was also hypothesized that the mothers' role is more crucial than that of the fathers. The subjects were 104 adolescent Israeli boys and girls and their parents. The subjects were administered four scales of the Imaginal Processes Inventory and the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. The parents filled out a questionnaire devised to study their attitude to children's imagination. The first two hypotheses were not confirmed. The data point in the opposite direction as regards the first hypothesis. There was partial conformation for the third hypothesis. The data were also discussed in relation to healthy and neurotic daydreaming.

  16. Parental overprotection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1993-01-01

    Dimensions of parental overprotection are clarified in a critical review of the research and clinical literature. An indulgent style of parenting is distinguished from an overprotective parent-child relationship. Differential antecedents and outcomes are proposed for each of these forms of parent-child interaction. Measures of protection are reviewed. A new conceptual model of parental overprotection is presented which takes into account child, parent, family, socio-cultural, environmental and resiliency factors. Directions for future research are suggested.

  17. Descriptive survey about causes of illness given by the parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo, Bernardi; Pierluigi, Badon

    2008-04-01

    When a doctor diagnoses a child's illness as cancer, parents very often react by creating wrong and unrealistic theories about the origins of their child's illness which in turn generates self-blame in the parents, who take responsibility for the disease. To find what are the parents' beliefs about the origins of their children's illness. Descriptive study. Seventy-two couples of parents whose children with cancer are under treatment in the haemato-oncology paediatric ward of the Padova hospital. They have been collected by a no probabilistic method of sampling. A questionnaire was used, based on current literature, which investigates the beliefs of the parents as to what are the causes of illness, whether the parents research information about the illness and the origins of cancer and what are the information sources they use in order to establish if there is a connection between these factors. Eighty-seven percent of the sample group thinks that there is a specific origin of their child's illness: 27% believes the cause is environmental pollution, 26% believes it is due to radiation emissions, 26% believes it is due to genetic factors and 8% believes it is due to other causes. Eighty six percent and 70% of the sample search for information about the illness and its causes; 64% of the parents state that the first meeting with the medical staff, in which the illness is explained and they are informed that there are no known causes that produce it, does not clarify their doubts. The sources more often used to search for more information and explanations are the physicians in the ward, internet and medical books. This survey confirms the importance of an "advocacy" role of the nurse in educating the caregiver and the need to create instruments which guide the parents in the informative process and the research for good information. Nurses need to be cognizant that their care is crucial not just for the child, but for the entire family.

  18. Transmission of values from adolescents to their parents: the role of value content and authoritative parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2004-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of values is a bidirectional process. To date, however, adolescents' influence on parental values has rarely been investigated. In the present study, we analyzed the transmission of values from adolescents (aged 11 to 17 years) to their mothers and fathers across a one-year interval in 431 mother-child dyads and 346 father-child dyads. Transmission of values from adolescents to parents was observed regarding topics that are salient in adolescence (the usefulness of new technology, beliefs concerning the traditional way of life, the importance of religion) but not regarding topics that become salient later. In addition, the transmission of adolescents' values to their parents was mainly observed in families with above-average levels of authoritative parenting (i.e., parents are receptive and supportive). However, adolescents' religious values were also transmitted to their parents in families with below-average levels of authoritative parenting. Transmission of values from parents to adolescents was also investigated.

  19. Amblyopia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  20. When Parents Argue

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  1. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  2. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  3. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  4. Syphilis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  5. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  6. Yersiniosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  7. Amebiasis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  8. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  9. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  10. Headaches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  11. Strep Throat (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  12. Tourette Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  13. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ...

  14. Sinusitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  15. Laryngoscopy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  16. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  17. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  18. Eczema (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    [Skip to Content] for Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family ...

  19. Chinese Parenting Reconsideration: Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom

    This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…

  20. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  1. Parenting Practices in Cultural Context: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnegar, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Despite general consensus that parenting practices influence the developmental processes of children, many questions about the impacts of parenting practices on child development within the cultural context remain unanswered. This article presents how cultural templates influence parenting practices and developmental processes of young children.…

  2. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursyam Andi Syarifuddin; Anis Wahdi

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  3. "My Child has Cerebral Palsy": Parental Involvement and Children's School Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process), high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children's education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) has received little direct attention from researchers. These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with CP. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level of school engagement

