Bian, Xiaoyan; Xie, Huichao; Squires, Jane; Chen, Chieh-Yu
The Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE; Squires, Bricker, & Twombly, 2002a), developed in the United States, was translated and adapted for use in China. Lack of valid and reliable instruments for identifying social and emotional delays in young children is a worldwide issue. Professionals in China have recently focused efforts on developing methods for early identification of social, emotional, and behavioral issues in the birth-to-5 population. Following the guidelines of the International Test Commission, the ASQ:SE was translated into Simplified Chinese (ASQ:SE-C) to collect a normative sample of 2,528 children across China. Data were analyzed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ASQ:SE-C, using both classical test theory and item response theory, including generating cutoff points appropriate for the Chinese sample. A panel of Chinese experts was surveyed to assess face validity and estimated utility of the newly adapted tool. Discussions of research findings and implications for future studies are provided. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Buri, J R
A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.
Squires, Jane; Bricker, Diane
Now enhanced and updated based on extensive user feedback and a new, unparalleled research sample of more than 12,000 children, ASQ-3 is the most accurate, cost-effective, and parent-friendly way to identify children from one month to 5 1/2 years with developmental delays. ASQ-3 offers more than any other screening system: (1) Recommended by the…
Yovanoff, Paul; Squires, Jane; McManus, Suzanne
Adapting traditional paper-pencil instruments to computer-based environments has received considerable attention from the research community due to the possible administration mode effects on obtained measures. When differences due to mode of completion (i.e., paper-pencil, computer-based) are present, threats to measurement validity are posed. In…
Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.
The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…
Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke Aka
Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition may be used to identify gross and fine motor problems in children. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 43, 22-54 m) participated in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated by comparing the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition scores to the developmental evaluation of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale - second edition. The results revealed that both the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition gross and fine motor domain may be used to identify children without motor problems. In contrast, sensitivity analyses revealed the likelihood of under screening motor problems in this population. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition met only the criteria of a fair to good accuracy to identify poor gross motor (sensitivity = 100%) and below-average fine motor development (sensitivity = 71%) in this sample. Hence, the capacity of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition to identify motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder appears to be limited. It is recommended to include a formal standardized motor test in the diagnostic procedure for all children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.
Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Marks, David J.; Policaro, Katia L.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
The psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Preschool Revision (APQ-PR) were explored in a sample of hyperactive-inattentive preschool children (N = 47) and nonimpaired controls (N = 113). A subset of parents completed the questionnaire on 2 occasions, approximately 1 year apart. Factor analysis revealed a 3-factor solution,…
Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke A. K. A.
Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages…
... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...
Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee
This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire-Revised (PBFQ-R). These self-report parenting behavior assessment measures may be utilized as pre- and post-parent education program measures, with parents as well as…
Objective of this study is to determine the degree of validity of self completed health questionnaire among oral surgery patient at the Capitol Dental when compared with a structured oral interview. A prospective random selection method was applied using a standardized questionnaire. The cohorts are patients attending ...
Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Birkenfeld-Adams, Andrea S; Kuksis, Myra A Radzins; Maing, Dianne M; Mitchell, Janet N; Zucker, Kenneth J
This paper reports on the psychometric properties of a 16-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire, originally developed by P. H. Elizabeth and R. Green (1984), to aid in the assessment of children with potential problems in their gender identity development. The questionnaire, which covered aspects of the core phenomenology of gender identity disorder (GID), was completed by parents of gender-referred children (N = 325) and controls (siblings, clinic-referred, and nonreferred; N = 504), who ranged in age from 2.5-12 years (mean age, 7.6 years). Factor-analysis indicated that a one-factor solution, containing 14 of the 16 items with factor loadings > or =.30, best fit the data, accounting for 43.7% of the variance. The gender-referred children had a significantly more deviant total score than did the controls, with a large effect size of 3.70. The GIQ total score had negligible age effects, indicating that the questionnaire has utility for assessing change over time. The gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for GID had a significantly more deviant total score than did the children who were subthreshold for GID, although the latter group had a mean score that was closer to the threshold cases than to the controls. With a specificity rate set at 95% for the controls, the sensitivity rate for the probands was 86.8%. It is concluded that this parent-report gender identity questionnaire has excellent psychometric properties and can serve as a useful screening device for front-line clinicians, for whom more extensive, expensive, and time-consuming assessment procedures may be precluded.
Tam, Wilson; Keung, Vera; Lee, Albert; Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin
Childhood obesity is a major public health issue in many countries, including China. The importance of parenting relative to the healthy development of children requires the development of instruments for assessing parental influence on child dietary pattern. This study aimed to confirm the internal reliability and validity of a self-report measure on parental feeding styles, including emotional feeding, instrumental feeding, prompting or encouragement to eat, and control over eating. A 27-item parental feeding style questionnaire (PFSQ) was translated into Chinese and then translated back into English to verify consistency. The questionnaire was then used to conduct a cross-sectional survey on the parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. The internal reliability and validity of the questionnaire were examined by Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis, respectively. 4,553 completed questionnaires were received. Cronbach's alpha of subscales ranged from 0.63 to 0.81, and the overall reliability was good (alpha = 0.75). The factor structure of this questionnaire was similar to that of the original and Turkish versions. One-factor structure was identified for emotional feeding, instrumental feeding (four items), and prompting or encouragement to eat, whereas a two-factor structure was revealed for control over eating. The Chinese version of the PFSQ has good reliability and validity in assessing parental feeding styles in Hong Kong. Researchers can use this instrument to improve their understanding on how parental feeding styles may affect the dietary patterns and ultimately the weight statuses of children among Chinese-speaking populations across different countries.
Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens
Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents' frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire exploring parents' beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children. The questionnaires were completed by parents following their child's participation in the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE).Parental agreement upon statements concerning beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children was measured on a Likert scale. Differences in levels of agreement between parents of non-overweight children and parents of overweight children were analysed using Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. Parents of 879 children completed and returned questionnaires. Around three fourths of the parents agreed that overweight was a health problem. A majority of parents (93%) agreed that the GP should call attention to overweight in children and offer counselling on diet and exercise. Almost half of the parents expected a follow-up programme. Parents of overweight children seemed to agree less upon some of the proposed causes of overweight, e.g. inappropriate diet and lack of exercise. These parents also had stronger beliefs about overweight disappearing by itself as the child grows up. According to parental beliefs and expectations, general practice should have an important role to play in the management of child overweight. Moreover, our findings suggest that GPs should be aware of the particular beliefs that parents of overweight children may have regarding causes of overweight in their child.
Tiffany, Jeanne; Tollefson, Nona
This study field tests and evaluates the Parenting Questionnaire, an instrument designed to assess parental attitudes and behavior, based on the child-raising theories of Dreikurs and Dinkmeyer and the Adlerian model for parent study groups. Dreikurs and Adler stress the purposive nature of children's behavior or misbehavior, and teach parents to…
Maguin, Eugene; Nochajski, Thomas; Dewit, David; Safyer, Andrew
The purpose of the present study was to comprehensively examine the validity of an adapted version of the parent global report form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) with respect to its factor structure, relationships with demographic and response style covariates, and differential item functioning (DIF). The APQ was adapted by omitting the Corporal Punishment and the other discipline items. The sample consisted of 674 Canadian and United States families having a 9–12 year old child and at least one parent-figure who had received treatment within the past five years for alcohol problems or met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. The primary parent in each family completed the APQ. The four factor CFA model of the four published scales used and the three factor CFA model of those scales from prior research were rejected. Exploratory structural equation modeling was then used. The final three factor model combined the author-defined Involvement and Positive Parenting scales and retained the original Poor Monitoring/Supervision and Inconsistent Discipline scales. However, there were substantial numbers of moderate magnitude cross-loadings and large magnitude residual covariances. Differential item functioning (DIF) was observed for a number of APQ items. Controlling for DIF, response style and demographic variables were related significantly to the factors. PMID:26348028
Maguin, Eugene; Nochajski, Thomas H; De Wit, David J; Safyer, Andrew
The purpose of the present study was to comprehensively examine the validity of an adapted version of the parent global report form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) with respect to its factor structure, relationships with demographic and response style covariates, and differential item functioning (DIF). The APQ was adapted by omitting the corporal punishment and the other discipline items. The sample consisted of 674 Canadian and United States families having a 9- to 12-year-old child and at least 1 parent figure who had received treatment within the past 5 years for alcohol problems or met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. The primary parent in each family completed the APQ. The 4-factor CFA model of the 4 published scales used and the 3-factor CFA model of those scales from prior research were rejected. Exploratory structural equation modeling was then used. The final 3-factor model combined the author-defined Involvement and Positive Parenting scales and retained the original Poor Monitoring/Supervision and Inconsistent Discipline scales. However, there were substantial numbers of moderate magnitude cross-loadings and large magnitude residual covariances. Differential item functioning (DIF) was observed for a number of APQ items. Controlling for DIF, response style and demographic variables were related significantly to the factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sleddens, Ester F C; O'Connor, Teresia M; Watson, Kathleen B; Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Thijs, Carel; De Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the "Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire" (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics ("Big Five") of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child's height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was borderline significant. Parents with a high
Bellinger, J.; Ho, T.
The document which defines the inspection measures which the IAEA can deploy at any given nuclear facility is known as the Facility Attachment. For the Agency to negotiate an effective Facility Attachment it must have available certain design information, including the facility's identity, capacity and location; the form, location and flow of nuclear material and the layout of important items of equipment; and a description of the features and procedures relating to nuclear material accountancy, containment and surveillance. In practice such information is solicited in a format, standardized for each facility type, known as the Design Information Questionnaire or the D.I.Q. The nuclear activities used as a model in this course are those of a fictitious country called Pacifica. These nuclear activities bear some resemblance to those at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. Specifically, Pacifica has a 10 MW heavy water cooled and moderated research reactor using enriched uranium fuel which is very similar to the HIFAR reactor. The reactor and the associated laboratories are described and the Design Information Questionnaire for them is completed. figs., tabs
Background Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the “Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire” (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. Methods First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics (“Big Five”) of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child’s height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. Results The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was
Barber Garcia, Brittany N; Gray, Laura S; Simons, Laura E; Logan, Deirdre E
Parents play an important role in supporting school functioning in youth with chronic pain, but no validated tools exists to assess parental responses to child and adolescent pain behaviors in the school context. Such a tool would be useful in identifying targets of change to reduce pain-related school impairment. The goal of this study was to develop and preliminarily validate the Parent Responses to School Functioning Questionnaire (PRSF), a parent self-report measure of this construct. After initial expert review and pilot testing, the measure was administered to 418 parents of children (ages 6-17 years) seen for initial multidisciplinary chronic pain clinic evaluation. The final 16-item PRSF showed evidence of good internal consistency (α = .82) and 2-week test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .87). Criterion validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with school absence rates and overall school functioning, and construct validity was demonstrated by correlations with general parental responses to pain. Three subscales emerged capturing parents' personal distress, parents' level of distrust of the school, and parents' expectations and behaviors related to their child's management of challenging school situations. These results provide preliminary support for the PRSF as a psychometrically sound tool to assess parents' responses to child pain in the school setting. The 16-item PRSF measures parental responses to their child's chronic pain in the school context. The clinically useful measure can inform interventions aimed reducing functional disability in children with chronic pain by enhancing parents' ability to respond adaptively to child pain behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne
This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence.
Reid, Carly A Y; Roberts, Lynne D; Roberts, Clare M; Piek, Jan P
The assessment of parenting has been problematic due to theoretical disagreement, concerns over generalisability, and problems with the psychometric properties of current parenting measures. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound self-report parenting measure for use with parents of preadolescent children, and to use this empirical scale development process to identify the core dimensions of contemporary parenting behaviour. Following item generation and parent review, 846 parents completed an online survey comprising 116 parenting items. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a six factor parenting model, comprising Emotional Warmth, Punitive Discipline, Anxious Intrusiveness, Autonomy Support, Permissive Discipline and Democratic Discipline. This measure will allow for the comprehensive and consistent assessment of parenting in future research and practice.
Carly A Y Reid
Full Text Available The assessment of parenting has been problematic due to theoretical disagreement, concerns over generalisability, and problems with the psychometric properties of current parenting measures. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound self-report parenting measure for use with parents of preadolescent children, and to use this empirical scale development process to identify the core dimensions of contemporary parenting behaviour. Following item generation and parent review, 846 parents completed an online survey comprising 116 parenting items. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a six factor parenting model, comprising Emotional Warmth, Punitive Discipline, Anxious Intrusiveness, Autonomy Support, Permissive Discipline and Democratic Discipline. This measure will allow for the comprehensive and consistent assessment of parenting in future research and practice.
Gironés Muriel, Alberto; Campos Segovia, Ana; Ríos Gómez, Patricia
The study of mediating variables and psychological responses to child surgery involves the evaluation of both the patient and the parents as regards different stressors. To have a reliable and reproducible valid evaluation tool that assesses the level of paternal involvement in relation to different stressors in the setting of surgery. A self-report questionnaire study was completed by 123 subjects of both sexes, subdivided into 2populations, due to their relationship with the hospital setting. The items were determined by a group of experts and analysed using the Lawshe validity index to determine a first validity of content. Subsequently, the reliability of the tool was determined by an item-re-item analysis of the 2sub-populations. A factorial analysis was performed to analyse the construct validity with the maximum likelihood and rotation of varimax type factors. A questionnaire of paternal concern was offered, consisting of 21 items with a Cronbach coefficient of 0.97, giving good precision and stability. The posterior factor analysis gives an adequate validity to the questionnaire, with the determination of 10 common stressors that cover 74.08% of the common and non-common variance of the questionnaire. The proposed questionnaire is reliable, valid and easy-to-apply and is developed to assess the level of paternal concern about the surgery of a child and to be able to apply measures and programs through the prior assessment of these elements. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Luyten, Patrick; Mayes, Linda C.; Nijssens, Liesbet; Fonagy, Peter
This paper reports on three studies on the development and validation of the Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (PRFQ), a brief, multidimensional self-report measure that assesses parental reflective functioning or mentalizing, that is, the capacity to treat the infant as a psychological agent. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, reliability, and relationships of the PRFQ with demographic features, symptomatic distress, attachment dimensions, and emotional availability in a socially diverse sample of 299 mothers of a child aged 0–3. In Study 2, the factorial invariance of the PRFQ in mothers and fathers was investigated in a sample of 153 first-time parents, and relationships with demographic features, symptomatic distress, attachment dimensions, and parenting stress were investigated. Study 3 investigated the relationship between the PRFQ and infant attachment classification as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested three theoretically consistent factors assessing pre-mentalizing modes, certainty about the mental states of the infant, and interest and curiosity in the mental states of the infant. These factors were generally related in theoretically expected ways to parental attachment dimensions, emotional availability, parenting stress, and infant attachment status in the SSP. Yet, at the same time, more research on the PRFQ is needed to further establish its reliability and validity. PMID:28472162
Rostad, Whitney L; Moreland, Angela D; Valle, Linda Anne; Chaffin, Mark J
Families experiencing child maltreatment or risk factors for child maltreatment often receive referrals to interventions focused on changing parenting practices. Compliance with specific parenting programs can be challenging as many of the stressors that place families at-risk may also interfere with program participation. Because families may receive limited benefit from programs they do not fully receive, it is critical to understand the relationship between parenting stress and barriers to program completion. We used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among parenting stress, perceived barriers to program participation, and program completion in two datasets involving low-income parents. Data were collected at two time points from a sample of parents involved with child welfare services and a sample of parents considered at-risk of future involvement (total study n = 803). Direct paths from parenting stress at time 1 to barriers to participation and parenting stress at time 2, and from parenting stress at time 2 to program completion were significant. Interestingly, increased barriers to participation were related to increased parenting stress at time 2, and greater parenting stress was related to increased program completion. Results suggest that with increasing levels of parenting stress, parents have an increased likelihood of completing the program. Assessing and addressing the influence of perceived barriers and parenting stress on program participation may decrease the likelihood of treatment attrition.
Ros, Rosmary; Graziano, Paulo A.; Hart, Katie C.
The purpose of this study was to examine how parental homework completion, session attendance, and treatment knowledge influenced parenting practices and confidence in using learned skills during behavioral parent training (BPT). Parents of 54 preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.07, 82% Hispanic/Latino) with externalizing behavior problems…
Bernet, William; Gregory, Nilgun; Reay, Kathleen M; Rohner, Ronald P
Both clinicians and forensic practitioners should distinguish parental alienation (rejection of a parent without legitimate justification) from other reasons for contact refusal. Alienated children-who were not abused-often engage in splitting and lack ambivalence with respect to the rejected parent; children who were maltreated usually perceive the abusive parent in an ambivalent manner. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) in identifying and quantifying the degree of splitting, which may assist in diagnosing parental alienation. Results showed that severely alienated children engaged in a high level of splitting, by perceiving the preferred parent in extremely positive terms and the rejected parent in extremely negative terms. Splitting was not manifested by the children in other family groups. The PARQ may be useful for both clinicians and forensic practitioners in evaluating children of divorced parents when there is a concern about the possible diagnosis of parental alienation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Carey, Mariko L; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Sanson-Fisher, Robert William; Shakeshaft, Anthony
In order to improve the service delivery for the parents and carers of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, it is important to develop measures which assess the specific issues and concerns faced by this group. The aims of this study were to describe the development and acceptability of a measure of unmet needs of parents and carers of AYA cancer survivors and to assess the prevalence of unmet needs among the respondents. A literature search and focus groups with consumers and health professionals were used to inform item development. AYA cancer survivors and their parents and carers were identified from seven hospitals in Australia. Parents and carers who consented for their contact details to be released to the research team were sent a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. One mailed reminder and one phone call reminder were made to non-responders. The unmet needs survey consisted of eight domains and 150 items: (1) cancer treatment staff, (2) cancer treatment centre, (3) study, (4) work, (5) information, (6) feelings, (7) relationships and (8) daily life. Eighty-three parents and carers completed the survey. The mean number of high or very high unmet needs reported was 24, with information needs among the most prevalent high/very high unmet needs. The questionnaire developed has demonstrable face and content validity and acceptability. Unmet needs are prevalent among parents and carers of AYA cancer survivors, suggesting the need for further psychometric testing of the measure.
Barbosa, Taís de Souza; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte
To test the validity and reliability of Brazilian Portuguese version of the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ) (Aim 1) and to assess the agreement between parents and children concerning the child's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) (Aim 2). The P-CPQ and the Brazilian Portuguese versions of the Child Perceptions Questionnaires (CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14 ) were used. Objective 1 addressed in the study that involved 210 (validity and internal reliability) and 20 (test-retest reliability) parents and Objective 2 in the study that involved 210 pairs of parents and children. Construct validity was calculated using the Spearman's correlation and the Mann-Whitney/Kruskal-Wallis tests. Reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement between overall and subscale scores derived from the P-CPQ and CPQ was assessed in comparison and correlation analyses. The P-CPQ discriminated among the categories of malocclusion and dmft. The P-CPQ showed good construct validity, good internal consistency reliability, and excellent test-retest reliability. There was systematic under- and overreporting in parents' assessments for younger and older children, respectively. However, the magnitude of the directional differences was just small. At individual level, agreement between parents and children was excellent. However, it ranged from excellent to moderate or substantial in subscales for CPQ8-10 and CPQ11-14 groups, respectively. The Portuguese version of P-CPQ is valid and reliable. Some parents have limited knowledge about child OHRQoL. Given that parental and child reports measure different realities concerning the child's OHRQoL, information provided by parents can complement the child's evaluation. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Canals-Sans, Josefa; Blanco-Gómez, Ainara; Luque, Verónica; Ferré, Natàlia; Ferrando, Pere Joan; Gispert-Llauradó, Mariona; Escribano, Joaquín; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo
To test the reliability and factorial validity of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) within a Spanish sample. Cross-sectional study. All schools in a Spanish Mediterranean city of about 100,000 inhabitants. From a potential population of 1,623 children (mean age, 8.5 years), 960 parents (459 fathers and 501 mothers) of 515 children participated (32% response). The Spanish version of the CFQ was completed by both parents. Body mass index of the children was obtained from measured heights and weights. Parents reported their anthropometric and employment data. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach α. Factorial validity was examined by Procrustes semi-confirmatory factor and confirmatory factor analyses. Seven major factors with loadings similar to those in the original questionnaire were found: perceived responsibility, perceived parent weight, perceived child weight, concern about child weight (CN), pressure to eat (PE), monitoring, and restriction. Reliability was adequate for each factor and overall CFQ (α = .86). Goodness of fit indexes for confirmatory factor analysis solutions was acceptable. Item loadings ranged from 0.30 to 0.92. The factor of CN was associated with restriction [multivariate coefficient (R(2)) = 0.14; P parental feeding attitudes that can contribute to preventing risky eating behaviors in their children. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
I. M. Ostrovskyi
Full Text Available Health is one of the main conditions that determine the adequate child development. Work objective: to find out the state of health of the children of the city and the changes in these parameters for 16 years. The method of research is the questionnaire survey of parents of children from one year to 17 years. The questionnaire contains 20 questions and 94 answer choices, which are statically processed in comparison with the results of a similar study in 2000.Results and conclusions: 582 respondents were questioned. The findings indicate a change in the health status of children. Over the past 6 years, the number of children breastfed up to one and a half years has increased and the number of children receiving breastfeeding for 1 to 3 months has decreased. A number of factors have been identified that negatively affect the health of children: infection pregnant, pathological pregnancy, short duration of breastfeeding, previous illnesses, smoking during pregnancy and in the home, a negative attitude toward vaccinations, and a long time spent with electronic equipment.
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to introduce the Children-parents relationship questionnaire (VOS and to present its metric characteristics. The questionnaire is based on parental styles of D. Baumrind (1967 and 3D model of parental styles developed by Milivojević and others (2004. The questionnaire was developed under assumption that relationship between children and their parents influences educational achievement of children. Results on convenience sample (N = 333 of seventh, eighth and ninth grade students in Slovenia show a three dimensional structure of the questionnaire: (a authoritative parental style and autonomy, (b authoritarian parental style and (c rewarding. Questionnaires' reliability in terms of internal consistency (,72 > α < ,95 as well as sensitivity (average r = ,67 proved to be sufficient. Our results show significant gender differences in perceived authoritative parental style and autonomy as well as low association between school grades and the perceived relationship.
van Dijk Monique
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to validate the Impact of a Child with Congenital Anomalies on Parents (ICCAP questionnaire. ICCAP was newly designed to assess the impact of giving birth to a child with severe anatomical congenital anomalies (CA on parental quality of life as a result of early stress. Methods At 6 weeks and 6 months after birth, mothers and fathers of 100 children with severe CA were asked to complete the ICCAP questionnaire and the SF36. The ICCAP questionnaire measures six domains: contact with caregivers, social network, partner relationship, state of mind, child acceptance, and fears and anxiety. Reliability (i.e. internal consistency and test-retest and validity were tested and the ICCAP was compared to the SF-36. Results Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in 6 six a priori constructed subscales covering different psychological and social domains of parental quality of life as a result of early stress. Reliability estimates (congeneric approach ranged from .49 to .92. Positive correlations with SF-36 scales ranging from .34 to .77 confirmed congruent validity. Correlations between ICCAP subscales and children's biographic characteristics, primary CA, and medical care as well as parental biographic and demographic variables ranged from -.23 to .58 and thus indicated known-group validity of the instrument. Over time both mothers and fathers showed changes on subscales (Cohen's d varied from .07 to .49, while the test-retest reliability estimates varied from .42 to .91. Conclusion The ICCAP is a reliable and valid instrument for clinical practice. It enables early signaling of parental quality of life as a result of early stress, and thus early intervention.
Gross, Thomas J; Fleming, Charles B; Mason, W Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P
The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire nine-item short form (APQ-9) is an often used assessment of parenting in research and applied settings. It uses parent and youth ratings for three scales: Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision. The purpose of this study is to examine the longitudinal invariance of the APQ-9 for both parents and youth, and the multigroup invariance between parents and youth during the transition from middle school to high school. Parent and youth longitudinal configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the APQ-9 were supported when tested separately. However, the multigroup invariance tests indicated that scalar invariance was not achieved between parent and youth ratings. Essentially, parent and youth mean scores for Positive Parenting, Inconsistent Discipline, and Poor Supervision can be independently compared across the transition from middle school to high school. However, comparing parent and youth scores across the APQ-9 scales may not be meaningful.
Dean, Lynn M.
How parents interact with their children impacts many crucial facets of children's lives. Over the last 4 decades, researchers have identified four different parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged. Hundreds of studies conducted all over the world, have identified correlations between parenting style and many…
Full Text Available The Parent Adult-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PACQ included two identical versions of the 13-item scale, which were administered to each subject, one which referred to “relationship with mother” and the other to “relationship with father.” The PACQ, originally in English, is a self-report measure of the filial relationship. The present study aimed to develop a Chinese version of the PACQ and use it to explore Chinese parent adult-child relationships. A total of 454 Chinese adult-children completed the Chinese version of the PACQ. The structure of the questionnaire was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. We found that the Cronbach's α was 0.66–0.88 for fathers and 0.76–0.91 for mothers, which demonstrates high internal consistency reliabilities of the Chinese version of the PACQ. The Chinese version of the PACQ for father had similar constructs similar to with those of the original English version. However, a new factor for mothers, “attachment,” was derived from the original English version. The results suggested that the Chinese version of PACQ is a valid and reliable measure of relationship quality between Chinese adult-children and their parents.
Greene, Ryan L.
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is an empirically based psychological intervention established as effective in the treatment of a number of clinical problems. ACT has been utilized with parents in a variety of contexts, thus creating a need to assess ACT-pertinent factors within parenting frameworks. However, a psychometrically sound measure designed to assess parental psychological flexibility is currently unavailable. The present study sought to develop a reliable and valid measure ...
Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers' Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist.
Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina
Insight into parents' perceptions of their children's eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children's eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers' eating behaviors. Parental pressure to eat was strongly associated with children's food
Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee
This paper reports the scale development and psychometric characteristics of the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R). To develop this measure, 502 subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated 91 parenting behaviors in terms of parenting behavior specificity (e.g., bonding, discipline), importance level, and appropriateness for…
van der Meer, M.; Dixon, A.; Rose, D.
Background and objectives This study examined the level of agreement between parents and children on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a clinical sample in Sydney, Australia. Methods Parent and child SDQ reports were collected from 379 parents-child pairs. Children were aged
Rosenblum, Sara; Waissman, Pola; Diamond, Gary W
Motor coordination deficits that characterize children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affect their quality of participation. The aim of the current study was to identify play characteristics of young children with DCD, compared to those of children with typical development in three dimensions: activity and participation, environmental factors and children's impairments. Sixty-four children, aged four to six years, participated. Thirty were diagnosed as having DCD; the remaining 34 children were age, gender and socioeconomic level matched controls with typical development. The children were evaluated by the M-ABC. In addition, their parents completed a demographic questionnaire, the Children's Activity Scale for Parents (CHAS-P), the Children's Leisure Assessment Scale for preschoolers (CLASS-Pre), and My Child's Play Questionnaire (MCP). Children with DCD performed significantly poorer in each of the four play activity and participation domains: variety, frequency, sociability, and preference (CLASS-Pre). Furthermore, their environmental characteristics were significantly different (MCP). They displayed significantly inferior performance (impairments) in interpersonal interaction and executive functioning during play, in comparison to controls (MCP). Moreover, the children's motor and executive control as reflected in their daily function as well as their activities of daily living (ADL) performance level, contributed to the prediction of their global play participation. The results indicate that the use of both the CLASS-Pre and the MCP questionnaires enables the identification of unique play characteristics of pre-school children with DCD via parents' reports. A better insight into these characteristics may contribute to theoretical knowledge and clinical practice to improve the children's daily participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tähtinen, Paula A; Boonacker, Chantal W B; Rovers, Maroeska M; Schilder, Anne G M; Huovinen, Pentti; Liuksila, Pirjo-Riitta; Ruuskanen, Olli; Ruohola, Aino
Both treatment guidelines and the amount of antibiotics used for acute otitis media (AOM) vary across western countries. Parental expectations and their awareness of antimicrobial use and resistance, which may also be influenced by the guidelines, are not yet completely known. To compare parental experiences and opinions regarding the management of AOM in children with AOM in Finland and The Netherlands. We sent the questionnaires via public day care in Turku, Finland, and Utrecht, The Netherlands. We asked about family background, child's history of AOM and parental experiences and attitudes about AOM treatment and antimicrobial resistance. Of 1151 participants, 83% in Finland and 49% in The Netherlands had had at least one episode of AOM. Antibiotics were used more frequently in Finland than in The Netherlands, 99% versus 78%, respectively. More Finnish parents reported to believe that antibiotics are necessary in the treatment of AOM as compared to Dutch parents. Use of analgesics for AOM was similar (80% in Finland and 86% in The Netherlands). One-third of the parents had discussed resistance with their doctor. According to parental experiences, antimicrobial resistance had caused more problems in Finland than in The Netherlands (20% versus 2%). Finally, 88% of parents in Finland and 65% in The Netherlands were worried that bacteria could become resistant to antibiotics. Treatment practices and parental expectations seem to interact with each other. Therefore, if we aim to change AOM treatment practices, we have to modify both guidelines and parental expectations.
Maja Zupančič; Anja Podlesek; Tina Kavčič
The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ), and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Facto...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105 compared with 88.0% (389 of 442 for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%. Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009 with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study.
Brealey, Stephen D; Atwell, Christine; Bryan, Stirling; Coulton, Simon; Cox, Helen; Cross, Ben; Fylan, Fiona; Garratt, Andrew; Gilbert, Fiona J; Gillan, Maureen GC; Hendry, Maggie; Hood, Kerenza; Houston, Helen; King, David; Morton, Veronica; Orchard, Jo; Robling, Michael; Russell, Ian T; Torgerson, David; Wadsworth, Valerie; Wilkinson, Clare
Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105) compared with 88.0% (389 of 442) for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%). Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009) with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study. PMID:17326837
This data collection form is used to identify the activity patterns of the preschool children and possible sources and routes of exposure. The parent is asked questions on their child's activities indoors and outdoors at the home. These include questions on their child's frequenc...
Full Text Available The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ (Goodman, 1997 is one of the most commonly used measures of mental health in children and young people and has been translated into more than forty languages. This paper discusses the translation of the SDQ in Maltese and explores the structure and use of the teacher and parent Maltese translations. 4797 school teachers and 2865 parents completed the Maltese teacher and parent SDQ respectively. The results indicate that the Maltese SDQ, particularly the teacher version, meets the basic psychometric properties which make it a useful index of social, emotional and behaviour difficulties and prosocial behaviour amongst Maltese children and young people. Exploratory factor analysis suggests that the Maltese version clearly discriminates between difficulty and prosocial behaviour, and that it may be closer in fit to a three factor model, namely internalized difficulties, externalized difficulties and prosocial behaviour. While there are a number of variations, which may be explained by the local educational and socio-cultural context, Maltese mean scores are quite comparable with international SDQ norms. In view of a number of limitations, however, the use of the Maltese SDQ needs to be used with caution and further research into its psychometric properties is suggested.
Sint Nicolaas, Simone M; Schepers, Sasja A; van den Bergh, Esther M M; Evers, Andrea W M; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Verhaak, Christianne M
Illness cognitions are an important mediator between disease and psychological adjustment. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), adjusted for the parents of an ill child. Participants were recruited from two multicenter studies: sample 1 included 128 parents of a child diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (response rate 82 %) and sample 2 included 114 parents of a child diagnosed with cancer (response rate 74 %). Parents completed an adapted version of the ICQ (Illness Cognition Questionnaire-Parent version (ICQ-P)), together with the Profile of Mood States (POMS; sample 1) or the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; sample 2). The factor structure of the ICQ-P was examined by means of principal component analysis. Cronbach's alpha for each subscale and correlations between the ICQ-P scales and the HADS and POMS were calculated. The illness cognitions of parents with and without psychological distress were compared. Factor analysis confirmed the hypothesized structure of the ICQ-P in our sample (n = 242). The three scales Helplessness, Acceptance, and Perceived Benefits explained 9.8, 31.4, and 17.9 % of the variance, respectively. Cronbach's alpha showed adequate internal consistency (.80-.88). Concurrent and criterion-related validity were appropriate. The results confirm that the ICQ-P reliably assesses the illness cognitions of the parents of a child with cancer. Psychologically distressed parents showed less acceptance and more helplessness. The availability of a short and valid illness cognition questionnaire will help clinicians gain insight into parental cognitions regarding the illness of their child, information that might be helpful for targeting interventions.
Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers’ Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist
Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina
Introduction Insight into parents’ perceptions of their children’s eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Materials and Methods Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. Results 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). Discussion The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors. Parental
Validity of the toddler feeding questionnaire for measuring parent authoritative and indulgent feeding practices which are associated with stress and health literacy among Latino parents of preschool children.
Heerman, William J; Lounds-Taylor, Julie; Mitchell, Stephanie; Barkin, Shari L
Understanding the contribution of parental feeding practices to childhood obesity among Latino children is a solution-oriented approach that can lead to interventions supporting healthy childhood growth and lowering rates of obesity. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability and validity of the Toddler Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ) to measure parental feeding practices among a sample of Spanish-speaking parent-preschool child pairs (n = 529), and to test the hypothesis that parent characteristics of body mass index (BMI), stress, and health literacy are associated with more indulgent and less authoritative feeding practices. Standardized parent-report questionnaires were completed during baseline interviews in a randomized controlled trial of an obesity prevention intervention. The TFQ includes subscales for indulgent practices (11 items), authoritative practices (7 items), and environmental influences (6 items) with response options scored on a 5-point Likert scale and averaged. Factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Internal consistency was good for indulgent (α = 0.66) and authoritative (α = 0.65) practices but lower for environmental (α = 0.48). Spearman correlation showed indulgent practices and environmental influences were associated with unhealthy child diet patterns, whereas authoritative practices were associated with a healthier child diet. Multivariate linear regression showed higher parent stress was associated with higher indulgent and lower authoritative scores; higher parent health literacy was positively associated with indulgent scores. These results indicate the TFQ is a valid measure of authoritative and indulgent parent feeding practices among Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children and that stress and health literacy, potentially modifiable parent characteristics, could be targeted to support healthy feeding practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Our goals were to (1 validate the parental Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ as a screening tool for psychomotor development among a cohort of ex-premature infants reaching 2 years, and (2 analyse the influence of parental socio-economic status and maternal education on the efficacy of the questionnaire. A regional population of 703 very preterm infants (<35 weeks gestational age born between 2003 and 2006 were evaluated at 2 years by their parents who completed the ASQ, by a pediatric clinical examination, and by the revised Brunet Lezine psychometric test with establishment of a DQ score. Detailed information regarding parental socio-economic status was available for 419 infants. At 2 years corrected age, 630 infants (89.6% had an optimal neuromotor examination. Overall ASQ scores for predicting a DQ score ≤85 produced an area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval:0.82-0.87. An ASQ cut-off score of ≤220 had optimal discriminatory power for identifying a DQ score ≤85 with a sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI:0.75-0.91, a specificity of 0.72 (95%CI:0.69-0.75, a positive likelihood ratio of 3, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.21. The median value for ASQ was not significantly associated with socio-economic level or maternal education. ASQ is an easy and reliable tool regardless of the socio-economic status of the family to predict normal neurologic outcome in ex-premature infants at 2 years of age. ASQ may be beneficial with a low-cost impact to some follow-up programs, and helps to establish a genuine sense of parental involvement.
Pilar Orive, Francisco Javier; Basabe Lozano, Jasone; López Zuñiga, Aurora; López Fernández, Yolanda M; Escudero Argaluza, Julene; Latour, Jos M
Few validated surveys measuring parental satisfaction in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) are available, and none of them in Spanish language. The aim of this study is to translate and validate the questionnaire EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care (EMPATHIC). This questionnaire measures parental perceptions of paediatric intensive care-related satisfaction items in the Spanish language. A prospective cohort study was carried out using questionnaires completed by relatives of children (range 0-17 years old) admitted into a tertiary PICU. Inclusion criteria were a length of stay more than 24h, and a suitable understanding of Spanish language by parents or guardians. Exclusion criteria were re-admissions and deceased patients. The questionnaire was translated from English to Spanish language using a standardised procedure, after which it was used in a cross-sectional observational study was performed to confirm its validity and consistency. Reliability was estimated using Cronbach's α, and content validity using Spearman's correlation analysis. A total of 150 questionnaires were collected. A Cronbach's α was obtained for domains greater than 0.7, showing a high internal consistency from the questionnaire. Validity was measured by correlating 5 domains with 4 general satisfaction items, documenting an adequate correlation (Rs: 0.41-0.66, P<.05). The Spanish version of EMPHATIC 30 is a feasible, easy, and suitable tool in this specific environment, based on the results. EMPATHIC 30 is able to measure parental satisfaction, and may serve as a valid indicator to measure quality of care in Spanish PICUs. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Reid, Carly A. Y.; Roberts, Lynne D.; Roberts, Clare M.; Piek, Jan P.
The assessment of parenting has been problematic due to theoretical disagreement, concerns over generalisability, and problems with the psychometric properties of current parenting measures. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound self-report parenting measure for use with parents of preadolescent children, and to use this empirical scale development process to identify the core dimensions of contemporary parenting behaviour. Following item generation and ...
Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong
Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children's gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children's sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6-12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children's gender-related behavior in China.
Lehmann, Stine; Bøe, Tormod; Breivik, Kyrre
Mental health problems are common in foster-children, and tools to measure the mental health of these children are needed. One candidate instrument is the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of child psychological adjustment that is increasingly being employed by Child Protection services. The aim of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the foster parent completed SDQ in a sample of 237 school aged foster children. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the foster parent completed SDQ data to a five-factor model (CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, 90% CI [0.04, 0.06]), thus confirming the structural validity of the five-factor model for the parent-version of the SDQ in Norwegian foster children. Measurement invariance analyses indicated that boys had lower thresholds for fighting with or bullying other children than girls. Girls were on their side more likely to be rated as less popular than boys with a similar level of peer problems.
Laura B. von Kobyletzki; Staffan Janson; Mikael Hasselgren; Carl-Gustaf Bornehag; Åke Svensson
Aim: To develop and validate a questionnaire for detecting atopic dermatitis in infants and small children from the age of 2 months. Methods: Parents to 60 children answered a written questionnaire prior to a physical examination and individual semistructured interview. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of validity, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the questionnaire were performed. Results: A total of 27 girls and 33 boys, aged 2 to 71 months, 35 with and...
Full Text Available Parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD encounter many daily challenges and often experience much stress. However, little research exists about parenting behavior among these parents. With this study, we aim to address this gap. We examined the structure and internal consistency of a questionnaire intended to measure parenting behavior among mothers of young children with ASD. Furthermore, we compared parenting behavior among mothers of young children with and without ASD between two and six years old. Factor analyses resulted in a factor solution with seven subscales of parenting behavior. Two additional subscales especially relevant for parenting preschoolers with ASD were also considered. Analyses of covariance, controlling for gender and age, showed significantly higher scores for Discipline and Stimulating the Development in the control group in comparison with the ASD group. These findings suggest that mothers of preschoolers with ASD are still trying to find strategies to guide and stimulate their child’s behavior and development effectively.
Howell, M; Hood, A J; Jayne, D G
Developments in healthcare technology could improve patient care and reduce healthcare costs. There is a need to facilitate communication and increase efficiency in surgical pre-assessment clinics. This study aimed to develop an iPad application to deliver an electronic patient questionnaire, and to evaluate its use in the pre-assessment environment. Software was developed, MyOp, for a standard iPad that mirrored the paper-based pre-assessment system, with features designed for ease of patient use and remote data transfer. A case-control study was conducted, comparing use of MyOp with paper-based practice, to evaluate feasibility and patient preference. Patients were offered the use of MyOp or paper-based system. Outcomes measured included time to complete iPad questionnaire, consultation duration, and a patient preference questionnaire. MyOp cost £3500 to develop. 104 individuals participated in the study, 53 MyOp and 51 controls. MyOp reduced the median consultation duration by 5.00 min. A reduction was seen in all subgroups except those aged over 70 or urology patients. Patients preferred to complete the form independently, using a touchpad or computer but expressed concerns about data security. Use of an electronic patient questionnaire reduces consultation time delivering greater efficiency of pre-assessment nurse time. Preconceived ideas about the use of technology in older age groups are likely inaccurate and less of a barrier than previously thought. Electronic pre-assessments could be used routinely to reduce demands on healthcare facilities, improve patient care, and triage patients prior to clinic attendance.
Tagliabue,Semira; Olivari,Maria Giulia; Bacchini,Dario; Affuso,Gaetana; Confalonieri,Emanuela
The paper analyzes the psychometric properties of the G1 version of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, a self-report instrument designed to investigate how adolescents or adults were parented during childhood. The sample included 1451 Italian adolescents in high school. Three studies tested the scale's structure, invariance, and convergent validity. The first found slightly acceptable fit indexes for a 40-item scale measuring three factors (authoritative, authoritarian, an...
Vyduna, Jennifer L; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine M; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry W; Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Schram, Jessica; Zaghloul, Sahar
Intervention strategies to increase calcium intake of parents and young adolescent children could be improved by identifying psychosocial factors influencing intake. The objective was to develop a tool to assess factors related to calcium intake among parents and Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white young adolescent children (10-13 years) meeting acceptable standards for psychometric properties. A parent questionnaire was constructed from interviews conducted to identify factors. Parents (n = 166) in the United States completed the questionnaire, with seventy-one completing it twice. Two constructs (Attitudes/Preferences and Social/Environmental) were identified and described by eighteen subscales with Cronbach's alpha levels from .50 to .79. Test-retest coefficients ranged from .68 to .85 (p food intake among parents and young adolescent children.