  4. “My Child has Cerebral Palsy”: Parental Involvement and Children’s School Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R.; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C.; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Engaged students tend to show school-committed behaviors (e.g., attend classes, get involved with the learning process), high achievement, and sense of belonging. However, students with disabilities are prone to show a lack of engagement with school due to the specific difficulties they have to handle. In fact, children with disabilities are likely to show poor participation in school when compared with children without disabilities. This poor involvement is related to their low autonomy to participate in the school activities, which, in turn, results in low school engagement. Parents play a crucial role in their children’s education. Parental involvement in school activities promotes autonomous behaviors and, consequently, school engagement. In fact, extant literature has shown close relationships between parental involvement, school engagement, and academic performance. Yet, parental involvement in school activities of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) has received little direct attention from researchers. These children tend to display lower participation due to the motor, or cognitive, impairments that compromise their autonomy, and have a high likelihood to develop learning disabilities, with special incidences in reading and arithmetic. Therefore, our aim is twofold, to understand the parental styles; and how the perceived parental involvement in school activities is related to their children school engagement. Hence, 19 interviews were conducted with one of the parents of 19 children with CP. These interviews explored the school routines of children and the perceived involvement of parents in those routines. Additionally, children filled out a questionnaire on school engagement. Results show that the majority of the parents were clustered in the Autonomy Allowance and Acceptance and Support parental style, and the majority of their children were perceived as autonomous. Moreover, about a half of the children reported a high level of school engagement

  5. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. Method A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (ages ~15 to ~18). Results Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs, but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Conclusion Processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of MDD for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression. PMID:27043719

  6. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2016-04-04

    Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (approximate ages 15 and 18). Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Results support the notion that processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict, and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show that parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression.

  7. Parental satisfaction in the traditional system of neonatal intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Traditional systems of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) care predispose parents to increased levels of stress and anxiety due to parental separation from their infant. Parental satisfaction, an indicator of the quality of care, is significantly compromised during prolonged NICU stay. The research is limited in ...

  8. The impact of area deprivation on parenting stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Willem; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Area deprivation negatively affects health and lifestyles, among which child behaviours. The latter may aggravate the effects of area deprivation on parental health due to higher rates of parenting stress. However, evidence on the influence of the living environment on parenting stress

  9. 45 CFR 5b.10 - Parents and guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parents and guardians. 5b.10 Section 5b.10 Public... Parents and guardians. For the purpose of this part, a parent or guardian of any minor or the legal guardian or any individual who has been declared incompetent due to physical or mental incapacity or age by...

  10. Parent attitudes toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartos, Jessica; Huff, David C

    2008-01-01

    The widespread adoption of graduated driver licensing (GDL) policies has effectively reduced crash risk for young drivers; however, parents must support, reinforce, and enforce GDL for it to be effective, and research indicates that parents need better information and instruction for adhering to GDL requirements, conducting supervised practice driving, and restricting independent teenage driving. Because teenagers in most states must take driver education to enter the licensing process prior to age 18, integrating parent involvement into driver education may be an effective way to inform and instruct parents on a large scale about teen driver safety. This study assessed parent attitudes (overall and by rural status, minority status, and income level) toward integrating parent involvement into teenage driver education classes. In this study, 321 parents of teenagers enrolled in driver education classes across the state of Montana completed surveys about current involvement in driver education and attitudes toward required involvement. The results indicated that parents were not very involved currently in their teenagers' driver education classes, but 76% reported that parents should be required to be involved. If involvement were required, parents would prefer having written materials sent home, access to information over the Internet, or discussions in person with the instructor; far fewer would prefer to attend classes or behind-the-wheel driving instruction. There were few differences in parent attitudes by rural or minority status but many by income level. Compared to higher income parents, lower income parents were more likely to endorse required parent involvement in teenage driver education classes and to want parent information from driver education about many teen driving issues. That the majority of parents are open to required involvement in their teenagers' driver education classes is promising because doing so could better prepare parents to understand

  11. Disruption of parent participation: nurses' strategies to manage parents on children's wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Imelda

    2008-12-01

    To investigate parent participation in the hospitalized child's care from the perspectives of children, parents and nurses. Parent participation in the hospitalized child's care has been increasingly promoted in paediatric nursing for many years because it ameliorates the adverse aspects of hospitalization, avoids parental separation and contributes to quality care for sick children. Parent participation is assumed to be unproblematic but evidence exists that nurses often have difficulty caring for parents. Using grounded method, data were collected through in-depth interviews, questionnaires and observation with 12 nurses from four paediatric wards in two hospitals in England. The dominant process appeared to be the socialization of parents to their role on the ward through inclusionary and exclusionary tactics. Nurses controlled the nature of parents' participation and parents had to 'toe the line'. Although participation was presented as optional, parents were presented with no course other than acceptance. Parents were expected to stay with their child, behave properly and be involved in care. When parents did not adhere to these norms, they caused disruption to the order and routine of the ward. Compliance or non-compliance to the set of norms and rules was followed by reward or punishment. The nurses' dependence on parents' active participation in the organization and delivery of the work suggests that parent participation as it is practised is clearly about administrative efficiency, not consumer empowerment. Organizational and managerial issues must be examined to ensure that nurses are adequately prepared and resourced to support parents on the ward. Continuing assessment of parents' expectations though a structured assessment tool would help reduce misunderstandings and conflict. Nurses should assess the situational context before relying on subjective impressions and assumptions about parents' participation in care.

  12. Should advertising parental care be honest?

    OpenAIRE

    Kokko, H.

    1998-01-01

    Species with paternal care show less exaggerated sexual ornamentation than those in which males do not care, although direct benefits from paternal care can vastly exceed the indirect benefits of mate choice. Whether condition-dependent handicaps can signal parenting ability is controversial. The good-parent process predicts the evolution of honest signals of parental investment, whereas the differential-allocation model suggests a trade-off between the attractiveness of a mate and his care-p...

  13. Preoperative parental information and parents' presence at induction of anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuto, M; Rosano, G; Rizzo, G; Disma, N; Raciti, L; Sciuto, O

    2006-06-01

    Preoperative preparation of paediatric patients and their environment in order to prevent anxiety is an important issue in paediatric anaesthesia. Anxiety in paediatric patients may lead to immediate negative postoperative responses. When a child undergoes surgery, information about the child's anaesthesia must be provided to parents who are responsible for making informed choices about healthcare on their child's behalf. A combination of written, pictorial, and verbal information would improve the process of informed consent. The issue of parental presence during induction of anaesthesia has been a controversial topic for many years. Potential benefits from parental presence at induction include reducing or avoiding the fear and anxiety that might occur in both the child and its parents, reducing the need for preoperative sedatives, and improving the child's compliance even if other studies showed no effects on the anxiety and satisfaction level. The presence of other figures such as clowns in the operating room, together with one of the child's parents, is an effective intervention for managing child and parent anxiety during the preoperative period.

  14. RESILIENCE: PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE CHILD OF PARENTAL DIVORCE AND THE DEATH OF PARENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, Yuni

    2017-01-01

    Losing both parents due to divorce or death is a traumatic incident thatproduces a source of stress in life. This will be bad for the person’s lifesince it might create a sense of loneliness, a grave need for affection, andfinancial problems. Individuals need an ability to overcome problems calledresilience. Resilience is a capacity to respond soundly and productively whenfacing misery or traumatic events. Subjects in this study experienced traumafrom parental divorce and death of both parent...

  15. Coping modeling problem solving versus mastery modeling: effects on adherence, in-session process, and skill acquisition in a residential parent-training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C E; Davis, J R; Bremner, R; Dunn, K W; Rzasa, T

    1993-10-01

    This trial compared two approaches used to introduce parenting skills in a residential staff training program. Fifty staff were randomly assigned to: mastery modelling in which videotaped models demonstrated new skills, coping modelling problem solving (CMPS) in which participants formulated their own solutions to the errors depicted by videotaped models, or a waiting-list control group. In both, leaders used modelling, role playing, and homework projects to promote mastery and transfer of new skills. The skills of all groups improved, but CMPS participants attended more sessions, were late to fewer sessions, completed more homework, engaged in more cooperative in-session interaction, rated the program more positively, and reported higher job accomplishment scores. These data suggest that CMPS allowing participants to formulate their own solutions may enhance adherence and reduce the resistance observed in more didactic programs.

  16. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task D. Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems. Phase 1 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2007-02-01

    The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled 'Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems.' In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D. The research program developed for Task D of DECOVALEX-THMC involves geomechanical and geochemical research areas. THM and THC processes may lead to changes in hydrological properties that are important for performance because the flow processes in the vicinity of emplacement tunnels will be altered from their initial state. Some of these changes can be permanent (irreversible), in which case they persist after the thermal conditions have returned to ambient; i.e., they will affect the entire regulatory compliance period. Geochemical processes also affect the water and gas chemistry close to the waste packages, which are relevant for waste package corrosion, buffer stability, and radionuclide transport. Research teams participating in Task D evaluate long-term THM and THC processes in two generic geologic

  17. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task D. Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems. Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States); Barr, D. [Office of Repository Development, DOE (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled 'Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems.' In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D. The research program developed for Task D of DECOVALEX-THMC involves geomechanical and geochemical research areas. THM and THC processes may lead to changes in hydrological properties that are important for performance because the flow processes in the vicinity of emplacement tunnels will be altered from their initial state. Some of these changes can be permanent (irreversible), in which case they persist after the thermal conditions have returned to ambient; i.e., they will affect the entire regulatory compliance period. Geochemical processes also affect the water and gas chemistry close to the waste packages, which are relevant for waste package corrosion, buffer stability, and radionuclide transport. Research teams participating in Task D evaluate long-term THM and THC processes in two generic geologic

  18. Panhypopituitarism Due to Hemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Özkaya; Kadir Gis; Ali Çetinkaya

    2013-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is an iron storage disease. Panhypopituitarism is a clinical condition in which the anterior pituitary hormones are deficient. Herein, we report a rare case of panhypopituitarism due to hemochromatosis. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 125-6

  19. The adolescent patient: parental responsibility, the right to be informed and the right to be heard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbon, P; Dianiskova, S; Laffranchi, L; Conti, A