Lind, Annika; Haataja, Leena; Rautava, Liisi; Väliaho, Anniina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Korkman, Marit
The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children and a control group of 161 children born at term. At term equivalent age, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on the VLBW children, and analysed for total and regional brain volumes. At 5 years of age, a psychologist assessed the neuropsychological performance with NEPSY II, and parents completed the Five to fifteen (FTF) questionnaire on development and behaviour. The results of the control group were used to give the age-specific reference values. No significant associations were found between the brain volumes and the NEPSY II domains. As for the FTF, significant associations were found between a smaller total brain tissue volume and poorer executive functions, between a smaller cerebellar volume and both poorer executive functions and motor skills, and, surprisingly, between a larger volume of brainstem and poorer language functions. Even after adjustment for total brain tissue volume, the two associations between the cerebellar volume and the FTF domains remained borderline significant (P = 0.05). The NEPSY II domains Executive Functioning, Language and Motor Skills were significantly associated with the corresponding FTF domains. In conclusion, altered brain volumes at term equivalent age appear to affect development still at 5 years of age. The FTF seems to be a good instrument when used in combination with other neuropsychological assessment.
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the psychometric properties of the G1 version of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, a self-report instrument designed to investigate how adolescents or adults were parented during childhood. The sample included 1451 Italian adolescents in high school. Three studies tested the scale's structure, invariance, and convergent validity. The first found slightly acceptable fit indexes for a 40-item scale measuring three factors (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive styles; the factors presented good reliability (ρc .62-.96. Multigroup confirmative analyses found factor loadings invariant in the father version, whereas 12 items resulted not invariant in the mother version (second study. Good convergent validity was found with the Parental Bonding Index and the Parental Monitoring Scale (third study. Discussion of results is provided within the parenting styles literature.
von Kobyletzki, Laura B.; Janson, Staffan; Hasselgren, Mikael; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Svensson, Åke
Aim. To develop and validate a questionnaire for detecting atopic dermatitis in infants and small children from the age of 2 months. Methods. Parents to 60 children answered a written questionnaire prior to a physical examination and individual semistructured interview. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of validity, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the questionnaire were performed. Results. A total of 27 girls and 33 boys, aged 2 to 71 months, 35 with and 25 without physician-diagnosed eczema, participated. Validation of the questionnaire by comparisons with physicians' diagnoses showed a sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI 0.77–0.98) and a specificity of 1 (95% CI 0.86–1). Conclusions. Three questions in a parental questionnaire were sufficient for diagnosing eczema in infants and small children. PMID:22500189
Nowicka, Paulina; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S
The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) assesses parental feeding attitudes, beliefs and practices concerned with child feeding and obesity proneness. The questionnaire has been developed in the U.S., and validation studies in other countries are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CFQ in Sweden and the associations between parenting practices and children's weight status. Based on records from the Swedish population register, all mothers of 4-year-olds (n = 3007) from the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö, were contacted by mail. Those who returned the CFQ together with a background questionnaire (n = 876) received the CFQ again to enable test-retest evaluation; 564 mothers completed the CFQ twice. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the original 7-factor model was supported. Good fit (CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04, SRMR = 0.05) was obtained after minor modifications such as dropping 2 items on restriction and adding 3 error covariances. The internal reliability and the 2-week test-retest reliability were good. The scores on restriction were the lowest ever reported. When the influence of parenting practices on child BMI (dependent variable) was examined in a structural equation model (SEM), child BMI had a positive association with restriction and a negative association with pressure to eat. Restriction was positively influenced by concern about child weight. The second SEM treated parenting practices as dependent variables. Parental foreign origin and child BMI had direct effects on restriction, while pressure to eat was also influenced by parental education. While the results of the study support the usefulness of the CFQ in Sweden, carefully designed cross-cultural comparisons are needed to explain why the levels of restrictive feeding in Swedish families are the lowest reported. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper reviews evidence on the construct validity and reliability of the newly developed Family Environment Questionnaire (FEQ, and presents data on the structure of socialisation practices the Slovenian parents use in daily interactions with their three-year-old children. The FEQ is a parent report measure designed to provide an assessment of individual differences in parental practices that are representative among the parents of preschool children in the given cultural community. Factor analysis of the 63 items reliably recovered a four-component solution in both, maternal and paternal self-reports indicating the following broad-band parenting practices: Authoritative Parenting, Ineffective Control, Power Assertion, and Stimulation. Variables loading high on more than one component and those that did not load on the same factor obtained from maternal and paternal data were excluded from further analyses. The 51 items that were retained and corresponded to the four factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency for both samples of respondents. In addition, parental stimulation was positively linked to authoritative parenting, while it was negatively related to ineffective control and power assertion. The mothers perceived themselves to be more authoritative and stimulative than did fathers, who described themselves as more power assertive and ineffective in control. The parent-pairs were also found to share, at least to some extent, similar parenting practices, whereas their self-perceived expression of these practices was not dependent on their child's gender.
Livesley, E J; Rushton, L; English, J S C; Williams, H C
A self-completion questionnaire sent to 2600 Nottinghamshire members of the Graphical Paper and Media Union elicited a 62% response. Forty one per cent of respondents reported suffering a skin complaint at some time and 11% had a current skin problem on the hand. This paper reports the validation stage of the study. Samples of 45 'cases' of self-reported dermatitis and 60 'controls', who reported they had never suffered a skin complaint, were clinically examined. All 45 self-reported cases were clinically confirmed as dermatitis. Occupationally related irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) was diagnosed in 20 (44%); 26 (58%) complaints were thought to be induced or exacerbated by occupation. Of the controls, 21 (35%) were also diagnosed with a skin complaint, the majority being mild, with an occupational association in 17, the majority (15) being ICD. Sixteen ICD cases were patch tested resulting in positive reactions to colophony, neomycin, nickel and potassium dichromate (2 of each). Two cases of basal cell carcinoma on the face were also identified, of which the participants were unaware. Although there was no false positive self-reporting there was a considerable number of false negatives, demonstrating the importance of clinical validation of questionnaires relating to industrial skin disease. This study has highlighted the need for improvement in skin care provision in the printing industry.
Dorus W. M. Gevers
Full Text Available The narrow focus of existing food parenting instruments led us to develop a food parenting practices instrument measuring the full range of food practices constructs with a focus on snacking behavior. We present the development of the questionnaire and our research on the test-retest reliability. The developed Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ covers 21 constructs. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating intra class correlation coefficients and percentage agreement after two administrations of the CSPQ among a sample of 66 Dutch parents. Test-retest reliability analysis revealed acceptable intra class correlation coefficients (≥0.41 or agreement scores (≥0.60 for all items. These results, together with earlier work, suggest sufficient psychometric characteristics. The comprehensive, but brief CSPQ opens up chances for highly essential but unstudied research questions to understand and predict children’s snack intake. Example applications include studying the interactional nature of food parenting practices or interactions of food parenting with general parenting or child characteristics.
Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-lela, Omer Qutaiba; Bux, Siti Halimah; Elkalmi, Ramadan M; Hadi, Hazrina
Parents are the main decision makers for their children vaccinations. This fact makes parents' immunization knowledge and practices as predictor factors for immunization uptake and timeliness. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument in Malaysian language to measure immunization knowledge and practice (KP) of Malaysian parents. A cross-sectional prospective pilot survey was conducted among 88 Malaysian parents who attended public health facilities that provide vaccinations. Translated immunization KP questionnaires (Bahasa Melayu version) were used. Descriptive statistics were applied, face and content validity were assessed, and internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were determined. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of the knowledge scores was 7.36 ± 2.29 and for practice scores was 7.13 ± 2.20. Good internal consistency was found for knowledge and practice items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.757 and 0.743 respectively); the test-retest reliability value was 0.740 (p = 0.014). A panel of three specialist pharmacists who are experts in this field judged the face and content validity of the final questionnaire. Parents with up-to-date immunized children had significantly better knowledge and practice scores than parents who did not (p Malaysian parents and therefore this version can be used in future research.
Kitano, Taito; Nishikawa, Hiroki; Onaka, Masayuki; Ishihara, Mariko; Nishiyama, Atsuko; Yoshida, Sayaka
Although the mumps vaccine has not been included in the national immunization program (NIP) in Japan, it has been shown that a two-dose routine vaccine program would be highly cost-effective. In this study, we carried outa questionnaire-based study to investigate how many Japanese parents want the mumps vaccine to be included in the NIP with proper information. The questionnaire was given to parents who visited the Pediatrics or neonatal intensive care unit of Nara Prefecture General Medical Center, Nara City, Japan, between 1 March 2017 and 31 August 2017. The questionnaire consisted of information about mumps and six questions, for example (i) do parents know that mumps can be prevented by vaccine; (ii) do they know that they need to pay for mumps vaccines; and (iii) do they hope that the government will resume routine mumps vaccination. In total, 1,224 parents answered the questionnaire. A total of 81% and 75.4% of parents knew that mumps can be prevented by vaccination and that mumps vaccine is not included in the NIP, respectively, before reading the information. After reading the information, 95.0% of parents thought that mumps vaccine should be included in the NIP. While 61.7% of parents answered that they would choose two-dose vaccination without governmental financial support, 92.1% of them would choose two-dose vaccination with governmental financial support (P mumps vaccine to be included in the NIP. Japan is able to start routine use of the mumps vaccine now. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.
Sapharas, Nicole K.; Estell, David B.; Doran, Kelly A.; Waldron, Mary
Associations between parental loss and high school (HS) completion were examined in data drawn from 1,761 male and 1,689 female offspring born in wedlock to mothers participating in a nationally representative study. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted predicting HS completion by age 19 among offspring whose parents divorced or…
Davison, K K; Blake, C E; Kachurak, A; Lumeng, J C; Coffman, D L; Miller, A L; Hughes, S O; Power, T G; Vaughn, A F; Blaine, R E; Younginer, N; Fisher, J O
Snacking makes significant contributions to children's dietary intake but is poorly understood from a parenting perspective. This research was designed to develop and evaluate the psychometrics of a theoretically grounded, empirically-informed measure of snack parenting. The Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ) was developed using a conceptual model derived from current theory and mixed-methods research to include 20 hypothesized snack parenting practices along 4 parenting dimensions (autonomy support, structure, coercive control and permissiveness). Expert panel evaluation and cognitive interviews were used to refine items and construct definitions. The initial instrument of 105 items was administered to an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 305 parents (92% mothers) of children aged 1-6 y participating in three existing cohort studies. The sample was randomly split into two equal samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with the first sample to identify snack parenting practices within each parenting dimension, followed by confirmatory factor analysis with the second sample to test the hypothesized factor structure. Internal consistency of sub-scales and associations with existing measures of food parenting practices and styles and child weight status were evaluated. The final P-SNAQ scale included 51 items reflecting 14 snack parenting practices across four parenting dimensions. The factor structure of the P-SNAQ was consistent with prior theoretical frameworks. Internal consistency coefficients were good to very good for 12 out of 14 scales and subscale scores were moderately correlated with previously validated measures. In conclusion, initial evidence suggests that P-SNAQ is a psychometrically sound measure for evaluating a wide range of snack parenting practices in young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zimmermann, Karin; Cignacco, Eva; Eskola, Katri; Engberg, Sandra; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Bergstraesser, Eva
To develop and test the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire, an instrument to retrospectively assess parental experiences and needs during their child's end-of-life care. To offer appropriate care for dying children, healthcare professionals need to understand the illness experience from the family perspective. A questionnaire specific to the end-of-life experiences and needs of parents losing a child is needed to evaluate the perceived quality of paediatric end-of-life care. This is an instrument development study applying mixed methods based on recommendations for questionnaire design and validation. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire was developed in four phases between August 2012-March 2014: phase 1: item generation; phase 2: validity testing; phase 3: translation; phase 4: pilot testing. Psychometric properties were assessed after applying the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire in a sample of 224 bereaved parents in April 2014. Validity testing covered the evidence based on tests of content, internal structure and relations to other variables. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire consists of approximately 90 items in four slightly different versions accounting for particularities of the four diagnostic groups. The questionnaire's items were structured according to six quality domains described in the literature. Evidence of initial validity and reliability could be demonstrated with the involvement of healthcare professionals and bereaved parents. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire holds promise as a measure to assess parental experiences and needs and is applicable to a broad range of paediatric specialties and settings. Future validation is needed to evaluate its suitability in different cultures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ammentorp, Jette; Rasmussen, Anne Mette; Nørgaard, Betty
BACKGROUND: Using paper questionnaires to measure quality of care from the perspective of the patient is a time consuming procedure resulting in very slow feedback. Response rates are low and patients who cannot read the local language are usually excluded. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicabi......BACKGROUND: Using paper questionnaires to measure quality of care from the perspective of the patient is a time consuming procedure resulting in very slow feedback. Response rates are low and patients who cannot read the local language are usually excluded. OBJECTIVE: To investigate...... the applicability of an electronic questionnaire by evaluating the response rate. To study whether computer-based continuous monitoring could elucidate reasons for parents being less satisfied with care and treatment and to compare parent satisfaction with the results of a study performed in 2003. METHODS: Parents...... that the nurses did not have enough time. Significant improvements in satisfaction had occurred as compared to a study from 2003. CONCLUSION: By using electronic questionnaires, it was possible to focus on the small percentage of parents not satisfied, to identify reasons for being less satisfied and to respond...
Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard
Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Savage, Jennifer S; Rollins, Brandi Y; Kugler, Kari C; Birch, Leann L; Marini, Michele E
Parents shape children's eating environments and act as powerful socialization agents, impacting young children's behavioral controls of food intake. Most feeding measures assess parents' use of control to manage children's intake of energy dense foods. The Structure and Control in Parent Feeding (SCPF) questionnaire was developed to assess more positive aspects of feeding practices with their young children -setting limits, providing routines-that promote self-regulation, as well as controlling feeding practices. A mixed method approach was used to develop the SCPF. In 2013, cognitive interviews informed the modification, deletion and/or replacement of items. In 2014, the survey was distributed statewide to mothers of toddlers aged 12 to 36 months participating in the Women, Infants, and Children program. In 2016, exploratory factor analyses was conducted to test our theoretical parenting model and content validity and criterion validity were assessed (n = 334). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and second-order EFA revealed a 2-factor, 22-item Structure model and a 2-factor, 12-item Control model. Internal consistencies for all factors exceeded 0.70. As predicted, the Structure superfactor was positivity associated with responsiveness, whereas the Control superfactor was positively associated with demandingness on the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. The Structure subscales were also positively associated with mealtime behaviors and Control subscales were positively associated with control-oriented feeding measures from the Control in Parent Feeding Practices questionnaire. The SCPF questionnaire is a reliable tool that can be used to assess aspects of structure- and control-based feeding practices to better understand how parents feed their toddlers.
Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
, Pearson’s χ2-test, logistic regression analyses and sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the correlation between the questionnaire and the M-ABC test. Results: The best screening tool was six questions in combination: sensitivity 39.8%, specificity 87.1%. Asking if a health professional ever......Introduction: No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. Methods: This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test...
Kumar, Prawin; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Mishra, Rajkishor; Singh, Varun; Mohan, Priyanka
Introduction Parental support is important in the habilitation/rehabilitation of children using cochlear implant devices. Hence, it is important for families to know the realistic expectations regarding outcomes from CIs. Objective The objective of the present study is to know the parents' expectation from children using CIs. Methods For this study, we recruited 23 parents of children using CIs. We administered 15 questions translated in to Hindi related to communication abilities, social skills, academic achievement, change in future life, rehabilitation demand, and stress due to hearing impairment. Results The response of the questions (5-point rating scale) related to communication abilities showed that parents were expecting children using CIs to use the telephone (95%), to be able to detect soft sounds (99%), to listen in crowds (86%), to be able to easily understand others (76%), and to show improvement in communication skills (78%). Similarly, for questions related to social skills showed 90% of the parents expecting that their children with CIs should be able to easily make friends with normal hearing peers, and 80% of the parents were expecting the children to achieve high standards in their reading and writing skills. Questions related to change in future life showed 86% of the parents expecting their children with CIs to act like normal hearing children. Further, 78% parents showed positive response regarding importance of intensive training. However, 70% of the parents reported stress in the family due to the existence of the hearing impaired child. Conclusion Overall, the existing questionnaire-based study showed that parents have high expectations from their children with cochlear implant.
Brewer, Paul; Berryman, Fiona; Baker, De; Pynsent, Paul; Gardner, Adrian
Prospective sequential patient series. To investigate whether at initial assessment information imparted by a physician changed the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) score for a patient or a parent scoring independently of the child; to investigate whether the SRS score should be assessed before or after consultation to achieve the most accurate representation of the patient; and to investigate the differences between the patient and parent assessment of the scoliosis using the SRS questionnaire. A total of 52 children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and their parents were given the SRS-22 questionnaire at first consultation before and after meeting the physician. Parents and patients completed the questionnaires in isolation. Assessment and discussion with a physician made no statistical difference for the SRS-22 scores for both the patients and the parents when comparing SRS-22 scores before and after consultation in most domains. Significant differences were found in a few cases. This was the case for the patient group before and after consultation for the function domain (p = .023), the patient and parent groups before and after consultation for the pain domain (p = .025 and .022 for patient and parent groups respectively), the patient and parent groups after consultation for self-image domain (p = .024), and the parent group before and after consultation for mental health domain (p = .018). However, the differences in all these cases were low and not considered clinically important. The SRS-22 questionnaire is robust and a true reflection of patients' assessment of their symptoms not influenced by meeting a physician. Assessment of the child by the parent is not statistically different from the child's self-assessment using the SRS-22 instrument. It makes no difference to the total SRS-22 score as to when it is measured in the initial clinic visit. Copyright © 2014 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Latour, Jos M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; van Dam, Nicolette A. M.; Dullaart, Eugenie; van Heerde, Marc; de Neef, Marjorie; Verlaat, Carin W. M.; van Vught, Elise M.; Hazelzet, Jan A.
To construct and test the reliability and validity of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care (EMPATHIC) questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Structured development and psychometric testing of a parent satisfaction-with-care instrument
Latour, J.M.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Albers, M.J.I.J.; van Dam, N.A.M.; Dullaart, E.; van Heerde, M.; de Neef, M.; Verlaat, C.W.M.; van Vught, E.M.; Hazelzet, J.A.
To construct and test the reliability and validity of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care (EMPATHIC) questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Structured development and psychometric testing of a parent satisfaction-with-care instrument
Spark, Simone; Lewis, Dyani; Vaisey, Alaina; Smyth, Eris; Wood, Anna; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Lorch, Rebecca; Guy, Rebecca; Hocking, Jane
To compare the data quality, logistics, and cost of a self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire administered either using a computer-assisted survey instrument (CASI) or by paper and pencil in a primary care clinic. A self-administered sexual behavior questionnaire was administered to 16-29 year olds attending general practice. Questionnaires were administered by either paper and pencil (paper) or CASI. A personal digital assistant was used to self-administer the CASI. A total of 4,491 people completed the questionnaire, with 46.9% responses via CASI and 53.2% by paper. Completion of questions was greater for CASI than for paper for sexual behavior questions: number of sexual partners [odds ratio (OR), 6.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.32, 14.11] and ever having had sex with a person of the same gender (OR, 2.89; 95% CI: 1.52, 5.49). The median number of questions answered was higher for CASI than for paper (17.6 vs. 17.2; P questionnaire compared with $11.83 for paper. Electronic devices using CASI are a tool that can increase participants' questionnaire responses and deliver more complete data for a sexual behavior questionnaire in primary care clinics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benito, Ana; Calvo, Gema; Real-López, Matías; Gallego, María José; Francés, Sonia; Turbi, Ángel; Haro, Gonzalo
Parenting is linked to conduct disorders (CD) and substance related disorders (SRD) in adolescents, but with differences according to cultural context. A questionnaire with two versions (parenting questionnaire TXP-A for adolescents and TXP-C for primary caregivers) was designed using the Delphi method to evaluate parenting practices related to CD and SRD in a Spanish population. It was validated in a community sample of 631 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 and their caregivers. Results suggest a 29-item TXP-A questionnaire with bifactorial structure: affection-communication and control-structure, with high internal (Cronbach’s alpha=0.89) and test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.94) reliabilities. Both factors are related to SRD (r=0.273, p<0.001) and with most of the psychopathological dimensions studied. The total score and affection-communication are related to dissocial disorder (t=3.259, p=0.001) and its severity (r=-0,119; p=0.003). Inter-observer reliability between adolescents and caregivers is low, in part because the 16-item TXP-C has a different bifactorial structure: affection-communication and prosocial values. TXP-C’s internal (Cronbach’s alpha=0.87) and test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.94) reliabilities are high. The total score and affection-communication were related to dissocial disorder (t=2.586; p=0.010) but TXP-C did not discriminate according to SRD. In conclusion, the TXP-A questionnaire for adolescents seems to be a reliable, valid and unbiased instrument that evaluates the perception of parenting practices, relating higher affection-communication and control-structure to less psychopathology and alcohol and drug use. TXP-C also seems to be reliable and unbiased, but shows less evidence of validity regarding substance use and psychopathology. .
Hederos, C.A.; Hasselgren, M.; Hedlin, G.
with the corresponding medical records in the same region. An International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based WQ was answered by 75% of the parents of 6295 children aged 1-6 yr. Clinically diagnosed asthma, recorded in connection with admissions to the hospital or a visit to any of the outpatient......Epidemiological evaluations of the prevalence of asthma are usually based on written questionnaires (WQs) in combination with validation by clinical investigation. In the present investigation, we compared parental assessment of asthma among their preschool children in response to a WQ...... clinics in the same region, were analysed in parallel. Finally, a complementary WQ was sent to the parents of children identified as asthmatic by either or both of this approaches. In response to the WQ 5.9% were claimed to suffer from asthma diagnosed by a doctor. According to the medical records...
Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S
(1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is
Full Text Available (1 Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3 Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050. Of the respondents (n = 969, 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173, attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471, believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755, perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547, believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816, and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950. Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523. (4 Conclusions: A home smoking
Lampi, Jussi; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Santalahti, Päivi; Pekkanen, Juha
Questionnaires can be used to assess perceived indoor air quality and symptoms in schools. Questionnaires for primary school aged children have traditionally been parent-administered, but self-administered questionnaires would be easier to administer and may yield as good, if not better, information. Our aim was to compare the repeatability of self- and parent-administered indoor air questionnaires designed for primary school aged pupils. Indoor air questionnaire with questions on child's symptoms and perceived indoor air quality in schools was sent to parents of pupils aged 7-12 years in two schools and again after two weeks. Slightly modified version of the questionnaire was administered to pupils aged 9-12 years in another two schools and repeated after a week. 351 (52%) parents and 319 pupils (86%) answered both the first and the second questionnaire. Test-retest repeatability was assessed with intra-class correlation (ICC) and Cohen's kappa coefficients (k). Test-retest repeatability was generally between 0.4-0.7 (ICC; k) in both self- and parent-administered questionnaire. In majority of the questions on symptoms and perceived indoor air quality test-retest repeatability was at the same level or slightly better in self-administered compared to parent-administered questionnaire. Agreement of self- and parent administered questionnaires was generally indoor air quality. Children aged 9-12 years can give as, or even more, repeatable information about their respiratory symptoms and perceived indoor air quality than their parents. Therefore, it may be possible to use self-administered questionnaires in future studies also with children.
Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Dantas, Laíza Rocha; Dantas, Lívia Rocha; da Silva, Bruno Rafael Cruz; Perazzo, Matheus de França; Siqueira, Maria Betânia Lins Dantas
The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children's answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5). Seven days later, the children answered their version of the SOHO-5, without the presence of their parents/guardians, and underwent a clinical exam of dental caries, traumatic dental injury and malocclusion, by a previously calibrated researcher. Statistical analysis involved a comparison of mean scores and the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Poisson regression models were used to associate the variables (α = 5%). No significant differences were found between the mean SOHO-5 scores of the children when alone or accompanied by parents/guardians (p > 0.05). The ICC between the answers of the children alone or accompanied was 0.84. White spot (PR = 6.32; 95%CI: 1.36 - 29.40) and cavitated lesions (PR = 9.81; 95%CI: 3.22 - 29.85) had an impact on OHRQoL, according to the children's self-report, whereas cavitated lesions (PR = 90.52; 95%CI: 13.26 - 617.74) and anterior open bite (PR = 1.95; 95%IC: 1.07 - 3.53) remained on the final model, according to the parents' version of the SOHO-5. In conclusion, parents did not influence the children's responses, and dental caries are the oral health problem exerting the greatest impact on the children's OHRQoL.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent national surveys in Brazil have demonstrated a decrease in the consumption of traditional food and a parallel increase in the consumption of ultra-processed food, which has contributed to a rise in obesity prevalence in all age groups. Environmental factors, especially familial factors, have a strong influence on the food intake of preschool children, and this has led to the development of psychometric scales to measure parents’ feeding practices. The aim of this study was to test the validity of a translated and adapted Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire in a sample of Brazilian preschool-aged children enrolled in private schools. Methods A transcultural adaptation process was performed in order to develop a modified questionnaire (43 items. After piloting, the questionnaire was sent to parents, along with additional questions about family characteristics. Test-retest reliability was assessed in one of the schools. Factor analysis with oblique rotation was performed. Internal reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha and correlations between factors, discriminant validity using marker variables of child’s food intake, and convergent validity via correlations with parental perceptions of perceived responsibility for feeding and concern about the child’s weight were also performed. Results The final sample consisted of 402 preschool children. Factor analysis resulted in a final questionnaire of 43 items distributed over 6 factors. Cronbach alpha values were adequate (0.74 to 0.88, between-factor correlations were low, and discriminant validity and convergent validity were acceptable. Conclusions The modified CFPQ demonstrated significant internal reliability in this urban Brazilian sample. Scale validation within different cultures is essential for a more comprehensive understanding of parental feeding practices for preschoolers.
Suma Sogi, H P; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M
The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of "oral health care" in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of "good" practices and "bad" practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices.
Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ; (1)] is a multi-informant instrument for screening developmental psychopathology. This study contributes to the validation of the Italian SDQ-Parent version (SDQ-P), analyzing its factorial structure, providing norms and investigating cross-informant agreement (parents-teachers). The SDQ-P and the SDQ-Teacher version (SDQ-T) were completed for 1917 primary and middle school students. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to compare two factorial structures: the original five-factor model and the structure obtained in a past Italian study (2). The original model showed the best fit. Significant differences by gender and school grade were found; norms were provided separately for males and females attending 1st-2nd, 3rd-5th and 6th-8th grades. Finally, the analysis of parent-teacher agreement showed correlations ranging from small (prosocial behavior) to large (hyperactivity-inattention). This study offers some reflections on the best way to use this instrument in a community sample.
Gerreth, Karolina; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria
A patient's with disability everyday life is rife with many limitations such as architectural, transport, information as well as medical, psychological, legal, economic and social barriers. The aim of this study was to evaluate access to dental health care of special-care schoolchildren with intellectual disability on the basis of their parents' opinion. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 264 parents/caregivers of children from eight special-care schools in Poznan (Poland). Close-ended questions concerned children's barriers in access to dental care and parents' satisfaction with their children's dental care. Only 31.8% parents/caregivers did not have any problems with access to dental care and the most commonly reported barrier to obtaining dental care was protracted waiting time for a visit (36.7%). Most commonly, children were treated in dental surgery conditions (90.1%). Only 42.1% respondents were satisfied with their children's dental care. The research revealed that there is a need to improve the access of children with disability to dental care. Hence, it seems to be beneficial to set up specialist dental surgeries in special-care schools which would improve the access of children with disability to prophylaxis as well as dental treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Swartling, U; Helgesson, G; Hansson, M G; Ludvigsson, J
Based on extensive questionnaire data, this paper focuses on parents' views about children's right to decide about participation in research. The data originates from 4000 families participating in a longitudinal prospective screening as 1997. Although current regulations and recommendations underline that children should have influence over their participation, many parents in this study disagree. Most (66%) were positive providing information to the child about relevant aspects of the study. However, responding parents were split about whether or not children should at some point be allowed decisional authority when participating in research: 41.6% of the parents reported being against or unsure. Those who responded positively believed that children should be allowed to decide about blood-sampling procedures (70%), but to a less extent about participation (48.5%), analyses of samples (19.7%) and biological bank storage (15.4%). That as many as possible should remain in the study, and that children do not have the competence to understand the consequences for research was strongly stressed by respondents who do not think children should have a right to decide. When asked what interests they consider most important in paediatric research, child autonomy and decision-making was ranked lowest. We discuss the implications of these findings.
Doshi, Ankur M; Huang, Chenchan; Ginocchio, Luke; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B
To evaluate the impact of questionnaires completed by patients at the time of abdominopelvic CT performed for abdominal pain on the completeness of clinical information and the identification of potential causes of pain, compared with order requisitions alone. 100 outpatient CT examinations performed for the evaluation of abdominal pain were retrospectively reviewed. The specificity of the location of pain was compared between the order requisition and patient questionnaire. An abdominal imaging fellow (Reader 1) and abdominal radiologist (Reader 2) reviewed the examinations independently in two sessions 6 weeks apart (one with only the order requisition and one also with the questionnaire). Readers recorded identified causes of pain and rated their confidence in interpretation (1-5 scale; least to greatest confidence). In 30% of patients, the questionnaire provided a more specific location for pain. Among these, the pain was localized to a specific quadrant in 40%. With having access to the questionnaire, both readers identified additional causes for pain not identified in session 1 (Reader 1, 8.6% [7/81]; Reader 2 5.3% [4/75]). Additional identified causes of pain included diverticulitis, cystitis, peritoneal implants, epiploic appendagitis, osseous metastatic disease, umbilical hernia, gastritis, and SMA syndrome. Confidence in interpretation was significantly greater using the questionnaire for both readers (Reader 1: 4.8 ± 0.6 vs. 4.0 ± 0.5; Reader 2: 4.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.7 ± 0.5, p questionnaires provide additional relevant clinical history, increased diagnostic yield, and improve radiologists' confidence. Radiology practices are encouraged to implement questionnaires and make these readily available to radiologists at the time of interpretation.
Aiyelaagbe, Esther; Scott, Rebecca E; Holmes, Victoria; Lane, Emma; Heazell, Alexander E P
Understanding parents' experience of care is essential to develop high-quality perinatal bereavement services. This study aimed at developing a questionnaire to identify parents' needs and record their experience of care. The patient experience questionnaire was developed by professionals and parents, and piloted in a tertiary maternity unit. Responses were received from 58 parents. Sensitivity and kindness of staff and time spent with their baby were ranked as 'very important' by 95% of parents. Care in these areas largely met their needs (90%), although 5% of respondents stated that partners could have been more involved. Between 8% and 15% of respondents did not feel that language used at the diagnosis of fetal death was sensitive, clear and unambiguous. Parents did not always receive written information about their care (5%) or post-mortem (13%). Analysis of bereaved parents' responses identified areas for improvement including greater involvement of partners and a need for timely information. Impact statement What is already known on this subject?: Good quality bereavement care after perinatal death reduces the negative emotional, psychological and social effects for parents. Description of parents' experiences is a potential means to improve the quality of perinatal bereavement care. What do the results of this study add?: Parents' needs and experiences of care after perinatal death were recorded using a patient-experience questionnaire designed by a multi-professional team and parents. Staff behaviour, particularly sensitivity and kindness was highly valued by parents. Giving both verbal and written information could be improved. Training is needed for professionals, particularly those who come into contact with bereaved parents less frequently. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research?: Description of parents' priorities and views can be used to identify areas for improvement in perinatal bereavement care
Amitai, Maya; Arnon, Nitzan; Shaham, Noa; Gur, Shay; Apter, Alan; Weizman, Abraham; Hermesh, Haggai
Ethological methods used to analyze human obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) rituals demonstrated excess of unnecessary repetitions as well as irrelevant, idiosyncratic acts (additions) compared to normal activity. A question that still remains is whether these well-known repetitions and additions are manifested in behaviors unrelated to the OCD rituals. Our objectives were to: (1) assess whether OCD-related repetitions and additions as found in previous studies also affect the patients' activity of filling out questionnaires and (2) evaluate the specificity of these behaviors to OCD as opposed to other anxiety disorders and healthy controls. Several standardized disorder-specific self-report questionnaires were used in order to assess the patient's psychopathologies. The style of filling-out these questionnaires by OCD and non-OCD anxiety outpatients and normal controls was analyzed. Four categories were used: omissions, repetitions, corrections, and additions. The OCD group scored significantly higher on the number of additions as compared with both the anxiety group and the nonclinical group, and significantly higher on the number of corrections and repetitions as compared with the nonclinical group. The hallmarks of OCD, repetitions and additions, are manifested not only in the patient's rituals and thoughts, but in apparently "neutral" tasks that do not a priori involve the intrusive thoughts, urges, and images typical of obsessive-compulsive behavior. Additions seem to be more specific to OCD than repetitions. These two executive faults impede routine functionality of OCD patients in tasks related and unrelated to their rituals. Our study delineates simple, observable behavioral characteristics that distinguish between OCD and non-OCD anxiety patients as well as healthy individuals. These symptomatic behaviors may offer a clue to personality traits or deficits in executive functions that possibly play a part in the pathophysiology of OCD. Our results are an
Dafne B.C.A. Gomez
Conclusion: The tool resulting from the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the EMPATHIC‐N questionnaire showed to be adequate to assess satisfaction of parents of newborns admitted to the NICU in Brazil.
Beitra, Danette; El-Behadli, Ana F; Faith, Melissa A
The aim of this study is to conduct a multimethod psychometric reduction in the Parents' Beliefs about Children's Emotions (PBCE) questionnaire using an item response theory framework with a pediatric oncology sample. Participants were 216 pediatric oncology caregivers who completed the PBCE. The PBCE contains 105 items (11 subscales) rated on a 6-point Likert-type scale. We evaluated the PBCE subscale performance by applying a partial credit model in WINSTEPS. Sixty-six statistically weak items were removed, creating a 44-item PBCE questionnaire with 10 subscales and 3 response options per item. The refined scale displayed good psychometric properties and correlated .910 with the original PBCE. Additional analyses examined dimensionality, item-level (e.g. difficulty), and person-level (e.g. ethnicity) characteristics. The refined PBCE questionnaire provides better test information, improves instrument reliability, and reduces burden on families, providers, and researchers. With this improved measure, providers can more easily identify families who may benefit from psychosocial interventions targeting emotion socialization. The results of the multistep approach presented should be considered preliminary, given the limited sample size.
Lalor, Aislinn; Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki
Occupational therapists often assess the motor skill performance of children referred to them as part of the assessment process. This study investigated whether children's, parents' and teachers' perceptions of children's motor skills using valid and reliable self/informant-report questionnaires were associated with and predictive of children's actual motor performance, as measured by a standardised performance-based motor skill assessment. Fifty-five typically developing children (8-12 years of age), their parents and classroom teachers were recruited to participate in the study. The children completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The parents completed the Developmental Profile III (DP-III) and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, whereas the teachers completed the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Behavior. Children's motor performance composite scores were determined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). Spearman's rho correlation coefficients were calculated to identify if significant correlations existed and multiple linear regression was used to identify whether self/informant report data were significant predictors of children's motor skill performance. The child self-report scores had the largest number of significant correlations with the BOT-2 composites. Regression analysis found that the parent report DP-III Physical subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Manual Coordination composite and the child-report questionnaire PSDQ. Endurance subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Strength and Agility composite. The findings support the use of top-down assessment methods from a variety of sources when evaluating children's motor abilities. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Jafari, Peyman; Sharafi, Zahra; Bagheri, Zahra; Shalileh, Sara
Measurement equivalence is a necessary assumption for meaningful comparison of pediatric quality of life rated by children and parents. In this study, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is used to examine whether children and their parents respond consistently to the items in the KINDer Lebensqualitätsfragebogen (KINDL; in German, Children Quality of Life Questionnaire). Two DIF detection methods, graded response model (GRM) and ordinal logistic regression (OLR), were applied for comparability. The KINDL was completed by 1,086 school children and 1,061 of their parents. While the GRM revealed that 12 out of the 24 items were flagged with DIF, the OLR identified 14 out of the 24 items with DIF. Seven items with DIF and five items without DIF were common across the two methods, yielding a total agreement rate of 50 %. This study revealed that parent proxy-reports cannot be used as a substitute for a child's ratings in the KINDL.
Dardas, Latefa A.; Ahmad, Muayyad M.
The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children…
Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test, Pearson's χ(2)-test, logistic regression analyses and sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the correlation between the questionnaire and the M-ABC test. The best screening tool was six questions in combination: sensitivity 39.8%, specificity 87.1%. Asking if a health professional ever expressed concern about the childs motor development had a sensitivity of 17.0% and a specificity of 93.9%. A parental questionnaire used as a screening instrument to identify children with motor problems has a reasonable specificity, but a low sensitivity. The six questions can be used to identify children who do not have motor function difficulties with a relatively high certainty, and it can fairly well identify children with motor function problems. This study was primarily supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Additional support was obtained from The Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the Lundbeck Foundation, Ludvig & Daara Elsass Foundation, the Augustinus Foundation, and Aase & Ejnar Danielsens Foundation. The Danish National Research Foundation has established the Danish Epidemiology Science Centre that initiated and created the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort is furthermore a result of a major grant from this Foundation. Additional support for the Danish National Birth Cohort is obtained from the Pharmacy Foundation, the Egmont
Huey, Erron L.; Sayler, Michael F.; Rinn, Anne N.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the predictive nature of parenting style and overall family environment on the academic performance and program completion of early college entrants. Furthermore, gender and family form were examined as possible moderators to these relationships. A total of 88 early college entrants participated in…
Gill, Fenella J; Wilson, Sally; Aydon, Laurene; Leslie, Gavin D; Latour, Jos M
To translate, culturally adapt, and psychometrically test the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30 questionnaire in Australian pediatric critical care, neonatal, and pediatric ward settings. Cross-sectional, descriptive, multicenter study conducted in two phases; 1) translation and cultural adaptation and 2) validation of the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30 questionnaire. Two Western Australian sites, the PICU and two pediatric wards of a children's hospital and the neonatal unit of a women's and newborn hospital. Parents whose baby or child was admitted to the participating wards or units with a length of hospital stay greater than 24 hours. None. Phase 1: A structured 10-step translation process adhered to international principles of good practice for translation and cultural adaptation of patient-reported outcomes. Thirty parents participated in cognitive debriefing. Phase 2: A total of 328 parents responded to the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30-AUS questionnaire. Reliability was sufficient (Cronbach α at domain level 0.70 -0.82, for each clinical area 0.56-0.86). Congruent validity was adequate between the domains and three general satisfaction items (rs 0.38-0.69). Nondifferential validity showed no significant effect size between three patient or parent demographic characteristics and the domains (Cohen's d PArents in The Intensive Care-30-AUS is a reliable and valid questionnaire to measure parent-reported outcomes in pediatric critical care, pediatric ward, and neonatal hospital settings. Using this questionnaire can provide a framework for a standardized quality improvement approach and identification of best practices across specialties, hospital services and for benchmarking similar health services worldwide.
Full Text Available We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD. A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: "knowledge of the child's characteristics," "perceived social supports," and "positive perceptions of parenting." Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that "knowledge of the child's characteristics" was associated with parenting behavior, whereas "perceived social supports" predicted depressive symptoms; "positive perceptions of parenting" influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions.
Purewal, Satvinder; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga
This study investigated the attitudes of parental order reporters (PORs) towards their work with surrogacy arrangements and their experiences of role conflict and role ambiguity. A questionnaire was used to assess PORs' perceptions of their role in parental order [PO] applications, attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements and the legal process and the influence of role ambiguity or conflict. Questionnaires were distributed to all PORs employed by the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in England. Thirty-three PORs participated (response rate 46%) who, on average, had each completed five PO applications (range 1-40). Positive attitudes towards surrogacy and the child's needs for openness about origins were found. Concerns about the inadequacy of preparation and assessment arrangements, overseas arrangements and non-regulation of surrogacy agencies were evident. PORs with high-role ambiguity were more likely to report less positive attitudes towards the emotional consequence of surrogacy on offspring. High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area.
Cheng, Sabrina; Keyes, Katherine M; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Otten, Roy; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Pez, Ondine; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
Assessments of child psychopathology are often derived from parental and teacher reports, yet there is substantial disagreement. This study utilized data from 7 European countries to examine parent-teacher agreement and possible explanatory factors for parent-teacher disagreement such as child and family characteristics, parenting dimensions, and maternal distress were explored. Parent-teacher agreement of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were assessed using a cross-sectional survey of 4,894 school aged children 6-11 from the School Children Mental Health Europe Project. Parent-teacher agreement was low to moderate (Pearson correlation ranging from .24 (Prosocial) to .48 (Hyperactivity) for the 5 subscales across 7 countries); kappa coefficient ranged from .01 (Turkey) to .44 (Italy) for internalizing problems and .19(Romania) to .44(Italy) for externalizing problems. Child's gender and age, mother's employment status, single parent home, number of children in household, and selected parenting dimension were found to be explanatory of informant disagreement. This study not only serves to advance our understanding of parent-teacher agreement of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in 7 European countries but provides a novel approach to examining the factors that contribute to informant disagreement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Toupin April, Karine; Higgins, Johanne; Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie
Adherence to treatment in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is associated with better outcomes. Assessing patient adherence in JIA, as well as attitudes and beliefs about prescribed treatments, is important for the clinician in order to optimize patient management. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Parent (proxy-report) Adherence Report Questionnaires (PARQ), which assesses beliefs and behaviors related to adherence to treatments prescribed for JIA. A Rasch analysis was conducted on data collected with parents of children with JIA from two studies in which the PARQ was used as a measure of adherence. The PARQ showed preliminary evidence of multidimensionality with two factors, accounting for 38 % and 27 % of the variance respectively. The PARQ in its original version does not adhere to expectations of the Rasch model. A transformed version of the PARQ obtained by deletion of the general adherence scale and modification of visual analog scales into 5-point likert scales improved fit to the model and showed preliminary evidence of unidimensionality. The PARQ was transformed based on the results of the Rasch analysis. The transformed version of the PARQ shows preliminary evidence of unidimensionality and may allow computation of a total score, although further testing is needed to verify these findings.