    2015-12-01

    The increasing emphasis placed on patients' rights, in dentistry as well as in other areas, is also having repercussions on the structure of the relationship between health care staff, the under-age patient and his /her parents. The authors reflect about the decision-making process when the patient is a minor in the field of dentistry and underline the role of the parties involved (dentist, parents, under-age patient) in different circumstances (e.g. ordinary care or non-routine care; urgent situations; conflict between parents; refusal of the parents; disagreement between the parents and the child, refusal of the under-age patient; etc.). The Law must first ensure that the minors' needs for protection are met by awarding their parents the power and duty to care for them and, thus, also to take health care decisions in their interest. At the same time, domestic legislation and international legislation supports the need to give greater weight to minors' opinions as they approach the age of majority and, therefore, as they acquire a certain degree of maturity. The rights of under-age patients are safeguarded by actively involving them in the decision-making process, with particular reference to their right to information and right to be heard, to the extent that their age and understanding allow, with due consideration to the specific situation.

  20. General and food-specific parenting: measures and interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Stef; Sleddens, Ester; Gerards, Sanne; Gubbels, Jessica; Rodenburg, Gerda; Gevers, Dorus; van Assema, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Parental influence on child food intake is typically conceptualized at three levels-parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. General parenting style is modeled at the most distal level of influence and food parenting practices are conceptualized as the most proximal level of influence. The goal of this article is to provide insights into contents and explanatory value of instruments that have been applied to assess food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. Measures of food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style were reviewed, compared, and contrasted with regard to contents, explanatory value, and interrelationships. Measures that are used in the field often fail to cover the full scope and complexity of food parenting. Healthy parenting dimensions have generally been found to be positively associated with child food intake (i.e., healthier dietary intake and less intake of energy-dense food products and sugar-sweetened beverages), but effect sizes are low. Evidence for the operation of higher-order moderation has been found, in which the impact of proximal parental influences is moderated by more distal levels of parenting. Operationalizing parenting at different levels, while applying a contextual higher-order moderation approach, is advocated to have surplus value in understanding the complex process of parent-child interactions in the area of food intake. A research paradigm is presented that may guide future work regarding the conceptualization and modeling of parental influences on child dietary behavior.

  1. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  2. Parental Cognitive Errors Mediate Parental Psychopathology and Ratings of Child Inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Jiang, Yuan; Delucchi, Kevin; Kaiser, Nina; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in a sample of 199 school-aged children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) by examining relations and cross-sectional mediational pathways between parental characteristics (i.e., levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms) and parental ratings of child problem behavior (inattention, sluggish cognitive tempo, and functional impairment) via parental cognitive errors. Results demonstrated a positive association between parental factors and parental ratings of inattention, as well as a mediational pathway between parental depressive and ADHD symptoms and parental ratings of inattention via parental cognitive errors. Specifically, higher levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms predicted higher levels of cognitive errors, which in turn predicted higher parental ratings of inattention. Findings provide evidence for core tenets of the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis, which state that parents with high rates of psychopathology hold negative schemas for their child's behavior and subsequently, report their child's behavior as more severe. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  3. Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-11-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited.

  4. Parents-CARE: a suicide prevention program for parents of at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole

    2013-02-01

    Families play an important role in youth suicide prevention, as both a source of protection and a source of risk, and thus are an important target for adolescent suicide prevention programs. This article describes in detail Parents-CARE, a brief youth suicide prevention program for parents, for which effectiveness has been demonstrated. Engaging parents in preventive intervention can be challenging; therefore, the feasibility, acceptability, and relevance of the program to parents are examined. A total of 289 households participated in Parents-CARE. Parent attendance data and parent and interventionist process data are utilized to demonstrate the positive response by parents to the program. The Parents-CARE program was highly attended, and ratings demonstrate that parents were engaged in the program. Ratings show parents found the program both acceptable and relevant. Hence, the program described is promising for clinicians working with at-risk youth as they seek brief, accessible, and effective interventions that include parents in order to amplify the effects of an individual intervention approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Parents dealing with their child's diagnosis of cerebral palsy and drawing up an asistence programme for parents

    OpenAIRE

    Pajnkiher, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Researching and determining the processes of parents dealing with their child's diagnosis of cerebral palsy is an important element in providing appropriate assistance and support to parents and to the whole family of a child with cerebral palsy. By identifying the process characteristics, which most parents go through, faced with newly diagnosed cerebral palsy of a child, we can better understand the situation of the parents, the impact on them and on the whole family of the child with cereb...