Suzuki, Kota; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Moriyama, Karin; Kaga, Makiko; Hiratani, Michio; Watanabe, Kyota; Yamashita, Yushiro; Inagaki, Masumi
We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ) measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD). A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: “knowledge of the child’s characteristics,” “perceived social supports,” and “positive perceptions of parenting.” Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that “knowledge of the child’s characteristics” was associated with parenting behavior, whereas “perceived social supports” predicted depressive symptoms; “positive perceptions of parenting” influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions. PMID:26633810
Schepper, F; Abel, K; Herschbach, P; Christiansen, H; Mehnert, A; Martini, J
Fear of Progression (FoP), the fear of further disease progression, is one of the most common psychological strains of chronically ill patients and can also be found in healthy partners of cancer patients. Parents of children with cancer are also at risk of developing distinct fears that may persist after medical treatment. This study aimed to assess FoP in parents of children with cancer and to investigate relationships between FoP in parents of children with cancer and disease- and treatment-related issues, the child's current medical condition and parents' quality of life. In this study 76 parents (51 mothers, 25 fathers) whose children were in inpatient treatment or follow-up care were surveyed. The short form of the FoP Questionnaire was adapted by rephrasing the items for the parental perspective (FoP-Q-SF/PR). The FoP-Q-SF/PR is a short questionnaire with adequate psychometric properties (e. g. Cronbach's α=0.90) and satisfying results in terms of construct validity. Significant correlations with FoP are found for the child's current medical condition (r=0.35), time since diagnosis (r=- 0.30), parents' capacity to cope with disease-related fears (r=- 0.45) and parents' quality of life (r=- 0.55). A cut-off value of 46 points is recommended. The FoP-Q-SF/PR offers a feasible and sensitive battery to assess disease-related fears. For clinicians, evaluation of individual results can provide insight into specific problem areas for parents of children with cancer. The questionnaire is thus well suited for use in psychosocial care of families within the field of paediatric oncology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ana Flávia GRANVILLE-GARCIA; Monalisa Cesarino GOMES; Laíza Rocha DANTAS; Lívia Rocha DANTAS; Bruno Rafael Cruz da SILVA; Matheus de França PERAZZO; Maria Betânia Lins Dantas SIQUEIRA
Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children’s answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (...
Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens
Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents' frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children...... and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC)....
Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; S?ndergaard, Jens
Background Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents? frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). Methods A ...
Ubavić, Stana; Bogavac-Stanojević, Nataša; Jović-Vraneš, Aleksandra; Krajnović, Dušanka
Parental health literacy plays an important role in children’s health, Experiences from pharmacy practice show that is necessary to check if parents understand instructions about use of medicines for children. This study aimed to assess pharmacotherapy literacy of parents of pre-school children and to examine association of parental pharmacotherapy literacy level with parent’s socio-demographic characteristics. The study was cross-sectional, conducted among parents of pre-school children (1⁻7 years of age), in kindergartens in several municipalities of Belgrade, Serbia, during regular parents meetings, from May to October 2016. Functional health literacy was measured by the Serbian version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). Parental pharmacotherapy literacy was assessed with newly constructed PTHL-SR questionnaire with good psychometric characteristics (Parental pharmacotherapy literacy questionnaire—Serbian). Overall, 813 parents participated in the study, mostly females (81.30%), between 30 to 40 years of age (70.85%) with two children (56.70%). Almost all of our study participants (99%) had adequate health literacy as assessed by S-TOFHLA. Mean score on PTHL-SR was 72.83% (standard deviation was 13.37), with better results among females than males (72% of women were in the group of highest PTHL-SR results). Our study showed that many parents (76.5%) knew the appropriate usage of non-prescription medicine for children, 57.2% parents were able to correctly calculate the dose of oral syrup for a child, and only 43.3% were able to interpret non-prescription dosage information written on the package. The majority of parents (61.3%) would make a dosage to child based on age and not on their weight. Every fifth parent with adequate functional health literacy measured by S-TOFHLA test, achieved the lowest results measured by PTHL-SR. Higher performance of the PTHL-SR was significantly correlated with education ( p information
Henry, Beverly W; Smith, Thomas J; Ahmad, Saadia
To assess parents' perspectives of their home environments to establish the validity of scores from the Behavior and Attitudes Questionnaire for Healthy Habits (BAQ-HH). In the present descriptive study, we surveyed a cross-sectional sample of parents of pre-school children. Questionnaire items developed in an iterative process with community-based programming addressed parents' knowledge/awareness, attitudes/concerns and behaviours about healthy foods and physical activity habits with 6-point rating scales. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to psychometrically evaluate scores from the scales. English and Spanish versions of the BAQ-HH were administered at parent-teacher conferences for pre-school children at ten Head Start centres across a five-county agency in autumn 2010. From 672 families with pre-school children, 532 parents provided responses to the BAQ-HH (79 % response rate). The majority was female (83 %), Hispanic (66 %) or white (16 %), and ages ranged from 20 to 39 years (85 %). Exploratory and confirmatory analyses revealed a knowledge scale (seven items), an attitude scale (four items) and three behaviour subscales (three items each). Correlations were identified between parents' perceptions of home activities and reports of children's habits. Differences were identified by gender and ethnicity groupings. As a first step in psychometric testing, the dimensionality of each of the three scales (Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours) was identified and scale scores were related to other indicators of child behaviours and parents' demographic characteristics. This questionnaire offers a method to measure parents' views to inform planning and monitoring of obesity-prevention education programmes.
Staberg, Marie; Norén, Jörgen G; Johnson, Mats; Kopp, Svenny; Robertson, Agneta
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric condition characterized by age-inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsiveness or a combination of these. The aim of this study was to analyze parental attitudes to and experience of dental care, oral hygiene and dietary habits in children/adolescents with ADHD. Twenty- six parents of 31 subjects, 20 boys and 11 girls, aged 5-19 years with ADHD registered at the Gothenburg Child Neuropsychiatric Clinic, were invited. The parents answered a questionnaire regarding different oral problems when visiting the Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry, Gothenburg, for an oral examination of their child. The parents felt the dental care at the Public Dental Service was good, but noted a lack of knowledge regarding child neuropsychiatry among the dental staff which may influence the dental treatment. Fifteen parents reported their children had experienced mouth pain and 15 reported their child had suffered from both discomfort and pain from local anesthesia. Thirteen of the children had a dental trauma and 12 parents reported pain in connection to the dental treatment. Pain related to filling therapy was stated by 11 parents. According to the parents, five children suffered from dental fear but 15 reported the child had a general fear. Pursuant to the parents, the beverage for dinner was mainly milk or water, while sweet drinks were more frequent when thirsty. Seventeen parents reported their children had poor oral hygiene or could not manage to brush their teeth and 14 of the 31 children only brushed once a day or less. The results show that the parents experience a lack of child neuropsychiatric knowledge, care and patience from the dental staff, which may influence the treatment. Oral hygiene/tooth brushing is neglected and the frequent consumption of sugar is difficult for the parents to handle.
Full Text Available Introduction: Improper hip joint development may lead to numerous unfavourable changes in the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this research was to determine how often adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and their healthy counterparts experienced anomalies of the hip in their infancy period and to examine the correlation between the occurrence of hip anomalies and idiopathic scoliosis. Material and methods: The research was conducted in medical centres as well as in schools. The parents of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and parents of healthy adolescents completed a questionnaire on the basis of their child’s development history included in the medical records book and other medical documentation. Results: 533 questionnaires were taken into consideration, included 145 questionnaires completed by parents of adolescents with scoliosis (121 girls - 13.8 years, SD 1.9; 24 boys - 12.9 years, SD 2.5 and 388 questionnaires from the group of adolescents without scoliosis (194 girls - 13.5 years, SD 2.0; 194 boys - 13.4 years, SD 2.1. No significant differences were noted in the incidence of hip anomalies between the groups of girls and boys with and without scoliosis, no correlations between anomalies of the hip and scoliosis were found (girls χ2=0.840; Cramer V=0.052; p=0.36; boys χ2=1.205; Cramer V=0.074; p=0.27. Conclusions: Hip anomalies such as hip dysplasia, movement asymmetry or range of motion limitations diagnosed in the infancy period did not correlate with idiopathic scoliosis. Further research aimed at a separate analysis of the influence of hip dysplasia on the occurrence of idiopathic scoliosis should be carried out.
Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Wallien, Madeleine; Johnson, Laurel L; Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J
A one-factor, 14-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) was developed in a sample of 325 clinic-referred children with gender identity problems and 504 controls from Toronto, Canada (Johnson et al., 2004). In this study, we report a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of the GIQC on gender-referred children (N = 338) from Toronto and gender-referred children (N = 175) from Utrecht, The Netherlands. Across clinics, the results showed both similarities and differences. Gender-referred boys from Utrecht had a significantly higher total score (indicating more cross-gender behavior) than did gender-referred boys from Toronto, but there was no significant difference for girls. In the Toronto sample, the gender-referred girls had a significantly higher total score than the gender-referred boys, but there was no significant sex difference in the Utrecht sample. Across both clinics, gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) had a significantly higher cross-gender score than the gender-referred children who were subthreshold for GID (Cohen's d = 1.11). The results of this study provide the first empirical evidence of relative similarity in cross-gender behavior in a sample of gender-referred children from western Europe when compared to North American children. The results also provide some support for cross-clinic consistency in clinician-based diagnosis of GID.
Davis, Amy B; White, Marney A
The study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes Toward Firearms Survey (PATFS), a self-report measure of parental attitudes about firearms and parenting behavior. The initial item pool was generated based on a literature review and discussion with experts in violence reduction, psychometrics, and public health. Data were collected online from 362 volunteers and subjected to exploratory factor analysis which revealed a 13-item, 3-factor solution accounting for 59.7% of the variance. The 3 conceptual factors (subscales) were interpreted as Firearms Exposure, Parental Control, and Violent Play. The PATFS demonstrated good internal consistency and content and construct validity. The PATFS can be used to investigate parenting attitudes and behaviors specific to firearms and violent play.
Hidalgo, Marco A; Chen, Diane; Garofalo, Robert; Forbes, Catherine
Purpose: Parental acceptance of gender identity/expression in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) youth moderates the effects of minority stress on mental health outcomes. Given this association, mental health clinicians of gender-expansive adolescents often assess the degree to which these youth perceive their parents/primary caregivers as accepting or nonaffirming of their gender identity and expression. While existing measures may reliably assess youth's perceptions of general family support, no known tool aids in the assessment an adolescent's perceived parental support related to adolescent gender-expansive experiences. Methods: To provide both clinicians and researchers with an empirically derived tool, the current study used factor analysis to explore an underlying factor structure of a brief questionnaire developed by subject-matter experts and pertaining to multiple aspects of perceived parental support in gender-expansive adolescents and young adults. Respondents were gender-expansive adolescents and young adults seeking care in an interdisciplinary gender-health clinic within a pediatric academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Results: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item questionnaire comprised of two subscales assessing perceived parental nonaffirmation and perceived parental acceptance. Internal consistency and construct validity results provided support for this new questionnaire. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Parental Attitudes of Gender Expansiveness Scale for Youth (PAGES-Y). These findings demonstrate both the clinical and research utility of the PAGES-Y, a tool that can yield a more nuanced understanding of family-related risk and protective factors in gender-expansive adolescents.
Marta Figueiredo Pedro
Full Text Available Os estilos parentais educativos constituem um conceito central na área de estudos da parentalidade e do desenvolvimento infantil. Neste sentido, décadas de investigação demonstram o impacto dos estilos parentais em vários aspectos do ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades psicométricas e a validade fatorial da versão portuguesa de autorrelato do Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. A amostra foi constituída por 2081 indivíduos portugueses (1085 mães; 996 pais com filhos dos 3 aos 15 anos. Os resultados da análise fatorial confirmatória replicaram a estrutura original de três fatores: autoritativo, autoritário e permissivo. Os índices de ajustamento revelaram uma boa adequação do modelo aos dados. Os níveis de consistência interna dos fatores autoritativo e autoritário revelaram-se adequados, mas o fator permissivo apresentou valores ligeiramente abaixo dos aceitáveis. Os valores de validade convergente e discriminante também se revelaram adequados. Apesar dos níveis menos aceitáveis de consistência interna do factor permissivo, o QDEP revelou, em geral, qualidades psicométricas adequadas para fins de investigação e clínicos, permitindo não só a avaliação de estilos parentais como também de diferentes dimensões e comportamentos parentais com impacto relevante no ajustamento socioemocional da criança e do adolescente.
Bruce, Elisabeth; Dorell, Åsa; Lindh, Viveca; Erlingsson, Christen; Lindkvist, Marie; Sundin, Karin
There is a need for a suitable instrument for the Swedish context that could measure family members' perceptions of cognitive and emotional support received from nurses. The purpose of this study was to translate and test the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Iceland-Family Perceived Support Questionnaire (ICE-FPSQ) and, further, to report perceptions of support from nurses by family members of children with congenital heart defects (CHDs). A sample of 97 parents of children with CHD, living in Sweden, completed the Swedish translation of ICE-FPSQ. The Swedish version of ICE-FPSQ was found to be reliable and valid in this context. Parents scored perceived family support provided by nurses working in pediatric outpatient clinics as low, which suggests that nurses in these outpatient contexts in Sweden offered family nursing only sparingly. © The Author(s) 2016.
Cox, Joanne E; Huntington, Noelle; Saada, Adrianna; Epee-Bounya, Alexandra; Schonwald, Alison D
The aim of this study was to better understand the utility of using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) in well-child visits by analyzing themes and patterns in parents' written responses on the PEDS form. We reviewed a consecutive sample of medical records with PEDS forms for children aged 6 months to 9 years (site 1) and 3 to 5 years (site 2). We recorded the concerns that parents identified in response to the 10 PEDS questions along with demographic information. We then categorized parents' written comments about those concerns according to comment content. We used qualitative and quantitative methods for analysis. We collected 752 PEDS forms. Ninety percent of the parents endorsed at least 1 concern (94.6% on the English forms versus 69.7% on the Spanish forms; P Parents qualified 27.5% of their concerns with a written comment. In 23.9% of cases in which parents identified a concern and provided a written comment, the content of the comment did not match the question's intent; rates of mismatch were similar for the English and Spanish forms. Among comments regarding behavioral concerns, 12% reflected a misunderstanding of age-appropriate behavior. Medical concerns accounted for 14.1% of the comments; these concerns were more common on English forms (61.3%) than on Spanish forms (1.7%) (P Parents frequently used the PEDS forms to communicate additional concerns regarding their child or provide positive feedback on their child's progress. The inappropriate developmental expectations, limited health literacy, and culturally distinct comments on the PEDS forms reinforce the importance of using screening tools to enhance the care provided during visits but not to replace patient-provider communication.
Full Text Available Three-Step Test-Interview (TSTI is a method for pretesting a self-completion questionnaire by first observing actual instances of interaction between the instrument and respondents (the response process before exploring the reasons for this behavior. The TSTI consists of the following three steps: 1. (Respondent-driven observation of response behavior. 2. (Interviewer-driven follow-up probing aimed at remedying gaps in observational data. 3. (Interviewer-driven debriefing aimed at eliciting experiences and opinions. We describe the aims and the techniques of these three steps, and then discuss pilot studies in which we tested the feasibility and the productivity of the TSTI by applying it in testing three rather different types of questionnaires. In the first study, the quality of a set of questions about alcohol consumption was assessed. The TSTI proved to be productive in identifying problems that resulted from a mismatch between the ‘theory’ underlying the questions on the one hand, and features of a respondent’s actual behavior and biography on the other hand. In the second pilot study, Dutch and Norwegian versions of an attitude scale, the 20-item Illegal Aliens Scale, were tested. The TSTI appeared to be productive in identifying problems that resulted from different ‘response strategies’. In the third pilot, a two-year longitudinal study, the TSTI appeared to be an effective method for documenting processes of ‘response shift’ in repeated measurements of health-related Quality of Life (QoL.
Taís de Souza Barbosa
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi traduzir o instrumento Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ para a língua portuguesa do Brasil e realizar a adaptação cultural para aplicação na população de pais brasileiros. A tradução obedeceu às etapas de tradução, tradução reversa e revisão por um comitê de especialistas. No pré-teste, uma amostra de 20 pais respondeu ao questionário para avaliar os erros e desvios das traduções. Além disso, foi acrescentada a cada questão a alternativa "não entendi" para identificar questões que não fossem compreendidas pelos pais, isto é, consideradas culturalmente inadequadas. Os achados sugerem adequação do processo de adaptação cultural do instrumento para a língua portuguesa. No pré-teste, 20 indivíduos responderam ao questionário e apresentaram uma boa compreensão do instrumento, uma vez que nenhuma questão foi considerada incompreensível por 15% ou mais dos pais. A versão em português do P-CPQ mostrou ser de fácil compreensão pela população de pais brasileiros.The aim of this study was to translate the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ into Brazilian Portuguese and to make the necessary cultural adaptations for use in the Brazilian parent population. The whole translation process consisted of translation, back-translation and committee review. In the pre-testing stage, a sample of 20 parents answered the questionnaire in order to check for errors and deviations in the translations. Furthermore, in each question the alternative "I didn't understand" was added to identify the questions that were not understood by the parents, i.e. questions considered culturally inappropriate. The findings suggested that the instrument is adequate to the Portuguese language and to the Brazilian cultural identity. In the pre-testing stage, 20 subjects answered the questionnaire and showed good understanding of the instrument, since no question was considered
Stone, Lisanne L; Janssens, Jan M A M; Vermulst, Ad A; Van Der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Otten, Roy
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is one of the most employed screening instruments. Although there is a large research body investigating its psychometric properties, reliability and validity are not yet fully tested using modern techniques. Therefore, we investigate reliability, construct validity, measurement invariance, and predictive validity of the parent and teacher version in children aged 4-7. Besides, we intend to replicate previous studies by investigating test-retest reliability and criterion validity. In a Dutch community sample 2,238 teachers and 1,513 parents filled out questionnaires regarding problem behaviors and parenting, while 1,831 children reported on sociometric measures at T1. These children were followed-up during three consecutive years. Reliability was examined using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega, construct validity was examined by Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and predictive validity was examined by calculating developmental profiles and linking these to measures of inadequate parenting, parenting stress and social preference. Further, mean scores and percentiles were examined in order to establish norms. Omega was consistently higher than alpha regarding reliability. The original five-factor structure was replicated, and measurement invariance was established on a configural level. Further, higher SDQ scores were associated with future indices of higher inadequate parenting, higher parenting stress and lower social preference. Finally, previous results on test-retest reliability and criterion validity were replicated. This study is the first to show SDQ scores are predictively valid, attesting to the feasibility of the SDQ as a screening instrument. Future research into predictive validity of the SDQ is warranted.
Gomez, Dafne B C A; Vidal, Suely A; Lima, Luciana C S
Considering the lack of questionnaires that propose to evaluate parental satisfaction with the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Brazil, this study aimed to carry out the translation of the EMPATHIC-N questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese, the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of its contents. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was carried out according to the protocol established by the Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation Group of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) in 2005. The validation of the content was carried out by a panel of experts, who evaluated each item from "very irrelevant" to "very relevant". Items with a mean Likert scale value <3.5 were excluded. Cronbach's alpha of the domains was calculated. The questionnaire was submitted to two pilot tests with mothers of newborns admitted to the NICU of the study, after which some terms were modified to achieve global understanding. Cronbach's alpha remained above 0.7 in all items. The tool resulting from the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the EMPATHIC-N questionnaire showed to be adequate to assess satisfaction of parents of newborns admitted to the NICU in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Dafne B.C.A. Gomez
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Considering the lack of questionnaires that propose to evaluate parental satisfaction with the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU in Brazil, this study aimed to carry out the translation of the EMPATHIC-N questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese, the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of its contents. Method: The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was carried out according to the protocol established by the Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation Group of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR in 2005. The validation of the content was carried out by a panel of experts, who evaluated each item from "very irrelevant" to "very relevant". Items with a mean Likert scale value <3.5 were excluded. Cronbach's alpha of the domains was calculated. Results: The questionnaire was submitted to two pilot tests with mothers of newborns admitted to the NICU of the study, after which some terms were modified to achieve global understanding. Cronbach's alpha remained above 0.7 in all items. Conclusion: The tool resulting from the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the EMPATHIC-N questionnaire showed to be adequate to assess satisfaction of parents of newborns admitted to the NICU in Brazil.
This presentation was carried out as part of the project on water resources management in the Sahel region, using isotope techniques. It summarizes the two sets of questionnaires made, highlights the basins (aquifers) selected for the Sahel project which are the Lullemen Basin, Taoudeni Basin, Lake Chad Basin and Liptako Gourma. Also, as well as the number of questionnaires completed by the participating countries.
Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight--factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.
Svensson, Viktoria; Lundborg, Linda; Cao, Yingting; Nowicka, Paulina; Marcus, Claude; Sobko, Tanja
The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a
Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years, recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47. Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status
Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...
Davies, Marilyn A; Terhorst, Lauren; Zhang, Peng; Nakonechny, Amanda J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia
This group field-tested a computer-based, parental questionnaire entitled the Childhood Obesity Risk Questionnaire 2-5 (CORQ 2-5) designed to assess obesity risk in healthy preschoolers. COR 2-5 generates a profile of seven obesity risk factors. Field studies provided good internal reliability data and evidence of discriminant validity for the CORQ 2-5. Pediatric nurse clinicians found the CORQ 2-5 profile to be clinically relevant. The CORQ 2-5 is a promising measure of obesity risk in preschoolers who attend community-based health centers for their wellchild visits and who are not yet obese. CORQ 2-5 is intended to guide provider-parental obesity risk discussions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vaughn, Lisa M; McLinden, Daniel J; Shellmer, Diana; Baker, Raymond C
The causes attributed to childhood health and illness across cultures (cultural health attributions) are key factors that are now more frequently identified as affecting the health outcomes of children. Research suggests that the causes attributed to an event such as illness are thought to affect subsequent motivation, emotional response, decision making, and behavior. To date, there is no measure of health attributions appropriate for use with parents of pediatric patients. Using the Many-Facets approach to Rasch analysis, this study assesses the psychometrics of a newly developed instrument, the Pediatric Health Attributions Questionnaire (Pedi-CHAQ), a measure designed to assess the cultural health attributions of parents in diverse communities. Results suggest acceptable Rasch model statistics of fit and reliability for the Pedi-CHAQ. A shortened version of the questionnaire was developed as a result of this study and next steps are discussed.
Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.
Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and
Goodwin, Sarah Christine
This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…
Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M
The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children with typical development and parents of children with other disabilities. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the WHOQOL-BREF with a sample of 184 parents of children with Autistic Disorder. The factor structure for the WHOQOL-BREF was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Our analyses provided no evidence of a better model than the original 4-domain model. Nevertheless, some items in the measure were re-distributed to different domains based on theoretical meanings and/or clean loading criteria. The new model structure gained the measure's required validity with parents of children with Autistic Disorder.
McCreery, Ryan W.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Spratford, Meredith; Oleson, Jacob; Bentler, Ruth; Holte, Lenore; Roush, Patricia
Objectives Progress has been made in recent years in the provision of amplification and early intervention for children who are hard of hearing. However, children who use hearing aids (HA) may have inconsistent access to their auditory environment due to limitations in speech audibility through their HAs or limited HA use. The effects of variability in children’s auditory experience on parent-report auditory skills questionnaires and on speech recognition in quiet and in noise were examined for a large group of children who were followed as part of the Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss study. Design Parent ratings on auditory development questionnaires and children’s speech recognition were assessed for 306 children who are hard of hearing. Children ranged in age from 12 months to 9 years of age. Three questionnaires involving parent ratings of auditory skill development and behavior were used, including the LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire, Parents Evaluation of Oral/Aural Performance in Children Rating Scale, and an adaptation of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing scale. Speech recognition in quiet was assessed using the Open and Closed set task, Early Speech Perception Test, Lexical Neighborhood Test, and Phonetically-balanced Kindergarten word lists. Speech recognition in noise was assessed using the Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment. Children who are hard of hearing were compared to peers with normal hearing matched for age, maternal educational level and nonverbal intelligence. The effects of aided audibility, HA use and language ability on parent responses to auditory development questionnaires and on children’s speech recognition were also examined. Results Children who are hard of hearing had poorer performance than peers with normal hearing on parent ratings of auditory skills and had poorer speech recognition. Significant individual variability among children who are hard of hearing was observed. Children with greater
Csomortáni, D Zoltán
Preliminary research findings show that the parental rearing behaviour has a basic effect on the psychosocial development of the child, moreover, the inadequate parenting is related to some psychopathology occurring in childhood and adulthood. One reason in the development of this research subject was the appearance of the questionnaires, which judge the quality of the parenting and its effects by the children's recollections. Recently, there are new prospective instruments to remove the memory biases. The aim of this study was to standardize on a Hungarian sample one of these instruments, EMBU-C, made for primary school aged children. Primary school aged children (7-12 year old) were examined (n=108). Beyond demographic data the item base of the EMBU-C and the STAIC inventory were filled up. It was demonstrated the four factor structure of the EMBU-C (the names of the factors are respectively: Emotional warmth, Rejection, Overprotection and Favouring subject). The internal consistency of the inventory was in accordance with the international data. The concurrent validity also was proved by the STAIC. The recorded data are in accordance to the adolescent and adult versions of the EMBU. The most important result is that the parental rejection and overprotection may be related to the children's anxiety symptoms. Another important result is that the primary school aged children are disposed to interpret the intrusion component of the parental overprotection as emotional warmth that differs from adolescent and adult results. The successful standardization of the EMBU-C in Hungarian sample has positive consequences both to the clinical work and the research attempts, because it allows the investigation of the parental correlates of childhood psychopathologies, as well as the comparison of the results between different cohorts and international samples.
This data set contains data concerning the individuals living in the home and the possible sources and routes of exposure, and the activity patterns of the preschool children for CTEPP-OH. The parent was asked questions related to the age of their home; frequency of cleaning carp...
This data set contains data concerning the individuals living in the home and the possible sources and routes of exposure, and the activity patterns of the preschool children. The parent was asked questions related to the age of their home; frequency of cleaning carpets, rugs, an...
Hardin, Belinda J.; Scott-Little, Catherine; Mereoiu, Mariana
With the increasing number of preschool-age children of Latino heritage entering U.S. schools comes a growing need to accurately determine children's individual needs and identify potential disabilities, beginning with the screening process. Unfortunately, teachers face many challenges when screening English language learners. Often, parents have…
Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom
This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…
Tietze, Anna L; Zernikow, Boris; Otto, Michael; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Michel, Erik; Koh, Michelle; Blankenburg, Markus
Children with severe psychomotor impairment (SPMI) often experience sleep disturbances that severely distress both the child and his or her parents. Validated questionnaires for the assessment of parents' distress related to their child's sleep disturbances are lacking. We developed and validated a new questionnaire, the HOST (holistic assessment of sleep and daily troubles in parents of children with SPMI) to assess the effect of the sleep disturbances in children with SPMI on their parents. The questionnaire was developed based on published data and expert opinion, and it was refined via direct consultation with affected parents. Its psychometric characteristics were assessed in a sample of parents of 214 children with SPMI. It was retested using a random subsample of the participants. Explorative factor analysis revealed that the HOST was composed of four scales. Fit indices, item analysis, and convergent validity (coherence with preexisting instruments of sleep disturbances and health status) were adequate. Retest analysis (n=62) revealed high stability of the HOST questionnaire and adequate replication validity. Sleep-related difficulties significantly impact the sociomedical characteristics of the parents of children with complex neurologic diseases. Typically, parents are severely affected in various aspects of daily life (i.e., medical health, social life, professional life). The HOST proved to be a valid, reliable and economical assessment tool of sleep-related difficulties in parents and relatives of children with SPMI. The HOST is capable of identifying individuals and specific areas requiring intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perkins, Rose J. Merlino
"Women's Mental Health Questionnaire" (W-MHQ) assesses females' adult mental health concerns, and examines their associations with specified father-daughter childhood relationships. Presented are W-MHQ item and scale development, and psychometric findings drawn from factor analyses, reliability assessments, and validation processes. For…
Treffers Philip DA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated questionnaires can support the identification of psychosocial problems by the Preventive Child Health Care (PCH system. This study assesses the validity and added value of four scoring methods used with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ for the identification of psychosocial problems among children aged 7–12 by the PCH. Methods We included 711 (of 814 children (response: 87% aged 7–12 undergoing routine health assessments in nine PCH services across the Netherlands. Child health professionals interviewed and examined children and parents. Prior to the interview, parents completed the SDQ and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL, which were not shown to the professionals. The CBCL and data about the child's current treatment status were used as criteria for the validity of the SDQ. We used four SDQ scoring approaches: an elevated SDQ Total Difficulties Score (TDS, parent-defined difficulties, an elevated score for emotional symptoms, conduct problems or hyperactivity in combination with a high impairment score, and a combined score: an elevated score for any of these three methods. Results The Cohen's Kappa ranged from 0.33 to 0.64 for the four scoring methods with the CBCL scores and treatment status, generally indicating a moderate to good agreement. All four methods added significantly to the identification of problems by the PCH. Classification based on the TDS yielded results similar to more complicated methods. Conclusion The SDQ is a valid tool for the identification of psychosocial problems by PCH. As a first step, the use of a simple classification based on the SDQ TDS is recommended.
Leadbitter, Kathy; Aldred, Catherine; McConachie, Helen; Le Couteur, Ann; Kapadia, Dharmi; Charman, Tony; Macdonald, Wendy; Salomone, Erica; Emsley, Richard; Green, Jonathan; Barrett, Barbara; Barron, Sam; Beggs, Karen; Blazey, Laura; Bourne, Katy; Byford, Sarah; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Collino, Julia; Colmer, Ruth; Cutress, Anna; Gammer, Isobel; Harrop, Clare; Houghton, Tori; Howlin, Pat; Hudry, Kristelle; Leach, Sue; Maxwell, Jessica; Parr, Jeremy; Pickles, Andrew; Randles, Sarah; Slonims, Vicky; Taylor, Carol; Temple, Kathryn; Tobin, Hannah; Vamvakas, George; White, Lydia
There is a lack of measures that reflect the intervention priorities of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that assess the impact of interventions on family experience and quality of life. The Autism Family Experience Questionnaire (AFEQ) was developed through focus groups and online consultation with parents, and…
Kosho, Tomoki; Kuniba, Hideo; Tanikawa, Yuko; Hashimoto, Yoko; Sakurai, Hiroko
We conducted a questionnaire-based study in collaboration with a Japanese trisomy 18 parental support group. Sixty-five children (female, 68%) with full trisomy 18 were evaluated. Diagnosis was made prenatally in 17% (11/65) and 57% (37/65) were born following a cesarean. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks and 6 days, and the mean birth weight was 1,920 g (-2.6SD). A total of 51% (24/47) of children had apneic episodes. Thirteen children experienced generalized seizures, and a minority was seizure-free with medication. Parents of 36% (18/50) of children were offered intensive treatment. A total of 45% (27/60) of children received intermittent mandatory ventilation, which was weaned off in half of them. Nine had surgeries, including esophageal atresia/omphalocele correction, cardiac surgery, and tracheostomy. A total of 15% (8/55) were fed fully orally, and 45% (29/64) were discharged home. Slow but constant psychomotor development was observed, and in four long-term survivors over 10 years, two walked unassisted. Factors significantly associated with survival over 1 year included diagnosis after birth, absence of prematurity, heavier birth weight, absence of esophageal atresia, extubation, ability to feed orally without medical assistance, and home discharge. Parents appeared to be positive about caring for their children, and the children seemed to interact with parents and siblings as long as they lived, resulting in quality family time. The family point of view, as well as knowledge of natural history, should be considered when policy statements about the care of children with trisomy 18 are made. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Assessment of completion of early medical abortion using a text questionnaire on mobile phones compared to a self-administered paper questionnaire among women attending four clinics, Cape Town, South Africa.
Constant, Deborah; de Tolly, Katherine; Harries, Jane; Myer, Landon
In-clinic follow-up to assess completion of medical abortion is no longer a requirement according to World Health Organization guidance, provided adequate counselling is given. However, timely recognition of ongoing pregnancy, complications or incomplete abortion, which require treatment, is important. As part of a larger trial, this study aimed to establish whether women having a medical abortion could self-assess whether their abortion was complete using an automated, interactive questionnaire on their mobile phones. All 469 participants received standard abortion care and all returnees filled in a self-assessment on paper at clinic follow-up 2-3 weeks later. The 234 women allocated to receive the phone messages were also asked to do a mobile phone assessment at home ten days post-misoprostol. Completion of the mobile assessment was tracked by computer and all completed assessments, paper and mobile, were compared to providers' assessments at clinic follow-up. Of the 226 women able to access the mobile phone assessment, 176 (78%) completed it; 161 of them (93%) reported it was easy to do so. Neither mobile nor paper self-assessments predicted all cases needing additional treatment at follow-up. Prediction of complete procedures was good; 71% of mobile assessments and 91% of paper assessments were accurate. We conclude that an interactive questionnaire assessing completion of medical abortion on mobile phones is feasible in the South African setting; however, it should be done later than day 10 and combined with an appropriate pregnancy test to accurately detect incomplete procedures. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ricketts, Emily J; McGuire, Joseph F; Chang, Susanna; Bose, Deepika; Rasch, Madeline M; Woods, Douglas W; Specht, Matthew W; Walkup, John T; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L; Piacentini, John
This study assessed the psychometric properties of a parent-reported tic severity measure, the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ), and used the scale to establish guidelines for delineating clinically significant tic treatment response. Participants were 126 children ages 9 to 17 who participated in a randomized controlled trial of Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT). Tic severity was assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), Hopkins Motor/Vocal Tic Scale (HMVTS) and PTQ; positive treatment response was defined by a score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) on the Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed internal consistency and test-retest reliability, with correlations evaluating validity. Receiver- and Quality-Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses assessed the efficiency of percent and raw-reduction cutoffs associated with positive treatment response. The PTQ demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.80 to 0.86), excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = .84 to .89), good convergent validity with the YGTSS and HM/VTS, and good discriminant validity from hyperactive, obsessive-compulsive, and externalizing (i.e., aggression and rule-breaking) symptoms. A 55% reduction and 10-point decrease in PTQ Total score were optimal for defining positive treatment response. Findings help standardize tic assessment and provide clinicians with greater clarity in determining clinically meaningful tic symptom change during treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hein, Dawn L.; Wimer, Sandra L.
An action research project report was complete to discuss how homework completion and motivation is an ongoing issue and debate within the public schools. This is especially true in the middle school setting. The teacher researchers of this project chose to conduct a study in order to increase homework completion and motivation of middle school…
Morton, Katie L; Barling, Julian; Rhodes, Ryan E; Mâsse, Louise C; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R
We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (M(age) = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers' and fathers' transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ.
Psychological characteristics of eating disorders as evidenced by the combined administration of questionnaires and two projective methods: the Tree Drawing Test (Baum Test) and the Sentence Completion Test.
Mizuta, Ichiro; Inoue, Yoichi; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ishi, Ryohei; Ogawa, Asao; Takeda, Masatoshi
The objective of this study is to examine psychological/psychopathological characteristics of eating disorders and their subtypes through a combined administration of questionnaires and projective tests. Three questionnaires (Eating Disorder Inventory - 2, Social Adaptation Scale, Southern California University Eating Disorder Inventory - Revised) and two projective tests (the Tree Drawing Test [TDT, Baum Test], and the Sentence Completion Test [SCT]) were administered to 126 female patients between the ages of 15 and 30 years, with eating disorders according to DSM-IV criteria at our outpatient clinic, and to 54 sex- and age-matched control subjects. The purging subtypes of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa - binge-eating/purging type [ANBP] and bulimia nervosa - purging type [BNP]) were clearly differentiated from the controls, both by the questionnaires and the projective tests. Compared with the controls, ANBP/BNP showed more problematic profiles across the three questionnaires, drew smaller and poorer trees in TDT to a more left location on the drawing paper, and gave fewer positive, and more negative responses in SCT. In contrast, few significant differences were found between anorexia nervosa- restricting type (ANR) and the controls, and between ANBP and BNP. As a trend, however, ANR was consistently located between the controls and ANBP/BNP across the whole questionnaires and projective tests.
Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse
Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…
Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the ENERGY-parent questionnaire on parenting practices, energy balance-related behaviours and their potential behavioural determinants: the ENERGY-project
Singh Amika S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insight in parental energy balance-related behaviours, their determinants and parenting practices are important to inform childhood obesity prevention. Therefore, reliable and valid tools to measure these variables in large-scale population research are needed. The objective of the current study was to examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the parent questionnaire used in the ENERGY-project, assessing parental energy balance-related behaviours, their determinants, and parenting practices among parents of 10–12 year old children. Findings We collected data among parents (n = 316 in the test-retest reliability study; n = 109 in the construct validity study of 10–12 year-old children in six European countries, i.e. Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and percentage agreement comparing scores from two measurements, administered one week apart. To assess construct validity, the agreement between questionnaire responses and a subsequent interview was assessed using ICC and percentage agreement. All but one item showed good to excellent test-retest reliability as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. Construct validity appeared to be good to excellent for 92 out of 121 items, as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. From the other 29 items, construct validity was moderate for 24 and poor for 5 items. Conclusions The reliability and construct validity of the items of the ENERGY-parent questionnaire on multiple energy balance-related behaviours, their potential determinants, and parenting practices appears to be good. Based on the results of the validity study, we strongly recommend adapting parts of the ENERGY-parent questionnaire if used in future research.
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
Full Text Available O presente estudo procura analisar as propriedades psicométricas do Parenting Styles and Dimension Questionnaire (PSDQ e adaptar para a população portuguesa a sua versão de heterorrelato. A amostra foi constituída por 604 ado-lescentes com idades entre os 15 e os 18 anos (M=15.99, DP=.97. A confiabilidade foi avaliada através do alfa de Cronbach, que revelou índices de .86/.81 para a totalidade do instrumento na versão do pai e da mãe respetivamente, e índices que variaram entre .48/.85 para as respetivas subescalas. A análise fatorial confirmatória evidenciou que os índices de ajustamento apresentaram valores desajustados. Confirmou-se a estrutura original do instrumento organizada em três fatores mediante as análises de componentes principais que revelaram a presença de um item do estilo permissivo a saturar noutro fator. Através da análise semântica deste item e da sua respetiva reorganização, verificaram-se índices de ajustamento adequados. Propõe-se a nova estrutura fatorial do PSDQpor se considerar que é mais ajustada à cultura portuguesa.
DunnGalvin, A.; Cullinane, C.; Daly, D. A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B.
P>Background There are no published studies of longitudinal health-related quality of life (HRQL) assessments of food-allergic children using a disease-specific measure. Objective This study assessed the longitudinal measurement properties of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent
Kaiser, Marie-Laure; Albaret, JM; Cantell, MH
Objective: Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) struggle with the activities of daily living which require motor coordination. In order to appreciate the impact of the DCD on the participation, several questionnaires for teachers and/or parents have been developed. The
Paloma-Castro, Olga; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Del Carmen Sánchez-Dalda, María; Rozadillas-Sanmiguel, Elena; Moreno-Corral, Luis Javier
To develop and psychometrically evaluate a questionnaire based on the outcome "Knowledge: Breast-feeding" of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) to determine the knowledge of parents on breast-feeding. The NOC outcome "Knowledge: Breast-feeding" allows for nurses/midwives to assess the efficacy of interventions aimed to improve the knowledge on breast-feeding in parents thought the clinical interview/observation. However, the use of self-administered questionnaires by patients could facilitate its evaluation. Two-phased study: (1) Development of the questionnaire based on experts' opinions; (2) Methodological design to assess its psychometric properties. The availability of tools that enable the determination of the knowledge of patients would facilitate nurses/midwives to set objectives, individualize interventions, and measure their effectiveness. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.
Verhoeven, M.R.W.; Dekoviç, M.; Bodden, D.H.M.; Baar, A.L. van
Parenting is a multifaceted task and the way in which parents fulfill this task plays an important role in children's growth and development, especially in early childhood. Conceptualization and assessment of parenting behavior is elementary for research on child and family development and would
Verhoeven, Marjolein; Dekovic, Maja; Bodden, Denise; van Baar, Anneloes
Parenting is a multifaceted task and the way in which parents fulfill this task plays an important role in children’s growth and development, especially in early childhood. Conceptualization and assessment of parenting behavior is elementary for research on child and family development and would
Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu; Zeng, Qiang; Yu, Lidong; Cai, Beiying
Parenting styles and mother-child interaction were examined with 97 Mainland Chinese mothers (M age = 29.64 years, SD = 3.64) and their young children (M = 24.30 months, SD = 4.57). Mothers completed questionnaires about their parenting styles, orientation to Chinese cultural values, perceived parenting stress, and sources of social support. The…
Compier-de Block, Laura H.C.G.; Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J.M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.
Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of
Paulson, Sharon E.
Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…
Smith, Douglas K.; And Others
Studies examining the behavior management styles of parents as a function of family intactness and parent employment status are lacking. To assess parental style of behavior management, the Parental Management Questionnaire (PMQ) was completed by 1,957 parents of elementary school children (50% response rate). The PMQ is based on Aronfreed's…
Gupta, Nidhi; Yadav, Tushar
To evaluate the parents' acceptance to therapy pets, child's most favoured pet, child's choice of soft toy as compared to live pet, and child's preference of his own pet versus therapy pet. Sixty-two children of age groups 3-6 year, 6-9 year, and 9-12 year were selected. The data from completed questionnaires were statistically analysed and subjected to z test, Chi-squared test with P valueAnimal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) can prove to be a good behaviour management technique if more parents are made aware and informed about AAT; dog is one of the highly recommended pets for AAT, and therapy pet should be preferred over home pet. © 2018 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pajulo, Marjukka; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Linnea; Halme-Chowdhury, Elina; Öst, Camilla; Luyten, Patrick; Mayes, Linda; Karlsson, Hasse
Parental reflective functioning (PRF) is the capacity to focus on experience and feelings in oneself and in the child. Individual differences in PRF reportedly affect child attachment and socioemotional development. In this study, we report work on developing a questionnaire to assess PRF during pregnancy (Prenatal Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire; P-PRFQ). The factor structure of the 33-item version of the P-PRFQ was explored using pilot study data from the Finn Brain Birth Cohort Study (n = 124 mothers, n = 82 fathers). Construct validity was assessed against the Pregnancy Interview (PI; A. Slade, L. Grunebaum, L. Huganir, & M. Reeves, 1987, 2002, 2011) in a subsample of 29 mothers from the same pilot sample. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a 14-item P-PRFQ, with three factors which seem to capture relevant aspects of prenatal parental mentalization-F1: "Opacity of mental states," F2: "Reflecting on the fetus-child," and F3: "The dynamic nature of the mental states." Functioning of the factor structure was further tested in the large cohort with 600 mothers and 600 fathers. Correlations with the PI result were high, both regarding total and factor scores of the P-PRFQ. Cost-effective tools to assess key areas of early parenting are needed for both research and clinical purposes. The 14-item P-PRFQ seems to be an applicable and promising new tool for assessing very early parental mentalizing capacity. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Ebert, Jonas Fynboe; Huibers, Linda; Christensen, Bo; Christensen, Morten Bondo
Paper questionnaires have traditionally been the first choice for data collection in research. However, declining response rates over the past decade have increased the risk of selection bias in cross-sectional studies. The growing use of the Internet offers new ways of collecting data, but trials using Web-based questionnaires have so far seen mixed results. A secure, online digital mailbox (e-Boks) linked to a civil registration number became mandatory for all Danish citizens in 2014 (exemption granted only in extraordinary cases). Approximately 89% of the Danish population have a digital mailbox, which is used for correspondence with public authorities. We aimed to compare response rates, completeness of data, and financial costs for different invitation methods: traditional surface mail and digital mail. We designed a cross-sectional comparative study. An invitation to participate in a survey on help-seeking behavior in out-of-hours care was sent to two groups of randomly selected citizens from age groups 30-39 and 50-59 years and parents to those aged 0-4 years using either traditional surface mail (paper group) or digital mail sent to a secure online mailbox (digital group). Costs per respondent were measured by adding up all costs for handling, dispatch, printing, and work salary and then dividing the total figure by the number of respondents. Data completeness was assessed by comparing the number of missing values between the two methods. Socioeconomic variables (age, gender, family income, education duration, immigrant status, and job status) were compared both between respondents and nonrespondents and within these groups to evaluate the degree of selection bias. A total 3600 citizens were invited in each group; 1303 (36.29%) responded to the digital invitation and 1653 (45.99%) to the paper invitation (difference 9.66%, 95% CI 7.40-11.92). The costs were €1.51 per respondent for the digital group and €15.67 for paper group respondents. Paper
Fidika, Astrid; Herle, Marion; Herschbach, Peter; Goldbeck, Lutz
Parents caring for a child with a chronic somatic condition are at risk of increased distress and impaired quality of life. Fear of disease progression (FoP) is known to be an important source of distress in patients and their partners, and may be of relevance for parents as well. Existing measures are not applicable to parents. This study describes the adaptation of the FoP questionnaire for parental caregivers and investigated its psychometric properties. Sixteen items appropriate for parents were derived from existing measures and from interviews with clinical experts in family-oriented psychosocial care. Factor structure, internal consistency, validity and sensitivity to change were analyzed in a clinical sample of 162 caregivers (M(age)=42.07 years, SD=6.0 years, 87.8% female) of a child with cystic fibrosis. The exploratory factor analysis reveal ed a two-factor structure, which was not supported by confirmatory analysis. Cronbach's α was examined for total score (.91) and significant positive correlations of the total score with anxiety (HADS: r=.70) and depression (CES-D: r=.60, BDI-II: r=.59), and a significant negative correlations with quality of life (r=-.66) could be demonstrated. A significant decrease in FoP was found (d=1.11) in a group of highly distressed caregivers undergoing web-based cognitive behavioral intervention. The FoP questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for parents of children with CF. Further studies in larger samples are needed to clarify dimensionality and validity among parents of children with other chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Krikken, J.B.; van Wijk, A.J.; ten Cate, J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.
AIM: To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using
Gaete, Jorge; Montero-Marin, Jesus; Valenzuela, Daniela; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a screening tool used to measure psychological functioning among children and adolescents. It has been extensively used worldwide, but its psychometric properties, such as internal structure and reliability, seem to vary across countries. This is the first study exploring the construct validity and reliability of the Spanish version of SDQ among early adolescents (self-reported) and their parents in Latin America. A total of 1,284 early adolescents (9-15 years) and their parents answered the SDQ. We also collected demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the latent structure of the SDQ. We also used the multitrait-multimethod analysis to separate the true variance on the constructs from variance resulting from measurement methods (self-report vs. parent report), and evaluated the agreement between adolescents and their parents. We found that the original five-factor model was a good solution and the resulting sub-scales had good internal consistency. We also found that the self-reported and parental versions of SDQ provide different information, which are complementary and provide a better picture of the emotional, social, and conduct problems of adolescents. We have added evidence for the construct validity and reliability of the Spanish self-reported and parental SDQ versions in a Chilean sample.
Margaritis, Eleftherios; Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George
The study attempts to develop an outpatient service quality scale by investigating the key dimensions which assess parental satisfaction and provides a recommendation on an improved health service delivery system. The survey was conducted in an Ear-Nose-Throat outpatient clinic of a Greek public pediatric hospital. A total of 127 parents in…
Bjelland, Mona; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Andersen, Lene F; Lie, Hanne C; Finset, Arnstein; Maes, Lea; Melbye, Elisabeth L; Glavin, Kari; Hanssen-Bauer, Merete W; Lien, Nanna
There is a need for valid and comprehensive measures of parental influence on children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB). Such measures should be based on a theoretical framework, acknowledging the dynamic and complex nature of interactions occurring within a family. The aim of the Family & Dietary habits (F&D) project was to develop a conceptual framework identifying important and changeable family processes influencing dietary behaviours of 13-15 year olds. A second aim was to develop valid and reliable questionnaires for adolescents and their parents (both mothers and fathers) measuring these processes. A stepwise approach was used; (1) preparation of scope and structure, (2) development of the F&D questionnaires, (3) the conducting of pilot studies and (4) the conducting of validation studies (assessing internal reliability, test-retest reliability and confirmatory factor analysis) using data from a cross-sectional study. The conceptual framework includes psychosocial concepts such as family functioning, cohesion, conflicts, communication, work-family stress, parental practices and parental style. The physical characteristics of the home environment include accessibility and availability of different food items, while family meals are the sociocultural setting included. Individual characteristics measured are dietary intake (vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages) and adolescents' impulsivity. The F&D questionnaires developed were tested in a test-retest (54 adolescents and 44 of their parents) and in a cross-sectional survey including 440 adolescents (13-15 year olds), 242 mothers and 155 fathers. The samples appear to be relatively representative for Norwegian adolescents and parents. For adolescents, mothers and fathers, the test-retest reliability of the dietary intake, frequencies of (family) meals, work-family stress and communication variables was satisfactory (ICC: 0.53-0.99). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Brief (BIS-Brief) was included
Kondo, Naomi; Hirayama, Koichiro; Matsui, Eiko; Teramoto, Takahide; Kaneko, Hideo; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Kenji; Kawamoto, Minako; Funato, Michinori; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Kawamoto, Norio; Morita, Hideyuki; Kimura, Takeshi; Nada, Masatoshi; Tokumi, Tetsuji; Hori, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Rinko
The QOL questionnaire version 2001 for pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and their parents or caregivers includes 15 questions for patients under the age of 4 years and 20 questions for patients over the age of 4 years. We have already reported that the QOL questionnaire version 2001 reflects reliability (including reproducibility), factorial validity, and changes in paroxysmal attacks of asthma. In this study, we revised the questionnaire for use in routine medical practice. In this study, based on the data of a previous report, the number of questions was reduced further and it was revised to the questionnaire the short form by integrated data. The revised version 2008 (Gifu) consisted of emotional burden, asthma attack, instability of symptoms and proper acceptance of asthma as a common factor, moreover 4 or more years old added load of exercise factor which consisted of two questions in each factor. This QOL short form questionnaire version 2008 (Gifu) is a disease specific questionnaire in comparison with health control, bronchial asthma and non-asthmatic patients, such as atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. Although Cronbach's alpha fell with reduction of the number of questions, we conclude that it was acceptable in the clinical practice.
Al-Haidar, Fatima A.
Objective: To explore parental attitudes towards the prescription of psychotropic medication for their children. Method: A questionnaire built to collect socio-demographic data of parents and their attitudes was distributed among parents. Results: One thousand and ten questionnaires were filled by parents. Fathers who completed the questionnaire were double the number of mothers. Eight hundred and eighteen parents (84.3%) agreed to the dispensing psychotropic medication to their child...
de Jong-Lenters, M
In this doctoral research project the relationship between, on the one hand, parenting and the functioning of families, and, on the other, child dental health were measured on the basis of interviews, questionnaires and observations of parent-child interaction. The groups studied consisted of children with and without caries and a variety of socio-economic backgrounds. The analyses revealed a distinct and significant difference between children with and children without caries with respect to parenting style and parent-child interaction. Positive parenting skills, such as positive involvement, positive reinforcement and problem-solving ability, correlate less often with children with caries. The study also revealed that children of parents with a parenting style that involved coercion and strict type of discipline, combined with the expression of little warmth, had a greater likelihood of developing caries. No relationship was found between an unhealthy high Body Mass Index (BMI) and the presence of dental caries. There was a significant relationship between behavioural problems and the presence of dental caries, which may be explained by an underlying influence of the family factors that were measured.
Stone, L.L.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Maten, M.L. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Otten, R.
Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is one of the most employed screening instruments. Although there is a large research body investigating its psychometric properties, reliability and validity are not yet fully tested using modern techniques. Therefore, we investigate
Engman, L.H.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan
that included moisture problems. The aim of this study was to validate information received from a questionnaire survey regarding building characteristics, mouldy odour, and signs of moisture problems in 390 Swedish homes. Method: In a case control study on the association between home environmental factors......Aim: Questionnaires are a cheap means of studying large populations but the information obtained from them is seldom validated. Earlier studies have reported both high and low levels of agreements between inspectors' observations and occupants' reports regarding home environmental factors...... and indications of dampness and mouldy odour. However, the stronger the mouldy odour experienced by the inspector, the higher the level of agreement. Conclusions: The questionnaire was a quite reliable source regarding technical parameters of the home but not for dampness problems. The questionnaire was better...
Hotham, S; Hutton, E; Hamilton-West, K E
Previous research has highlighted lack of knowledge, understanding and confidence among parents and teachers responsible for the postural care of children with physical disability. Interventions designed to improve these qualities require a reliable and validated tool to assess pre- and post-intervention levels. Currently, however, no validated measure of postural care confidence (i.e. self-efficacy) exists. Hence, the aim of this research was to develop a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess parents' and teachers' confidence, alongside knowledge and understanding of postural care - the Understanding Knowledge and Confidence in providing POSTural CARe for children with Disabilities (UKC PostCarD) questionnaire. Items were developed by a multidisciplinary team and designed to map onto the content of 'An A-to-Z of Postural Care'. Parents, teachers and therapists assessed items for face validity. Scale reliability was then assessed using Cronbach's alpha and known-group validity was assessed by comparing scores of an 'expert' group (physiotherapists and occupational therapists) with those of a 'non-expert' group (with no formal training in postural care). The total scale and all three subscales (understanding and knowledge, confidence and concerns) demonstrated adequate reliability (α > 0.83) and subscale correlations formed a logical pattern (understanding and knowledge correlated positively with confidence and negatively with concerns). Experts' (n = 111) scores were higher than non-experts' (n = 79) for the total scale and all subscales (P children with disabilities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This study examines the relation between conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent delinquency. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles were completed by 284 early adolescents (mean age 13.3) and their parents. Adolescents also completed a questionnaire on delinquency. Hierarchical regression analyses…
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad
Full Text Available Background: Parenting style is associated with children's health-related behaviors. One of the popularity and applicability assessment tools is Parenting Style and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ that the lack of Iranian version can be seen.This study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of Iranian version of PSDQ.Materials and Methods: This study was done with randomized cluster sampling on 588 parents. Cronbach's α coefficient was used to determine the internal consistency and Pearson`s correlation coefficients was used for test-retest reliability and the construct validity. Conformity factor analysis was also applied to determine the construct validity. Results: Cronbach's α coefficient for two authoritative and authoritarian styles with the highest estimated value were 0.86 and it was 0.41 for permissive style. The results of the correlation test in all three afore mentioned styles were significant. Correlation coefficients between authoritative style and its subscales were about 0.86 to 0.89 and between authoritarian style and its subscales were about 0.81 to 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that goodness-of-fit indices, including CMIN/DF,GFI, CFI, IFI and RMSEA, were 2.1, 0.91, 0.90, 0.90, and 0.04, respectively, which indicated a good the construct validity of instrument.Conclusion: The PSDQ that has been translated into Persian obtained good reliability and validity. PSDQ questionnaire can be considered a useful tool in the assessments and interventions concerning parenting styles used in Iran.
Sibinga, Maarten S.; Friedman, C. Jack
Parental understanding of PKU, investigated through a questionnaire, was evaluated as to completeness and with respect to distortion. Education of parents was found to be unrelated to their understanding or tendency to distort. Effectiveness of the pediatrician's communication with parents is discussed. (Author/KW)
Niemeier, Brandi S.; Hektner, Joel M.
Background: Parents' behaviors could contribute to the development of their children's weight-related health behaviors. Purpose: Relationships of young adults' (N = 151) and their parents' weight-related behaviors were examined along with parental authority styles. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by young adults and their parents.…
Wheatcroft, Rebecca; Creswell, Cathy
This study investigated the relative associations between parent and child anxiety and parents' cognitions about their children. One hundred and four parents of children aged 3-5 years completed questionnaires regarding their own anxiety level, their child's anxiety level and their cognitions about the child, specifically parents' expectations…
Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone
To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.
Sarant, Julia; Garrard, Philippa
Little attention has been focused on stress levels of parents of children with cochlear implants (CIs). This study examined the stress experience of 70 parents of children with CIs by comparing stress levels in this group of parents to those in parents of children without disabilities, identifying primary stressors, examining the relationship between parent stress and child language, and comparing stress in parents of children with bilateral and unilateral CIs. Parents completed a parent stress questionnaire, and the receptive vocabulary and language abilities of the children were evaluated. Results indicated that these parents had a higher incidence of stress than the normative population. Parent stress levels and child language outcomes were negatively correlated. Child behavior and lack of spousal and social support were the prime causes of parent stress. Parents of children with bilateral CIs were significantly less stressed than were parents of children with unilateral CIs.
Chan, S. M.; Bowes, J.; Wyver, S.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among parental goals, parental beliefs and parenting styles. Questionnaires were completed during interviews with 189 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers of children aged six to eight years. Results indicated that these mothers embraced Chinese parental beliefs (guan) and Chinese parental goals of…
Matsuzaki, Mika; Sullivan, Ruth; Ekelund, Ulf; Krishna, K V Radha; Kulkarni, Bharati; Collier, Tim; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kinra, Sanjay; Kuper, Hannah
There is limited availability of context-specific physical activity questionnaires in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to develop and examine the validity of a new Indian physical activity questionnaire, the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parent Study Physical Activity Questionnaire (APCAPS-PAQ). The current study was conducted with the cohort from the Hyderabad DXA Study (n = 2321), recruited in 2009-2010. Criterion validity (n = 245) was examined by comparing the APCAPS-PAQ to a combined heart rate and motion sensor worn for 8 days. Construct validity (n = 2321) was assessed with linear regression, comparing APCAPS-PAQ against BMI, percent body fat, and pulse rate. The APCAPS-PAQ criterion validity was variable depending on the PA intensity groups (ρ = 0.26, 0.07, 0.39; к = 0.14, 0.04, 0.16 for sedentary, light, moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) respectively). Sedentary and light intensity activities from the questionnaire were underestimated when compared to the criterion data while MVPA in APCAPS-PAQ was overestimated. Higher time spent in sedentary activity in APCAPS-PAQ was associated with higher BMI and percent body fat, suggesting construct validity. The APCAPS-PAQ validity is comparable to other physical activity questionnaires. This tool is able to assess sedentary behavior, moderate/vigorous activity and physical activity energy expenditure on a group level with reasonable validity. This new questionnaire may be used for ranking individuals according to their sedentary time and physical activity in southern India.
Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi
Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting st...
Full Text Available Background During childhood, parents are the first and most important individuals who form the base of the content of gender stereotypes in children. A parent’s expectations about the extent a child’s behaviour should be line with gender stereotypes also depends on the intensity of a parent’s sexism. A parent’s sexism may be exhibited in parental attitudes. Hence, in our study we analysed the relationship between parental ambivalent sexism and parental attitudes within dyads of mothers and fathers with a special focus on the role of the gender of both parents and children. Participants and procedure Two hundred and ninety-four couples of parents of five-year-olds (153 girls, 141 boys participated. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI was used to measure levels of sexism, and the Parental Attitudes Scale (SPR was used to assess parental attitudes. Results In terms of the profile of parental attitudes, regardless of the child’s sex, mothers and fathers scored highest for inconsequent and demanding attitudes, and lowest for overprotective and autonomy attitudes. The child’s sex is also not important for the overall levels of parents’ sexism – fathers exhibit higher levels of hostile sexism in comparison to mothers. Only the mothers’ education level is important for levels of sexism – women with higher education exhibited the lowest levels of hostile sexism. The child’s sex moderates relationships between parents’ sexism and parental attitudes. In the case of mothers of sons, the intensity of benevolent sexism is negatively related to overprotective and demanding attitudes. The more educated the mothers of sons, the more demanding they were. For fathers of sons, the inconsequence attitude increases under the influence of both hostile and benevolent sexism. Among fathers of daughters, hostile sexism strengthens the overprotective attitude, while levels of both benevolent and hostile sexism as well as education influence the
Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia; Silva, Neuza; Rohenkohl, Anja; Chaplin, John E; DeBusk, Kendra; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas; Power, Michael
Testing cross-cultural equivalence of patient-reported outcomes requires sufficiently large samples per country, which is difficult to achieve in rare endocrine paediatric conditions. We describe a novel approach to cross-cultural testing of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire in five countries by sequentially taking one country out (TOCO) from the total sample and iteratively comparing the resulting psychometric performance. Development of the QoLISSY proceeded from focus group discussions through pilot testing to field testing in 268 short-statured patients and their parents. To explore cross-cultural equivalence, the iterative TOCO technique was used to examine and compare the validity, reliability, and convergence of patient and parent responses on QoLISSY in the field test dataset, and to predict QoLISSY scores from clinical, socio-demographic and psychosocial variables. Validity and reliability indicators were satisfactory for each sample after iteratively omitting one country. Comparisons with the total sample revealed cross-cultural equivalence in internal consistency and construct validity for patients and parents, high inter-rater agreement and a substantial proportion of QoLISSY variance explained by predictors. The TOCO technique is a powerful method to overcome problems of country-specific testing of patient-reported outcome instruments. It provides an empirical support to QoLISSY's cross-cultural equivalence and is recommended for future research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE, [1,2] assesses perceived parental rearing behavior separately for each parent. An ultra-short screening version (FEE-US with the same three scales each for the mother and the father is reported and factor-analytically validated. Methods N = 4,640 subjects aged 14 to 92 (M = 48.4 years were selected by the random-route sampling method. The ultra-short questionnaire version was derived from the long version through item and factor analyses. In a confirmatory factor analysis framework, the hypothesized three-factorial structure was fitted to the empirical data and tested for measurement invariance, differential item functioning, item discriminability, and convergent and discriminant factorial validity. Effects of gender or age were assessed using MANOVAs. Results The a-priori hypothesized model resulted in mostly adequate overall fit. Neither gender nor age group yielded considerable effects on the factor structure, but had small effects on means of raw score sums. Factorial validities could be confirmed. Scale sums are well-suited to rank respondents along the respective latent dimension. Conclusion The structure of the long version with the factors Rejection & Punishment, Emotional Warmth, and Control & Overprotection could be replicated for both father and mother items in the ultra-short screening version using confirmatory factor analyses. These results indicate that the ultra-short screening version is a time-saving and promising screening instrument for research settings and in individual counseling. However, the shortened scales do not necessarily represent the full spectrum covered by the full-scale dimensions.
Ângela Bein Piccoli
Full Text Available Parental feeding practices may play a key role in dietary habits and nutritional status of adolescents, but research from adolescents' point of view on this topic is scarce.To adapt and validate an instrument of parental feeding practices as perceived by adolescents in a Brazilian setting.The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and adapted to be answered by adolescents (ages 12 to 18. Content analysis and FACE validity to assess cultural equivalence was undertaken by experts in the adolescent nutritional and psychological fields. Pilot study was evaluated in 23 adolescents. The final version was administered to 41 students to assess instrument reproducibility (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. Internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha and construct validity (Confirmatory Factor Analysis were assessed in a third sample of 307 adolescents.Experts and adolescents considered content validity as appropriate. In reproducibility analysis (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, 10 of the 12 factors were above 0.7. The factors "teaching about nutrition" and "food as reward" obtained values of 0.60 and 0.68, respectively. The Cronbach's Alpha of the whole scale was 0.83 and alphas for subscales ranged from 0.52 to 0.85; the factors "teaching about nutrition" and "food as a reward" had the lowest values (0.52. After removing these two factors, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated that the structural model was appropriate. The final scale was made up of 10 factors with 43 questions.The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire-Teen demonstrates validity and reliability, and is a suitable tool to evaluate the perceptions of adolescents regarding parental feeding practices.
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Ren, Lixin; Edwards, Carolyn Pope
This study examines relations among Chinese parents' expectations for children's development of social-emotional skills, parenting styles, and child social competence. A total of 154 parents with preschool-aged children from mainland China completed questionnaires measuring their timing of expectations for children's mastery of social-emotional…
Development and psychometric validation of the 'Parent Perspective University of Rhode Island Change Assessment-Short' (PURICA-S) Questionnaire for the application in parents of children with overweight and obesity.
Junne, Florian; Ziser, Katrin; Mander, Johannes; Martus, Peter; Denzer, Christian; Reinehr, Thomas; Wabitsch, Martin; Wiegand, Susanna; Renner, Tobias; Giel, Katrin E; Teufel, Martin; Zipfel, Stephan; Ehehalt, Stefan
High prevalence rates of childhood obesity urgently call for improved effectiveness of intervention programmes for affected children and their families. One promising attempt can be seen in tailoring interventions according to the motivational stages of parents as 'agents of change' for their children. Evidence from other behavioural contexts (eg, addiction) clearly shows the superiority of motivational-stage dependent tailored (behavioural) interventions. For the time-efficient assessment of motivational stages of change, this study aims to develop and psychometrically validate a 'Parent Perspective Version' of the existing University of Rhode Island Change Assessment-Short, an instrument assessing the motivational stages based on the theoretical fundamentals of the Transtheoretical Model of Psychotherapy. In a multistep Delphi procedure, involving experts from the study context, the original items of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment-Short Questionnaire will be transformed from the 'self-perspective' ('I am having a problem') to the parent perspective ('my child is having a problem'). Following item adaptation, the new version of the questionnaire will be psychometrically validated in a cohort of N=300 parents with overweight or obese children. Parents will be recruited within a multicentre and multisite approach involving private paediatric practices, specialised outpatient clinics as well as inpatient and rehabilitation sites. Analyses will include confirmatory factor analyses, internal consistencies (reliability) as well as convergent and criterion validity. Convergent validity will be analysed using subscales of the HAKEMP-90 Questionnaire, an instrument which has been shown to differentiate between 'state' and 'action' orientation of individuals. This study has been granted ethics committee approval by the University of Tuebingen (number 644/2014BO2). The results of this study will be released to the participating study centres and will be
Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod
The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Jellesma, F. C.; Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.
Objective: To evaluate the Somatic Complaint List (SCL) in children. Method: At T1, 365 fourth and 352 fifth graders completed the SCL, the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI-C), and the Mood Questionnaire. Parents (n=564) completed the parental form of the CSI-C (CSI-P). Six months later, the
Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others
This document contains the fifth volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of the family and delinquency, examining the impact of parental behavior on the production of delinquent behavior. "Parents: Neglectful and Neglected" (Laurence D. Steinberg) posits…
Pennell, Claire; Whittingham, Koa; Boyd, Roslyn; Sanders, Matthew; Colditz, Paul
There is a lack of research investigating parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born preterm as well as a paucity of parental self-efficacy measures that are domain-specific and theoretically grounded. This study aimed to compare parental self-efficacy in parents of infants born term, preterm and very preterm as well as to test whether parental self-efficacy mediates the relationship between psychological symptoms and parental competence. In order to achieve this, a new measure of parental self-efficacy and parental competence relevant for the preterm population and consistent with Bandura's (1977, 1986, 1989) conceptualisation of self-efficacy was developed. Participants included 155 parents, 83 of whom were parents of very preterm (GAparents of preterm (GAparents of term born infants. Parents completed the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist (the new measure), Family Demographic Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. This initial study indicates that the Preterm Parenting & Self-Efficacy Checklist has adequate content validity, construct validity, internal consistency and split half reliability. Contrary to expectations, parents of very preterm infants did not report significantly lower overall levels of parental self-efficacy or significantly higher levels of psychological symptoms compared to parents of preterm and term infants. Parental self-efficacy about parenting tasks mediated the relationship between psychological symptoms and self perceived parental competence as predicted. Clinical implications of the results and suggestions for future research are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong
This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child...... parent-child relationship....
Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances; Curtner-Smith, Mary Elizabeth
Effective parenting is vital for a child's development. Although much work has been conducted on parenting typically developing children, little work has examined parenting children with Down syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to compare the parenting styles and dimensions in mothers of children with DS and mothers of TD children. Thirty-five mothers of children with DS and 47 mothers of TD children completed questionnaires about parenting, parental stress, child behavior problems, and child executive function. We found that mothers of children with DS use an authoritative parenting style less and a permissive parenting style more than mothers of TD children. Additionally, we found that mothers of children with DS use reasoning/induction and verbal hostility less and ignoring misbehavior more than mothers of TD children. All of these differences, except for those of reasoning/induction, were at least partially accounted for by the higher levels of parental stress in the DS group. Parenting interventions should be focused on reducing parental stress and training mothers to parent under stress in an effort to improve parenting techniques, which would, in theory, improve long-term child outcomes for children with DS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Gregory J
Approximately three months before starting college, 203 high school seniors completed a questionnaire consisting of the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) assessing their parents' parenting styles. The PAQ yielded scores on three parenting styles originally proposed by…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ has become one of the most widely used measurement tools in child and adolescent mental health work across the globe. The SDQ was originally developed and validated within the UK and whilst its reliability and validity have been replicated in several countries important cross cultural issues have been raised. We describe normative data, reliability and validity of the Chinese translation of the SDQ (parent, teacher and self report versions in a large group of children from Shanghai. Methods The SDQ was administered to the parents and teachers of students from 12 of Shanghai's 19 districts, aged between 3 and 17 years old, and to those young people aged between 11 and 17 years. Retest data was collected from parents and teachers for 45 students six weeks later. Data was analysed to describe normative scores, bandings and cut-offs for normal, borderline and abnormal scores. Reliability was assessed from analyses of internal consistency, inter-rater agreement, and temporal stability. Structural validity, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Results Full parent and teacher data was available for 1965 subjects and self report data for 690 subjects. Normative data for this Chinese urban population with bandings and cut-offs for borderline and abnormal scores are described. Principle components analysis indicates partial agreement with the original five factored subscale structure however this appears to hold more strongly for the Prosocial Behaviour, Hyperactivity – Inattention and Emotional Symptoms subscales than for Conduct Problems and Peer Problems. Internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's α coefficient were generally low ranging between 0.30 and 0.83 with only parent and teacher Hyperactivity – Inattention and teacher Prosocial Behaviour subscales having α > 0.7. Inter-rater correlations were similar to those reported previously (range 0.23 – 0
Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi
Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495
Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi
Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning.
Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.
The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...
Vereecken, Carine; Legiest, Erwin; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea
Explore the impact of general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices on children's dietary habits. Cross-sectional study of sixth graders and their parents. Data were gathered (in 2003) in 69 of 100 randomly selected elementary schools in Belgium. All sixth graders (N = 1957) were invited to participate; 82.4% of their parents gave consent and completed questionnaires, resulting in 1614 parent-child pairs. Children's consumption of breakfast, fruit, vegetables, soft drinks, and sweets was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaires. Parents completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics, general parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, or neglecting) and specific food-related parenting practices (pressure, reward, encouragement through negotiation, catering on children's demands, permissiveness, avoiding negative modeling, and praise). Logistic regression analyses were performed, with general parenting style and specific food-related parenting practices as predictors and dietary habits as dependent variables, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and children's weight status. General parenting style did not show any significant impact on dietary habits. In contrast, the food-related parenting practice "encouragement through negotiation" showed a significant positive impact, whereas "pressure," "catering on demand," and "permissiveness" were practices with an unhealthy impact. Nutrition education programs that guide parents in firm but not coercive food parenting skills are likely to have a positive impact upon children's dietary habits.
Helgeson, Vicki S; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda
To examine the relation of parent stress to parent mental health and child mental and physical health. We interviewed children with type 1 diabetes (n = 132; mean age 12 years) annually for 5 years and had one parent complete a questionnaire at each assessment. Parents completed measures of general life stress, stress related to caring for a child with diabetes, benefit finding, and mental health. Child outcomes were depressive symptoms, self-care behavior, and glycemic control. Multilevel modeling was used to examine concurrent and longitudinal relations. Greater parent general stress and greater parent diabetes-specific stress were associated with poorer parent mental health. Overall, greater parent general stress was associated with poorer child outcomes, whereas greater parent diabetes-specific stress was associated with better child outcomes. Families with high levels of general life stress should be identified as they are at risk for both poor parent and child health outcomes.
O'Leary, Sean T; Lockhart, Steven; Barnard, Juliana; Furniss, Anna; Dickinson, Miriam; Dempsey, Amanda F; Stokley, Shannon; Federico, Steven; Bronsert, Michael; Kempe, Allison
Objective: To assess, among parents of predominantly minority, low-income adolescent girls who had either not initiated (NI) or not completed (NC) the HPV vaccine series, attitudes and other factors important in promoting the series, and whether attitudes differed by language preference. Design/Methods: From August 2013-October 2013, we conducted a mail survey among parents of girls aged 12-15 years randomly selected from administrative data in a Denver safety net system; 400 parents from each group (NI and NC) were targeted. Surveys were in English or Spanish. The response rate was 37% (244/660; 140 moved or gone elsewhere; 66% English-speaking, 34% Spanish-speaking). Safety attitudes of NIs and NCs differed, with 40% NIs vs. 14% NC's reporting they thought HPV vaccine was unsafe ( p HPV vaccine before, but now I am" (English-speaking, 23%, Spanish-speaking, 50%). Items rated as very important among NIs in the decision regarding vaccination included: more information about safety (74%), more information saying it prevents cancer (70%), and if they knew HPV was spread mainly by sexual contact (61%). Conclusions : Safety concerns, being unaware of the need for multiple doses, and low perceived risk of infection remain significant barriers to HPV vaccination for at-risk adolescents. Some parents' safety concerns do not appear until initial vaccination.
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Cok, Figen
The present study examined the direct and indirect relationships between parenting processes (parental closeness, parental monitoring, and parental peer approval), low self-control, and aggression. Participants were 546 adolescents aged 14-18 attending state high schools in Turkey. Participants completed a questionnaire that included measures of…
Sengsavang, Sonia; Krettenauer, Tobias
This study examined the role of aggressiveness and parenting in the development of children's moral self-concept. Participants were 198 elementary school children and their parents (M = 8.65 years, SD = 2.44). Participants completed a structured moral self puppet interview and a questionnaire about their relationship to parents. Parents completed…
van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to
Hou, Zhi-Jin; Leung, S. Alvin
This study examined the vocational aspirations and parental vocational expectations of high school students and their parents (1067 parent-child dyads). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and an Occupations List. The Occupations List consisted of 126 occupational titles evenly distributed across the six Holland types. Parents were…
Xie, Qing; And Others
This report describes a study which examined the relation of Chinese parenting style to only-children's academic achievement. Subjects, 186 middle-class parents of fifth and sixth graders (10-13 years old) from one Beijing elementary school, completed a Chinese translation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). Four approximately equal…
Winsler, A.; Madigan, A.L.; Aquilino, S.A.
The goal of the present study was to investigate perceived similarities and differences in parenting styles between mothers and fathers in the same family. The 56 parents of 28 preschool children independently completed the parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ) [Robinson, C. C., Mandleco, B., Frost Olsen, S., & Hart, C. H. (2001).…
Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat
This study examined the role of parenting styles and parental warmth in moderating relations between exposure to political life events and mental health symptoms among 277 Israeli adolescents aged 12–14 and their parents, who had been exposed to protracted periods of war, missile bombardments, and terrorism. Adolescents completed the Political Life Events (PLE) scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and questionnaires regarding parenting style and parental warmth. The primary caregiver completed the ...
Ryan, Carey S.; Casas, Juan F.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Ryalls, Brigette O.; Nero, Collette
We examined ethnicity and cultural orientation as predictors of parents' views of and involvement in children's education, using data gathered from the Latino (n = 74) and non-Latino (17 White and 13 ethnic minority) parents of children in an elementary school's dual-language program. Parents completed a questionnaire that assessed Latino and…
Kepka, Deanna; Ding, Qian; Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Mooney, Kathi
Latinos suffer a disproportionate burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-preventable cancers, yet uptake and completion of the HPV vaccine among Latinos is below recommendations. Reasons for low HPV vaccine uptake among Latinos in Utah are unknown. We surveyed Latino parents of HPV vaccine age-eligible adolescents (N=118). Univariable analyses identified sociodemographic characteristics associated with HPV vaccine awareness, interest, and uptake for daughter(s) and/or son(s) using chi-square tests or Fisher's exact tests. More parents who had lived in the USA for 15 years or more had vaccinated their daughter (43.6 vs. 32.5%, p=0.035) compared to those living in the USA for shorter time periods. Parents born in Mexico reported their son had not received the HPV vaccine (74.6 vs. 58.3%, p=0.049) more than those born elsewhere. Parents with Mexican birthplace and ancestry reported not knowing about the HPV vaccine as the main barrier to vaccinating daughters (47.1 vs. 5.9%, p=0.002 for both) and sons (birthplace 38.3 vs. 10.3%, p=0.007; ancestry 37.1 vs. 11.1%, p=0.013) compared to those born or descending elsewhere. Non-acculturated parents with a son were more likely to report not knowing about the HPV vaccine as the main barrier to vaccine receipt (47.6 vs. 12.5%, pLatinos in an understudied region and complement prior research in other regions. This study may have implications for designing culturally tailored interventions to improve uptake of the HPV vaccine among the growing population of Latinos in Utah, and other states in the Intermountain West.
Ferro, Mark A; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Speechley, Kathy N
The present study investigated the higher-order summary factor structure of the Child Health Questionnaire Parent Form-50 (CHQ) in a sample of children with new-onset epilepsy. The secondary aim was to identify risk factors predicting health-related quality of life (HRQL) 24 months post-diagnosis. Data came from the Health-related Quality of Life in Children with Epilepsy Study (HERQULES, N = 374), a multi-site study documenting HRQL among children with epilepsy from diagnosis through 24 months. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine goodness of fit between the original structure of the CHQ and HERQULES data. Multiple regression was used to identify risk factors at diagnosis for HRQL at 24 months. The models demonstrated good fit: baseline: CFI = 0.945; TLI = 0.941; WRMR = 1.461; RMSEA = 0.058; 24 months: CFI = 0.957; TLI = 0.954; WRMR = 1.393; RMSEA = 0.055. Factor loadings were high and no cross-loadings observed (first order: λ = 0.27-0.99, 0.24-0.98; second order: λ = 0.69-0.86, 0.54-0.92; p children with new-onset epilepsy, and child and family risk factors at diagnosis were found to predict HRQL 24 months post-diagnosis. These findings suggest it is possible to identify at-risk children early in the illness process and provide impetus for adopting family-centered care practices.
Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the
Pawlak, J L; Klein, H A
Previous research has supported the hypothesis that high levels of marital conflict are related to lower self-esteem in children. In this study, 122 young adults completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and the Student Interparental Conflict Scale, as well as the Parental Nurturance Scale and the Parental Authority Questionnaire. One parent of each young adult completed the Parent Interparental Conflict Scale, the O'Leary-Porter Overt Hostility Scale, and a modified Parental Authority Questionnaire. Perceived interparental conflict and parental style discrepancies in nurturance and in authoritarianism were significantly and negatively related to self-esteem, but the best predictors of self-esteem were the parental styles themselves. Warm, nurturant parents were more likely to have high self-esteem children and demonstrated less conflict in marital partnerships. Correlations between marital conflict and self-esteem may reflect parental characteristics.
Lough, Emma; Fisher, Marisa H.
The current study took a multi-informant approach to compare parent to self-report ratings of social vulnerability of adults with Williams syndrome (WS). Participants included 102 pairs of adults with WS and their parents. Parents completed the "Social Vulnerability Questionnaire" and adults with WS completed an adapted version of the…
Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; DeCuzzi, Angela
Three-hundred-and-thirty undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 26 item questionnaire designed to assess the effect of parental divorce/remarriage on the relationship with their respective parents and on their own romantic relationships. The data revealed several significant relationships-respondents…
Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba
Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC).
Sean T. O’Leary
Full Text Available Objective: To assess, among parents of predominantly minority, low-income adolescent girls who had either not initiated (NI or not completed (NC the HPV vaccine series, attitudes and other factors important in promoting the series, and whether attitudes differed by language preference. Design/Methods: From August 2013–October 2013, we conducted a mail survey among parents of girls aged 12–15 years randomly selected from administrative data in a Denver safety net system; 400 parents from each group (NI and NC were targeted. Surveys were in English or Spanish. Results: The response rate was 37% (244/660; 140 moved or gone elsewhere; 66% English-speaking, 34% Spanish-speaking. Safety attitudes of NIs and NCs differed, with 40% NIs vs. 14% NC’s reporting they thought HPV vaccine was unsafe (p < 0.0001 and 43% NIs vs. 21% NCs that it may cause long-term health problems (p < 0.001. Among NCs, 42% reported they did not know their daughter needed more shots (English-speaking, 20%, Spanish-speaking 52% and 39% reported that “I wasn’t worried about the safety of the HPV vaccine before, but now I am” (English-speaking, 23%, Spanish-speaking, 50%. Items rated as very important among NIs in the decision regarding vaccination included: more information about safety (74%, more information saying it prevents cancer (70%, and if they knew HPV was spread mainly by sexual contact (61%. Conclusions: Safety concerns, being unaware of the need for multiple doses, and low perceived risk of infection remain significant barriers to HPV vaccination for at-risk adolescents. Some parents’ safety concerns do not appear until initial vaccination.
Shek, Daniel T. L.
The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…
Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S
Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.
Background Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents’ frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). Methods A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire exploring parents’ beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children. The questionnaires were completed by parents following their child’s participation in the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE). Parental agreement upon statements concerning beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children was measured on a Likert scale. Differences in levels of agreement between parents of non-overweight children and parents of overweight children were analysed using Chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test. Results Parents of 879 children completed and returned questionnaires. Around three fourths of the parents agreed that overweight was a health problem. A majority of parents (93%) agreed that the GP should call attention to overweight in children and offer counselling on diet and exercise. Almost half of the parents expected a follow-up programme. Parents of overweight children seemed to agree less upon some of the proposed causes of overweight, e.g. inappropriate diet and lack of exercise. These parents also had stronger beliefs about overweight disappearing by itself as the child grows up. Conclusions According to parental beliefs and expectations, general practice should have an important role to play in the management of child overweight. Moreover, our findings suggest that GPs should be aware of the particular beliefs that parents of overweight children may have regarding causes
Theunissen, N.C.M.; Vogels, T.G.C.; Koopman, H.M.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Wit, J.M.
This study evaluates the agreement between child and parent reports on children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a representative sample of 1,105 Dutch children (age 8-11 years old). Both children and their parents completed a 56 item questionnaire (TACQOL). The questionnaire contains
Williams, Keith L.; Wahler, Robert G.
Forty clinic-referred mothers completed questionnaires describing their children's problems, the mothers' parenting styles, and their everyday mindfulness. Psychometric analyses of the questionnaires showed mother reports to be internally consistent, except for one of the parenting style scales (i.e., permissive style). We dropped the scale and…
Constantinos A. Loucaides; Niki Tsangaridou
The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Explorat...
Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith
The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58+/-1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression; additionally, they filled in a questionnaire assessing sleep-related personality traits and completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Results showed a high overlap between parenting styles of both parents, though with a different relation to adolescents' sleep. Adverse parenting styles were highly correlated with low sleep quality, negative mood, increased daytime sleepiness, and with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents with low positive and high negative parenting styles displayed the most unfavorable sleep-related personality traits. Results suggest that parenting styles are related to young people's sleep pattern even at the beginning of late adolescence.