  6. When Parenting Becomes Unthinkable: Intervening with Traumatized Parents and Their Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Willheim, Erica

    2009-01-01

    A case of a single mother who sought psychiatric help for her tendency to be violent due to past trauma is described to illustrate a model of parent-child assessment and intervention. Practicing self-reflective functioning allows a psychiatrist that treats such cases to provide the external regulation and support for the parent to consider the…

  7. Injury due to thorotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takesaburo

    1976-01-01

    A synthetic study was performed on some of those to whom Thorotrast had been injected, in Japan. In the epidemiological study of 147 war woundeds to whom Thorotrast had been injected, it was noted that the Thorotrast injection increased the mortality rate and the incidences of malignant hepatic tumor, liver cirrhosis, and hematological diseases. Clinical study of 44 of them showed that the Thorotrast injection resulted in liver and hematopoietic hypofunctions. Analysis of the dissection of the injected area in 118 cases showed malignant hepatic tumor in 63.5%, liver cirrhosis in 14.4% and hematological diseases in 10.2%. The total of the three types of disease was 88.1%. Histological classification showed that of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast, hepatobiliary cancer and hemangioendothelioma of the liver were frequent. By the comparison of the absorbed dose in the liver of the malignant hepatic tumors due to Thorotrast with that of the cancers developed in animal experiments, it was noted that the carcinogenic dose was a mean of 2,000 - 3,000 rad by accumulated dose. It was elucidated that carcinogenesis and fibrination were primary in injury due to Thorotrast, i.e., late injury due to Thorotrast, and that the increase in the accumulated dose in rogans and the increase of the local dose due to the gigantic growth of Thorotrast granules in organs greatly influenced carninogenesis and fibrination. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Parenting paradox: parenting after infant loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warland, Jane; O'Leary, Joann; McCutcheon, Helen; Williamson, Victoria

    2011-10-01

    to gain an in-depth understanding of the parenting experiences of bereaved parents in the years following an infant death. an exploratory qualitative study. semi-structured interview in the participants' homes. Data were collected over a five-month period in 2008 and analysed using thematic analysis. a purposive sample of 13 bereaved parents (10 mothers and three fathers) was used. Parents who had accessed the support services offered by two bereavement support agencies were recruited. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of raising their subsequent child. Interviews were conducted when the next born child was at least three years of age. the parents described a 'paradoxical' parenting style where they were trying to parent using two diametrically opposed unsustainable options. For example, they described trying to hold their subsequent child emotionally close but aloof at the same time. the results from this study indicate that the impact of a loss of an infant has far-reaching consequences on subsequent parenting. Support and early intervention at the time of the stillbirth and subsequent pregnancy are likely to be useful. However, further research is required to determine the extent to which early intervention can alter the tendency towards bereaved parents adopting a paradoxical parenting style. The impact of this style on mental health and the emotional health and well-being of the next born child/ren after perinatal loss should also be further examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenting Roles and the College Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strop, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Both parents and students bring their own styles into the college selection process. Counselors who are aware of the characteristics of these styles can best help students when selecting appropriate schools. This article discusses parental approaches to choosing a college. To assure good decisions, educators need to take a more active, systematic…

  10. Parental Divorce and Child Mental Health Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohschein, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    A process-oriented approach to parental divorce locates the experience within the social and developmental context of children's lives, providing greater insight into how parental divorce produces vulnerability in some children and resiliency in others. The current study involves prospectively tracking a nationally representative sample of…

  11. Parent Education: Going from Defense to Offense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a Pennsylvania elementary school's efforts to enhance school-community partnerships and thereby garner support for innovative programs such as whole language, cooperative learning, process writing, and authentic assessment. The keys to success were improved home-school communication and parent involvement. Parents were encouraged to…

  12. Developing the role of the social worker as coordinator of services at the surrogate parenting center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagin, Roni; Cohen, Miri; Greenblatt, Lee; Solomon, Hanah; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A law permitting couples to conceive biological children through surrogacy was legislated in Israel in March 1996. The Rambam Medical Center has established the only nonprofit Surrogate Parenting Center at a public hospital in Israel. The multidisciplinary teamwork at the Center is case managed by a social worker. An important role of the social work intervention is consultation and support for the couple and the surrogate at all stages of the process. The case study presented in the article illustrates the need for sensitive and professional intervention due to the complexity of the surrogacy process and the crisis it involves for both the surrogate and the couple. In light of the growing parenting surrogacy cases in the United States, Europe, and Israel, a structured social work intervention model is described, which may be implemented at public or private surrogate parenting centers.

  13. Longitudinal study of self-regulation, positive parenting, and adjustment problems among physically abused children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation and positive parenting behaviors to the development of externalizing and internalizing symptomatology spanning from preschool to 1st grade. Methods Data were collected on a total of 95 physically abused children (58% boys); our longitudinal analyses involved 43 children at Time 1 (preschool), 63 children at Time 2 (kindergarten), and 54 children at Time 3 (1st grade). Children's self-regulation was measured by parent report, and their externalizing and internalizing symptomatology was evaluated by teachers. Parents completed self-report measures of positive parenting. Results Our structural equation modeling analyses revealed positive parenting as a protective factor that attenuated the concurrent association between low self-regulation and externalizing symptomatology among physically abused children. Our findings regarding longitudinal changes in children's externalizing symptomatology supported the differential susceptibility hypothesis: Physically abused children who were at greater risk due to low levels of self-regulation were more susceptible to the beneficial effects of positive parenting, compared to those with high levels of self-regulation. Conclusions Findings suggest that although physical abuse presents formidable challenges that interfere with the development of adaptive self-regulation, positive parenting behaviors may ameliorate the detrimental effects of maladaptive self-regulation on the development of externalizing symptomatology. In addition, the positive and negative effects of caregiving behaviors were more prominent among physically abused children at great risk due to low self-regulation. Practice