Ma, Xiaoran; McPherson, Bradley; Ma, Lian
Objective Children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate often have a high prevalence of middle ear dysfunction. However, there are also indications that they may have a higher prevalence of (central) auditory processing disorder. This study used Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist for caregivers to determine whether children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate have potentially more auditory processing difficulties compared with craniofacially normal children. Methods Caregivers of 147 school-aged children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate were recruited for the study. This group was divided into three subgroups: cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate. Caregivers of 60 craniofacially normal children were recruited as a control group. Hearing health tests were conducted to evaluate peripheral hearing. Caregivers of children who passed this assessment battery completed Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist, which contains 25 questions related to behaviors linked to (central) auditory processing disorder. Results Children with cleft palate showed the lowest scores on the Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist questionnaire, consistent with a higher index of suspicion for (central) auditory processing disorder. There was a significant difference in the manifestation of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors between the cleft palate and the control groups. The most common behaviors reported in the nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate group were short attention span and reduced learning motivation, along with hearing difficulties in noise. Conclusion A higher occurrence of (central) auditory processing disorder-linked behaviors were found in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, particularly cleft palate. Auditory processing abilities should not be ignored in children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate, and it is necessary to consider assessment tests for (central) auditory processing disorder when an
Pereira, Ana Isabel; Muris, Peter; Mendonça, Denisa; Barros, Luisa; Goes, Ana Rita; Marques, Teresa
The present study explored the role of parents' in-session and out-session involvement in CBT for anxious children. Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children with a principal DSM-IV anxiety disorder participated in a group CBT program. Parental involvement in the therapy was assessed by the clinician and the children and parents completed a standardized anxiety scale as the main therapy outcome measure, at pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the parents completed questionnaires to evaluate a number of possible correlates of parental involvement, namely, child's anxiety symptoms intensity and interference, parental beliefs about anxiety, expectancies regarding the efficacy of the intervention, and parental anxiety. The results indicated that the parents were moderately involved in the therapy and that socio-economic status and parental beliefs about anxiety were significant correlates of parental involvement. Finally, partial support was found for the idea that parents' involvement in the therapy might have a positive impact on therapy outcome.
Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St Pierre, Cherie
ABSTRACT This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended questionnaire to describe parent information provision. Parents from 9 families completed in-depth parent interviews following clinic attendance to discuss perceptions of information received. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by related themes. Parents did not perceive the information in the way professionals expected. Parents acknowledged receipt of comprehensive information relevant to the diagnosis but indicated that not all their needs were met. During the interviews, parents described the assessment process, preassessment information, and "steps in their journey." They noted that a strength-based approach and a focus on parental competency would support their coping efforts. Results underscore the need for professionals to be attentive to parents' individualized needs.
Psychometric properties and factor structure of the adapted Self-Regulation Questionnaire assessing autonomous and controlled motivation for healthful eating among youth with type 1 diabetes and their parents.
Quick, V; Lipsky, L M; Nansel, T R
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the psychometric properties of 2 adapted Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ) measures assessing youth with type 1 diabetes motivation internalization for healthful eating and their parents motivation internalization for providing healthy meals for the family. External validity of the adapted SRQ was evaluated with respect to healthy eating attitudes (healthful eating self-efficacy, barriers, and outcome expectations) assessed by questionnaire, diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2005 [HEI-2005]; Nutrient-Rich Foods Index 9.3 [NRF9.3]; Whole Plant Food Density [WPFD]) assessed by 3-day food records, and body mass index assessed by measured height and weight in youth with type 1 diabetes (N = 136; age 12.3 ± 2.5 years) and their parents. Exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation yielded a 2-factor structure with the expected autonomous and controlled motivation factors for both youth and parents. Internal consistencies of subscales were acceptable (α = .66-.84). Youth autonomous and controlled motivation were positively correlated overall (r = 0.30, p parent: r = 0.36), positive outcome expectations (youth: r = 0.30, parent: r = 0.35), and fewer barriers to healthful eating (youth: r = -0.36, parent: r = -0.32). Controlled motivation was positively correlated with negative outcome expectations for parents (r = 0.29, p expectations for youth. Autonomous motivation was positively associated (p parents (NRF9.3 r = 0.22; WPFD r = 0.24; HEI-2005 r = 0.22) and youth ≥13 years (NRF9.3 r = 0.26) but not youth parents, but not youth, body mass index was associated negatively with autonomous motivation (r = -.33, p < .001) and positively with controlled motivation (r = .27, p < .01). Findings provide initial support for the SRQ in this population and suggest potential developmental differences in the role of motivation on healthful eating among children, adolescents
Costigan, Catherine; Su, Tina F.
This study explored the predictors of parenting cognitions among 94 married immigrant Chinese couples with early-adolescent children in Canada. Mothers and fathers separately completed questionnaires assessing their culturally based parenting cognitions (interdependent childrearing goals, family obligation expectations and Chinese parent role…
Crisante, Lea; Ng, Sally
Implements and evaluates a positive parenting program intervention with Chinese parents. Results reveal significant improvements on the Prosocial Behavior Score. Given the unwillingness of some parents to complete questionnaires, the difficulties encountered in conducting evaluation in cross-cultural contexts are discussed, along with…
In this German study, 317 parents of children with hearing impairments and additional disabilities completed both the Parenting Stress Index and an additional questionnaire on demographics and related information. Analysis showed consistently high stress scores in the Child Domain, whereas the Parent Domain showed only a slight tendency toward…
Smith, Gregory J.
The present study was undertaken to determine the impact of different parenting styles on college students' adaptation to college. During the second week of college, 80 first-year students from two-parent families completed the Tests of Reactions and Adaptations to College, English version and the Parental Authority Questionnaire. Authoritative…
Burusic, Josip; Sakic, Marija; Koprtla, Natalija
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore parental perceptions of adolescent health behaviours and to examine to what extent parents' perceptions of their children's health behaviours are determined by the family's socio-demographic characteristics. Method: Participants in the study were 605 parents. They completed questionnaires in which…
Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty; Yiu, Ivan
Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) among Chinese parents and children in Hong Kong with significant behavior problems. Method: The participants (intervention group, 48; comparison group, 62) completed questionnaires on child behavior problems and parenting stress before and after…
Sharma, Vandana; Sandhu, Gurpreet K.
Background: Association between parenting dimensions and externalizing behaviors in children was examined. Method: Data on children from the middle class families of Patiala (N = 240) were collected from schools and families. Parents completed questionnaires on parenting dimensions and externalizing behaviors of children. Results: Analysis of…
Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.
The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…
van der Sluis, Cathy M; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M
Parenting behaviors are associated with children's internalizing symptoms, however, it is not often examined which factors could possibly influence this relationship. The goals of this study were twofold. One goal was to examine whether the association between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms would increase if parenting behaviors were assessed behaviorally and in a context where the child displayed specific anxious behaviors. Another goal was to examine whether this relationship was influenced by the age and gender of the child, and by possible parenting differences between mothers and fathers. These questions were examined in a sample of 211 children aged 4-12 years; 140 community children and 71 clinically referred anxious children. Parents completed questionnaires regarding children's internalizing symptoms and parenting behaviors (positive reinforcement, punishment, force, reinforcement of dependency, and modeling/reassurance). In line with expectations, more punishment and less modeling/reassurance by parents were related to more internalizing symptoms in children. Child gender, child age, parent gender and clinical anxiety status were not found to influence the relationship between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms. Our results suggest that paternal parenting is as important as maternal parenting with respect to children's internalizing symptoms, and therefore, fathers could be included in child treatment as well.
Krikken, J B; Vanwijk, A J; Tencate, J M; Veerkamp, J S
To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using four different questionnaires. Parents also completed the Child Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) on behalf of their child and a questionnaire about the dental history of their child. 454 interview forms were available for analysis. Minor associations were found between dental anxiety and parenting style. Anxious parents were more permissive and less restrictive in their parenting style. Parents of children who did not visit their dentist for regular check-ups reported more laxness and less restrictiveness. Children who had a cavity at the time of investigation, children who had suffered from toothache in the past and children who did not have a nice and friendly dentist reported more dental anxiety. No clear associations between parenting style and dental anxiety were found. Known causes of dental anxiety were confirmed.
Tsoi, Amanda K; Wilson, Stephen; Thikkurissy, S
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of the child's temperament, parenting styles, and parents' prediction of their child's behavior in the dental setting. Subjects were healthy children 4-12 years of age attending a dental clinic. A Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) was given to parents to determine their parenting style. Parents completed the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability Temperament (EAS) survey to measure their child's temperament. Parents were asked to predict their child's behavior using the Frankl Scale. Data analysis included 113 parent/child dyads. Parents accurately predicted their child's behavior 58% of the time. Significant correlations were noted between parent's predictions of behavior and emotionality (r = -.497, p behavior and emotionality (r = -.586, p Parenting style scores did not correlate to predicted or actual behavior; however, categories of PSDQ were related to parental predictions of behavior. Relationships between temperament and parenting may aid in predicting children's behavior in the operatory.
Peyer, Karissa L; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang
A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may report more concern about child weight. A total of 1745 parents of first- through fifth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing reactions to a school BMI report and perceptions about BMI issues. Specific items included perceptions of child's weight status, concern for child weight status, and preventive practices. Parents also provided information about their own weight status. Relationships between measured child weight, perceived child weight, parent weight, parent concern, and healthy behaviors were examined. Overweight parents were more likely to identify overweight in their child and report concern about their child's weight. Concern was higher for parents of overweight children than of normal weight children. Normal weight parents and parents of normal weight children reported more healthy behaviors. Results support the hypothesis that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and that overweight parents are more likely to report concern about child weight. However, overweight parents are also more likely to acknowledge overweight status in their own child. Future research should examine links between parent concern and actual pursuit of weight management assistance.
Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith
The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58 [plus or minus] 1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression;…
This study examined the extent to which dimensions of parenting style influence identity formation among the youths in a changing society such as Nigeria. 345 youths (15-24 year olds) who were randomly selected completed the questionnaire which measured parenting style and identity formation. 2x2x2 Analysis of ...
Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo
This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…
Harrington, John W.; Patrick, Patricia A.; Edwards, Karen S.; Brand, Donald A.
This study investigated parental beliefs about the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders. Sixty-two families of affected children completed a questionnaire asking when the parent first noticed developmental or behavioral problems, when they were told the diagnosis, how confident they were about the ability of their…
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate parenting stress in parents of children with refractory epilepsy before and after their children received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS implantation. Methods: Parents of children with refractory epilepsy completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI under a psychologist's assessment before and at least 12 months after their children received VNS implantation. The PSI questionnaire measures parenting stress in two domains; a parent domain with seven subscales, and a child domain with six. Age, gender, epilepsy comorbidity, VNS implantation date, seizure frequency, and anticonvulsant history before and after VNS implantation were obtained from reviews of medical charts. Results: In total, 30 parents completed the first and follow-up PSI questionnaires. Seventeen of their children (56.7% were boys. The children aged from 1 to 12 years (7.43Â Â±Â 3.59 years, meanÂ Â±Â SD. After VNS implantation, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased from 282.1Â Â±Â 38.0 to 272.4Â Â±Â 42.9. A significant decrease was found on the spouse subscale of the parent domain. For the parents of boys, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased significantly. The mean total parenting stress scores also decreased significantly for parents of epileptic children without autism and who did not taper off the number of different anticonvulsants used after VNS. Conclusions: VNS is an advisable choice to treat refractory epilepsy. Our study showed that 12 months or more after VNS implantation, seizure frequency and parenting stress typically decreased. However, in some special cases the parenting stress may increase, and external help may be required to support these patients and their parents. Key Words: children, refractory epilepsy, parenting stress, vagus nerve stimulation
Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Sharp, Carla; Nicklas, Theresa A
Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of young children. The aim of this study was to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles in low-income families. Questionnaires were completed by 290 African-American and Hispanic parents residing in a large urban city in the southwestern United States. Twenty-six percent of the parents reported depressive symptoms above the clinical cutoff. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles. After adjusting for potential confounding variables (e.g., ethnicity, education, age), parents with an uninvolved feeding style reported less positive affect and more parenting stress than parents showing the other three feeding styles - authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent. Because feeding styles tend to be associated with child obesity in low income samples, the results of this study provide important information regarding the parent-child eating dynamic that may promote less optimal child eating behaviors and the development of childhood obesity. This information could be useful for prevention studies aimed at changing parent behaviors that negatively impact the socialization of child eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klassen, Anne F; Dix, David; Papsdorf, Michael; Klaassen, Robert J; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Sung, Lillian
It is currently unknown how the intensive and often prolonged treatment of childhood cancer impacts on the lives of single parents. Our aims were to determine whether single parents differ from parents from two-parent families in terms of caregiver demand (the time and effort involved in caregiving), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Forty single parents and 275 parents from two-parent families were recruited between November 2004 and February 2007 from five pediatric oncology centers in Canada. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet composed of items and scales to measure caregiver demand and HRQL (SF-36). The booklet also measured the following constructs: background and context factors, child factors, caregiving strain, intrapsychic factors, and coping factors. Single parents did not differ from parents from two-parent families in caregiving demand and physical and psychosocial HRQL. Compared with Canadian population norms for the SF-36, both groups reported clinically important differences (i.e., worse health) in psychosocial HRQL (effect size ≥ -2.00), while scores for physical HRQL were within one standard deviation of population norms. Our findings suggest that the impact of caregiving on single parents, in terms of caregiving demand and HRQL is similar to that of parents from two-parent families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sayers, M S; Newton, J T
The development of a questionnaire to measure patients' and their parents' expectations before orthodontic treatment, and to test the reliability and validity of this measure. A two-stage methodology, with open-ended interviews to identify themes and concepts followed by development and testing of the questionnaire. GKT Orthodontic Department, King's College Dental Hospital. The sample consisted of 140 participants, 70 patients aged 12-14 years, who had been referred to the orthodontic department for treatment. One parent of each patient was also recruited. The study was in two phases. In the first phase 30 participants (15 new patients and their 15 parents) participated in open-ended interviews, which were analysed qualitatively. Information from these interviews was used to construct a questionnaire. During the second phase, the questionnaire was piloted on 10 participants, five new consecutive patients and their parents. The questionnaire was then distributed to 174 subjects (87 new patients and their 87 parents). Seventy-eight subjects (39 new patients and their 39 parents) completed the questionnaire before their orthodontic consultation. Another 96 subjects (48 new patients and their 48 parents) were invited to complete the questionnaire prior to and at their orthodontic consultation. Test-retest analysis was conducted on 22 participants (11 patients and their 11 parents), who completed the questionnaire previous to and at their orthodontic consultation, and contributed to the psychometric validation of this questionnaire. A questionnaire was devized using the key themes and concepts identified in the open-ended interviews. As a result, 10 questions, some with sub-questions were constructed using a visual analogue scale as the response format. The questionnaire developed had good face validity. Internal consistency of the questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha, produced an overall inter-item reliability > 0.7 along with item-total correlations > 0.3 in over 50
Eremita, Matthew; Semancik, Eileen; Lerer, Trudy; Dworkin, Paul H
We aimed to identify characteristics of parents who do not voice developmental concerns when prompted by their children's nurse and/or primary care provider (PCP), despite reporting concerns on parent-completed questionnaires. We reviewed 376 medical records of children seen for a 9-month well-child visit in an urban pediatric clinic between September 2011 and December 2012 for sociodemographic variables hypothesized to affect parents' sharing of developmental concerns: the child's birth order and gender; parents' education level, employment, relationship status, and primary language; and family size and racial/ethnic background. The target population was parents who reported concerns on the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), a routinely administered, parent-completed screening questionnaire. We subdivided parents who reported concerns on the PEDS (N = 86) based on whether they voiced developmental concerns when prompted by their children's nurse and/or PCP. Two-sided Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression evaluated the relationship between sociodemographic variables and parents' voicing of developmental concerns. Only parent education approached significance, as parents with less than a high school education (children's development than parents with at least a high school degree or equivalent (≥HS) (63% compared to 35%, p = .056). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that parents with Parents with low educational attainment may be more likely to not verbally share their developmental concerns. For children of such parents, early detection of developmental delay may be strengthened by use of written questionnaires.
Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J
Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.
Gibson, F L; Ungerer, J A; Tennant, C C; Saunders, D M
To examine the psychosocial and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting at 1 year postpartum of IVF parents. Prospective, controlled study. Volunteers in a teaching hospital environment. Sixty-five primiparous women with singleton IVF pregnancies and their partners, and a control group of 61 similarly aged primiparous women with no history of infertility and their partners. Completion of questionnaires and interviews. Parent reports of general and parenthood-specific adjustment and attitudes to parenting. The IVF mothers tended to report lower self-esteem and less parenting competence than control mothers. Although there were no group differences on protectiveness, IVF mothers saw their children as significantly more vulnerable and "special" compared with controls. The IVF fathers reported significantly lower self-esteem and marital satisfaction, although not less competence in parenting. Both IVF mothers and fathers did not differ from control parents on other measures of general adjustment (mood) or those more specific to parenthood (e.g., attachment to the child and attitudes to child rearing). The IVF parents' adjustment to parenthood is similar to naturally conceiving comparison families. Nonetheless, there are minor IVF differences that reflect heightened child-focused concern and less confidence in parenting for mothers, less satisfaction with the marriage for the fathers, and vulnerable self-esteem for both parents.
Liu, Liquan; Kager, René
Language input is a key factor in bi-/multilingual research. It roots in the definition of bi-/multilingualism and influences infant cognitive development since and even before birth. The methods used to assess language exposure among bi-/multilingual infants vary across studies. This paper discusses the parental report patterns of the…
GERLSMA, C; MOSTERMAN, [No Value; BUWALDA, S; EMMELKAMP, PMG
The relationship between memories of childhood experiences (e.g., adverse parenting) and adult depression often found raises questions of interpretation. On the one hand, both laboratory studies and clinicians' experiences suggest that subjects in a depressed mood frequently show a negative bias in
Jacobs, Myrthe; Marks Woolfson, Lisa; Hunter, Simon C
Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for developing behavior problems. Research suggests that parents' causal attributions for child behavior are related to parenting. This study investigated this association in parents of children with DD compared to parents of typically developing (TD) children. It specifically focused on attributions of child control by separating these from attributions of responsibility, blame and intent, and from attributions of parent control and responsibility. Fifty-one parents of children with DD and 69 parents of TD children completed two questionnaires. The Written Analogue Questionnaire measured causal attributions. The Parenting Scale measured dysfunctional discipline practices. Parents of children with DD viewed the child's role in problematic behavior more positively while also viewing misbehavior as more fixed than parents of TD children. Parents of TD children who viewed their child as more in control over misbehavior used less dysfunctional discipline, but this association was not found for parents of children with DD. The results advance understanding of how parents perceive behavior problems in children with DD and the important role these perceptions play in parental behavior management strategies. More importantly, these perceptions relate to discipline practices differently for parents of children with DD compared to parents of TD children, highlighting that parent interventions should be adapted to the specific needs of parents of children with DD.
Minasyan, Anna; Babajanyan, Arman; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph
Parental questionnaires to assess incidence of pediatric allergic disease have been validated for use in school-aged children. Currently, there is no validated questionnaire-based assessment of food allergy, atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma for infants and young children. The Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire was designed for detecting AD, asthma, and IgE-mediated food allergies in children aged 1-5 years. A nested case-control design was applied. Parents of 150 children attending pediatric outpatient clinics completed the questionnaire before being clinically assessed by a pediatrician for allergies. Sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the questionnaire were assessed. Seventy-seven children were diagnosed with one or more current allergic diseases. The questionnaire demonstrated high overall sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.98) with a specificity of 0.79 (95% CI 0.68-0.88). Questionnaire reproducibility was good with a kappa agreement rate for symptom-related questions of 0.45-0.90. Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire accurately and reliably reflects the presence of allergies in children aged 1-5 years. Its use is warranted as a tool for determining prevalence of allergies in this pediatric age group. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja
AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...
Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others
This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…
Questionário sobre dificuldades comunicativas percebidas por pais de crianças do espectro do autismo Questionnaire about communicative difficulties perceived by parents of children of the autism spectrum
Juliana Izidro Balestro
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Elaborar um questionário para o levantamento de dificuldades comunicativas percebidas por pais e/ou cuidadores de crianças do espectro do autismo em relação a seus filhos. MÉTODOS: Os aspectos específicos abordados no questionário foram identificados a partir da literatura e da experiência clínica das autoras em dois serviços especializados. As questões foram organizadas segundo diferentes domínios e as respostas registradas numa escala tipo Likert. Foi realizado um estudo piloto com 40 pais, 20 pais de crianças do espectro do autismo e 20 pais de crianças sem queixas de linguagem, como forma de verificar a aplicabilidade do questionário construído e sua utilidade na identificação de dificuldades específicas da população alvo. Foi calculado o nível de concordância das questões e os resultados dos grupos foram comparados entre si (teste t Student. RESULTADOS: O questionário foi desenvolvido de maneira a abranger aspectos fundamentais para o relacionamento interpessoal, tanto no âmbito comunicativo quanto social. Foi dividido em 24 questões fechadas que abrangem quatro domínios; e uma questão aberta, com espaço para que os pais relatassem algo relevante e que não tenha sido perguntado. O estudo possibilitou testar a compreensão do instrumento e a análise estatística indicou que 19 questões apresentaram diferença. CONCLUSÃO: O questionário elaborado identificou diferenças na percepção e atitude de pais de crianças do espectro do autismo e de crianças sem queixa de linguagem, em relação às dificuldades de comunicação com seus filhos. Dessa forma, mostrou-se útil para o levantamento dessas dificuldades em um grupo maior de indivíduos.PURPOSE: To develop a questionnaire to the assessment of communicative difficulties perceived by parents and/or caregivers of children on the autism spectrum in relation to their children. METHODS: The specific aspects addressed by the questionnaire derived from
M.Sc. This study investigated the correlations between the motivational profiles as defined by Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) and parental expectations and criticism of secondary school children in South Africa who participate in sport. A sample of 267 secondary school athletes completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) as well as the Parental Expectations (PE) and Parental Criticism (PC) subscales of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Results indicat...
Yoshizumi, Takahiro; Murase, Satomi; Murakami, Takashi; Takai, Jiro
The purposes of the present study were to develop a Parenting Scale of Inconsistency and to evaluate its initial reliability and validity. The 12 items assess the inconsistency among parents' moods, behaviors, and attitudes toward children. In the primary study, 517 participants completed three measures: the new Parenting Scale of Inconsistency, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Depression Scale of the General Health Questionnaire. The Parenting Scale of Inconsistency had good test-retest reliability of .85 and internal consistency of .88 (Cronbach coefficient alpha). Construct validity was good as Inconsistency scores were significantly correlated with the Care and Overprotection scores of the Parental Bonding Instrument and with the Depression scores. Moreover, Inconsistency scores' relation with a dimension of parenting style distinct from Care and Overprotection suggested that the Parenting Scale of Inconsistency had factorial validity. This scale seems a potential measure for examining the relationships between inconsistent parenting and the mental health of children.
This paper presentation reports upon a pilot project involving a self-completion questionnaire aimed at measuring if there is any correlation between parenting style and educational ideologies parents have regarding the education of their children on the autistic spectrum. This research aim is also accompanied by the wider objective of finding out which educational methods are preferred by parents and the reasons given for these choices. This pilot study is part of piloting a variety of resea...
This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.
Alizadeh, Hamid; Applequist, Kimberly F; Coolidge, Frederick L
This study examines the relationship between parental self-confidence, warmth, and involvement, and corporal punishment in families of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The diagnosis of ADHD was established through clinical interviews with the parents, children, and teachers, according the criteria in DSM-IV-TR. This diagnosis was also established by having the parents complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale, and the teachers complete the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale. Two groups of Iranian parents, one group with children who have ADHD (N=130) and a control group (N=120), completed questionnaires measuring parental self-confidence and parenting styles. Parents of children with ADHD were found to have lower self-confidence and less warmth and involvement with their children, and used corporal punishment significantly more than the parents of control children. The study provides strong evidence that children with ADHD are at considerable risk of abuse by their parents. Rather than focusing only on the child's ADHD, treatment may also need to address the parents' functioning.
Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W
The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Viaene, Ann-Sofie; Van Daele, Tom; Bleys, Dries; Faust, Kelly; Massa, Guy G
This study sets out to extend current knowledge of parenting stress and fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) in parents of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We examined if the relationship between parental and children's FoH and metabolic control, as reflected by HbA1c, is mediated by parenting stress. A total of 63 parents and children with T1DM were recruited during their routine physician's appointment. Parents completed questionnaires on parenting stress and FoH. Children eight years and older also completed a questionnaire on FoH. HbA1c values were obtained from all children. Mediation analysis revealed an indirect association between parental FoH and HbA1c values through parenting stress (Sobel's z = 2.42, p = .02), but no indirect association between children's FoH and HbA1c. We concluded that parental FOH has an indirect association with the child's metabolic control that is mediated by parenting stress. More simply, fear of hypoglycemia predicts parent stress, which in turn, predicts metabolic control.
Millings, Abigail; Walsh, Judi; Hepper, Erica; O'Brien, Margaret
This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving responsiveness, and parenting styles. Attachment avoidance and anxiety were both negatively associated with responsive caregiving to partner, which in turn was positively associated with authoritative (optimal) parenting styles and negatively associated with authoritarian and permissive (nonoptimal) parenting styles. Responsive caregiving mediated all links between attachment and parenting, with an additional direct association between attachment anxiety and nonoptimal parenting styles that was not explained by caregiving responsiveness. Findings are discussed with reference to attachment theory.
Shaghaghian, S; Savadi, N; Amin, M
To determine parental awareness about their child's oral hygiene and its associated factors. In this cross-sectional study, 396 parents and their 3- to 6-year-old children were selected by randomized cluster sampling from Shiraz kindergartens in 2013. Parents completed a questionnaire on their perception of their child's oral hygiene. The children received a dental examination, and their dental cleaning status was determined using Simplified Debris Index. Parental awareness was determined by comparing parents' perception of their child's oral hygiene with the results of the dental examination. Associations between demographic factors and parental awareness were evaluated. Sixty per cent of the parents were aware of their child's teeth cleaning status. Higher percentage of parents with university degree (P parents whose child did not have a previous dental visit (P parents had lower dmft (P oral hygiene (P = 0.001) than those of unaware parents. Parents who perceived overall oral health status of their child as good (P parents were not aware of their child's oral hygiene. Educational interventions should be provided to young families to increase parental knowledge and skills that help them recognize their child's dental needs. The interventions are more necessary for low socioeconomic parents and for the parents of children with poor oral hygiene. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan.
Okato, Ayumi; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Tanaka, Mami; Tachibana, Masumi; Machizawa, Akira; Okayama, Jun; Endo, Mamiko; Senda, Masayoshi; Saito, Naoki; Iyo, Masaomi
Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1) each respondent's evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2) each CPT member's opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. The EFA returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84) and assessment and support (α = 0.89). A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians ( r = 0.315, p = 0.001), neonatologists ( r = 0.261, p = 0.007), midwives ( r = 0.248, p = 0.011), and psychiatrists ( r = 0.194, p = 0.048); however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives ( r = 0.208, p = 0.039). This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important
Lefèvre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger
Almost all parents in Sweden are invited to parental groups organized by the child health service (CHS) during their child's first year, but only 40% chose to attend. The aim of this study was to describe parents' experiences of participating in these parental groups. A total of 143 parents from 71 different parental groups at 27 child health-care (CHC) centres in one Swedish county completed an online questionnaire. A majority of the parents found the parental groups to be meaningful and more than 60% met someone in the group who they socialized with outside the meetings. Parents wanted a greater focus on child-related community information, existential questions, relationships and parenting in general. Group leadership seems to be of significance to how parents in a group connect and whether the parental role is affected. Making CHC nurses more aware of the topics parents desire could help them meet parents' needs. Education and training in group dynamics and group leadership could be of value in further improving the high-quality service CHC nurses already offer parents. More knowledge is needed about what would attract those parents who do not participate. © The Author(s) 2014.
Leung, Cynthia; Lo, S K; Leung, Shirley S L
The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. The participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their parents. Besides, 44 children (39 boys and 5 girls) with developmental disabilities were recruited. The children were assessed on the cognitive domain of the Preschool Development Assessment Scale (PDAS). Their parents completed a questionnaire on academic competence behaviour, as well as the Strength and Difficulty Scale (SDQ). Their teachers completed the questionnaire on academic competence behaviour. Rasch analysis results provided support for the unidimensionality of the parent and teacher versions of the scale, with one item deleted. The parent and teacher versions of the revised scale correlated positively with the cognitive domain of the PDAS and the prosocial scale of the SDQ and negatively with SDQ total problem behaviour score. Children with developmental delay were assigned lower scores by their parents and teachers, compared with preschool children, on the revised versions of the academic competence behaviour scale. Reliability estimates (Cronbach's alpha) of the parent and teacher versions of this revised scale were above .80. The results suggested that the two versions of academic competence behaviour scales were promising instruments for the assessment of academic competence behaviour among Chinese preschool children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sayers, M S; Newton, J T
To describe patients' and their parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment. A questionnaire survey of 100 patients and their primary care-givers attending a new patient orthodontic consultant clinic, at a teaching hospital. GKT Orthodontic Department, King's College Dental Hospital, London, UK. The sample consisted of 100 participants who completed the questionnaire, including 50 patients aged 12-14 years who had been referred to the orthodontic department for treatment. One parent of each patient was also invited to participate. Participants completed a valid questionnaire measure of orthodontic expectations that was tested for reliability and validity. Descriptive analysis of the responses was undertaken, and comparisons of children's and parents' expectations, in addition to ethnicity, were made. Patients and parents have similar expectations of treatment, with the exception of expectations of duration of orthodontic treatment (Pexpectations of the initial orthodontic assessment visit, the likelihood of wearing headgear, the impact of orthodontic treatment on diet, and the reaction of peers to treatment (Pexpectations regarding the initial visit, headgear and dietary restrictions (Pparents share similar expectations of orthodontic treatment for most aspects of care, although parents are more realistic in their estimation of the duration of treatment and the initial visit. The expectations of patients differ from those of their parents with regard to dietary and drink restrictions in relation to orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity significantly influences expectations of orthodontic treatment, and this may relate to differences in the patients' and their parents' assessed outcome of care.
Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Vieux, Rachel; Spitz, Elisabeth
Parental (parent-to-infant) attachment and parenting alliance are defined as two important components of psychoaffective adjustment to the parental role. This study aimed to build a predictive model of parental attachment and parenting alliance for mothers and fathers using partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Specifically, we were interested in assessing how adult romantic attachment, marital quality, and psychological distress influenced parental attachment (parent-to-infant) and parenting alliance. Forty heterosexual couples completed questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy and 2 months after childbirth. Results showed that adult romantic attachment, marital quality, and psychological distress were important antenatal determinants of parental attachment and parenting alliance, although they behaved differently for mothers and fathers. Hence, different predictive models were therefore proposed for mothers and fathers. Mothers' attachment to the child was influenced by internal factors as adult attachment dimensions; for fathers, it also depended on mothers' antenatal attachment to the child and on marital quality. Concerning parenting alliance, both mothers and fathers depended on own and partner's variables. Antenatal variables are important for what occurs during the transition to parenthood in terms of parenting adjustment and act differently for mothers and fathers. It thus is important to assess the psychological functioning of both mothers and fathers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Salari, Raziye; Wells, Michael B; Sarkadi, Anna
We aim to examine the relationship between child behavioural problems and several parental factors, particularly parental behaviours as reported by both mothers and fathers in a sample of preschool children in Sweden. Participants were mothers and fathers of 504 3- to 5-year-olds that were recruited through preschools. They completed a set of questionnaires including the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Parenting Scale, Parent Problem Checklist, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Correlational analyses showed that parent-reported child behaviour problems were positively associated with ineffective parenting practices and interparental conflicts and negatively related to parental competence. Regression analyses showed that, for both mothers and fathers, higher levels of parental over-reactivity and interparental conflict over child-rearing issues and lower levels of parental satisfaction were the most salient factors in predicting their reports of disruptive child behaviour. This study revealed that swedish parents' perceptions of their parenting is related to their ratings of child behaviour problems which therefore implies that parent training programs can be useful in addressing behavioural problems in Swedish children. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Choi, Heeseung; Kim, Minju; Park, Chang Gi; Dancy, Barbara L
This cross-sectional correlational study examined the association between Korean American adolescents' and their parents' reports of parent-child relationships. A total of 61 Korean American families completed a questionnaire assessing parental knowledge, parental/filial self-efficacy, parent-child communication, and parent-child conflicts. T tests, Pearson's correlations, a scatter diagram, and bivariate regression were used to analyze the data. Both Korean American adolescents and their parents reported that fathers were less knowledgeable about their child's school life and less likely to communicate with their children than were mothers. Fathers reported a significantly lower level of parental self-efficacy than mothers, and adolescents also reported a significantly higher level of filial self-efficacy in mother-child relationships than in father-child relationships. Positive correlations between parents' and adolescents' reports of parent-child relationships were observed. These findings indicated a need for parent education programs or counseling services for Korean American parents of adolescents, particularly fathers with inadequate parental skills and limited communication with their children. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge; Heiervang, Einar; Goodman, Robert; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari
This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems.
Whittaker, Karen A; Cowley, Sarah
To examine parental self-efficacy experiences for users of a parenting support programme and consider the pertinence of self-efficacy theory to health visiting (public health nursing) practice. Commonly, successful parenting training programmes are underpinned by social learning principles and aim to strengthen parental self-efficacy. However, research examining programme effectiveness rarely discusses how self-efficacy outcomes are achieved. A descriptive survey was completed as the first part of a realistic evaluation study examining how a UK parenting support programme worked. The first part of the realistic evaluation involved validating outcome measures (the Parenting Self-Agency Measure and Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index subscales) and administering a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was completed by adults accessing a parenting support programme during a 10-month period (n = 168). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Women were the main users of the programme, which included informal drop-in groups as well as more formalised health visiting services and parenting training courses. The Parenting Self-Agency Measure results indicated good general parental self-efficacy; however, the task-specific Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Indexes scales suggested that parents were less self-efficacious in disciplining children. Lower self-efficacy scores correlated with high ratings for 'feeling tired', 'receiving negative comments' and 'giving-in to a child's demands'. Study results indicate that the domain general and task-specific measures provide different, but helpful, insights into parental self-efficacy experiences. By identifying factors associated with the levels of general and task-specific parental self-efficacy, health visitors can gain a fuller appreciation of support needs. To maximise potential through parenting support, attention should be given to addressing factors associated with poorer self
Millings, A; Walsh, J; Hepper, E; O'Brien, M
This cross-sectional, dyadic questionnaire study examined the contribution of romantic attachment and responsive caregiving to parenting style, investigating both gender and partner effects. One hundred and twenty-five couples with children aged 7 to 8 years completed measures of attachment styles, responsive caregiving toward partner, and parenting styles. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the intra- and interpersonal associations between romantic attachment, caregiving respon...
Kleinke, Chris L.
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) and Self-Complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) Questionnaires into the Greek Language.
Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Lyrakos, George; Drachtidi, Kalliopi; Stamatiou, Georgia; Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia
The LANSS and S-LANSS questionnaires represent two widely accepted and validated instruments used to assist the identification of neuropathic pain worldwide. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the LANSS and S-LANSS questionnaires into the Greek language. Forward and backward translations of both questionnaires were performed from the English to Greek language. The final versions were assessed by a committee of clinical experts, and they were then pilot-tested in 20 patients with chronic pain. Both questionnaires were validated in 200 patients with chronic pain (100 patients for each questionnaire), using as the "gold standard" the diagnosis of a clinical expert in pain management. Sensitivity and specificity of questionnaires were assessed, as well as the internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha coefficient) and correlation with the "gold standard" diagnosis (using Pearson correlation coefficient). Sensitivity and specificity of the LANSS questionnaire were calculated to be 82.76% and 95.24%, while for the S-LANSS 86.21% and 95.24%, respectively. Positive predictive value for neuropathic pain was 96% for the LANSS and 96.15% for the S-LANSS. Cronbach's alpha was revealed to be acceptable for both questionnaires (0.65 for LANSS and 0.67 for the S-LANSS), while a significant correlation was observed compared to the "gold standard" diagnosis (rLANSS = 0.79 και tSLANSS = 0.77, respectively, P = 0.01). The LANSS and the S-LANSS diagnostic tools have been translated and validated into the Greek language and can be adequately used to assist the identification of neuropathic pain in everyday clinical practice. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.
Varela, R. Enrique; Niditch, Laura A.; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W.; Creveling, C. Christiane
A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n = 27) and non-clinical (n = 20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases; associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level; and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. PMID:23434545
Varela, R Enrique; Niditch, Laura A; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W; Creveling, C Christiane
A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n=27) and non-clinical (n=20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases, associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level, and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hemetek, U; Ernert, A; Wiegand, S; Bau, A-M
The alarming increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity is recognised as a major public health concern. Currently, structured multi-modal therapy programmes present the gold standard of therapy strategies for obese children and adolescents. However, effects of these treatments are still a matter of discussion. Failure to isolate and understand the external and internal factors contributing to successful, long-term weight reduction may well be contributing to the ineffectiveness of current treatment interventions. A qualitative approach was chosen in order to identify subjectively perceived resources and barriers to weight maintenance after previous weight reduction. The research question focused on how these resources and barriers affect success of participants. Additionally the question arose as to how and to what extent parents should and could be involved in the therapy process. The results can deliver important starting points for the development of therapy programmes and future research. 7 participants of a weight reduction and maintenance programme and 7 of their parents were interviewed on their personal experiences during and after the treatment. The interviews were analysed based on the qualitative content analysis. Continuous motivation, especially after the initial weight reduction phase, was identified as the strongest predictor of successful weight maintenance. Successful weight maintainers generally showed characteristics of higher self-efficacy, internal motivation concerning physical activity and flexible self-control concerning food intake. Unsuccessful weight gainers stated a lack of motivation concerning physical activity and lost control over their eating habits. Concerning the role of parents in the therapy process, the results show that higher parental involvement does not predict greater success. The general relationship between parents and their children seems to be more significant, especially concerning the issues of responsibility
Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja
AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...
Skinner, T. C.; Howells, L.; Greene, S.
Aims: This article reports on the development and validity of a Diabetes-specific Illness Representations Questionnaire (DIRQ) to assess all five dimensions of an individual's perception of diabetes, for adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: There were two development studies. Study 1...... with a diabetes self-efficacy and barriers to adherence questionnaire. Subsequently there were two validation studies. Study 3: participants (n = 44 adolescents and 28 parents) completed the DIRQ and questionnaires assessing their self-care and psychological well-being. Glycaemic control was assessed through...... consist of two subscales, perceived threat and perceived impact, and provide further support for the distinction between treatment effectiveness to control diabetes and treatment effectiveness to prevent complications. Along with the validation studies, the results indicate that the questionnaire scales...
Pires, Mónica; Brites, Rute; Nunes, Odete; Hipólito, João
This study aims to explore the relation between fathers parenting styles (PS), self-esteem (SE) and parental self-efficacy (PSE). Research points out the complex potential relations between SE and PSE. Although PSE has been studied in association to PS, there’s a research gap concerning the influence of fathers’ SE in this process. In a cross-sectional study a questionnaire comprising personal data, PS, SE and PSE was completed by 157men (age: M=38.41, SD=6.03) of pre-school/sc...
Análise fatorial do Questionário de Estilos Parentais (PAQ em uma amostra de adultos jovens universitários The factorial analysis of Parental Authoritative Questionnaire in a sample of college young adults
Mariana Gonçalves Boeckel
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a estrutura fatorial do Questionário de Estilos Parentais (PAQ desenvolvido por John Buri. A amostra estratificada foi composta por 323 estudantes de ambos os sexos que cursam uma universidade particular. Foi utilizada a análise de componentes principais, com rotação oblimin, empregando a regra de Kaiser (retenção dos autovalores maiores que 1. A análise demonstrou a presença de três fatores com autovalores superiores a 1. O total dos fatores explica 43,96% da variância total do construto estilos parentais. O primeiro fator explica 25,70%; o segundo, 11,77%; e o terceiro, 6,49%. Os três fatores alcançaram um nível de consistência interna satisfatório. Os resultados sugerem possibilidades positivas de aplicação do instrumento em nossa realidade, mas faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento de futuros estudos sobre o instrumento em amostras diversificadas.The aim of this study was to investigate the factorial structure of the Parental Authoritative Questionnaire (PAQ elaborated by John Buri. The stratified sample was composed of 323 male and female private university students. It was used principal components analysis, with oblimin rotation, using the Kaiser rule (retention of eigenvalues higher than 1. The analysis showed tree factors with eigenvalues superior than 1. The total of the factors explains 43,96% of the total variance about the parental style construct. The first factor explains 25,70%, the second one, 11,77% and the third one, 6,49%. The tree factors had satisfactory internal consistence. The results suggests positive measure's applications on our reality, but it is necessary the development of future studies concerning this questionnaire in diversified samples.
Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike
In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.
Ambler, Olivia; Medford, Emma; Hare, Dougal J
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic condition that can lead to the onset of intellectual disabilities if not strictly managed through a low-protein diet. Parents are responsible for supervising their child's treatment for PKU, which may impact on their experience of distress. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the factors that contribute to distress in parents who care for a child with PKU, distinct from parents in the general population. Thirty-eight parents of children and adolescents with PKU and 32 parents in the general population completed the questionnaires measuring parental psychological resilience, child behaviour problems, perceived social support and distress. Parents of children with PKU also completed measures of their child's care dependency and behaviour related to developmental and intellectual disabilities. The findings revealed no statistically significant differences in distress between the groups, but parents of children with PKU reported more child behaviour problems. Multiple regression analysis identified that parental psychological resilience and child anxious behaviour explained 35% of the variance in distress for parents of children with PKU. By comparison, parental psychological resilience and generic child behaviour only accounted for 19% of the variance in distress for parents in the general population. This has implications for developing interventions in clinical settings that aim to reduce parents' distress by enhancing their psychological resilience and supporting them to manage child behaviour difficulties, particularly anxious behaviour. Future research should include larger, more diverse samples and use longitudinal study designs.
Salari, Raziye; Filus, Ania
Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, we studied factors related to parental intention to participate in parenting programs and examined the moderating effects of parent gender on these factors. Participants were a community sample of 290 mothers and 290 fathers of 5- to 10-year-old children. Parents completed a set of questionnaires assessing child emotional and behavioral difficulties and the HBM constructs concerning perceived program benefits and barriers, percei...
Self, M M; Williams, A E; Czyzewski, D I; Weidler, E M; Shulman, R J
In functional gastrointestinal disorders, patient recall of symptoms drives diagnostic decisions and evaluation of treatment response, and research conclusions about potential treatments. In pediatrics, parent report also impacts assessment and care. Hence, identifying methods for accurately capturing patient and parent report of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms is important. This study evaluated correspondence between retrospective questionnaire (parent and child report) and prospective diary data for children and adolescents with IBS. Participants included 50 children/adolescents with IBS per Rome III criteria. Children completed a 2-week pain and stool diary. Children and parents subsequently completed a 2-week recall questionnaire, reporting number of pain days, maximum pain, days without bowel movement, and days with diarrhea during the diary interval. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots assessed agreement. For pain and days without bowel movement, overall agreement between child recall questionnaire and child diary was strong, although under conditions likely to facilitate agreement and with individual variation observed. Parent recall and child diary were less concordant, and agreement about diarrhea was poor for parent and child. Age did not significantly correlate with agreement. Child questionnaire with short recall interval may be a reasonable approximation for diary data, although this varies by individual and replication/investigation of lengthier recall are needed. Relying on parent questionnaire does not appear a suitable proxy, and recall of stool form by both parent and child appears more problematic. These results combined with existing literature support use of diary data whenever possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Beckerman, Marieke; van Berkel, Sheila R; Mesman, Judi; Alink, Lenneke R A
The primary goal of the current study was to replicate our previous study in which was found that negative maternal attributions mediate the association between parenting stress and harsh and abusive discipline. In addition, we investigated this association in fathers, and added observational parenting data. During two home visits mothers and fathers were observed with their children (age 1.5-6.0 years), filled in questionnaires, and completed the Parental Attributions of Child behavior Task (PACT; a computerized attribution task). Similar to our previous study, negative parental attributions mediated the relation between parenting stress and self-reported harsh and abusive parenting for both mothers and fathers. For mothers, this mediation effect was also found in the relation between parenting stress and lower levels of observed supportive parenting in a challenging disciplinary task. In addition, the relation of partner-related stress and abuse risk with harsh, abusive, and (low) supportive parenting were also mediated by maternal negative attributions. When parenting stress, partner-related stress, and abuse risk were studied in one model, only parenting stress remained significant. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of targeting parental attributions for prevention and intervention purposes in families experiencing stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Micklewright, Jackie L; King, Tricia Z; O'Toole, Kathleen; Henrich, Chris; Floyd, Frank J
Moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with significant familial distress and child adaptive sequelae. Our aim was to examine the relationship between parental psychological distress, parenting practices (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and child adaptive functioning 12-36 months following TBI or orthopedic injury (OI). Injury type was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning, demonstrating a significantly stronger relationship in the TBI relative to OI group. Authoritarian parenting practices were hypothesized to mediate relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning across groups. Groups (TBI n = 21, OI n = 23) did not differ significantly on age at injury, time since injury, sex, race, or SES. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, and Vineland-II. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and a bootstrapping approach, respectively. Results supported moderation and revealed that higher parental psychological distress was associated with lower child adaptive functioning in the TBI group only. Mediation results indicated that higher parental distress was associated with authoritarian parenting practices and lower adaptive functioning across groups. Results suggest that parenting practices are an important area of focus for studies attempting to elucidate the relationship between parent and child functioning following TBI.
Ono, Satomi; Manabe, Yukiko
The aim of this study is to prepare the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Autonomy toward Minor Surgery (PSESCAMS) and verify its reliability and validity. The PSESCAMS was developed based on the findings of previous qualitative studies on preschool children aged 3-6 years who were undergoing day surgery and their parents. The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Maternal Self-Accomplishment Scale (MSAS), and Japanese-language version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A-trait subscale (STAI: A-trait) were used to examine the criterion-related validity of the PSESCAMS. In addition, the test-retest method was utilized for the PSESCAMS. The number of valid responses was 586. A principle component analysis of the PSESCAMS was conducted of 18 items, extracting two factors. As a result of factor analysis that assumed two factors, the two factors were named "self-efficacy for support related to child's emotional control for minor surgery" and "self-efficacy for support related to child's understanding of minor surgery". A structural equation model having high goodness of fit for the PSESCAMS was shown by a covariance structure analysis. The correlations between GSES, MSAS, STAI: A-trait and the PSESCAMS were r = 0.323 (P < 0.001), r = 0.370 (P < 0.001), and r = -0.248 (P < 0.001), respectively. Cronbach's alpha of both the initial test and the test-retest for the PSESCAMS were 0.9 and the correlation between both was significant. The PSESCAMS consists of two categories and includes 18 items. The reliability and validity of the PSESCAMS were proved. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Mahasneh, Ahmad M.
The primary purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between goal orientation and parenting styles. Participants of the study completed 650 goal orientation and parenting styles questionnaires. Means, standard deviations, regression and correlation analysis were used for data in establishing the dependence of the two variables. Results…
Pham, Andy V.; Carlson, John S.; Kosciulek, John F.
Objective: A survey study was conducted to explore ethnic differences in parental beliefs about the causes and treatments of ADHD and whether these beliefs predicted treatment preference. Method: Ethnically diverse parents of 5- to 12-year-old children with ADHD (n = 58) and without ADHD (n = 61) completed a questionnaire developed by the authors…
Dryer, Rachel; Kiernan, Michael J.; Tyson, Graham A.
Objective: This study examined parental and professional beliefs about the efficacy of various treatment strategies for ADHD. Method: Parents of children with and without ADHD and seven medical and nonmedical professional groups (N = 673) completed a questionnaire examining their beliefs about the efficacy of various treatment regimes. Results:…
Hendriks, Alexander H. C.; De Moor, Jan M. H.; Oud, Johan H. L.; Savelberg, Martine M. H. W.
Eighty-one Dutch mothers and 67 fathers completed a questionnaire developed to measure perceived changes in well-being of parents with a toddler with motor disabilities who participated in a therapeutic toddler class. Parents perceived a positive change in well-being 10 months after their child started participation. The impact was greater for…
Mulroy, S.; Robertson, L.; Aiberti, K.; Leonard, H.; Bower, C.
Background: The potential effects on other children when there is a child with intellectual disability (ID) in the family are being increasingly recognized. This study describes the impact of having a sibling with Down syndrome or Rett syndrome using a questionnaire completed by parents. Methods: The parents of 186 Western Australian children with…
Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Myers, Barbara J.
Recent studies have validated the phenomenon of autistic regression, but little is known about how regressive and congenital onsets of the disorder influence parents' thinking about autism and its etiology. Parents (N = 327) of children with autism spectrum disorders completed an online questionnaire about their children's development.…
This study examined Toughlove, the controversial self-help organization for parents and out-of-control adolescents. Six small group Toughlove meetings containing an average of 8 members for each were observed, and questionnaires were completed by 75 Toughlove parents from 8 states. Variables examined include the roles of empathy, assertiveness…
Wernand, J.J.; Kunseler, F.C.; Oosterman, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Schuengel, C.
The aim of the study was to examine parenting self-efficacy in relation to depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy. Five hundred thirty-three first-time pregnant women completed questionnaires at 12, 22, and 32 weeks of pregnancy that measure parenting self-efficacy, anxiety, and depressive
Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl
Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…
Schaffer, Megan; Clark, Stephanie; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.
This study examined the relationship among parenting, empathy, and antisocial behavior. Two hundred forty-four undergraduate students attending an urban university completed self-report questionnaires assessing their antisocial behavior, empathy, and mothers' and fathers' parenting styles. Support was found for a model in which maternal permissive…
Johnson, Lawrence J.; Lewman, Beverly S.
Parents of 62 children enrolled in a private school for young gifted students completed a questionnaire designed to assess home use of computers, as well as parental concerns and expectations for appropriate concurrent and future computer use in educational settings. Familiarity with computers increased perceptions of their beneficial educational…
Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.
This study aimed to expand upon previous research related to parental opinion concerning school sexuality education by sampling a culturally diverse, low-income population that has been traditionally under-represented in the literature. A total of 191 parents attending an urban community college completed a written questionnaire about what topics…
Radstaake, M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Sigafoos, J.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Curfs, L.M.G.
The priorities of parents of children with intellectual disability should be considered when selecting educational goals. To this end, 77 parents of children with Angelman syndrome (AS) completed a questionnaire that involved rating their child's abilities and prioritizing educational goals across a
Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Hohenstein, Jill M
This study examined relations between 124 British children's and their parents' endorsements about the origins of three living things (human, non-human animal, and plant) as reported on questionnaires. In addition to completing questionnaires, half of the sample discussed the origins of entities (n=64) in parent-child dyads before completing the questionnaires. The 7-year-old age group endorsed creationism more than evolution, and the 10-year-old age group endorsed both concepts equally for all three living things. Children's endorsements were correlated with their parents' endorsements for all three living things. Children's endorsement of evolutionary theory was more closely related to parent-child conversational mentions of evolution than to parents' endorsement of evolutionary theory in questionnaires. A similar pattern was found for children's endorsement of creationism. Parent-child conversations did not consistently invoke evolution or creationism even when parents endorsed a particular theory. Findings are interpreted in relation to the pivotal role of joint collaborative conversation in children's appropriation of scientific content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of quality of life has become a frequently used method in treatment effects supervision. Quality of Life Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire, which is completed by patients' parents, has been prepared for children with epilepsy. It enables to determine the quality of life in children aged 4-18 years. The aim of the study was to show the usefulness of QOLCE questionnaire in evaluating the quality of life of children with epilepsy. 160 epileptic children, aged 8-18 years and their parents were examined in the Chair and Department of Developmental Neurology, K. Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań. QOLCE questionnaire was completed by parents and "Young people and epilepsy" questionnaire was designed for children. Reliability index of the complete questionnaire in own research and in the original amounted to 0.93 Cronbach alpha coefficient. Epileptic, drug-resistant children constituted 28% of the examined group. Parents of children with controlled seizures evaluated children's functioning in analyzed areas of quality of life higher. 1. QOLCE questionnaire is a suitable tool to evaluate the quality of children's and adolescents' life. 2. The most significant differences in functioning of epileptic, drug-resistant patients and those with controlled seizures were observed in areas of cognitive processes and social activity.
Hassall, R; Rose, J; McDonald, J
Recent theories of stress and coping in parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) emphasize the importance of cognitive appraisals in influencing parents' levels of stress and their adaptations to difficulties presented by the children. This study investigated the relationships between parental cognitions, child characteristics, family support and parenting stress. The aspects of cognitions studied were: parenting self-esteem (including efficacy and satisfaction) and parental locus of control. The group studied consisted of 46 mothers of children with ID. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Maladaptive Behavior Domain were administered by interview. Mothers also completed four questionnaires: the Family Support Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, a shortened form of the Parental Locus of Control Scale and the Parenting Stress Index (Short Form). Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, partial correlations and a regression analysis. The results indicated that most of the variance in parenting stress was explained by parental locus of control, parenting satisfaction and child behaviour difficulties. Whilst there was also a strong correlation between family support and parenting stress, this was mediated by parental locus of control. The results demonstrate the potential importance of parental cognitions in influencing parental stress levels. It is argued that these results have implications for clinical interventions for promoting parents' coping strategies in managing children with ID and behavioural difficulties.
Nordheim, Trond; Rustøen, Tone; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Nakstad, Britt
Being a parent of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant can be stressful. We aimed to describe parental hope 42months after the birth of a VLBW infant and determine whether there is an association between hope and parenting stress with quality of life (QoL), respectively. Fifty-nine parents of VLBW infants completed questionnaires about hope, parenting stress and QoL. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the selected variables. To compare groups, t-test was used and Cohen's d for effect size was calculated. Parents of VLBW infants were more hopeful than the general population (phope were both independently associated with QoL (phope (p=0.041) and higher parenting stress (p=0.041) than parents of infants with birth weight 1000-1500g. Hope and parenting stress were both independent determinants of QoL. Parents of the presumably sickest infants had less hope and higher parenting stress than parents of VLBW infants with a birth weight over 1000g. Hope should be further explored as a coping mechanism in parents of VLBW infants. The clinical implications of the strong association between hope, parenting stress and QoL remain to be determined, but reducing stress and strengthening hope seem to be important. This should be taken into account both at hospital discharge and at follow-up, especially for lower-birth-weight infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morris, Christopher; Doll, Helen; Davies, Neville; Wainwright, Andrew; Theologis, Tim; Willett, Keith; Fitzpatrick, Ray
To evaluate how scores from the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire change over time and with treatment using both distribution-based and anchor-based approaches. Eighty children aged 5-16 and their parent or career completed questionnaires at orthopaedic or trauma outpatient clinics. They were asked to complete and return a second set of questionnaires again within 2 weeks (retest), and then mailed a third set of questionnaires to complete again after 2 months (follow-up). The follow-up questionnaires included a global rating of change 'transition' item. Child- and parent-reported mean domain scores (Physical, School & Play, and Emotional) were all stable at retest, whereas positive mean changes were observed at follow-up. As we hypothesised, trauma patients had poorer scores than elective patients at baseline, and showed greater improvement at follow-up. For trauma patients, mean changes in per cent scores were large (scores improved between 40 and 56 for the Physical and School & Play domains, and 17 and 21 for Emotional); all effect sizes (ES) were large (>0.8). For elective patients, the mean improvement in per cent scores were more moderate (Physical: child 10, ES = 0.4, parent 11, ES = 0.5; School & Play child 0, ES = 0, parent 9 ES = 0.4; Emotional: child 6, ES = 0.2; parents 8, ES > 0.3). Minimal detectable change (MDC(90)), an indication of measurement error, ranged from 6 to 8. Half the standard deviation of baseline scores ranged from 11 to 18. Minimal important difference could only be calculated for elective patients (9 child and 13 parent ratings), these ranged from 7 to 17. The findings support the responsiveness and longitudinal validity of the scales. Changes in domain scores of, or exceeding, the MDC(90) (6-8) are likely to be beyond measurement error; further work is required to refine the estimate of change that can be considered important.
Otterbach, Laura; Mena, Noereem Z; Greene, Geoffrey; Redding, Colleen A; De Groot, Annie; Tovar, Alison
Given the current prevalence of childhood obesity among Hispanic populations, and the importance of parental feeding behaviors, we aimed to assess the impact of the evidence-based Healthy Children, Healthy Families (HCHF) intervention on responsive food parenting practices (FPPs) in a low-income Hispanic population. This community-based pilot study used a non-experimental pre/post within-subjects design. Parents ( n = 94) of children aged 3-11 years old were recruited to participate in an 8-week, weekly group-based intervention. The intervention was delivered to nine groups of parents by trained paraprofessional educators over a two-year period. Children participated in a separate curriculum that covered topics similar to those covered in the parent intervention. Parents completed self-administered pre/post surveys, which included demographic questions, seven subscales from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire, and the 16-item HCHF Behavior Checklist. Descriptive statistics and paired samples t-tests were used to analyze data from parents that completed the intervention. Fifty-two, primarily Hispanic (93%) parents completed the intervention (39% attrition rate). For parents who completed the intervention, there was a significant increase in one of the feeding practice subscales: encouragement of balance and variety ( p = 0.01). There were significant improvements in several parent and child diet and activity outcomes ( p ≤ 0.01). Although attrition rates were high, parents completing the study reported enjoying and being satisfied with the intervention. For parents who completed the intervention, reported 'encouragement of balance and variety', in addition to several health behaviors significantly improved. Larger studies utilizing an experimental design, should further explore the impact of the HCHF curriculum on improving certain FPPs and health behaviors that contribute to obesity.
حلیمه بیابانی علی آباد; سمانه اسعدی; کاظم برزگر بفرویی
The aim of this study was to compare attachment to parents, peers and siblings among involved (bulling, victim, and bulling-victim) and noninvolved in bullying in Yazd city. All of male and female students in the academic year 2013-2014 in Yazd included research population. A sample of 384 students were selected randomly through cluster sampling. Participants answered a sociometric questionnaire and also completed the Peer Relationship Questionnaire, the Inventory of Parents and Peer Attachme...
Sanavi, Fariba Shahhraki; Baghbanian, Abdolvahab; Shovey, Mehdi Faraji; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza
To investigate the relationship between parenting styles and family communication patterns with adolescent's quality of life. The cross-sectional study was carried out on 439 randomly selected adolescents in the city of Zahedan, Iran, from January to July 2011.The subjects were asked to complete the KIDSCREEN-52 health-related quality of life questionnaire, while their parents were asked to complete the Diana Brinder's Test to show their parenting styles. SPSS 15 was used to analyse data. Most parents had 'authoritative' parenting style (n = 380; 86.6%). Pluralistic (n = 170; 38.7%) and consensual (n = 152; 34.6%) patterns were the most frequent styles of communication in families. Data suggested a significant relationship between parenting style and some dimensions of quality of life, including physical well-being, psychological well-being, social support and peers, and autonomy (p parent relation and home life (p parents while raising their children.
Beltran, Alicia; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom
Children can influence the foods available at home, but some ways of approaching a parent may be better than others; and the best way may vary by type of parent. This study explored how parents with different parenting styles would best receive their 10 to 14 years old child asking for fruits and vegetables (FV). An online parenting style questionnaire was completed and follow-up qualitative telephone interviews assessed home food rules, child influence on home food availability, parents' preferences for being asked for food, and common barriers and reactions to their child's FV requests. Parents ( n = 73) with a 10 to 14 years old child were grouped into authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved parenting style categories based on responses to questionnaires, and interviewed. Almost no differences in responses were detected by parenting style or ethnicity. Parents reported their children had a voice in what foods were purchased and available at home and were receptive to their child's asking for FV. The most important child asking characteristic was politeness, especially among authoritarian parents. Other important factors were asking in person, helping in the grocery store, writing requests on the grocery shopping list, and showing information they saw in the media. The barrier raising the most concern was FV cost, but FV quality and safety outside the home environment were also considerations.
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Grant, Stephanie L; Valtr, Tabitha
Theoretical models linking maternal nutrition, depressive symptomatology, and parenting are underdeveloped. However, existing literature suggests that iron status and depressive symptomatology interact in relation to problematic parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive). Therefore, in the current study the authors investigate these interactive relations in a sample of breastfeeding mothers (n = 105) interviewed at three months postpartum. Participants completed questionnaires (from December 2008 to January 2011) regarding their depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Iron status (i.e., hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptors, and serum ferritin concentrations) was assessed from blood samples. Significant interactions were found between iron status and depressive symptomatology in relation to authoritarian parenting style (low warmth, high punishment and directiveness). For those women with hemoglobin below 14.00 g/dL, depressive symptomatology was positively related to authoritarian parenting style (p parenting. Dietary interventions may help to eliminate relations between depressive symptoms and problematic parenting.
Respler-Herman, Melissa; Mowder, Barbara A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Shamah, Renee
The present study built on prior research by examining the relationship of parental stress and social support to parenting beliefs and behaviors. A sample of 87 parents provided their views concerning the importance of parenting characteristics as well as their level of parental stress and perceived social support. These parents completed the…
Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.
Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256
Sherifali, Diana; Ciliska, Donna; O'Mara, Linda
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which parenting styles is associated with diabetes control in children (aged 5-12 years) with type 1 diabetes, and on child and parent quality of life. Data were collected from a total of 216 parent and child dyads, from 4 pediatric diabetes clinics in southern Ontario, using a cross-sectional survey methodology. Each parent and child independently completed the questionnaires. The study instruments included the Parenting Dimensions Inventory, Pediatric Quality of Life (diabetes specific), and chart reviews for glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) levels. The results of the study demonstrated that parenting styles were not correlated with diabetes control and were weakly correlated with quality of life. Most parents reported behaviors of authoritative or democratic parenting. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) for children in the study was slightly above optimal target range, at 8.4%. Parental education had a weak negative correlation with diabetes control. Parenting styles are not associated with diabetes control and quality of life in children with type 1 diabetes. However, further research should assess the impact of the determinants of parenting on children with type 1 diabetes and quality of life.
Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E
To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Post-Cruise Questionnaire is a mandatory post trip legal document that observers fill out after every trip they have completed.
De Gennaro, Mario; Niero, Mauro; Capitanucci, Maria Luisa; von Gontard, Alexander; Woodward, Mark; Tubaro, Andrea; Abrams, Paul
Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in pediatric patients. To our knowledge no validated instruments properly designed to screen lower urinary tract symptoms in the pediatric population have been published to date. In the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Committee the psychometric properties of a screening questionnaire for pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed. The 12-item International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms was developed in child and parent self-administered versions, and produced in English, Italian and German using a standard cross-cultural adaptation process. The questionnaire was self-administered to children 5 to 18 years old and their parents presenting for lower urinary tract symptoms (cases) or to pediatric/urological clinics for other reasons (controls). A case report form included history, urinalysis, bladder diary, flowmetry/post-void residual urine volume and clinician judgment on whether each child did or did not have lower urinary tract symptoms. Questionnaire psychometric properties were evaluated and data were stratified into 3 age groups, including 5 to 9, 10 to 13 and 14 to 18 years. A total of 345 questionnaires were completed, of which 147 were negative and 198 were positive for lower urinary tract symptoms. A mean of 1.67% and 2.10% of items were missing in the child and parent versions, respectively. Reliability (Cronbach's α) was unacceptable in only the 5 to 9-year-old group. The high ICC of 0.847 suggested fair child/parent equivalence. Sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 76% in the child version, and 91% and 73.5% in the parent version, respectively. The questionnaire is an acceptable, reliable tool with high sensitivity and specificity to screen for lower urinary tract symptoms in pediatric practice. Problems related to literacy suggest use of the child versions for patients older than 9 years. In research this questionnaire
Suen, Yi-Nam; Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Huang, Wendy Y J; Mellecker, Robin R
Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children's physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers' PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong. Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined. The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child's PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89). We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.
S?nchez-Miguel, Pedro A.; Leo, Francisco M.; S?nchez-Oliva, David; Amado, Diana; Garc?a-Calvo, Tom?s
The main aim of the research was to examine the relationship between motivational orientations and parents? behavior with regard to the players? motivational orientation, motivational climate, enjoyment and amotivation. The sample comprised 723 athletes (M = 12.37, SD = 1.48) and 723 parents (M = 46.46, SD = 2.56). Players were male and female who belonged to federative basketball, handball, football and volleyball teams. Parents and athletes completed questionnaires that assessed motivationa...
Maryam Pazuki; Majid Hajifaraji; Morvarid Nikoosokhan; Anahita Houshyarrad; Taghi Pourebrahim; Bahram Rashidkhani
Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association between parental behavior and the dietary intake of Tehranian preschool children aged 2-6 years. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted on 310 children aged 2-6 years from the kindergartens of 22 districts of Tehran, a qualitative validated 85-item food frequency questionnaire was completed by interviewing with their parents. Also the effect of parental behavior on the children’s dietary ...
Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S; Rebellon, Cesar J; Van Gundy, Karen
Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception of parental legitimacy, and changes in delinquency over time. It is hypothesized that parental legitimacy mediates the relation between parenting style and future delinquent behavior. Middle school and high school students completed questionnaires three times over a period of 18 months. Parenting style and delinquent behavior were measured at time 1, parental legitimacy at time 2, and delinquency again at time 3. The results show that authoritative parenting was positively related to parental legitimacy, while authoritarian parenting was negatively associated with parental legitimacy. Furthermore, parental legitimacy was negatively associated with future delinquency. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental legitimacy mediated the relation between parenting styles and changes in delinquency over the 18-month time period. The implications for parenting style and parental legitimacy affecting delinquent behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tyrka, Audrey R.; Wier, Lauren; Price, Lawrence H.; Ross, Nicole; Anderson, George M.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Carpenter, Linda L.
Background Several decades of research link childhood parental loss with risk for major depression and other forms of psychopathology. A large body of preclinical work on maternal separation and some recent studies of humans with childhood parental loss have demonstrated alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function which could predispose to the development of psychiatric disorders. Methods Eighty-eight healthy adults with no current Axis I psychiatric disorder participated in this study. Forty-four participants experienced parental loss during childhood, including 19 with a history of parental death and 25 with a history of prolonged parental separation. The loss group was compared to a matched group of individuals who reported no history of childhood parental separation or childhood maltreatment. Participants completed diagnostic interviews and questionnaires and the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Repeated measures general linear models were used to test the effects of parental loss, a measure of parental care, sex, and age on the hormone responses to the Dex/CRH test. Results Parental loss was associated with increased cortisol responses to the test, particularly in males. The effect of loss was moderated by levels of parental care; participants with parental desertion and very low levels of care had attenuated cortisol responses. ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test did not differ significantly as a function of parental loss. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that early parental loss induces enduring changes in neuroendocrine function. PMID:18339361
Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan
Full Text Available Ayumi Okato,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,1 Mami Tanaka,2 Masumi Tachibana,1 Akira Machizawa,3 Jun Okayama,4 Mamiko Endo,5 Masayoshi Senda,6,7 Naoki Saito,5,7 Masaomi Iyo1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 2Division of Clinical Study on Juvenile Delinquency, Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 4Department of Reproductive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 5Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 6Department of Pediatrics, Asahi General Hospital, 7Division of Clinical Forensic Medicine, Education and Research Center of Legal Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan Background: Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. Participants and methods: The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1 each respondent’s evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2 each CPT member’s opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. Results: The EFA
Sadiqua Anjum, Nasir Mohiuddin M, Narayan Reddy U, Narsing Rao J, Sana Afreen, Mir S Adil, Javeedullah M
Full Text Available Introduction: Medical prescriptions are bound to be misinterpreted by patients and pharmacists if not properly conveyed. Pediatric prescriptions differ from adult prescriptions having wide variation in doses and formulations. There is a need to evaluate the lacunae in the parental understanding of pediatric prescriptions. Aims and objective: To evaluate the parental understanding of pediatric prescription and to evaluate the adequacy of communication with the physician and pharmacist regarding the same. Material and methods: 550 parents were enrolled and their literacy level was noted. They were subjected to modify MUSE questionnaire. Physician’s prescription was analyzed in terms of ease of understanding by parents. These parents were followed up till the pharmacies and the pharmacist understanding of prescription was analyzed and their communication with parents regarding drug usage was noted. Finally, ease of usage of drugs by parents was noted. Results: MUSE scale was modified to suit pediatric prescription understanding by parents and also additional questions were asked to include complete parental understanding of doctor’s prescription. Majority of parents failed to completely understand the written prescription. Though around 80% of pharmacist could understand the prescription, their communication with parents was poor resulting in difficulty for parents to even enquire about medicines from them. Parental overall understanding of prescription increased with their literacy levels. Conclusion: Not all prescriptions are completely understood by parents as well as a pharmacist. This can lead to misuse of drugs. Efforts to explain the drug usage are not adequate enough from the doctor or the pharmacist. While communicating literacy levels of parents is not being considered which may further worsen the understanding ability
Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E
The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance.
Raffington, Laurel; Schmiedek, Florian; Heim, Christine; Shing, Yee Lee
This study investigated associations between parenting stress in parents and self-reported stress in children with children's diurnal cortisol secretion and whether these associations are moderated by known stress-regulating capacities, namely child cognitive control. Salivary cortisol concentrations were assessed from awakening to evening on two weekend days from 53 6-to-7-year-old children. Children completed a cognitive control task and a self-report stress questionnaire with an experiment...
Wong, John; Kua, Ee Heok
The study seeks to initiate a newly developed Personal and Parents’ Parenting Style Scale (PaPPS) to explore the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission between parental parenting style and personal parenting style in Asia. A total of 294 Chinese participants (67.4 ± 5.9 years old; 76% women; 7.0 ± 3.5 years of formal schooling) completed the PaPPS and a sociodemograhphic questionnaire. Findings suggest the distinct intergenerational transmission of parenting in an Asian population of im...
Aran, Adi; Shalev, Ruth S; Biran, Gali; Gross-Tsur, Varda
To assess the impact of parenting style and disease severity on quality of life (QOL) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Thirty-nine children with CP, their siblings, and their parents participated in the study. Probands and siblings, ages 6 to 18 years, completed questionnaires on parenting style (accepting, rejecting, controlling, and autonomy allowing) using the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. Parents completed generic (Child Health Questionnaire [CHQ]) and disease-specific (Pediatric Outcomes Data Collecting Instrument [PODCI]) QOL questionnaires for both children. A physician determined disease severity with the Gross Motor Function Classification System. In children with CP, parenting style positively correlated with the CHQ scores: physical summary and psychosocial summary (r = 0.40, P = .01) and family activities scale (r = 0.34, P = .03). Autonomy allowing parenting style impacted on psychosocial aspects of QOL, as reflected by CHQ scores, more than the degree of disability. In other domains of QOL, the effect of parenting style was greater than IQ, anxiety, and socioeconomic status. Parenting style is a significant factor in QOL in CP and the only known factor to impact on the psychosocial domains of the CHQ, exceeding the effect of disease severity. Because QOL is an important treatment goal in children with CP, early family interventions, particularly those focusing on parenting style, should be considered.
Hiemstra, Renske; Bos, Annemieke; Hoogstraten, Johan
To investigate the expectations of children and their primary care-givers towards orthodontic treatment and to compare the results with those of a UK sample. A questionnaire survey of children and their primary care-givers attending for their first consultation. The Department of Orthodontics at the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), the Netherlands. A total of 168 subjects (84 patients and 84 parents) completed the questionnaire. The children were aged 10 to 14 years. The responses of the children and parents and differences between boys and girls were examined using parametric statistical methods. The data from the Dutch sample were compared with a similar UK sample. Patients and parents shared similar expectations of orthodontic treatment, with the exception of expectations of having a brace fitted at the first appointment, orthodontic treatment involving headgear, any problems with orthodontic treatment, duration of orthodontic treatment and concerning reactions from the public. Among the child participants, boys and girls only differed in their expectations of orthodontic treatment involving jaw surgery. Differences between Dutch and English participants were found regarding the first visit, type of orthodontic treatment, reactions from the public, and pain and problems with orthodontic treatment. Since the expectations of patients and their parents differ on several aspects, effective communication between the orthodontist, patient and parent is considered to be essential. Our hypothesis that Dutch patients' and parents' expectations of orthodontic treatment differ from the expectations of English patients and parents was supported.
Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P
The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin
This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…
Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years.…
Euser, Anja S.; Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Huizink, Anja C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.
The present study examined the role of parental rearing behavior in adolescents' risky decision-making and the brain's feedback processing mechanisms. Healthy adolescent participants ("n" = 110) completed the EMBU-C, a self-report questionnaire on perceived parental rearing behaviors between 2006 and 2008 (T1). Subsequently, after an…
Miller, Rachel L.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Smith, Cynthia L.
Research Findings: We examined relations of effortful control with parent emotion socialization practices and child social behavior using a person-centered approach in children ages 18 months to 5 years. A total of 76 parents (66 mothers, 10 fathers) completed questionnaires at screening and 6-month follow-up. There were no age differences in…
Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of…
Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.
This study examined inter-relations among different types of parental emotion socialization behaviors in 88 mothers and 76 fathers (co-residing with participating mothers) of eight-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing emotion socialization behaviors, emotion-related attitudes, and their children's social functioning. An…
Chang, Susanna; Himle, Michael B.; Tucker, Benjamin T. P.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John
This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ)--a new measure assessing the number, frequency, and intensity of motor and vocal tics in children and adolescents with Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD). Parents of 40 children with a CTD completed the PTQ as part of a larger assessment…
Moilanen, Kristin L; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Blaacker, Debra R
Relatively little is known about the degree to which subcomponents of self-regulation change during early to middle adolescence. This study considered familial predictors (maternal/paternal regulatory support, antagonistic parenting, and parent-child closeness) of rank-order change in behavioral, emotional and cognitive regulation and perseverance over one year. N = 452 adolescents ages 11-16 years and their parents completed questionnaires and parent-child discussion tasks (48.7% male; 69.6% white). Results indicated minimal direct effects of parenting, though maternal and paternal parenting and parent-child closeness exerted small effects that were moderated by prior levels of cognitive regulation and perseverance. Parents may contribute to the development of complex regulatory capacities that mature after foundational emotional and behavioral regulation competencies.
Røhder, Katrine; George, Carol; Brennan, Jessica
The present study explored the Danish cross-cultural validity of the Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ), a new measure of caregiving representations in parent-child relationships. Low-risk Danish mothers (N = 159) with children aged 1.5–5 years completed the CEQ and predictive validity...
Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita
Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.
Murphy, Patricia Ann
Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…
Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.
This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…
Henry, Carolyn S.; And Others
Several authorities have observed that a moderate degree of conformity by the young may be necessary for a society to function effectively. In order to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of parental power and behavior and adolescent conformity, adolescents (N=368) in 184 families completed questionnaires concerning aspects…
Eiser, C.; Eiser, J. R.; Mayhew, A. G.; Gibson, A. T.
Background: Relationships between child quality of life (QOL), maternal well-being and parenting were explored in a questionnaire study. Method: Mothers of 126 full-term (FT) and 91 pre-term (PT) infants during the child's second year of life completed measures of their own and the child's quality of life and behavioural difficulties. We developed…
Barling, J; Mendelson, M B
The authors postulated a model in which children's perceptions of their parents' job insecurity indirectly affect their grade performance through the effects of beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood. A total of 127 undergraduate students (55 male, 72 female) completed questionnaires on their perceptions of their parents' job insecurity and their own beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood. The parents reported on their own job insecurity. In addition, students provided their course grades from the previous semester 3 months after completing the questionnaires. Support for the proposed model was provided using LISREL 8.
Bray, Isabelle; Noble, Sian; Robinson, Ross; Molloy, Lynn; Tilling, Kate
Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Avon area). After exclusions, 8,795 participants were randomized. The "online first" group were invited to complete the questionnaire online. The "choice" group were also sent a paper questionnaire and offered a choice of completion method. The trial was embedded within routine data collection. The main outcome measure was the number of questionnaires returned. Data on costs were also collected. Those in the "online first" arm of the trial were less likely to return a questionnaire [adjusted odds ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 0.99]. The "choice" arm was more expensive (mean difference per participant £0.71; 95% CI: £0.65, £0.76). It cost an extra £47 to have one extra person to complete the questionnaire in the "choice" arm. Offering a choice of completion methods (paper or online) for questionnaires in ALSPAC increased response rates but was more expensive than offering online first. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mednick, Lauren; Gargollo, Patricio; Oliva, Melisa; Grant, Rosemary; Borer, Joseph
Previous studies have examined the psychological impact that living with bladder exstrophy has on patients. However, little is known about how parents of children diagnosed with this condition are affected. We examine how parents caring for children diagnosed with bladder exstrophy are impacted. An increased understanding of the stressors these parents face may lead to the development of appropriate parenting interventions, which may ultimately affect psychosocial and health outcomes in the child. All parents of children 10 years and younger treated for bladder exstrophy at our institution were selected from a centralized database. A total of 20 parents (65% of the eligible population) completed standardized questionnaires assessing pediatric specific parenting stress (Pediatric Inventory for Parents) and coping (Ways of Coping Questionnaire). Parents identified several common stressors (eg worrying about the long-term impact of the illness, helping the child with his/her hygiene needs) and overall reported using adaptive ways of coping (ie planful problem solving, seeking social support, positive reappraisal). However, when they experienced increased stress they reported using more nonadaptive ways of coping (ie escape/avoidance and distancing). Overall the findings of our study suggest that parents of children diagnosed with bladder exstrophy experience a significant amount of stress. In fact, parents in our study indicated experiencing similar frequency and difficulty of stress compared to parents of the same aged children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Increased stress can have negative consequences for parents and children. Future directions and implications of these findings are discussed.
Nicholl, Honor; Tracey, Catherine; Begley, Thelma; King, Carole; Lynch, Aileen M
Parents of children with rare conditions increasingly use the Internet to source information on their child's condition. This study reports on part of a larger study whose overall aim was to identify the Internet use by parents when seeking information on their child's rare condition, with the specific purpose of using the findings to aid in the development of a website specifically designed to meet the parents' needs. It presents findings on why these parents use the Internet, the information and support content they source, and the impact these resources have on their capacity to care for and manage their child's condition. To (1) ascertain parents' general Internet usage patterns, (2) identify the nature of the information parents most frequently searched for, and (3) determine the effect the Internet-sourced information had on parents of children with rare conditions. Data collection was conducted in 2 parts: Part 1 was a focus group interview (n=8) to inform the development of the questionnaire, and Part 2 was a questionnaire (Web- and paper-based). All respondents (N=128) completed the questionnaire using the Internet. Parents frequently and habitually used the Internet and social media to gather information on their child's condition. These Web-based resources provide parents with a parent-to-parent support platform that allows them to share their experiences and information with other parents, which, the respondents considered, improved their knowledge and understanding of their child's condition. The respondents also reported that these resources positively impacted on their decision making, care, and management of their child's condition. However, they reported receiving mixed responses when wishing to engage and share with health care professionals their Internet and social media interactions and information outcomes. This study adds to the emerging body of research on the Internet use by parents of children with rare conditions to source information on
Hugill, Melanie; Fletcher, Ian; Berry, Katherine
Parenting can be a stressful experience particularly for people with mental health problems or people who experienced abuse or attachment difficulties in their own childhoods. This study examined the relationships between earlier trauma, attachment, parenting and schizotypy in a non-clinical sample, with the specific hypothesis that parenting stress and competence would mediate any association between trauma, attachment and schizotypy. One hundred and thirty-four first time parents with a child under 12 months old completed the following questionnaires online: the Experiences of Close Relationships Scale - Short Form (ECR-S), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief, Revised (SPQ-BR) the Parenting Stress Scale, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) and the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questionnaire. Parenting stress mediated the association between attachment and schizotypy, though parenting competence did not have a significant effect as a mediator in a parallel model. Childhood trauma was associated with attachment and schizotypy but did not correlate with the parenting variables. The study utilised a cross-sectional design and self-report measures which limits the ability to make causal inferences from the results. However, findings warrant replication in clinical samples with psychosis. The study adds to the understanding of what may exacerbate schizotypal symptoms in the first 12 months postpartum as parental attachment insecurity and parental stress together predicted elevated self-reported experiences of schizotypal symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Verrocchio, Maria C; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario
The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. RESULTS revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.
Maria Cristina eVerrocchio
Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods. Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire, quality of the parent-child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments, self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results. About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65-70% of the sample has perceived non optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusions. The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed.
Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea is a condition which affects an estimated 50% of children with Down syndrome, particularly in their early years. It can cause serious sequelae in affected children but may not be recognised by parents or health professionals. Routine screening has been recommended in some countries but is not standard practice. There are no validated questionnaire based tools available to screen this population of children for this particular sleep-related disorder. Using existing validated sleep questionnaire items, we have developed a questionnaire to screen children with Down syndrome up to 6 years of age for obstructive sleep apnoea, which corresponds with the recommendations made in UK national guidelines. This paper describes these first steps in demonstrating content validity for a new questionnaire which will be subject to further in-depth psychometric analysis. Relevance, clarity and age-appropriateness was rated for 33 items using a content review questionnaire by a group of 18 health professionals with expertise in respiratory paediatrics, neurodevelopmental paediatrics and sleep physiology. The content validity index was calculated for individual items and contributed to decisions about item inclusion. Scale level content validity index for the modified questionnaire of 14 items was at an accepted level of 0.78. Two parents of children with Down syndrome took part in cognitive interviews after completing the modified questionnaire. We describe the development of this 14 item questionnaire to screen for OSA in children with DS from infancy to 6 years.
van der Geest, Ivana M M; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E; Streng, Isabelle C; Michiels, Erna M C; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M
Approximately 25% of children diagnosed with cancer eventually die. Losing a child puts parents at increased risk for developing psychological problems. To explore parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement) and symptom management during the pediatric palliative phase, and to investigate the influence on long-term grief in parents who lost a child to cancer. A total of 89 parents of 57 children who died of cancer between 2000 and 2004 participated in this retrospective cross-sectional study by completing a set of questionnaires measuring grief (Inventory of Traumatic Grief), parents' perceptions of the interaction with health care professionals (communication, continuity of care, and parental involvement), and symptom management during the palliative phase. Care was assessed on a five point Likert scale (1=disagree and 5=agree). Parents highly rated communication (4.6±0.6), continuity of care (4.3±0.6), and parental involvement (4.6±0.7) during the palliative phase. Parents' most often reported physical and psychological symptoms of their child during the palliative phase were fatigue (75%), pain (74%), anxiety to be alone (52%), and anger (48%). Higher ratings of parents on communication (β=-9.08, P=0.03) and continuity of care (β=-11.74, P=0.01) were associated with lower levels of long-term parental grief. The severity of the child's dyspnea (β=2.96, P=0.05), anxiety to be alone (β=4.52, Pparental grief. Multivariate models combining the interaction with health care professionals and symptom management showed a significant influence of both aspects on long-term parental grief. Both interaction with health care professionals, especially communication and continuity of care, and symptom management in children dying of cancer are associated with long-term parental grief levels. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Ketelaar, Lizet; Wiefferink, Carin H; Frijns, Johan H M; Rieffe, Carolien
Parenting a child who has a severe or profound hearing loss can be challenging and at times stressful, and might cause parents to use more adverse parenting styles compared with parents of hearing children. Parenting styles are known to impact children's social-emotional development. Children with a severe to profound hearing loss may be more reliant on their parents in terms of their social-emotional development when compared with their hearing peers who typically have greater opportunities to interact with and learn from others outside their family environment. Identifying the impact which parenting styles pertain on the social-emotional development of children who have cochlear implants (CIs) could help advance these children's well-being. Therefore, the authors compared parenting styles of parents with hearing children and of parents with children who have a CI, and examined the relations between parenting styles and two key aspects of children's social-emotional functioning: emotion regulation and empathy. Ninety-two hearing parents and their children (aged 1 to 5 years old), who were either hearing (n = 46) or had a CI (n = 46), participated in this cross-sectional study. Parents completed questionnaires concerning their parenting styles (i.e., positive, negative and uninvolved), and regarding the extent to which their children expressed negative emotions (i.e., anger and sadness) and empathy. Furthermore, an emotion-regulation task measuring negative emotionality was administered to the children. No differences in reported parenting styles were observed between parents of hearing children and parents of children with a CI. In addition, negative and uninvolved parenting styles were related to higher levels of negative emotionality in both groups of children. No relation was found between positive parenting and children's social-emotional functioning. Hearing status did not moderate these relationships. Language mediated the relationship between parenting
Michael, Rinat; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova
The study examined the contribution of parents' occupational status and expectations regarding persons with hearing loss to career-related support they provide their deaf and hard of hearing (dhh) adolescent children. Thirty-eight parents completed the Evaluation of Occupational Competence Scale (Weisel & Cinamon, 2005), the Evaluation of Family Competence Scale (Caprara, Regalia, Scabini, Barbaranelli, & Bandura, 2004), the Career-Related Parent Support Scale (Turner, Alliman-Brissett, Lapan, Udipi, & Ergun, 2003), and a background questionnaire. Parents' occupational expectations were positively correlated with their family expectations regarding deaf persons. Parents' occupational status contributed to expectations of success for deaf persons in prestigious occupations with high communication demands. Different types of expectations contributed to career-related parental support. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
The relationship between students' perception of parental involvement in their ... Perception of Parental Involvement in Education Questionnaire (SPOPIIEQ) plus ... This simply means that the more a student believes his or her parents are ...