  14. Parental divorce and adult longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal

    2013-02-01

    Life course research has established associations between adverse childhood events and later life health. We examine the relationship of experiencing parental divorce before the age of 16 and survival across 34 years of adulthood. Analysis of panel data from a USA-based survey of 6,928 adults residing in Alameda County, California in 1965. Cox regression was used to examine associations between parental divorce and longevity. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, and childhood socioeconomic position, respondents who recalled a parental divorce during childhood had increased risk of mortality compared to those with no separation. The association was stronger for premature mortality and deaths due to cardiovascular disease. Divorce in childhood was also associated with lowered adult education, fewer social network ties, more depression, and worse health practices. These factors appeared to explain the association with longevity. Parental divorce in childhood is associated with lowered well-being in adulthood and long-term survival. Early prevention and health promotion efforts may be warranted for children who experience parental divorce or discord as a means of supporting enhanced trajectories of health and well-being.

  15. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kumiya; Cho, Tatsurai; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Onishi, Shogo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Naruo; Fujimatsu, Takayoshi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anaphylaxis due to caffeine intake. A 27-year-old woman suffered her first episode of anaphylaxis and a positive skin prick test suggested that the anaphylaxis was due to an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to caffeine. She was diagnosed with caffeine allergy and has not had an allergic reaction after avoiding foods and drinks containing caffeine. Although caffeine is known to have antiallergic effects, this case shows that caffeine can be an allergen and cause ...

  16. A Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kae

    2018-01-01

    Parent-to-parent programs provide emotional and informational support to parents of children with special needs by matching trained and experienced parents with parents needing support. This study examined the implementation and effects of a Parent-to-Parent Program in Taiwan that supported 3 families of youngsters with special needs. Based on the…

  17. YOUTH SPORT AND PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nešić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of contemporary sport is certainly a wide array of sports and sport discliplines young people can choose among. This is particularly obvious through establishment of numerous schools of sport as places where people can acquire fundamental sport knoweldge and skills. The point of selection for such an engagement is the school, or, in other words, primary school children. The development of young athletes starts at a very early stage. They are faced with high demands and exposed to training sessions of different scope and intensity. In order to direct complex processes in sport efficiently and well, various factors need to be considered that affect it to a lesser or higher degree. One of those factors is indisputably the family, i.e. the influence parents have on meeting the children’s need for physical (sport activity. In the process of children’s socialization that factor is given the greatest prominence. Therefore, parents are a crucial factor in young people’s sport engagement and, thus, cannot be taken as a constituent part of a sports organization’s surroundings, but as a partner in their development.

  18. General and Food-Specific Parenting: Measures and Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester; Gerards, Sanne; Gubbels, Jessica; Rodenburg, Gerda; Gevers, Dorus; van Assema, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parental influence on child food intake is typically conceptualized at three levels—parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. General parenting style is modeled at the most distal level of influence and food parenting practices are conceptualized as the most proximal level of influence. The goal of this article is to provide insights into contents and explanatory value of instruments that have been applied to assess food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style. Methods Measures of food parenting practices, feeding style, and parenting style were reviewed, compared, and contrasted with regard to contents, explanatory value, and interrelationships. Results Measures that are used in the field often fail to cover the full scope and complexity of food parenting. Healthy parenting dimensions have generally been found to be positively associated with child food intake (i.e., healthier dietary intake and less intake of energy-dense food products and sugar-sweetened beverages), but effect sizes are low. Evidence for the operation of higher-order moderation has been found, in which the impact of proximal parental influences is moderated by more distal levels of parenting. Conclusions Operationalizing parenting at different levels, while applying a contextual higher-order moderation approach, is advocated to have surplus value in understanding the complex process of parent–child interactions in the area of food intake. A research paradigm is presented that may guide future work regarding the conceptualization and modeling of parental influences on child dietary behavior. PMID:23944921

  19. Parenting and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen; Netsi, Elena; Redinger, Stephanie; Stein, Alan

    2017-06-01

    With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver. We review the mechanisms by which HIV affects parenting including its negative effects on parental responsiveness in the early years of parenting and parental avoidant coping styles and parenting deficits in the later years. We describe low-cost parenting interventions suited for low resourced HIV endemic settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Talking to children about parental mental illness: The experiences of well parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Divya; Navaneetham, Janardhana