Martinkevich, P; Møller-Madsen, B; Gottliebsen, M; Kjeldgaard Pedersen, L; Rahbek, O
We present the validation of a translation into Danish of the Oxford ankle foot questionnaire (OxAFQ). We followed the Isis Pros guidelines for translation and pilot-tested the questionnaire on ten children and their parents. Following modifications we tested the validity of the final questionnaire on 82 children (36 boys and 45 girls) with a mean age of 11.7 years (5.5 to 16.0) and their parents. We tested the reliability (repeatability (test-retest), child-parent agreement, internal consistency), feasibility (response rate, time to completion, floor and ceiling effects) and construct validity. The generic child health questionnaire was used for comparison. We found good internal consistency for the physical and the school and play domains, but lower internal consistency for the emotional domain. Overall, good repeatability was found within children and parents as well as agreement between children and parents. The OxAFQ was fast and easy to complete, but we observed a tendency towards ceiling effects in the school and play and emotional domains. To our knowledge this is the first independent validation of the OxAFQ in any language. We found it valid and feasible for use in the clinic to assess the impact on children's lives of foot and/or ankle disorders. It is a valuable research tool. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Barfoot, J; Meredith, P; Ziviani, J; Whittingham, K
Emotionally available parent-child relationships are supportive of child health and development. When a child has cerebral palsy, a range of child and parent factors can potentially impact the parent-child relationship; however, little research has specifically addressed this question. The aim of this study is to investigate links between parent-child emotional availability and both child functional abilities and parent distress in a sample of parents and children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-three mothers (mean age 37.3+/-5.7 years) and their children (mean age 4.9+/-3.3 years) with cerebral palsy completed a 20 min videoed parent-child interaction, scored using the Emotional Availability Scales. Parents also completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Correlational analyses were conducted, and qualitative observations were made. Parent-child dyads in which the parent reported depressive symptoms scored poorer on all aspects of parent-child emotional availability. Where parents reported experiencing anxiety or stress, increased parent hostility and decreased child responsiveness was found. There was no relationship between child functional abilities and either parent distress or parent-child emotional availability. Parent sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were negatively associated with child peer problems. Both child responsiveness and child involvement were negatively associated with hyperactivity/inattention. Observations of video footage suggested that parent implementation of therapy strategies impacted negatively on parent-child emotional availability for some dyads. Findings from this study are consistent with the wider literature showing a link between parental depression and the parent-child relationship and extend this link to the cerebral palsy population. The importance of routine screening for parental mental health problems in early
Patrick, Kristina E; Millet, Genevieve; Mindell, Jodi A
This study aimed to examine whether socioeconomic variables (SES) and parenting behaviors mediate differences in sleep problems between Black and White preschool-aged children. Parents of 191 preschool-aged children (53% male; 77% White) completed questionnaires regarding SES and sleep behaviors. Parenting behaviors and SES were analyzed as mediators of differences in sleep problems between Black and White children. Parent behaviors related to bedtime routine and independence mediated the relationship between race and parent-reported bedtime difficulty, parent confidence managing sleep, and sleep onset latency. SES mediated the relationship between race and sleep onset latency. Sleep differences between Black and White preschool children were primarily mediated by parent behaviors rather than socioeconomic variables. Results may reflect differences in cultural practices and provide important information for treatment and parent-directed intervention regarding improving sleep in young children.
Jones, Heather A; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Hubbard, Rebecca R
The primary aim of this study was to examine relationships among parenting style, symptoms of ADHD, and academic adjustment in college students. Specifically, we investigated whether parenting style may act as a buffer in the negative relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic adjustment. Participants were 200 undergraduate students attending a large public university. Questionnaires measuring their ADHD symptoms, parent's parenting style, and academic adjustment were completed. Results indicated small but significant moderation effects for authoritarian parenting and authoritative parenting on the relationship between ADHD symptoms and academic adjustment. Although research has revealed that different parenting styles may relate to different outcomes in children with ADHD, for young adults, the effects of parenting on academic adjustment may be diluted. Future research should investigate variables that may be more salient predictors of functional outcomes for this population, such as organizational skills. © 2013 SAGE Publications.
Shanon, Amir; Feldman, William; James, William; Dulberg, Corinne
Self-administered questionnaires about diaper choices and the reasons for such choices were completed by 600 parents of children younger than two years of age attending a hospital walk-in clinic or the private office of one of four pediatricians. Only 2.7% of the parents used cloth alone; another 15% used both cloth and disposable diapers; a further 18% reported having used cloth at some time. Convenience and rash prevention were reasons for choosing disposable diapers. Those who used only cl...
Howerton, Mollie W.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between parenting styles, adolescent self-esteem, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 343 middle school students from Harrisonburg, Virginia who completed a questionnaire consisting of three major components: parenting styles, self-esteem, and health risk behaviors. The health risk behaviors component contained questions concerning alcohol use, drug use, sexual activity, and eating behaviors. The parenting s...
Xiang, Shiyuan; Liu, Yan; Bai, Lu
This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents’ school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control), achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance...
مریم جهان بخش; ابوالقاسم خوش کنش; محمود حیدری
The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive...
To assess the likelihood that young adolescents perceive that parents have legitimate authority regarding cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption; to test whether perceived parental authority predicts adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol, and to test the association between parenting style and the legitimacy of parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol. Survey data were obtained in 1997 from 1220 sixth and eighth grade adolescents enrolled in a central North Carolina school district. The sample comprised 72.3% of 1687 eligible students and 92.3% of 1321 students with parental consent; 83.8% of the sample was European-American and 16.2% African-American. Students completed self-report questionnaires administered in classrooms. Logistic regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. Adolescents were significantly more likely to legitimize parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol than parental authority regarding conventional or contemporary issues. Failure to legitimize parental authority was associated with significantly greater odds of current smoking (OR = 4.06; p parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol varied significantly by parenting style. The results discredit the myth that adolescents uniformly disregard parental values and rules regarding tobacco and alcohol. The results also showed that general parenting style covaried strongly with adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use. Additional research is warranted to test for causal relations between general parenting style, adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use, and adolescents' risk of substance use.
Gray, Wendy N; Janicke, David M; Wistedt, Kristin M; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C
There is a critical need to identify risk factors that make parents more likely to restrict their child's food intake. Child weight and ethnicity, parent weight, parent body dissatisfaction, and parent concern of child weight were examined as correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices in a diverse sample of 191 youth (ages 7-17). Participants attending a pediatric outpatient visit completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (parent feeding practices and beliefs), the Figure Rating Scale (body dissatisfaction) and a demographic form. Parent BMI and child degree of overweight were calculated. Parent use of restrictive feeding practices was positively associated with parent BMI and was moderated by parent body dissatisfaction. Parent concern of child weight mediated the relationship between increasing child degree of overweight and parent use of restrictive feeding practices. There were no differences by child gender or ethnicity in parent use of restrictive feeding practices. These preliminary findings highlight the importance of assessing for underlying parent motivations for utilizing restrictive feeding practices and may help to identify and intervene with families at-risk for engaging in counterproductive weight control strategies. Continued identification of correlates of parent use of restrictive feeding practices is needed across child development and among individuals from diverse backgrounds.
Neece, Cameron L
Parents of children with developmental delays (DD) typically report elevated levels of parental stress compared with parents of typically developing children. Children with DD are also at high risk for exhibiting significant behaviour problems. Parental stress has been shown to impact the development of these behaviour problems; however, it is rarely addressed in interventions aimed at reducing child behaviour problems. The current study examined the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for parents of children with DD by investigating whether this intervention is effective in reducing parenting stress and whether decreases in parenting stress lead to reductions in behaviour problems among children with DD. Forty six parents of children with DD were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment or wait list-control group. Participants completed questionnaires assessing parental stress and child behaviour problems at intake and at a second assessment, which took place after only the immediate treatment group had received the MBSR. Parents who participated in MBSR reported significantly less stress and depression as well as greater life satisfaction compared with wait list-control parents. Regarding child outcomes, children whose parents participated in MBSR were reported to have fewer behaviour problems following the intervention, specifically in the areas of attention problems and ADHD symptomatology. Results indicated that MBSR may be an effective intervention for ameliorating parental stress and mental health problems among parents of children with DD. Additionally, these benefits may 'spill over' and improve behaviour challenges among these children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Few researches have delineated how adolescents and parents view conflict in familial settings in Japan. Seventh and eighth grade junior high school students (n = 63) and parents (n = 68) were asked to complete a questionnaire using four hypothetical stories to investigate their judgments and reasoning about parent-child situations. Vignettes described health management, household chores, and two situations involving personal choice (clothes and friends) situations. Participants responded differently to personal, prudential, and conventional conflict. Parental acceptance of the child's demands and discretion and the child's tendency to reject parental authority were significantly higher for personal than for conventional or prudential conflict, and for conventional than for prudential conflict. Children rejected parental authority more than adults rejected parental authority when the child's choice was central to the child's identity; on the other hand, children accepted parents' conventional demands more often than adults accepted parents' conventional demands. These results suggest that early adolescents assert their rights when they judge the situation to be in the personal domain.
Full Text Available Background The role of parents during childhood is very important. Imbalances in parenting roles may cause severe emotional and physical injuries in children. The current study aimed at comparing parenting role tasks in parents of children who affected to mental/physical disabilities. Materials and Methods In the current cross sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 230 married couples with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. The parenting role tasks were compared between mothers and fathers. Independent t-test, chi square and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between fathers and mothers based on studied variables including demographic variables, types of child disabilities and history of trauma and seizure. Results Among enrolled children, 49 (21.3% had mental and 99 (43% affecting to physical disabilities. A significant difference regarding the parenting role tasks between mothers and fathers; therefore, the mean score of mothers for parenting role tasks was significantly higher than that of fathers regarding different variables such as demographic data, seizure, trauma, and the type of disabilities in the child (P
Madowitz, Jennifer; Liang, June; Peterson, Carol B.; Rydell, Sarah; Zucker, Nancy L.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Harnack, Lisa; Boutelle, Kerri N.
Objective This study aimed to assess the concurrent and convergent validity of the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) questionnaire parent report of child (EAH-PC) and child self-report (EAH-C) with the EAH behavioral paradigm (EAH%) and usual dietary intake. Method Data were obtained at baseline assessment for 117 treatment-seeking overweight and obese (BMI > 85th percentile) 8- to 12-year old children (53% female, 54% white) and their parents. Children participated in the EAH free access paradigm after a standardized ad libitum meal. Parents and children completed EAH questionnaires, and the children completed three 24 h recalls. EAH External Eating subscale and total scores were assessed. Results EAH% was inversely associated with the EAH-PC total score (p paradigm are measuring different aspects of EAH in treatment-seeking children. PMID:24186043
Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G
Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sabaz, Mark; Lawson, John A; Cairns, David R; Duchowny, Michael S; Resnick, Trevor J; Dean, Patricia M; Bye, Ann M E
The aim of this study was to adapt the Australian Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE) and determine its psychometric properties in a North American population. Participants were North American families with children diagnosed with epilepsy. Parents were asked to complete the American QOLCE (USQOLCE) and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Seventy-one families completed the USQOLCE. The internal consistency reliability of the subscales was good. USQOLCE subscales correlated highly with theoretically similar subscales contained in the CHQ. Theoretically dissimilar subscales on the two instruments did not correlate as well. USQOLCE correlated significantly with a parental rating of seizure severity and an independent measure of degree of postoperative seizure control. This study demonstrated that the USQOLCE is suitable for a North American population with evidence of its reliability and validity including its sensitivity to seizure burden.
Wigander, Helena; Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria; Frenckner, Björn; Wester, Tomas; Nisell, Margret
The purpose of this study was to investigate parenting stress among parents of children with low ARM. 1) Compare parenting stress among parents of children with low ARM, with parents of healthy children using questionnaires. 2) Identify subscales within the questionnaire which needed to be further explored. 3) Use semi-structured interviews with parents of children with low ARM, to explore parenting stress and to explain, expand and or support the quantitative findings. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used in this follow up study. The parents completed the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ), semi-structured interviews were conducted. Fifteen mothers and 13 fathers of children with low ARM age 8-18, returned completed questionnaires. A control group of 17 mothers and 6 fathers of healthy children age 8-18 that had visited the hospital for a minor procedure was recruited for comparison purposes. There were no significant differences found between index group and controls except in the subscale Incompetence, where parents of children with low ARM reported lower levels of stress compared to controls. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of children with low ARM. Qualitative content analysis was used and revealed three themes - Communication between parents, Expectations of parenthood, and Challenges concerning parenthood. Parents of children with low ARM did not report high levels of stress. When interviewed, they told about earlier experiences of emotional stress, feelings of guilt, and chaos at the time the child was born and during infancy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mohammad Yasin Seifi, G
Full Text Available Aim: Narcotics and consequences of their consumers is one of the basic challenges of modern societies. Since family and parenting styles have an important impact on children's psycho social development, the present study investigated the effects of typology of family parenting on drug tendency in adolescent. Method: To do so, a sample of 375 male students was selected of Borujen public high school students in 1389-1390 academic years by multistage cluster random sampling. Sheffer Parenting styles questionnaire and investigator made questionnaire of tendency to drug were completed by selected sample. Typology of family parenting styles was extracted by combining parental and maternal parenting styles. Because of low frequency of some kind of parenting styles, only 6 parenting styles were entered in the analysis and adolescents’ anxiety and depression were compared in various styles by running of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, and Scheffe Follow up test. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that adolescents achieve the most positive outcomes and the least tendency to drugs, when both of parents are authoritative. Also, the greatest tendency has been seen in adolescents with two indulgent parents or at least one indulgent parent. Discussion: These findings indicate the importance of parental control on adolescents' attitudes to drug.
Porritt, Jenny M; Rodd, Helen D; Baker, Sarah R
The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the impacts of children's dental injuries on parents and explore how demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics influence parental adaptation to dental injuries over time. A total of 244 families attending a UK-based Dental Hospital, for management of their child's traumatized permanent teeth, were invited to participate. Clinical information relating to the child's injury was collected from patient notes. Self-report questionnaires collected baseline information on children's oral health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL), parental satisfaction with dental treatment and parental health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and worry. Parental outcomes were assessed again at a six-month follow up. 108 children and 113 parents participated in the baseline study (44% and 46% response rates), and of this group, a total of 73 parents completed follow-up questionnaires (65% response rate). Parents reported improved HRQoL at follow up; however, parental worry did not decrease over time. Parental satisfaction with treatment and children's OHRQoL were the only significant predictors of parental HRQoL at the six-month follow up. The findings highlight the inter-relationship between child and parental outcomes following their children's dental injuries and the importance of the dental team delivering a family-centred approach for the management of their children's dental injuries. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
G. Rodenburg (Gerda); A. Oenema (Anke); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. van de Mheen (Dike)
textabstractThis study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8. years. One parent completed
Verrocchio, Maria C.; Marchetti, Daniela; Fulcheri, Mario
Objective: The objective of this research was to identify retrospectively the alienating behaviors and the parental bonding that occurred in an Italian sample of adults whose had parents separated or divorced and their associations with self-esteem and psychological distress. Methods: Four hundred seventy adults in Chieti, Italy, completed an anonymous and confidential survey regarding their childhood exposure to parental alienating behaviors (using the Baker Strategy Questionnaire), quality of the parent–child relationship (using Parental Bonding Instruments), self-esteem (using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and global psychological distress (using Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). Results: About 80% of the sample reported some exposure to parental alienating behaviors; about 65–70% of the sample has perceived non-optimal parenting by mother and by father; individuals who experienced affectionless control (low care and high overprotection) reported significantly higher exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors. Overall rates of reported exposure to low care, and overprotection and parental loyalty conflict behaviors were statistically significantly associated with self-esteem as well as the measure of current psychological distress. Results revealed that exposure to parental loyalty conflict behaviors and self-esteem were associated with psychological distress over and above the effects of parental bonding and age. Conclusion: The pattern of findings supports the theory that children exposed to dysfunctional parenting, and with low self-esteem are at risk for their long-term psychological functioning. Implications for health policy changes and strengthening social services are discussed. PMID:26635670
Linden, Mark A; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E
To examine factors which predict parenting stress in a longitudinal cohort of children born very preterm, and seen at age 7 years. We recruited 100 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestational age) child-parent dyads and a control group of 50 term-born dyads born between 2001 and 2004 with follow-up at 7 years. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Child Behavior Check List, Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Child IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-IV. After controlling for maternal education, parents of preterm children (95% CI 111.1 to 121.4) scored higher (p=0.027) on the Parenting Stress Index than term-born controls (95% CI 97.8 to 113.2). Regression analyses showed that child externalising behaviour, sex and parent escape/avoidance coping style, predicted higher parenting stress in the preterm group. Parents of preterm girls expressed higher levels of stress than those of boys. Maladaptive coping strategies contribute to greater stress in parents of very preterm children. Our findings suggest that these parents need support for many years after birth of a very preterm infant. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Fatima A Al-Haidar
Full Text Available Objective: To explore parental attitudes towards the prescription of psychotropic medication for their children. Method: A questionnaire built to collect socio-demographic data of parents and their attitudes was distributed among parents. Results: One thousand and ten questionnaires were filled by parents. Fathers who completed the questionnaire were double the number of mothers. Eight hundred and eighteen parents (84.3% agreed to the dispensing psychotropic medication to their children if necessary. About 83.5% preferred to start with psychotherapy before trying medication. Fathers are more than twice likely than mothers to agree to the use of psychotropic drugs. Older parents more easily agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs. Parents who used psychotropic drug themselves were more likely to agree to the use of psychotropic drug by their children. Having a child with a psychiatric illness is the most significant factor in making parents accede to giving children psychotropic medication. Other factors such as pressure from schools and the side effects of drugs could also modify decision of parents. Conclusion: Although most parents agreed to give their children psychotropic drugs if necessary, they preferred to start with psychotherapy sessions before giving them the drugs. Fear and worries about such issues as side effects of drugs or addiction should be considered. Pressure from school should also be considered when deciding on drug therapy.
Guymer, E C; Mellor, D; Luk, E S; Pearse, V
Childhood cruelty to animals may be a marker of poor prognosis amongst conduct disordered children. However, other than semistructured interviews with parents or children, there are no screening instruments for this behavior. The aim of this study was to develop such an instrument. In the first phase of the study, a parent-report questionnaire, Children's Attitudes and Behaviors Towards Animals (CABTA) was designed and piloted on 360 elementary school children, enabling community norms and a factor structure for the instrument to be derived. In the second phase, the questionnaire was completed by the parents of a small sample of children (N = 17) to establish its test-retest reliability. In the third phase of the study, the CABTA was completed by the parents of 19 children who had been diagnosed with either a Disruptive Behavioral Disorder or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and the results were compared with the outcome of a semistructured interview with parents regarding their child's behavior toward animals. The results of the various phases of the study indicated that the CABTA consists of two factors. Typical and Malicious Cruelty to animals, and is a reliable and valid tool for detecting childhood cruelty to animals. Possible use and adaptations of the CABTA as a screening instrument in clinical and community samples are discussed.
Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C
While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.
A. Tugba Bahadir
Full Text Available Background: Pectus excavatum (PE is the most common chest wall deformity. The Nuss Questionnaire modified for Adults (NQmA is a disease-specific health-related quality of life assessment tool for patients with pectus deformities. The aim of this study is to adapt the NQmA into Turkish. Methods: Two hundred and sixty-five patients with PE were participated, with an age range of 14 to 29 years. All patients underwent a physical examination and had not undergone corrective surgery. The Turkish version of the NQmA was completed by patients and their parents. Results: The content validity index based on expert opinions was 91% for the patient questionnaire and 96% for the parent questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the NQmA was found to be 0.805 for the patient questionnaire and 0.800 for the parent questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess construct validity. Two factors explained 51.1% of the total variance in the patient questionnaire (psychosocial: 31.145%, Cronbach’s alpha=0.818; physical: 19.955%, Cronbach’s alpha=0.862. In the parent questionnaire, two factors explained 51.422% of the total variance (psychosocial: 26.097%, Cronbach’s alpha=0.743; physical: 25.325%, Cronbach’s alpha=0.827. Construct validity was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the NQmA was found to be valid and reliable for the assessment of quality of life in patients with PE.
Busi, Luciano E; Sly, Peter D; Llancaman, Lidia
We recently developed and validated a screening questionnaire for determining which school-aged children may need further investigation to diagnose and manage asthma. In the present study we sought to extend this to pre-school aged children. Questions from the school-aged questionnaire and literature on pre-school asthma were used to inform a focus group of parents with pre-school-aged children with asthma to develop a screening questionnaire. Parents of children attending 6 randomly selected kindergartens in Trelew, Argentina (n = 639) were invited to respond to the questionnaire. A reliability test-retest was undertaken in 187 randomly selected parents who completed the same questionnaire twice within 2-5 weeks. Clinical assessment included a standardized history and physical examination, spirometry before and after a β-agonist inhaler, and chest X-ray. Asthma was diagnosed by the pulmonologist. Completed surveys were returned for 620 children, 607 of whom underwent clinical evaluation. The mean age was 4.21 years (range of 3.01-5.50) and included 82.5% white and 49.4% male children. Asthma was diagnosed in 103 (17.0%) children); 72 (69.9%) of these children did not have a previous diagnosis of asthma. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the questionnaire were 93.2%, 86.1%, 57.8% and 98.4%, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of a screening questionnaire for identifying pre-school-aged children who may benefit from further assessment for asthma. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Niemeier, B S; Duan, Y P; Shang, B R; Yang, J
Excessive bodyweight contributes to a myriad of risk factors for chronic diseases, and multiple reports have demonstrated that parents influence the development of their children's behaviors that contribute to bodyweight. However, studies that include considerations for cultural influences are limited, and methodology that considers direct reports from young adults and their parents across cultures does not exist. A sample of young adults (N = 327) and their parents in the U.S. and in China were recruited and completed a series of questionnaires in two cycles (2010 and 2014). With correlation and multiple regression analyses, parents' characteristics, behaviors, and parental authority styles were examined and compared to weight-related health behaviors and bodyweight of their young-adult children. Additionally, similarities and differences of parental influences between the two cultures were explored. Parents' body mass indexes (BMIs) and dietary behaviors were positively associated with those of their young adult children in the mixed-culture sample (P permissive parental authority, the relationships between young adults' and their parents' BMIs were negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P parenting, the relationship between young adults' and their parents' dietary consumption behaviors was negative for U.S. participants and positive for Chinese participants (P development of life-long health behaviors that contribute to BMI are significantly influenced by parents' behaviors and parenting styles. Moreover, an interaction of parental characteristics and cultural norms is indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van Nimwegen, K J M; Kievit, W; van der Wilt, G J; Schieving, J H; Willemsen, M A A P; Donders, A R T; Verhaak, C M; Grutters, J P C
Complex paediatric neurology (CPN) patients generally present with non-specific symptoms, such as developmental delay, impaired movement and epilepsy. The diagnostic trajectory in these disorders is usually complicated and long-lasting, and may be burdensome to the patients and their parents. Additionally, as caring for a chronically ill child can be stressful and demanding, parents of these patients may experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aims to assess parental HRQoL and factors related to it in CPN. Physical and mental HRQoL of 120 parents was measured and compared to the general population using the SF-12 questionnaire. Parents also completed this questionnaire for the measurement of patient HRQoL. Additional questionnaires were used to measure parental uncertainty (Visual Analogue Scale) and worry phenomena (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), and to obtain socio-demographic data. A linear mixed model with random effect was used to investigate which of these variables were associated with parental HRQoL. As compared to the general population, HRQoL of these parents appeared diminished. Fathers showed both lowered physical (51.76, p parental worry phenomena were significantly correlated with overall and mental parental HRQoL. The reduction in parental mental HRQoL is alarming, also because children strongly rely on their parents and parental mental health is known to influence children's health. Awareness of these problems among clinicians, and supportive care if needed are important to prevent exacerbation of the problems. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lariviere, Janice; Rennick, Janet E
To examine the effects of a parent book reading intervention in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on parent-infant interaction and on the incidence of parents reading to their infants 3 months post-NICU discharge. A nonrandomized, participant blinded intervention study using a historical control group (CG) was conducted. The intervention group (IG: n = 59) consisted of parents of infants admitted to the NICU after the introduction of the parent reading program. The CG (n = 57) consisted of parents of infants discharged from the NICU in the 3-month period before the introduction of the reading program. Questionnaires were mailed to participants 3 months after their infant's discharge and completed verbally, over the telephone. Groups were compared on parenting activities and reading. In addition, a thematic analysis of qualitative descriptive data provided insight into the parents' experiences with reading to their infants. Sixty-nine percent of IG parents reported that reading helped them feel closer to their baby, and 86% reported it was enjoyable. Parents reported an increased sense of control and normalcy and increased intimacy with their infant. Twice as many parents in the IG reported reading 3 or more times a week to their infants (55.9% IG; 23.3% CG). Study results support the use of a parent book-reading intervention in the NICU to enhance parent-infant interactions and promote reading.
Clarke, Kiri; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy
Parental overprotection has commonly been implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders. Overprotection has been assessed using questionnaire and observational methods interchangeably; however, the extent to which these methods access the same construct has received little attention. Edwards et al. (2008, 2010) developed a promising parent-report measure of overprotection (OP) and reported that, with parents of pre-school children, the measure correlated with observational assessments and predicted changes in child anxiety symptoms. We aimed to validate the use of the OP measure with mothers of children in middle childhood, and examine its association with child and parental anxiety. Mothers of 90 children (60 clinically anxious, 30 non-anxious) aged 7-12 years completed the measure and engaged in a series of mildly stressful tasks with their child. The internal reliability of the measure was good and scores correlated significantly with observations of maternal overprotection in a challenging puzzle task. Contrary to expectations, OP was not significantly associated with child anxiety status or symptoms, but was significantly associated with maternal anxiety symptoms. Participants were predominantly from affluent social groups and of non-minority status. Overprotection is a broad construct, the use of specific sub-dimensions of behavioural constructs may be preferable. The findings support the use of the OP measure to assess parental overprotection among 7-12 year-old children; however, they suggest that parental responses may be more closely related to the degree of parental rather than child anxiety. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Clarke, Kiri; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy
Background Parental overprotection has commonly been implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders. Overprotection has been assessed using questionnaire and observational methods interchangeably; however, the extent to which these methods access the same construct has received little attention. Edwards et al. (2008, 2010) developed a promising parent-report measure of overprotection (OP) and reported that, with parents of pre-school children, the measure correlated with observational assessments and predicted changes in child anxiety symptoms. We aimed to validate the use of the OP measure with mothers of children in middle childhood, and examine its association with child and parental anxiety. Methods Mothers of 90 children (60 clinically anxious, 30 non-anxious) aged 7–12 years completed the measure and engaged in a series of mildly stressful tasks with their child. Results The internal reliability of the measure was good and scores correlated significantly with observations of maternal overprotection in a challenging puzzle task. Contrary to expectations, OP was not significantly associated with child anxiety status or symptoms, but was significantly associated with maternal anxiety symptoms. Limitations Participants were predominantly from affluent social groups and of non-minority status. Overprotection is a broad construct, the use of specific sub-dimensions of behavioural constructs may be preferable. Conclusions The findings support the use of the OP measure to assess parental overprotection among 7–12 year-old children; however, they suggest that parental responses may be more closely related to the degree of parental rather than child anxiety. PMID:23916305
Goldring, Ellen B.; Shapira, Rina
Questionnaire responses from 337 parents in Israel examine the nature of interrelationships between parent satisfaction with public schools of choice and parent empowerment, parent involvement, and the congruence of parental expectation with school programs. Findings indicate the importance of socioeconomic status as a factor in these…
Loucaides, Constantinos A; Tsangaridou, Niki
The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children ( N = 154, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends' influences on children's physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child's questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between "general friend support," "friends' activity norms," and physical activity ( r = 0.343 and 0.333 resp., p friend support" and time spent outside ( r = 0.460, p parental and friends' influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children's physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends' influences may have a stronger impact on children's behaviors.
MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John
To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit
The current study aimed at investigating the direct and moderating role of personal growth in a child's adjustment to first grade as perceived by the parents, drawing on Positive Psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, ) and the theory of families as systems (Cox & Paley, ). The sample consisted of 280 Israeli parents (213 mothers and 67 fathers) whose children were in first grade. The participants completed questionnaires relating to background variables of the parent and child, as well as parents' perceived stress, emotional intelligence, perceived child's adjustment to school and personal growth. The findings indicate that a child's entrance into the school system may lead to personal growth in the parents and that variables of both the parent (age and education) and the child (birth order) contribute to this process. Furthermore, among parents with a low level of personal growth, higher emotional intelligence was associated with a more positive assessment of the child's adjustment. The study thus demonstrates that the transition to first grade may serve as a lever for the parents' growth and development, which in turn may affect their perception of their child's adjustment to school. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hannah N. Hoffenkamp
Full Text Available The development of an affectionate parent-infant bond is essential for a newborn infant's survival and development. However, from evolutionary theory it can be derived that parental bonding is not an automatic process, but dependent on infants' cues to reproductive potential and parents' access to resources. The purpose of the present study was to examine the process of bonding in a sample of Dutch mothers (n = 200 and fathers (n = 193 of full-term (n = 69, moderately premature (n = 68, and very premature infants (n = 63. During the first month postpartum parents completed the Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure (PRAM and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ. Longitudinal analyses revealed that mothers' PRAM scores decreased after moderately preterm delivery, whereas decreases in PRAM scores occurred in both parents after very preterm delivery. As lower PRAM scores represent stronger feelings of parent-infant connectedness, our findings suggest a higher degree of bonding after premature childbirth. Results of the PBQ analysis were in line with PRAM outcomes, as parents of preterm infants reported less bonding problems compared to parents of full-terms. These findings support the hypothesis that in affluent countries with adequate resources, bonding in parents of preterm infants on average may be higher than in parents of full-term infants.
Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro A; Leo, Francisco M; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Amado, Diana; García-Calvo, Tomás
The main aim of the research was to examine the relationship between motivational orientations and parents' behavior with regard to the players' motivational orientation, motivational climate, enjoyment and amotivation. The sample comprised 723 athletes (M = 12.37, SD = 1.48) and 723 parents (M = 46.46, SD = 2.56). Players were male and female who belonged to federative basketball, handball, football and volleyball teams. Parents and athletes completed questionnaires that assessed motivational orientations, parents' involvement in the practice as well as enjoyment and motivation in the sport. Results showed a positive relationship between parents' support of the sport and players' enjoyment and a negative relationship with players' amotivation. Moreover, in players who perceived more pressure from their parents, there was a positive association with amotivation and a negative one with enjoyment. Lastly, it was emphasized that appropriate parental participation can promote an increase of players' enjoyment of and motivation for sport.
Fabes, R A; Leonard, S A; Kupanoff, K; Martin, C L
This study examined the relation between parents' reactions to children's negative emotions and social competence. Additionally, the role of parental emotional distress in children's emotional socialization was examined. The emotional reactions of 57 preschoolers (33 girls, 24 boys; M age = 59.2 months) were observed during their free-play interactions. Parents (mostly mothers) completed questionnaires about their reactions to children's negative emotions. An index of children's social competence was obtained from teachers. Results indicated that the relation between harsh parental coping strategies and children's emotional responding was moderated by parental distress. In addition, the relation of the interaction of parental coping and distress to children's social competence was mediated by children's level of emotional intensity. It was concluded that distressed parents who use harsh coping strategies in response to children's negative emotions have children who express emotion in relatively intense ways. In turn, these children find it relatively difficult to behave in a socially competent manner.
Hansson, Erika; Daukantaité, Daiva; Johnsson, Per
Research on the relationships between adolescent and parental disordered eating (DE) and emotion dysregulation is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether mothers' and fathers' own DE, as measured by SCOFF questionnaire, and emotion dysregulation, as measured by the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS), were associated with their daughters' or sons' DE and emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of shared family meals and possible parent-related predictors of adolescent DE were explored. The total sample comprised 1,265 adolescents (M age = 16.19, SD = 1.21; age range 13.5-19 years, 54.5% female) whose parents had received a self-report questionnaire via mail. Of these, 235 adolescents (18.6% of the total sample) whose parents completed the questionnaire were used in the analyses. Parents' responses were matched and compared with those of their child. Adolescent girls showed greater levels of DE overall than did their parents. Furthermore, DE was associated with emotion dysregulation among both adolescents and parents. Adolescent and parental emotion dysregulation was associated, although there were gender differences in the specifics of this relationship. The frequency of shared dinner meals was the only variable that was associated to DE and emotion dysregulation among adolescents, while parental eating disorder was the only variable that enhanced the probability of adolescent DE. The present study contributes to the literature by demonstrating that there are significant associations between parents and their adolescent children in terms of DE, emotion dysregulation, and shared family meals. Future studies should break down these relationships among mothers, fathers, girls, and boys to further clarify the specific associational, and possibly predictive, directions.
Purssell, Edward; While, Alison
To field test a parental self-efficacy scale regarding its acceptability and feasibility and to describe parental self-efficacy in a convenience sample of parents with children aged 6 years old or less. Self-care within families is increasingly emphasised in health policy as a means of maximising healthcare resources. This study reports the field testing of a scale designed to measure parental self-efficacy. Cross-sectional survey of parents of children aged 6 years old or less. Subjects were recruited through a parenting internet website (n = 84) and local parenting and community organisations (n = 68) and asked to complete a questionnaire containing the scale. Data collection took place between January and August 2011. The scale, previously validated with an expert panel of professionals, gathered information about parental self-efficacy when administered either directly or through an on-line data collection portal, although there were more missing data when administered via the Internet. Although convenience and self-selecting samples precluded parameter estimation, areas of concern highlighted were difficulties differentiating children with serious illnesses and the use of the Personal Child Health Record. Use of the Internet was widespread, as was use of community pharmacists and nursery staff. Although the primary purpose was not to collect specific data, the data indicated the continuing concern of parents regarding serious illness and where additional investment may be required to meet parental needs and expectations. The previously validated scale can be used to collect information about parental self-efficacy either through a paper questionnaire or the Internet. Although there was slightly more missing data from the Internet version, the ease of its administration makes this an attractive option. Parents generally reported high levels of self-efficacy and satisfaction with services; however, the scale was able to identify areas where further investment
Montgomery, Catharine; Fisk, John E; Craig, Laura
Research in adolescents has shown that parental warmth and control are important factors in drug use. The present study focused upon investigating perceived parental warmth and control in a sample of post-adolescent ecstasy/polydrug users, and investigating their relationship to severity of drug use. A total of 128 (65 male) ecstasy/polydrug users, 51 (17 male), cannabis-only users and 54 (13 male) non-users were recruited from a university population. All participants completed the parenting styles and drug use questionnaires. Compared to non-users, a greater proportion of ecstasy/polydrug users characterised their parents' style as neglectful. The modal style endorsed by non-users was authoritative. Those who rated their parents' style as authoritative had significantly lower lifetime consumption and average dose of ecstasy relative to those describing their parents as neglectful. Again, relative to those describing their parents as neglectful, participants from authoritarian backgrounds had significantly smaller lifetime consumption of ecstasy and cocaine and significantly smaller average doses of cannabis, ecstasy and cocaine. Contrary to expectation, there was no significant association between perceived parental warmth and the severity of ecstasy use. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to quantify drug use, and relate it to perceived parental practices in a post-adolescent sample of ecstasy/polydrug users. The results provide further support for the relationship between perceived parental control and drug use.
Full Text Available Objective: In this study, our aim was to assess and analyze parental concerns by Portuguese District. Methods: The participants were 3842 parents of children between 3 and 10 years old, attending preschool and primary school, from 820 public schools in 18 Portuguese Districts. Parents completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, and a Parental Concerns Scale, composed by 5 subscales, family and school problems; feeding, sleep and physical complaints; preparation; fears; and negative behaviors. Results: Portuguese parents concerned about all the dimensions considered in this study. The highest level of concern was obtained in family and school problems, and the lowest level of concern about their children’s fears. There were significant differences between Districts, parents from Porto and Bragança showed the highest levels of concern. Parents from Coimbra, Évora, Beja e Portalegre, presented the lowest levels of concern. Conclusion: Parental concerns are an aspect of general parenting and must be considered by health professionals to promote healthier parents-children relationships. Geographic differences should be further investigated.
van der Geest, Ivana M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Passchier, Jan; van den Hoed-Heerschop, Corry; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E
The aim was to investigate the influence of parents' negative mood state and parenting stress on behavior in children with newly diagnosed cancer. A total of 123 parents (n=58 fathers, n=65 mothers) of 67 children with newly diagnosed cancer completed three questionnaires separately at the same time measuring parents' negative mood state, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Parents' negative mood state was weakly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.31, pparenting stress were strongly correlated to more child behavior problems (r=0.61, pparents' negative mood state and child behavior problems (c=0.29, p=0.02 (fathers); c=0.25, p=0.04 (mothers)) became non-significant after mediating for parenting stress (c'=0.003, p=0.98 (fathers); c'=0.10, p=0.42 (mothers)). The indirect effect of parents' negative mood state and child behavior problems was only significant for fathers (95% CI [0.12; 0.51]), indicating that parenting stress mediates the effect between fathers' negative mood state and child behavior problems. This is the first study to demonstrate the mediational role of parenting stress in fathers of a child with newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A
IJsselsteijn, W.A.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; Poels, K.
This document contains the English version of the Game Experience Questionnaire. The development and testing of the Game Experience Questionnaire is described in project Deliverable 3.3. The Game Experience Questionnaire has a modular structure and consists of : 1. The core questionnaire 2. The
Dr. Vivek H. Ramanandi
Full Text Available Background: Parenting is inherently stressful at times and several studies have shown that being a caregiver of a child who is disabled is even more stressful. A number of studies have identified the factors which exacerbate or mediate parenting stress in caregivers of children who are disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the parenting stress levels in parents of children who have cerebral palsy as compared to parents of normal children. Further objectives were to ascertain variables predictive of parenting stress levels. Methods: The Gujarati translated version of Parenting Stress Index/Short Form was first validated and was given to 49 parents of children with cerebral palsy (Group-A who were attending Varun Mahajan Apang Shishu Mandal, Vadodara and to the 50 parents of normal children(Group-B. Caregivers also completed a demographic questionnaire. 43 questionnaires from Group-A and 45 from Group-B were returned to the researcher. Means and frequencies were used to summarise the demographic data. T-tests were performed to establish whether there was any significant difference between the parenting stress levels in Group-A and Group-B. Results: The parents in Group-A showed clinically significant, and in many cases, pathological levels of parenting stress as compared to the parents in Group-B. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm that parenting stress is complex matter and it is important to predict the parenting stress levels of caregivers of disabled children. Therapists should evaluate the needs of each family individually and follow a family centred approach when managing children with cerebral palsy.
Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura
This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.
Mounts, Nina S
Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in
Tellegen, Cassandra L; Sanders, Matthew R
This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of Primary Care Stepping Stones Triple P, a brief individualized parenting program, in a sample of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty-four parents of children aged 2-9 years (M = 5.67, SD = 2.14) with an ASD diagnosis participated in the study. Eighty-six percent of children were male, and 89% of parents identified their child's ethnicity as Australian/White. Families were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions (intervention or care-as-usual) and were assessed at 3 time points (preintervention, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up). Parents completed a range of questionnaires to assess changes in child behavior (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and parent outcomes (Parenting Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Parent Problem Checklist, Relationship Quality Inventory, Parental Stress Scale) and 30-min home observations of parent-child interactions. Relative to the care-as-usual group, significant short-term improvements were found in the intervention group on parent-reported child behavior problems, dysfunctional parenting styles, parenting confidence, and parental stress, parental conflict, and relationship happiness. No significant intervention effects were found on levels of parental depression or anxiety, or on observed child disruptive and parent aversive behavior. The effect sizes for significant variables ranged from medium to large. Short-term effects were predominantly maintained at 6-month follow-up, and parents reported high levels of goal achievement and satisfaction with the program. The results indicate that a brief low intensity version of Stepping Stones Triple P is an efficacious intervention for parents of children with ASD.