    2018-06-01

    Children of parents with mental illness are not routinely included in psychoeducational and supportive family interventions provided by adult mental health systems. The family, therefore, is an important and, sometimes, the only source of information and support for them. To understand the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. Ten well parents whose spouses were diagnosed with a severe mental illness participated in the study. Socio-demographic information, family details and history of the spouse's mental illness along with their experiences of talking to children about parental mental illness, the perceived risks and benefits, challenges they faced and the role of others in the process were recorded. Qualitative data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The themes of 'distancing children from parental mental illness', 'avoiding conversations about the illness', 'giving and receiving emotional support', 'providing explanations of the illness' and 'regulating other sources of information' show the complex ways in which well parents influence their children's understanding of parental mental illness. The findings are examined in the background of what is known about this topic from the perspective of children or of the parent with illness. Possible ways to support well parents in families affected by parental mental illness are discussed. This study is a step forward in the understanding of how families talk to children about parental mental illness and provides the perspective of the well parent.

  1. The development of the PARENTS: a tool for parents to assess residents' non-technical skills in pediatric emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Katherine A; Eady, Kaylee; Tang, Kenneth; Jabbour, Mona; Frank, Jason R; Campbell, Meaghan; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2017-11-14

    Parents can assess residents' non-technical skills (NTS) in pediatric emergency departments (EDs). There are no assessment tools, with validity evidence, for parental use in pediatric EDs. The purpose of this study was to develop the Parents' Assessment of Residents Enacting Non-Technical Skills (PARENTS) educational assessment tool and collect three sources of validity evidence (i.e., content, response process, internal structure) for it. We established content evidence for the PARENTS through interviews with physician-educators and residents, focus groups with parents, a literature review, and a modified nominal group technique with experts. We collected response process evidence through cognitive interviews with parents. To examine the internal structure evidence, we administered the PARENTS and performed exploratory factor analysis. Initially, a 20-item PARENTS was developed. Cognitive interviews led to the removal of one closed-ended item, the addition of resident photographs, and wording/formatting changes. Thirty-seven residents and 434 parents participated in the administration of the resulting 19-item PARENTS. Following factor analysis, a one-factor model prevailed. The study presents initial validity evidence for the PARENTS. It also highlights strategies for potentially: (a) involving parents in the assessment of residents, (b) improving the assessment of NTS in pediatric EDs, and (c) capturing parents' perspectives to improve the preparation of future physicians.

  2. Effective Parental Involvement in Education: Experiences and Perceptions of Turkish Teachers from Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk, Soheyda; Dinckal, Selin

    2018-01-01

    Parental involvement has been associated with numerous student benefits. However, related literature reveals that neither parents nor teachers are content with the scope and depth of parental involvement in schools. This may be partly due to differential understandings that both sides have on the concept of parental involvement. In this study,…

  3. Service Family Support -- A Small-Scale Project of Educational Psychologists Working with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Jane; Hart, Anne; Collins, Zoe V.

    2014-01-01

    Being in a Service family can be a difficult position for children and parents alike due to high levels of mobility, parental separation, and the remaining parent's stress and emotional well-being. A Service family is defined as a family with one or both parents employed by the Ministry of Defence (MOD). The current project looked at the…

  4. Information sharing during diagnostic assessments: what is relevant for parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St Pierre, Cherie

    2011-05-01

    ABSTRACT This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended questionnaire to describe parent information provision. Parents from 9 families completed in-depth parent interviews following clinic attendance to discuss perceptions of information received. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by related themes. Parents did not perceive the information in the way professionals expected. Parents acknowledged receipt of comprehensive information relevant to the diagnosis but indicated that not all their needs were met. During the interviews, parents described the assessment process, preassessment information, and "steps in their journey." They noted that a strength-based approach and a focus on parental competency would support their coping efforts. Results underscore the need for professionals to be attentive to parents' individualized needs.

  5. Child-parent shared decision making about asthma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula

    2016-05-09

    Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences.

  6. Behavioral Signs of (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder in Children With Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Parental Questionnaire Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian

    2016-03-01

    Objective Children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate often have a high prevalence of middle ear dysfunction. However, there are also indications that they may have a higher prevalence of (central) auditory processing disorder. This study used Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist for caregivers to determine whether children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate have potentially more auditory processing difficulties compared with craniofacially normal children. Methods Caregivers of 147 school-aged children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate were recruited for the study. This group was divided into three subgroups: cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate. Caregivers of 60 craniofacially normal children were recruited as a control group. Hearing health tests were conducted to evaluate peripheral hearing. Caregivers of children who passed this assessment battery completed Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist, which contains 25 questions related to behaviors linked to (central) auditory processing disorder. Results Children with cleft palate showed the lowest scores on the Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist questionnaire, consistent with a higher index of suspicion for (central) auditory processing disorder. There was a significant difference in the manifestation of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors between the cleft palate and the control groups. The most common behaviors reported in the nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate group were short attention span and reduced learning motivation, along with hearing difficulties in noise. Conclusion A higher occurrence of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors were found in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, particularly cleft palate. Auditory processing abilities should not be ignored in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, and it is necessary to consider assessment tests for (central) auditory processing disorder when an

  7. Feelings of children when witnessing parents' illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wakiuchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to learn the experiences of children who witness their parents' illness due to cancer. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, with six children between 10 and 12 years of age, children of cancer patients assisted by a support institution. The data were collected from July to August 2015, based on the guiding question:    "How do you feel about your father/mother's illness?" From the analysis, two categories emerged: Recognizing the disease and the possibility of the parents 'death and, Growing as a child and living as an adult: the repercussions of parents with cancer in their children's lives, which reveal that children understand cancer and the possibility of death of their parents, being also affected by the disease. By experiencing the fears and repercussions of cancer, children need assistance by the family and health team during their parents' illness.

  8. Leukemias in the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.; Gudkova, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of leukemias among the progeny of exposed parents. The parents were exposed as a result of discharge of radioactive waste from the Mayak atomic plant into the Techa river in the Southern Urals. The doses per parents gonads, ranging from 0.035 to 1.27 Sv, were due to external exposure in 1950-1956 and to incorporation of Cs-137. Nine cases with leukemia and four with lympohoma were recorded in 13.500 antenatally exposed subjects and descendants of exposed parents over the period of 1950 to 1988. The leukemia morbidity index for the progeny of exposed parents was 2.51, which virtually not statistically differ from that in control group. Refs. 7, figs. 3, tabs. 3

  9. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  10. Parent-Child Attunement Moderates the Prospective Link between Parental Overcontrol and Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly F; Borelli, Jessica L; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-10-22

    Parental overcontrol (OC), behavior that intrusively or dominantly restricts child autonomy, has been identified as a transdiagnostic risk factor for youth. However, it is as yet unknown whether the association between parental OC and child maladjustment remains even when OC is exerted infrequently or by attuned parents. Rather, the selective use of OC might steer children away from danger. Taking a developmental psychopathology approach, this study focuses on the larger parent-child relationship context, testing whether either the dose at which parents demonstrate OC or the degree to which children perceive their parents as attuned determines whether OC is risky or protective for adolescents' adjustment. Among a community sample of 114 families of children followed from the ages of 12-18, we examine whether OC, behaviorally coded from triadic mother-father-child discussions in middle childhood, is associated with later risky behavior and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Overcontrol exerted by either mothers or fathers had a curvilinear effect on adolescent risky behaviors, and this effect was moderated by children's perceived attunement. Although OC generally was associated with increased risky behaviors, low doses of OC or OC exerted by highly attuned parents protected against engagement in risky behaviors. No main effect of OC was observed on adolescent anxiety; however, mothers' OC interacted with perceived parental attunement, such that OC exerted by less attuned parents predicted greater anxiety. Results underscore that the effect of parenting behaviors depends on the larger parent-child relationship context. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  11. PARENTS ATTITUDE ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.

  12. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects

  13. 34 CFR 200.36 - Communication with parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication with parents. 200.36 Section 200.36... with parents. (a) Throughout the school improvement process, the State, LEA, or school must communicate with the parents of each child attending the school. (b) The State, LEA, or school must ensure that...

  14. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  15. Parent-Implemented Communication Intervention: Sequential Analysis of Triadic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer A.; Woods, Juliann J.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration with parents and caregivers to support young children's communication development is an important component to early intervention services. Coaching parents to implement communication support strategies is increasingly common in parent-implemented interventions, but few studies examine the process as well as the outcomes. We explored…

  16. The Impact of Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sylvia A.

    2017-01-01

    Education begins at home. The responsibility to socialize and educate children is a shared obligation between parents and schools. In order for a child to reach academic achievement, parents must be involved and participate in the educational process. The more parental involvement, the more students are likely to become productive members of…

  17. The Effects of Kindergarten Redshirting from a Parental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougan, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    Kindergarten redshirting is the term used to describe the phenomenon where a parent chooses to keep their child from attending kindergarten so that the child may gain a year's worth of maturity. This qualitative dissertation examines the decision making process undergone by parents who have redshirted their children. While some parents began the…

  18. Parenting children with down syndrome: An analysis of parenting styles, parenting dimensions, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fathers parenting role: self-esteem, parenting styles and parental self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Mónica; Brites, Rute; Nunes, Odete; Hipólito, João

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relation between fathers parenting styles (PS), self-esteem (SE) and parental self-efficacy (PSE). Research points out the complex potential relations between SE and PSE. Although PSE has been studied in association to PS, there’s a research gap concerning the influence of fathers’ SE in this process. In a cross-sectional study a questionnaire comprising personal data, PS, SE and PSE was completed by 157men (age: M=38.41, SD=6.03) of pre-school/sc...

  20. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…