Matheson, Brittany E; Camacho, Casandra; Peterson, Carol B; Rhee, Kyung E; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy L; Boutelle, Kerri N
To examine differences in parent feeding behaviors and general parenting of overweight children with and without loss of control (LOC) eating. One-hundred-and-eighteen overweight and obese children (10.40 ± 1.35 years; 53% female; 52% Caucasian; BMI-z: 2.06 ± 0.39) and their parents (42.42 ± 6.20 years; 91% female; 70% Caucasian; BMI: 31.74 ± 6.96 kg/m(2) ) were seen at a baseline assessment visit for a behavioral intervention that targeted overeating. The Eating Disorder Examination, adapted for children (ChEDE) was administered to assess for LOC eating. Parents completed the Parental Feeding Styles Questionnaire (PFSQ) and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess parent feeding styles and behaviors. Children also completed a self-report measure of general parenting (Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory, CRPBI-30). Forty-three children (36.40%) reported at least one LOC eating episode in the month prior to assessment. Parents who reported greater restriction and higher levels of pressure to eat were more likely to have children that reported LOC eating (ps Parents who utilized more instrumental feeding and prompting/encouragement to eat techniques were less likely to have children that reported LOC eating (ps parenting behaviors were unrelated to child LOC eating (ps > 0.05). Parent feeding styles and behaviors appear to be differentially and uniquely related to LOC eating in treatment-seeking overweight and obese children. Future research is needed to determine if implementing interventions that target parent feeding behaviors may reduce LOC eating, prevent full-syndrome eating disorders, and reduce weight gain in youth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nagano, Jun; Kakuta, Chikage; Motomura, Chikako; Odajima, Hiroshi; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Nishima, Sankei; Kubo, Chiharu
To examine relationships between a mother's stress-related conditions and parenting attitudes and their children's asthmatic status. 274 mothers of an asthmatic child 2 to 12 years old completed a questionnaire including questions about their chronic stress/coping behaviors (the "Stress Inventory"), parenting attitudes (the "Ta-ken Diagnostic Test for Parent-Child Relationship, Parent Form"), and their children's disease status. One year later, a follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the mothers that included questions on the child's disease status. 223 mothers (81%) responded to the follow-up survey. After controlling for non-psychosocial factors including disease severity at baseline, multiple linear regression analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis found chronic irritation/anger and emotional suppression to be aggravating factors for children aged types of parental stress/coping behaviors and parenting styles may differently predict their children's asthmatic status, and such associations may change as children grow.
Ammentorp, Jette; Sabroe, Svend; Kofoed, Poul-Erik
. The intervention group completed a 5-day communication course, whereas the control group had no intervention. The intervention was evaluated using questionnaires measuring parents' perception of the communication and their satisfaction. The questionnaires were filled out by parents to children consulting....... There were no significant differences between the satisfaction of parents visiting clinicians from the intervention group and those visiting clinicians from the control group; however, the proportion of parents who had a positive perception of the communication was up to 9.8% higher in the intervention group...... compared with the control group. For example: 'the clinician told my child what he/she could do in order to feel better'. Discussion: Although no statistically significant differences were found, the study indicates that parents who had visited a clinician from the intervention group have experienced...
Hughes, Sheryl O.; Power, Thomas G.; O’Connor, Teresia M.; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An
Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (...
Williams, Kate E; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M; Walker, Sue; Abad, Vicky
The positive relationship between parent-child interactions and optimal child development is well established. Families of children with disabilities may face unique challenges in establishing positive parent-child relationships; yet, there are few studies examining the effectiveness of music therapy interventions to address these issues. In particular, these studies have been limited by small sample size and the use of measures of limited reliability and validity. This study examined the effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents of children with disabilities and explored factors associated with better outcomes for participating families. Participants were 201 mother-child dyads, where the child had a disability. Pre- and post-intervention parental questionnaires and clinician observation measures were completed to examine outcomes of parental wellbeing, parenting behaviors, and child development. Descriptive data, t-tests for repeated measures and a predictive model tested via logistic regression are presented. Significant improvements pre to post intervention were found for parent mental health, child communication and social skills, parenting sensitivity, parental engagement with child and acceptance of child, child responsiveness to parent, and child interest and participation in program activities. There was also evidence for high parental satisfaction and that the program brought social benefits to families. Reliable change on six or more indicators of parent or child functioning was predicted by attendance and parent education. This study provides positive evidence for the effectiveness of group music therapy in promoting improved parental mental health, positive parenting and key child developmental areas.
Rothe, Vincent; Kebriaei, Amy; Pitner, Sheryl; Balluff, Mary; Salama, Fouad
The aim of this study was to evaluate an infant oral health education programme, using a pre-post test design, for parents attending a paediatric clinic. The subjects were parents attending the well baby appointments at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. The study participants were men and women, all with an infant between 3 and 12 months of age. A 16 question assessment in the form of a questionnaire was completed immediately before and after the introduction of a 30 min educational intervention in the form of a PowerPoint presentation and a video of infant oral hygiene for parents. The parents completed the questionnaire twice (pre-post test design) in the same visit. Recruited parents attended only one presentation. The presentation educated parents about infant oral health and provided anticipatory guidance. Forty-seven parents or caretakers participated in the study. On the pre-test 28% had a score of 70% or less, and on the post-test 87% got a score of 88% or better. On the pre-test, 72% had a score of 70% or higher, and on the post-test 87% got a score of 88% or higher. Most parents (80%) reported that the presentation was helpful and indicated that the information would change the way they care for their baby's teeth at home. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a 30 min PowerPoint and Video presentation in improving the oral health knowledge of parents caring for an infant.
Gabriela Abigail Villanueva
Full Text Available Objective. Parents mentoring other parents as a behavioral intervention for child obesity is novel with limited data describing the experience and dynamics of this approach. This study aimed to describe the experiences of parent mentors and the self-efficacy and attitudes of their mentees in the context of a clinical trial for childhood obesity. Methods. The context for this study was a randomized clinical trial using either parent mentors or a community health worker engaging parents of obese children in behavioral change over six months. Parent mentors were interviewed at the mid-point of the intervention using a semistructured questionnaire to elicit their perceptions and experiences during the process of mentoring. Parent mentees completed a survey assessing their self-efficacy, perception of the parent mentor, and attitudes and beliefs related to their child’s weight. Results. The qualitative analysis of parent mentor interviews indicated high commitment despite their nonprofessional status, facing challenges of engagement with fellow parents and attitudes of persistence and being nonjudgmental. The parent mentee ratings of parent mentors were overall very high and similar to the ratings of a community health worker (paraprofessional. Conclusion. The data suggest that a parent mentor model of intervention for child obesity is an acceptable mode of approaching behavior change in the Hispanic population around childhood obesity with potential for scalability if proven effective.
Symeou, Loizos; Roussounidou, Eleni; Michaelides, Michalis
This paper describes a teacher in-service training program on teacher-parent communication in Cyprus and its impact on teacher trainees. Data were gathered through questionnaires completed by teachers prior to their training and after having tried, in real school settings, the communication skills and approaches taught during the course. The…
van der Geest, Ivana M M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Falkenburg, Nette; Michiels, Erna M C; van Vliet, Liesbeth; Pieters, Rob; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E
The loss of a child is associated with an increased risk for developing psychological problems. However, studies investigating the impact of parents' faith and hope for a cure during the palliative phase on long-term parental psychological functioning are limited. The study's objective was to explore the role of faith and hope as a source of coping and indicator of long-term parental adjustment. Eighty-nine parents of 57 children who died of cancer completed questionnaires retrospectively, exploring faith, hope, and sources of coping, and measuring parents' current level of grief and depression. For 19 parents (21%) faith was very important during the palliative phase. The majority of parents remained hopeful for a meaningful time with their child (n=68, 76%); a pain-free death (n=58, 65%); and a cure (n=30, 34%). Their child (n=70, 79%) was parents' main source of coping. Twelve parents (14%) suffered from traumatic grief, and 22 parents (25%) showed symptoms of depression. Parents' faith was not associated with less long-term traumatic grief (OR=0.86, p=0.51) or symptoms of depression (OR=0.95, p=0.74), and parents' hope for a cure was not related to more long-term traumatic grief (OR=1.07, p=0.71) or symptoms of depression (OR=1.12, p=0.47). Faith was important for a minority of parents and was not associated with less long-term traumatic grief or symptoms of depression. The majority of parents remained hopeful. Hope for a cure was not associated with more long-term traumatic grief or symptoms of depression.
Tatman, M A; Woodroffe, C; Kelly, P J; Harris, R J
OBJECTIVES--To describe the first two years of a paediatric home care service. DESIGN--Observational cross sectional study, 1989-91. SETTING--One inner London health district. PATIENTS--611 children referred to the service; 50 children selected from those referred during the first year, whose parents were interviewed and whose general practitioners were invited to complete a questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES--Description and costs of service; views of parents and general practitioners of selected ...
Iannelli, Maria; Harvey, Adrienne; O'Neill, Jenny; Reddihough, Dinah
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have complex health-care needs. This study examines levels of parental satisfaction with inpatient care for children with CP at a tertiary care hospital to identify areas for improvement. Parents/guardians of children with CP and parents/guardians of children without a disability admitted to hospital completed a custom-designed questionnaire assessing six areas of the hospital admission: (i) the admission process; (ii) the child's personal care; (iii) the child's medical care; (iv) overall care of the child; (v) the parent's experience in hospital; and (vi) keeping up to date in hospital. Differences between the two groups were analysed using Student's t-tests. Parents of children with CP were significantly less satisfied with the inpatient care as compared with parents of children without a disability in four of the six categories: 'my child's personal care' (P = 0.0033), 'my child's medical care' (P = 0.0350), 'overall care' (P = 0.0081) and 'my experience in the hospital' (P = 0.0209). When the overall questionnaire was compared between the two groups, parents of children with CP were less satisfied with care than parents of children without a disability (P = 0.0036). Parents of children with CP are less satisfied with the inpatient care of their child compared with parents of children without a disability. This information should be instrumental in informing change to ensure that parent satisfaction levels improve to a level consistent with other children admitted to a tertiary care setting. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Lazarus, Rebecca S; Dodd, Helen F; Majdandžić, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Morris, Talia; Byrow, Yulisha; Bögels, Susan M; Hudson, Jennifer L
This research investigates the relationship between challenging parenting behaviour and childhood anxiety disorders proposed by Bögels and Phares (2008). Challenging parenting behaviour involves the playful encouragement of children to go beyond their own limits, and may decrease children's risk for anxiety (Bögels and Phares, 2008). Parents (n=164 mothers and 144 fathers) of 164 children aged between 3.4 and 4.8 years participated in the current study. A multi-method, multi-informant assessment of anxiety was used, incorporating data from diagnostic interviews as well as questionnaire measures. Parents completed self-report measures of their parenting behaviour (n=147 mothers and 138 fathers) and anxiety (n=154 mothers and 143 fathers). Mothers reported on their child's anxiety via questionnaire as well as diagnostic interview (n=156 and 164 respectively). Of these children, 74 met criteria for an anxiety disorder and 90 did not. Fathers engaged in challenging parenting behaviour more often than mothers. Both mothers' and fathers' challenging parenting behaviour was associated with lower report of child anxiety symptoms. However, only mothers' challenging parenting behaviour was found to predict child clinical anxiety diagnosis. Shared method variance from mothers confined the interpretation of these results. Moreover, due to study design, it is not possible to delineate cause and effect. The finding with respect to maternal challenging parenting behaviour was not anticipated, prompting replication of these results. Future research should investigate the role of challenging parenting behaviour by both caregivers as this may have implications for parenting interventions for anxious children. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975. These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old and their style of parenting their 14- to 15-years-old adolescent. The participants were the primary school pupils of Gorenjska and Ljubljana regions. Adult attachment style was measured with Experience in Close Relationship Questionnaire - Revised (Fraley, Waller in Brennan, 2000. The children completed 30-item Parental Authority Questionnaire for the Mother's and Father's Parenting Style (Buri, 1991. We expected that the parents with low results in Anxiety and Avoidance were the ones who mostly used the authoritative parenting style compared to the parents with higher results of Anxiety and Avoidance in their relationship. The second hypothesis was that high results in Anxiety in parental relationship would mean a more authoritarian parenting style. The results confirmed our assumptions. Parents with a secure mutual relationship mainly raised their children in an authoritative manner with lots of warmth, support and appropriate borders. The second hypothesis was confirmed for fathers only. Fathers with high Anxiety in partner relationship (fear of abandonment, feelings of uncompetency mostly raised their children in an authoritarian manner. The authoritarian manner consists of many strict borders, a lot of control and obedience. The connection of Anxiety in partnership and authoritarian parenting style was not significant for mothers.
Vaughn, Amber E; Martin, Chantel L; Ward, Dianne S
Parents have a strong influence on their children's eating habits; however, researchers struggle to identify which food parenting practices to recommend. This study examined the influence of parents modeling of healthy eating ("parent role modeling") and parents' actual food intake ("parent dietary intake") on child diet quality, and explored whether these practices work together to influence children's diets. Baseline data from a larger intervention trial were used for this analysis. The sample included parents of preschool-age children from households with at least one overweight parent. The Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire was used to assess parent modeling of healthy eating ("healthy modeling"). Three days of dietary recalls were used to collect parents' report of their own intake and their children's intake (excluding food at child care). Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent intake of healthy and unhealthy foods were explored using Pearson correlations. Associations between parent healthy modeling and parent Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score on child HEI score were examined with linear regression. Additionally, the interaction between parent healthy modeling and HEI score on child HEI score was tested. Parent healthy modeling was significantly correlated with parent intake of healthy foodsLinear regression showed a significant association between parent modeling and child HEI score, even after controlling for parent diet (β = 3.08, SE = 0.87, p parents had high parent healthy modeling scores had higher HEI scores (mean = 61.5 ± 10.4) regardless of parent HEI score. We did not find evidence that parent healthy modeling and diet quality interact to influence child diet quality. Parents' healthy modeling is an important practice in influencing children's diet quality, possibly more so than the quality of parents' diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
van der Zanden, Rianne A P; Speetjens, Paula A M; Arntz, Karlijn S E; Onrust, Simone A
Children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) are at greater risk of developing mental disorders themselves. Since impaired parenting skills appear to be a crucial factor, we developed a facilitated 8-session preventative group course called KopOpOuders (Chin Up, Parents) delivered via the Internet to Dutch parents with psychiatric problems. The goal was to promote children's well-being by strengthening children's protective factors via their parents. To reach parents at an early stage of their parenting difficulties, the course is easily accessible online. The course is delivered in a secure chat room, and participation is anonymous. This paper reports on (1) the design and method of this online the group course and (2) the results of a pilot study that assessed parenting skills, parental sense of competence, child well-being, and course satisfaction. The pilot study had a pre/post design. Parenting skills were assessed using Laxness and Overreactivity subscales of the Parenting Scale (PS). Sense of parenting competence was measured with the Ouderlijke Opvattingen over Opvoeding (OOO) questionnaire, a Dutch scale assessing parental perceptions of parenting using the Feelings of Incompetence and Feelings of Competence subscales. Child well-being was assessed with the total problem score, Emotional Problems, and Hyperactivity subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Paired samples t tests were performed, and Cohen's d was used to determine effect sizes. Intention-to-treat analyses and analyses of completers only were both performed. Course satisfaction was evaluated using custom-designed questionnaires. The sample comprised 48 parents with mental illness. The response rate was 100% (48/48) at pretest and 58% (28/48) at posttest. Significant improvements were found on PS Laxness and Overreactivity subscales (P children were not in the clinical range at both pretest and posttest. The mean course satisfaction score was 7.8 on a 10-point scale
Full Text Available Abstract Background: With regards to importance of the role of parents in children's life, imbalance in the roles of parents can lead to serious mental, emotional and physical damages of the child. The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks in parents of children with disability (physical- mental younger than 7 years in the city of Arak in 2016. Materials and Methods: In this study, the parenting role's tasks questionnaire for 120 parents of children with disability was completed. The effect of demographic characteristics on how to perform the role of parents was studied. Results: Based on data collected and analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between the parents and other factors, we have found no significant relationship between role of parents with the child's age. In disabled children, between parent's role and maternal age was significant difference which its correlation coefficient was -0.18, represented the inverse association between maternal age and the parent's role with disabled children. In comparison of parent's role based on child's gender, significant difference was not seen in any of cases. The impact of the seizure on performance of parenting role's tasks implied no relationship between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks. Economic situation as well as on how to do tasks was ineffective. Conclusion: Imbalance in performance of parenting role's tasks in primary care, education, leisure and cognition promotion showed that existence of a disabled child in the family had negative impact on the parenting role's tasks in different aspects, for example further focus on one of the domains lead to ignorance of other domains. Total score confirmed the negative impact of disabled children on efficient implementation of parenting role's tasks.
Saletsky, Ronald D; Trief, Paula M; Anderson, Barbara J; Rosenbaum, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S
Parenting behaviors and family conflict relate to type 1 diabetes outcomes in youth. Our purpose was to understand these relationships in parents and youth with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) trial enrolled youth (10-17 years) with T2DM and parent/guardian. For this ancillary study, we enrolled a sample of youth-parent pairs (N = 137) in 1 study arm (metformin plus lifestyle intervention). They completed questionnaires measuring parenting style related to normative (e.g., completing homework) and diabetes self-care (e.g., testing blood glucose) tasks, and parent-youth verbal conflict (baseline, 6, and 12 months). Parenting style was consistent across normative and diabetes tasks, with gradual increases in autonomy perceived by youth. Conversations were generally calm, with greater conflict regarding normative than diabetes tasks at baseline (youth: p parent: p = .01), 6 months (youth: p = .02, parent: p > .05), and 12 months (youth: p > .05., parent: p = .05). A permissive parenting style toward normative tasks and a less authoritarian style toward diabetes tasks, at baseline, predicted better medication adherence (8-12 months) (normative: adjusted R2 = 0.48, p Parent-youth conflict did not predict medication adherence. Youth with T2DM who perceive more autonomy (less parental control) in day-to-day and diabetes tasks are more likely to adhere to medication regimens. It may be valuable to assess youth perceptions of parenting style and help parents understand youths' needs for autonomy.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice
A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…
A questionnaire data file is an ASCII text file containing data from completed Diet History Questionnaires. If using paper forms, this file can be created by a scanner or a data entry system. If using DHQ*Web, the questionnaire data file is created automatically.
Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the awareness of retinopathy of prematurity(ROPamong parents of ROP patients in Northern China.METHODS:A questionnaire was given to 230 parents of ROP infants and collected in person between Jan. and Apr. 2013. Basic information on the ROP infants and the parents' awareness of ROP were collected from the parents.RESULTS:In all, 221/230(96.1%questionnaires were returned. Based on these completed responses, 128(57.9%premature infants received screening during hospital stays, 208(94.1%parents were informed about screening and received a recommendation for screening by pediatricians, and 13(5.9%parents did not receive any recommendation for screening. Only 159(71.9%parents were aware of ROP, while 62(28.1%were not aware of the disease. Because stages 4 and 5 of ROP had a poor prognosis, we determined whether parents were informed by pediatricians closely associated with the severity of ROP(PP=0.625.CONCLUSION:Awareness of ROP among parents and pediatricians in Northern China still needs to be improved. Better and more timely communication and education of parents regarding ROP from pediatricians and ophthalmologists will help.
Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC and A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC and A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC and A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC and A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC and A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC and A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC and A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC and A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC and A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC and A functions.
Blissett, J; Haycraft, E
This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous.
Alexander, P C; Teti, L; Anderson, C L
This study explored the main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction on self-reported parenting, controlling for histories of physical abuse and parental alcoholism. The community sample consisted of 90 mothers of 5- to 8-year-old children. The sample was limited to those mothers currently in an intimate relationship, 19 of whom reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Parenting Stress Inventory, the Family Cohesion Index, and questions assessing parent-child role reversal, history of abuse and parental alcoholism, and current relationship satisfaction. Results of analyses and multivariate analyses of covariance suggested that sexual abuse survivors with an unsatisfactory intimate relationship were more likely than either sexual abuse survivors with a satisfactory relationship or nonabused women to endorse items on a questionnaire of role reversal (defined as emotional overdependence upon one's child). Role reversal was not significantly predicted by histories of physical abuse or parental alcoholism or child's gender. While parenting stress was inversely predicted by the significant main effect of relationship satisfaction, neither parenting stress nor child behavior problems were predicted by the main effect of sexual abuse history or by the interaction between sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction. These results suggest the unique relevance of sexual abuse history and relationship satisfaction in the prediction of a specific type of parent-child role reversal--namely, a mother's emotional overdependence upon her child.
Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Zafiropoulou, Maria
According to Bowlby's theory of attachment, the role of early experience and parenting is of crucial importance to child development and mental health. In addition, several research findings suggest that parental bonding and different types of attachment play a crucial role in personality development. The present study examines the association between parental bonding experiences (lack of parental care, overprotection or both) and depression during adulthood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different personality dimensions as possible mediators of the relation between perceptions of parental bonding and depressive symptoms in adult life. 181 participants (15- 49-years-old) completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The results show that lack of parental care and overprotection is linked with depressive symptoms and a number of personality characteristics, such as low self-esteem, introversion, distress and emotional instability. In contrast, high care and low protection (optimal bonding) is linked with increased self-confidence, less distress and less depressive symptoms. The results presented here are in line with Bowlby's theory of attachment and show that parental bonding is linked with problematic personality development and psychopathology. The present study provided evidence that personality factors may mediate the observed relationship between parental rearing style and depression. The potential causal mechanisms warrant longitudinal evaluation.
Wilson, C. Chrisman
This is a general discussion of the validity, reliability, function, and format of questionnaires designed to measure problem behavior, noncompliance, anxiety, social interaction, hyperactivity, drug use, and sexual behavior. Commonly used questionnaires are cited. (CP)
Tedgård, Eva; Råstam, Maria; Wirtberg, Ingegerd
To add to our knowledge concerning the key elements involved in the individual's experience of growing up with substance abusing parents and the resulting challenges this involved for their own parenthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 parents who had participated in a mental health intervention programme. All had experienced substance abusing parents in their family of origin. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. They also completed a self-report questionnaire assessing their attachment style. Participants reported a high incidence of emotional abuse and neglect coupled with inadequate support from the community. Their own parental role was influenced by high parental stress and a majority had an insecure attachment style. All participants had experienced a very difficult childhood which was reinforced by the fact that they received little support from society. Their childhood experience and the resulting challenges that this created in their own parenting role could negatively influence their own children's ability to form a secure psychosocial development. It is therefore important to develop instruments that can help to identify children who were raised in misuse families in order to accommodate the transgenerational effects of growing up with substance abusing parents.
García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa
This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Tedgård, Eva; Råstam, Maria; Wirtberg, Ingegerd
ABSTRACT Aim: To add to our knowledge concerning the key elements involved in the individual’s experience of growing up with substance abusing parents and the resulting challenges this involved for their own parenthood. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 parents who had participated in a mental health intervention programme. All had experienced substance abusing parents in their family of origin. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. They also completed a self-report questionnaire assessing their attachment style. Result: Participants reported a high incidence of emotional abuse and neglect coupled with inadequate support from the community. Their own parental role was influenced by high parental stress and a majority had an insecure attachment style. Conclusions: All participants had experienced a very difficult childhood which was reinforced by the fact that they received little support from society. Their childhood experience and the resulting challenges that this created in their own parenting role could negatively influence their own children’s ability to form a secure psychosocial development. It is therefore important to develop instruments that can help to identify children who were raised in misuse families in order to accommodate the transgenerational effects of growing up with substance abusing parents. PMID:29482480
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W
Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles
Cheryl A. Zecevic
Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.
Glozah, Franklin N.
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The resu...
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brown, Elaine N.
We investigated the influence of the child's behavior on the quality of the mutual parent-child attachment relationships across three generations. We did so using a prospective longitudinal study which spanned 20 years from adolescence through adulthood. Study participants completed in-class questionnaires as students in the East Harlem area of…
Hakvoort, E.M.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.; Hermanns, J.M.A.
This study examined the differences and associations between divorced mothers' relationships with their ex-partners and with their children, and investigated whether this association is mediated by mothers' experience of parenting stress. A questionnaire was completed by 117 divorced single mothers
Utens, E. M.; Versluis-den Bieman, H. J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Witsenburg, M.; Bogers, A. J.; Hess, J.
We sought to assess the level of psychological distress, and the styles of coping of, parents of children with congenital heart disease. The study was based on questionnaires, which were completed, on average, four weeks, with a range from 0.1 to 22.1 weeks, prior to elective cardiac surgery or
Tice, Terrence N.; Hanson, Janice L.
In an investigation of the impact of the psychological/educational diagnostic process on the parents of young children at risk for developmental delay, 18 families completed questionnaires and were interviewed concerning their child's evaluation. Transcribed interviews conducted 1-2 weeks after the evaluation and 4 months after the evaluations…
Wong, Kristyn; Stacks, Ann M.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Muzik, Maria
This study assessed the links between infant negative affect, parental reflective functioning (RF), and toddler behavior problems in a sample of 84 women and their infants. Mothers provided self-report demographic data and completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised during a home visit when the infant was 7 months old. They also completed…
Scull, Tracy M.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Parker, Alison E.; Elmore, Kristen C.; Benson, Jessica W.
Two cross-sectional studies investigated media influences on adolescents' substance use and intentions to use substances in the context of exposure to parental and peer risk and protective factors. A total of 729 middle school students (n = 351, 59% female in Study 1; n = 378, 43% female in Study 2) completed self-report questionnaires. The sample…
Regner, Isabelle; Loose, Florence; Dumas, Florence
The present study examined whether students' perceptions of two major facets of parental and teacher academic involvement (i.e., academic support and academic monitoring), contribute to the process of students' achievement goals adoption. French junior high-school students completed two questionnaires assessing first their perceptions of parental…
Wright, Loyd S.; Fling, Sheila
To determine how college students would rate themselves on a 5-point continuum from homosexual to heterosexual and then to see how those classified individuals perceived themselves and their parents, 1,783 single college students (741 males, 1,032 females), between the ages of 18 and 23, completed two self-report questionnaires. The first assessed…
Coln, Kristen L.; Jordan, Sara S.; Mercer, Sterett H.
We examined positive and negative parenting practices and psychological control as mediators of the relations between constructive and destructive marital conflict and children's internalizing and externalizing problems in a unified model. Married mothers of 121 children between the ages of 6 and 12 completed questionnaires measuring marital…
Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia
This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…
Meesters, C.M.G.; Muris, P.E.H.M.; Dibbets, P.; Cima, M.; Lemmens, L.H.J.M.
This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11-18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument
Meesters, Cor; Muris, Peter; Dibbets, Pauline; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Lotte H.J.M.
This study examined relationships between the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in both clinical (N = 104) and non-clinical (N = 477) (young) adolescents aged 11–18 years, who completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parental rearing behaviors (EMBU-C) and a scenario-based instrument
Thompson, Linda; Spanier, Graham B.
This study investigates the relative influences of parents, peers, and partners on the contraceptive use of college men and women. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a nonprobability, purposive sample of 434 never-married, sexually active males and females between the ages of 17 and 22 years. (Author)
Hermary, Martin E.; Rempel, Judith
Questionnaires were completed by 103 staff and 76 parents of clients of a day training and residential agency for persons with mental handicaps. Although, in general, respondents felt part of their respective teams, differences of opinion arose with respect to team cohesiveness, and comprehensibility and participatory equality at conferences.…
Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Pisoni, David B
The psychometric properties of the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning (LEAF) scale were investigated in an outpatient clinical pediatric sample. As a part of clinical testing, the LEAF scale, which broadly measures neuropsychological abilities related to executive functioning and learning, was administered to parents of 118 children and adolescents referred for psychological testing at a pediatric psychology clinic; 85 teachers also completed LEAF scales to assess reliability across different raters and settings. Scores on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and academic achievement were abstracted from charts. Psychometric analyses of the LEAF scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, parent-teacher inter-rater reliability in the small to large effect size range, and test-retest reliability in the large effect size range, similar to values for other executive functioning checklists. Correlations between corresponding subscales on the LEAF and other behavior checklists were large, while most correlations with neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and achievement were significant but in the small to medium range. Results support the utility of the LEAF as a reliable and valid questionnaire-based assessment of delays and disturbances in executive functioning and learning. Applications and advantages of the LEAF and other questionnaire measures of executive functioning in clinical neuropsychology settings are discussed.
Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Van Petegem, Stijn
Adolescents' conflict management styles with parents are assumed to have an important impact on the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship and on adolescents' psychosocial development. Longitudinal research investigating possible determinants of these conflict management skills is scarce. The parenting context and adolescents' tendency to reject maternal authority are expected to shape adolescents' conflict management styles. Therefore, the present three-wave longitudinal study focuses on how parenting and adolescents' reactance relates to adolescents' conflict management styles and conflict frequency with mothers over time, and whether reactance may also explain the associations between parenting and certain conflict variables. We addressed these research questions by using a hybrid cross-lagged panel model with parenting as a latent variable (i.e., supportive parenting) and the other variables as manifest variables. Supportive parenting was measured by four well-known parenting dimensions: autonomy support, responsiveness, psychological control, and harsh control. Four conflict styles were investigated: positive problem solving, withdrawal, conflict engagement, and compliance. Questionnaires were completed by 812 adolescents at three annual waves (52% girls at Time 1). Supportive parenting was associated with fewer conflicts, more positive problem solving, and less compliance and reactance over time. Reactance was associated with more conflicts, conflict engagement and withdrawal, and less compliance. We did not find evidence for the mediating role of reactance in the over-time associations between parenting and adolescents' conflict management and frequency. Both parenting and reactance appeared important and unique determinants for adolescents' conflict management styles and frequency.
Williams, Lauren K; Lamb, Karen E; McCarthy, Maria C
Behavioral and emotional difficulties are a recognised side effect of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Modifiable factors, such as parenting strategies, may be an appropriate target for interventions to assist families with managing their child's behavior, potentially leading to improved psychosocial and clinical outcomes. This study examined whether parenting strategies are associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in a pediatric oncology context, with the aim of establishing whether parenting is a potential modifiable target for psychosocial intervention. Participants included 73 parents of children aged 2-6 years who were either (i) in the maintenance phase of treatment for ALL at the Royal Children's Hospital Children's Cancer Centre, Melbourne (N = 43), or (ii) had no major medical history (healthy control group) (N = 30). Participants completed psychometrically validated questionnaires that assessed parenting strategies and child emotional and behavioral problems. Results revealed that the ALL group parents reported higher lax parenting and more spoiling and bribing of their child than the healthy control group. Results from regression models indicated that, after controlling for the significant contribution of illness status and child age on child emotional and behavioral difficulties, parental laxness and parental overprotection were significantly associated with child emotional and behavioral difficulties. Supporting parents to minimise sub-optimal parenting strategies, particularly lax parenting, may offer a fruitful avenue for future research directed toward modifiable factors associated with managing child emotional and behavioral problems in a pediatric oncology context. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Constantinos A. Loucaides
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (N=154, mean age = 11.7 and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child’s questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between “general friend support,” “friends’ activity norms,” and physical activity (r=0.343 and 0.333 resp., p<0.001 and between “general friend support” and time spent outside (r=0.460, p<0.001. Obtaining information relating to parental and friends’ influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children’s physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends’ influences may have a stronger impact on children’s behaviors.
Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel
The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…
Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents' and adolescents' demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents' obesity.
Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A
Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips of parenting behaviours. Mothers of 93 children with autism spectrum disorder completed an online survey regarding the severity of their own child's autism spectrum disorder (Social Communication Questionnaire), their child's behaviour problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and their own levels of parenting stress (Questionnaire on Resources and Stress). They were shown five videos of other parents interacting with children with autism spectrum disorder and were asked to rate the limit-setting abilities observed in each video using the Parent-Child Relationship Inventory. Higher parenting stress negatively related to judgements about others' limit-setting skills. This mirrors the literature regarding the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and rating child behaviour more negatively. It suggests that stress negatively impacts a wide range of judgements and implies that caution may be required when interpreting the results of studies in which parenting skills are assessed by self-report.
Katz, Idit; Madjar, Nir; Harari, Adi
This article focuses on parents' role in overweight adolescents' motivation to diet and successful weight loss. The study employed Self-Determination Theory (SDT) as the theoretical framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2011). Ninety-nine participants (ages 20-30) who had been overweight during adolescence according to their Body Mass Index (BMI mean = 25, SD = 1.6), completed retrospective questionnaires about their motivation to diet and their parents' behavior in the context of dieting. Findings from a structural equation modeling analysis suggested that participants who viewed their parents' as more need-supportive demonstrated more autonomous motivation to diet, which, in turn, contributed to their successful weight loss. The findings highlight the importance of parental support of adolescents' psychological needs in the quality of their motivation to diet. This is an important insight for parents and professionals who aim to encourage more constructive parent involvement in adolescents' dieting and well-being.
Chen, Chen-Jung; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Chen, Yi-Chang; Wang, Chih-Hung
Adolescence may involve increases in many behavioral problems and psychosocial maladaptation. Adolescents must successfully cope with these challenges to achieve positive developmental milestones. To investigate whether low parental attachment security among adolescents in Taiwan is associated with their demographic characteristics, psychosocial maladaptation, and depression. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 335 adolescents completed the questionnaires. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Chinese version of the Youth Self-Report, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to survey the participants. Correlation and multiple linear regressions, using low attachment security as the response variable, were used in the statistical analysis. The prevalence of Taiwanese adolescents with low parental attachment security was 38.5%. Low parental attachment security in adolescents was significantly associated with parental remarriage status and psychosocial maladaptation. By considering these risk factors, nursing educators and nurses could develop effective interventions to strengthen parent-adolescent attachment security.
González Martínez, Farith; Sierra Barrios, Carmen Cecilia; Morales Salinas, Luz Edilma
To describe knowledge,attitudes and practices in oral health of parents and caregivers. A total of 333 parents and eight caregivers in children's homes in Colombia in 2010 completed questionnaires and participated in focus group interviews.The data was analyzed for frequency using the χ² test to evaluate significance. The qualitative information was interpreted using triangulated comments to detect patterns and discrepancies. For parents, good levels of knowledge (58.9%) and favorable attitudes (74.5%) were observed. In terms of practices, 50.6% of the children brushed their teeth before bed, with 69.6% of the parents applying the toothpaste to the brush. Among caregivers, a positive attitude toward developing promotional strategies was perceived, but they considered parents to have the main responsibility in matters of healthy oral habits. Parents and caregivers demonstrated favorable conditions in terms of their perceptions, which can be considered an opportunity to promote hygiene habits in children.
Ben Natan, Merav; Kabha, Samih; Yehia, Mamon; Hamza, Omar
The purpose of the current study was to explore factors related to the intention of parents from the Muslim Arab ethnic minority in Israel to vaccinate their children against influenza, using the Health Belief Model (HBM). This study is a cross sectional quantitative study. A convenience sample of 200 parents of children aged 12 and younger completed a questionnaire based on the HBM. Perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers predicted 88% of parents' intention to vaccinate their children. Parents who vaccinated their children in the past year were younger and had fewer children. Community nurses and physicians were identified as important cues to action. The HBM components predicted a high percentage of parents' intention to vaccinate their children Interventions to raise vaccination coverage rates among children belonging to an ethnic minority of Israeli Muslim Arabs should begin on the micro level of the parent-health care professional encounter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miguez, Melissa; Weber, Béatrice; Debbané, Martin; Balanzin, Dario; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Raiola, Fulvia; Barbe, Rémy P; Vital Bennour, Marylène; Ansermet, François; Eliez, Stephan; Aubry, Jean-Michel
Screening instruments for bipolar disorders (BDs) in children and adolescents have been developed recently. The present study examined performances of the French versions of the mood disorder questionnaire-adolescent version (MDQ-A) and child bipolar questionnaire (CBQ) in a sample of in- and outpatients. Seventy-six adolescents (age 13-18) and parents first completed the MDQ-A (adolescent and parent versions) and CBQ screening instruments. About 3 weeks later, they had a diagnostic interview with the Kiddie-schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-present and lifetime (K-SADS-PL), and the adolescent MDQ-A self-report was completed a second time. Eight of 76 patients (10.5%) met K-SADS-PL diagnostic criteria for BD. Test-retest reliability of the adolescent MDQ-A self-report was moderate (kappa = 0.66), whereas agreement between adolescent and parent reports was poor (kappa = 0.07). Sensitivity and specificity of the MDQ-A with respect to K-SADS-PL were 75.0% and 57.4% for the adolescent version, and 87.5% and 63.2% for the parent version. Corresponding figures were 50.0% and 73.5% for the CBQ. All three screening instruments had low positive predictive values (17.1% for the MDQ-A adolescent version; 21.9% for the MDQ-A parent version; 18.2% for the CBQ), whereas negative predictive values were higher than 90%. The present study points to modest performances of the MDQ-A and CBQ to detect BDs in adolescents, with diagnostic criteria for BD being unmet for a majority of patients who screened positive. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Robinson, Elizabeth M; Iannotti, Ronald J; Schneider, Stefan; Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L; Sobel, Douglas O
The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of diabetes-specific parenting goals for parents of children with type 1 diabetes and to examine whether parenting goals predict a change in parenting involvement in disease management. An independent sample of primary caretakers of 87 children aged 10 to 16 years with type 1 diabetes completed the measure of parenting goals (diabetes-specific and general goals); both parent and child completed measures of parent responsibility for diabetes management at baseline and 6 months. Parents ranked diabetes-specific parenting goals as more important than general parenting goals, and rankings were moderately stable over time. Parenting goals were related to parent responsibility for diabetes management. The relative ranking of diabetes-specific parenting goals predicted changes in parent involvement over 6 months, with baseline ranking of goals predicting more parental involvement at follow-up. Parenting goals may play an important role in family management of type 1 diabetes.
Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Anme, Tokie
Previous research has established links between corporal punishment and children's developmental problems, but few studies have investigated the moderating effect of positive parenting between corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties in detail. This study investigated the buffering effect of parental engagement on the association between corporal punishment and children's emotional/behavioral problems. The main caregivers completed the Evaluation of Environmental Stimulation Scale (EES), which is an evaluation of daily parenting behaviors, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which evaluates children's developmental problems. Corporal punishment was associated with worse emotional and behavioral problems in children, whereas parental engagement in games or sports was associated with fewer emotional symptoms. Similarly, parental engagement in homework or housework significantly moderated the association between corporal punishment and children's behavioral problems. Parental engagement positively moderated the association between parental corporal punishment and children's developmental difficulties. This association varied with child gender. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K
Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use.
Kerns, Kathryn A; Brumariu, Laura E; Seibert, Ashley
This study included two different methods to assess mother-child attachment, questionnaires, and a doll play story stem interview, so their overlap could be evaluated. In addition, we investigated how attachment is related to parenting and child depression. The sample was comprised of 10- to 12-year-olds (N = 87) and their mothers. Children completed questionnaires (assessing security, avoidance, and ambivalence), and were administered a doll play interview to assess attachment patterns (security, avoidance, ambivalence, and disorganization). Two aspects of parenting (warmth/ engagement and psychological control) were assessed with child reports and observer ratings of maternal behavior. We also obtained child reports of depressive symptoms. Questionnaire and interview measures of attachment security were related to one another, and each showed predictable associations with parenting and child depression. By contrast, results were less consistent for the ambivalent and avoidant insecure attachment patterns, although disorganized attachment showed some associations with parenting and child adjustment.
The study is descriptive- post hoc. A sample of 220 mothers were selected from Tehran by purposeful and accessible sampling method. They completed Parenting Stress Index, Sources of Social Support Scale, Maternal efficacy Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Maternal separation anxiety scale and Child temperament questionnaire. Stepwise regression analysis showed that child temperament, mother depression and parenting stress, in three steps, could explain 33% of variance in maternal self-efficacy. Therefore, educational programs relevant to the mentioned factors can enhance maternal self-efficacy and prevent children’s psychological problems.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice
A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335
The present study developed the Parenting in Adolescence Scale (PAS) based on the three-factor model of parenting by Schaefer (1965), and examined its psychometric properties. Adolescents (n = 103 junior high, 273 high school and 667 university students) completed a questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis identified three distinct factors labeled "Acceptance" (6 items), "Psychological control" (6 items) and "Parental monitoring" (3 items). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the stability of the factor structure with adequate goodness of fit indices. The three subscales of PAS had adequate internal consistency and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The three scales also correlated significantly with measures of adolescent conduct problems, peer problems, risk-taking experience, prosocial behavior, self-esteem, and another parenting scale, which indicated construct and concurrent validity. The practical use of the PAS was discussed.
Halberstadt, Amy G.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Bryant, Alfred J.; Parker, Alison E.; Beale, Karen S.; Thompson, Julie A.
Parents’ beliefs about children’s emotions comprise an important aspect of parental emotion socialization and may relate to children’s mental health and well-being. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop a multi-faceted questionnaire assessing parents’ beliefs about children’s emotions (PBACE). Central to our work was inclusion of multiple ethnic groups throughout the questionnaire development process, from initial item creation through assessment of measurement invariance and validity. Participants included 1080 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian parents of 4- to 10-year old children who completed the initial item pool for the PBACE. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted with 720 of these parents to identify factor structure and reduce items. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted with a holdout sample of 360 parents to evaluate model fit and assess measurement invariance across ethnicity and across parent gender. Finally, validity of the PBACE scales was assessed via correlations with measures of parental emotional expressivity and reactions to children’s emotions. The PBACE is comprised of 33 items in seven scales. All scales generally demonstrated measurement invariance across ethnic groups and parent gender, thereby allowing interpretations of differences across these ethnic groups and between mothers and fathers as true differences rather than by-products of measurement variance. Initial evidence of discriminant and construct validity for the scale interpretations was also obtained. Results suggest that the PBACE will be useful for researchers interested in emotion-related socialization processes in diverse ethnic groups and their impact on children’s socioemotional outcomes and well-being. PMID:23914957
Pisula, Ewa; Porębowicz-Dörsmann, Anna
The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls) completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorde